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Sample records for birth asphyxia induced

  1. Correlation between Nonreassuring Patterns in Fetal Cardiotocography and Birth Asphyxia

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    Fatemeh Abbasalizadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiotocography is a tool for assessing the fetus during labor and identification the risk of asphyxia. Abnormal cardiotocography can induce stress on the physician and mother and can result in their deciding to terminate the pregnancy and the complications of an emergency cesarean section. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the correlation between non-reassuring patterns in fetal cardiotocography and birth asphyxia. Materials and methods: In a cross-sectional analytic study, 324 term pregnant women were included, and the association between non-reassuring patterns in cardiotocography (fetal tachycardia, fetal bradycardia, absent or minimal baseline variability, and absence of acceleration and periodic or episodic deceleration and birth asphyxia were assessed. Results: Birth asphyxia existed in 10 newborns; in all cases mild hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy was observed. Within the non-reassuring cardiotocography patterns, baseline fetal heart variability and periodic or episodic deceleration had a significant relationship with birth asphyxia. Most asphyxia cases had occurred in absent and minimal baseline fetal heart rate (FHR variability (R = 0.49, P < 0.001. In periodic or episodic decelerations, most asphyxia cases occurred in recurrent late decelerations with normal baseline variability and variable decelerations with shoulders or overshoots (R = 0.42, P = 0.014. Conclusion: With regard to the findings of the present study, we can use non-reassuring cardiotocographic patterns, especially absent and minimal baseline FHR variability and periodic or episodic decelerations, in prediction of birth asphyxia. But it seems that most birth asphyxias occur in normal cardiotocographs.

  2. Correlation between Nonreassuring Patterns in Fetal Cardiotocography and Birth Asphyxia

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    Fatemeh Abbasalizadeh; Shamci Abbasalizadeh; Shabnam Pouraliakbar; Parvin Bastani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cardiotocography is a tool for assessing the fetus during labor and identification the risk of asphyxia. Abnormal cardiotocography can induce stress on the physician and mother and can result in their deciding to terminate the pregnancy and the complications of an emergency cesarean section. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the correlation between non-reassuring patterns in fetal cardiotocography and birth asphyxia. Materials and methods: In a cross-sectional anal...

  3. Clinicoradiological correlation in birth asphyxia

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    Basavaraj Patil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE is the most dreaded neurological disease of the new-born. Assessment of severity of HIE would help proper parent counseling and early institution of stimulation therapy for better development of the infant. Methods: This study was conducted between December 2012 and May 2014. 37 term neonates with perinatal asphyxia were the subjects. The cranial ultrasound, EEG and MRI findings of these babies are analysed and correlated with each other and with clinical staging and the neurological condition of the babies at discharge. Results: Among the 37 neonates, 21 were of HIE stage 2 and 16 were of stage 3. Sensitivity of EEG in detecting abnormality in the neurological condition according to our study is 76.9%, specificity 87.5%, positive predictive value 76.9%, negative predictive value 87.5%. Sensitivity of severe pattern of injury in MRI brain in detecting abnormality in neurological condition according to our study is 76.9%, specificity 91.6%, positive predictive value 83.3%, negative predictive value 88%. Involvement of both basal ganglia and cortex in MRI brain had statistically significant correlation with abnormal neurological condition at discharge in our study (P = 0.04. Conclusion: An abnormal EEG and MRI brain in a term new-born with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE is associated with poor neurological outcome. Involvement of basal ganglia/thalamus and cortex together in the MRI are predictors of abnormal outcome. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 560-567

  4. A Study on Birth Asphyxia at Tertiary Health Centre

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    Ekta A Dalal

    2013-08-01

    Methodology: This was the cross sectional study conducted in the tertiary care centre of Ahmedabad on the full term babies with birth asphyxia. The maternal, fetal and newborn correlates were recorded according to predesigned proforma. Results: There were total 401 (6.6% babies born with apgar score of less than 7 at one minute and among them, 320 (79.8% were full term babies and 81 (20.2% were preterm babies. Among the babies 52.5% were male, 56.9% were primigravida, and only 41.9% had antenatal care present, 42.2% had MSL and 47.2% were small for date babies. Conclusion: Birth asphyxia is common the babies of the mother who had not received proper antenatal care. Maternal anaemia, primipara, meconium stained liquor babies have more chances of getting birth asphyxia. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 374-376

  5. Long-Term Cognitive Outcomes of Birth Asphyxia and the Contribution of Identified Perinatal Asphyxia to Cerebral Palsy.

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    Pappas, Athina; Korzeniewski, Steven J

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy among survivors of presumed perinatal asphyxia is recognized as an important cause of cerebral palsy (CP) and neuromotor impairment. Recent studies suggest that moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy contributes to a wide range of neurodevelopmental and cognitive impairments among survivors with and without CP. Nearly 1 of every 4 to 5 neonates treated with hypothermia has or develops CP. Neonatal encephalopathy is diagnosed in only approximately 10% of all cases. This article reviews the long-term cognitive outcomes of children with presumed birth asphyxia and describes what is known about its contribution to CP. PMID:27524454

  6. The Behaviour of Protein Carbonyls in Newborns with Birth Respiratory Distress and Asphyxia

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    Zaharie, Gabriela; Antonia POPESCU; BLAGA, LIGIA; Melinda MATYAS

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations...

  7. Gastroesophageal manometry and 24-hour double pH monitoring in neonates with birth asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Sun; Wei-Lin Wang; Wei Wang; De-Liang Wen; Hui Zhang; Yu-Kun Han

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Birth asphyxia may lead to disturbances of gastroenteric motility of newborn infants[1.2] . The change of gut pressure and reflux are the major manifestations of the motor disturbance [3-9] . To evaluate the effects of perinatal asphyxia on the gastroenteric motility, gastric and esophageal pressure and double pH were measured in a group of asphyxiated newborns. And. their pathophysiological and anatomical effects on gastroenteric function were discussed.

  8. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon

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    Chiabi, Andreas; Nguefack, Seraphin; MAH, Evelyne; NODEM, Sostenne; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Mbonda, Elie; TCHOKOTEU, Pierre-Fernand; Anderson DOH

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Chiabi A, Nguefack S, Mah E, Nodem S, Mbuagbaw L, Mbonda E, Tchokoteu PF, Doh A. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3):46-54.ObjectiveThe World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 4 million children are born with asphyxia every year, of which 1 million die and an equal number survive with severe neurologic sequelae. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of birth asphyx...

  9. Brain and Cognitive-Behavioural Development after Asphyxia at Term Birth

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    de Haan, Michelle; Wyatt, John S.; Roth, Simon; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Gadian, David; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia occurs in approximately 1-6 per 1000 live full-term births. Different patterns of brain damage can result, though the relation of these patterns to long-term cognitive-behavioural outcome remains under investigation. The hippocampus is one brain region that can be damaged (typically not in isolation), and this site of damage has…

  10. Cardiovascular Alterations and Multiorgan Dysfunction After Birth Asphyxia.

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    Polglase, Graeme R; Ong, Tracey; Hillman, Noah H

    2016-09-01

    The cardiovascular response to asphyxia involves redistribution of cardiac output to maintain oxygen delivery to critical organs such as the adrenal gland, heart, and brain, at the expense of other organs such as the gut, kidneys and skin. This redistribution results in reduced perfusion and localized hypoxia/ischemia in these organs, which, if severe, can result in multiorgan failure. Liver injury, coagulopathy, bleeding, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, and pulmonary and gastrointestinal injury all result from hypoxia, underperfusion, or both. Current clinical therapies need to be considered together with therapeutic hypothermia and cardiovascular recovery. PMID:27524448

  11. Evaluation of utilization of antenatal services by mothers of babies with severe birth asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. A. A. Ugboma; C. N. Onyearugha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the utilization of antenatal services by mothers of babies delivered with severe birth asphyxia at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methods: A case control study of the utilization of antenatal services by 97 mothers of newborns with severe birth asphyxia delivered at UPTH from 1st February to 31st October 2009 compared with mothers of newborns with normal Apgar scores was done. Relevant pregnancy, birth, family and social history was obtained by personal interviews and referral to case notes. Results:Significantly more of the mothers of babies with normal Apgar score booked early(4 months or less) and had up to 8 or more antenatal visits prior to delivery than mothers of asphyxiated babies 86 (88.6 % ) vs 68(70.2 %), P = 0. 002 ; 93 (95.7 % ) vs 68 ( 70. 2 % ), P = 0.001 respectively. Significantly more subjects 56 (57.7 % ) than the controls 45 (46.4 % ) were primiparous, P= 0. 04. Also, significantly more subjects 19 (19.5%) suffered delay prior to intervention in labour than the controls 5 (5.1 %),P= 0. 004. Conclusion: Primiparity, delayed booking, inadequate antenatal visits and late intervention in labour have been identified as significant contributors to severe birth asphyxia.

  12. Novel Approaches to Neonatal Resuscitation and the Impact on Birth Asphyxia.

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    Te Pas, Arjan B; Sobotka, Kristina; Hooper, Stuart B

    2016-09-01

    Historically, recommendations for neonatal resuscitation were largely based on dogma, but there is renewed interest in performing resuscitation studies at birth. The emphasis for resuscitation following birth asphyxia is administering effective ventilation, as adequate lung aeration leads not only to an increase in oxygenation but also increased pulmonary blood flow and heart rate. To aerate the lung, an initial sustained inflation can increase heart rate, oxygenation, and blood pressure recovery much faster when compared with standard ventilation. Hyperoxia should be avoided, and extra oxygen given to restore cardiac function and spontaneous breathing should be titrated based on oxygen saturations. PMID:27524447

  13. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

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    Peter Kiss; Gyongyver Vadasz; Blanka Kiss-Illes; Gabor Horvath; Andrea Tamas; Dora Reglodi; Miklos Koppan

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was...

  14. Perinatal asphyxia reduces dentate granule cells and exacerbates methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in adulthood.

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    Tomoyasu Wakuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obstetric complications have been regarded as a risk factor for schizophrenia later in life. One of the mechanisms underlying the association is postulated to be a hypoxic process in the brain in the offspring around the time of birth. Hippocampus is one of the brain regions implicated in the late-onset dopaminergic dysfunction associated with hypoxic obstetric complications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an animal model of perinatal asphyxia, in which rat pups were exposed to 15 min of intrauterine anoxia during Cesarean section birth. At 6 and 12 weeks after birth, the behavior of the pups was assessed using a methamphetamine-induced locomotion test. In addition, the histopathology of the hippocampus was examined by means of stereology. At 6 weeks, there was no change in the methamphetamine-induced locomotion. However, at 12 weeks of age, we found an elevation in methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity, which was associated with an increase of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. At the same age, we also found a reduction of the dentate granule cells of the hippocampus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the dopaminergic dysregulation after perinatal asphyxia is associated with a reduction in hippocampal dentate granule cells, and this may partly contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  15. [Deaths during asphyxia induced to escalate sexual experience. Case reports].

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    Okłota, Magdalena; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Sackiewicz, Adam; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Szeremeta, Michał

    2010-01-01

    The authors present two cases of deaths resulting from asphyxia of one of the partners in the act of intercourse to escalate their experience. The first case involved a heterosexual intercourse, in which a 30-year-old woman was led to state of hypoxia through choking and closing respiratory orifices. The other case represented a homosexual intercourse between two men, in which the victim's hands and legs were tied. Moreover, the partner put an open knot around the victim's neck and was holding it controlling the state of asphyxia, while performing an anal intercourse. Both presented victims practiced such paraphilia-associated behaviors in the past. The fact of sexual intercourse was confirmed in both cases by genetic analysis of the man's anus and the woman's oral cavity and vagina. This resulted in finding the genetic material of their partners. Escalating of sexual experience through inducing asphyxia of the nervous system is extremely dangerous and may result in death of one of the sexual partners, what has been proven by the present investigation. PMID:21863736

  16. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon

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    Andreas CHIABI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Chiabi A, Nguefack S, Mah E, Nodem S, Mbuagbaw L, Mbonda E, Tchokoteu PF, Doh A. Risk Factors for Birth Asphyxia in an Urban Health Facility in Cameroon. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3:46-54.ObjectiveThe World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 4 million children are born with asphyxia every year, of which 1 million die and an equal number survive with severe neurologic sequelae. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of birth asphyxia and the hospital outcome of affected neonates.Materials & MethodsThis study was a prospective case-control study on term neonates in a tertiary hospital in Yaounde, with an Apgar score of < 7 at the 5th minute as the case group, that were matched with neonates with an Apgar score of ≥ 7 at the 5th minute as control group. Statistical analysis of relevant variables of the mother and neonates was carried out to determine the significant risk factors.ResultsThe prevalence of neonatal asphyxia was 80.5 per 1000 live births. Statistically significant risk factors were the single matrimonial status, place of antenatal visits, malaria, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, prolonged labor, arrest of labour,prolonged rupture of membranes, and non-cephalic presentation. Hospital mortality was 6.7%, that 12.2% of them had neurologic deficits and/or abnormal transfontanellar ultrasound/electroencephalogram on discharge, and 81.1% hada satisfactory outcome.ConclusionThe incidence of birth asphyxia in this study was 80.5% per1000 live birth with a mortality of 6.7%. Antepartum risk factors were: place of antenatal visit, malaria during pregnancy, and preeclampsia/eclampsia. Whereas prolonged labor, stationary labor, and term prolonged rupture of membranes were intrapartum risk faktors. Preventive measures during prenatal  visits through informing and communicating with pregnant women should be reinforced. References1. World Health Organisation. Perinatal mortality: a listingof

  17. The Behaviour of Protein Carbonyls in Newborns with Birth Respiratory Distress and Asphyxia

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    Gabriela ZAHARIE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations were carried out using venous blood. Statistical data analyses were performed using Statistica software. The comparisons between groups (study and controls were performed by applying parametric and non-parametric tests according with the type of distribution. Results: Statistically significant correlations were found between the value of protein carbonyls (PC and the weight of premature newborns in the case group (p < 0.05, as well as between the PC value and the presence of respiratory distress due to surfactant deficiency in the study group. The average PC value in the study group was higher in the third day as compared with the first day. The PC value was significantly higher in the control group as compared with study group. Conclusion: The results of our study revealed that the respiratory distress in the premature newborn and oxygen therapy stimulate the peroxidation of proteins.

  18. TIME COURSE MODIFICATIONS INDUCED BY PERINATAL ASPHYXIA IN RAT CNS

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    Francisco Capani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia (PA induced short and long term biochemical, synaptic, cytoskeletal and astrocytes alterations that has been associated with neuronal cell death following hypoxia . The lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction prompted us to investigate the changes in the synapse and neuronal cytoskeleton and related structures. For this study we used a well established murine model of PA. Full-term pregnant rats were rapidly decapitated and the uterus horns were placed in a water bath at 37 °C for different time of asphyxia. When their physiological conditions improved, they were given to surrogate mothers. One month, four month, 6 month and 18 month after PA rats were included in this study. Modifications were analyzed using photooxidation with phalloidin-eosin, conventional electron microscopy (EM, inmunocytochemistry and ethanolic phosphotungstic acid (E-PTA staining combining with electron tomography and 3-D reconstruction techniques and molecular biology studies. After one month of the PA insult, an increase in the F-actin staining in neostriatum and hippocampus synapses was observed using correlative fluorescent electron microscopy for phalloidin-eosin. Mushroom-shaped spines showed the most consistent staining. Strong alterations in the dendrite and astroglial cytoskeleton were found at four months of PA (1. After six months of PA, postsynaptic densities (PSDs of the rat neostriatum are highly modified . We observed an increment of PSDs thickness related with the duration and severity of the hypoxic insult. In addition, PSDs showed and increase in the ubiquitination level. Using 3-d reconstruction and electron tomography we observed showed clear signs of damage in the asphyctic PSDs. These changes are correlated with intense staining for ubiquitin (2. Finally, in 18 months old rat was observed a reduction in the number of synapses in the PA animals related with a decrease in BDNF staining.(3 Using protocols

  19. Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats submitted to birth asphyxia

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    R.L. Figueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group: 1 preterm control (PTC, 2 preterm ventilated (PTV, 3 preterm asphyxiated (PTA, 4 preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV, 5 term control (TC, 6 term ventilated (TV, 7 term asphyxiated (TA, and 8 term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV. We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW, (BrW, (IW, (BrW/BW and (IW/BW]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus and intestine (jejunum/ileum tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP. IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (P<0.05, and the IW/BW ratio was lower in the TA than in the TAV (P<0.005. PTA, PTAV and TA presented high levels of brain damage. In histological intestinal analysis, PTAV and TAV had higher scores than the other groups. Caspase-3 was higher in PTAV (cortex and TA (cortex/hippocampus (P<0.005. I-FABP was higher in PTAV (P<0.005 and TA (ileum (P<0.05. I-FABP expression was increased in PTAV subgroup (P<0.0001. Brain and intestinal responses in neonatal rats caused by neonatal asphyxia, with or without mechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers.

  20. Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats submitted to birth asphyxia

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    Figueira, R.L.; Gonçalves, F.L.; Simões, A.L.; Bernardino, C.A.; Lopes, L.S.; Castro e Silva, O.; Sbragia, L.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group): 1) preterm control (PTC), 2) preterm ventilated (PTV), 3) preterm asphyxiated (PTA), 4) preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV), 5) term control (TC), 6) term ventilated (TV), 7) term asphyxiated (TA), and 8) term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV). We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW), (BrW), (IW), (BrW/BW) and (IW/BW)]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) and intestine (jejunum/ileum) tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP). IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (Pmechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers. PMID:27356106

  1. Reducing one million child deaths from birth asphyxia – a survey of health systems gaps and priorities

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    Manandhar Ananta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Millions of child deaths and stillbirths are attributable to birth asphyxia, yet limited information is available to guide policy and practice, particularly at the community level. We surveyed selected policymakers, programme implementers and researchers to compile insights on policies, programmes, and research to reduce asphyxia-related deaths. Method A questionnaire was developed and pretested based on an extensive literature review, then sent by email (or airmail or fax, when necessary to 453 policymakers, programme implementers, and researchers active in child health, particularly at the community level. The survey was available in French and English and employed 5-point scales for respondents to rate effectiveness and feasibility of interventions and indicators. Open-ended questions permitted respondents to furnish additional details based on their experience. Significance testing was carried out using chi-square, F-test and Fisher's exact probability tests as appropriate. Results 173 individuals from 32 countries responded (44%. National newborn survival policies were reported to exist in 20 of 27 (74% developing countries represented, but respondents' answers were occasionally contradictory and revealed uncertainty about policy content, which may hinder policy implementation. Respondents emphasized confusing terminology and a lack of valid measurement indicators at community level as barriers to obtaining accurate data for decision making. Regarding interventions, birth preparedness and essential newborn care were considered both effective and feasible, while resuscitation at community level was considered less feasible. Respondents emphasized health systems strengthening for both supply and demand factors as programme priorities, particularly ensuring wide availability of skilled birth attendants, promotion of birth preparedness, and promotion of essential newborn care. Research priorities included operationalising

  2. Cerebellar cytokine expression in a rat model for fetal asphyctic preconditioning and perinatal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlassaks, Evi; Brudek, Tomasz; Pakkenberg, Bente; Gavilanes, Antonio W D

    2014-01-01

    effects of perinatal asphyxia and fetal asphyctic preconditioning on the inflammatory cytokine response in the cerebellum. Fetal asphyxia was induced at embryonic day 17 by clamping the uterine vasculature for 30 min. At term birth, global perinatal asphyxia was induced by placing the uterine horns in...... saline for 19 min. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression were assessed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in cerebella of newborn rats. We found that tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 mRNA were increased 12 h after fetal asphyxia, while the inflammatory cytokine response was...

  3. Setting research priorities to reduce almost one million deaths from birth asphyxia by 2015.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, Joy E.; Rajiv Bahl; Staffan Bergstrom; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Matthew Ellis; Mike English; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Anne C C Lee; Mario Merialdi; Mohamed Mohamed; David Osrin; Robert Pattinson; Vinod Paul; Siddarth Ramji

    2011-01-01

    Intrapartum-related neonatal deaths (previously called “birth asphyxia”) are the fifth most common cause of deaths among children under 5 years of age, accounting for an estimated 814,000 deaths each year, and also associated with significant morbidity, resulting in a burden of 42 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs). This paper uses a systematic process developed by the Child Health Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) to define and rank research options to reduce mortality...

  4. Inter-pregnancy Weight Change and Risks of Severe Birth-Asphyxia-Related Outcomes in Singleton Infants Born at Term: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study

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    Johansson, Stefan; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes, but the mechanisms are unclear. If a change of exposure (i.e., maternal body mass index [BMI]) over time influences risks, this would be consistent with a causal relationship between maternal BMI and offspring risks. Our objective was to investigate associations between changes in maternal BMI between consecutive pregnancies and risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes in the second offspring born at term. Methods and Findings This study was a prospective population-based cohort study that included 526,435 second-born term (≥37 wk) infants of mothers with two consecutive live singleton term births in Sweden between January 1992 and December 2012. We estimated associations between the difference in maternal BMI between the first and second pregnancy and risks of low Apgar score (0–6) at 5 min, neonatal seizures, and meconium aspiration in the second-born offspring. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for BMI at first pregnancy, maternal height, maternal age at second delivery, smoking, education, mother´s country of birth, inter-pregnancy interval, and year of second delivery. Analyses were also stratified by BMI (pregnancy. Risks of low Apgar score, neonatal seizures, and meconium aspiration increased with inter-pregnancy weight gain. Compared with offspring of mothers with stable weight (BMI change of −1 to pregnancy. A study limitation was the lack of data on the effects of obstetric interventions and neonatal resuscitation efforts. Conclusions Risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes increased with maternal weight gain between pregnancies. Preventing weight gain before and in between pregnancies may improve neonatal health. PMID:27270217

  5. Serum cortisol concentrations during induced hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia are associated with neurological outcome in human infants.

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    Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Giampietri, Matteo; Fiorentini, Erika; Bartalena, Laura; Fiori, Simona; Guzzetta, Andrea; Ciampi, Mariella; Boldrini, Antonio; Ghirri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Birth asphyxia is a cause of neonatal death or adverse neurological sequelae. Biomarkers can be useful to clinicians in order to optimize intensive care management and communication of prognosis to parents. During perinatal adverse events, increased cortisol secretion is due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. We aimed to investigate if cortisol variations during therapeutic hypothermia are associated with neurodevelopmental outcome. We compared 18 cases (neonates with birth asphyxia) with 18 controls (healthy term newborns) and confirmed increased serum cortisol concentrations following the peri-partum adverse event. Among cases, we stratified patients according to neurological outcome at 18 months (group A - good; group B - adverse) and found that after 24 h of therapeutic hypothermia serum cortisol concentration was significantly lower in group A vs group B (28.7 ng/mL vs 344 ng/mL, *p = 0.01). In group B serum, cortisol concentration decreased more gradually during therapeutic hypothermia. We conclude that monitoring serum cortisol concentration during neonatal therapeutic hypothermia can add information to clinical evaluation of neonates with birth asphyxia; cortisol values after the first 24 h of hypothermia can be a biomarker associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18 months of age. PMID:25394684

  6. Monitoring of pain and stress in an infant with asphyxia during induced hypothermia: a case report.

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    Hoffman, Karin; Bromster, Therése; Hakansson, Stellan; van den Berg, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to study an infant who suffered from asphyxia undergoing induced hypothermia with regard to (1) describe the pain and stress as measured by physiological variables skin conductance algesimeter (SCA) and pain rating scales, (2) the correlation between SCA and pain rating scales, and (3) how temperature cycles in the cooling blanket affect the response of the sympathetic nervous system as measured by the SCA and physiological variables. A single prospective case study was used for this article. Data were recorded every 15 minutes for 96 hours. Each observation was categorized according to treatment phase: cooling 0 to 72 hours, rewarming, and controlled normal temperature up to 96 hours. Structured observations were carried out and all nursing care was documented. In addition, 5 periods with no other nursing interventions were identified in which data were recorded every minute for analysis. Skin conductance algimetry showed a variable response during treatment. During cooling, 68% of the 15-minute periods, signs of stress and pain were recorded. During rewarming, the corresponding figure was 83%. During the time sequences with normal temperature, 89% of the periods were associated with stress and pain. During 80% of the nursing procedures, the SCA showed stress and pain. There was no correlation between the pain-rating scales and SCA. When the cooling blanket temperature was lower than core temperature, the infant had more stress and pain according to SCA (P heart rate and blood pressure (P < .001). In infants during induced hypothermia, SCA seem to detect pain and stress. Future evaluation of SCA for the detection of pain and stress during hypothermia treatment is necessary. Pain-rating scales do not appear reliable in this case report. PMID:23912017

  7. Therapeutic Hypothermia Modifies Perinatal Asphyxia-Induced Changes of the Corpus Callosum and Outcome in Neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; de Vries, Linda S.; Khalil, Yara; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; Groenendaal, Floris

    2015-01-01

    What Is Known about this Subject? Diffusion-weighted MRI has demonstrated changes in the corpus callosum of term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. The severity of cerebral changes demonstrated using diffusion-weighted MRI is difficult to assess without measuring values of the Apparent Diffusion Coef

  8. Connexin Hemichannel Blockade Is Neuroprotective after Asphyxia in Preterm Fetal Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Joanne O.; Drury, Paul P.; Green, Colin R.; Nicholson, Louise F.; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J.

    2014-01-01

    Asphyxia around the time of preterm birth is associated with neurodevelopmental disability. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that blockade of connexin hemichannels would improve recovery of brain activity and reduce cell loss after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep. Asphyxia was induced by 25 min of complete umbilical cord occlusion in preterm fetal sheep (103–104 d gestational age). Connexin hemichannels were blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of mimetic peptide starting 90 min after asphyxia at a concentration of 50 µM/h for one hour followed by 50 µM/24 hour for 24 hours (occlusion-peptide group, n = 6) or vehicle infusion for controls (occlusion-vehicle group, n = 7). Peptide infusion was associated with earlier recovery of electroencephalographic power after asphyxia compared to occlusion-vehicle (p<0.05), with reduced neuronal loss in the caudate and putamen (p<0.05), but not in the hippocampus. In the intragyral and periventricular white matter, peptide administration was associated with an increase in total oligodendrocyte numbers (p<0.05) and immature/mature oligodendrocytes compared to occlusion-vehicle (p<0.05), with a significant increase in proliferation (p<0.05). Connexin hemichannel blockade was neuroprotective and reduced oligodendrocyte death and improved recovery of oligodendrocyte maturation in preterm fetuses after asphyxia. PMID:24865217

  9. Connexin hemichannel blockade is neuroprotective after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne O Davidson

    Full Text Available Asphyxia around the time of preterm birth is associated with neurodevelopmental disability. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that blockade of connexin hemichannels would improve recovery of brain activity and reduce cell loss after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep. Asphyxia was induced by 25 min of complete umbilical cord occlusion in preterm fetal sheep (103-104 d gestational age. Connexin hemichannels were blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of mimetic peptide starting 90 min after asphyxia at a concentration of 50 µM/h for one hour followed by 50 µM/24 hour for 24 hours (occlusion-peptide group, n = 6 or vehicle infusion for controls (occlusion-vehicle group, n = 7. Peptide infusion was associated with earlier recovery of electroencephalographic power after asphyxia compared to occlusion-vehicle (p<0.05, with reduced neuronal loss in the caudate and putamen (p<0.05, but not in the hippocampus. In the intragyral and periventricular white matter, peptide administration was associated with an increase in total oligodendrocyte numbers (p<0.05 and immature/mature oligodendrocytes compared to occlusion-vehicle (p<0.05, with a significant increase in proliferation (p<0.05. Connexin hemichannel blockade was neuroprotective and reduced oligodendrocyte death and improved recovery of oligodendrocyte maturation in preterm fetuses after asphyxia.

  10. Atrial fibrillation in rats induced by rapid transesophageal atrial pacing during brief episodes of asphyxia: A new in vivo model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, K.; Lam, Henrik Rye; Knudsen, C. B.;

    2004-01-01

    anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. AF was reproducibly induced in 81% of the rats. The presence of AF was associated with an increased heart rate, and a decreased blood pressure. Treatment with amiodarone, D,L-sotalol, flecainide, and propranolol all reduced duration of AF, whereas verapamil treatment was...... associated with a marked profibrillatory effect. Increasing gap junction intracellular communication using the antiarrhythmic peptide analogue AAP 10 did not affect AF duration. Basal plasma level of epinephrine and norepinephrine were increased 5- to 20-fold relative to values reported by others, but...... unchanged following 35 seconds of asphyxia. The results from our study demonstrate that the rat model shares several clinical key characteristics with human AF: (1) hemodynamic response to AF; (2) increased autonomic tone; (3) antiarrhythmic effects of clinically used drugs; (4) profibrillatory effect of...

  11. Perinatal asphyxia in the term newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Antonucci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the important advances in perinatal care in the past decades, asphyxia remains a severe condition leading to significant mortality and morbidity. Perinatal asphyxia has an incidence of 1 to 6 per 1,000 live full-term births, and represents the third most common cause of neonatal death (23% after preterm birth (28% and severe infections (26%. Many preconceptional, antepartum and intrapartum risk factors have been shown to be associated with perinatal asphyxia. The standard for defining an intrapartum hypoxic-ischemic event as sufficient to produce moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy which subsequently leads to cerebral palsy has been established in 3 Consensus statements. The cornerstone of all three statements is the presence of severe metabolic acidosis (pH < 7 and base deficit ≥ 12 mmol/L at birth in a newborn exhibiting early signs of moderate or severe encephalopathy. Perinatal asphyxia may affect virtually any organ, but hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is the most studied clinical condition and that is burdened with the most severe sequelae. The feasibility of providing neuroprotection after HIE has been proven by hypothermia therapy, which is able to reduce the risk of death or major neurodevelopmental disability. Many promising neuroprotective agents might contribute to reduce hypoxic-ischemic brain injury through different mechanisms of action, but further studies are required to confirm their efficacy. The prognosis is dependent on the severity of the perinatal asphyxia. Only a minority of infants with severe HIE survive without handicap. Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  12. Experimental modelling of the consequences of brief late gestation asphyxia on newborn lamb behaviour and brain structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Castillo-Melendez

    Full Text Available Brief but severe asphyxia in late gestation or at the time of birth may lead to neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and is associated with long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. We undertook this study to examine the consequences of transient in utero asphyxia in late gestation fetal sheep, on the newborn lamb after birth. Surgery was undertaken at 125 days gestation for implantation of fetal catheters and placement of a silastic cuff around the umbilical cord. At 132 days gestation (0.89 term, the cuff was inflated to induce umbilical cord occlusion (UCO, or sham (control. Fetal arterial blood samples were collected for assessment of fetal wellbeing and the pregnancy continued until birth. At birth, behavioral milestones for newborn lambs were recorded over 24 h, after which the lambs were euthanased for brain collection and histopathology assessments. After birth, UCO lambs displayed significant latencies to (i use all four legs, (ii attain a standing position, (iii find the udder, and (iv successfully suckle--compared to control lambs. Brains of UCO lambs showed widespread pathologies including cell death, white matter disruption, intra-parenchymal hemorrhage and inflammation, which were not observed in full term control brains. UCO resulted in some preterm births, but comparison with age-matched preterm non-UCO control lambs showed that prematurity per se was not responsible for the behavioral delays and brain structural abnormalities resulting from the in utero asphyxia. These results demonstrate that a single, brief fetal asphyxic episode in late gestation results in significant grey and white matter disruption in the developing brain, and causes significant behavioral delay in newborn lambs. These data are consistent with clinical observations that antenatal asphyxia is causal in the development of neonatal encephalopathy and provide an experimental model to advance our understanding of neuroprotective therapies.

  13. Conditional Processes Induced by Birth and Death Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Iizuka, Masaru; Tomisaki, Matsuyo

    2010-01-01

    For birth and death processes with finite state space, we consider stochastic processes induced by conditioning on hitting the right boundary point before hitting the left boundary point. We call the induced stochastic processes the conditional processes. We show that the conditional processes are again birth and death processes when the right boundary point is absorbing. On the other hand, it is shown that the conditional processes do not have Markov property and they are not birth and death...

  14. ASPHYXIA AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN HIGH RISK INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia is a risk factor that is very often related to neuro-developmental issues in high risk infants and equally affects preterm and term infants, however its outcome on the developed brain differs from the outcome on the preterm brain.In preterm infants, asphyxia usually exerts a hemorrhagic or ischaemic event and periventricular leukomalacia.In term infants, asphyxia leads to cerebral edema and atrophy of the brain, which may later lead to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE.The number of term infants with HIE who have survived is lower than those of preterm infants, while the percentage of term infants with HIE who have neuro-developmental issues is higher. Preemies face more problems in their motor development as a result of the brain damage, while term infants suffer from encephalopathy and their cognitive abilities are more affected.We have conducted a study about the effects that asphyxia has on the developmental outcomes in high risk infants. In our study, we did a longitudinal developmental follow-up of 30 high risk infants and an evaluation of their developmental outcome using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, from the 4th month of life until the end of the 36th month. First, we found that high risk infants had a much lower developmental outcome than the control group during the trial. Finally, we found that asphyxia makes a difference in the developmental outcome of preterm infants without asphyxia who have a very low birth weight, the preterm infants with asphyxia, and the term infants with HIE-II.

