WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth date

  1. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J

    2005-04-19

    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  2. [Study of dates of birth and death of WANG Tao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen-Min

    2011-03-01

    The dates of birth and death of WANG Tao, a famous doctor in Tang dynasty, are not found in literature and scholars have different points upon this subject. It could be sure that WANG Tao was appointed mayor of Huayuan county in the ninth year of Kaiyuan period (721) and in December of the fourteenth year of Tianbao period (756) he the revolt in Hejian. The recording after 756 could not be found in literature. According to the official system in Tang dynasty that officers retired at their age of 70, it could be sure that WANG Tao was less than 70 year old in 756. Considering his age when he was the county mayor in 721, it could be speculated that WANG Tao was born during the third year of Chuigong period (687) to the second year of Changshou period (693), and his death date should be some date after 756. But it couldn't be validated. PMID:21624275

  3. Year of Birth Determination Using Radiocarbon Dating of Dental Enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A; Spalding, K L

    2009-03-10

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, {sup 14}C levels in the enamel represent {sup 14}C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  4. Year of Birth Determination Using Radiocarbon Dating of Dental Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 (14C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, 14C levels in the enamel represent 14C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  5. Moon phase at the dates of birth and decease of anthroposophic pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, J

    2000-04-01

    Early adherents of Rudolf Steiner, the founder of the anthroposophical movement, tend to be born and to die during the dark half of the lunar month. There is significant correlation (P = 0.03) between the distributions of the lunar elongation at birth and at decease. However, this correlation does not operate at the level of individuals, suggesting that the effects of birth date and death date are statistically independent. PMID:10859659

  6. Dating the time of birth: A radiocarbon calibration curve for human eye-lens crystallines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon bomb-pulse dating has been used to measure the formation age of human eye-lens crystallines. Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye-lens that consist of virtually inert tissue. The experimental data show that the radiocarbon ages to a large extent reflect the time of birth, in accordance with expectations. Moreover, it has been possible to develop an age model for the formation of the eye-lens crystallines. From this model a radiocarbon calibration curve for lens crystallines has been calculated. As a consequence, the time of birth of humans can be determined with an accuracy of a few years by radiocarbon dating.

  7. Dating the time of birth: A radiocarbon calibration curve for human eye-lens crystallines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heinemeier, Jan; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2010-01-01

    Radiocarbon bomb-pulse dating has been used to measure the formation age of human eye-lens crystallines. Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye-lens that consist of virtually inert tissue. The experimental data show that the radiocarbon ages to a large extent reflect the time of birth...

  8. Mismatch between birth date and vegetation phenology slows the demography of roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriane Plard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition.

  9. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution before conception date and likelihood of giving birth to girls in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liang, Zhijiang; Liu, Tao; Di, Qian; Qian, Zhengmin; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Ma, Wenjun; Zhao, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    A few studies have linked ambient air pollution with sex ratio at birth. Most of these studies examined the long-term effects using spatial or temporal comparison approaches. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exposure to air pollution before conception date could affect the likelihood of the offspring being male or female. We used the information collected in a major maternal hospital in Guangzhou, China. The parental exposure to air pollution was assessed using the air pollution concentration before the conception date. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between air pollution exposure and birth sex with adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as maternal age, parental education levels, long-term trend, season, and weather condition (mean temperature and relative humidity). The analysis revealed that higher air pollution was associated with higher probability of female newborns, with the effective exposure around one week prior to conception date. In the one-pollutant models, PM10, SO2 and NO2 had significant effects. For example, the excess risk was 0.61% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.36%, 0.86%) for a 10 ug/m3 increase in lag 2 day's PM10, 0.42% (95% CI: 0.21%, 0.64%) for lag 3 day's SO2 and 0.97% (95% CI: 0.44%, 1.50%) for lag 3 day's NO2; and in two-pollutant models, PM10 remained statistically significant. These results suggest that parental exposure to ambient air pollution a few days prior to conception might be a contributing factor to higher probability of giving birth to female offspring in Guangzhou.

  10. When you are born matters: The impact of date of birth on educational outcomes in England

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Claire; Dearden, Lorraine; Meghir, Costas

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of month of birth on national achievement test scores in England whilst children are in school, and on subsequent further and higher education participation. Using geographical variation in school admissions policies, we are able to split this difference into an age of starting school or length of schooling effect, and an age of sitting the test effect. We find that the month in which you are born matters for test scores at ages 7, 11, 14 and 16, with younger ch...

  11. On Date of Birth of TAO Xingzhi%陶行知先生之诞辰考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏德清

    2011-01-01

    After TAO Xingzhi's death, his date of birth has become a controversy. The paper holds that the date of his birth is on May 11, 1892 after a survey on documents covering his diploma, time of his taking a teaching position, address list of graduates of Nanjing Xiaozhuang University, board of directors of Nanjing Xiaozhuang University, and his relatives.%陶行知生辰问题,陶行知在世时无异议;陶行知去世后,众说纷纭,莫哀一时。本文从学历证明、回国任教证明、南京晓庄毕业同学通信录证明及晓庄学院校董履历证明、亲属证明等八个方面进行了考证,考证结论是陶行知生于1892年11月5日。

  12. Healing patterns of clavicular birth injuries as a guide to fracture dating in cases of possible infant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dating fractures is critical in cases of suspected infant abuse. There are little scientific data to guide radiologists, and dating is generally based on personal experience and conventional wisdom. Since birth-related clavicular fractures are not immobilized and their age is known, we propose that an assessment of these injuries may serve as a guide for dating inflicted fractures in young infants, acknowledging that patterns observed in the clavicle may not be entirely generalizable to other bones injured in the setting of abuse. One hundred thirty-one radiographs of presumed birth-related clavicular fractures in infants between 0 and 3 months of age were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists with 30 and 15 years' experience. Readers were asked to evaluate images based on several parameters of fracture healing, with a focus on subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF) and callus formation. SPNBF and callus were each evaluated with regard to presence, thickness and character. Responses were correlated with known fracture ages. SPNBF was rarely seen in fractures less than 7 days old and was most often present by 10 days. Callus formation was rarely seen in fractures less than 9 days old and was most often present by 15 days. SPNBF thickness increased with fracture age and the character of SPNBF evolved from single-layered to solid/multilayered. Callus thickness decreased with fracture age and callus matrix evolved from soft to intermediate to hard in character. There is an evolution in clavicular fracture healing in young infants that follows a predictable pattern. These findings afford the prospect that predictable patterns of infant clavicular fracture healing can provide an evidence base that may be applicable in cases of suspected infant abuse. (orig.)

  13. Healing patterns of clavicular birth injuries as a guide to fracture dating in cases of possible infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Michele M.; Forbes, Peter W.; Buonomo, Carlo; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Dating fractures is critical in cases of suspected infant abuse. There are little scientific data to guide radiologists, and dating is generally based on personal experience and conventional wisdom. Since birth-related clavicular fractures are not immobilized and their age is known, we propose that an assessment of these injuries may serve as a guide for dating inflicted fractures in young infants, acknowledging that patterns observed in the clavicle may not be entirely generalizable to other bones injured in the setting of abuse. One hundred thirty-one radiographs of presumed birth-related clavicular fractures in infants between 0 and 3 months of age were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists with 30 and 15 years' experience. Readers were asked to evaluate images based on several parameters of fracture healing, with a focus on subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF) and callus formation. SPNBF and callus were each evaluated with regard to presence, thickness and character. Responses were correlated with known fracture ages. SPNBF was rarely seen in fractures less than 7 days old and was most often present by 10 days. Callus formation was rarely seen in fractures less than 9 days old and was most often present by 15 days. SPNBF thickness increased with fracture age and the character of SPNBF evolved from single-layered to solid/multilayered. Callus thickness decreased with fracture age and callus matrix evolved from soft to intermediate to hard in character. There is an evolution in clavicular fracture healing in young infants that follows a predictable pattern. These findings afford the prospect that predictable patterns of infant clavicular fracture healing can provide an evidence base that may be applicable in cases of suspected infant abuse. (orig.)