  15. Analysis of Obstetric Factors of Neonatal Asphyxia%新生儿窒息的产科因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞正钰; 杨妹; 孙艳萍; 林怡; 黄蓉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨新生儿窒息的产科危险因素,分析如何有效降低新生儿窒息发生率和病死率,提高人口素质。方法对2011~2012年间在我院住院分娩的病历、统计资料进行回顾性分析,对新生儿不同性别、产式、孕周、产妇产龄等新生儿窒息影响因素进行比较,找出新生儿窒息的主要原因。结果新生儿窒息率为5.09%;男、女新生儿窒息发生率和病死率无显著性差异;新生儿窒息的前三位原因是:早产、脐带绕颈、妊娠高血压疾病,分别占56.23%、19.15%和12.46%;早产是新生儿窒息和死亡的首位原因;阴道助产、高龄分娩都会增加新生儿窒息的风险。结论加强围产保健,积极预防早产,是降低新生儿窒息的关键。为了母婴健康,应鼓励适龄婚育,才是提高人口素质的有效措施。%Objective To explore the factors of neonatal asphyxia obstetric risk, to reduce the incidence and mortality rate of neonatal asphyxia, and to improve the quality of the population.Methods Medical records and statistical data of hospitalization and delivery from 2011 to 2012 in the hospital were retrospectively analyzed.The newborns′different genders, birth type, gestational age, maternal age and asphyxia were compared, to find out the main causes of neonatal asphyxia.Results The rate of neonatal asphyxia was 5.09%;male and female, the incidence of neonatal asphyxia and mortality had no significant difference;the first three causes of neonatal asphyxia were pre-mature birth, umbilical cord around the neck, pregnancy induced hypertension, accounting for 56.23%, 19.15%and 12.46%;premature was the first cause of neonatal asphyxia and death;vaginal instrumental delivery and advanced age delivery can increase neonatal asphyxia.Conclusion Strengthening perinatal health care and preventing premature delivery is the key to reduce neonatal asphyxia.For maternal and child health, marriage and

  16. Correlation between serumβ2 microglobulin and early kidney injury post neonatal asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Xia Liu; Hui-Qin Wang; Na Zhang; Wei-Na Lu; Xin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate serumβ2 microglobulin and neonatal asphyxia early renal damage correlation.Methods:A total of 84 suffocation full-term newborns in our hospital from 2012 March to 2014 November. According to the Apgar standards, divided into severe asphyxia group (n=36) and mild asphyxia group (n=48), and selected 40 cases of full-term newborn, observed blood and urinaryβ2-MG, albumin (Alb) blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) level.Results:severe asphyxia groupβ2-MG (6.02±0.96) mg/L was the highest, followed by mild asphyxia group, lowest in the control group; severe asphyxia group Alb, BUN and Cr were (22.15±6.17) mg/L, (10.01±1.84) mmol/L and (120.16±28.13)μmol/L, significantly higher than the mild asphyxia group and the control group; Mild asphyxia group and the control group Alb, BUN and Cr were not statistically significant; three groups birth 48 h,β2-MG, Alb, serum BUN and Cr showed significant differences, in which the severe asphyxia groupβ2-MG, Alb, BUN and Cr were the highest, and lowest in the control group; Severe asphyxia group was the highestβ2-MG, (7.12±1.32) mg/L; serumβ2-MG were positively associated with urineβ2-MG.Conclusion: Serumβ2-2 microglobulin in judging neonatal asphyxia early renal damage is more sensitive, and has clinical practical value.

  17. Long lasting cerebellar alterations after perinatal asphyxia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanille, Verónica; Saraceno, G Ezequiel; Rivière, Stéphanie; Logica, Tamara; Kölliker, Rodolfo; Capani, Francisco; Castilla, Rocío

    2015-07-01

    The developing brain may be particularly vulnerable to injury before, at and after birth. Among possible insults, hypoxia suffered as a consequence of perinatal asphyxia (PA) exhibits the highest incidence levels and the cerebellar circuitry appears to be particularly susceptible, as the cellular makeup and the quantity of inputs change quickly during days and weeks following birth. In this work, we have used a murine model to induce severe global PA in rats at the time of birth. Short-term cerebellar alterations within this PA model have been previously reported but whether such alterations remain in adulthood has not been conclusively determined yet. For this reason, and given the crucial cerebellar role in determining connectivity patterns in the brain, the aim of our work is to unveil long-term cerebellum histomorphology following a PA insult. Morphological and cytological neuronal changes and glial reaction in the cerebellar cortex were analyzed at postnatal 120 (P120) following injury performed at birth. As compared to control, PA animals exhibited: (1) an increase in molecular and granular thickness, both presenting lower cellular density; (2) a disarrayed Purkinje cell layer presenting a higher number of anomalous calbindin-stained cells. (3) focal swelling and marked fragmentation of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) in Purkinje cell dendrites and, (4) an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in Bergmann cells and the granular layer. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PA produces long-term damage in cellular histomorphology in rat cerebellar cortex which could be involved in the pathogenesis of cognitive deficits observed in both animals and humans. PMID:26116983

  18. Life-long environmental enrichment counteracts spatial learning, reference and working memory deficits in middle-aged rats subjected to perinatal asphyxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Blanco, Eduardo; Logica Tornatore, Tamara M. A.; Romero, Juan I.; Holubiec, Mariana I.; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Capani, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Continuous environmental stimulation induced by exposure to enriched environment (EE) has yielded cognitive benefits in different models of brain injury. Perinatal asphyxia results from a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus and is associated with long-lasting neurological deficits. However, the effects of EE in middle-aged rats suffering perinatal asphyxia are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether life-long exposure to EE could counteract the cognitive and behavioral alterations in middle-aged asphyctic rats. Experimental groups consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL), by cesarean section (C+), or by C+ following 19 min of asphyxia at birth (PA). At weaning, rats were assigned to standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 18 months. During the last month of housing, animals were submitted to a behavioral test battery including Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition and Morris water maze (MWM). Results showed that middle-aged asphyctic rats, reared in SE, exhibited an impaired performance in the spatial reference and working memory versions of the MWM. EE was able to counteract these cognitive impairments. Moreover, EE improved the spatial learning performance of middle-aged CTL and C+ rats. On the other hand, all groups reared in SE did not differ in locomotor activity and anxiety levels, while EE reduced locomotion and anxiety, regardless of birth condition. Recognition memory was altered neither by birth condition nor by housing environment. These results support the importance of environmental stimulation across the lifespan to prevent cognitive deficits induced by perinatal asphyxia. PMID:25601829

  19. Life-long environmental enrichment counteracts spatial learning, reference and working memory deficits in middle-aged rats subjected to perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eGaleano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous environmental stimulation induced by exposure to enriched environment (EE has yielded cognitive benefits in different models of brain injury. Perinatal asphyxia results from a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus and is associated with long-lasting neurological deficits. However, the effects of EE in middle-aged rats suffering perinatal asphyxia are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess whether life-long exposure to EE could counteract the cognitive and behavioral alterations in middle-aged asphyctic rats. Experimental groups consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL, by cesarean section (C+, or by C+ following 19 min of asphyxia at birth (PA. At weaning, rats were assigned to standard (SE or enriched environment (EE for 18 months. During the last month of housing, animals were submitted to a behavioral test battery including Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition and Morris water maze (MWM. Results showed that middle-aged asphyctic rats, reared in SE, exhibited an impaired performance in the spatial reference and working memory versions of the MWM. EE was able to counteract these cognitive impairments. Moreover, EE improved the spatial learning performance of middle-aged CTL and C+ rats. On the other hand, all groups reared in SE did not differ in locomotor activity and anxiety levels, while EE reduced locomotion and anxiety, regardless of birth condition. Recognition memory was altered neither by birth condition nor by housing environment. These results support the importance of environmental stimulation across the lifespan to prevent cognitive deficits induced by perinatal asphyxia.

  20. Perinatal asphyxia: CNS development and deficits with delayed onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarioHerrera-Marschitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia constitutes a prototype of obstetric complications occurring when pulmonary oxygenation is delayed or interrupted. The primary insult relates to the duration of the period lacking oxygenation, leading to death if not re-established. Re-oxygenation leads to a secondary insult, related to a cascade of biochemical events required for restoring proper function. Perinatal asphyxia interferes with neonatal development, resulting in long-term deficits associated to mental and neurological diseases with delayed clinical onset, by mechanisms not yet clarified.In the experimental scenario, the effects observed long after perinatal asphyxia have been explained by over expression of sentinel proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1, competing for NAD+ during re-oxygenation, leading to the idea that sentinel protein inhibition constitutes a suitable therapeutic strategy. Asphyxia induces transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory factors, in tandem with PARP-1 overactivation, and pharmacologically induced PARP-1 inhibition also down-regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide has been proposed as a suitable PARP-1 inhibitor. Its effect has been studied in an experimental model of global hypoxia in rats. In that model, the insult is induced by immersing rat foetuses into a water bath for various periods of time. Following asphyxia, the pups are delivered, treated, and nursed by surrogate dams, pending further experiments. Nicotinamide rapidly distributes into the brain following systemic administration, reaching steady state concentrations sufficient to inhibit PARP-1 activity for several hours, preventing several of the long-term consequences of perinatal asphyxia, supporting the idea that it constitutes a lead for exploring compounds with similar or better pharmacological profiles.

  1. Do Induced Abortions Affect the First Birth Probability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie-Louise H; Stage, Louise; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.;

    Objective: The focus of this paper is to study, on a national basis, how the event of an induced abortion modifies the transition to first birth for Danish women aged 20-39 years in the period 1982-2001, taking into account also educational level, family situation, and urbanisation. Data and...... abortion is examined by cumulative first birth probabilities, derived from a life table analysis. Main findings and conclusion: Previous abortions increased the first birth probability, though this effect was almost entirely confined to single women. For cohabiting and married women, previous abortions had...

  2. Perinatal asphyxia as the leading cause of death and brain injury of newborns: prognosis and neuroprotection of long-term outcomes [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Marschitz, Mario

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Interruption of oxygen availability and re-oxygenation at birth implies a severe metabolic insult, affecting the development of the central nervous system (CNS, increasing its vulnerability to challenges occurring at adult stages. It has been reported that perinatal asphyxia produces regionally specific neuronal decrease and neurite atrophy in basal ganglia, and hippocampus. In hippocampus, a concomitant increase of neurogenesis and neurite hypertrophy has also been observed. The potential neuroprotection of nicotinamide, a non-selective inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-1, has been investigated, finding functional and morphological improvements when administered 24h after the insult (0.8 mmol/kg, i.p., 24, 48 and 72 h after birth.. The main effect of nicotinamide has been seen in neostriatum, preventing an asphyxia-induced decrease of the number of nNOS cells, and nNOS- and dopamine-like neurite atrophy. The present results support the idea that nicotinamide can prevent the effects elicited by a sustained energy-failure condition, as occurring during perinatal asphyxia, enlightening the enzyme PARP-1 as a novel target for neuronal protection. The support by FONDECYT, ICBM-Enlace, DAAD-CONICYT Programme-2007 grants is acknowledged.

  3. Asphyxia-related risk factors and their timing in spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene F.; Schendel, Diana; Grove, Jakob;

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of asphyxia-related conditions (reducing blood flow or blood oxygen levels in the fetus) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) considering different gestational age groups and the timing of risk. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Danish Cerebral...... Palsy Register in eastern Denmark and Danish Medical Birth Register. Population or Sample 271 singletons with spastic CP and 217 singleton controls, frequency matched by gestational age group, born 1982-1990 in eastern Denmark. Methods Data were abstracted from medical records, and a priori asphyxia...

  4. Perinatal risk factors for neonatal asphyxia in Vali-e-Asr hospital, Tehran-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asphyxia is a medical condition in which placental or pulmonary gas exchange is impaired or they cease all together, typically producing a combination of progressive hypoxemia and hypercapnea. Objective: In addition to regional differences in its etiology; it is important to know its risk factors. Materials and Methods: This is a case-control study, all neonates born from May 2002 to September 2005 in Vali-e-Asr Hospital were studied. 9488 newborns were born of which 6091 of the live patients were hospitalized in NICU. 546 newborns were studied as case and control group. 260 neonates (48% were female and 286 neonates (52% were male. Among the neonates who were admitted, 182 of them were diagnosed with asphyxia and twice of them (364 newborns were selected as a control group. The variables consist of; gestational age, type of delivery, birth weight, prenatal care, pregnancy and peripartum complications and neonatal disorders. Results: Our studies showed that 35 (19.2% patients had mild asphyxia, 107 (58.8% had moderate asphyxia and 40 (22% were diagnosed as severe asphyxia. Mean maternal age was 34.23±4.29yr; (range: 23-38 yr; and mean of parity was 2±1.2; (range: 1-8. Risk factors in our study included emergent Caesarian Section, preterm labor (<37w, low birth weight (<2500g, 5 minute Apgar (less than 6, need for resuscitation, nuchal cord, impaired Biophysical Profile, neonatal anemia, and maternal infertility. Conclusion: All risk factors listed above play a role in asphyxia. The majority of these factors are avoidable by means of good perinatal care

  5. Investigation on protective effect of fructose 1, 6-diphosphate used within 6 hours after birth on brain of neonates with asphyxia%窒息新生儿6h内使用1,6-二磷酸果糖对脑保护的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢峥俏; 李宏; 李晓菲; 尹琦

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the protective effect of fructose 1, 6 - diphosphate used within 6 hours on brain of neonates with asphyxia. Methods: 70 neonates with asphyxia were divided into fructose 1, 6 - diphosphate group (40 neonates) and control group (30 neonates), the incidence of hypoxic - ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in neonates within 72 hours was observed, the changes of serum enzymes (LDH, AST, CK, CK-MB and HBDH), interleukin -6 (IL-6), interleukin -8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)levels within 6 hours after birth, 3 days, 10 days were monitored; the neonates at 13 ~ 14 days and 27 ~28 days after birth received neonatal behavioral neurological assessment ( NBNA), psychomotor development quotient (DQ) was detected by Gesell development table at 42 days,3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months after birth. Results: The incidences of HIE and moderate to severe HIE in fructose 1, 6 -diphosphate group were significantly lower than those in control group ( P < 0. 05 ); there was significant difference in the decrease levels of serum enzymes between fructose 1, 6 -diphosphate group and control group (P <0. 01 ); at three days after birth, the level of serum IL-6 in fructose 1, 6 - diphosphate group was significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0. 05 ), while the levels of serum lL - 8 and TNF - α in fructose 1, 6 - diphosphate group were significantly lower than those in control group ( P < 0. 01 ); at ten days after birth, the levels of serum IL - 8 and TNF - α in fructose 1, 6 - diphosphate group were significantly lower than those in control group ( P < 0. 01 );NBNA score and DQ in fructose 1, 6 - diphosphate group were significantly higher than those in control group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion:For the neonates with asphyxia, fructose 1, 6 -diphosphate used within 6 hours after birth can prevent and treat HIE significantly, which has a protective effect on brain of neonates.%目的:探讨研究窒息新生儿于生后6

  6. A Swine Model of Neonatal Asphyxia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Po-Yin; Gill, Richdeep S.; Bigam, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Annually more than 1 million neonates die worldwide as related to asphyxia. Asphyxiated neonates commonly have multi-organ failure including hypotension, perfusion deficit, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, pulmonary hypertension, vasculopathic enterocolitis, renal failure and thrombo-embolic complications. Animal models are developed to help us understand the patho-physiology and pharmacology of neonatal asphyxia. In comparison to rodents and newborn lambs, the newborn piglet has been proven ...

  7. Asphyxia from the eyes of the obstetrician

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    Alessandra Meloni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is well recognized that there are multiple potential pathways causing hypoxic-ischemic events that may lead to cerebral palsy in term infants. The signs and symptoms of neonatal encephalopathy may range from mild to severe, depending on nature and timing of brain injury. The incidence of cerebral palsy has not changed over the last 30 years and one of the obstetricians’challenge is how to recognize babies at intrapartum risk both before and during labour. A detailed description of prepartum and intrapartum risk factors is available. A close surveillance of labour and intrapartum time should be mandatory as the valuation of all available data from obstetrical examination, cardiotocography, ultrasound and labour progression to reach the correct diagnosis with the lowest possible rate of error. The close monitoring should not exclude a humanized and compliant attitude versus labouring women and their families. We analysed the Cagliari Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU activity during the last four years considering 22 asphyxiated babies (coming from 9 different hospitals who underwent hypothermia treatment. The main result was that the need to resuscitation procedures at birth correlates with adverse outcomes. Asphyxia still remains a matter of great concern also as medico legal claims. Considering that neonatal encephalopathy is a heterogeneous condition, it is unlikely that it will be eradicated. However, a comprehensive evaluation of all risk factors and of intrapartum surveillance available tools may reduce as much as possible adverse events.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  8. Loss of cannabinoid receptor CB1 induces preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth accounting approximate 10% of pregnancies in women is a tremendous social, clinical and economic burden. However, its underlying causes remain largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that endocannabinoid signaling via cannabinoid receptor CB1 play critical roles in multiple early pregnancy events in both animals and humans. Since our previous studies demonstrated that loss of CB1 defers the normal implantation window in mice, we surmised that CB1 deficiency would influence parturition events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Exploiting mouse models with targeted deletion of Cnr1, Cnr2 and Ptgs1 encoding CB1, CB2 and cyclooxygenase-1, respectively, we examined consequences of CB1 or CB2 silencing on the onset of parturition. We observed that genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1, but not CB2, induced preterm labor in mice. Radioimmunoassay analysis of circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones revealed that premature birth resulting from CB1 inactivation is correlated with altered progesterone/estrogen ratios prior to parturition. More strikingly, the phenotypic defects of prolonged pregnancy length and parturition failure in mice missing Ptgs1 were corrected by introducing CB1 deficiency into Ptgs1 null mice. In addition, loss of CB1 resulted in aberrant secretions of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosterone during late gestation. The pathophysiological significance of this altered corticotrophin-releasing hormone-driven endocrine activity in the absence of CB1 was evident from our subsequent findings that a selective corticotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist was able to restore the normal parturition timing in Cnr1 deficient mice. In contrast, wild-type females receiving excessive levels of corticosterone induced preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: CB1 deficiency altering normal progesterone and estrogen levels induces preterm birth in mice. This defect is independent of prostaglandins produced by

  9. Nondrowning Asphyxia in Veterinary Forensic Pathology: Suffocation, Strangulation, and Mechanical Asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Asphyxia in a forensic context refers to death by rapid cerebral anoxia or hypoxia due to accidental or nonaccidental injury. Death due to nondrowning asphyxia can occur with strangulation, suffocation, and mechanical asphyxia, each of which is categorized based on the mechanism of injury. Individuals dying due to various types of asphyxia may or may not have lesions, and even those lesions that are present may be due to other causes. The interpretation or opinion that death was due to asphyxia requires definitive and compelling evidence from the postmortem examination, death scene, and/or history. Beyond the postmortem examination, pathologists may be faced with questions of forensic importance that revolve around the behavioral and physiological responses in animals subjected to strangulation, suffocation, or mechanical asphyxia to determine if the animal suffered. While there is no prescriptive answer to these questions, it is apparent that, because of physiological and anatomical differences between humans and animals, for some mechanisms of asphyxia, consciousness is maintained for longer periods and the onset of death is later in animals than that described for people. Veterinary pathologists must be cognizant that direct extrapolation from the medical forensic literature to animals may be incorrect. This article reviews the terminology, classification, mechanisms, and lesions associated with asphyxial deaths in companion animals and highlights significant comparative differences of the response to various types of asphyxia in animals and people. PMID:27084399

  10. Clinical significance of determination of serum cortisol and insulin levels in neonates with asphyxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of serum cortisol and insulin levels in neonates with asphyxia. Methods: Serum cortisol levels were determined with CLIA and serum insulin levels with RIA in 38 neonates with asphyxia (mild degree 20, advanced 18) and 30 controls. Results: 1) In mild cases, serum insulin levels were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01) and serum cortisol levels were very significantly higher (p<0.001). 2) In advanced cases, both serum insulin and cortisol levels were very significantly higher than those in the controls (p<0.001). Conclusion: Hypoxia in the neonates with asphyxia is a very severe stress and will induce hypersecretion of cortisol and hyperglycemia which is detrimental to the patients. However hypersecretion of insulin will result in hypoglycemia, which is also very damaging. Physicians in charge should be aware of these possibilities and deal with them appropriately

  11. Dental Infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis Induces Preterm Birth in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ao

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have revealed a link between dental infection and preterm birth or low birth weight (PTB/LBW, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Progress in understanding the associated mechanisms has been limited in part by lack of an animal model for chronic infection-induced PTB/LBW, mimicking pregnancy under conditions of periodontitis. We aimed to establish a mouse model of chronic periodontitis in order to investigate the link between periodontitis and PTB/LBW.To establish chronic inflammation beginning with dental infection, we surgically opened mouse (female, 8 weeks old 1st molar pulp chambers and directly infected with w83 strain Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g., a keystone periodontal pathogen. Mating was initiated at 6 wks post-infection, by which time dental granuloma tissue had developed and live P.g. was cultured from extracted tooth root, which serves as a persistent source of P.g. The gestational day (gd and birth weight were recorded during for P.g.-infected and control mice, and serum and placental tissues were collected at gd 15 to evaluate the systemic and local conditions during pregnancy.Dental infection with P.g. significantly increased circulating TNF-α (2.5-fold, IL-17 (2-fold, IL-6 (2-fold and IL-1β (2-fold. The P.g.-infected group delivered at gd 18.25 vs. gd 20.45 in the non-infected control (NC group (p < 0.01, and pups exhibited LBW compared to controls (p < 0.01. P.g. was localized to placental tissues by immunohistochemistry and PCR, and defects in placental tissues of P.g. infected mice included premature rupture of membrane, placental detachment, degenerative changes in trophoblasts and endothelial cells, including necrotic areas. P.g. infection caused significantly increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs and macrophages in placental tissues, associated with increased local expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α and COX-2. Further placental tissue

  12. Influences on the activities of tissue- type plasminogen activator of mouse brain in asphyxia%窒息对鼠脑分泌组织型纤溶酶原激活物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐剑文; 王玮; 康仲涵; 赵小贞; 张更

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator(TPA) after asphyxia. Methods Asphyxia was induced in mouse pups by performing a‘ delayed cesarean section' . The experiment was designed for a control group and 4 asphyctic groups to detect the activity of TPA. Results TPA activity of brain increased after asphyxia (P<0.01). Conclusion TPA increased after asphyxia might be able to attack the basement membrane of microvessels, then opened the blood-brain barrier and induced neuronal damage.

  13. Use of brain lactate levels to predict outcome after perinatal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, H; Toft, P.B.; Peitersen, Birgit;

    1996-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia is an important cause of neurological disability, but early prediction of outcome can be difficult. We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and global cerebral blood flow measurements by xenon-133 clearance in 16 infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia....... Cerebral blood flow was determined daily in the first 3 days after birth in seven cases. Proton MRS was performed in 11 infants within the first week (mean 3.7 days), the rest within the first month (mean 22.2 days), and all had a scan around 3 months of age. Four infants died neonatally, three showed...... min-1), (p = 0.02) and outcome. The diagnostic and prognostic implications of early MRS and CBF are predictive of poor outcome in severely asphyxiated infants...

  14. A case report of Traumatic Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic asphyxia is a condition presenting with cervicofacial cyanosis and edema, subconjunctival hemorrhage, and petechial hemorrhages of the face, neck, and upper chest that occurs due to a compressive force to the thoracoabdominal region.In this case report a 52 years old lady who was brought to the mortuary because of death due to traumatic asphyxia as a result of being stampeded by her own cows upon her chest was discussed. Congestion on both the conjunctiva, cyanosis on chin and adjacent upper left side of neck found with a well demarcated area observed between the cyanosed area over face and the normal area of neck. Hematoma was present in the chin and the adjacent neck region.Apart from quickly eliminating organ pathologies and initiation of supportive therapy in a case of traumatic asphyxia, possibility of formation of hematoma in neck after few hours of getting injured should also be considered, as this type of hematoma may contribute to the cause of death.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12777 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 51-55

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic value of asphyxia, Sarnat's clinical classification, and CT-scan in perinatal brain damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Toshihide; Wakita, Yoshiharu; Kubonishi, Sakae; Yoshikawa, Seishi (Kochi Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan)); Ito, Toshiyuki; Okada, Yasusuke

    1990-11-01

    A retrospective review was made of 145 babies, excluding those with congenital heart disease or chromosome aberration, admitted for CT scanning. The study was done to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of CT findings, as well as the presence of asphyxia and the clinical stage based on the Sarnat's classification, in perinatal brain damage. The patients had a minimum follow up of 2 years for the evaluation of neurologic manifestations, such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy and mental retardation. Among babies weighing 2,000 g or more at birth, neonatal asphyxia was significantly correlated with neurologic prognosis. In addition, both clinical stages and CT findings were significantly correlated with neurologic prognosis, irrespective of birth weight. The correlation between clinical stages and CT findings was significant, irrespective of body weight, however, a significant correlation between clinical stages and neonatal asphyxia was restricted to those weighing 2,000 g or more. These findings suggest that the presence of asphyxia, clinical stages and CT findings are complementary in the diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of perinatal brain damage. (N.K.).

  16. Diagnostic and prognostic value of asphyxia, Sarnat's clinical classification, and CT-scan in perinatal brain damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective review was made of 145 babies, excluding those with congenital heart disease or chromosome aberration, admitted for CT scanning. The study was done to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of CT findings, as well as the presence of asphyxia and the clinical stage based on the Sarnat's classification, in perinatal brain damage. The patients had a minimum follow up of 2 years for the evaluation of neurologic manifestations, such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy and mental retardation. Among babies weighing 2,000 g or more at birth, neonatal asphyxia was significantly correlated with neurologic prognosis. In addition, both clinical stages and CT findings were significantly correlated with neurologic prognosis, irrespective of birth weight. The correlation between clinical stages and CT findings was significant, irrespective of body weight, however, a significant correlation between clinical stages and neonatal asphyxia was restricted to those weighing 2,000 g or more. These findings suggest that the presence of asphyxia, clinical stages and CT findings are complementary in the diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of perinatal brain damage. (N.K.)

  17. ASPHYXIA, INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES AND BRAIN EDEMA OF RISK CHILDREN IN THE ADVISORY INSTITUTE IN BITOLA FROM 1989-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ILIEVSKA,

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available 3986 files have been examined in the Advisory Institute for a five year period in relation to the present risk factors in the pre, peri and postnatal period, the occurrence of asphyxia, I.H. (intracranial hemorrhages and brain edema and their outcome for the children. There were 958 or 32% risk children, out of them 206 or 22% were with asphyxia, 25 or 3% were with brain edema and 14 or 1,5% were with intracranial hemorrhages.The analysis for the risk factors shows that 119 of them were abortive , and from them 15% were born with asphyxia; 124 were SFD and 21% of them with asphyxia; 272 children weighed over 4500 gr., 7% of them with asphyxia and 0.4% with I.H., there were 68 twins, 12% of them with asphyxia. Out of the children with no risk registered, 6 were born with I.H., or 0,2%.Mothers under the age of 18 gave birth to 13% children with asphyxia; treated for sterility and anemia during pregnancy 15%; with increased blood pressure 14%; and 5% with maintained pregnancy.The highest delivery risk is present with children born with vacuum extraction (30% or every third child is with asphyxia and 3% with I.H. and with children delivered by caesarean section (14% with asphyxia.As for the position of the fetus-Citus pedalicus gave 55% children with asphyxia, and Situs pelvicus 12%.The worst damage is suffered by infants with premature amnion disruption (62% are with asphyxia; with the umbilical cord round the neck-56% with asphyxia and 6% with I.H.; and with muddled amniotic fluid and placenta pelvia-50%.The order of risk factors related to asphyxia, I.H. and brain edema is as follows: the first is premature amnion disruption, then follows the umbilical cord round the neck, the muddled amniotic fluid, and placenta previa and Citus pedalicus-which are obstetric problems. The next are the vacuum extraction and S.C. As for the gestatory period the order is as follows: first the abortive, then the twins and hypertrofic infants. The outcome of the

  18. Copeptin concentration in cord blood in infants with early-onset sepsis, chorioamnionitis and perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aebi Christoph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasopressin is one of the most important physiological stress and shock hormones. Copeptin, a stable vasopressin precursor, is a promising sepsis marker in adults. In contrast, its involvement in neonatal diseases remains unknown. The aim of this study was to establish copeptin concentrations in neonates of different stress states such as sepsis, chorioamnionitis and asphyxia. Methods Copeptin cord blood concentration was determined using the BRAHMS kryptor assay. Neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS, n = 30, chorioamnionitis (n = 33 and asphyxia (n = 25 were compared to a control group of preterm and term (n = 155 neonates. Results Median copeptin concentration in cord blood was 36 pmol/l ranging from undetectable to 5498 pmol/l (IQR 7 - 419. Copeptin cord blood concentrations were non-normally distributed and increased with gestational age (p Conclusions Copeptin concentrations were strongly related to factors associated with perinatal stress such as birth acidosis, asphyxia and vaginal delivery. In contrast, copeptin appears to be unsuitable for the diagnosis of EOS.

  19. CT cold areas in both putamens in cases with history of perinatal asphyxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT bilaterally showed a cold area in the putamen of 5 infants with cerebral palsy who had had asphyxia at birth. The etiology was discussed, and 4 of the cases were clinically studied. All four patients had convulsive tetraplegia, or convulsive bilateral paralysis with the element of athetosis. Three of them had a history of infantile epilepsy, accompanied by abnormal ocular movement. Two patients with tetraplegia showed marked hypotonia of the trunk in ventral support (Landau). Impairment of the bilateral putamens in the abnormal muscle tone was inferred. (Chiba, N.)

  20. CT cold areas in both putamens in cases with history of perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, Asayo; Maruyama, Hiroshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-12-01

    CT bilaterally showed a cold area in the putamen of 5 infants with cerebral palsy who had had asphyxia at birth. The etiology was discussed, and 4 of the cases were clinically studied. All four patients had convulsive tetraplegia, or convulsive bilateral paralysis with the element of athetosis. Three of them had a history of infantile epilepsy, accompanied by abnormal ocular movement. Two patients with tetraplegia showed marked hypotonia of the trunk in ventral support (Landau). Impairment of the bilateral putamens in the abnormal muscle tone was inferred.

  1. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M;

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction in...... glomerular number has been described in animal models with induced low birth weight as well but not in animals with spontaneous low birth weight. It therefore is debatable whether the models are suitable. The effect on glomerular number and size was studied in rats with naturally occurring IUGR and...... experimental IUGR, induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation. Design-based stereologic methods were used. Urinary protein excretion was determined as a measure of renal damage. Results showed a decrease of approximately 20% in glomerular number in both groups of IUGR (control 35,400, naturally occurring...

  2. Nonlinear fluctuation-induced rate equations for linear birth-death processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fock-space approach to the solution of master equations for the one-step Markov processes is reconsidered. It is shown that in birth-death processes with an absorbing state at the bottom of the occupation-number spectrum and occupation-number independent annihilation probability occupation-number fluctuations give rise to rate equations drastically different from the polynomial form typical of birth-death processes. The fluctuation-induced rate equations with the characteristic exponential terms are derived for Mikhailov's ecological model and Lanchester's model of modern warfare

  3. Mensus-inducing drugs: their role in antique, medieval and renaissance gynecology and birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöchle, W

    1974-10-01

    Antique medical texts describe the use of menses-inducing drugs; some drugs were used for abortions as well as for treating amenorrhea. A table presents a list of these drugs; 71 of the 161 drugs quoted are not now known for causing abortion. A safe and effective once a month pill was first described by Soranus and is still considered an important goal for modern birth control. PMID:4614935

  4. Asphyxia from the eyes of the neonatologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gancia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perinatal asphyxia occurs at a frequency of 4-6‰ in developed countries The hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE has an incidence of 0.5-2‰, and is a frequent cause of death and severe disability. Cerebral hypothermia is a well-established therapy of HIE, and its benefits have been described by systematic reviews and meta-analyses of numerous controlled clinical trials. Authors describe their experience in implementation of cerebral hypotermia in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the creation of a network to perform neurophysiologic study of asphyxiated infants ≥ 35 weeks gestation, potential hypothermia candidates. Neurodevelopmental prognosis of HIE infants is of paramount importance for parents. To improve the quality of prognosis and communication with the parents, two studies have been undertaken. First, EEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI relationships analysis showed that the severity of the background EEG is associated with the severity and location of MRI lesion patterns in infants treated with hypothermia because of HIE. The second study aims to elucidate the relationships between MRI patterns and neurodevelopmental assessment by Griffiths scales. We found that neuroimaging findings correlate significantly with overall neurodevelopmental assessment at 12 and 24 months of life; in particular, this correlation is significant for the loco-motor and psycho-social sides. These instrumental data, with the EEG evaluation and clinical data, allow the neonatologist to predict quite precisely the neurological outcome of an infant. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  5. Antenatal dexamethasone after asphyxia increases neural injury in preterm fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E Koome

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Maternal glucocorticoid treatment for threatened premature delivery dramatically improves neonatal survival and short-term morbidity; however, its effects on neurodevelopmental outcome are variable. We investigated the effect of maternal glucocorticoid exposure after acute asphyxia on injury in the preterm brain. METHODS: Chronically instrumented singleton fetal sheep at 0.7 of gestation received asphyxia induced by complete umbilical cord occlusion for 25 minutes. 15 minutes after release of occlusion, ewes received a 3 ml i.m. injection of either dexamethasone (12 mg, n = 10 or saline (n = 10. Sheep were killed after 7 days recovery; survival of neurons in the hippocampus and basal ganglia, and oligodendrocytes in periventricular white matter were assessed using an unbiased stereological approach. RESULTS: Maternal dexamethasone after asphyxia was associated with more severe loss of neurons in the hippocampus (CA3 regions, 290 ± 76 vs 484 ± 98 neurons/mm(2, mean ± SEM, P<0.05 and basal ganglia (putamen, 538 ± 112 vs 814 ± 34 neurons/mm(2, P<0.05 compared to asphyxia-saline, and with greater loss of both total (913 ± 77 vs 1201 ± 75/mm(2, P<0.05 and immature/mature myelinating oligodendrocytes in periventricular white matter (66 ± 8 vs 114 ± 12/mm(2, P<0.05, vs sham controls 165 ± 10/mm(2, P<0.001. This was associated with transient hyperglycemia (peak 3.5 ± 0.2 vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L at 6 h, P<0.05 and reduced suppression of EEG power in the first 24 h after occlusion (maximum -1.5 ± 1.2 dB vs. -5.0 ± 1.4 dB in saline controls, P<0.01, but later onset and fewer overt seizures. CONCLUSIONS: In preterm fetal sheep, exposure to maternal dexamethasone during recovery from asphyxia exacerbated brain damage.

  6. Circulatory responses to asphyxia differ if the asphyxia occurs in utero or ex utero in near-term lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina S Sobotka

    Full Text Available A cornerstone of neonatal resuscitation teaching suggests that a rapid vagal-mediated bradycardia is one of the first signs of perinatal compromise. As this understanding is based primarily on fetal studies, we investigated whether the heart rate and blood pressure response to total asphyxia is influenced by whether the animal is in utero or ex utero.Fetal sheep were instrumented at ∼ 139 days of gestation and then asphyxiated by umbilical cord occlusion until mean arterial blood pressure decreased to ∼ 20 mmHg. Lambs were either completely submerged in amniotic fluid (in utero; n = 8 throughout the asphyxia or were delivered and then remained ex utero (ex utero; n = 8 throughout the asphyxia. Heart rate and arterial blood pressure were continuously recorded.Heart rate was higher in ex utero lambs than in utero lambs. Heart rates in in utero lambs rapidly decreased, while heart rates in ex utero lambs initially increased following cord occlusion (for ∼ 1.5 min before they started to decrease. Mean arterial pressure initially increased then decreased in both groups.Heart rate response to asphyxia was markedly different depending upon whether the lamb was in utero or ex utero. This indicates that the cardiovascular responses to perinatal asphyxia are significantly influenced by the newborn's local environment. As such, based solely on heart rate, the stage and severity of a perinatal asphyxic event may not be as accurate as previously assumed.

  7. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The monitoring of fetal growth during pregnancy is usually justified because of the increased perinatal risk of these babies. METHODS: In 1552 infants from the Scandinavian Small for Gestational Age Study the need for obstetric interventions, risk of fetal asphyxia and immediate...... neonatal outcome at term have been studied in relation to different types of fetal growth retardation, including sub-groups with low ponderal index or low amount of subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: The need for obstetric intervention indicated by suspected fetal asphyxia before or during labor was increased 3...

  8. Arterial blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination in neonates with asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Mei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the value of arterial blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination in the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia.Methods: A total of 100 neonates with asphyxia who were admitted in our department from March, 2013 to March, 2014 were included in the study and divided into the mild asphyxia group and the severe asphyxia group according to Apgar scoring. Moreover, 50 normal neonates were served as the control group and used for comparative analysis. AVL blood-gas analyzer was used to detect the levels of pH, PaO2, HCO3-, BE, PaCO2, K+, Na+, Cl-, and Ca2+.Results:The concentrations of pH, PaO2, HCO3-, and BE in the severe asphyxia group were significantly lower than those in the mild asphyxia group and the control group, while PaCO2 level was significantly higher than that in the mild asphyxia group and the control group. The comparison of the various indicators between the control group and the mild asphyxia group was not statistically significant. The comparison of serum K+, Na+,and Cl- levels among the control group, the mild asphyxia group, and the severe asphyxia group was not statistically significant. The serum Ca2+ level in the severe asphyxia group was significantly lower than that in the mild asphyxia group and the control group, while the comparison between the mild asphyxia group and the control group was also statistically significant.Conclusions:Blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination to the arterial blood in neonates can compensate for the insufficiency of Apgar scoring and provide an objective evidence for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and the estimation of severity degree. Clinical combination with Apgar scoring is of great significance in enhancing the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and the accuracy of severity evaluation.

  9. Fatores associados à asfixia perinatal Factors associated with perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo de Almeida Cunha

    2004-12-01

    stepwise logistic regression model. RESULTS: there were 39 (14% depressed newborns which were compared to 238 (86% not depressed babies. The final analysis (multivariate showed an association between low Apgar score and previous case of stillbirth (OR=52.6, preterm labor threat (OR=33.8, low birth weight, less than 2,500 g body weight (OR=11.2 and previous cesarean section (OR=7.4. Some factors acted as a protection, including birth weight, in grams (OR=0.9, female sex of the newborn (OR=0.1, medical complications (OR=0.4 and prematurity (gestational age < 37 weeks, OR=0.1. CONCLUSION: the study may help in the identification of fetuses at great risk of asphyxia, allowing proper reference within the health system and planning of effective assistance in neonatal intensive care units.

  10. Invariant NKT Cell Activation Induces Late Preterm Birth That Is Attenuated by Rosiglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Derek; Romero, Roberto; Plazyo, Olesya; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Xu, Yi; Milovic, Tatjana; Xu, Zhonghui; Bhatti, Gaurav; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Drewlo, Sascha; Tarca, Adi L; Hassan, Sonia S; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although intra-amniotic infection is a recognized cause of spontaneous preterm labor, the noninfection-related etiologies are poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrated that the expansion of activated CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in the third trimester by administration of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) induced late PTB and neonatal mortality. In vivo imaging revealed that fetuses from mice that underwent α-GalCer-induced late PTB had bradycardia and died shortly after delivery. Yet, administration of α-GalCer in the second trimester did not cause pregnancy loss. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ activation, through rosiglitazone treatment, reduced the rate of α-GalCer-induced late PTB and improved neonatal survival. Administration of α-GalCer in the third trimester suppressed PPARγ activation, as shown by the downregulation of Fabp4 and Fatp4 in myometrial and decidual tissues, respectively; this suppression was rescued by rosiglitazone treatment. Administration of α-GalCer in the third trimester induced an increase in the activation of conventional CD4(+) T cells in myometrial tissues and the infiltration of activated macrophages, neutrophils, and mature dendritic cells to myometrial and/or decidual tissues. All of these effects were blunted after rosiglitazone treatment. Administration of α-GalCer also upregulated the expression of inflammatory genes at the maternal-fetal interface and systemically, and rosiglitazone treatment partially attenuated these responses. Finally, an increased infiltration of activated iNKT-like cells in human decidual tissues is associated with noninfection-related preterm labor/birth. Collectively, these results demonstrate that iNKT cell activation in vivo leads to late PTB by initiating innate and adaptive immune responses and suggest that the PPARγ pathway has potential as a target for

  11. The effect of maternal body mass index on spontaneous versus induced preterm birth: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghadami N

    2009-06-01

    birth."n"n Conclusion: In this survey, there was adverse correlation between body mass index (BMI before pregnancy and preterm labor less than 37 completed weeks and we suggest more study for evaluation between spontaneous and induced preterm labor mechanism and in obese and non obese women. However according to this survey obesity before pregnancy is associated with a lower rate of spontaneous preterm birth.

  12. Severe myocardial injury and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation following perinatal asphyxia

    OpenAIRE

    P Benson Ham; Pinkal Patel; Linda J. Wise; Christian Walters; Stansfield, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn and is associated with myocardial injury in a significant proportion of cases. Biomarkers, echocardiography, and rhythm disturbances are sensitive indicators of myocardial ischemia and may predict mortality. We present a case of severe myocardial dysfunction immediately after delivery managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and discuss the role of cardiac biomarkers, echocardiography, electrocardiog...

  13. Severe myocardial injury and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation following perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Benson Ham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn and is associated with myocardial injury in a significant proportion of cases. Biomarkers, echocardiography, and rhythm disturbances are sensitive indicators of myocardial ischemia and may predict mortality. We present a case of severe myocardial dysfunction immediately after delivery managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO and discuss the role of cardiac biomarkers, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and ECMO in the asphyxiated newborn.

  14. Somatosensory evoked potentials and outcome in perinatal asphyxia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, N A; Graham, M.; Levene, M I

    1992-01-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) can be measured in the term newborn infant and given an index of function in the areas of the brain most likely to be damaged in perinatal asphyxia. We studied the median nerve SEP in 30 asphyxiated term infants over the course of their encephalopathy and until discharge from the neonatal unit. Three types of response were noted: normal waveform, abnormal waveform, or absence of cortical response. Follow up of the survivors was undertaken at a mean age of...

  15. Effect of perinatal asphyxia on tuberomammillary nucleus neuronal density and object recognition memory: A possible role for histamine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Balter, Gabriela; Cordova-Jadue, Héctor; Chiti-Morales, Alessandra; Lespay, Carolyne; Espina-Marchant, Pablo; Falcon, Romina; Grinspun, Noemi; Sanchez, Jessica; Bustamante, Diego; Morales, Paola; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Valdés, José L

    2016-10-15

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is associated with long-term neuronal damage and cognitive deficits in adulthood, such as learning and memory disabilities. After PA, specific brain regions are compromised, including neocortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and ascending neuromodulatory pathways, such as dopamine system, explaining some of the cognitive disabilities. We hypothesize that other neuromodulatory systems, such as histamine system from the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), which widely project to telencephalon, shown to be relevant for learning and memory, may be compromised by PA. We investigated here the effect of PA on (i) Density and neuronal activity of TMN neurons by double immunoreactivity for adenosine deaminase (ADA) and c-Fos, as marker for histaminergic neurons and neuronal activity respectively. (ii) Expression of the histamine-synthesizing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase (HDC) by western blot and (iii) thioperamide an H3 histamine receptor antagonist, on an object recognition memory task. Asphyxia-exposed rats showed a decrease of ADA density and c-Fos activity in TMN, and decrease of HDC expression in hypothalamus. Asphyxia-exposed rats also showed a low performance in object recognition memory compared to caesarean-delivered controls, which was reverted in a dose-dependent manner by the H3 antagonist thioperamide (5-10mg/kg, i.p.). The present results show that the histaminergic neuronal system of the TMN is involved in the long-term effects induced by PA, affecting learning and memory. PMID:27444242

  16. Importance of blood gas measurements in perinatal asphyxia and alternatives to restore the acid base balance status to improve the newborn performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Orozco-Gregorio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged or intermittent asphyxia in utero and during farrowing weakens piglets and renders them less capable of adaptation to extrauterine life. Piglets with lesser viability at birth have increased blood pCO2 and blood lactic acid concentrations and decreased blood pH. Moreover, the ability to thermoregulate during an acute cold stress is inversely related to umbilical blood lactate concentrations. Blood gas measurements and noninvasive estimations provide important information about oxygenation. The general goals of oxygen therapy in the neonate are to maintain adequate arterial PaO2 and SaO2, and to minimize cardiac work and the work of breathing. Arterial blood gas determinations of pCO2 provide the most accurate determinations of the adequacy of alveolar ventilation. Blood gases obtained in the immediate perinatal period can help assess perinatal asphyxia, but particular attention must be paid to the sampling site, the time of life, and the possible and proven diagnoses. The decision to obtain blood gases must be weighed by the individual clinician against the potential benefits. Current measures for restoring the acid base balance status in the newborn with perinatal asphyxia are discussed.

  17. Drugs to block cytokine signaling for the prevention and treatment of inflammation induced preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl Y Ng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB at less than 37 weeks of gestation is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Intrauterine infection (IUI due to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity is the leading cause of early PTB (<32 weeks. Commensal genital tract Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma species, as well as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, have been associated with IUI-induced PTB. Bacterial activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs and other pattern recognition receptors initiates a cascade of inflammatory signaling via the NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, prematurely activating parturition. Antenatal antibiotic treatment has had limited success in preventing PTB or fetal inflammation. Administration of anti-inflammatory drugs with antibiotics could be a viable therapeutic option to prevent PTB and fetal complications in women at risk of IUI and inflammation. In this mini-review we will discuss the potential for anti-inflammatory drugs in obstetric care, focusing on the class of drugs termed ‘cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs’ or CSAIDs. These inhibitors work by specifically targeting the NF-κB and p38 MAPK inflammatory signaling pathways. Several CSAIDs are discussed, together with clinical and toxicological considerations associated with the administration of anti-inflammatory agents in pregnancy.

  18. Reproductive outcomes in adolescents who had a previous birth or an induced abortion compared to adolescents' first pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzlaff Paul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, attention has been focused on subsequent pregnancies among teenage mothers. Previous studies that compared the reproductive outcomes of teenage nulliparae and multiparae often did not consider the adolescents' reproductive histories. Thus, the authors compared the risks for adverse reproductive outcomes of adolescent nulliparae to teenagers who either have had an induced abortion or a previous birth. Methods In this retrospective cohort study we used perinatal data prospectively collected by obstetricians and midwives from 1990–1999 (participation rate 87–98% of all hospitals in Lower Saxony, Germany. From the 9742 eligible births among adolescents, women with multiple births, >1 previous pregnancies, or a previous spontaneous miscarriage were deleted and 8857 women Results In bivariate logistic regression analyses, compared to nulliparous teenagers, adolescents with a previous birth had higher risks for perinatal [OR = 2.08, CI = 1.11,3.89] and neonatal [OR = 4.31, CI = 1.77,10.52] mortality and adolescents with a previous abortion had higher risks for stillbirths [OR = 3.31, CI = 1.01,10.88] and preterm births [OR = 2.21, CI = 1.07,4.58]. After adjusting for maternal nationality, partner status, smoking, prenatal care and pre-pregnancy BMI, adolescents with a previous birth were at higher risk for perinatal [OR = 2.35, CI = 1.14,4.86] and neonatal mortality [OR = 4.70, CI = 1.60,13.81] and adolescents with a previous abortion had a higher risk for very low birthweight infants [OR = 2.74, CI = 1.06,7.09] than nulliparous teenagers. Conclusion The results suggest that teenagers who give birth twice as adolescents have worse outcomes in their second pregnancy compared to those teenagers who are giving birth for the first time. The prevention of the second pregnancy during adolescence is an important public health objective and should be addressed by health care providers who attend the first birth or the abortion

  19. Effect of therapeutic hypothermia on chromosomal aberration in perinatal asphyxia

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    Bahubali D Gane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Perinatal asphyxia is a major cause for neonatal mortality and morbidity around the world. The reduction of O2results in the generation of reactive oxygen species which interact with nucleic acid and make alteration in the structure and functioning of the genome. We studied the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on chromosomes with karyotyping. Subjects and Methods: Babies in the hypothermia group were cooled for the first 72 h, using gel packs. Rectal temperature of 33–34°C was maintained. Blood sample was collected after completion of therapeutic hypothermia for Chromosomal analysis. It was done with IKAROS Karyotyping system, Metasystems, based on recommendations of International system of human cytogenetic nomenclature. Results: The median chromosomal aberration was lower in hypothermia [2(0-5] than control group [4(1-7] and chromatid breakage was commonest aberration seen. Chromosomal aberration was significantly higher in severe encephalopathy group than moderate encephalopathy group. Conclusion: We conclude that the TH significantly reduces DNA damage in perinatal asphyxia.

  20. Virtopsy versus autopsy in unusual case of asphyxia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, I; Falcone, C; Di Nunzio, C; Tamburrini, O; Boca, S; Ricci, P

    2013-06-10

    We report the case of a 70-year-old woman found dead in her apartment in the South of Italy in February 2011. The detailed data showed that the victim was affected by familiar-type paranoid schizophrenia. This finding was confirmed by the discovery of antipsychotic and tricyclic antidepressant drugs in the house and the deposition of her psychiatric therapist. Before the autopsy, a multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scanning of the thoracic and facial maxillo-cervical area was performed that has allowed anatomical identification and diagnosis of a mechanical obstruction as the cause of death. The autopsy has showed the presence of materials obstructing the trachea totally. Histological and toxicological investigations were carried out on the victim. The toxicological investigation has shown the presence of metabolites of tricyclic antidepressants and antipsychotics in the blood and urine. The histology showed the presence of foreign-origin materials (starch fibres) inside the pulmonary alveolus. The cause of death was asphyxia due to obstruction by food-origin material. In this case the radiological data have been compared with the autopsy and toxicological and histological data. The comparison of results has shown that MSCT scanning may aid in identification of occlusion and then in determination of the cause of death. In conclusion, MSCT scanning can be proposed in the cases of suspected asphyxia, as the screening procedure of first instance to produce preliminary information useful to rapidly develop the successive autopsy performance. PMID:23582265

  1. Iatrogenic scald injuries in Nigerian babies with perinatal asphyxia: A re-awakening call to strengthen primary health care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuti Bankole Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Birth asphyxia is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Majority of pregnant women in Nigeria still deliver their babies in places where there are no personnel skilled in essential obstetric care and neonatal resuscitation. Consequently newborns are poorly handled at delivery with resultant poor outcome. We report two cases of iatrogenic burns injuries from hot water formentation in an attempt to resuscitate two neonates at peripheral health care facilities in Ilesa, Nigeria. These babies needlessly sustained burns injuries coupled with hypoxic-ischaemic injuries and poor perinatal outcome. These unfortunate cases of "insults upon injuries" underscore the need to strengthen the primary health care system in Nigeria by training and retraining health workers at these facilities. Proper antenatal care, adequate screening of high risk pregnancy for delivery at adequately equipped centres and making efficient referral system available will go a long way in reducing these needless injuries and morbidities.

  2. Drugs to block cytokine signaling for the prevention and treatment of inflammation induced preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Pearl Y.; Ireland, Demelza J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) at less than 37 weeks of gestation is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Intrauterine infection (IUI) due to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity is the leading cause of early PTB (

  3. Development of Autoimmune Overt Hypothyroidism Is Highly Associated With Live Births and Induced Abortions but Only in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Buelow; Knudsen, Nils;

    2014-01-01

    . Design, Setting, and Subjects: In a population study, we included Danish women with new autoimmune overt hypothyroidism not diagnosed within the first year after a pregnancy (n = 117; median age 53.0 y) and age-andregion-matched euthyroid controls from the same population (n = 468). Main Outcome Measures......: In conditional multivariate logistic regression models, we analyzed the associations between the development of autoimmune hypothyroidism and age at menarche/menopause, years of menstruations, pregnancies, spontaneous and induced abortions, live births, and years on oral contraceptives and...... postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, also taking various possible confounders into account. Results: In multivariate regression models with no event as reference, the odds ratios (ORs) for hypothyroidism [95% confidence interval (CI)] after one/two/three or more live births were 1.72 (0.56-5.32)/3.12 (1...

  4. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas;

    2013-01-01

    Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling....... We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status...... need for AMPK to control energy turnover during exercise. Thus, the remaining ¿3-associated AMPK activation by acute exercise after exercise training might be sufficient to maintain cellular energy balance....

  5. A Rare and Serious Syndrome That Requires Attention in Emergency Service: Traumatic Asphyxia

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    Gultekin Gulbahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic asphyxia is a rare syndrome caused by blunt thoracoabdominal trauma and characterized by cyanosis, edema, and subconjunctival and petechial hemorrhage on the face, neck, upper extremities, and the upper parts of the thorax. Traumatic asphyxia is usually diagnosed by history and inspection; however, the patient should be monitored more closely due to probable complications of thoracoabdominal injuries. Treatment is conservative, but the prognosis depends on the severity of the associated injuries. Herein we present a traumatic asphyxia due to an elevator accident in a 32-year-old male patient and discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis by reviewing the relevant literature.

  6. Localized intestinal perforations as a potential complication of brain hypothermic therapy for perinatal asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizaki, Naoto; Maiguma, Atsuko; Obinata, Kaoru; Okazaki, Tadaharu; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    Brain hypothermic therapy (BHT) is becoming a frequently used standard of care for perinatal asphyxia. Although cardiovascular side effects, coagulation disorders, renal impairment, electrolyte abnormalities, impaired liver function, opportunistic infections, and skin lesions are well-known adverse effects of BHT in newborns, little information is available on the clinical features of intestinal perforation-related BHT. We herein report a case of therapeutic brain cooling for perinatal asphyxia complicated by localized intestinal perforation. In practice, the neonatologist should be aware that intestinal perforation in an infant with perinatal asphyxia is possible, particularly following BHT. PMID:26445344

  7. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  8. Electroencephalogram abnormalities in full term infants with history of severe asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanti Halim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ingtool used to determine developmental and electrical problemsin the brain. A history of severe asphyxia is a risk factor for thesebrain problems in infants.Objective To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal EEGs infull term neonates and to assess for an association with severeasphyxia, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE, and spontaneousdelivery.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at thePediatric Outpatient Department of Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar,from November 2013 to January 2014. Subjects were fullterminfants aged 1 month who were delivered and/or hospitalized atSanglah Hospital. All subjects underwent EEG. The EEGs wereinterpreted by a pediatric neurology consultant, twice, with aweek interval between readings. Clinical data were obtainedfrom medical records. Association between abnormal ECG andsevere asphyxia were analyzed by Chi-square and multivariablelogistic analyses.Results Of 55 subjects, 27 had a history of severe asphyxia and 28were vigorous babies. Forty percent (22/55 of subjects had abnormalEEG findings, 19/22 of these subjects having history of severeasphyxia, 15/22 had history of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy(HIE, and 20/22 were delievered vaginally. There were strongcorrelations between the prevalence of abnormal EEG and historyof severe asphyxia, HIE, and spontaneous delivery.Conclusion Prevalence of abnormal EEG among full-term neonatesreferred to neurology/growth development clinic is around40%, with most of them having a history of severe asphyxia. AbnormalEEG is significantly associated to severe asphyxia, HIE, andspontaneous delivery.

  9. Traumatic asphyxia due to blunt chest trauma: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertaridou Eleni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Crush asphyxia is different from positional asphyxia, as respiratory compromise in the latter is caused by splinting of the chest and/or diaphragm, thus preventing normal chest expansion. There are only a few cases or small case series of crush asphyxia in the literature, reporting usually poor outcomes. Case presentation We present the case of a 44-year-old Caucasian man who developed traumatic asphyxia with severe thoracic injury and mild brain edema after being crushed under heavy auto vehicle mechanical parts. He remained unconscious for an unknown time. The treatment included oropharyngeal intubation and mechanical ventilation, bilateral chest tube thoracostomies, treatment of brain edema and other supportive measures. Our patient’s outcome was good. Traumatic asphyxia is generally under-reported and most authors apply supportive measures, while the final outcome seems to be dependent on the length of time of the chest compression and on the associated injuries. Conclusion Treatment for traumatic asphyxia is mainly supportive with special attention to the re-establishment of adequate oxygenation and perfusion; treatment of the concomitant injuries might also affect the final outcome.

  10. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  11. Clinical significance of determination of cord blood S100B protein contents in neonates with intrauterine asphyxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of determination of cord blood S100B protein (a specific neural glia protein reflecting CNS injury) in neonates with intrauterine asphyxia. Methods: Cord blood S100B protein contents were measured with ELISA in (1) 41 neonates from normal vaginal delivery (2) 48 neonates from caesarean section without asphyxia and (3) 36 caesarean section neonates with intrauterine asphyxia. Results: Cord blood S100B protein contents in neonates with intrauterine asphyxia were significantly higher than those in the other 2 groups (P0.05). Conclusion: Cord blood S100B protein is a uesful indicator for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and identification of brain damage following neonatal asphyxia. (authors)

  12. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... in which they give birth. Do you want music and low lighting? How about the freedom to ...

  13. Using uterine activity to improve fetal heart rate variability analysis for detection of asphyxia during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, G J J; Vullings, R; Van Laar, J O E H; Van der Hout-Van der Jagt, M B; Bergmans, J W M; Schmitt, L; Oei, S G

    2016-03-01

    During labor, uterine contractions can cause temporary oxygen deficiency for the fetus. In case of severe and prolonged oxygen deficiency this can lead to asphyxia. The currently used technique for detection of asphyxia, cardiotocography (CTG), suffers from a low specificity. Recent studies suggest that analysis of fetal heart rate variability (HRV) in addition to CTG can provide information on fetal distress. However, interpretation of fetal HRV during labor is difficult due to the influence of uterine contractions on fetal HRV. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate whether HRV features differ during contraction and rest periods, and whether these differences can improve the detection of asphyxia. To this end, a case-control study was performed, using 14 cases with asphyxia that were matched with 14 healthy fetuses. We did not find significant differences for individual HRV features when calculated over the fetal heart rate without separating contractions and rest periods (p  >  0.30 for all HRV features). Separating contractions from rest periods did result in a significant difference. In particular the ratio between HRV features calculated during and outside contractions can improve discrimination between fetuses with and without asphyxia (p  <  0.04 for three out of four ratio HRV features that were studied in this paper). PMID:26862891

  14. BQ-123 prevents LPS-induced preterm birth in mice via the induction of uterine and placental IL-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as any delivery occurring prior to the completion of 37 weeks' gestation, currently accounts for 11–12% of all births in the United States. Maternal genito-urinary infections account for up to 40% of all PTBS and induce a pro-inflammatory state in the host. The potent vasoconstrictor Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known to be upregulated in the setting of infection, and elicits its effect by binding to the ETA receptor. We have previously shown that antagonism of the ETA receptor with BQ-123 is capable of preventing LPS-induced PTB in mice. We hypothesize that the administration of BQ-123 post LPS exposure will dismantle a positive feedback loop observed with pro-inflammatory cytokines upstream of ET-1. On GD 15.5, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were injected with PBS, LPS, BQ-123, or LPS + BQ-123. Changes at both the level of transcription and translation were observed in uterus and placenta in the ET-1 axis and in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines over the course of 12 h. We discovered that BQ-123, when administered 10 h post LPS, is capable of increasing production of uterine and placental Interleukin-10, causing a shift away from the pro-inflammatory state. We also observed that antagonism of the ETA receptor decreased IL-1β and TNFα in the placenta while also decreasing transcription of ET-1 in the uterus. Our results reinforce the role of ET-1 at the maternal fetal interface and highlight the potential benefit of ETA receptor blockade via the suppression of ET-1, and induction of a Th2 cytokine dominant state. - Highlights: • The pro-inflammatory response to LPS in the uterus and placenta is ET-1 dependent. • ETA blockade triggers up-regulation of IL-10 in uterus and placenta. • A positive feedback loop drives ET-1 expression in gestational tissue

  15. A Comparison between APGAR Scores and Birth Weight in Infants of Addicted and Non-Addicted Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahi, Esmat; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Mirkamandar, Ehsan; Haji Maghsoudi, Saiedeh; Rastegari, Azam

    2011-01-01

    Background Addiction in pregnant women causes complications such as abortion, asphyxia and cerebral and physical problems. APGAR score assesses vital signs and birth weight and represents the physical and brain growth of newborns. In this study, the effects of opium addiction in mothers on birth weight and APGAR scores of neonates were discussed. Methods This study analytic, descriptive study was conducted on 49 pregnant women addicted to oral consumption of opium (0.5-0.8 grams daily) and 49...

  16. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  17. Adverse perinatal outcomes for advanced maternal age: a cross-sectional study of Brazilian births

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    Núbia Karla O. Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in women aged ≥41 years relatively to those aged 21-34. METHODS: Approximately 8.5 million records of singleton births in Brazilian hospitals in the period 2004-2009 were investigated. Odds ratios were estimated for preterm and post-term births, for low Apgar scores at 1 min and at 5 min, for asphyxia, for low birth weight, and for macrosomia. RESULTS: For pregnant women ≥41, increased risks were identified for preterm births, for post-term births (except for primiparous women with schooling ≥12 years, and for low birth weight. When comparing older vs. younger women, higher educational levels ensure similar risks of low Apgar score at 1 min (for primiparous mothers and term births, of low Apgar score at 5 min (for term births, of macrosomia (for non-primiparous women, and of asphyxia. CONCLUSION: As a rule, older mothers are at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, which, however, may be mitigated or eliminated, depending on gestational age, parity, and, especially, on the education level of the pregnant woman.

  18. Expression of intestinal trefoil factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and histological changes in intestine of rats after intrauterine asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Fen Xu; Jun Li; Mei Sun; Hong-Wei Sun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the expressions of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and histologic changes in intestine, to investigate the relationship between ITF and intestinal damage and repair after intrauterine hypoxia so as to understand the mechanism of intestinal injury and to find a new way to prevent and treat gastrointestinal diseases.METHODS: Wistar rats, pregnant for 21 d, were used to establish animal models of intrauterine asphyxia by clamping one side of vessels supplying blood to uterus for 20 min, another side was regarded as sham operation group. Intestinal tissues were taken away at 0, 24, 48and 72 h after birth and stored in different styles. ITF mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. PCNA expression was measured by immunohistochemistry. Intestinal tissues were studied histologically by HE staining in order to observe the areas and degree of injury and to value the intestinal mucosa injury index (IMDI).RESULTS: ITF mRNA appeared in full-term rats and increased with age. After ischemia, ITF mRNA was decreased to the minimum (0.59±0.032) 24 h after birth, then began to increase higher after 72 h than it was in the control group (P<0.01). PCNA positive staining located in goblet cell nuclei. The PCNA level had a remarkable decline (53.29±1.97) 48 h after ischemia. Structure changes were obvious in 48-h group, IMDI (3.40±0.16) was significantly increased. Correlation analyses showed that IMDI had a negative correlation with ITF mRNA and PCNA (r = -0.543,P<0.05; r = -0.794, P<0.01, respectively).CONCLUSION: Intrauterine ischemia can result in an early decrease of ITF mRNA expression. ITF and PCNA may play an important role in the damage and repair of intestinal mucosa.

  19. BQ-123 prevents LPS-induced preterm birth in mice via the induction of uterine and placental IL-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgun, Nicole S., E-mail: Nicole.olgun02@stjohns.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY, 11439 (United States); Women and Children' s Research Laboratory, Winthrop University Hospital, 259 1st Street, Mineola, NY, 11501 (United States); Hanna, Nazeeh, E-mail: Nhanna@winthrop.org [Women and Children' s Research Laboratory, Winthrop University Hospital, 259 1st Street, Mineola, NY, 11501 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Winthrop University Hospital, 259 1st Street, Mineola, NY, 11501 (United States); Reznik, Sandra E., E-mail: Rezniks@stjohns.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY, 11439 (United States); Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women' s Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as any delivery occurring prior to the completion of 37 weeks' gestation, currently accounts for 11–12% of all births in the United States. Maternal genito-urinary infections account for up to 40% of all PTBS and induce a pro-inflammatory state in the host. The potent vasoconstrictor Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known to be upregulated in the setting of infection, and elicits its effect by binding to the ET{sub A} receptor. We have previously shown that antagonism of the ET{sub A} receptor with BQ-123 is capable of preventing LPS-induced PTB in mice. We hypothesize that the administration of BQ-123 post LPS exposure will dismantle a positive feedback loop observed with pro-inflammatory cytokines upstream of ET-1. On GD 15.5, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were injected with PBS, LPS, BQ-123, or LPS + BQ-123. Changes at both the level of transcription and translation were observed in uterus and placenta in the ET-1 axis and in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines over the course of 12 h. We discovered that BQ-123, when administered 10 h post LPS, is capable of increasing production of uterine and placental Interleukin-10, causing a shift away from the pro-inflammatory state. We also observed that antagonism of the ET{sub A} receptor decreased IL-1β and TNFα in the placenta while also decreasing transcription of ET-1 in the uterus. Our results reinforce the role of ET-1 at the maternal fetal interface and highlight the potential benefit of ET{sub A} receptor blockade via the suppression of ET-1, and induction of a Th2 cytokine dominant state. - Highlights: • The pro-inflammatory response to LPS in the uterus and placenta is ET-1 dependent. • ET{sub A} blockade triggers up-regulation of IL-10 in uterus and placenta. • A positive feedback loop drives ET-1 expression in gestational tissue.

  20. Birth, Simply

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this column, a mother describes the home birth of her fourth child, which included the supportive presence of her husband, young children, and other family members, along with the help of a midwife. The mother's experience demonstrates the advantages of normal birth and its benefits to the entire family.

  1. Positional Asphyxia: Death Due to Unusual Head-Down Position in a Narrow Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Vinod Ashok; Ghodake, Dattatray G; Kharat, Rajesh D

    2016-06-01

    Death due to a head-down position with hyperflexion of the neck is a rare event. A person accidentally falling into a narrow space and remaining in an upside-down position with no timely recovery may experience positional or postural asphyxia. It is a critical condition arising out of particular body positions, leading to mechanical obstruction of respiration. The precipitating factors are intoxication due to alcohol, drugs, obesity, psychiatric illnesses, and injuries. A 30-year-old unmarried woman, weighing 82 kg and with a body mass index of 31.24, was found in a narrow space between the bed and the wall in a naked state and in a head-down position with hyperflexion of the neck. The distribution of lividity was consistent with the position of the body at the scene. Blood was oozing from the mouth and nostrils, and signs of asphyxia were present. The toxicological analyses of viscera, blood, and urine were negative for alcohol, drugs, and poisons. Glucose levels in the blood (86 mg/dL) as well as urine and vitreous humor levels (68 mg/dL) were within normal limits. On microscopic examination, there were no findings of coronary atherosclerosis, whereas the brain and lung were edematous. After meticulous examination, we ruled out sexual assault, autoerotic asphyxia, epilepsy, psychiatric illness, diabetes, toxicity, and coronary artery disease. Death was attributed to the accidental fall of the obese individual being stuck in a narrow space, resulting in positional asphyxia. It is imperative to recognize the precipitating or risk factors before labeling positional asphyxia as a cause of death. PMID:26840099

  2. Redemptive birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lina

    2016-05-01

    Many of us are in the business of improving birth. Some of us are decades into our journeys of midwifery, whilst others are fresh students aspiring to give our best in this new profession. This article looks at ways to redeem birth from two aspects: for the mother; and for the midwife. I work in an international community in a developing country, in a privatised system. Although different from the UK, birth is birth. Women, their families and midwives will be able to relate to similar experiences. Ultimately my goals are likely to be the same as those in other parts of the world. I address issues of the workplaces in which we operate, the role of midwives in redeeming birth outcomes, and how we may better serve women and each other. PMID:27295755

  3. The murderer is the bed: an unusual case of death by traumatic asphyxia in a hotel folding bunk bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Mercè Subirana; Alcázar, Helena Martínez; Pallarès, Antoni Aguilar; Vicente, Ignasi Galtés; García, Josep Castellà; Gutiérrez, Claudina Vidal; Muñiz, Jordi Medallo

    2012-07-10

    This paper presents the first referenced case on a death by traumatic asphyxia in a folding bunk bed. A middle-aged man was found dead in a hotel room trapped into a lower folding bunk bed where he had been sleeping after a party. The autopsy showed signs of asphyxia and excluded signs of struggle and sexual intercourse. Toxicological analyses revealed alcohol intoxication. A differential diagnosis of the manner of death including a technical study of the bed which contributed to understand the circumstances of death was made. The medico-legal investigation of the case strongly supported the hypothesis of an accidental death by traumatic asphyxia. PMID:22361389

  4. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors, and social, personal, and economic characteristics. Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing ... My last baby was born early. Is there anything I can do in this pregnancy to keep ...

  5. Congenital malformations in multiple births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done to know and compare the incidence of congenital malformations in singleton and multiple births in our hospital & compare with other studies. Methods: A retrospective study done by collecting the data from parturition register from Jan 2008 to Dec 2011 (4yrs from Cheluvamba Hospital attached to Mysore Medical College and Research Institute. Total number of the live births, still births, and abortions> 20 wks were collected. Details of multiple births such as maternal age, gestational age, sex & birth weight of the babies, U/S reports and congenital anomalies (CA were noted. Results: The total number of singleton births were 48700 and number of babies who had congenital malformations were 235 (48.25/10,000 births.Total number of multiple births were 579 including 10 triplets and number of babies who had CA were 11 (189.98/10,000 births, P<0.0001. In the present study sex of the babies were noted in all multiple births and zygosity could not be recorded. Among 579 multiple births 404 were of the Same Sex (SS and 165 were of Opposite Sex (OS in twins and 6 were of the same sex and 4 were of opposite sex in triplets. According to Weinberg formula 50% of same sex (SS twins are monozygotic and 50% are dizygotic twins. Among the 11 babies with CA, 4 monozygotic twins had anomalies related to twinning such as Acardia with TRAP sequence (3 twins, and Thoracophagus (1 twin.5 babies had CNS anomalies, 1 with cystic hygroma, 1 baby with multiple system affected. Conclusion: The incidence of birth defects is more in multiple births and especially in monozygotic twins. In the present days increase in twinning rate due to advanced maternal age, hereditary factors and use of ovulation inducing drugs, which results in premature and low birth wt babies associated with poor lung maturity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 216-221

  6. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...