  14. [Influence of tobacco smoking on newborn's birth weight--analisys of dates concerning births from Maternity Hospital named. Dr S. Mossor's in Opole City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzikowski, Wojciech; Pirogowicz, Iwona

    2008-01-01

    Despite wide education, tobacco smoking while being pregnant is very important issue in perinatology. It is important problem because of life style of polish society, including pregnant women. Clinical observation of this issue is pointing on risk of occurring pathology in pregnancy, unfavorable consequences for neonate also many distant pathological effects among children. Purpose of this was getting an answer for question: whether in current social and economic situation there is connection between low birth mass and smoking tobacco during pregnancy. Under analysis were found births between 38th and 40th one hundred successive births (according to book of birth-room from 2860 labors in hospital in Opol, 2007) of mothers are smoking up to 10 cigarettes a day (group I), mothers smoking 11-20 cigarettes a day (group II) and mothers that are not smoking. This works affirms that smoking has negative influence on child birth mass. It is also displayed that higher the number of smoked cigarettes the higher percent of newborns with low birth mass and higher number o fetus with intrauterine growth retardation. Among mothers that are smoking the biggest group were young women (mean. 24, years) and multipara female (58%). PMID:19189515

  15. Hydroxyurea-mediated neuroblast ablation establishes birth dates of secondary lineages and addresses neuronal interactions in the developing Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovick, Jennifer K; Hartenstein, Volker

    2015-06-01

    The Drosophila brain is comprised of neurons formed by approximately 100 lineages, each of which is derived from a stereotyped, asymmetrically dividing neuroblast. Lineages serve as structural and developmental units of Drosophila brain anatomy and reconstruction of lineage projection patterns represents a suitable map of Drosophila brain circuitry at the level of neuron populations ("macro-circuitry"). Two phases of neuroblast proliferation, the first in the embryo and the second during the larval phase (following a period of mitotic quiescence), produce primary and secondary lineages, respectively. Using temporally controlled pulses of hydroxyurea (HU) to ablate neuroblasts and their corresponding secondary lineages during the larval phase, we analyzed the effect on development of primary and secondary lineages in the late larval and adult brain. Our findings indicate that timing of neuroblast re-activation is highly stereotyped, allowing us to establish "birth dates" for all secondary lineages. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that, whereas the trajectory and projection pattern of primary and secondary lineages is established in a largely independent manner, the final branching pattern of secondary neurons is dependent upon the presence of appropriate neuronal targets. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the degree of neuronal plasticity during Drosophila brain development. PMID:25773365

  16. A novel analytical method, Birth Date Selection Mapping, detects response of the Angus (Bos taurus genome to selection on complex traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker Jared E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several methods have recently been developed to identify regions of the genome that have been exposed to strong selection. However, recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that polygenic models are required to identify the genomic regions that are more moderately responding to ongoing selection on complex traits. We examine the effects of multi-trait selection on the genome of a population of US registered Angus beef cattle born over a 50-year period representing approximately 10 generations of selection. We present results from the application of a quantitative genetic model, called Birth Date Selection Mapping, to identify signatures of recent ongoing selection. Results We show that US Angus cattle have been systematically selected to alter their mean additive genetic merit for most of the 16 production traits routinely recorded by breeders. Using Birth Date Selection Mapping, we estimate the time-dependency of allele frequency for 44,817 SNP loci using genomic best linear unbiased prediction, generalized least squares, and BayesCπ analyses. Finally, we reconstruct the primary phenotypes that have historically been exposed to selection from a genome-wide analysis of the 16 production traits and gene ontology enrichment analysis. Conclusions We demonstrate that Birth Date Selection Mapping utilizing mixed models corrects for time-dependent pedigree sampling effects that lead to spurious SNP associations and reveals genomic signatures of ongoing selection on complex traits. Because multiple traits have historically been selected in concert and most quantitative trait loci have small effects, selection has incrementally altered allele frequencies throughout the genome. Two quantitative trait loci of large effect were not the most strongly selected of the loci due to their antagonistic pleiotropic effects on strongly selected phenotypes. Birth Date Selection Mapping may readily be extended to temporally-stratified human

  17. The Analysis of Shi Jianwu's Birth-and-death Dates%(唐)施肩吾生卒年限推断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹飘飘

    2012-01-01

    本文从施肩吾的诗文作品着手,找寻能够显示施肩吾年龄或生存年代的线索,从施肩吾曾下第的经历,以及诗句"年来如抛梭,不老应不得"中折射出的沧桑感,判断出施肩吾进士及第时已人到中年,由此推出他可能出生于唐德宗建中-贞元年间。又据施肩吾的《述灵响词序》和《西山集》序言提供的两个时间线索,推出唐文宗开成六年施肩吾仍然在世。而且,施肩吾的《与徐凝书》和《喜友再相逢》,也证实了他的迟暮。最后结合《吴兴备志》和《施氏宗谱》的说法,综合考量,暂定施肩吾的生卒年限为唐德宗建中元年(780)——唐懿宗咸通二年(861)之间。%The thesis tries to find out some clues about Shi Jianwu's birth-and-death dates from his literature.Firstly,according to the experience that Shi Jianwu once failed in the examination getting the qualification to be an official,as well as his poem "Time flies,only if be old can get the qualification" which reflected a sense of vicissitudes,it could tell that Shi Jianwu was an old man when he passed the examination.So he may be born between "Jian-Zhong" to "Zhen-Yuan" under the rule of emperor "DeZhong" on Tang Dynasty.Then,another two articles written by Shi Jianwu contained two time clues,which told Shi Jianwu had still been alive in the sixth year of "Kai-Cheng" under the rule of emperor "Wen Zhong" on Tang Dynasty.And it could be proved that Shi Jianwu's longevity through a letter to Ning Xu and happy to be met again with friend written by Shi Jianwu too.Above all,combining the records from Wu-Xing records and genealogy of Shi as the last name,Jianwu Shi' birth-and-death dates could be limited between the first year of "Jian-Zhong" ruled by emperor "De Zhong" to the second year of "Xian-Tong" ruled by "Yi Zhong" on Tang Dynasty,which means that Jianwu Shi may be born in AD 780 and dead in AD 861.

  18. Validity of pre and post-term birth rates based on the date of last menstrual period compared to early obstetric ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nilza Lima Medeiros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the last menstrual period (LMP estimate in determining pre and post-term birth rates, in a prenatal cohort from two Brazilian cities, São Luís and Ribeirão Preto. Pregnant women with a single fetus and less than 20 weeks' gestation by obstetric ultrasonography who received prenatal care in 2010 and 2011 were included. The LMP was obtained on two occasions (at 22-25 weeks gestation and after birth. The sensitivity of LMP obtained prenatally to estimate the preterm birth rate was 65.6% in São Luís and 78.7% in Ribeirão Preto and the positive predictive value was 57.3% in São Luís and 73.3% in Ribeirão Preto. LMP errors in identifying preterm birth were lower in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of LMP for the estimate of the post-term birth rate was very low and tended to overestimate it. LMP can be used with some errors to identify the preterm birth rate when obstetric ultrasonography is not available, but is not suitable for predicting post-term birth.

  19. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  20. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... in which they give birth. Do you want music and low lighting? How about the freedom to ...

  1. Birth, Simply

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this column, a mother describes the home birth of her fourth child, which included the supportive presence of her husband, young children, and other family members, along with the help of a midwife. The mother's experience demonstrates the advantages of normal birth and its benefits to the entire family.

  2. Redemptive birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lina

    2016-05-01

    Many of us are in the business of improving birth. Some of us are decades into our journeys of midwifery, whilst others are fresh students aspiring to give our best in this new profession. This article looks at ways to redeem birth from two aspects: for the mother; and for the midwife. I work in an international community in a developing country, in a privatised system. Although different from the UK, birth is birth. Women, their families and midwives will be able to relate to similar experiences. Ultimately my goals are likely to be the same as those in other parts of the world. I address issues of the workplaces in which we operate, the role of midwives in redeeming birth outcomes, and how we may better serve women and each other. PMID:27295755

  3. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors, and social, personal, and economic characteristics. Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing ... My last baby was born early. Is there anything I can do in this pregnancy to keep ...

  4. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A. H.; Shapira, S. K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan); Olshan, A F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation and birth defects in a case–control study of cases comprising over 60 different types of birth defects (n=9998) and non-malformed controls (n=4066) with dates of delivery between 1997 and 2004. Me...

  5. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...

  6. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - pills - hormonal methods; Hormonal birth control methods; Birth control pills; Contraceptive pills; BCP; OCP ... Birth control pills are also called oral contraceptives or just "the pill." A health care provider must prescribe birth ...

  7. Clara's birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  8. Date Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Date Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Date Rape Print A A ... en español Violaciones durante citas What Is Date Rape? When people think of rape , they might picture ...

  9. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of... child (i.e., bonding time) during the 12-month period beginning on the date of birth. An employee's... daughter or to care for the child after birth, for placement of a son or daughter with the employee...

  10. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  11. Thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of dating archaeological pottery specimens by thermoluminescence is described. Techniques for measuring the radiation dose within the pottery fabric and from the surrounding burial medium are discussed. Examples are given of dating projects. (U.K.)

  12. Beating Birth Defects (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-17

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.  Created: 1/17/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/17/2013.

  13. Radiocarbon Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-20

    Radiocarbon dating can be used to determine the age of objects that contain components that were once alive. In the case of human remains, a radiocarbon date can distinguish between a crime scene and an archeological site. Documents, museum artifacts and art objects can be dated to determine if their age is correct for the historical context. A radiocarbon date does not confirm authenticity, but it can help identify a forgery.

  14. Radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on radiometric dating is a chapter in a handbook of Holocene Palaeoecology and Palaeohydrology. This chapter is part of a section on dating methods. Radiocarbon dating is discussed with respect to the apparent ages of lake sediments, seawater, sea creatures and plants. Isotope dating methods for the late Holocene deposits involving 210Pb, 137Cs, sup(239, 240)Pu, 241Am, 32Si and 39Ar are also described. (U.K.)

  15. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  16. A Wondrous Birth

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the author describes tending to a mother who displayed a quiet confidence throughout her pregnancy and birth experience. This birth story provides powerful support for women's inherent ability to give birth. Women already know what they need to give birth simply and easily.

  17. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z.; Xuyên Hoàng; Toan Ngo Van

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births) has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 wom...

  18. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  19. Thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of radioactive disequilibrium on TL age accuracy is further checked. TL dating applied to pottery sets the beginning of the neolithic period in Lower Austria in the first half of 6th millenium B.C. (orig.)

  20. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  1. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most effective ... periods Treat acne Prevent ovarian cancer Combination birth control pills contain both estrogen and progestin. Some combination ...

  2. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... 100% effective method of birth control. LEARN MORE IUD An IUD is a T-shaped device that ...

  3. Maternal Exposure to Methotrexate and Birth Defects: a Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, April L.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Reefhuis, Jennita; Arena, J. Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Methotrexate is an anti-folate medication that is associated with increased risk of multiple birth defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States, we examined mothers exposed to methotrexate. The study population included mothers of live-born infants without major birth defects (controls) and mothers of fetuses or infants with a major birth defect (cases), with expected dates of delivery between October 19...

  4. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A Text Size What's ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  5. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring Print A A A Text Size What's ... Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  6. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A Text Size What's ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  7. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A Text Size What's ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  8. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity in...

  9. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a baby ...

  10. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  11. Thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments depends upon the acquisition and long term stable storage of TL energy by crystalline minerals contained within a sedimentary unit. This energy is stored in the form of trapped electrons and quartz sand is the most commonly used mineral employed in the dating process. Prior to the final depositional episode it is necessary that any previously acquired TL is removed by exposure to sunlight. After burial the TL begins to build up again at a rate dependent upon the radiation flux delivered by long-lived isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium. The presence of rubidium and cosmic radiation generally play a lesser but contributory roll, and the total radiation dose delivered to the TL phosphor is modified by the presence of water. The period since deposition is therefore measured by determining the total amount of stored TL energy, the palaeodose (P), and the rate at which this energy is acquired, the annual radiation dose (ARD). TL dating may be applied to eolian, fluvial, coastal and in some cases, marine sediments. the technique is also successfully applied to volcanic materials and to a certain extent to archeological specimens

  12. Thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.M. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments depends upon the acquisition and long term stable storage of TL energy by crystalline minerals contained within a sedimentary unit. This energy is stored in the form of trapped electrons and quartz sand is the most commonly used mineral employed in the dating process. Prior to the final depositional episode it is necessary that any previously acquired TL is removed by exposure to sunlight. After burial the TL begins to build up again at a rate dependent upon the radiation flux delivered by long-lived isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium. The presence of rubidium and cosmic radiation generally play a lesser but contributory roll, and the total radiation dose delivered to the TL phosphor is modified by the presence of water. The period since deposition is therefore measured by determining the total amount of stored TL energy, the palaeodose (P), and the rate at which this energy is acquired, the annual radiation dose (ARD). TL dating may be applied to eolian, fluvial, coastal and in some cases, marine sediments. the technique is also successfully applied to volcanic materials and to a certain extent to archeological specimens

  13. Jonah’s Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Rachel Goldstein shares her experience of exploring options related to care provider and place of birth early in her pregnancy. Goldstein and her husband, Marc, after reading and research, chose midwifery care and a home birth. She shares the story of a long labor at home supported by her husband, her doula, and her midwife. Her positive attitude, her ability to use various comfort strategies, and the support she received throughout labor contributed to being able to give birth naturally and ...

  14. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  15. Birth control failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocles, A M

    1986-10-01

    Birth control failure usually results from the incorrect or inconsistent use of contraceptives. By providing anticipatory counseling, based on an understanding of the reasons for birth control failure, family physicians can help curtail the current epidemic of unwanted pregnancies. PMID:3766356

  16. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  17. A Season for Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education reflects on changing seasons and how birth remains a constant wonder. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  18. Safely Giving Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the growing challenge of assuring a safe birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect normal birth.

  19. Adolescent Births 2010-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — http://tinyurl.com/AdolescentBirthRatesMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfRepeatBirthsMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfBirthsInHighPoverty. This dataset contains...

  20. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  1. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  2. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... there is a problem with a baby's body chemistry, it is called a metabolic birth defect. Metabolic ...

  3. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after they're born. We also give a shot of vitamin K. That helps control bleeding. There's ... born. Parents can elect to have their hepatitis shot also given at birth or they can elect ...

  4. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... births can also take a heavy emotional and economic toll on families. 5 American College of Obstetricians ... Dimes. (2012). The March of Dimes Foundation Data Book for Policy Makers: Maternal, Infant, and Child Health ...

  5. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... Actually, data would indicate that those kinds of issues with bladder problems and reproductive tract prolapse can ...

  6. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actually, data would indicate that those kinds of issues with bladder problems and reproductive tract prolapse can ... birth versus a repeat cesarean delivery. There's an issue called placenta accreta, which if you have multiple ...

  7. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... later if you prefer. Now let me turn things over to the obstetrician performing the delivery to ...

  8. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 717-933-9743 Accredited since January 2016 100 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited ... Birthing Center-Cedar Park Accredited 1130 Cottonwood Creek Trail Building D Suite 2 Cedar Park, TX 78613 ...

  9. Emmetropisation following preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, K J; McCulloch, D L; Shepherd, A.J.; Wilkinson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: Even in the absence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), premature birth signals increased risk for abnormal refractive development. The present study examined the relation between clinical risk factors and refractive development among preterm infants without ROP.

  10. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I know that we have a very formal process in our office for patients with a prior ... with a vaginal birth, we have a formalized process where we go through an information sheet that ...

  11. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to be able to schedule the birth. Some women have a preference for a cesarean delivery because ... subject doesn't really come up. But in women with a prior uterine incision that's compatible with ...

  12. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... hour, operating surgeon Dr. Leah Ridgway will perform a caesarean section delivery while Dr. Reagan Wittek will ...

  13. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... to learn more. Just click on the "request information" button on your webcast screen and open the ...

  14. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  15. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after delivery. And that's over here so that mom can hear the baby and the baby will ... So we don't encourage elective first-time moms having a cesarean birth. 00:09:12 LEAH ...