  7. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - pills - hormonal methods; Hormonal birth control methods; Birth control pills; Contraceptive pills; BCP; OCP ... Birth control pills are also called oral contraceptives or just "the pill." A health care provider must prescribe birth ...

  8. Magnesium sulphate and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adaptations to asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Robert; Davidson, Joanne O; Drury, Paul P; Wassink, Guido; Lear, Christopher A; van den Heuij, Lotte G; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium sulphate is a standard therapy for eclampsia in pregnancy and is widely recommended for perinatal neuroprotection during threatened preterm labour. MgSO4 is a vasodilator and negative inotrope. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MgSO4 on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses of the preterm fetus to asphyxia. Fetal sheep were instrumented at 98 ± 1 days of gestation (term = 147 days). At 104 days, unanaesthetised fetuses were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous infusion of MgSO4 (n = 6) or saline (n = 9). At 105 days all fetuses underwent umbilical cord occlusion for 25 min. Before occlusion, MgSO4 treatment reduced heart rate and increased femoral blood flow (FBF) and vascular conductance compared to controls. During occlusion, carotid and femoral arterial conductance and blood flows were higher in MgSO4-treated fetuses than controls. After occlusion, fetal heart rate was lower and carotid and femoral arterial conductance and blood flows were higher in MgSO4-treated fetuses than controls. Femoral arterial waveform height and width were increased during MgSO4 infusion, consistent with increased stroke volume. MgSO4 did not alter the fetal neurophysiological or nuchal electromyographic responses to asphyxia. These data demonstrate that a clinically comparable dose of MgSO4 increased FBF and stroke volume without impairing mean arterial pressure (MAP) or carotid blood flow (CaBF) during and immediately after profound asphyxia. Thus, MgSO4 may increase perfusion of peripheral vascular beds during adverse perinatal events. PMID:26077461

  9. Clara's birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  10. PERINATAL ASPHYXIA AS POTENTIAL SOURCE OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHO-MOTOR DIFFICULTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta ZISOVSKA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Besides the great improvement of aostetrics and neanatal intensive care, certain percentage of new born children suffer from perinatal asphyxia (PA and that is one of the first reasons for hypoxic and ischemic brain damage which leads to neuro-developing handicap. In order to show how strong is the correaltion between PA and permanent sequele, an early, precise and prompt diagnosis of asphyxia and its influence on neonatal brain is neccessary.This study presents answers to the following issues.1.Which parameters define precisely the perinatal asphyxia?2.How great is the PA incidence on our material?3.What is the percentage of postasphyxic encephalopathy (PAE in the group of asphyxic new born children?4.Which of these children bear high risk for developmental psycho-motor difficulties?MaterialThe new born children delivered on time in the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics.Methods1.Early diagnosis of PA according to the score consisted of high specific, sensitivity and positive and predictive value2.Consequent neurological check-ups and PAE cathegori-zation for seven days3.Ultrasound examination of CNS through big fontanelle4.Lab analysesResults5.639 successive new born children delivered on time were examined. The included scouring system covers APGAR score at the 5th minute, cardiotocographic record, base deficit in ABS, meconium around the amniotic water. According to this system, 81 child passed the PA , i.e., 14,3/ 1.000 new born children delivered on time. Out of them, 54 have signs of PAE (9,5/1000 new born children delivered on time, i.e., 66,6% of all asphyxia new born children. Classification has been made according to the PAE grade: 34 children survived the first grade (62,9%, 11 children survived the second grade (20,4% and 9 new born children survived the third grade (16,7%. According to data in literature and long year studies of this issue, the children from the group who passed the second and the third grade of PAE have the risk

  11. Defying birth defects through diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Crider, Krista S.; Lynn B. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    The risk of certain birth defects can be modified by maternal diet. A high-fat maternal mouse diet has recently been reported to substantially increase the penetrance of birth defects known to be associated with a deficiency of transcription factor Cited2 as well as induce cleft palate. These effects were associated with a more than twofold reduction in embryonic expression of Pitx2c. This investigation suggests the need to further explore this provocative gene-diet interaction in human studies.

  12. Effect of Marine Collagen Peptides on Physiological and Neurobehavioral Development of Male Rats with Perinatal Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits in brain development. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of marine collagen peptides (MCPs, isolated from Chum Salmon skin by enzymatic hydrolysis, on male rats with perinatal asphyxia (PA. PA was performed by immersing rat fetuses with uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath for 15 min. Caesarean-delivered pups were used as controls. PA rats were intragastrically administered with 0.33 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and 3.0 g/kg body weight MCPs from postnatal day 0 (PND 0 till the age of 90-days. Behavioral tests were carried out at PND21, PND 28 and PND 90. The results indicated that MCPs facilitated early body weight gain of the PA pups, however had little effects on early physiological development. Behavioral tests revealed that MCPs facilitated long-term learning and memory of the pups with PA through reducing oxidative damage and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the brain, and increasing hippocampus phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression.

  13. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  14. Interaction Pattern and Developmental Outcome of Infants with Severe Asphyxia: A Longitudinal Study of the First Years of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Philippa H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Seven full-term infants with severe encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia were followed longitudinally to two years of age to determine health and developmental outcome and to investigate mother-infant interaction patterns over time. Six infants demonstrated delayed development; five were diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Mother-infant…

  15. 新生儿窒息多器官损害发生率、高危因素和转归的多中心研究%Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of multiple organ damage after neonatal asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    新生儿窒息多器官损害临床诊断多中心研究协作组

    2016-01-01

    重度窒息,且合并严重代谢性酸中毒时更严重。%ObjectiveTo investigate the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of multiple organ damage (MOD) after neonatal asphyxia and formulate the diagnostic criteria of MOD, in order to strengthen the management of neonatal asphyxia and provide evidences for reduction of the mortality and disability rate of asphyxia newborns.MethodsTotally, 487 asphyxiated newborns, who were term neonates or preterm neonates with fetal age over 34 weeks and birth weight over 2 500 g and admitted to hospitals included in the collaboration group from November 2012 to February 2015 were selected. Neonatal asphyxia was diagnosed based on Apgar score, and all recruited newborns were divided into mild and severe groups, and those in severe group were devided into two subgroups (GroupⅠ and groupⅡ). GroupⅠ included those babies with severe asphyxia and serious metabolic acidosis (pH≤7 and/or base excess≤-16 mmol/L) and groupⅡ were those without serious metabolism acidosis group (7asphyxia, 371 were mild asphyxia and 116 were severe ones. Altogether, 232 out of the 487 babies (47.6%) developed multiple organ injury of asphyxia. More MOD babies were seen in the severe asphyxia group than in the mild asphyxia group [79.3% (92/116) vs 37.7% (140/371),χ2=59.58,P<0.01]. (2) Babies with MOD after asphyxia were more likely to be born by emergency cesarean delivery [14.7% (34/232) vs 5.9% (15/255)], but less likely to have regular prenatal care [57.8% (134/232) vs 89.8% (229/255)] (χ2=9.04 and 65.73, allP<0.01). (3) Incidence of MOD in group I was significantly higher than that in groupⅡ [90.7% (39/43) vs 73.0% (27/37),χ2=11.36,P<0.01];(4) The median hospital stay of MOD newborns was longer than that of non-MOD ones [11 (8-15) vs 8 (6-9) d, P<0.01], the recovery rate

  16. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  17. 新生儿黄疸对正常足月儿心肌损伤危害的临床研究%Clinical study of myocardial damage induced by neonatal jaundice in normal birth weight term infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔羽; 杨波; 黑明燕; 王秀利; 陈洋; 孙迎军; 佟念念

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clarify whether neonatal jaundice may cause myocardial damage to term infants with normal birth weight (BW).Methods Totally 178 term neonates admitted during March,2004 to December,2010 with normal BW were enrolled.Infants with antenatal or neonatal asphyxia,temperature abnormality,septicemia,antenatal viral infection,congenital dysmorphia,congenital heart disease,21-trisomy,and polycythemia were excluded. There was no maternal complications during the pregnancy.Serum total bilirubin (TB),creatine kinase (CK),MB isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK-MB),and cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) were measured.Patients with transcutaneous bilirubin level (TcB) ≥342 pmol/L (20 mg/dl) were in Group A ( n =32),and those with TcB below phototherapy level at matched time point were in Group B (n =25 ).ECG,for correct Q-T intervals (QTc) and correct QT intervals dispersion ( QTcd),and ECHO,for left ventricular ejection fraction ( EF),the ratio of the peak velocity of early stage and advanced stage of diastolic phase at the mitral orifice (E/A),were applied to patients in Group A and B.SPSS 13.0 software was used for the data analysis.The coefficients of correlation among age in hours on admission (hr),TB,CK,CK-MB,CK-MB/CK,and cTnI were studied by multiple and partial correlation analysis. Data in Group A and B were compared by independent-samples Mann-Whitney U test ( nonparametric method) or Student t-test.Results When the data were analyzed by multiple correlation,there were significant correlation between TB and cTnI,CK-MB,respectively ( r =0.212, - 0.161,respectively,all P < 0.05 ). But,when the data were analyzed by partial correlation,there was no correlation between TB and cTnl,CK-MB,respectively (r'=0.112, -0.112,respectively,all P >0.05),negative correlation between hr and TB,cTnI,respectively (r' =-0.490,P =0.000; r' =-0.162,P =0.032 ).There was no significant difference in CK ( Z =- 1.384,P =0.166),CK-MB ( Z =-0.821,P=0.412),cTnI (Z=-1.159,P=0.246),QTc (t=1

  18. Metabolic Changes Following Perinatal Asphyxia: Role of Astrocytes and Their Interaction with Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logica, Tamara; Riviere, Stephanie; Holubiec, Mariana I; Castilla, Rocío; Barreto, George E; Capani, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal Asphyxia (PA) represents an important cause of severe neurological deficits including delayed mental and motor development, epilepsy, major cognitive deficits and blindness. The interaction between neurons, astrocytes and endothelial cells plays a central role coupling energy supply with changes in neuronal activity. Traditionally, experimental research focused on neurons, whereas astrocytes have been more related to the damage mechanisms of PA. Astrocytes carry out a number of functions that are critical to normal nervous system function, including uptake of neurotransmitters, regulation of pH and ion concentrations, and metabolic support for neurons. In this work, we aim to review metabolic neuron-astrocyte interactions with the purpose of encourage further research in this area in the context of PA, which is highly complex and its mechanisms and pathways have not been fully elucidated to this day. PMID:27445788

  19. Prematurity, asphyxia and congenital malformations underrepresented among neonates in a tertiary pediatric hospital in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruse Alexandra Y

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimated 17,000 neonates (≤ 28 days of age die in Vietnam annually, corresponding to more than half of the child mortality burden. However, current knowledge about these neonates is limited. Prematurity, asphyxia and congenital malformations are major causes of death in neonates worldwide. To improve survival and long term development, these vulnerable neonates need access to the specialized neonatal care existing, although limited, in lower middle-income countries like Vietnam. The aim of this study was to describe these conditions in a specialized Vietnamese hospital, compared to a Danish hospital. Methods We performed a comparative observational study of all neonates admitted to a tertiary pediatric hospital in South Vietnam in 2009–2010. The data were prospectively extracted from the central hospital registry and included basic patient characteristics and diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. Prematurity, asphyxia and designated congenital malformations (oesophageal atresia, gastroschisis, omphalocoele, diaphragmatic hernia and heart disease were investigated. In a subgroup, the prematurity diagnosis was validated using a questionnaire. The hospitalization ratio of each diagnosis was compared to those obtained from a Danish tertiary hospital. The Danish data were retrieved from the neonatal department database for a ten-year period. Results The study included 5763 neonates (missing Conclusion Our findings suggest the investigated diagnoses were underrepresented in the Vietnamese study hospital. In contrast, relatively mild diagnoses were frequent. These results indicate the use of specialized care may not be optimal. Pre-hospital selection mechanisms were not investigated and additional studies are needed to optimise utilisation of specialized care and improve neonatal survival.

  20. Maturation of the mitochondrial redox response to profound asphyxia in fetal sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P Drury

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Fetal susceptibility to hypoxic brain injury increases over the last third of gestation. This study examined the hypothesis that this is associated with impaired mitochondrial adaptation, as measured by more rapid oxidation of cytochrome oxidase (CytOx during profound asphyxia. METHODS: Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.6, 0.7, and 0.85 gestation were subjected to either 30 min (0.6 gestational age (ga, n = 6, 25 min (0.7 ga, n = 27 or 15 min (0.85 ga, n = 17 of complete umbilical cord occlusion. Fetal EEG, cerebral impedance (to measure brain swelling and near-infrared spectroscopy-derived intra-cerebral oxygenation (ΔHb = HbO(2 - Hb, total hemoglobin (THb and CytOx redox state were monitored continuously. Occlusion was associated with profound, rapid fall in ΔHb in all groups to a plateau from 6 min, greatest at 0.85 ga compared to 0.6 and 0.7 ga (p<0.05. THb initially increased at all ages, with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a progressive fall from 7 min in all groups. CytOx initially increased in all groups with the greatest rise at 0.85 ga (p<0.05, followed by a further, delayed increase in preterm fetuses, but a striking fall in the 0.85 group after 6 min of occlusion. Cerebral impedance (a measure of cytotoxic edema increased earlier and more rapidly with greater gestation. In conclusion, the more rapid rise in CytOx and cortical impedance during profound asphyxia with greater maturation is consistent with increasing dependence on oxidative metabolism leading to earlier onset of neural energy failure before the onset of systemic hypotension.

  1. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qiang; ZHI Qi-Jun; ZHANG Xiao-ping; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qurit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth.

  2. Effect of neonatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway by recording auditory brainstem responses in newborn piglets: a new experimentation model to study the perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage on the auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Alvarez

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-ischemia (HI is a major perinatal problem that results in severe damage to the brain impairing the normal development of the auditory system. The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the auditory pathway by recording auditory brain responses in a novel animal experimentation model in newborn piglets.Hypoxia-ischemia was induced to 1.3 day-old piglets by clamping 30 minutes both carotid arteries by vascular occluders and lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. We compared the Auditory Brain Responses (ABRs of newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia/ischemia (n = 6 and a control group with no such exposure (n = 10. ABRs were recorded for both ears before the start of the experiment (baseline, after 30 minutes of HI injury, and every 30 minutes during 6 h after the HI injury.Auditory brain responses were altered during the hypoxic-ischemic insult but recovered 30-60 minutes later. Hypoxia/ischemia seemed to induce auditory functional damage by increasing I-V latencies and decreasing wave I, III and V amplitudes, although differences were not significant.The described experimental model of hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets may be useful for studying the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway.

  3. A Wondrous Birth

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the author describes tending to a mother who displayed a quiet confidence throughout her pregnancy and birth experience. This birth story provides powerful support for women's inherent ability to give birth. Women already know what they need to give birth simply and easily.

  4. An imbalance between innate and adaptive immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface occurs prior to endotoxin-induced preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia; Romero, Roberto; St Louis, Derek; Hassan, Sonia S; Kaye, Emily B; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2016-07-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A transition from an anti-inflammatory state to a pro-inflammatory state in the mother and at the maternal-fetal interface has been implicated in the pathophysiology of microbial-induced preterm labor. However, it is unclear which immune cells mediate this transition. We hypothesized that an imbalance between innate and adaptive immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface will occur prior to microbial-induced preterm labor. Using an established murine model of endotoxin-induced PTB, our results demonstrate that prior to delivery there is a reduction of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the uterine tissues. This reduction is neither linked to a diminished number of Tregs in the spleen, nor to an impaired production of IL10, CCL17, or CCL22 by the uterine tissues. Endotoxin administration to pregnant mice does not alter effector CD4+ T cells at the maternal-fetal interface. However, it causes an imbalance between Tregs (CD4+ and CD8+), effector CD8+ T cells, and Th17 cells in the spleen. In addition, endotoxin administration to pregnant mice leads to an excessive production of CCL2, CCL3, CCL17, and CCL22 by the uterine tissues as well as abundant neutrophils. This imbalance in the uterine microenvironment is accompanied by scarce APC-like cells such as macrophages and MHC II+ neutrophils. Collectively, these results demonstrate that endotoxin administration to pregnant mice causes an imbalance between innate and adaptive immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:25849119

  5. Histological Changes in the Thyroid Gland in Cases of Infant and Early Childhood Asphyxia-A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Bellis, Maria

    2016-05-01

    A retrospective blinded study of thyroid gland histology was undertaken in 50 infants and young children aged from 1 to 24 months. Deaths were due to (i) suffocation (N = 7), hanging (4), wedging (3), and chest and/or neck compression (4), and (ii) SIDS (20), noncervical trauma (7), organic disease, (4) and drug toxicity (1). In the asphyxia group (N = 18), thyroid gland congestion ranged from 0 to 3+ with 39% of cases (7/18) having moderate/marked congestion. In three cases, focal aggregates of red blood cells (blood islands) were observed within the intrafollicular colloid. These deaths involved chest compression, chest and/or neck compression, and crush asphyxia in a vehicle accident, and all had facial petechiae. Only 22% of the 32 control cases (7/32) had moderate/marked congestion with no blood islands being identified (p crushing or compression and may provide supportive evidence for this diagnosis. PMID:27122404

  6. Clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Hua Xu; Xin Lin; Mi-Jia Huang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia.Methods:A total of 100 newborns with asphyxia who visited in our hospital were collected, and divided into severe group (n=20) and mild group (n=80) according to the asphyxia degree, and 50 healthy newborns regarded as control group. The 3 groups received blood gas analysis (pH, BE and PaCO2), electrolyte (K+, Na+ and Ca2+) and 3 kinds of enzymes (CK, CK-MB and HBDH) were tested and compared.Results: Compared with control group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, the level of Ca2+ decreased significantly in severe group (P<0.05); Compared with control group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe and mild group (P<0.05). Compared with mild group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The detection of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH can provide an objective evidence for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and estimation of severity degree which was helpful in clinical treatment.

  7. Asfixia perinatal e problemas cardíacos Perinatal asphyxia and heart problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesmar Volga H. Herdy

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a gravidade das complicações cardíacas na asfixia neonatal, sua evolução e correlacioná-las com o grau e duração do processo hipóxico. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 90 bebês nos últimos 7 anos com grau de Apgar PURPOSE: To evaluate the severity of cardiac complications of neonatal asphyxia in relation to the length and degree of hipoxia. METHODS: Ninety babies with an Apgar score <6 were examined in the intensive care unit at our institution during seven years. Arterial blood for measuring pH, glucose, LDH and MB fraction of CK, together with serial electrocardiogram (ECG, echocardiogram and chest X rays was obtained. The fatal cases were studied with macro and microscopic examination. RESULTS: From a total of 90 cases, 73 were premature: 30 (41% appropriate for gestation age (AGA and 43 (59% small for gestation age (SGA. Twenty one (23% cases had arterial pH <7.2. The most common clinical conditions were: pneumonia 28 (31%, anemia 24 (26% and jaundice 12 (13%. The main cardiological findings were: systolic murmur in 46 (50%, signs of heart hypertrophy in 18 (20% and heart failure in 8 (9%. On ECG the main findings were ST and T abnormalities. The echocardiogram showed a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in 20 (22%, tricuspid regurgitation in 6 (7%, pulmonary hypertension in 6 (7%, dyskinesia and ventricular dilatation in 4 (5%. Necropsy was performed in 23 cases and macro and microscopy obtained in 14; the most frequent findings were: myocite necrosis in 8 (54%, congestion, vacuolization and loss of striae in 4 (29%. CONCLUSION: In the majority of cases, patients had a benign course, even those presenting with severe acidemia. Many abnormal EKGs and echocardiograms became normal after a few weeks. Among those who had a fatal outcome, the severity of histological lesions was observed in babies who had suffered asphyxia for more prolonged periods.

  8. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  9. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  10. 人工流产的未婚女性避孕现状调查%Birth control of unmarried womenhaving experienced induced abortions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦玲; 张华; 邵扬琴; 乐华

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解未婚先孕女性对婚前性行为的看法,分析流产原因,为制定相应的干预措施提供依据,以降低未婚女性的人工流产率。方法:采用自行设计的调查表格,以统一匿名调查表,统计2013年10月至2014年10月于扬州市妇幼保健院进行人工流产的460位未婚女性流产情况。内容包括:一般个人情况、避孕失败原因、采取避孕措施现状、生殖健康知识了解状况及对性和生殖健康的态度等。结果:未婚先孕女性中,流产年龄多在20~30岁之间,学历是大专及本科以上的所占比例较多;206人有既往流产史,占44.78%;避孕套是被调查者使用率最高的避孕方法;她们近半数人对生殖健康知识并不清楚,虽然多数人想了解生殖健康知识,但其避孕知识主要来自单一媒体;存侥幸心理未避孕、避孕方法低效、避孕药具使用不当是造成人工流产的主要原因。结论:揭示未婚女性人工流产与不安全性生活的密切相关性,针对目前婚前性行为难以避免的情况,加强对未婚女性的生殖健康服务,针对性提供避孕指导,让她们清楚人流对健康的危害,从而降低流产率,最终减少术后并发症的发生。%Objectives:To understand the perspectives of unmarried pregnant women on premarital sexual behavior,to analyze the causes for induced abortion,and to provide basis for relevant precautions so as to reduce the abortion rate of unmarried women.Methods:A specifically -designed questionnaire was adopted to collect a-bortion -related data of 460 anonymous female participants who were both unmarried and had abortion experience from October 201 3 to October 201 4 at the Yangzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital.The contents of the ques-tionnaire included general information,reasons for birth -control failures,current contraceptive measures,knowl-edge of reproductive health and attitudes towards

  11. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most effective ... periods Treat acne Prevent ovarian cancer Combination birth control pills contain both estrogen and progestin. Some combination ...

  12. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... 100% effective method of birth control. LEARN MORE IUD An IUD is a T-shaped device that ...

  13. Umbilical artery blood gas analysis in the diagnosis of multiple organ damage of neonatal asphyxia%新生儿脐动脉血气分析在新生儿窒息多器官损害诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全国新生儿窒息多器官损害临床诊断多中心研究协作组

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between umbilical arterial blood gas analysis and perinatal high risk factors, Apgar score and multiple organ damage of neonatal asphyxia. Methods Clinical data of cases of neonatal asphyxia in from the Neonatal Department and Intensive Care Unit of our research group from November 2012 to December 2014 were studied. Full term infants and premature infants ( gestational age >34 weeks, birth weight >2500 g) with neonatal asphyxia, whose umbilical artery blood gas analysis ( including pH and BE) were tested were enrolled in our study. Neonatal asphyxia was diagnosed according to the Apgar score, umbilical artery blood gas analysis, mild asphyxia group and severe asphyxia group were assigned into three groups respectively: severe metabolic acidosis group: pH≤7 and/or BE≤-16 mmol/L; non-severe metabolic acidosis group:77. 2, BE> -8 mmol/L. The diagnosis of multiple organ damage of neonatal asphyxia was made according to the history of perinatal hypoxia,clinical manifestations,laboratory examination and imaging examination.Results Therewere 111 cases in our study ( mild asphyxia: n =79 , severe asphyxia: n =32 ) . ( 1 ) The pH and BE of umbilical artery blood gas were positively related to 1 minute Apgar score ( pH: r=0. 223, P=0. 016;BE: r=0. 293, P=0. 002). (2) Multi-factor analysis of umbilical artery blood pH and BE showed that abnormal fetal heart rate was an important factor (β =0. 080 , 95℅ CI 0. 010 -0. 160 , P =0. 025 ) . (3) The incidence of multiple organ damage in severe asphyxia group was significantly higher than that in mild asphyxia group (75. 0℅ vs. 29. 1℅, Χ2 =17. 810, P34周、生后检测脐动脉血pH和BE的窒息新生儿,根据Apgar评分诊断新生儿窒息,根据脐血血气分析将轻度窒息组和重度窒息组分别分为严重代谢性酸中毒组(pH≤7和/或BE≤-16mmol/L)、非严重代谢性酸中毒组(77.2且BE>-8).根据围产期缺氧病史、临床表现、实验室检查和影

  14. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A Text Size What's ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  15. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring Print A A A Text Size What's ... Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  16. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A Text Size What's ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  17. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A Text Size What's ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  18. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity in...

  19. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a baby ...

  20. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects at the Maternal-Fetal Interface and Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Preterm Birth, but Causes Dystocia and Fetal Compromise in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furcron, Amy-Eunice; Romero, Roberto; Mial, Tara N; Balancio, Amapola; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Hassan, Sonia S; Sahi, Aashna; Nord, Claire; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2016-06-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is implicated in the maintenance of uterine quiescence by down-regulating myometrial gap junctions during pregnancy, and it was considered as a strategy to prevent preterm birth after the occurrence of preterm labor. However, the effect of hCG on innate and adaptive immune cells implicated in parturition is poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the immune effects of hCG at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and whether this hormone can safely prevent endotoxin-induced preterm birth. Using immunophenotyping, we demonstrated that hCG has immune effects at the maternal-fetal interface (decidual tissues) by: 1) increasing the proportion of regulatory T cells; 2) reducing the proportion of macrophages and neutrophils; 3) inducing an M1 → M2 macrophage polarization; and 4) increasing the proportion of T helper 17 cells. Next, ELISAs were used to determine whether the local immune changes were associated with systemic concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, and/or cytokines (IFNgamma, IL1beta, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12p70, KC/GRO, and TNFalpha). Plasma concentrations of IL1beta, but not progesterone, estradiol, or any other cytokine, were increased following hCG administration. Pretreatment with hCG prevented endotoxin-induced preterm birth by 44%, proving the effectiveness of this hormone as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, hCG administration alone caused dystocia and fetal compromise, as proven by Doppler ultrasound. These results provide insight into the mechanisms whereby hCG induces an anti-inflammatory microenvironment at the maternal-fetal interface during late gestation, and demonstrate its effectiveness in preventing preterm labor/birth. However, the deleterious effects of this hormone on mothers and fetuses warrant caution. PMID:27146032

  1. 脐动脉血血气分析对新生儿窒息的预后评估价值%Gas analysis of umbilical cord artery blood on predicating the prognosis of asphyxia neonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹棨; 潘革; 莫锦丽; 何潇; 农常亮; 黄芬

    2016-01-01

    Methods From September 2014 to September 2015, 328 neonates were divided into groups by Apgar score:290 patients in the control group and 27 patients in the mild asphyxia group,11 patients in the severe asphyxia group�After birth,umbilical artery blood,radial artery blood gas analysis was perfomed, oxygenation index was calculated, Outcome of neonatal behavioral neurological assessment ( NBNA) in neonates with asphyxia was regular follow⁃uped,the relationship between pH value and umbilical artery blood gas analysis was analyzed�Results The pH, PO2, PCO2 and oxygenation index of umbilical cord blood and radial artery blood in the severe asphyxia group was(7�11±0�25,(73�93±23�35) mmHg,(51�36±16�37) mmHg,206�23±98�12),significant different than the mild group(7�24±0�05,(86�35 ±12�56) mmHg,(45�89± 9�21) mmHg,411�22±57�94) and the control group(7�28±0�08,(87�80±12�07) mmHg,(43�68± 6�45) mmHg,426�23±73�30)(P<0�05)�The pH,PO2,PCO2 and oxygenation index of umbilical cord blood and radial artery blood in the severe asphyxia group was(7�25±0�18,(74�66±24�09) mmHg,(51�42±17�83) mmHg,332�03±65�19),significant different than the mild group(7�31±0�09,(87�24 ±11�75) mmHg,(45�73±10�21) mmHg,405�67±82�65) and the control group(7�32±0�06,(87�99±11�81) mmHg,(42�84± 9�32) mmHg,439�89±60�76)(P<0�05)�The NBNA scores of the severe asphyxia group was (34�09±5�02) points,lower than the mild group(36�62±2�04)(F=21�65,P<0�05)�The NBNA scores showed significant relationship with umbilical cord blood pH in the severe asphyxia group( r=0�877,P<0�01)�Conclusion The pH,PO2 and oxygenation index of umbilical cord blood and radial artery blood was lower while PCO2 was markedly high in the severe asphyxia group than other groups�For neonates, there is a correlation between umbilical cord blood pH and NBNAs core, neonates borned with hypoxia and acidosis

  2. Pressure passive cerebral blood flow and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in experimental fetal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Tweed, W A;

    1979-01-01

    mean arterial blood pressure in the fetuses by blood withdrawal or infusion in this state, CBF was measured at different perfusion pressures (mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) minus central venous pressure (CVP)). A passive flow/pressure relationship--loss of autoregulation--was found, with hyperemia...... reaching CBF values up to 6 times normal at normal MABP of about 60 to 70 mmHg, and severe ischemia reaching CBF values close to zero in large cortical areas at MABP of 30 mmHg. CVP remained essentially unchanged at 10--15 mmHg. The severe and prolonged asphyxia rendered the blood-brain barrier leaky to...

  3. Feeding mink (Neovison vison) a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy induces higher birth weight and altered hepatic gene expression in the F2 offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank; Blache, Dominique; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl;

    2010-01-01

    ) or an adequate-protein (29 % of ME from protein - FAP1) diet for the last 17.9 (sd 3.6) d of gestation. The F1 dams were studied at birth and at 1 year of age, during their first reproductive cycle, after maintenance on an adequate diet from birth and thereafter. Metabolic traits during gestation and lactation...... a low-protein diet. Traits studied included reproductive performance, energy and protein metabolism, and key hepatic enzymes associated with glucose homeostasis and metabolic hormones. The F0 generation offspring were fed either a low-protein (14 % of metabolisable energy (ME) from protein - FLP1...

  4. Jonah’s Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Rachel Goldstein shares her experience of exploring options related to care provider and place of birth early in her pregnancy. Goldstein and her husband, Marc, after reading and research, chose midwifery care and a home birth. She shares the story of a long labor at home supported by her husband, her doula, and her midwife. Her positive attitude, her ability to use various comfort strategies, and the support she received throughout labor contributed to being able to give birth naturally and ...

  5. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  6. Maternal low protein diet-induced low birth weight in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats is mediated by altered brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  7. Birth control failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocles, A M

    1986-10-01

    Birth control failure usually results from the incorrect or inconsistent use of contraceptives. By providing anticipatory counseling, based on an understanding of the reasons for birth control failure, family physicians can help curtail the current epidemic of unwanted pregnancies. PMID:3766356

  8. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  9. A Season for Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education reflects on changing seasons and how birth remains a constant wonder. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  10. Safely Giving Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the growing challenge of assuring a safe birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect normal birth.

  11. Perinatal asphyxia results in altered expression of the hippocampal acylethanolamide/endocannabinoid signaling system associated to memory impairments in postweaned rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eduardo; Galeano, Pablo; Holubiec, Mariana I.; Romero, Juan I.; Logica, Tamara; Rivera, Patricia; Pavón, Francisco J.; Suarez, Juan; Capani, Francisco; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is an obstetric complication that strongly affects the CNS. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a lipid transmitter system involved in several physiological processes including synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, memory, and mood. Endocannabinoids, and other acylethanolamides (AEs) without endocannabinoid activity, have recently received growing attention due to their potential neuroprotective functions in neurological disorders, including cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the changes produced by PA in the major metabolic enzymes and receptors of the ECS/AEs in the hippocampus using a rodent model of PA. To induce PA, we removed uterine horns from ready-to-deliver rats and immersed them into a water bath during 19 min. Animals delivered spontaneously or by cesarean section were employed as controls. At 1 month of age, cognitive functions were assessed and immunohistochemical procedures were carried out to determine the expression of NeuN and glial fibrillary acidic protein, enzymes responsible for synthesis (DAGLα and NAPE-PLD) and degradation (FAAH) of ECS/AEs and their receptors (CB1 and PPARα) in the hippocampus. Postweaned asphyctic rats showed impaired recognition and spatial reference memory that were accompanied by hippocampal astrogliosis and changes in the expression of enzymes and receptors. The most remarkable findings in asphyctic rats were a decrease in the expression of NAPE-PLD and PPARα in both hippocampal areas CA1 and CA3. In addition, postweaned cesarean delivery rats showed an increase in the immunolabeling for FAAH in the hippocampal CA3 area. Since, NAPE-PLD and PPARα are proteins that participate in the biochemical process of AEs, specially the neuroprotective oleoylethanolamide, these results suggest that PA dysregulates this system. These data encourage conducting future studies using AEs as potential neuroprotective compounds in animal models of PA. PMID:26578900

  12. Perinatal asphyxia results in altered expression of the hippocampal acylethanolamide/endocannabinoid signaling system associated to memory impairments in postweaned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eduardo; Galeano, Pablo; Holubiec, Mariana I; Romero, Juan I; Logica, Tamara; Rivera, Patricia; Pavón, Francisco J; Suarez, Juan; Capani, Francisco; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is an obstetric complication that strongly affects the CNS. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a lipid transmitter system involved in several physiological processes including synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, memory, and mood. Endocannabinoids, and other acylethanolamides (AEs) without endocannabinoid activity, have recently received growing attention due to their potential neuroprotective functions in neurological disorders, including cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the changes produced by PA in the major metabolic enzymes and receptors of the ECS/AEs in the hippocampus using a rodent model of PA. To induce PA, we removed uterine horns from ready-to-deliver rats and immersed them into a water bath during 19 min. Animals delivered spontaneously or by cesarean section were employed as controls. At 1 month of age, cognitive functions were assessed and immunohistochemical procedures were carried out to determine the expression of NeuN and glial fibrillary acidic protein, enzymes responsible for synthesis (DAGLα and NAPE-PLD) and degradation (FAAH) of ECS/AEs and their receptors (CB1 and PPARα) in the hippocampus. Postweaned asphyctic rats showed impaired recognition and spatial reference memory that were accompanied by hippocampal astrogliosis and changes in the expression of enzymes and receptors. The most remarkable findings in asphyctic rats were a decrease in the expression of NAPE-PLD and PPARα in both hippocampal areas CA1 and CA3. In addition, postweaned cesarean delivery rats showed an increase in the immunolabeling for FAAH in the hippocampal CA3 area. Since, NAPE-PLD and PPARα are proteins that participate in the biochemical process of AEs, specially the neuroprotective oleoylethanolamide, these results suggest that PA dysregulates this system. These data encourage conducting future studies using AEs as potential neuroprotective compounds in animal models of PA. PMID:26578900

  13. Perinatal asphyxia results in altered expression of the hippocampal acylethanolamide/endocannabinoid signaling system associated to memory impairments in postweaned rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Blanco Calvo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia (PA is an obstetric complication that strongly affects the CNS. The endocannabinoid system (ECS is a lipid transmitter system involved in several physiological processes including synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, memory and mood. Endocannabinoids, and other acylethanolamides (AEs without endocannabinoid activity, have recently received growing attention as they have potential neuroprotective functions in neurological disorders, including cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the changes produced by PA in the major metabolic enzymes and receptors of the ECS/AEs in the hippocampus using a rodent model of PA. To induce PA, we removed uterine horns from ready-to-deliver rats and immersed them into a water bath during 19 min. Animals that were delivered spontaneously or by caesarean section were employed as controls. At one month of age, cognitive functions were assessed and immunohistochemical procedures were carried out to determine the expression of NeuN and GFAP, enzymes responsible for synthesis (DAGLα and NAPE-PLD and degradation (FAAH of ECS/AEs and their receptors (CB1 and PPARα in the hippocampus. Postweaned asphyctic rats showed impaired recognition and spatial reference memory that were accompanied by hippocampal astrogliosis and changes in the expression of enzymes and receptors. The most remarkable findings in asphyctic rats were a decrease in the expression of NAPE-PLD and PPARα in both hippocampal areas CA1 and CA3. In addition, postweaned cesarean delivery rats showed an increase in the immunolabeling for FAAH in the hippocampal CA3 area. Since NAPE-PLD and PPARα are proteins that participate in the biochemical process of AEs, specially the neuroprotective oleoylethanolamide, these results suggest that PA dysregulates this system. These data encourage conducting future studies using AEs as potential neuroprotective compounds in animal models of PA.