  16. FAVORED ZODIAC FOR CELEBRITY BIRTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah M. Adel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To find any favored zodiac sign for celebrity births, a sample of 100 celebrities were randomly selected from people of different walks of life. The sample contained politicians, natural scientists, social scientists, Authors of literary works, social workers, humanitarian workers, business personnel, sports icons, singers, actors, actresses, etc. etc. from history and from the current time. The zodiac signs for the celebrities were found from their known dates of births. In the analysis of data, zodiac signs and the number of celebrities were represented as the independent x and the dependent y variables, respectively. For academic interests for the 9th grade high school juniors (at the time of the project performance, the co-authors of this article, as well as for the potentially illustrative uses in high school mathematics textbooks, bar and scatter plots were made, the line of best-fit and the equation of the line were found, probabilities of occurrences of celebrities for each of the zodiac signs were calculated and the correlation coefficients between the variables were determined for the sample. It was found that the zodiac Aquarius has the largest number of celebrities in the sample and that the two variables are moderately correlated. The sample sizes which were increased to 200 and then 300. By including another 100 more celebrities to find if the trend remains unchanged. In all the three cases, Aquarius turned out to be the zodiac when most of the celebrities are born.

  17. Birth Defects. Matrix No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert L.

    This report discusses the magnitude of the problem of birth defects, outlines advances in the birth defects field in the past decade, and identifies those areas where research is needed for the prevention, treatment, and management of birth defects. The problem of birth defects has consumed a greater portion of our health care resources because of…

  18. Periviable birth: Interim update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  19. #3: Periviable birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  20. Twin births: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivani Anil Wanjari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal, foetal and obstetric parameters surrounding twin pregnancies. An attempt was made to find out the perinatal mortality and morbidity rates of twin births and to determine the underlying factors responsible for the increase in these rates. Methods: A one year observational study was done at Daga hospital Nagpur, which is a referral maternity hospital receiving a large number of antenatal patients daily. Perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, route of delivery, and caesarean section rates were analysed. Results: The commonest presentation in our study vertex/vertex presentation (62%. A large percentage of twins in our study had a normal delivery. 37% women had caesarean section. In our study nearly 17% of the neonates had birth weights <1.5 kg. In 51 % women the first baby had more birth weight than the second twin. Among the 95 twin births (190 twins studied, we had one discordant twins and one conjoined twins. Conclusions: Twin pregnancies are high risk pregnancies with more obstetrical complications compared to singleton pregnancies. Twin pregnancies have higher perinatal mortality and morbidity rates especially before 34 weeks of gestation. Hence deliveries should be performed in referral centres with competent NICUs. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 995-997

  1. Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy T. Efird

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive.

  2. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  3. Ancestry sampling for Indo-European phylogeny and dates

    OpenAIRE

    Rama, Taraka

    2016-01-01

    The date of the root of the Indo-European language family received much attention due to the application of Bayesian phylogenetic methods since the beginning of the last decade. The inferred root date of the family moved along with the development of new methods and better data. In this paper, I compare two dating techniques known as node-dating and total evidence dating for the Indo-European language family. I find that the total evidence dating based on a birth death tree infers age which i...

  4. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas. PMID:12291551

  5. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE...... INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  6. Paternal contribution to birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A.; Skjarven, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors.
DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child.
SETTING—The ...

  7. Births: Final Data for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Osterman, Michelle J K; Curtin, Sally C; Matthews, T J

    2015-12-01

    This report presents 2014 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality. Birth and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence and birth rates by age and race of father also are shown. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. PMID:26727629

  8. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Z Guilmoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  9. Recovering from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish ( en español ) Recovering from birth Related information Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet When to call the baby's doctor – ... Get more details on postpartum depression in our Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet . Emerging research suggests that 1 in ...

  10. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  11. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available CESAREAN SECTION SHAWNEE MISSION MEDICAL CENTER MERRIAM, KANSAS March 13, 2008 00:00:09 ANNOUNCER: Tonight you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. Over the next hour, ...

  12. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  13. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Podcasts & Video E-Cards Flu Badge Real Stories Cleft Lip and Palate Craniosynostosis Down Syndrome Eye Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... premature birth, certain birth defects (such as cleft lip, cleft palate, or both ), and infant death. Quitting smoking before ...

  14. MedlinePlus: Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Start Here Birth Control Methods (Department of Health and Human Services, Office ... Male Contraception? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Patient ... Birth control - slow release methods Also in Spanish Birth control ...

  15. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  16. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  17. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dating violence prevention initiative seeks to reduce dating violence and increase healthy relationships in high-risk urban communities through comprehensive, multisector prevention. Division of Adolescent ...

  18. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ...

  19. Teen Smoking and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    MaryBeth Walker; Erdal Tekin; Sally Wallace

    2007-01-01

    In the U.S. teen mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than non-teen mothers. There is also substantial evidence that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome in both the short and long term for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen age smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques including fixed effects and a matching estimat...

  20. Congenital malformations in multiple births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done to know and compare the incidence of congenital malformations in singleton and multiple births in our hospital & compare with other studies. Methods: A retrospective study done by collecting the data from parturition register from Jan 2008 to Dec 2011 (4yrs from Cheluvamba Hospital attached to Mysore Medical College and Research Institute. Total number of the live births, still births, and abortions> 20 wks were collected. Details of multiple births such as maternal age, gestational age, sex & birth weight of the babies, U/S reports and congenital anomalies (CA were noted. Results: The total number of singleton births were 48700 and number of babies who had congenital malformations were 235 (48.25/10,000 births.Total number of multiple births were 579 including 10 triplets and number of babies who had CA were 11 (189.98/10,000 births, P<0.0001. In the present study sex of the babies were noted in all multiple births and zygosity could not be recorded. Among 579 multiple births 404 were of the Same Sex (SS and 165 were of Opposite Sex (OS in twins and 6 were of the same sex and 4 were of opposite sex in triplets. According to Weinberg formula 50% of same sex (SS twins are monozygotic and 50% are dizygotic twins. Among the 11 babies with CA, 4 monozygotic twins had anomalies related to twinning such as Acardia with TRAP sequence (3 twins, and Thoracophagus (1 twin.5 babies had CNS anomalies, 1 with cystic hygroma, 1 baby with multiple system affected. Conclusion: The incidence of birth defects is more in multiple births and especially in monozygotic twins. In the present days increase in twinning rate due to advanced maternal age, hereditary factors and use of ovulation inducing drugs, which results in premature and low birth wt babies associated with poor lung maturity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 216-221

  1. New Information About Premature Births (For Healthcare Providers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    Dr. William Callaghan describes the findings from a CDC study which sought to understand how preterm birth contributes to infant mortality rates in the United States.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  2. Vital Signs – Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  3. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with our dating when we're making these decisions. 00:07:00 REAGAN M. WITTEK, MD: Thank ... patient and obstetrician together need to make a decision together about what's the most appropriate thing for ...

  4. Radiocarbon dating of artworks

    OpenAIRE

    Krajcar Bronić, Ines; Horvatinčić, Nada; Barešić, Jadranka; Sironić, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Absolute dating of artworks and cultural heritage objects is one of the most important issues in art history studies and essential for evaluating original art objects, differentiating between originals and later imitations and/or frauds and recognizing subsequent repairs and restauration works. The radiocarbon dating (14C dating) method is one of the most well-known radiometric methods of absolute dating, which can be applied for dating materials of biogenic origin, such as wood, charcoal, bo...

  5. Birth Muse: The Birth Story of Eliza Michelle

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Maria J

    2009-01-01

    The author, a birth doula and Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, agreed to attend the birth of a second child to a mother whose military husband was serving overseas. Because labor seemed to be progressing slowly, they waited at a hotel near the birth center. A very quick labor progression led to a rapid birth in the hotel, with the midwife still on her way. The author shares how learning to trust the power of natural childbirth helped her to remain calm and present for the mother for a on...

  6. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  7. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  8. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  9. Roentgenodiagnosis of vertebrae birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested

  10. Left behind by birth month

    OpenAIRE

    Solli, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative from Norway I investigate birth month effects on school performance at age 16, educational achievement at age 19 and 25 and earnings at age 30. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher 10th grade GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are similar across gender, but stronger for less advantaged children. The birth month effects are robust to controlling for sibling fixed effects. On longer term outcome...

  11. Brain birth and personal identity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of brain birth has assumed a position of some significance in discussions on the status of the human embryo and on the point in embryonic development prior to which experimental procedures may be undertaken on human embryos. This paper reviews previous discussions of this concept, which have placed brain birth at various points between 12 days' and 20 weeks' gestation and which have emphasised the symmetry of brain birth and brain death. Major developmental features of brain devel...

  12. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Sharada B. Menasinkai; Mahantappa A. Chiniwar; Saraswathi, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ul...

  13. Parsing and Matching Dates in VIAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny A. Toves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual International Authority File (OCLC Online Computer Library Center 2013 http://viaf.org is built from dozens of authority files with tens of millions of names in more than 150 million authority and bibliographic records expressed in multiple languages, scripts and formats. One of the main tasks in VIAF is to bring together personal names which may have various dates associated with them, such as birth, death or when they were active. These dates can be quite complicated with ranges, approximations, BCE dates, different scripts, and even different calendars. Analysis of the nearly 400,000 unique date strings in VIAF led us to a parsing technique that relies on only a few basic patterns for them. Our goal is to correctly interpret at least 99% of all the dates we find in each of VIAF’s authority files and to use the dates to facilitate matches between authority records. Python source code for the process described here is available at https://github.com/OCLC-Developer-Network/viaf-dates.

  14. Season of birth and mother and child characteristics : evidence from Spain and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres-Delpiano, Julio; Alba, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    By using birth certificates for Chile and Spain we investigate differences in mother and child characteristics according to season of birth. Our findings reveal that children born in winter are more likely to have a mother who is a teenager and unmarried at date of birth. Spanish data also reveals that women giving birth in winter are more likely to be out of the labor force, a result largely driven by high skilled mothers. We additionally find that children born in the winter months have few...

  15. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  16. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  17. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, P. W.; Rasmussen, S A; Lynberg, M. C.; Moore, C A; Anderka, M.; Carmichael, S.L.; Costa, P.; Druschel, C.; Hobbs, C. A.; Romitti, P A; Langlois, P. H.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2001-01-01

    The National Birth Defects Prevention Study was designed to identify infants with major birth defects and evaluate genetic and environmental factors associated with the occurrence of birth defects. The ongoing case-control study covers an annual birth population of 482,000 and includes cases identified from birth defect surveillance registries in eight states. Infants used as controls are randomly selected from birth certificates or birth hospital records. Mothers of case and control infants ...

  18. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Expiration Dates Matter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... video, FDA Pharmacist Ilisa Bernstein explains how expiration dates help determine if medicine is safe to use ...

  19. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Expiration Dates Matter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Update video, FDA Pharmacist Ilisa Bernstein explains how expiration dates help determine if medicine is safe to ...

  20. Radiometric Dating Does Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

  1. A Date with Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Teen dating violence is common but preventable. A survey of Texas high schoolers showed that half of respondents had been victims of dating violence. A majority of both sexes believed that certain behaviors justified being hit by their dating partners. It is important to raise the awareness of school personnel, parents, and students. Peer…

  2. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  3. Birth Order: Reconciling Conflicting Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the confluence model as a theory specifying the process by which the intellectual environment modifies intellectual development. Using this model, explores the contradiction between prediction of secular trends in test scores by trends in aggregate birth order and the lack of prediction of individual test scores by birth order using…

  4. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We utilised the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority database to examine the predictors of live birth in all in vitro fertilisation (IVF cycles undertaken in the UK between 2003 and 2007 (n = 144,018. We examined the potential clinical utility of a validated model that pre-dated the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI as compared to a novel model. For those treatment cycles that resulted in a live singleton birth (n = 24,226, we determined the associates of potential risk factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. The overall rate of at least one live birth was 23.4 per 100 cycles (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-23.7. In multivariable models the odds of at least one live birth decreased with increasing maternal age, increasing duration of infertility, a greater number of previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, use of own oocytes, necessity for a second or third treatment cycle, or if it was not unexplained infertility. The association of own versus donor oocyte with reduced odds of live birth strengthened with increasing age of the mother. A previous IVF live birth increased the odds of future success (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46-1.71 more than that of a previous spontaneous live birth (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.24; p-value for difference in estimate <0.001. Use of ICSI increased the odds of live birth, and male causes of infertility were associated with reduced odds of live birth only in couples who had not received ICSI. Prediction of live birth was feasible with moderate discrimination and excellent calibration; calibration was markedly improved in the novel compared to the established model. Preterm birth and low birth weight were increased if oocyte donation was required and ICSI was not used. Risk of

  5. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  6. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  7. Birth of accountancy

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Hora

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a way of historical progress of accountancy. Accountancy's infancy dates back to the earliest days of human agriculture and civilization, the Sumerians in Mesopotamia an another civilization, when the need to maintain accurate records of the quantities and relative values of agricultural products first arose. Accounting developed purely in response to the needs of the time brought about by changes in the environment and societal demands. The view to the history helps exp...

  8. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > ... Before Birth Print A A A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a ...

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  10. A Study on Birth Asphyxia at Tertiary Health Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta A Dalal

    2013-08-01

    Methodology: This was the cross sectional study conducted in the tertiary care centre of Ahmedabad on the full term babies with birth asphyxia. The maternal, fetal and newborn correlates were recorded according to predesigned proforma. Results: There were total 401 (6.6% babies born with apgar score of less than 7 at one minute and among them, 320 (79.8% were full term babies and 81 (20.2% were preterm babies. Among the babies 52.5% were male, 56.9% were primigravida, and only 41.9% had antenatal care present, 42.2% had MSL and 47.2% were small for date babies. Conclusion: Birth asphyxia is common the babies of the mother who had not received proper antenatal care. Maternal anaemia, primipara, meconium stained liquor babies have more chances of getting birth asphyxia. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 374-376

  11. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also. PMID:6747384

  12. Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Fletcher, Erin K

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother. Methods A total of 7496 births to 3990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families. Results In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight, and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a with lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA. Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia, and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant. PMID:26515472

  13. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo Leal Maria; da Silva Antônio Augusto; Dias Marcos Augusto; da Gama Silvana Granado; Rattner Daphne; Moreira Maria; Filha Mariza Miranda; Domingues RosaMariaSoaresMadeira; Pereira Ana Paula; Torres Jacqueline; Bittencourt Sonia Duarte; D’orsi Eleonora; Cunha Antonio JLA; Leite Alvaro Jorge; Cavalcante Rejane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods ...

  14. Carbon 14 dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gives a first introduction to 14C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)

  15. Chemical Principles Revisited: Archaeological Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses methods used to date archaeological artifacts and other remains. They include: (1) nuclear dating techniques (radiocarbon dating, accelerator radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, and others); (2) chemical dating techniques (amino acid racemization, obsidian hydration dating, elemental content changes, and thermal analysis dating); and…

  16. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  17. Birth Order and Vocational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1973-01-01

    Investigated birth order differences and the vocational interests of 150 male college students, making use of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Sibling sex and interaction effects were also investigated. (DP)

  18. Birth and death of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of stars is summarized, giving emphasis to the phenomena related with their formation (birth) and their late stages (death). We also remark the basic physical concepts that regulate stellar evolution

  19. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  20. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a quiz to find out if your relationship is one to love or leave. What teens are saying about sex Talking to your partner about sex It’s not too late to stop having sex Could I be gay? Dating older guys Staying safe when dating What ...

  1. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  2. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  3. Advance in thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review on the thermoluminescence dating is presented. It involves seven parts: 1). properties of TL in the phosphorus; 2). centers of luminescence in some crystals; 3). radiation dosimetry; 4). the accumulated dose in different kinds of specimen; 5). preparation of samples for TL determination; 6). calibration of radiation sources in TL dating; 7). equipments of TL determination

  4. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  5. Research Summaries for Normal Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Amy M.; Goer, Henci

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the authors summarize four research studies relevant to normal birth. Topics of the studies summarized include the harms of screening for macrosomia late in pregnancy, the risk factors for and impact of postpartum pain in childbearing women, the effects of a breastfeeding approach called “biological nurturing” on reflexive behavior in newborns, and the effects of prenatal yoga on labor and birth outcomes.