  14. Adolescent Births 2010-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — http://tinyurl.com/AdolescentBirthRatesMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfRepeatBirthsMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfBirthsInHighPoverty. This dataset contains...

  15. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  16. Perinatal asphyxia results in altered expression of the hippocampal acylethanolamide/endocannabinoid signaling system associated to memory impairments in postweaned rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Blanco Calvo; Pablo Galeano

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is an obstetric complication that strongly affects the CNS. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a lipid transmitter system involved in several physiological processes including synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, memory, and mood. Endocannabinoids, and other acylethanolamides (AEs) without endocannabinoid activity, have recently received growing attention due to their potential neuroprotective functions in neurological disorders, including cerebral ischemia. In the pres...

  17. Both food restriction and high-fat diet during gestation induce low birth weight and altered physical activity in adult rat offspring: the "Similarities in the Inequalities" model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio da Silva Cunha

    Full Text Available We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called "Similarities in the Inequalities", in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the "similarities in the inequalities" phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib, receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR, receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam's habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF, receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels, abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The "similarities in the inequalities" effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females. Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters, probably through different biological mechanisms.

  18. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  19. 新生儿窒息血清微量元素观察%Analysis of the serum trace elements of newborns with asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅; 王荣刚

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨新生儿窒息血清微量元素水平变化情况,分析不同窒息程度新生儿血清微量元素的差异.方法 选取2011年4月至2012年7月本院的53例窒息新生儿为观察组,同期的53例健康新生儿为对照组,将2组新生儿的血清锌、铁、硒、镁、钙及铜水平进行检测及比较,并将观察组中重度窒息者及轻度窒息者的上述指标进行比较.结果 观察组的血清锌、铁、硒、镁及钙水平均明显低于对照组,而血清铜水平则明显高于对照组,而观察组中重度窒息者的血清锌、铁、硒、镁及钙水平低于轻度窒息者,血清铜则高于轻度窒息者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 窒息新生儿血清微量元素水平呈现异常状态,且重度窒息新生儿表现更为明显.%Objective To study the change state of serum trace elements of newborns with asphyxia and the differences of serum trace elements between different asphyxia degree.Methods A total of 53 newborns with asphyxia in our hospital from April 2011 to July 2012were selected as observation group,and 53 healthy newborns at the same time were selected as control group.Then the serum zinc,iron,selenium,magnesium,calcium and copper of two groups were compared,and these indexes of observation group with mild asphyxia and severe asphyxia were compared.Results The serum zinc,iron,selenium,magnesium and calcium of observation group were obviously lower than those of control group,serum copper was obvious higher than that of control group,while the serum zinc,iron,selenium,magnesium and calcium of observation group with severe asphyxia were lower than those with mild asphyxia,and serum copper was higher than those with mild asphyxia; there were significant differences (allP <0.05).Conclusion The serum trace elements of newborns with asphyxia show an abnormal state,and those of newborns with serve asphyxia were more obvious.

  20. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... there is a problem with a baby's body chemistry, it is called a metabolic birth defect. Metabolic ...

  1. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after they're born. We also give a shot of vitamin K. That helps control bleeding. There's ... born. Parents can elect to have their hepatitis shot also given at birth or they can elect ...

  2. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... births can also take a heavy emotional and economic toll on families. 5 American College of Obstetricians ... Dimes. (2012). The March of Dimes Foundation Data Book for Policy Makers: Maternal, Infant, and Child Health ...

  3. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... Actually, data would indicate that those kinds of issues with bladder problems and reproductive tract prolapse can ...

  4. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actually, data would indicate that those kinds of issues with bladder problems and reproductive tract prolapse can ... birth versus a repeat cesarean delivery. There's an issue called placenta accreta, which if you have multiple ...

  5. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... later if you prefer. Now let me turn things over to the obstetrician performing the delivery to ...

  6. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 717-933-9743 Accredited since January 2016 100 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited ... Birthing Center-Cedar Park Accredited 1130 Cottonwood Creek Trail Building D Suite 2 Cedar Park, TX 78613 ...

  7. Emmetropisation following preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, K J; McCulloch, D L; Shepherd, A.J.; Wilkinson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: Even in the absence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), premature birth signals increased risk for abnormal refractive development. The present study examined the relation between clinical risk factors and refractive development among preterm infants without ROP.

  8. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I know that we have a very formal process in our office for patients with a prior ... with a vaginal birth, we have a formalized process where we go through an information sheet that ...

  9. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to be able to schedule the birth. Some women have a preference for a cesarean delivery because ... subject doesn't really come up. But in women with a prior uterine incision that's compatible with ...

  10. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... hour, operating surgeon Dr. Leah Ridgway will perform a caesarean section delivery while Dr. Reagan Wittek will ...

  11. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... to learn more. Just click on the "request information" button on your webcast screen and open the ...

  12. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  13. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after delivery. And that's over here so that mom can hear the baby and the baby will ... So we don't encourage elective first-time moms having a cesarean birth. 00:09:12 LEAH ...

  14. Birth Defects. Matrix No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert L.

    This report discusses the magnitude of the problem of birth defects, outlines advances in the birth defects field in the past decade, and identifies those areas where research is needed for the prevention, treatment, and management of birth defects. The problem of birth defects has consumed a greater portion of our health care resources because of…

  15. Periviable birth: Interim update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  16. #3: Periviable birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  17. Forensic Identification of 50 Cases of Aspiration Asphyxia Death%50例吸入性窒息死亡的法医学鉴定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钧; 石磊; 帅群; 雷普平; 于建云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the forensic identification points of deaths caused by aspiration asphyxia, and provide the help to daily work of forensic identification. Methods We collected 50 cases died of aspiration asphyxia in Judicial Identification of Center Kunming Medical University from 1990 to 2012, and retrospectively analyzed the gender, age, inhalation causes, choking sign, and obstructive site. Results Aspiration asphyxia was the most common in infants and young children, secondly in young adults. Newborn infants always died by amniotic fluid aspiration, babies got aspiration asphyxia based on diseases like pneumonia, encephalitis, and meningitis, and more reasons caused this in young adults. Choking signs were impacted by the factors like inhalation traits, inhaled amount, obstructive site, time of asphyxia process. Conclusion With the reference to the epidemiological characteristics above-mentioned of aspiration asphyxia death, combined with case scene, comprehensive necropsy, and toxicological examination in identification work, can make a scientific and objective appraisal conclusion.%目的 探讨吸入性窒息死亡案例的法医学鉴定要点,为其法医学鉴定工作提供帮助.方法 收集昆明医科大学司法鉴定中心1990年1月至2012年1月间吸入性窒息死亡案例50例,对吸入性窒息死亡案例的性别、年龄、吸入原因、窒息征象、堵塞部位等因素回顾性分析.结果 吸入性窒息常见于婴幼儿,其次是青壮年.新生儿多为羊水吸入,婴幼儿多在肺炎、脑炎、脑膜炎等疾病的基础上引发吸入性窒息,中青年吸入性窒息的发生原因则较多.窒息征象受吸入物性状、数量、堵塞部位、窒息过程的长短等多方面因素影响.结论 参考上述吸入性窒息死亡的流行病学特征,鉴定时结合现场、案情及全面系统的尸体检验、毒化检验,才能作出科学客观的鉴定结论.

  18. Twin births: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivani Anil Wanjari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal, foetal and obstetric parameters surrounding twin pregnancies. An attempt was made to find out the perinatal mortality and morbidity rates of twin births and to determine the underlying factors responsible for the increase in these rates. Methods: A one year observational study was done at Daga hospital Nagpur, which is a referral maternity hospital receiving a large number of antenatal patients daily. Perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, route of delivery, and caesarean section rates were analysed. Results: The commonest presentation in our study vertex/vertex presentation (62%. A large percentage of twins in our study had a normal delivery. 37% women had caesarean section. In our study nearly 17% of the neonates had birth weights <1.5 kg. In 51 % women the first baby had more birth weight than the second twin. Among the 95 twin births (190 twins studied, we had one discordant twins and one conjoined twins. Conclusions: Twin pregnancies are high risk pregnancies with more obstetrical complications compared to singleton pregnancies. Twin pregnancies have higher perinatal mortality and morbidity rates especially before 34 weeks of gestation. Hence deliveries should be performed in referral centres with competent NICUs. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 995-997

  19. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  20. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas. PMID:12291551

  1. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE...... INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  2. Paternal contribution to birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A.; Skjarven, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors.
DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child.
SETTING—The ...

  3. Births: Final Data for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Osterman, Michelle J K; Curtin, Sally C; Matthews, T J

    2015-12-01

    This report presents 2014 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality. Birth and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence and birth rates by age and race of father also are shown. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. PMID:26727629

  4. Recovering from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish ( en español ) Recovering from birth Related information Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet When to call the baby's doctor – ... Get more details on postpartum depression in our Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet . Emerging research suggests that 1 in ...

  5. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  6. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available CESAREAN SECTION SHAWNEE MISSION MEDICAL CENTER MERRIAM, KANSAS March 13, 2008 00:00:09 ANNOUNCER: Tonight you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. Over the next hour, ...

  7. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  8. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Podcasts & Video E-Cards Flu Badge Real Stories Cleft Lip and Palate Craniosynostosis Down Syndrome Eye Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... premature birth, certain birth defects (such as cleft lip, cleft palate, or both ), and infant death. Quitting smoking before ...

  9. MedlinePlus: Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Start Here Birth Control Methods (Department of Health and Human Services, Office ... Male Contraception? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Patient ... Birth control - slow release methods Also in Spanish Birth control ...

  10. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  11. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  12. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet During Pregestational and Gestational Periods Affects Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Levels at Birth and Induces Adiposity and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Bindila, Laura; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosario Noemí; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Ouro, Daniel; Orio, Laura; Suarez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Gómez de Heras, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory, and emotions. PMID:26778987

  13. Exposure to a highly caloric palatable diet during pregestational and gestational periods affects hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid levels at birth and induces adiposity and anxiety-like behaviors in male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Ramírez-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and, although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory and emotions.

  14. Exposure to a Highly Caloric Palatable Diet During Pregestational and Gestational Periods Affects Hypothalamic and Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Levels at Birth and Induces Adiposity and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Bindila, Laura; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosario Noemí; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Ouro, Daniel; Orio, Laura; Suarez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Gómez de Heras, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to unbalanced diets during pre-gestational and gestational periods may result in long-term alterations in metabolism and behavior. The contribution of the endocannabinoid system to these long-term adaptive responses is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the impact of female rat exposure to a hypercaloric-hypoproteic palatable diet during pre-gestational, gestational and lactational periods on the development of male offspring. In addition, the hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoid contents at birth and the behavioral performance in adulthood were investigated. Exposure to a palatable diet resulted in low weight offspring who exhibited low hypothalamic contents of arachidonic acid and the two major endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) at birth. Palmitoylethanolamide, but not oleoylethanolamide, also decreased. Additionally, pups from palatable diet-fed dams displayed lower levels of anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide in the hippocampus. The low-weight male offspring, born from palatable diet exposed mothers, gained less weight during lactation and although they recovered weight during the post-weaning period, they developed abdominal adiposity in adulthood. These animals exhibited anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test and a low preference for a chocolate diet in a food preference test, indicating that maternal exposure to a hypercaloric diet induces long-term behavioral alterations in male offspring. These results suggest that maternal diet alterations in the function of the endogenous cannabinoid system can mediate the observed phenotype of the offspring, since both hypothalamic and hippocampal endocannabinoids regulate feeding, metabolic adaptions to caloric diets, learning, memory, and emotions. PMID:26778987

  15. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ...

  16. Teen Smoking and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    MaryBeth Walker; Erdal Tekin; Sally Wallace

    2007-01-01

    In the U.S. teen mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than non-teen mothers. There is also substantial evidence that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome in both the short and long term for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen age smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques including fixed effects and a matching estimat...

  17. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Modulates Remodeling, Immune Cell Census, and Nerve Fibers in the Cervix of a Mouse Model for Inflammation-induced Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Yellon, Steven M.; Ebner, Charlotte A.; Elovitz, Michal A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether a progestational agent can modify inflammation-induced preterm cervical ripening, mice on day 15 of gestation were given an intrauterine injection of (1) saline, (2) lipopolysaccharide, (3) an intramuscular injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate alone prior to lipopolysaccharide, or (4) medroxyprogesterone acetate alone. Cervices were obtained 6 hours later, then fixed, sectioned, and processed to stain collagen structure or to identify immune cells or nerve fibers. Cer...

  18. Birth Muse: The Birth Story of Eliza Michelle

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Maria J

    2009-01-01

    The author, a birth doula and Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, agreed to attend the birth of a second child to a mother whose military husband was serving overseas. Because labor seemed to be progressing slowly, they waited at a hotel near the birth center. A very quick labor progression led to a rapid birth in the hotel, with the midwife still on her way. The author shares how learning to trust the power of natural childbirth helped her to remain calm and present for the mother for a on...

  19. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  20. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  1. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  2. Roentgenodiagnosis of vertebrae birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested

  3. Left behind by birth month

    OpenAIRE

    Solli, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative from Norway I investigate birth month effects on school performance at age 16, educational achievement at age 19 and 25 and earnings at age 30. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher 10th grade GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are similar across gender, but stronger for less advantaged children. The birth month effects are robust to controlling for sibling fixed effects. On longer term outcome...

  4. Brain birth and personal identity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of brain birth has assumed a position of some significance in discussions on the status of the human embryo and on the point in embryonic development prior to which experimental procedures may be undertaken on human embryos. This paper reviews previous discussions of this concept, which have placed brain birth at various points between 12 days' and 20 weeks' gestation and which have emphasised the symmetry of brain birth and brain death. Major developmental features of brain devel...

  5. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Sharada B. Menasinkai; Mahantappa A. Chiniwar; Saraswathi, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ul...

  6. 集体外伤后儿童心理健康随访研究%Mental Health of Adolescents Suffered from Traumatic Asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵映敏; 陈沛文

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨集体外伤后患儿的心理健康状况。方法:使用症状自评量表(SCL-90)、艾森克个性测量问卷(EPQ)、于外伤窒息后1周、6周、10周、16周、34周对44例外伤性窒息患儿的心理健康状况进行跟踪调查,精神创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)按CCMD-2-R标准进行诊断。结果:全部患儿外伤后均有不同程度的应激反应,1周内有19例患儿、6周时有10例患儿符合PTSD诊断,其中8例患儿于34周后恢复正常。结论:外伤性窒息治疗中应重视对患儿精神状态的观察,对有心理障碍者应及时进行适当处理。%Objective: To explore the effect of traumatic asphyxia on mental health of adolescents. Method: Forty-four adolescents were assessed with Styles Questionnaire (SCL-90), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) after one week, 6 weeks, 10 weeks, 16 weeks and 34 weeks of asphyxia. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was diagnosed according to CCMD-2-R. Results: All 44 adolescents suffered from traumatic asphyxia had some psychiatric symptoms. Nineteen of them fulfilled the symptomatic criterta of DTSD in the first week,10 of them were diagnosed as PTSD at the 6th week,8 of the them returned to normal after 34 weeks. Conclusion: Mental health of adolescents suffered from traumatic asphyxia need our attention.

  7. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  8. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, P. W.; Rasmussen, S A; Lynberg, M. C.; Moore, C A; Anderka, M.; Carmichael, S.L.; Costa, P.; Druschel, C.; Hobbs, C. A.; Romitti, P A; Langlois, P. H.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2001-01-01

    The National Birth Defects Prevention Study was designed to identify infants with major birth defects and evaluate genetic and environmental factors associated with the occurrence of birth defects. The ongoing case-control study covers an annual birth population of 482,000 and includes cases identified from birth defect surveillance registries in eight states. Infants used as controls are randomly selected from birth certificates or birth hospital records. Mothers of case and control infants ...

  9. Asfixia perinatal associada à mortalidade neonatal precoce: estudo populacional dos óbitos evitáveis Asfixia perinatal asociada a la mortalidad neonatal temprana: estudio de población de los óbitos evitables Perinatal asphyxia associated with early neonatal mortality: populational study of avoidable deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Daripa

    2013-03-01

    2003. Perinatal asphyxia was considered if intrauterine hypoxia, birth asphyxia, or meconium aspiration syndrome were written in any line of the original Death Certificate. Epidemiological data were also extracted from the Birth Certificate. RESULTS: During the three years, 1.71 deaths per 1,000 live births were associated with perinatal asphyxia, which corresponded to 22% of the early neonatal deaths. From the 2,873 avoidable deaths, 761 (27% occurred in São Paulo city; 640 (22%, in the metropolitan region of São Paulo city; and 1,472 (51%, in the countryside of the state. In the first two regions, deaths were more frequent in public hospitals, among newborns with gestational age of 36 weeks or less, and among babies weighing less than 2500g. In the countryside, mortality was more frequent in philanthropic hospitals, in term newborns and in neonates weighing over 2500g. Most of these neonates were born during daytime in their hometown and died at the same institution in which they were born within the first 24 hours after delivery. Meconium aspiration syndrome was related to 18% of the deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal asphyxia is a frequent contributor to the avoidable early neonatal death in the state with the highest gross domestic product per capita in Brazil, and it shows the need for specific interventions with regionalized focus during labor and birth care.

  10. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  11. Birth Order: Reconciling Conflicting Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the confluence model as a theory specifying the process by which the intellectual environment modifies intellectual development. Using this model, explores the contradiction between prediction of secular trends in test scores by trends in aggregate birth order and the lack of prediction of individual test scores by birth order using…

  12. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  13. The prognostic value of multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy determined metabolite levels in white and grey matter brain tissue for adverse outcome in term newborns following perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doormaal, Pieter Jan van [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Groningen (Netherlands); Meander Medical Center Amersfoort, Department of Radiology, PO Box 1502, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Meiners, Linda C.; Sijens, Paul E. [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Horst, Hendrik J. ter; Veere, Christa N. van der [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can identify brain metabolic changes in perinatal asphyxia by providing ratios of metabolites, such as choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lact) [Cho/Cr, Lact/NAA, etc.]. The purpose of this study was to quantify the separate white and grey matter metabolites in a slab cranial to the ventricles and relate these to the outcome. A standard 2D-chemical shift imaging protocol was used for measuring a transverse volume of interest located cranial to the ventricles allowing for direct comparison of the metabolites in white and grey matter brain tissue in 24 term asphyxiated newborns aged 3 to 16 days. Cho, NAA and Lact showed significant differences between four subgroups of asphyxiated infants with more and less favourable outcomes. High levels of Cho and Lact in the grey matter differentiated non-survivors from survivors (P = 0.003 and P = 0.017, respectively). In perinatal asphyxia the levels of Cho, NAA and Lact in both white and grey matter brain tissue are affected. The levels of Cho and Lact measured in the grey matter are the most indicative of survival. It is therefore advised to include grey matter brain tissue in the region of interest examined by multivoxel MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  14. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > ... Before Birth Print A A A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a ...

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  16. Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Fletcher, Erin K

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother. Methods A total of 7496 births to 3990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families. Results In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight, and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a with lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA. Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia, and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant. PMID:26515472

  17. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...... associations of prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with subtypes of preterm birth. The crude risks of PPROM and of induced preterm deliveries were higher in obese women (BMI > or = 30) than in normal-weight women (18.5 < or = BMI < 25), especially before 34 completed weeks of gestation, when obese...... women faced twice the risk. In the adjusted analysis, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PPROM and for induced preterm delivery in obese women were 1.5 [1.2, 1.9] and 1.2 [1.0, 1.6] respectively. When obesity-related diseases were accounted for, no excess risk of induced preterm...

  18. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo Leal Maria; da Silva Antônio Augusto; Dias Marcos Augusto; da Gama Silvana Granado; Rattner Daphne; Moreira Maria; Filha Mariza Miranda; Domingues RosaMariaSoaresMadeira; Pereira Ana Paula; Torres Jacqueline; Bittencourt Sonia Duarte; D’orsi Eleonora; Cunha Antonio JLA; Leite Alvaro Jorge; Cavalcante Rejane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods ...

  19. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  20. Birth Order and Vocational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1973-01-01

    Investigated birth order differences and the vocational interests of 150 male college students, making use of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Sibling sex and interaction effects were also investigated. (DP)

  1. Birth and death of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of stars is summarized, giving emphasis to the phenomena related with their formation (birth) and their late stages (death). We also remark the basic physical concepts that regulate stellar evolution

  2. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  3. Efficacy of creatine phosphate sodium on myocardial ischemia in neonatal asphyxia%磷酸肌酸钠治疗新生儿窒息心肌缺血

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳磊

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨磷酸肌酸钠治疗新生儿窒息心肌缺血的疗效。方法选择2013年1月至2014年11月新生儿窒息致心肌缺血的早产儿53例,随机分为实验组27例和对照组26例。对照组给予维生素 C 和三磷酸腺苷的常规治疗,实验组在此基础上加用磷酸肌酸钠。比较两组疗效。结果实验组总有效率为81.5%,对照组为53.8%,实验组总有效率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论磷酸肌酸钠治疗新生儿窒息心肌缺血有效,值得临床应用。%Objective To investigate the efficacy of creatine phosphate sodiym on myocardial ischemia in neonatal asphyxia. Methods From Janyary 2013 to November 2014,53 patients with myocardial ischemia in neonatal asphyxia were selected,and they were randomly divided into control groyp with 26 cases and experimental groyp with 27 caces. The control groyp was given the conventional treatment of vitamin C and adenosine triphosphate,the experimental groyp based on the yse of creatine phos-phate sodiym. The effects of the two groyps were observed. Results The total effective rate of experimental groyp was 81. 5% , while that of control groyp was 53. 8% ,the difference was significant(P < 0. 05). Conclusion Creatine phosphate sodiym has positive effect on neonatal asphyxia with myocardial damage,so it is worthy of application.

  4. Research Summaries for Normal Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Amy M.; Goer, Henci

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the authors summarize four research studies relevant to normal birth. Topics of the studies summarized include the harms of screening for macrosomia late in pregnancy, the risk factors for and impact of postpartum pain in childbearing women, the effects of a breastfeeding approach called “biological nurturing” on reflexive behavior in newborns, and the effects of prenatal yoga on labor and birth outcomes.

  5. Cerebral palsy and multiple births.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P. O.; Cooke, T

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the birthweight specific prevalence of cerebral palsy in singleton and multiple births. METHODS: Registered births of babies with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire during the period 1982 to 1989 were ascertained. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of cerebral palsy was 2.3 per 1000 infant survivors in singletons, 12.6 in twins, and 44.8 in triplets. The prevalence of cerebral palsy rose with decreasing birthweight. The birthweight sp...

  6. Birth in an Ordinary Instant

    OpenAIRE

    De Vries, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Our daily lives are a series of ordinary moments and unnoticed thresholds—times that define us in ways we often do not give much attention. While we consider childbirth to be one of life's extra-ordinary events, the hours of labor and birth need not be dramatic (or traumatic) ones. I describe a quiet, well-supported birth in the Netherlands that is cause for celebration of the beauty of an ordinary instant that can define and enrich the human experience.

  7. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    OpenAIRE

    James, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done.

  8. Turning the Tide for Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2010-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the escalating cesarean surgery rate and the need for evidence-based practice changes that support vaginal birth after cesarean. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth practices.

  9. To Explore the Effects on Birth Outcomes Take Unprotected Perineum Midwives Technical of Natural Birth%探讨在自然分娩过程中采取无保护会阴接生技术对分娩结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建芹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects on birth outcomes take unprotected perineum midwives technical of natural birth and analyze. Methods Selected 102 cases of full-term birth of obstetrics and gynecology from 2013 September to 2014 October in our hospital. Compared the two groups of maternal episiotomy rates and neonatal asphyxiaResults Experimental group maternal and neonatal asphyxia rate of episiotomy rate was signiifcantly lower than the control group, and the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05).Conclusion In natural childbirth, mothers take their unprotected perineum delivery techniques reduce the rate of maternal and neonatal asphyxia episiotomy rate effectively, it possible to the maximum ensure the safety of the mother and child.%目的:探讨在自然分娩过程中采取无保护会阴接生技术对分娩结局的影响,并进行分析,以供参考。方法选取2013年9月~2014年10月我院妇产科收治的足月产妇,共102例作为研究对象。比较2组产妇的会阴侧切率及其新生儿窒息率,并进行分析。结果实验组产妇的会阴侧切率及其新生儿窒息率均要低于对照组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论在自然分娩过程中,对其产妇采取无保护会阴接生技术,可以有效降低产妇的会阴侧切率及其新生儿窒息率,在最大程度上保证了母婴安全。

  10. Postpartum Care Services and Birth Features of The Women Who Gave Birth in Burdur in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15

  11. Water Birth at Home: Two Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Angha, Amanda M.; Scaer, Roberta M.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, a grandmother, with a long history as an author and activist for normal birth, and her daughter, a new mother, offer their unique experiences of a water birth at home, attended by family members and midwives. Their unique perspectives demonstrate the trust in the normal birth process that is possible for every birth.

  12. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where...

  13. Prepregnancy body mass index and risk of preterm birth: association heterogeneity by preterm subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Margaret G; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Pearson, Colleen; Gillman, Matthew W.; Belfort, Mandy B.; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Heffner, Linda; Zuckerman, Barry; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with early vs. late and medically-induced vs. spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) subtypes. Methods: Using data from the Boston Birth Cohort, we examined associations of prepregnancy BMI with 189 early (

  14. Home Birth: The Wave of the Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    A childbirth educator expresses frustration with a medical system that does not work for women or for many maternity care providers. She suggests out-of-hospital birth as an alternative. This column explores the safety of home birth, women's experiences of home birth, and the issues related to home birth once again being the standard. Childbirth educators are encouraged to present home birth as a viable choice.

  15. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers.......Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused the...

  16. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  17. A spatial bivariate probit model for correlated binary data with application to adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Brian; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-04-01

    Motivated by a study examining geographic variation in birth outcomes, we develop a spatial bivariate probit model for the joint analysis of preterm birth and low birth weight. The model uses a hierarchical structure to incorporate individual and areal-level information, as well as spatially dependent random effects for each spatial unit. Because rates of preterm birth and low birth weight are likely to be correlated within geographic regions, we model the spatial random effects via a bivariate conditionally autoregressive prior, which induces regional dependence between the outcomes and provides spatial smoothing and sharing of information across neighboring areas. Under this general framework, one can obtain region-specific joint, conditional, and marginal inferences of interest. We adopt a Bayesian modeling approach and develop a practical Markov chain Monte Carlo computational algorithm that relies primarily on easily sampled Gibbs steps. We illustrate the model using data from the 2007-2008 North Carolina Detailed Birth Record. PMID:22599322

  18. Discussion of the Diversified Nursing Intervention in the Application of Pregnancy-induced Hypertension Disease%多元化护理干预在妊娠高血压疾病中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金莉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨多元化护理干预对妊娠高血压疾病患者的影响,总结其方法。方法将68例妊高症患者随机分为对照组和干预组各34例,对照组给予常规护理,干预组给予多元化护理措施,比较两组产妇的妊娠结局和新生儿情况。结果干预组孕产妇早产、产后出血、胎盘早剥发生率明显低于对照组(P0.05);干预组新生儿体重及Apgar评分显著高于对照组( P0. 05 ) . While the birth weight and Apgar score of intervention group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0. 01), the incidence of fetal distress and neonatal asphyxia of the intervention group was lower than the control group (P<0. 05), and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion By implementing diversified nursing intervention in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension, the pregnancy outcomes can be changed, the incidence of maternal and infant complications can be reduced, and the quality of maternal and child survival rate can be improved, with great clinical application value.

  19. NEONATAL MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy induced Hypertension (PIH is one of the common complications which contributes to significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Effective management improves outcome of both mother and the baby OBJECTIVES: To study the morbidity and mortality in babies born to mothers with pregnancy induced hypertension, assess the reasons for the outcome of the baby and monitor the growth and development till the age of 6 months. METHODS: This study was conducted at Niloufer Institute of Child Health, Hyderabad a teaching institution which caters to high risk obstetric patients and also has a tertiary level NICU care. Study was conducted over a period of 9 months and 100 cases of PIH were included over a period of 3 months and the babies were followed up till the age of 6 months. A structured proforma was designed and analyzed using Epi info for window statistical software. RESULTS: Out of 1461 deliveries, we enrolled 100 PIH cases as per inclusion criteria and studied during 3 months period. Of the study group, 48% were with mild PIH (n=48 and 52% were with severe PIH (n=52. When compared to mild PIH, severe PIH was associated with higher rates of preterm deliveries and it was statistically significant (P 2. In NICU admissions Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS, Hyaline membrane disease (HMD, Birth asphyxia (BA and sepsis were observed. All the complications were more in severe PIH than mild PIH. After discharge infants were fallowed up till the age of 6 months. Out of 75 babies discharged, 24 cases were lost to follow up and in the remaining 51 babies, 33 were born to mild PIH mothers, 18 were born to severe PIH mothers. CONCLUSION: PIH is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the fetus and newborn. The more severe the PIH, the more adverse is the outcome. Our goal is early detection and prompts Management

  20. Ventilatory management in extremely low birth weight infants

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Shaun; Choong, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The improvement in survival in premature infants associated with the evolution of mechanical ventilation has been accompanied by an increase in ventilator induced lung injury. High frequency ventilation has been shown to reduce the incidence of ventilator induced lung injury and hence chronic lung disease in the very low birth weight infant. The evolution in understanding how to best use high frequency ventilation in this population has prompted us to ask whether similar strategies to optimiz...

  1. Birth placement and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; Horwood, J; Shannon, F T

    1981-07-22

    The standards of health and health care for a sample of 1265 Christchurch children during the period birth to three years were examined. There was a systematic tendency for levels of health care and morbidity to vary with the child's birth placement: in general adopted children had the best standard of health care and the lowest rates of morbidity; children who entered single parent families at birth had the poorest standards of health care and the highest rates of morbidity. Statistical control for family social background including maternal age, education, ethnic status, family size and changes of residence tended to reduce the size of the observed differences. However, even when the results were controlled for these factors children in single parent families still has depressed levels of preventive health care and higher rates of hospital admission. Possible explanations of the differences are discussed. PMID:6944632

  2. Team training for safer birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women. PMID:25979351

  3. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F;

    2001-01-01

    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child......-pregnancy. Furthermore, a biological bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been...

  4. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. PMID:23520357

  5. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  6. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  7. The Airway Microbiome at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H.; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  8. Preterm birth and its outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Radhanpuri

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: In our population preterm birth is more common in poor socio economic status, women with anaemia, malnutrition and these factors can be eliminated by proper nutrition and health education by health workers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 153-157

  9. The Airway Microbiome at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  10. Birth Defects and Adolescent Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James

    1975-01-01

    Home economists who work with adolescents can help prepare them for responsible parenthood later in life by explaining the known causes of various birth defects; providing basic information about human genetics, prenatal nutrition, and drug and alcohol effects; and motivating adolescents to exercise increased responsibility in their sexual…

  11. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy during pregnancy, and giving your baby a healthy start in life will help you to have peace of mind. Before pregnancy » During pregnancy » To learn about CDC’s work to help prevent birth defects, visit our Research and Tracking page. Related Links Disability and Health ...

  12. Ultrasound Diagnostics of Premature Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Chekhonatskaya M.L.; Vasilevich L.K.; Petrosyan N.O.; Kolesnikova E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyze the data of native and foreign literature and to consider the modern aspects of ultrasound diagnostics of premature birth, and new additional criteria for early diagnostics and prediction of preterm delivery. Hemodynamic characteristics in the second and third trimesters of the pregnancy have been covered.

  13. Effect of Simo decoction,Clostridium butyricnm powder in treatment of neonatal asphyxia during perinatal period after feeding intolerance%四磨汤与酪酸梭菌活菌散治疗新生儿围生期窒息后喂养不耐受的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓文娟

    2012-01-01

    [目的]观察四磨汤、酪酸梭菌活菌散治疗新生儿围生期窒息后喂养不耐受的情况. [方法]选择本院有围生期窒息后喂养不耐受的新生儿68例为实验对象,并随机分为对照组(n=36)和治疗组(n=32),羊水有胎粪污染者,两组均予洗胃,洗胃后禁食6h才开奶,对照组予枯草杆菌二联活菌颗粒治疗,治疗组予四磨汤、酪酸梭菌活菌散治疗.每天记录呕吐的次数、呕吐量、进食的奶量、大便次数、腹胀消失的日龄、恢复出生体重的日龄等. [结果]实验组呕吐次数减少、呕吐及腹胀消失时间提前、达50 kCal/(kg·d)日龄,恢复出生体重的日龄均提前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]四磨汤、酪酸梭菌活菌散治疗新生儿围生期窒息后喂养不耐受,能促进胃肠功能成熟,提高喂养的耐受性,而且安全.%[Objective] To observe the effect of Simo decoction,the condition of intolerant infants under Clostridium butyricum powder in treatment of neonatal asphyxia during perinatal period after feeding. [Methods] 68 infants selected as cases and were randomly divided into the control group (n=36) and treatment group (n = 32) cases with amniotic fluid meconium pollution in two groups were treated with gastric lav-age,after gastric lavage they could not open the milk until fasting for 6 hours. The control group received the treatment of Combined Bacillus Subtilis and Enterococcus Faecium Granules with Multivitamines,Live,and the treatment group was treated with the Simo decoction,Clostridium bulyricutn powder treatment,daily record of vomiting,amount of milk,stool frequency,abdominal distention disappeared days of age,the days of birth weight,such as age of recovery. [Results] The experimental group reduced frequency of vomiting ,and vomiting, abdominal distension disappeared ahead of time,up to 50 kCal/Ckg·) days in advance, to restore the birth weight of the days in advance,with statistically significant (P<0. 05

  14. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  15. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  16. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between pregnancies > Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth E-mail to ... talk to other women like me who are thinking about pregnancy after having a premature baby? Visit ...

  17. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. PMID:22375565

  18. Quality of newborn care at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, AJ; Marchant, T

    2014-01-01

    Quality of care can be measured by seeing if skilled birth attendants use simple approaches to save lives. Skilled birth attendants range from trained community health workers to nurses, doctors and midwives. Findings from three low-income settings show quality of care for the newborn is low even when a skilled birth attendant is at the mother’s side during birth. Source: 2012 Baseline survey data, the IDEAS project, based at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Funded by the...

  19. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP ) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study wa...

  20. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  1. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  2. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  3. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.; Snyder, Nancy O., Comp.

    Between 1986 and 1991 the teen birth rate rose by nearly one-fourth, although very small declines were evident in 1992 and 1993. This decline was concentrated among older teens; the number of births to adolescents aged 17 and younger continued to rise. The percentage of teen births that occurred outside of marriage rose to 72%. In 1991, the most…

  4. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  5. Brain CT scans and clinical study in very-low-birth-weight infants, including eight cases of cerebellar porencephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-nine brain CT scans taken in very-low-birth-weight infants ( < 1500 g) during the past three years were studied retrospectively. Eighty-nine cases of very-low-birth-weight infants were admitted to our premature nursery during the period from Jan. 1, 1982 to Dec. 31, 1984. We obtained brain CT scans in 59 of them, and studied them retrospectively. a) Normal CT in 25 cases, b) enlargement of the extracerebral space in 17, c) megacisterna magna in four, d) unilateral ventriculomegaly in six, e) hydrocephalus in seven, f) cerebral porencephaly in two, g) brain stem atrophy in seven, and h) low density area in the posterior fossa in eight, were observed. The clinical courses of patients a) to f) above were almost similar to those previously reported. g) brain stem atrophy was found on CT scans in seven cases. Five of them developed infantile spasms later. This suggests that one of the main sites of lesions in infantile spasms is the tegmentum of the brain stem. h) Low density area in the posterior fossa was found on CT in eight cases. Three of them showed cerebellar defective lesions on metrizamide CT or RI cisternography. Four of them showed no defective lesion in the posterior fossa on ultrasonography at the early neonatal stage. These lesions in the posterior fossa are believed to be cerebellar porencephaly, which occurred after birth. Seven cases of cerebellar porencephaly, except for one with SFD, had respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, such as neonatal asphyxia, RDS, PDA, and/or apnea. The cerebral lesions such as intracranial hemorrhage, hydrocephalus and cerebral porencephaly, which had been observed in all cases of cerebellar porencephaly, finally resulted in cerebral palsy, mental retardation and infantile spasms. (J.P.N.)

  6. Modeling The Effects of Mother’s Age at First Birth on Child Health at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Mbu Daniel Tambi

    2014-01-01

    This study models the impact of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth in Cameroon. The objectives are: (1) investigate the implication of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth; (2) examine the impact of mother’s age groups on birth weight, and (3) suggest economic policies to ameliorate the mother’s age – child health relationship. We make used of the control function approach to determine the relationship between mother’s age at first birth and birth...

  7. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth; Ackerson, Kelly; Kane Low, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to maternal and neonatal outcomes of planned home birth, and discuss strengths, limitations, and opportunities regarding planned home birth. PMID:25914559

  8. The partial-birth stratagem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Wisconsin, physicians stopped performing abortions when a Federal District Court Judge refused to issue a temporary restraining order against the state's newly enacted "partial birth" abortion ban that was couched in such vague language it actually covered all abortions. While ostensibly attempting to ban late-term "intact dilation and extraction," the language of the law did not refer to that procedure or to late terms. Instead, it prohibited all abortions in which a physician "partially vaginally delivers a living child, causes the death of the partially delivered child with the intent to kill the child and then completes the delivery of the child." The law also defined "child" as "a human being from the time of fertilization" until birth. It is clear that this abortion ban is unconstitutional under Row v. Wade, and this unconstitutionality is compounded by the fact that the law allowed no exception to protect a woman's health, which is required by Roe for abortion bans after fetal viability. Wisconsin is only one of about 28 states that have enacted similar laws, and only two have restricted the ban to postviability abortions. Many of these laws have been struck down in court, and President Clinton has continued to veto the Federal partial-birth bill. The Wisconsin Judge acknowledged that opponents of the ban will likely prevail when the case is heard, but his action in denying the temporary injunction means that many women in Wisconsin will not receive timely medical care. The partial birth strategy is really only another anti-abortion strategy. PMID:12348556

  9. Births: Final Data for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when it was at its historic peak of 51.8 per 1,000. The percentage of all births ... 45.3 46.0 47.5 49.9 51.8 51.8 50.3 47.2 46.0 44.7 ... 26.3 78.0 102.9 86.3 51.8 23.3 2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,610.5 0.8 ...

  10. Home Births in the United States, 1990-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Home Births in the United States, 1990–2009 Recommend ... Keywords: birth certificates, out-of-hospital birth U.S. home births increased by 29% from 2004 to 2009. ...

  11. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  12. 窒息新生儿脑干诱发电位的检测价值%The Value of Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in Asphyxia Neonatorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲

    2011-01-01

    围生期窒息后可引起听神经通路细胞的缺血/再灌注损伤,从而影响听觉功能.脑干听觉诱发电位可反映脑神经和脑听觉通路不同部位所引起的生物电活动,因其客观、准确、重复性好、无损伤性、受干扰因素少而受到儿科工作者重视.对可能累及到中枢神经系统功能失调及听力障碍的儿科疾病具有早期诊断和判断预后的临床参考价值.%The ischemic reperfusion of injury of nerve cell in auditory pathway can be caued by perinatal asphyxia. And the injury can affect hearing. Brainstem auditory evoked potential can reflect the bioelectric activity of cranial nerves and cerebral auditory pathway. Because it have not only good objectivity, precision and reproducibility , but also it have no damage and few interference factors, brainstem auditory evoked potential was thought highly by pediatrician. It has the clinical reference value of early diagnosis and the judgment of prognosis in pediatrie disease of central dysautonomia and dysacusis.

  13. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way. PMID:24873114

  14. Vicarious Birth Experiences and Childbirth Fear: Does It Matter How Young Canadian Women Learn About Birth?

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In our secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, we explored predictors of childbirth fear for young women (n = 2,676). Young women whose attitudes toward pregnancy and birth were shaped by the media were 1.5 times more likely to report childbirth fear. Three factors that were associated with reduced fear of birth were women’s confidence in reproductive knowledge, witnessing a birth, and learning about pregnancy and birth through friends. Offering age-appropriate birth education during ...

  15. Maternal smoking and birth defects: validity of birth certificate data for effect estimation.

    OpenAIRE

    Honein, M. A.; Paulozzi, L. J.; Watkins, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the validity of birth certificate data for estimating the association between maternal smoking and birth defects. The US standard birth certificate includes check boxes for maternal smoking and for 21 congenital anomalies. The sensitivity and specificity of birth certificate data have been studied, but previous studies have not addressed the validity of these data for estimating the association between birth defects and maternal smoking or other risk f...

  16. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  17. 新生儿窒息后肾损害的阴离子间隙分析%Analysis on Anion Gap of Neonates with Renal Injury after Asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任青; 张兴芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析窒息后肾功能损害新生儿的阴离子间隙(AG)变化及其与肾损害的关系。方法首先测定151例窒息新生儿的血尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Cr)、电解质、动脉血气分析;然后,从中选取肾损害新生儿60例,并同时测定30例正常足月儿的上述指标,计算AG值并分析。结果窒息后肾损害的60例新生儿,代谢性酸中毒发生率为76.7%,且以高AG代酸为主,随窒息程度的加重,BUN、Cr无明显变化。结论窒息后肾功能损害新生儿血AG值可明显异常,需及时处理,BUN、Cr不能早期反映新生儿肾损害。%Objective To analysis the changes of anion gap (AG) and discuss the relationship between AG and renal function of the neonates with renal injury after asphyxia. Methods Firstly, interval index of serum BUN, Cr, electrolytes, artery blood gas analysis was detected in 151 cases of neonatal asphyxia. Then, 60 cases of neonates with renal injury were selected from them and the same interval index of 30 cases of normal term infants was also detected. The AG value was calculated and analyzed. Results In 60 cases of neonates with renal injury after asphyxia, the incidence of metabolic acidosis was 76.7%, especially metabolic acidosis with high AG. With the severity of asphyxia, serum BUN and Cr made no obvious changes. Conclusion AG in neonates with renal injury after asphyxia changed significantly and should be treated promptly, BUN and Cr were not early indicators of neonates with renal injury.

  18. Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Kitchen Fuel on Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam; Anugya Mimansa; Pragati Vishnu Chavan; Alka Dilip Gore

    2013-01-01

    Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH), D...

  19. 极低出生体质量新生儿DIC高危因素分析%HIGH RISK FACTORS OF DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION IN VERY LOW BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵长荣; 姜红; 王启红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyse high risk factors of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in very low birth-weight infants (VLBWIs), so as to offer an early intervention. Methods Clinical data of 78 VLBWIs treated in the neonatal intensive care unit CNICU) between November 2010 and October 2011 were reviewed retrospectively for the incidence of DIC the information of those in DIC and non-DIC groups was analyzed for their perinatal periodi complicationsi and outcome, Logistic regression analysis was employed for the correlated risk factors. Results Twenty-six of the 78 VLBWIs were diagnosed with DIC, 74(94. 9%) survived. The differences between DIC and non-DIC group were significant in terms of gestational agef birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). asphyxia, septicemia, hypothermia, pulmonary hemorrhage, anemia, respiratory failure, and alimentary tract hemorrhage (t=2, 095,3. 100;X2 = 4. 524 - 18. 567,P<0, 05). Logistic regression analysis showed that IUGR, asphyxia., septicemia, hypothermia, pulmonary hemorrhage, anemia, and respiratory failure were the high-risk factors for DIC (X2 =4. 325-17. 175,P<0. 05). Conclusion VLBWI is the high-risk group of DIC, which is associated with gestational age, birth weight, IUGR, asphyxia, septicemia, anemia, pulmonary hemorrhage, anemia, respiratory failure, and alimentary tract hemorrhage in which, IUGR, asphyxia, septicemia, hypothermia, anemia and respiratory failure are risk factors for DIC. For those with younger gestational age and lighter birth weight, more DIC will be involved.%目的 调查分析极低出生体质量新生儿(VLBWI)弥散性血管内凝血(DIC)高危因素,以便早期干预.方法 回顾性分析2010年11月-2011年10月我院NICU住院治疗VLBWI 78例DIC发生情况,分析DIC组与非DIC组基本资料、围生期情况、并发症及治疗方面的差异,并对相关危险因素行Logistic回归分析.结果 78例VLBWI发生DIC 26例,存活74例(94.9%).DIC组与

  20. Birth of a new galaxy

    CERN Multimedia

    Rodgers, L

    2001-01-01

    Scientists using the Hubble telescope have been amazed by the number of stars being created in galaxy NGC 3310. But while some scientists are observing the birth of new stars, others are predicting the end of the universe. According to supersymmetry it is possible that the universe could spontaneously change to a state where the electric force is switched off, resulting in the disintegration of all matter. Called 'vacuum fluctuation', this event is even less likely than winning the lottery jackpot twice in the same day however (1/2 page).

  1. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002), data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01) increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The bin...

  2. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  3. New assessment of the effects of birth order and socioeconomic status on birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowding, V M

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the 20 698 singleton births occurring in one year to women resident in the Greater Dublin area provided information on birth weight, birth order, and social class. Low (less than or equal to 2500 g), suboptimal (less than or equal to 3000 g), and optimal (3001-4499 g) birth weights all showed a linear relation with social class. The incidence of low and suboptimal birth weight was highest in first, fifth, and subsequent births, and conversely optimal weight was commonest in second...

  4. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinski R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Zielinski,1 Kelly Ackerson,2 Lisa Kane Low1,3,4 1School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Bronson School of Nursing, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Women’s Studies Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to

  5. Ergotamine treatment during pregnancy and a higher rate of low birthweight and preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Ács, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subjectPreviously the association between oral ergotamine treatment during pregnancy and gestational age, birthweight, the frequency of preterm birth and low birthweight has not been studied.Ergotamine is a drug that is not used frequently nowadays.What this study addsThe association between low birthweight and/or preterm birth and ergotamine treatment may be connected with ergotamine-induced vasoconstriction in the placenta of pregnant women.The pharmacologic...

  6. Cesarean Birth: A Journey in Historical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago seems like yesterday: a time of immense socioeconomic changes, explosion of an "Internet" computer concept, and identification of human immunodeficiency virus. Like all events of the past, transformations in obstetrics developed over time. Cesarean birth can be better understood in a broader context when one considers how the art of obstetric practice has evolved. Cesarean birth progressed from delivering a fetus perimortem or postmortem to a time of operative births that simultaneously juggle a woman's safety, satisfaction, and freedom of choice concerning birth options. Thirty years of increasing cesarean birth rates have prompted government agencies, national organizations, state-level perinatal collaborative groups, and experts to address these rates and the impact on maternal-child health and healthcare systems. The purpose of this article is to explain cesarean birth's remarkable impact on obstetrics by reviewing key historical periods, current advances, and upcoming trends. PMID:27465462

  7. Urgent global opportunities to prevent birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Oakley, Godfrey P; Brent, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    Birth defects are an urgent global health priority. They affect millions of births worldwide. But their prevalence and impact are largely under-ascertained, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. Fortunately, a large proportion of birth defects can be prevented. This review examines the global prevalence and primary prevention methods for major preventable birth defects: congenital rubella syndrome, folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly, fetal alcohol syndrome, Down syndrome, rhesus hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn; and those associated with maternal diabetes, and maternal exposure to valproic acid or iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Challenges to prevention efforts are reviewed. The aim of this review is to bring to the forefront the urgency of birth defects prevention, surveillance, and prenatal screening and counseling; and to help public health practitioners develop population-based birth defects surveillance and prevention programs, and policy-makers to develop and implement science-based public health policies. PMID:24333206

  8. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink;

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...

  9. FAVORED ZODIAC FOR CELEBRITY BIRTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah M. Adel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To find any favored zodiac sign for celebrity births, a sample of 100 celebrities were randomly selected from people of different walks of life. The sample contained politicians, natural scientists, social scientists, Authors of literary works, social workers, humanitarian workers, business personnel, sports icons, singers, actors, actresses, etc. etc. from history and from the current time. The zodiac signs for the celebrities were found from their known dates of births. In the analysis of data, zodiac signs and the number of celebrities were represented as the independent x and the dependent y variables, respectively. For academic interests for the 9th grade high school juniors (at the time of the project performance, the co-authors of this article, as well as for the potentially illustrative uses in high school mathematics textbooks, bar and scatter plots were made, the line of best-fit and the equation of the line were found, probabilities of occurrences of celebrities for each of the zodiac signs were calculated and the correlation coefficients between the variables were determined for the sample. It was found that the zodiac Aquarius has the largest number of celebrities in the sample and that the two variables are moderately correlated. The sample sizes which were increased to 200 and then 300. By including another 100 more celebrities to find if the trend remains unchanged. In all the three cases, Aquarius turned out to be the zodiac when most of the celebrities are born.

  10. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  11. Vaginal birth after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar B Bangal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.

  12. First birth trends in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Frejka; Jean-Paul Sardon

    2006-01-01

    Levels and trends of various facets concerning first births are continuously changing. The evidence confirms that the postponement of first births is an ongoing and persisting process which started in western countries among cohorts of the 1940s, but only in the 1960s cohorts in Central and Eastern Europe. The mean age of women having first births is universally rising. Fertility of older women was increasing. The decline in childbearing of young women is robust among the cohorts of the late ...

  13. Son Preference and Second Birth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    Preference for bearing sons is a common social custom and cultural tradition in China. In 1979, China installed the stringent one-child policy which firmly controls second and higher order birth, although with a few exceptions which allow couples to have two children. Thus to explore son preference value and its connection with second order birth is of great interest. With birth history data of 2412 women between 18 to 52 years old from 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted ...

  14. Low Birth Weight Causes Survey in Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    F. Eghbalian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Neonatal mortality rate is one of the main health problems which is affected by prenatal status, maternal, fetal and perinatal conditions. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the main causes of neonatal and infantile mortality. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the LBW causes in neonates. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was done on 1500 neonates, born in Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, 2004. Data such as birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, birth inte...

  15. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan, Monique

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of sibship size and birth order on educational attainment, for the United States and the Netherlands. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of sibship size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation with years of education for different family sizes separately; this avoids the problem that estimated ef...

  16. Education, Birth Order, and Family Size

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Jesper; Birchenall, Javier A.; Mansour, Hani; Urzua, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a general framework to analyze the trade-off between education and family size. Our framework incorporates parental preferences for birth order and delivers theoretically consistent birth order and family size effects on children's educational attainment. We develop an empirical strategy to identify these effects. We show that the coefficient on family size in a regression of educational attainment on birth order and family size does not identify the family size effect as defined...

  17. Estimation for general birth-death processes

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Forrest W.; Minin, Vladimir N.; Suchard, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Birth-death processes (BDPs) are continuous-time Markov chains that track the number of “particles” in a system over time. While widely used in population biology, genetics and ecology, statistical inference of the instantaneous particle birth and death rates remains largely limited to restrictive linear BDPs in which per-particle birth and death rates are constant. Researchers often observe the number of particles at discrete times, necessitating data augmentation procedures such as expectat...

  18. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  19. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Bahl Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Jose Martines; Nita Bhandari; Zrinka Biloglav; Karen Edmond; Sharad Iyengar; Michael Kramer; Lawn, Joy E; Manandhar, D.S.; Rintaro Mori; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Sachdev, H.P.S.; Nalini Singhal; Mark Tomlinson; Cesar Victora

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW), as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4.

  20. The current state of birth outcome and birth defect surveillance in northern regions of the world

    OpenAIRE

    Arbour, Laura; Melnikov, Vladimir; McIntosh, Sarah; Olsen, Britta; Osborne, Geraldine; Vaktskjold, Arild

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Little is known about the rates of congenital anomalies in the northernmost regions of the world. As in other parts of the world, it is crucial to assess the relative rates and trends of adverse birth outcomes and birth defects, as indicators of population health and to develop public health strategies for prevention. The aim of this review is to catalogue existing and developing birth outcome and birth defect surveillance within and around the geographic jurisdiction of the Inter...

  1. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A. H.; Shapira, S. K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan); Olshan, A F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation and birth defects in a case–control study of cases comprising over 60 different types of birth defects (n=9998) and non-malformed controls (n=4066) with dates of delivery between 1997 and 2004. Me...

  2. Birth Order and Perceived Birth Order of Chemically Dependent and Academic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Kristie G.; Newlon, Betty J.

    Birth order as it relates to family constellation is one of the principle concepts of Adlerian theory, and has implications for the understanding of chemical addiction. Adler premised that it was the individual's interpretation of his/her birth circumstances that was more important than sequential birth order. This study examined whether…

  3. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  4. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J

    2005-04-19

    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  5. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  6. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby. If you give birth in a teaching hospital, medical students or residents might be present during the birth. ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web ... For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  7. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a...... fast acting effect on fish oil....

  8. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f...

  9. Witnessing a Natural, Safe, and Healthy Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses her experience witnessing a natural, safe, and healthy home birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  10. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partners (Namerow, Kalmuss, & Cushman, 1997). A few birth parents report being overprotective of their subsequent children because they are afraid of repeating the This material may be freely reproduced and distributed. However, when ... Birth Parents https://www.childwelfare.gov experience of separation and ...

  11. Catholics vs. Protestants - Birth and Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July......Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July...

  12. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence. PMID:22581677

  13. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil;

    2016-01-01

    Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied to...... determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function. The...

  14. Respiratory consequences of late preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Katharine C; Lucas, Jane S A

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries most preterm births occur between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Deliveries during this 'late preterm' period are increasing and, since even mild prematurity is now recognised to be associated with adverse health outcomes, this presents healthcare challenges. Respiratory problems associated with late preterm birth include neonatal respiratory distress, severe RSV infection and childhood wheezing. Late preterm birth prematurely interrupts in utero lung development and is associated with maternal and early life factors which adversely affect the developing respiratory system. This review considers 1) mechanisms underlying the association between late preterm birth and impaired respiratory development, 2) respiratory morbidity associated with late preterm birth, particularly long-term outcomes, and 3) interventions which might protect respiratory development by addressing risk factors affecting the late preterm population, including maternal smoking, early life growth restriction and vulnerability to viral infection. PMID:25554628

  15. The piglet&apos;s behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencová V.; Mlyneková L.; Mlynek J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  16. Factors associated with thymic size at birth among low and normal birth-weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of gestational and perinatal exposures on thymic size in 366 normal birth weight and 426 low birth weight (LBW) neonates in Guinea-Bissau in West Africa. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, thymic size was measured at birth by the use of ultrasound. Information......% CI. RESULTS: Determinants of thymic size among normal birth weight infants were pathologic amniotic fluid (adjusted GMR for thymic index: 0.84 [0.74-0.96]) and male sex (GMR: 1.13 [1.06-1.22]). Among LBW infants, birth season (1.11 [1.01-1.22]), maternal body temperature (0.89 [0...

  17. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo;

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of...... age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer...... statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited...

  18. Birth defects in pregestational diabetes: Defect range, glycemic threshold and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Reece, E Albert; Wang, Fang; Yang, Peixin

    2015-04-15

    Currently, 60 million women of reproductive age (18-44 years old) worldwide, and approximately 3 million American women have diabetes mellitus, and it has been estimated that this number will double by 2030. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGD) is a significant public health problem that increases the risk for structural birth defects affecting both maternal and neonatal pregnancy outcome. The most common types of human structural birth defects associated with PGD are congenital heart defects and central nervous system defects. However, diabetes can induce birth defects in any other fetal organ. In general, the rate of birth defects increases linearly with the degree of maternal hyperglycemia, which is the major factor that mediates teratogenicity of PGD. Stringent prenatal care and glycemic control are effective means to reduce birth defects in PGD pregnancies, but cannot reduce the incidence of birth defects to the rate of that is seen in the nondiabetic population. Studies in animal models have revealed that PGD induces oxidative stress, which activates cellular stress signalling leading to dysregulation of gene expression and excess apoptosis in the target organs, including the neural tube and embryonic heart. Activation of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-forkhead transcription factor 3a (FoxO3a)-caspase 8 pathway causes apoptosis in the developing neural tube leading to neural tube defects (NTDs). ASK1 activates the c-Jun-N-Terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), which leads to activation of the unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Deletion of the ASK1 gene, the JNK1 gene, or the JNK2 gene, or inhibition of ER stress by 4-Phenylbutyric acid abrogates diabetes-induced apoptosis and reduces the formation of NTDs. Antioxidants, such as thioredoxin, which inhibits the ASK1-FoxO3a-caspase 8 pathway or ER stress inhibitors, may prevent PGD-induced birth defects. PMID:25897357

  19. Births By Age of Mother, 1960-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is for California live births by age of mother, for years 1960-2013. The live birth counts per age bracket represent the live births to California...

  20. 10 Things You Need to Know about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Features 10 Things You Need To Know About Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... death. Learn more. 1. Did you know that birth defects are common? Fact: Birth defects affect 1 in ...

  1. Preterm and Very Preterm Births by County 2010-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains percent preterm and very preterm live births by maternal county of residence. Preterm births are all lives births less than 37 weeks of...

  2. Pesticide appliers, biocides, and birth defects in rural Minnesota.

    OpenAIRE

    Garry, V F; Schreinemachers, D; Harkins, M E; Griffith, J

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies by our group suggested the possibility that offspring of pesticide appliers might have increased risks of birth anomalies. To evaluate this hypothesis, 935 births to 34,772 state-licensed, private pesticide appliers in Minnesota occurring between 1989 and 1992 were linked to the Minnesota state birth registry containing 210,723 live births in this timeframe. The birth defect rate for all birth anomalies was significantly increased in children born to private appliers. Specific...

  3. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  4. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie;

    2016-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURES: The Danish Calmette Study is a randomized, clinical trial. The study was conducted at three university hospitals and randomized 4262 children of gestational age ≥32weeks to receive BCG within seven days of birth or to a no-intervention control group. Follow-up consisted of clinical......BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) induces a complex, pro-inflammatory immune response. Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation. AIMS: The purpose of the study was to test whether BCG at birth has effects on infant growth and body composition. STUDY DESIGN, SUBJECTS, AND......-up was 94% complete at 3 and 13months after birth. The children were bigger than the WHO reference population. There was no effect of BCG on weight z-score at 13months (-0.028 [95% confidence interval: -0.085 to 0.029], p=0.34). There was no effect on weight and length at 3months, or length, mid...

  5. The Consequences of Chorioamnionitis: Preterm Birth and Effects on Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Galinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity. Chorioamnionitis is a common cause of preterm birth. Clinical chorioamnionitis, characterised by maternal fever, leukocytosis, tachycardia, uterine tenderness, and preterm rupture of membranes, is less common than subclinical/histologic chorioamnionitis, which is asymptomatic and defined by inflammation of the chorion, amnion, and placenta. Chorioamnionitis is often associated with a fetal inflammatory response. The fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS is defined by increased systemic inflammatory cytokine concentrations, funisitis, and fetal vasculitis. Clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that FIRS leads to poor cardiorespiratory, neurological, and renal outcomes. These observations are further supported by experimental studies that have improved our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for these outcomes. This paper outlines clinical and experimental studies that have improved our current understanding of the mechanisms responsible for chorioamnionitis-induced preterm birth and explores the cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying poor cardiorespiratory, neural, retinal, and renal outcomes observed in preterm infants exposed to chorioamnionitis.

  6. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt;

    2009-01-01

    maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with <10 years of education had similarly increased risks of very, and to a lesser extent moderately, preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient...... increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...

  7. Sex Ratio at Birth in Croatia: Update

    OpenAIRE

    PAVIĆ, DARIO

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that the sex ratio at birth is partially determined by environmental and social factors. The modern change in those factors serves as an explanation for the secular decline in sex ratio at birth in most of the industrialized countries. This article is the reexamination of the results from my previous communication in which no trend in sex ratio at birth was established for the Croatian data from 1946 to 2007. The data for the years 2008 to 2011 were added, which didn’...

  8. Alcohol use, conception time, and birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    Predictors of birth weight and birth length were studied using sociodemographic data collected from 2259 women who resided in Funen County, Denmark, and delivered a healthy child during the period 1978-9 at Odense University Hospital. Low birth weight was significantly related to tobacco use in the year of delivery (p less than 0.01), alcohol use during the same period (p less than 0.05), and a delay in conception of over six months (p less than 0.01). Smoking history and a delay in conceptio...

  9. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as

  10. Trends in birth prevalence of cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P O; Cooke, T.; Rosenbloom, I; Cooke, R W

    1987-01-01

    A register of children with cerebral palsy born in the period 1966-77 to mothers resident in the Mersey region was compiled from several different data sources. There were 685 cases, with a male:female ratio of 1.4:1. The birth prevalence of cerebral palsy ranged from 1.18 to 1.97 per 1000 live births each year, with a mean of 1.51 per 1000 live births. There was no discernible trend in overall prevalence, but there was a highly significant upward trend in the prevalence of cerebral palsy amo...

  11. BIRTH ORDER AMONG NORTHERN INDIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Agarwal; Sunil Kumar Garg; Megha Kulshreshtha Mishra; Lalita Chaudhary

    2011-01-01

    Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the ...

  12. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad.Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all children referred to educational organizations for screening before entering school in Mashhad, Iran. 2400 children enrolled in the study and were evaluated for amblyopia, refractive errors, color vision disturbance and optic nerve problems. Data were analyzed by SPSS.Findings: Prevalence of ophthalmic problems in all children was 5.43% and in low birth weight and normal birth weight 8.29% and 5.74% respectively. Incidence of ophthalmic problems was significantly (P=0.029 higher in low birth weight children than in normal birth weight children. The most common ophthalmic disease in both low birth weight and normal birth weight children was refractive errors 81.5% vs. 68.8 % (P< 0.05. Prevalence of myopia, amblyopia and color vision disturbance was also higher in low birth weight than in normal birth weight children.Conclusion:Low birth weight children are at greater risk of the visual impairment that may occur at an early age and result in long term morbidity. Visual outcome of low birth weight neonates should be evaluated routinely.

  13. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Amiri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all children referred to educational organizations for screening before entering school in Mashhad, Iran. 2400 children enrolled in the study and were evaluated for amblyopia, refractive errors, color vision disturbance and optic nerve problems. Data were analyzed by SPSS. Findings: Prevalence of ophthalmic problems in all children was 5.43% and in low birth weight and normal birth weight 8.29% and 5.74% respectively. Incidence of ophthalmic problems was significantly (P=0.029 higher in low birth weight children than in normal birth weight children. The most common ophthalmic disease in both low birth weight and normal birth weight children was refractive errors 81.5% vs. 68.8 % (P<0.05. Prevalence of myopia, amblyopia and color vision disturbance was also higher in low birth weight than in normal birth weight children. Conclusion:Low birth weight children are at greater risk of the visual impairment that may occur at an early age and result in long term morbidity. Visual outcome of low birth weight neonates should be evaluated routinely.

  14. Measurement of the Urinary Lactate/ Creatinine Ratio for Early Diagnosis of the Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ghotbi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is a major cause of permanent neurological disabilities. Perinatal asphyxia may induce neonatal mortality after birth or neurological impairment among survivors. There are no reliable methods for identifying infants at risk for this disorder.Methods:We measured the ratio of lactate/creatinine (L/C in urine by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy within 6 and 24 hours after birth in 50 normal infants and 50 infants with asphyxia who developed hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The study was performed from September 2006 to May 2007. For statistical analysis, the SPSS software was used. Group comparisons were performed with chi-square and t-test(1,5.Findings:L/C ratio was 3.3+ 2 among asphyxiated neonates in the first six hours after birth which was 11 folds greater than in normal neonates (0.3+ 0.08, P=0.0001. This ratio decreased to 1.5�0.55 for asphyxiated cases in the first 24 hours after birth, which was 5 folds greater than in control group (P=0.0001. Asphyxiated neonates were subdivided into Group A with mild asphyxia and L/C ratio 2.5�0.5; Group B with moderate asphyxia and L/C ratio 4.2�1.5; and Group C with severe asphyxia and L/C ratio 3.4�3.3. The severity of asphyxia correlated with the greater L/C ratio among our cases and was significant (P=0.0007. The sensitivity and specificity of L/C ratio in cut off point of 0.48, was 96.1% and 100% respectively.Conclusion:Measurement of the urinary L/C ratio soon after birth maybe a promising tool to identify asphyxiated neonates and also to predict the severity of asphyxia.

  15. Evaluation of the hospital discharge diagnoses index and the birth certificate as sources of information on birth defects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hexter, A C; Harris, J.A.; Roeper, P; Croen, L A; Krueger, P.; Gant, D

    1990-01-01

    The hospital discharge diagnoses index (DI) for newborns and the birth certificate were evaluated as sources of information about birth defects by comparing them with the same births in the case registry of the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBDMP). The CBDMP is an active surveillance system; the staff visit hospitals to identify children with birth defects diagnosed in the first year of life. The study population comprised 66,481 live births to residents of five counties in the...

  16. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... GA, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age......, low birth weight increased the risk of infantile colic in children born at term (gestational weeks 37-41)....

  17. Noncontraceptive Benefits of Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All birth control pills can improve acne and hair growth in the midline that the sugar or placebo ... not be making progesterone, which in the abnormal hair growth. However, when a woman has more prevents the ...

  18. Folic acid and birth defect prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of certain birth defects. These include spina bifida, anencephaly, and some heart defects. Experts recommend women who ... Women who have had a baby with a neural tube defect may need a higher dose of folic acid. ...

  19. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  20. IOC Rescinds Ban on Birth Control Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    A review of the International Olympic Committee's ban and subsequent reinstatement of a certain drug found in birth-control pills points out the need for careful analysis of drugs and their effects before they are banned. (CB)

  1. Maternal Age and Birth Defects in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, Fariba; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Birth defect is a global health problem with more severe consequences in low and middle income countries (LMICs), where it is estimated that more than 94% of severe defects and 95% of affected children\\'s death occur

  2. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects. PMID:27007730

  3. Care Practices That Support Normal Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  4. Birth-death processes on trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider birth-death processes on a tree T and we are interested when it is regular, recurrent and ergodic (strongly, exponentially). By constructing two corresponding birth death processes on Z+, we obtain computable conditions sufficient or necessary for that (in many cases, these two conditions coincide). With the help of these constructions, we give explicit upper and lower bounds for the Dirichlet eigenvalue λ0. At last, some examples are investigated to justify our results.

  5. Are Hispanic Women Happier About Unintended Births?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnett, Caroline Sten

    2012-01-01

    Reducing unintended pregnancies – particularly among Hispanic and Black women, who have relatively high rates – is a key public health goal in the United States. However, descriptive literature has suggested that Hispanic women are happier about these pregnancies compared with White and Black women, which could mean that there is variation across groups in the consequences of the resulting births. The purpose of this study was to examine variations in happiness about unintended births by race...

  6. From Hospital Deliveries to Home Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Woude, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Working in a busy labor/delivery unit gave me insight into the care that my Lamaze childbirth education students would encounter. I was troubled by the number of interventions taking place. The interventions interfered with a woman's ability to work with her labor; some interventions were actually creating problems or even crises. My experiences at this hospital motivated me to become involved with home birth, restoring my belief that birth is a normal process.

  7. Management of the Nuchal Cord at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David JR Hutchon FRCOG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Although nuchal cord is a common occurrence at birth, there is little attention to its importance or management at birth, and teaching includes premature clamping and cutting of the cord as the common option.  Although grade 1 evidence is lacking, the optimal management of the nuchal cord,  the Somersault manoeuvre  is not taught or included in any current guidelines. What evidence there is, presented in this review.

  8. Mental health in women experiencing preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Misund, Aud R; Nerdrum, Per; Diseth, Trond H

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to explore the degree of psychological distress, anxiety, and trauma related stress reactions in mothers who experience preterm birth. Secondarily, we wanted to identify possible predictors of maternal mental health problems. Methods Twenty-nine mothers of 35 premature children born before 33rd week of pregnancy were assessed within two weeks after given birth. The standardized psychometric methods; Impact of Event Scale (IES), General Health Questionnaire ...