  6. Cerebral palsy and multiple births.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P. O.; Cooke, T

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the birthweight specific prevalence of cerebral palsy in singleton and multiple births. METHODS: Registered births of babies with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire during the period 1982 to 1989 were ascertained. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of cerebral palsy was 2.3 per 1000 infant survivors in singletons, 12.6 in twins, and 44.8 in triplets. The prevalence of cerebral palsy rose with decreasing birthweight. The birthweight sp...

  7. Defying birth defects through diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Crider, Krista S.; Lynn B. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    The risk of certain birth defects can be modified by maternal diet. A high-fat maternal mouse diet has recently been reported to substantially increase the penetrance of birth defects known to be associated with a deficiency of transcription factor Cited2 as well as induce cleft palate. These effects were associated with a more than twofold reduction in embryonic expression of Pitx2c. This investigation suggests the need to further explore this provocative gene-diet interaction in human studies.

  8. Birth in an Ordinary Instant

    OpenAIRE

    De Vries, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Our daily lives are a series of ordinary moments and unnoticed thresholds—times that define us in ways we often do not give much attention. While we consider childbirth to be one of life's extra-ordinary events, the hours of labor and birth need not be dramatic (or traumatic) ones. I describe a quiet, well-supported birth in the Netherlands that is cause for celebration of the beauty of an ordinary instant that can define and enrich the human experience.

  9. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    OpenAIRE

    James, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done.

  10. Turning the Tide for Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2010-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the escalating cesarean surgery rate and the need for evidence-based practice changes that support vaginal birth after cesarean. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth practices.

  11. Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes among Women with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Wyszynski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine pregnancy and birth outcomes among women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP or chronic ITP (cITP diagnosed before or during pregnancy. Methods. A linkage of mothers and babies within a large US health insurance database that combines enrollment data, pharmacy claims, and medical claims was carried out to identify pregnancies in women with ITP or cITP. Outcomes included preterm birth, elective and spontaneous loss, and major congenital anomalies. Results. Results suggest that women diagnosed with ITP or cITP prior to their estimated date of conception may be at higher risk for stillbirth, fetal loss, and premature delivery. Among 446 pregnancies in women with ITP, 346 resulted in live births. Women with cITP experienced more adverse outcomes than those with a pregnancy-related diagnosis of ITP. Although 7.8% of all live births had major congenital anomalies, the majority were isolated heart defects. Among deliveries in women with cITP, 15.2% of live births were preterm. Conclusions. The results of this study provide further evidence that cause and duration of maternal ITP are important determinants of the outcomes of pregnancy.

  12. Is Maternal Parity an Independent Risk Factor for Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hao T.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Canfield, Mark A.; Case, Amy; McNeese, Melanie L.; Waller, Dorothy Kim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although associations between maternal parity and birth defects have been observed previously, few studies have focused on the possibility that parity is an independent risk factor for birth defects. We investigated the relation between levels of parity and a range of birth defects, adjusting each defect group for the same covariates. METHODS We included infants who had an estimated delivery date between 1997 and 2007 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite case-control study. Cases included infants or fetuses belonging to 38 phenotypes of birth defects (n = 17,908), and controls included infants who were unaffected by a major birth defect (n = 7173). Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for 12 covariates using logistic regression. RESULTS Compared with primiparous mothers, nulliparous mothers were more likely to have infants with amniotic band sequence, hydrocephaly, esophageal atresia, hypospadias, limb reduction deficiencies, diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, gastroschisis, tetralogy of Fallot, and septal cardiac defects, with significant ORs (1.2 to 2.3). Compared with primiparous mothers, multiparous mothers had a significantly increased risk of omphalocele, with an OR of 1.5, but had significantly decreased risk of hypospadias and limb reduction deficiencies, with ORs of 0.77 and 0.77. CONCLUSIONS Nulliparity was associated with an increased risk of specific phenotypes of birth defects. Most of the phenotypes associated with nulliparity in this study were consistent with those identified by previous studies. Research into biologic or environmental factors that are associated with nulliparity may be helpful in explaining some or all of these associations. PMID:22371332

  13. Quaternary dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40Ar/39Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)

  14. Water Birth at Home: Two Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Angha, Amanda M.; Scaer, Roberta M.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, a grandmother, with a long history as an author and activist for normal birth, and her daughter, a new mother, offer their unique experiences of a water birth at home, attended by family members and midwives. Their unique perspectives demonstrate the trust in the normal birth process that is possible for every birth.

  15. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where...

  16. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450oC, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  17. Why date old bones?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods for pretreatment and purification of bone have not been accorded the same standard protocols that are applied to other sample materials. Many users lack confidence in bone dates, with some justification, and it is not clear how to proceed. With the advent of AMS dating, it is becoming easy to date very small amounts of highly purified samples such as single amino acids from bone collagen. This note serves a warning that there are dangers in the uncritical application of powerful separation and measurement techniques to uncharacterized material. (orig.)

  18. Home Birth: The Wave of the Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    A childbirth educator expresses frustration with a medical system that does not work for women or for many maternity care providers. She suggests out-of-hospital birth as an alternative. This column explores the safety of home birth, women's experiences of home birth, and the issues related to home birth once again being the standard. Childbirth educators are encouraged to present home birth as a viable choice.

  19. Benefits of Iron supplementation for low birth weight infants: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Long Hui; Yi Jing-Mei; Hu Pei-Li; Li Zhi-Bin; Qiu Wei-Ya; Wang Fang; Zhu Sing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A number of studies have reported on the effects of iron supplementation in low birth weight infants; however, no systematic review of the available evidence has been conducted to date. Hence, we performed a systematic review of the literature to examine the effects of iron supplementation on hematologic iron status, growth, neurodevelopment, and adverse effects in low birth weight/premature infants. Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, Medline, and PubMed for article...

  20. Cancer Risk in Children and Adolescents with Birth Defects: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flood, Timothy; Little, Julian; Fluchel, Mark N.; Krikov, Sergey; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Wu, Yuan; Goedken, Rhinda; Puzhankara, Soman; Romitti, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. Methods and Findings This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Ar...

  1. Radiometric dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra-210Pb, U-Pa, 14C, 36Cl, 10Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  2. Methods of dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively

  3. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-mail | Consumer Updates RSS Feed If your medicine has expired, it may not provide the treatment ... Bernstein explains how expiration dates help determine if medicine is safe to use and will work as ...

  4. Dating and Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS Awareness Day World AIDS Day Conferences 30 Years of ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Dating and Marriage ...

  5. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Sell by Feb 14" is a ...

  6. Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Nona K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Surveyed high school students (N=256) in Sacramento, California. Found that 35.1 percent had experienced some form of abuse in their dating relationships. Explored the severity of the violence and its intergenerational component. (Author/ABB)

  7. NAIP 2014 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2014 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  8. NAIP 2012 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  9. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Expiration Dates Matter ... recalls [ARCHIVED] CDER FOIA Electronic Reading Room Related Consumer Updates How to Dispose of Unused Medicines Identifying ...

  10. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  11. Principles of radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major contributions that the study of meteorites has made to our understanding of the origin of the solar system is in defining when that event took place. In addition, several other important events in early solar-system history have been dated using radiochronological techniques applied to meteorites. The principles on which those applications of radiometric dating are based are outlined. 24 references

  12. Online dating and education

    OpenAIRE

    Fritze, Yvonne; Nordkvelle, Yngve Troye

    2012-01-01

    Taking its inspiration from Luhmann’s communication theory, this article looks at online dating from the perspective of teaching and education. While Eros obviously plays an important role in regenerating the desire to communicate, this ardour is often absent from the domain of net-based teaching. The article explores those features of online dating characteristic of distance dialogue, and discusses the extent to which these can be transferred to communication in the teaching context. We furt...

  13. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  14. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers.......Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused the...