  9. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  10. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi′an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Soc...

  11. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Min; Ping, Zhiguang; Zhang, Shuiping; He, Yuying; Dong, Rui; Guo, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi’an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003–2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Social ...

  12. Size at birth and preterm birth in women with lifetime eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micali, N; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eating disorders are associated with lower size at birth, symmetric growth restriction, and preterm birth; and whether pregnancy smoking explains the association between anorexia nervosa and fetal growth. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort study. SETTING......: Maternal anorexia nervosa (both active and past) is associated with lower size at birth and symmetric growth restriction, with evidence of worse outcomes in women with active disorder. Women with anorexia nervosa should be advised about achieving full recovery before conceiving. Similarly, targeting...

  13. Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: longitudinal population based study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Richards; HARDY, R.; Kuh, D.; Wadsworth, M E J

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between birth weight and cognitive function in the normal population.Design A longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study.Participants 3900 males and females born in 1946.Main outcome measures Cognitive function from childhood to middle life (measured at ages 8, 11, 15, 26, and 43 years).Results Birth weight was significantly and positively associated with cognitive ability at age 8 (with an estimated standard deviation score of 0.44 (95%, confidenc...

  14. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Akbar Derakhshan; Farhat Ahmadshah; Rana Amiri; Habiballah Esmaeli

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all chil...

  15. Refractive Status at Birth: Its Relation to Newborn Physical Parameters at Birth and Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Raji Mathew; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Puliyel, Jacob Mammen; Varughese, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Background Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth. Methods All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were e...

  16. The birth memories and recall questionnaire (BirthMARQ): development and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, S.; Crawley, R.; Wilkie, S; Ayers, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childbirth is a challenging and emotive experience that is accompanied by strong positive and/or negative emotions. Memories of birth may be associated with how women cognitively process birth events postpartum and potentially their adaptation to parenthood. Characteristics of memories for birth may also be associated with postnatal psychological wellbeing. This paper reports the development and evaluation of a questionnaire to measure characteristics of memories of childbirth and...

  17. Prenatal Care Demand and its Effects on Birth Outcomes by Birth Defect Status in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Wehby, George L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to identify determinants of prenatal care demand and evaluate the effects of this demand on low birth weight and preterm birth. Delay in initiating prenatal care was modeled as a function of pregnancy risk indicators, enabling factors, and regional characteristics. Conditional maximum likelihood (CML) estimation was used to model self-selection into prenatal care use when estimating its effectiveness. Birth registry data was collected post delivery on infants with and withou...

  18. Building capacity for birth defects surveillance in Africa: Implementation of an intermediate birth defects surveillance workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Alina; Valencia, Diana; Sekkarie, Ahlia; Hillard, Christina L.; Williams, Jennifer; Groisman, Boris; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Bauwens, Lieven; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Each year around the world, it is estimated that 300,000 neonates are born with a neural tube defect. Many countries, however, are still lacking comprehensive birth defects surveillance registries. Comprehensive birth defects surveillance systems can help countries understand the magnitude and distribution of the problem. These systems can also provide information about biological, contextual, social and environmental determinants of birth defects. This information in turn can be used to iden...

  19. Low birth weight and health expenditures from birth to late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hummer, Michael; Lehner, Thomas; Gerald J. Pruckner

    2012-01-01

    Using administrative panel data of health insurants, we estimate the effects of low birth weight on health service utilization among children and young adults between birth and 21 years old. To account for time-invariant heterogeneity of mothers, we use sibling fixed- effects estimation. We find that low birth weight strongly increases subsequent health expenditures and that the effect is particularly pronounced in the first year of life. Starting in compulsory schooling, we observe a shift i...

  20. Staying home to give birth: why women in the United States choose home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Debora; Bennett, Catherine; McFarlin, Barbara; Freeze, Rixa

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 1% of American women give birth at home and face substantial obstacles when they make this choice. This study describes the reasons that women in the United States choose home birth. A qualitative descriptive secondary analysis was conducted in a previously collected dataset obtained via an online survey. The sample consisted of 160 women who were US residents and planned a home birth at least once. Content analysis was used to study the responses from women to one essay question: "Why did you choose home birth?" Women who participated in the study were mostly married (91%) and white (87%). The majority (62%) had a college education. Our analysis revealed 508 separate statements about why these women chose home birth. Responses were coded and categorized into 26 common themes. The most common reasons given for wanting to birth at home were: 1) safety (n = 38); 2) avoidance of unnecessary medical interventions common in hospital births (n = 38); 3) previous negative hospital experience (n = 37); 4) more control (n = 35); and 5) comfortable, familiar environment (n = 30). Another dominant theme was women's trust in the birth process (n = 25). Women equated medical intervention with reduced safety and trusted their bodies' inherent ability to give birth without interference. PMID:19249657

  1. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)

  2. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births

  3. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  4. Obstetric Care Consensus No. 4: Periviable Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  5. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study was conducted by eliciting history from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who w ere treated in Rani Chandra Mani Devi Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. De tailed history was taken from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who were treated in this hospital. History regarding the period of gestation at which the child was born (preterm or full term, any previous history of pre - term delivery or abortions, was obtained from the mothers and the data analyzed . RESULTS: From this study it was observed the proportional association of pre - term births to cerebral palsy is 33 out 99 i.e., about 33.33%, Of these 33 cerebral palsy children highest association being with birth at 28 wks gestation (51 %. This study also shows th at the mothers with a previous history of preterm delivery have 14.4 times higher risk of subsequent pre term delivery; those with previous history of abortions have 5.7 times risk of pre - term delivery than mothers without such history. CONCLUSION: From th is study it was concluded that the pre - term birth plays a major role as a risk factor in the development of cerebral palsy with mothers having previous pre term delivery and previous abortions adding further to this risk.

  6. How Do Women Who Plan Home Birth Prepare for Childbirth?

    OpenAIRE

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    In this column, the findings of a secondary analysis of data from a larger qualitative study of the experience of home birth are discussed. The aim was to describe the ways in which women who plan home birth prepare for their births. The findings provide support for the idea of birth preparation and education occurring throughout pregnancy and describe the ways in which women planning to give birth at home develop confidence, plan for support, and make decisions related to the particulars of ...

  7. Analysis of Birth weight using Singular Value Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarajan, D; Nagarajan, V; Seethalekshmi, V

    2010-01-01

    The researchers have drawn much attention about the birth weight of newborn babies in the last three decades. The birth weight is one of the vital roles in the babys health. So many researchers such as (2),(1) and (4) analyzed the birth weight of babies. The aim of this paper is to analyze the birth weight and some other birth weight related variable, using singular value decomposition and multiple linear regression.

  8. Birth weight for gestational age among Flemish twin population

    OpenAIRE

    Doom, E.C.G.; Delbaere, I.; Martens, G.; Temmerman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop birth weight references for twins. Mean birth weights of individual twins are lower than those of singletons, hence singleton birth weight curves may not be suitable to assess twin birth weights. Study design: Twin birth weight curves were developed according to gestational age, gender, parity and mode of conception. The curves are based on population-based data of 40,494 twins born in Flanders, Belgium between 1987 and 2007. Results: A differen...

  9. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill;

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at bir...

  10. Home birth or short-stay hospital birth in a low risk population in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J.J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands women with low risk pregnancies can choose whether they want to give birth at home or in hospital, under the care of their own primary caregiver. The majority of these women prefer to give birth at home, but over the last few decades an increasing number of low risk women have cho

  11. [Reliability of birth defect data on birth certificates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fernando Antônio Ramos; Llerena Jr, Juan Clinton; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Cunha, Cynthia Braga da; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed the reliability of birth certificate data related to birth defects in Brazil's Live Birth Information System (SINASC). We selected 24 maternity hospitals in the Unified National Health System (SUS) and compared the reports of birth defects from birth certificates with medical records of mothers and live born infants in the city of Rio de Janeiro for the year 2004. After transposing the data to a specific form, the birth defects were coded by types and organ systems and compared to the SINASC data. The most commonly affected organs involved the central nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Agreement was more than 50% for the digestive, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems and chromosomal anomalies. Prevalence-adjusted kappa varied according to 2 or 3-digit ICD-10 analysis, with better results for the musculoskeletal, digestive, and genitourinary systems and congenital anomalies, and worse for the central nervous and cardio-circulatory systems, eye, neck, and ear malformations, and cleft lip and palate. The results were unsatisfactory, suggesting the need for more investments to train the persons responsible for completing birth certificates in maternity hospitals and develop a model for coding birth defects on these documents. PMID:18278291

  12. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Bahl Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW, as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4.

  13. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakovsky, Rita S.; Wang, Huan; Engeseth, Nicki J. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Flaws, Jodi A. [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Helferich, William G. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Pan, Yuan-Xiang, E-mail: yxpan@illinois.edu [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Lezmi, Stéphane, E-mail: slezmi@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100 μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet. - Highlights: • Developmental BPA exposure exacerbates HF-diet induced steatosis in adult males. • Gestational BPA exposure increases hepatic lipid accumulation in neonatal males. • BPA decreases Cpt1a and other hepatic β-oxidation genes in neonatal males. • BPA alters neonatal male Cpt1a

  14. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100 μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet. - Highlights: • Developmental BPA exposure exacerbates HF-diet induced steatosis in adult males. • Gestational BPA exposure increases hepatic lipid accumulation in neonatal males. • BPA decreases Cpt1a and other hepatic β-oxidation genes in neonatal males. • BPA alters neonatal male Cpt1a

  15. Predictive value of qualitative assessment of general movements for adverse outcomes at 24 months of age in infants with asphyxia%全身运动质量评估对窒息新生儿24月龄时不良结局的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楠; 温晓红; 黄金华; 王水云; 祝月娥

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the predictive value of the qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) for adverse outcomes at 24 months of age in full-term infants with asphyxia.MethodsA total of 114 full-term asphyxiated infants, who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between 2009 and 2012 and took part in follow-ups after discharge were included in the study. All of them received the qualitative assessment of GMs within 3 months after birth. The development quotient was determined with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 24 months of age.ResultsThe results of the qualitative assessment of GMs within 3 months after birth showed that among 114 infants, 20 (17.5%) had poor repertoire movements and 7 (6.1%) had cramped-synchronized movements during the writhing movements period; 8 infants (7.0%) had the absence of fidgety movements during the fidgety movements period. The results of development quotient at 24 months of age showed that 7 infants (6.1%) had adverse developmental outcomes:6 cases of cerebral palsy and mental retardation and 1 case of mental retardation. There was a poor consistency between poor repertoire movements during the writhing movements period and the developmental outcomes at 24 months of age (Kappa=-0.019;P>0.05). There was a high consistency between cramped-synchronized movements during the writhing movements period and the developmental outcomes at 24 months of age (Kappa=0.848;P0.05)。痉挛性同步运动与24月龄时患儿发育结局的一致性较高(Kappa=0.848, P<0.05),其对24月龄发育结局的预测效度为98.2%,敏感度为85.7%,特异度为99.1%,阳性预测值为85.7%,阴性预测值为99.1%。不安运动阶段不安运动缺乏与24月龄时患儿发育结局的一致性较高(Kappa=0.786, P<0.05),其对24月龄发育结局的预测效度为97.4%,敏感度为85.7%,特异度为98.1%,阳性预测值为75.0%,阴性预测值为99.1%。结论 GMs评估示痉挛性同步

  16. Compensatory rebound of body movements during sleep, after asphyxia in neonatal rats Resposta compensatória dos movimentos corporais do sono após a asfixia em ratos recém-nascidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Adayr Xavier Suarez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The usefulness of body movements that occur during sleep when assessing perinatal asphyxia and predicting its long-term consequences is contradictory. This study investigated whether neonatal rats manifest these movements in compensatory rebound after asphyxia, and if these alterations play an important role in its pathogenesis. METHODS: Eight neonatal rats (aged 6-48h were implanted with small EMG and EKG electrodes and sleep movements were recorded over a 30-minute control period. Recordings were continued during asphyxia caused by the enclosure of the animal in a polyvinyl sheet for 60 minutes, followed by a 30-minute recovery period. RESULTS: Heart rate was lowered to bradycardic level during asphyxia causing behavioral agitation and increased waking time during the initial phase (30 minutes. Sleep-related movements were also significantly reduced from 12.5 ± 0.5 (median ± SE/2min to 9.0 ± 0.44 in the final half of the period (Anova, pOBJETIVO: A utilidade dos movimentos corporais (MC que ocorrem durante o sono para diagnosticar e predizer as conseqüências, em longo prazo, da asfixia perinatal é contraditório. Este estudo investigou se ratos recém-nascidos (RN manifestam MC em resposta compensatória à asfixia, e se estas alterações podem ter alguma importância na sua patogênese. MÉTODOS: Oito ratos RN (6-48h de vida foram submetidos à implantação de pequenos eletrodos para registros da eletromiografia e eletrocardiografia. Os MC e a freqüência cardíaca (FC foram registrados durante períodos de 30 min: fase controle (F1, fases de asfixia (F2; F3 e fase de recuperação pós-asfixia (F4. A asfixia foi promovida pelo envolvimento completo do animal com uma lâmina de polivinil. RESULTADOS: A FC diminuiu progressivamente durante F2 e F3 até a bradicardia. Em F2 houve grande agitação dos animais e aumento dos períodos de vigília. Em F3 houve redução significante dos MC de 12,5 ± 0,5 (Md ± SE/2min para 9,0

  17. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and birth defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S S; Huang, Y; Wang, C Y; Ren, A G

    2016-06-01

    Birth defects are one of the most common adverse birth outcomes, which create a heavy economic burden to the country, society and family. And they are also one of the biggest problems facing public health today. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of toxic pollutants existing in the environment widely, resulting from incomplete organic matter combustion, and can be taken into the body through various ways including the digestive tract, respiratory tract and so on. Recent researches suggest that the exposure of PAHs may be associated with various birth defects, while the special mechanism isn't very clear. This paper is a review of the relationship between PAHs and birth defects from the aspects of epidemiological data, experimental evidence on animals, which indicates that exposure of PAHs during pregnancy may be associated with birth defects including congenital heart defects, neural tube defects and cleft lip/plate. Furthermore, we explored the possible mechanism, including oxidative stress, oxidative damage and the changes of signal transduction pathway in order to provide some recommendations and suggestions on the future work. PMID:27256742

  18. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah;

    2007-01-01

    maternal conditions. There was no elevation in risk of fatal birth defect if the father was admitted with schizophrenia or any other psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: There are many possible explanations for a higher risk of fatal birth defect with maternal schizophrenia and affective disorder. These......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Risk of fatal birth defect was elevated in relation to history of any maternal admission and also with affective disorders specifically, although the strongest effect found was with maternal schizophrenia. The rate was more than doubled in this group compared to...

  19. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of metabolism in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Hamad Al Bu Ali; Magdy Hassan Balaha; Mohammed Saleh Al Moghannum; Ibrahim Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Background Birth defects and inborn errors of metabolism are related to variable poor perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Our aim was to explore the pattern and prevalence of birth defects and metabolic birth errors in Al-Ahsa Governorate in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods This retrospective case control study was done from April 2006 to 2009. Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control g...

  20. A population-based study of birth defects in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, M K; Ho, J J; Khatijah, N N

    2005-01-01

    Birth defects are one of the leading causes of paediatric disability and mortality in developed and developing countries. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. One of the objectives of this study was to determine the epidemiology of major birth defects in births during the perinatal period in Kinta district, Perak, Malaysia over a 14-month period, using a population-based birth defect register. There were 253 babies with major birth defects in 17,720 births, giving an incidence of 14.3/1000 births, a birth prevalence of 1 in 70. There were 80 babies with multiple birth defects and 173 with isolated birth defects. The exact syndromic diagnosis of the babies with multiple birth defects could not be identified in 18 (22.5%) babies. The main organ systems involved in the isolated birth defects were cardiovascular (13.8%), cleft lip and palate (11.9%), clubfeet (9.1%), central nervous system (CNS) (including neural tube defects) (7.9%), musculoskeletal (5.5%) and gastrointestinal systems (4.7%), and hydrops fetalis (4.3%). The babies with major birth defects were associated with lower birth weights, premature deliveries, higher Caesarean section rates, prolonged hospitalization and increased specialist care. Among the cohort of babies with major birth defects, the mortality rate was 25.2% during the perinatal period. Mothers with affected babies were associated with advanced maternal age, birth defects themselves or their relatives but not in their other offspring, and significantly higher rates of previous abortions. The consanguinity rate of 2.4% was twice that of the control population. It is concluded that a birth defects register is needed to monitor these developments and future interventional trials are needed to reduce birth defects in Malaysia. PMID:16096215

  1. Summer birth and deficit schizophrenia: Cantabria, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Herrera Castanedo, Sara; Vazquez-Barquero, Jose L

    2002-08-01

    An association between deficit schizophrenia and summer birth has previously been reported. The authors attempted to replicate this association in a population-based study of incident cases of psychosis in the autonomous region of Cantabria, in northern Spain. Schizophrenia patients were categorized into deficit (N = 22) and nondeficit (N = 55) groups, and the pattern in the two groups was compared. After accounting for the variance due to disorganization, hallucinations and delusions, and demographic variables, deficit schizophrenia had a significant association with summer birth; this association did not depend on a single definition of summer. For instance, among the deficit patients, 59% were born from May to August, in contrast to 18% of nondeficit patients and 34% of the general population. These results confirm the association between summer birth in the Northern Hemisphere and deficit as opposed to nondeficit schizophrenia. The existence of a different risk factor for the two groups suggests a difference in etiology and pathophysiology. PMID:12193837

  2. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  3. Myelination in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognostic significance of cerebral myelination was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in very low birth weight infants. Myelination was graded in two specified sites, optic radiation and corpus callosum, based on the stages of normal term babies and healthy premature infants. The subjects were 30 preterm infants weighing less than 1,500 gm at birth. MRI was performed at 4 to 7 months (corrected age). The normal myelination stage was seen in 18 cases, while a delayed stage was noticed in 12 cases. In the normal myelination group, only 1 case (6%) had handicaps. In the delayed myelination group, 8 cases (67%) had handicaps. Our results showed that delayed myelination was closely related to a poor prognosis. We believe that MRI would be a very good imaging modality for predicting the outcome of very low birth weight infants, particularly in terms of evaluation of myelination. (author)

  4. Antimicrobials for Preterm Birth Prevention: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Preterm birth (PTB remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n=26 or meta-analysis (n=5 for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth.

  5. Future directions in preterm birth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Joses; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    The problem of preterm birth continues to pose one of the most significant research challenges that we face due to its immense scope and complexity. With evidence that 95% of cases of spontaneous preterm birth are intractable to current interventions, our best hope in resolving this problem may lie in new, innovative ideas. Novel approaches to researching preterm birth are currently underway, building upon our prior discoveries and probing into the unknown on multiple fronts. Here we discuss some of the major focuses of future investigation that provide a promising outlook for discovery, including advanced techniques to evaluate the cervix, new strategies to identify the role of the microbiome, and advances in molecular and epigenetic-based research. PMID:26640166

  6. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in...... the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  7. The Demand for Season of Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Oreffice, S; Clarke, D.; Quintana-Domeque, C

    2016-01-01

    We study the determinants of season of birth of the first child, for White non-Hispanic married women aged 25-45 in the US, using birth certificate and Census data. The prevalence of good season (quarters 2 and 3) is significantly related to mother’s age, education, and smoking status during pregnancy, as well as to receiving WIC food during pregnancy and to pre-pregnancy body mass index. Moreover, those who did not use assisted reproductive technology (ART) present a higher prevalence of good s...

  8. Continuing Education Module The Courage to Birth

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Childbirth educator Kathryn McGrath reflects on fear and courage and comes to see some levels of fear as a normal part of the process of pregnancy and birth and not something to be brushed aside. In this article, originally presented as a keynote address in 2005 at the Lamaze International Annual Conference, McGrath discusses fear during pregnancy and birth and presents ways in which the childbirth educator can acknowledge and accept women’s fears, and help find the courage they need to give ...

  9. Born Toon Soon: Preterm birth matters

    OpenAIRE

    Howson, Christopher P; Mary V Kinney; McDougall, Lori; Joy E Lawn

    2013-01-01

    Urgent action is needed to address preterm birth given that the first country-level estimates show that globally 15 million babies are born too soon and rates are increasing in most countries with reliable time trend data. As the first in a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on the global policy context. Preterm birth is critical for progress on Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG) for child survival by 2015 and beyond, and gives added value to maternal health (MDG 5) inve...

  10. Can Higher Cigarette Taxes Improve Birth Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, William N.; Ringel, Jeanne S

    1997-01-01

    This study uses within-state variation in taxes over the 1989-1992 time period to test whether maternal smoking and birth outcomes are responsive to higher state cigarette taxes. Data on the outcomes of interest are taken from the Natality Detail files, generating a sample of roughly 10.5 million births. The results indicate that smoking participation declines when excise taxes are increased. The elasticity of demand for cigarettes is estimated to be appro- ximately -0.25. In addition, estima...

  11. Intertwining of birth-and-death processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swart, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-14. ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Intertwining of Markov processes * birth and death process * averaged Markov process * first passage time * coupling * eigenvalues Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/swart-intertwining of birth-and-death processes.pdf

  12. Birth Order and BMI in Teenage Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Koziel, S.; Kolodziej, H.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relation of birth order to relative weight and prevalence of obesity in a group of 13–15 years old girls. In 1997, 1458 girls were examined. The height and weight measured by trained staff were recorded. Family size and birth order were obtained by a questionnaire. For the purpose of the present study, 776 and 250 girls coming from two- and three-child full families, respectively, were selected from the total sample on the basis of ...

  13. Pregnancy and birth cohort resources in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley;

    2013-01-01

    During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross-cohort...... collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net....

  14. Epigenome-wide association study on identical twins discordant for birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Christiansen, Lene

    induces persistent epigenetic modification detectable at adult ages, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in peripheral blood of 150 pairs of identical Danish twins discordant for birth weight using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip featuring 485,000 CpG sites across the...... genome. After quality control and data preprocessing using free R package minfi, data were analysed by a mixed effects model including fixed effect variables such as birth weight difference, age and sex of twin pairs; random effect variables such as batch, well, and sample position on the array, etc......Epidemiological evidences have shown that early life exposure to adverse environment, e.g. bad nutrition, and stress during pregnancy of mother which usually resulting in low birth weight, could have long-term health consequences including metabolic disorders, diabetes, hypertension, and even...

  15. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtekar Shyam; Kulkarni Madhav; Sadavarte Vaishali; Ashtekar Ratna

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight b...

  16. Home birth or short-stay hospital birth in a low risk population in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J. J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands women with low risk pregnancies can choose whether they want to give birth at home or in hospital, under the care of their own primary caregiver. The majority of these women prefer to give birth at home, but over the last few decades an increasing number of low risk women have chosen a hospital birth, leaving hospital with their baby shortly after delivery. As both this trend and its effects have not been extensively investigated, a study was designed to examine the determi...

  17. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy...... results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...

  18. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Rafael A; Lin Xi; Campbell Joy M; Moeser Adam J; Odle Jack

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birt...

  19. Birth defects in pregestational diabetes: Defect range,glycemic threshold and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rinat Gabbay-Benziv; E Albert Reece; Fang Wang, Peixin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Currently, 60 million women of reproductive age(18-44 years old) worldwide, and approximately 3million American women have diabetes mellitus, andit has been estimated that this number will doubleby 2030. Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGD) is asignificant public health problem that increases therisk for structural birth defects affecting both maternaland neonatal pregnancy outcome. The most commontypes of human structural birth defects associated withPGD are congenital heart defects and central nervoussystem defects. However, diabetes can induce birthdefects in any other fetal organ. In general, the rateof birth defects increases linearly with the degree ofmaternal hyperglycemia, which is the major factor thatmediates teratogenicity of PGD. Stringent prenatal careand glycemic control are effective means to reducebirth defects in PGD pregnancies, but cannot reducethe incidence of birth defects to the rate of that is seenin the nondiabetic population. Studies in animal modelshave revealed that PGD induces oxidative stress,which activates cellular stress signalling leading todysregulation of gene expression and excess apoptosisin the target organs, including the neural tube andembryonic heart. Activation of the apoptosis signalregulatingkinase 1 (ASK1)-forkhead transcription factor3a (FoxO3a)-caspase 8 pathway causes apoptosis in thedeveloping neural tube leading to neural tube defects(NTDs). ASK1 activates the c-Jun-N-Terminal kinase1/2 (JNK1/2), which leads to activation of the unfoldedprotein response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.Deletion of the ASK1 gene, the JNK1 gene, or the JNK2gene, or inhibition of ER stress by 4-Phenylbutyric acidabrogates diabetes-induced apoptosis and reduces theformation of NTDs. Antioxidants, such as thioredoxin,which inhibits the ASK1-FoxO3a-caspase 8 pathway orER stress inhibitors, may prevent PGD-induced birthdefects. Gabbay-Benziv R et al . Birth defects in pregestational diabetes

  20. Birth, life and death of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows how particle physics allowed, while re-creating the conditions which existed at its birth, to establish a real archeology of the Universe, and how this one is used as a laboratory by physicists to prepare the experiments developed with accelerators

  1. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  2. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting was...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  3. The Birth and Death of a Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M

    2016-01-01

    This letter is meant to be a brief survey of several recent publications providing a simple, sequential explanation of Dark Energy, Inflation and Dark Matter, which leads to a simple picture of the why and the how of the Big Bang, and thence to a possible understanding of the birth and death of a Universe.

  4. Birth injuries to the epiphyseal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A birth injury in the vicinity of a joint might lead to a fracture through the epiphyseal cartilage. The criteria for diagnosing such a fracture at radiography are considered and the continued remodelling of the bone demonstrated. The history of 2 cases with late diagnosis and serious long-term sequelae are described, in order to emphasize the necessity of early radiography. (Auth.)

  5. Characterization of Live Birth with Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Acosta Batista

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the congenital malformations constitute the first cause of infantile death in developed countries, as well as the second cause of death in Cuba, in younger children of an elderly year. Objective: characterizing the live birth newborns with congenital malformations at Marianao municipality during the year 2011. Methods: descriptive, cross-section study of 30- live birth with congenital malformations at Marianao municipality in Havana, during the year 2011. Some of analyzed variables were: sex, affected system, congenital malformation, type of malformation, severity, birth weight, gestational age, prenatal diagnosis, family history of congenital malformation, maternal age, among others. Results: the masculine sex was the more affected, with 18 cases that represented the 60 %. The Polydactyl was the malformation further frequent, with 23.3 %, followed by the pre-aural appendix, with 10 %. The 20 % was born pre-term and only in the 10 % of the cases was obtained a positive result in the tests of prenatal diagnosis. Conclusions: the live birth with MC were characterized to be males with isolated MC and less severe, full term, normopeso, without family history of the aforementioned affection and with a negative prenatal diagnosis. The majority of mothers belonged to 20-35's age group years, they suffered from hypertension and during pregnancy, the principal diseases that they presented were the sepsis and anemia.

  6. Cerebral Palsy Among Term and Postterm Births

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2010-01-01

    The relation of risk of cerebral palsy (CP) with gestational age among term and postterm births was investigated by researchers at the University of Bergen, Norway, and the Epidemiology Branch, NIH, Durham, NC, using Norway’s national health and insurance registries.

  7. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  8. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana;

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...... literature, there are no specific proteomic biomarkers capable of accurately predicting PTB....

  9. Tetracycline resistance genes acquired at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Serrano, Angela M; Contreras, Mónica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2013-06-01

    Newborns acquire their first microbiota at birth. Maternal vaginal or skin bacteria colonize newborns delivered vaginally or by C-section, respectively (Dominguez-Bello et al. 2010 #884). We aimed to determine differences in the presence of four tetracycline (tet) resistance genes, in the microbes of ten newborns and in the mouth and vagina of their mothers, at the time of birth. DNA was amplified by PCR with primers specific for [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)]. Maternal vaginas harbored all four tet resistance genes, but most commonly tet(M) and tet(O) (63 and 38 %, respectively). Genes coding for tet resistance differed by birth mode, with 50 % of vaginally delivered babies had tet(M) and tet(O) and 16 and 13 % of infants born by C-section had tet(O) and tet(W), respectively. Newborns acquire antibiotic resistance genes at birth, and the resistance gene profile varies by mode of delivery. PMID:23483141

  10. Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Discusses background and nature of alcohol-related birth defects. Describes a continuum of impairment to offspring of drinking mothers that is dose-related and produces serious behavioral/learning deficits. The continuum includes young people of normal intelligence who perform below expected levels and find school adjustment difficult. Offers…

  11. Sibship size, birth order, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2005-10-01

    In a sample of 273 American college students who were administered seven personality tests, only death obsession scores were consistently associated with sibship size and birth order (not optimism, pessimism, anxiety, a Taoist orientation, suicidal ideation, or obsessive-compulsive tendencies). PMID:16342569

  12. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  13. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrijheid, M.; Casas, M.; Bergström, A.; Carmichael, A.; Cordier, S.; Eggesbø, M.; Eller, E.; Fantini, M. P.; Fernández, M. F.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Hohmann, C.; Karvonen, A. M.; Keil, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Koppen, G.; Krämer, U.; Kuehni, C. E.; Magnus, P.; Majewska, R.; Andersen, A. M. N.; Patelarou, E.; Petersen, M. S.; Pierik, F. H.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Santos, A. C.; Slama, R.; Šrám, Radim; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Toft, G.; Trnovec, T.; Vandentorren, S.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wright, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2012), s. 29-37. ISSN 0091-6765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : environment pollution * child health * European birth cohorts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2012

  14. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim S; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. PMID:27187434

  15. Adult sensory capacities as a function of birth risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, R E; Coren, S

    1996-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between birth risk factors and sensory capacity in 1245 young adults (mean age = 19.9 years). Nine birth risk factors were included (long labour, breech birth, breathing difficulty, instrument delivery, Caesarian delivery, multiple birth, premature birth, low birth weight, and high-risk birth order) and six sensory capacities were tested (Snellen visual acuity, stereopsis, color discrimination, pure-tone hearing, speech recognition, and sound localization). Mild birth stressors were strongly predictive of reduced visual acuity and stereoscopic discrimination, and mildly predictive for the other sensory measures. The fact that vision was more vulnerable to the effects of birth stress than audition may be due to the slower maturation of the visual system. Of the birth stressors examined, twinning was found to have the largest effect on sensory function, possibly because it often occurs conjointly with other birth stressors such as low birth weight, breech presentation, and breathing difficulty and may involve the use of birthing instruments such as forceps. PMID:8877623

  16. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  18. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  19. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi′an City from 2003 to 2012. NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention, while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  20. Consolidating Birth-Death and Death-Birth Processes in Structured Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Zukewich; Venu Kurella; Michael Doebeli; Christoph Hauert

    2013-01-01

    Network models extend evolutionary game theory to settings with spatial or social structure and have provided key insights on the mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation. However, network models have also proven sensitive to seemingly small details of the model architecture. Here we investigate two popular biologically motivated models of evolution in finite populations: Death-Birth (DB) and Birth-Death (BD) processes. In both cases reproduction is proportional to fitness and death...

  1. Unnatural birth? : medical pain management technology and the naturalness of birth

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how medical pain management technology affects the concept of natural birth.The relationship between medical pain management technology and natural birth is discussed in a structural framework in which medicalization, risk, and identity are acknowledged as important issues within the current childbirth paradigm. The analysis is based on thirteen in-depth interviews with Norwegian midwives and mothers on their perceptions of medical pain management technolo...

  2. Unusual Birth Trauma Involving Face: A Completely Preventable Iatrogenic Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmila, Vijayan; Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun

    2014-01-01

    Birth injuries involving face are easily recognizable, but are often under-reported. Most of these injuries are associated with face presentation. We report an iatrogenic, but potentially preventable facial birth injury sustained by an unborn child in institutional setup.

  3. Fertility Drugs and the Risk of Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fertility drugs and the risk of multiple births Infertility treatments that cause multiple eggs to develop make ... birth, the babies might not get all the nutrition that is carried by the blood from their ...

  4. Increased birth spacing reduces health risks for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article reports results from multivariate cross-country analyses on the effect of birth intervals on mortality and health. A comparison of six demographic and health surveys in 17 countries revealed that short birth spacing increases health risks for children. Furthermore, mothers were noted to have too many births too soon after another, which causes substantial health and survival risks for their children. Babies were likewise predisposed to a low birth size and birth weight, poor nutritional status, infant mortality and under-five mortality. Data from India and Egypt indicated that most birth intervals were too short, about 60% were under 36 months and over 25% were under 24 months. Although mothers claim their desire to have longer birth intervals, programs must be initiated to inform these women of the advantages of increased birth spacing. PMID:12349603

  5. Teen Birth Rate At Record Low in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158550.html Teen Birth Rate at Record Low in U.S. They' ... 2016 THURSDAY, April 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The teen birth rate in the United States has reached ...

  6. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal ...

  7. FastStats: Birth Defects or Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Birth Defects or Congenital Anomalies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Data Set [PDF - 993 KB] Search Tables for Birth Defects in Health Data Interactive Trends in Spina Bifida ...

  8. Study Explores Mechanism Between Zika Virus, Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158048.html Study Explores Mechanism Between Zika Virus, Birth Defects Protein on fetal stem cells provides pathway for ... Zika virus might cause severe brain and eye birth defects. The Zika outbreak in Brazil and other parts ...

  9. Girl with Zika Birth Defect Born At New Jersey Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159145.html Girl With Zika Birth Defect Born at New Jersey Hospital The mother was ... Jersey hospital to a baby girl with the birth defect characteristic of the disease, officials said. The baby ...

  10. Scientists Report Insights into Zika Virus and Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_157604.html Scientists Report Insights Into Zika Virus and Birth Defect The pathogen appears to attack ... 2016 FRIDAY, March 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus may cause the birth defect microcephaly by targeting ...

  11. CDC Reports Six Cases of Birth Defects Caused by Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports Six Cases of Birth Defects Caused by Zika Three babies born with defects, while three pregnancies ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In the first reporting of Zika-related birth defects in the United States, federal ...

  12. Teen Birth Rate At Record Low in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158550.html Teen Birth Rate at Record Low in U.S. They' ... 2016 THURSDAY, April 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The teen birth rate in the United States has reached ...