  15. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  16. The Impact of Eliminating a Child Benefit on Birth Timing and Infant Health

    OpenAIRE

    Borra, Cristina; Gonz??lez Luna, Libertad; Sevilla-Sanz, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of the cancellation of a sizeable child benefit in Spain on birth timing and neonatal health. In May 2010, the government announced that a 2,500-euro universal "baby bonus" would stop being paid to babies born starting January 1, 2011. We use detailed micro data from birth certificates from 2000 to 2011, and find that more than 2,000 families were able to anticipate the date of birth of their babies from (early) January 2011 to (late) December 2010 (for a t...

  17. Birth placement and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; Horwood, J; Shannon, F T

    1981-07-22

    The standards of health and health care for a sample of 1265 Christchurch children during the period birth to three years were examined. There was a systematic tendency for levels of health care and morbidity to vary with the child's birth placement: in general adopted children had the best standard of health care and the lowest rates of morbidity; children who entered single parent families at birth had the poorest standards of health care and the highest rates of morbidity. Statistical control for family social background including maternal age, education, ethnic status, family size and changes of residence tended to reduce the size of the observed differences. However, even when the results were controlled for these factors children in single parent families still has depressed levels of preventive health care and higher rates of hospital admission. Possible explanations of the differences are discussed. PMID:6944632

  18. Team training for safer birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women. PMID:25979351

  19. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F;

    2001-01-01

    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child......-pregnancy. Furthermore, a biological bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been...

  20. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. PMID:23520357

  1. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  2. Radiocarbon Dating the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, M. A.; Gajewski, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Anthropocene has no agreed start date since current suggestions for its beginning range from Pre-Industrial times to the Industrial Revolution, and from the mid-twentieth century to the future. To set the boundary of the Anthropocene in geological time, we must first understand when, how and to what extent humans began altering the Earth system. One aspect of this involves reconstructing the effects of prehistoric human activity on the physical landscape. However, for global reconstructions of land use and land cover change to be more accurately interpreted in the context of human interaction with the landscape, large-scale spatio-temporal demographic changes in prehistoric populations must be known. Estimates of the relative number of prehistoric humans in different regions of the world and at different moments in time are needed. To this end, we analyze a dataset of radiocarbon dates from the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database (CARD), the Palaeolithic Database of Europe and the AustArch Database of Australia, as well as published dates from South America. This is the first time such a large quantity of dates (approximately 60,000) has been mapped and studied at a global scale. Initial results from the analysis of temporal frequency distributions of calibrated radiocarbon dates, assumed to be proportional to population density, will be discussed. The utility of radiocarbon dates in studies of the Anthropocene will be evaluated and potential links between population density and changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, climate, migration patterning and fire frequency coincidence will be considered.

  3. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  4. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  5. The Airway Microbiome at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H.; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  6. Preterm birth and its outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Radhanpuri

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: In our population preterm birth is more common in poor socio economic status, women with anaemia, malnutrition and these factors can be eliminated by proper nutrition and health education by health workers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 153-157

  7. The Airway Microbiome at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  8. Birth Defects and Adolescent Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James

    1975-01-01

    Home economists who work with adolescents can help prepare them for responsible parenthood later in life by explaining the known causes of various birth defects; providing basic information about human genetics, prenatal nutrition, and drug and alcohol effects; and motivating adolescents to exercise increased responsibility in their sexual…

  9. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy during pregnancy, and giving your baby a healthy start in life will help you to have peace of mind. Before pregnancy » During pregnancy » To learn about CDC’s work to help prevent birth defects, visit our Research and Tracking page. Related Links Disability and Health ...

  10. Ultrasound Diagnostics of Premature Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Chekhonatskaya M.L.; Vasilevich L.K.; Petrosyan N.O.; Kolesnikova E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyze the data of native and foreign literature and to consider the modern aspects of ultrasound diagnostics of premature birth, and new additional criteria for early diagnostics and prediction of preterm delivery. Hemodynamic characteristics in the second and third trimesters of the pregnancy have been covered.

  11. Parturition date for a given female is highly repeatable within five roe deer populations

    OpenAIRE

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Bonenfant, Christophe; Hewison, A. J. Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Cargnelutti, Bruno; Kjellander, Petter; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Coulson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Births are highly synchronized among females in many mammal populations in temperate areas. Although laying date for a given female is also repeatable within populations of birds, limited evidence suggests low repeatability of parturition date for individual females in mammals, and between-population variability in repeatability has never, to our knowledge, been assessed. We quantified the repeatability of parturition date for individual females in five populations of roe deer, which we found...

  12. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Expiration Dates Matter Share ...

  13. Quantum Dating Market

    OpenAIRE

    Arizmendi, C. M.; Zabaleta, O. G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the dating market decision problem under the quantum mechanics point of view. Quantum states whose associated amplitudes are modified by men strategies are used to represent women. Grover quantum search algorithm is used as a playing strategy. Success is more frequently obtained by playing quantum than playing classic.

  14. Flirting in Online Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2015-01-01

    Various fields have examined the activity of flirting, predominantly based on experimental and reported data; the interactional workings are therefore often overlooked. Based on emails and chats from two Danish online dating sites, this article investigates how users negotiate romantic connections...

  15. Thermoluminescence dating of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments is based on the observation that exposure of quartz and feldspar to sunlight rapidly reduces the TL level to a small residual value. Therefore, sediments transported by air or water will usually be deposited with a very small TL level. When the sediment has been covered as a result of subsequent sedimentation, the TL level again increases with time as a result of exposure of the minerals to the natural background radiation. The TL level is thus a measure of the accumulated radiation dose (the palaeodose), and the time elapsed since sedimentation is given by the ratio of the palaeodose to the annual dose. Techniques for determining the palaeodose are described including the regeneration, additive dose and R-GAMMA methods. Insufficient bleaching during transport, instability of the latent TL signal and non-linear dose response for older samples pose particular problems which are discussed. In several respects, TL dating of sediments is still at the experimental stage, but the method has a great potential for dating sediments within the last 500,000 years, a period for which there are few other absolute dating methods. (author)

  16. Thermoluminescence dating of pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into two parts. The first half describes on the history of thermoluminescence dating, and the latter half, the principle and measurement examples. It was in late 1955 that the measurement of radiation dose using thermoluminescence began. The method to thermoluminescence dating was developed when it was found that most natural stones emit the thermoluminescence. About Greek earthen wares, the study of which was presented in 1961 by G. Kennedy of University of California, the dating was able to be made within the standard deviation of 10%. Since then, this dating method progressed rapidly, and a number of laboratories are now forwarding the investigation. In the samples of natural materials, intensity of thermoluminescence I is proportional to natural radiation dose D which has been absorbed by the samples, i.e. I = kD, where k is the susceptibility of thermoluminescence of the samples. Since k is different in each sample, D can be determined by irradiating the sample with β or γ ray of known dose D0, measuring its luminescence I0, and eliminating k through these two equations, because i0 = kD0. Next, if t is assumed to be the time passed since a pottery was made, D is expressed as Rt, where R is the natural radiation dose per year absorbed by the pottery. Thus t is determined if R is known. The report describes on the method of measuring R. As an example, the results of measurement of the potteries excavated at Iwakura remains, Yorikura, Taishaku-kyo, are listed. Results by 14C dating are also described for reference. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  18. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  19. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between pregnancies > Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth E-mail to ... talk to other women like me who are thinking about pregnancy after having a premature baby? Visit ...

  20. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. PMID:22375565

  1. Quality of newborn care at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, AJ; Marchant, T

    2014-01-01

    Quality of care can be measured by seeing if skilled birth attendants use simple approaches to save lives. Skilled birth attendants range from trained community health workers to nurses, doctors and midwives. Findings from three low-income settings show quality of care for the newborn is low even when a skilled birth attendant is at the mother’s side during birth. Source: 2012 Baseline survey data, the IDEAS project, based at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Funded by the...

  2. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP ) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study wa...

  3. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  4. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  5. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  6. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.; Snyder, Nancy O., Comp.