  13. Training traditional birth attendants to use misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat in home births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Quaiyum, Md Abdul; Passano, Paige; Bell, Suzanne; Bohl, Daniel D; Hossain, Shahed; Azmi, Ashrafi Jahan; Begum, Mohsina

    2012-12-01

    A 50-fold disparity in maternal mortality exists between high- and low-income countries, and in most contexts, the single most common cause of maternal death is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In Bangladesh, as in many other low-income countries, the majority of deliveries are conducted at home by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or family members. In the absence of skilled birth attendants, training TBAs in the use of misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat to measure postpartum blood loss may strengthen the ability of TBAs to manage PPH. These complementary interventions were tested in operations research among 77,337 home births in rural Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBAs' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and changes in attitudes and practices related to PPH management in home births after undergoing training on the use of misoprostol and the blood collection delivery mat. We conclude that the training was highly effective and that the two interventions were safely and correctly used by TBAs at home births. Data on TBA practices indicate adherence to protocol, and 18 months after the interventions were implemented, TBA knowledge retention remained high. This program strengthens the case for community-based use of misoprostol and warrants consideration of this intervention as a potential model for scale-up in settings where complete coverage of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) remains a distant goal. PMID:22921713

  14. Impact of multiple births on late and moderate prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refuerzo, Jerrie S

    2012-06-01

    Multiple gestations have an increased risk of pregnancy complications compared with singletons. Delay in childbearing and assisted reproductive techniques have remained common reasons for the increase in multiple gestations over the last few decades. Higher rates of both spontaneous and indicated preterm birth in twins and triplets lead to a significant proportion of the moderate preterm birth and late preterm birth rates. The article is a review of the causes of preterm birth and morbidities associated with these pregnancies. PMID:22364678

  15. Birth order and a two-dimensional assessment of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, F H

    1975-04-01

    Higher order personality dimensions of extraversion-introversion and neuroticism were studied as functions of birth order in two-sib families, using 141 female subjects, with control over sex of sibling and sib age separation. No significant personality dimension variance was attributable to birth order in females. The results were considered briefly in terms of the importance of birth order, heritability questions, and the possible contribution of birth order to lower order traits. PMID:1151602

  16. The first injustice : Socio-economic inequalities in birth outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Gisselmann, Marit

    2007-01-01

    Adverse birth outcomes like preterm birth and infant mortality are unevenly distributed across socio-economic groups. Risks are usually lowest in groups with high socio-economic status and increase with decreasing status. The general aim of this thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the relation between socio-economic status and birth outcomes, focussing on maternal education and class, studying a range of birth outcomes. More specific aims were to investigate the relation between ...

  17. Birth defects in India: Hidden truth, need for urgent attention

    OpenAIRE

    Rinku Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Birth defects (structural, functional and metabolic disorder present from birth, may be diagnosed later) rising up as an important cause of infant mortality even in developing countries where infant mortality has been reduced to much extent. Seventy percent of birth defects are preventable through the application of various cost effective community genetic services. Indian people are living in the midst of risk factors for birth defects, e.g., universality of marriage, high fertility, larg...

  18. Prenatal Depression and Adverse Birth Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Accortt, EE; Cheadle, ACD; Dunkel Schetter, C

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York Complications related to preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Prenatal depression is a hypothesized psychosocial risk factor for both birth outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine evidence published between 1977 and 2013 on prenatal depression and risks of these primary adverse birth outcomes. A systematic search of the PUBMED and PsycINFO databases was conduc...

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Antibiotic Administration during Pregnancy and Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise;

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors.......Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors....

  20. Institutional and Cultural Perspectives on Home Birth in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Meroz, Michal (Rosie); Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2015-01-01

    This study exposes doctors’ and midwives’ perceptions and misperceptions regarding home birth by examining their views on childbirth in general and on risk associated with home births in particular. It relies on an approach of risk communication and an anthropological framework. In a qualitative-constructive study, 19 in-depth interviews were conducted with hospital doctors, hospital midwives, home-birth midwives, and a home-birth obstetrician. Our findings reveal that hospital midwives and d...

  1. Women in the driving seat: birth centre insights

    OpenAIRE

    Deery, Ruth; Jones, Pat; Phillips, Mari

    2007-01-01

    Birth centres seek to promote physiological childbirth by recognising, respecting and safeguarding normal birth processes.This philosophy enableswomen and their families to experience a positive start to parenthood (Kirkham2003a).Midwives are also able to practise ‘realmidwifery’ (Kirkham2003b: 14). Indeed,when there is no risk tomother or baby, themother should be the personwho decideswhere her birth will take place (DoH2004).Astructured reviewof birth cen...

  2. Pathways of the determinants of unfavourable birth outcomes in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Magadi, Monica; Diamond, Ian; Madise, Nyovani; Smith, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the pathways of the determinants of unfavourable birth outcomes, such as premature birth, the size of the baby at birth, and Caesarean section deliveries in Kenya, using graphical loglinear chain models. The results show that a number of factors which do not have direct associations with unfavourable birth outcomes contribute to these outcomes indirectly through intermediate factors. Marital status, the desirability of a pregnancy, the use of family planning, and access to...

  3. Radiodiagnosis of pelvic birth injuries and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konycheva, E.A.; Loskutova, L.A. (Bashkirskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    A study was made of the changes in the pelvic articulations in women with birth injuries 2-5 years following birth on the basis of the clinicoroentgenological findings. Pathological adhesion of birth injuries of the pelvic bones, that manifested itself in the formation of callus and arthrosis of the public and sacroiliac articulations, was noted. The study confirmed incomplete rehabilitation in this group of women. For prognosis of subsequent parturition roentgenopelvimetry is recommended for women with birth injuries of the pelvic girdle.

  4. Beating Birth Defects (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-17

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.  Created: 1/17/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/17/2013.

  5. Birth Order and the Intrahousehold Allocation of Time and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Pörtner, Claus Christian

    2002-01-01

    A potential determinant of intrahousehold distribution is the birth order of children. While a number of studies have analysed birth order effects in developed countries there are still only a few dealing with developing countries. This paper develops a model of intrahousehold allocation with endogenous fertility, which captures the relation between birth order and investment in children and shows that a birth order effect in intrahousehold allocation can arise even without assumptions about ...

  6. Gestational Age, Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth and Risk for Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuelian; Vestergaard, Mogens; Carsten B Pedersen; Christensen, Jakob; Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the association between gestational age, birth weight, intrauterine growth and epilepsy in a population-based cohort of 1.4 million singletons born in Denmark (1979-2002). A total of 14,334 individuals were registered with epilepsy in the Danish National Hospital Register as inpatients (1979-2002) and outpatients (1995-2002). Information on gestational age and birth weight was obtained from Danish Medical Birth Registry. Children small at birth were identified through tw...

  7. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    OpenAIRE

    van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM; Middeldorp Christel M; Lamb Diane J; Vink Jacqueline M; Haak Monique C; Boomsma Dorret I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the N...

  8. Occupational lifting of heavy loads and preterm birth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Juhl, Mette; Bonde, Jens Peter; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day.......To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day....

  9. The Relationship between Birth Order and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Crystal M.

    This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between birth order and several variables, especially academic achievement. One study found a relationship between leadership skills and birth order for males. Several studies found no relationship between birth order and academic achievement; grade point average; self-esteem; locus of control…

  10. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Lamb; C.M. Middeldorp; C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt; J.M. Vink; M.C. Haak; D.I. Boomsma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on importan

  11. Paternal race/ethnicity and very low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Fulda, Kimberly G; Kurian, Anita K; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Moerbe, Micky M

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose was to examine the association between paternal race/ethnicity and very low birth weight stratified by maternal race/ethnicity. Methods Birth data for Tarrant County, Texas 2006–2010 were analyzed. Very low birth weight was dichotomized as yes (

  12. Dylan's Birth: From His Mother's and Grandmother's Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hotelling, Claire N.; Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    In this column, an adolescent mother demonstrates how preparation, Lamaze education, supportive caregivers, and an inner wisdom about the normalcy of birth enabled her to have a safe and satisfying birth. The grandmother, an experienced Lamaze educator and doula, also tells of her transformational experience as she watched her daughter give birth with strength and wisdom.

  13. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of... child (i.e., bonding time) during the 12-month period beginning on the date of birth. An employee's... daughter or to care for the child after birth, for placement of a son or daughter with the employee...

  14. Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…

  15. Effect of empty uterine space on birth intervals and fetal and placental development in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, J L; Freking, B A; Miles, J R

    2011-05-01

    effect of litter size, average birth weights, and treatment on birth intervals of piglets, which were monitored using 24-h video surveillance. The negative association between number of piglets born alive and average birth interval was confirmed and was not explained by litter size-induced reduction in litter average birth weights. Birth intervals and stillbirth rate did not differ between cervically- and ovarian-treated gilts. These results indicate that conceptus loss on Day 35 of gestation can benefit the growth of adjacent placentas and fetuses, but the benefit is small. Increased average birth weight and the presence of empty uterine space that occurs when litter size is reduced does not fully explain the effect of litter size on birth intervals. PMID:21550736

  16. 血乳酸联合血糖监测在产后新生儿窒息诊断中的应用%Application of the monitoring of blood lactic acid and blood sugar levels in the diagnosis of postpartum neonatal asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗孝华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of the monitoring of blood lactic acid and blood sugar levels in the diagnosis of postpartum neonatal asphyxia. Methods:Eighty newborns with asphyxia in our hospital from February, 2013 to March, 2014 were selected as an observation group and meanwhile 30 cases healthy newborns as a control group. Blood lactate and blood sugar levels in two groups were compared. The relationship between postpartum neonatal asphyxia and both blood lactate and blood sugar levels and risk factors of postpartum neonatal asphyxia were analyzed. Results:Blood lactate and blood sugar levels in the observation group were (5.86±2.18) mmol/L and (5.15±2.26) mmol/L, which were signiifcantly higher than the (2.81±0.49) mmol/L and (2.74±0.62) mmol/L in the control group (P<0.05). The results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that both blood lactate and blood sugar levels were negatively correlated with postpartum neonatal asphyxia (P<0.05). The results of Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that the risk factors resulting in postpartum newborns asphyxia were ascribed to the high levels of blood lactic acid, blood sugar and indirect bilirubin and blood pressure, etc. Conclusion:The levels of both blood lactic acid and blood sugar may be as an important predictors for postpartum neonatal asphyxia, which can be used for the auxiliary diagnosis of postpartum neonatal asphyxia.%目的:探讨血乳酸联合血糖监测在产后新生儿窒息诊断中的应用价值。方法:选取2013年2月-2014年3月在我院出生的80例发生窒息的新生儿为观察组,并选取同期健康新生儿30例作为对照组。统计分析两组血乳酸和血糖水平与新生儿窒息的关系并进行产后新生儿窒息发生的危险因素的多因素分析。结果:观察组血乳酸和血糖水平分别为(5.86±2.18)mmol/L和(5.15±2.26)mmol/L,显著高于对照组的(2.81±0.49)mmol/L和(2.74±0.62)mmol/L,

  17. Follow-up studies of children with birth defects in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, Rolv T.; Rolv Skjærven

    2009-01-01

    In two studies published from data in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we described the survival, tendency to reproduce and subsequent recurrence of birth defects in offspring for children with a range of categories of birth defects. The studies were done separately for girls and boys. The current review summarizes data from these reports and makes some comparisons between boys and girls. More boys than girls are born with birth defects. The survival and tendency to reproduce showed great...

  18. Laterality Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998–2007): Birth Prevalence and Descriptive Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Angela E.; Krikov, Sergey; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Frías, Jaime L.; Belmont, John; Anderka, Marlene; Geva, Tal; Getz, Kelly D; Botto, Lorenzo D.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007. We identified 517 nonsyndromic cases (378 heterotaxy, 73.1%; 139 situs inversus totalis [SIT], 26.9%) resulting in an estimated birth prevalence of 1.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence inte...

  19. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert;

    2013-01-01

    hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N...... of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second......=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite...

  20. Refractive status at birth: its relation to newborn physical parameters at birth and gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Mathew Varghese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth. METHODS: All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were eligible for the study. Refraction was performed within the first week of life. 0.8% tropicamide with 0.5% phenylephrine was used to achieve cycloplegia and paralysis of accommodation. 599 newborn babies participated in the study. Data pertaining to the right eye is utilized for all the analyses except that for anisometropia where the two eyes were compared. Growth parameters were measured soon after birth. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to see the association of refractive status, (mean spherical equivalent (MSE, astigmatism and anisometropia with each of the study variables, namely gestation, length, weight and head circumference. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was carried out to identify the independent predictors for each of the outcome parameters. RESULTS: Simple linear regression showed a significant relation between all 4 study variables and refractive error but in multiple regression only gestational age and weight were related to refractive error. The partial correlation of weight with MSE adjusted for gestation was 0.28 and that of gestation with MSE adjusted for weight was 0.10. Birth weight had a higher correlation to MSE than gestational age. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to look at refractive error against all these growth parameters, in preterm and term babies at birth. It would appear from this study that birth weight rather than gestation should be used as criteria for screening for refractive error

  1. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Moiduddin; Massey, Douglas S.

    2008-01-01

    In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse). We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce ...

  2. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  3. Neonatal skull depression unassociated with birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With few exceptions, a depression of the calvaria in a neonate is caused by birth trauma and often is associated with fracture. Localized depression of the skull without trauma is rare, and such a case is reported here. The cause, complications, and treatment of this condition are briefly discussed. Computed tomography (CT) was useful in clinical management. Although sizable, the depression was not associated with neurologic features and disappeared spontaneously

  4. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight. PMID:26398873

  5. Birth and Early Development of Indian Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kak, Subhash

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the birth and early development of Indian astronomy. Taking account of significant new findings from archaeology and literary analysis, it is shown that early mathematical astronomy arose in India in the second millennium BC. The paper reviews the astronomy of the period of the Vedas, the Brahmanas, and the Vedanga Jyotisha. The origins of Puranic cosmology are also explained.

  6. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Martens Guy; Van Hoorick Katrien; Vandermotte Valerie; Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean sect...

  7. Cohort Profile: Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Fall, Caroline HD

    2014-01-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997-1998, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 w...

  8. Giving Birth No Longer Means Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    GIVING birth to a child was a life-or-death struggle forthe mother and baby as late as the early half of thiscentury;an estimate survey revealed a mortality rate amongmothers as high as 15 per thousand and infant mortality as highas 200 per tnousand at that time.Midwifery was oftenpracticed by the mother-in-law,the mother herself,or morepopularly,by an elderly woman in the village who practiced

  9. Teenagers born at extremely low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, Michael F.; Grunau, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence constitutes a major transition for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) teenagers. Recent studies of ELBW teenagers born in the 1980s have provided information about the growth and developmental characteristics of these individuals in adolescence and in early adulthood. ELBW teenagers are shorter and lighter than their full-term peers, and have a smaller head circumference. Cognitive and academic vulnerabilities documented during the school years, particularly difficulties with nonve...

  10. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho; Diana Barbosa Cunha; Ana Paula Pereira Esteves; Elisa Maria de Aquino Lacerda; Mariza Miranda Theme Filha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by explo...

  11. Documenting the birth of a financial economy

    OpenAIRE

    Suri, Tavneet; Jack, William; Stoker, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to store, send, and receive money on their mobile phone via text message. This system has opened up basic financial services to many who were previously excluded, and has had real and measurable impacts on the ability of households to protect themselves against health risks. Using ...

  12. Taxation and the Birth of Foreign Subsidiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Werner Sinn

    1990-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of tax policy on foreign direct investment with a particular emphasis on immature subsidiaries. Among other things it shows that taxes on repatriations reduce the subsidiary's "birth weight", that lump sum taxes reduce its cost of capital, and that the possibility of deferral increases this cost. The paper rejects the popular weighted average specification of the subsidiary's cost of capital.

  13. Transfer to hospital in planned home births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blix, Ellen; Kumle, Merethe; Kjærgaard, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    planning for home births. Transfer for indication for foetal distress varied from 1.0% to 3.6%, postpartum haemorrhage from 0% to 0.2% and respiratory problems in the infant from 0.3% to 1.4%. The proportion of emergency transfers varied from 0% to 5.4%. CONCLUSION: Future studies should report indications...... for transfer from home to hospital and provide clear definitions of emergency transfers....

  14. Strategic Parenting, Birth Order and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hotz, V. Joseph; Pantano, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by new evidence, there has been renewed interest about the effects of birth order on human capital accumulation. The underlying causal mechanisms for such effects remain unsettled. We consider a model in which parents impose more stringent disciplinary environments in response to their earlier-born children's poor performance in school in order to deter such outcomes for their later-born offspring. We provide robust empirical evidence that school performance of children in the NLSY-C d...

  15. On Variation of Single Birth Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ping Li

    2006-01-01

    Suppose {X(t); t≥0} is a single birth process with birth rate qii+1 (i≥0) and death rate qij (i >j≥ 0). It is proved in this paper that (i) if there exists a constant c ≥ 0 such that b(i) - a(i) + ci is nondecreasing with respect to i and a(i) + u(i) - ci ≥ 0 (i ≥ 0), then VarX(t) - EX(t)≥-X(0)e-2ct, t ≥ 0,or (ii) if there exists a constant c ≥ 0 such that b(i) - a(i) + ci is non-increasing with respect to i and a(i)+u(i) - ci ≤ 0 (i ≥ 0), then VarX(t) - EX(t)≤-X(0)e-2ct, t ≥ 0.Here b(i) = qii+1, a(0) =0, a(i) =i∑j=1qii-j (i≥1), u(0) =u(1) =0 and u(i)=1/2i∑j=2j(j - 1)qii-j (i ≥ 2).This result covers the results for birth-death processes obtained in [7].

  16. Premature birth: An Enigma for the Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infants born preterm are at greater risk than infants born at term for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Complications include acute respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems, as well as longer-term motor, cognitive, visual, hearing, behavioral, social-emotional, health, and growth problems. The birth of a preterm infant can also bring considerable emotional and economic costs to families and have implications for public-sector services, such as health insurance, educational, and other social support systems. The greatest risk of mortality and morbidity is for those infants born at the earliest gestational ages. However, those infants born nearer to term represent the greatest number of infants born preterm and also experience more complications than infants born at term. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality. This paper deals with various issues related to the premature deliveries from socio-biological perspectives.

  17. Observations on birth planning in China, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, F S; Oakley, D

    1978-01-01

    The People's Republic of China has a national family planning program which encourages late marriage, small families, and long birth intervals. The program attempts to make modern contraceptive, sterilization, and abortion services easily accessible. The birth planning program in 2 communes - Wan-Tou and Chang-Ching - is described in detail. In both communes, propaganda teams seek to reeducate the people to the new norms. Nearly 90% of all eligible women are using some form of birth control; in Wan-Tou more than 60% are using IUDs and less than 10% have been sterilized while in Chang-Ching the proportions are reversed. Both communities view family planning as legitimate and place a high priority on it. Traditional views regarding male superiority and the desirability of large families are the main obstacles to the family planning program. Regional variations exist in contraceptive preferences but practice is higher than 90% throughout the country. Municipal records, a sample of which is discussed, are used to monitor progress. The program has succeeded in lowering the birthrate since the early 1960s but more effort will be needed in the future. PMID:639965

  18. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z.; Xuyên Hoàng; Toan Ngo Van

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births) has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 wom...

  19. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR. Methods In a sample of 1230 triplets from 410 families, the effects of assisted reproductive techniques, zygosity, birth order, gestational age, sex, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on birth weight were assessed. The resemblance among triplets for birth weight was estimated as a function of zygosity. Birth weight discordance within families was studied by the pair-wise difference between triplets, expressed as a percentage of the birth weight of the heaviest child. We compare data from triplets registered with the NTR with data from population records, which include live births, stillbirths and children that have deceased within days after birth. Results There was no effect of assisted reproductive techniques on triplet birth weight. At gestational age 24 to 40 weeks triplets gained on average 130 grams per week; boys weighed 110 grams more than girls and triplets of smoking mothers weighted 104 grams less than children of non-smoking mothers. Monozygotic triplets had lower birth weights than di- and trizygotic triplets and birth weight discordance was smaller in monozygotic triplets than in di- and trizygotic triplets. The correlation in birth weight among monozygotic and dizygotic triplets was 0.42 and 0.32, respectively. In nearly two-thirds of the families, the heaviest and the lightest triplet had a birth weight discordance over 15%. The NTR sample is representative for the Dutch triplet

  20. Birth preparedness and place of birth in Tandahimba district, Tanzania: what women prepare for birth, where they go to deliver, and why

    OpenAIRE

    Tancred, Tara; Marchant, Tanya; Hanson, Claudia; Schellenberg, Joanna; Manzi, Fatuma

    2016-01-01

    Background As making preparations for birth and health facility delivery are behaviours linked to positive maternal and newborn health outcomes, we aimed to describe what birth preparations were made, where women delivered, and why. Methods Outcomes were tabulated using data derived from a repeated sample (continuous) quantitative household survey of women aged 13–49 who had given birth in the past year. Insights into why behaviours took place emerged from analysis of in-depth interviews (12)...

  1. Month-of-birth effect on further body size in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kościński, K; Kozłowska-Rajewicz, A; Górecki, M T; Kamyczek, M; Rózycki, M

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies unanimously confirmed the existence of a dependence of human body size on the month of birth. The cause of the phenomenon has not been identified yet, although some possible causes were proposed e.g. seasonal changes of climatic and nutritional conditions. This study explored the issue in an animal model of 20,513 pigs. We found that body weights of 6-month-old pigs were the highest for subjects born in February, but for 2-month-old pigs the peak fell in May. Any statistical correlation between the month of birth and later body weight may be induced by (1) a long-term effect of the month of birth on further growth potential (LTE), or by (2) a short-term effect of seasonal factors differentiating the growth rate (STE), so we developed a mathematical method to separate the effects. The analysis proved that (1) the observed correlations resulted only from the STE, with May-June being the months of the highest growth tempo, and that (2) there was no significant LTE. The short-term effect was responsible for differences between patterns of weight for 2- and 6-month-old animals by the month of birth: since a pig monthly gain of weight increases with age, it is favorable for it to be born in February to attain the greatest weight at the age of 6 months, whereas 2-month-old piglets are heaviest when born a month or two before the May/June optimum for growth. The lack of a long-term effect of the month of birth on pigs' weight supports the hypothesis of the cultural character of factor(s) responsible for the relationship between the month of birth and later body size in humans. PMID:19162263

  2. Onset of autumn shapes the timing of birth in Pyrenean chamois more than onset of spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkgy, Charlotte; Garel, Mathieu; Appolinaire, Joël; Loison, Anne; Toïgo, Carole

    2016-03-01

    In seasonal environments, birth dates are a central component for a species' life history, with potential long-term fitness consequences. Yet our understanding of selective pressures of environmental changes on birth dates is limited in wild mammals due to the difficulty of data collection. In a context of rapid climate change, the question of a possible mismatch between plant phenology and birth phenology also remains unanswered for most species. We assessed whether and how the timing of birth in a mountain mammal (isard, also named Pyrenean chamois, Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) tracked changes in plant growing season, accounting for maternal traits, individual heterogeneity and population density. We not only focused on spring conditions but also assessed to what extent onset of autumn can be a driver of phenological biological events and compared the magnitude of the response to the magnitude of the environmental changes. We relied on a 22-year study based on intensively monitored marked individuals of known age. Births were highly synchronized (80% of kids born within 25 days) and highly repeatable (84%; between-female variation of 9.6 days, within-female variation of 4.2 days). Individual phenotypic plasticity allows females to respond rapidly to interannual changes in plant phenology but did not prevent the existence of a mismatch: a 10-day advance in the autumn or spring plant phenology led to 3.9 and 1.3 days advance in birth dates, respectively. Our findings suggest that plant phenology may act as a cue to induce important stages of the reproductive cycle (e.g. conception and gestation length), subsequently affecting parturition dates, and stressed the importance of focusing on long-term changes during spring for which females may show much lower adaptive potential than during autumn. These results also question the extent to which individual plasticity along with high heterogeneity among individuals will allow species to cope with demographic

  3. Birth length and weight as predictors of breast cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatten Lars J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth size, and particularly birth length, is positively associated with breast cancer risk in adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine whether birth size is associated with survival among breast cancer patients. Methods Information on birth size (weight, length and ponderal index (kg/length (m3 was collected from birth archives for 331 breast cancer patients who were diagnosed at two university hospitals in Norway (Bergen and Trondheim. The patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until death from breast cancer, death from another cause, or to the end of follow-up, and birth size was related to survival, using Cox regression analysis. Results Breast cancer patients with birth length ≥ 52 cm had nearly twice the risk of dying (hazard ratio, 1.92, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.41 from breast cancer compared to women with birth length less than 48 cm, after adjustment for place of birth and year of diagnosis. Similar analyses related to birth weight and ponderal index showed no clear association with breast cancer survival. Conclusions Poorer outcome of breast cancer patients with high birth length may reflect effects of factors that stimulate longitudinal growth and simultaneously increase the risk of metastases and fatal outcome. It is possible that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF system is involved in the underlying mechanisms.

  4. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  5. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  6. PROFILE OF ASPHYXIATED BABIES AT NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN NORTH EASTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananta Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Birth asphyxia is one of the major causes of neonatal mortality as well as morbidity in India, but it studied that the causes which lead to asphyxia are usually preventable. Many metabolic as well as other sequential changes occurs in the body as a result of birth asphyxia which further lead to major long-term sequelae like cerebral palsy, mental retardation and seizure disorder. AIM To identify antepartum, intrapartum and postnatal risk factors for neonatal mortality due to birth asphyxia and to assess the clinico-biochemical status and outcome in the early neonatal period of babies who were asphyxiated at birth. DESIGN Cohort study. SETTING Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital. METHODS After clearance from the Hospital Ethical Committee, all severely asphyxiated babies at birth, admitted to neonatal unit from August 2009 to July 2010 were included in the study. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the role of maternal factors and neonatal presentation of birth asphyxia. Antenatal and intrapartum factors like maternal anaemia, Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, eclampsia, antenatal visits, Meconium Stained Amniotic Fluid (MSAF were recorded. Asphyxiated babies were observed for stages of Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE, reflexes and any end organ involvement. Investigations were done for blood counts, electrolytes, USG, etc. RESULTS Among 150 babies, we found significant association between birth asphyxia and factors like poor antenatal check-up (48%, MSAF (38.7%, maternal anaemia (78%, PIH (20.7%, eclampsia (15.3%, prolonged labour (28%, ante partum foetal distress (14.7%; 24% cases were in HIE stage I, 32% in stage II and 44% in stage III. Multiorgan involvement seen with renal (9.3%, haematological (3.3% abnormalities. During management 54.6% needed inotropes (54.6% for circulatory support, 60% cases needed anticonvulsant and mortality rate was (48%. CONCLUSION There were lots

  7. The BirthPlace collaborative practice model: results from the San Diego Birth Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz; Jackson; Lang; Ecker; Ganiats; Dickinson; Nguyen

    1998-07-01

    Objective: The search for quality, cost-effective health care programs in the United States is now a major focus in the era of health care reform. New programs need to be evaluated as alternatives are developed in the health care system. The BirthPlace program provides comprehensive perinatal services with certified nurse-midwives and obstetricians working together in an integrated collaborative practice serving a primarily low-income population. Low-risk women are delivered by nurse-midwives in a freestanding birth center (The BirthPlace), which is one component of a larger integrated health network. All others are delivered by team obstetricians at the affiliated tertiary hospital. Wellness, preventive measures, early intervention, and family involvement are emphasized. The San Diego Birth Center Study is a 4-year research project funded by the U.S. Federal Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (#R01-HS07161) to evaluate this program. The National Birth Center Study (NEJM, 1989; 321(26): 1801-11) described the advantages and safety of freestanding birth centers. However, a prospective cohort study with a concurrent comparison group of comparable risk had not been conducted on a collaborative practice-freestanding birth center model to address questions of safety, cost, and patient satisfaction.Methods: The specific aims of this study are to compare this collaborative practice model to the traditional model of perinatal health care (physician providers and hospital delivery). A prospective cohort study comparing these two health care models was conducted with a final expected sample size of approximately 2,000 birth center and 1,350 traditional care subjects. Women were recruited from both the birth center and traditional care programs (private physicians offices and hospital based clinics) at the beginning of prenatal care and followed through the end of the perinatal period. Prenatal, intrapartum, postpartum and infant morbidity and mortality are being

  8. Antiretroviral therapy, pregnancy, and birth defects: a discussion on the updated data

    OpenAIRE

    Prestes-Carneiro LE

    2013-01-01

    Luiz Euribel Prestes-Carneiro1–21Immunology Department, University of Oeste Paulista, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAbstract: An increasing number of HIV-infected women of childbearing age are initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) worldwide. This review aims to discuss updated data of the eligible ART regimens and their role in inducing birth defects in utero. Zidovudine and lamivudine plu...

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE: LIVER PROTEOME PROFILE ALTERATIONS IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT PUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Canales, Lorena; Chen, Jing; Kelty, Elizabeth; Musah, Sadiatu; Webb, Cindy; Pisano, M. Michele; Neal, Rachel E.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is composed of over 4000 chemicals many of which are strong oxidizing agents and chemical carcinogens. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) induces mild alterations in liver histology indicative of toxicity though the molecular pathways underlying these alterations remain to be explored. Utilizing a mouse model of ‘active’ developmental CSE (gestational day (GD) 1 through postnatal day (PD) 21; cotinine > 50 ng/mL) characterized by low birth weight offspring, the impact of d...

  10. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background:To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects,incidence,distribution,occurrence regularity,and their relevant factors in Xi'an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures.Methods:The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012.Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input,and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation,New York,NY,USA) was used for descriptive analysis.x2 test,Spearman correlation and linear-by-linear association trend test were used for statistical analyses.Results:The birth defect rate declined from 9.18% in 2003 to 7.00% in 2012 (x2 =45.00 l,P < 0.01) with a mean value of 7.85%,which is below the Chinese national average level (x2 =20.451,P < 0.01).The order of five most common birth defects has changed.The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) increased with time,particularly after 2012,it became the most frequent type (rs =0.808,P < 0.001).Till then,the number of neural tube defects (NTDs) declined significantly (x2 =76.254,P < 0.01).The average birth defects rate of 8.11% in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (7.56%,x2 =7.919,P < 0.01) and much higher in males (8.28%) than that in females (7.18%,x2 =32.397,P < 0.0 1).Maternal age older than 35 years (x2 =35.298,P < 0.01) is the most dangerous age bracket of birth defects than maternal age younger than 20 years (x2 =7.128,P < 0.0l).Conclusions:A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi'an City from 2003 to 2012.NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention,while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  11. Season of birth and handedness in Serbian high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although behavioural dominance of the right hand in humans is likely to be under genetic control, departures from this population norm, i.e. left- or non-right-handedness, are believed to be influenced by environmental factors. Among many such environmental factors including, for example, low birth weight, testosterone level, and maternal age at birth, season of birth has occasionally been investigated. The overall empirical evidence for the season of birth effect is mixed. Methods We have investigated the effect of season of birth in an epidemiologically robust sample of randomly selected young people (n = 977, all born in the same year. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov type statistical test was used to determine season of birth. Results Neither the right-handed nor the non-right-handed groups demonstrated birth asymmetry relative to the normal population birth distribution. There was no between-group difference in the seasonal distribution of birth when comparing the right-handed to the non-right-handed groups. Conclusion The present study failed to provide support for a season of birth effect on atypical lateralisation of handedness in humans.

  12. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers. PMID:26906339

  13. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  14. 人性化护理干预对妊娠高血压综合征患者母婴结局的影响%Humanized nursing Intervention on Pregnancy induced Hypertension Syndrome in Patients with Pregnancy Outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾玫

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the humanistic nursing intervention on pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome in patients with pregnancy outcome.Methods 66 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome were divided into two groups,each of 33 cases,the observation group were given humane nursing intervention,the control group patients were given routine nursing care,compared two groups of patients with blood pressure and maternal and neonatal outcomes.Results The observation group patients blood pressure control is superior to the control group,and premature birth,asphyxia of newborn,cesarean section,postpartum hemorrhage,infection,the incidence of fetal distress were lower than the control group,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05).Conclusion The pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome patients implement humanization nursing intervention,can significantly improve the maternal and neonatal outcomes.%目的 探讨人性化护理干预对妊娠高血压综合征患者母婴结局的影响.方法 将66例妊娠高血压综合征患者完全随机分为两组,各33例,观察组患者给予人性化护理干预,对照组患者给予常规护理,比较两组患者血压情况及母婴结局.结果 观察组患者血压控制情况优于对照组,且胎儿早产、新生儿窒息、剖宫术、产后出血、感染、胎儿窘迫发生率均低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).结论 对妊娠高血压综合征患者实施人性化护理干预,可明显改善母婴结局.

  15. Reenacting the birth of an intron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Aspden, Julie L.; Rio, Donald C.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2011-07-01

    An intron is an extended genomic feature whose function requires multiple constrained positions - donor and acceptor splice sites, a branch point, a polypyrimidine tract and suitable splicing enhancers - that may be distributed over hundreds or thousands of nucleotides. New introns are therefore unlikely to emerge by incremental accumulation of functional sub-elements. Here we demonstrate that a functional intron can be created de novo in a single step by a segmental genomic duplication. This experiment recapitulates in vivo the birth of an intron that arose in the ancestral jawed vertebrate lineage nearly half a billion years ago.

  16. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C;

    2006-01-01

    size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies of...... limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...

  17. The Diversity of Transients from Magnetar Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Brian D.; Margalit, Ben; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

    2015-01-01

    Strongly-magnetized, rapidly-rotating neutron stars are contenders for the central engines of both long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). Models for typical (~minute long) LGRBs invoke magnetars with high dipole magnetic fields (Bd > 1e15 G) and short spin-down times, while models for SLSNe-I invoke neutron stars with weaker fields and longer spin-down times of weeks. Here we identify a transition region in the space of Bd and birth perio...

  18. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.

  19. Multicultural Differences in Women's Expectations of Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marianne F

    2016-01-01

    This review surveyed qualitative and quantitative studies to explore the expectations around birth that are held by women from different cultures. These studies are grouped according to expectations of personal control expectations of support from partner/others/family; expectations of carel behavior from providers such as nurses, doctors, and/or midwives; expectations about the health of the baby; and expectations about pain in childbirth. Discussed are the findings and the role that Western culture in medicine, power and privilege are noted in providing care to these women. PMID:27263233

  20. Breakdown of Benford's Law for Birth Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, M; Ileanu, B

    2014-01-01

    Long birth time series for Romania are investigated from Benford's law point of view, distinguishing between families with a religious (Orthodox and Non-Orthodox) affiliation. The data extend from Jan. 01, 1905 till Dec. 31, 2001, i.e. over 97 years or 35 429 days. The results point to a drastic breakdown of Benford's law. Some interpretation is proposed, based on the statistical aspects due to population sizes, rather than on human thought constraints when the law breakdown is usually expected. Benford's law breakdown clearly points to natural causes.