    Between 1986 and 1991 the teen birth rate rose by nearly one-fourth, although very small declines were evident in 1992 and 1993. This decline was concentrated among older teens; the number of births to adolescents aged 17 and younger continued to rise. The percentage of teen births that occurred outside of marriage rose to 72%. In 1991, the most…

  7. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  8. Truly Blind Dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Compared to parties,bars and nightclubs,in many countries parks are a site for family leisure and recreation and not a spot to find a date.It is not the case in China.Spouse-hunting fairs in big city parks organized by parents eager to see their children tie the knot have made parks in China a haven for relationshiphunters and their parents.

  9. What's the date of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘京西

    2009-01-01

    @@ A:What's the date of our final examination? B:I'm not sure.I'll have to look it up.I'll let youknow tomorrow. A:Thank you. A:我们期末考试是哪一天? B:我也说不清.我给你查查,明天告诉你. A:谢谢你.

  10. Radiocarbon dating for contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the radiocarbon facility at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, and is written for potential contributors, current users, and for those who advise others. The report briefly outlines the principles and practices of C-14 dating; with emphasis on factors that enable contributors to judge whether C-14 work is appropriate, and to assist them with the procedures to be followed in order to get the best results. Age determinations, being the main requirements by contributors, have been discussed in detail

  11. Modeling The Effects of Mother’s Age at First Birth on Child Health at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Mbu Daniel Tambi

    2014-01-01

    This study models the impact of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth in Cameroon. The objectives are: (1) investigate the implication of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth; (2) examine the impact of mother’s age groups on birth weight, and (3) suggest economic policies to ameliorate the mother’s age – child health relationship. We make used of the control function approach to determine the relationship between mother’s age at first birth and birth...

  12. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth; Ackerson, Kelly; Kane Low, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to maternal and neonatal outcomes of planned home birth, and discuss strengths, limitations, and opportunities regarding planned home birth. PMID:25914559

  13. The partial-birth stratagem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Wisconsin, physicians stopped performing abortions when a Federal District Court Judge refused to issue a temporary restraining order against the state's newly enacted "partial birth" abortion ban that was couched in such vague language it actually covered all abortions. While ostensibly attempting to ban late-term "intact dilation and extraction," the language of the law did not refer to that procedure or to late terms. Instead, it prohibited all abortions in which a physician "partially vaginally delivers a living child, causes the death of the partially delivered child with the intent to kill the child and then completes the delivery of the child." The law also defined "child" as "a human being from the time of fertilization" until birth. It is clear that this abortion ban is unconstitutional under Row v. Wade, and this unconstitutionality is compounded by the fact that the law allowed no exception to protect a woman's health, which is required by Roe for abortion bans after fetal viability. Wisconsin is only one of about 28 states that have enacted similar laws, and only two have restricted the ban to postviability abortions. Many of these laws have been struck down in court, and President Clinton has continued to veto the Federal partial-birth bill. The Wisconsin Judge acknowledged that opponents of the ban will likely prevail when the case is heard, but his action in denying the temporary injunction means that many women in Wisconsin will not receive timely medical care. The partial birth strategy is really only another anti-abortion strategy. PMID:12348556

  14. Births: Final Data for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when it was at its historic peak of 51.8 per 1,000. The percentage of all births ... 45.3 46.0 47.5 49.9 51.8 51.8 50.3 47.2 46.0 44.7 ... 26.3 78.0 102.9 86.3 51.8 23.3 2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,610.5 0.8 ...

  15. Home Births in the United States, 1990-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Home Births in the United States, 1990–2009 Recommend ... Keywords: birth certificates, out-of-hospital birth U.S. home births increased by 29% from 2004 to 2009. ...

  16. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  17. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way. PMID:24873114

  18. Vicarious Birth Experiences and Childbirth Fear: Does It Matter How Young Canadian Women Learn About Birth?

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In our secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, we explored predictors of childbirth fear for young women (n = 2,676). Young women whose attitudes toward pregnancy and birth were shaped by the media were 1.5 times more likely to report childbirth fear. Three factors that were associated with reduced fear of birth were women’s confidence in reproductive knowledge, witnessing a birth, and learning about pregnancy and birth through friends. Offering age-appropriate birth education during ...

  19. Maternal smoking and birth defects: validity of birth certificate data for effect estimation.

    OpenAIRE

    Honein, M. A.; Paulozzi, L. J.; Watkins, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to assess the validity of birth certificate data for estimating the association between maternal smoking and birth defects. The US standard birth certificate includes check boxes for maternal smoking and for 21 congenital anomalies. The sensitivity and specificity of birth certificate data have been studied, but previous studies have not addressed the validity of these data for estimating the association between birth defects and maternal smoking or other risk f...

  20. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  1. Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bø Kari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight plays an important role in infant mortality and morbidity, childhood development, and adult health. To date there are contradictory results regarding the role of physical activity on birth weight. In addition, it is questioned whether exercise during second and third trimesters of pregnancy might affect gestational age and increase the risk of preterm delivery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supervised exercise-program on birth weight, gestational age at delivery and Apgar-score. Methods Sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women (N = 105, mean age 30.7 ± 4.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 ± 4.3 were randomized to either an exercise group (EG, n = 52 or a control group (CG, n = 53. The exercise program consisted of supervised aerobic dance and strength training for 60 minutes, twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks, with an additional 30 minutes of self-imposed physical activity on the non-supervised week-days. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in mean birth weight, low birth weight ( Conclusion Aerobic-dance exercise was not associated with reduction in birth weight, preterm birth rate or neonatal well-being. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00617149

  2. Genome-wide association studies in preterm birth: implications for the practicing obstetrician-gynaecologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolan Siobhan M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preterm birth has the highest mortality and morbidity of all pregnancy complications. The burden of preterm birth on public health worldwide is enormous, yet there are few effective means to prevent a preterm delivery. To date, much of its etiology is unexplained, but genetic predisposition is thought to play a major role. In the upcoming year, the international Preterm Birth Genome Project (PGP consortium plans to publish a large genome wide association study in early preterm birth. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS are designed to identify common genetic variants that influence health and disease. Despite the many challenges that are involved, GWAS can be an important discovery tool, revealing genetic variations that are associated with preterm birth. It is highly unlikely that findings of a GWAS can be directly translated into clinical practice in the short run. Nonetheless, it will help us to better understand the etiology of preterm birth and the GWAS results will generate new hypotheses for further research, thus enhancing our understanding of preterm birth and informing prevention efforts in the long run.

  3. Radiocarbon dating: use and abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the problems associated with radiocarbon dating are discussed with particular reference to the British neolithic site of Briar Hill, Northampton, England. The problems arise when co-ordinating the radiocarbon dates with observed stratigraphy. In particular, three dates are much earlier than expected and no explanation of the early dates can be given as they represent neither sequence nor context. Doubts as to the validity of the dating and, hence, interpretation are expressed. (U.K.)

  4. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, J. C.; Jiang, W.; Bailey, K. G.; Lu, Z. T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport in the terrestrial environment, 81Kr (half-life = 230,000 yr) is the ideal tracer for old water and ice with mean residence times in the range of 105-106 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr-dating is now available to the earth science community at large thanks to the development of an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method. ATTA is a laser-based atom counting method where individual neutral atoms of the desired isotope are selectively captured by laser beams, and their fluorescence detected via a CCD camera. ATTA is unique among trace analysis techniques in that it is free of interferences from any other isotopes, isobars, atomic or molecular species. The ATTA instrument at Argonne's Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating is capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10-14-10-10. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150 kyr - 1500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 kg of water or 40 kg of ice. For 85Kr/Kr analysis, the sample size can be smaller by an order of magnitude. We are continually developing the method towards higher counting efficiency, smaller sample sizes requirements, and higher sample throughput rates. In the past four years, we have performed radiokrypton analysis of over 150 groundwater and ice samples extracted by collaborators from all seven continents. Sample collection and purification was performed by groups including the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois at Chicago, the University of Bern, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  5. Preterm birth prevention: how well are we really doing? A review of the latest literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Sarit; Azem, Fouad; Seidman, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Preterm birth is a global concern resulting in prematurity which is the leading cause of newborn death and long-term squeal in the survivors. In this review, we will summarize the data available to this date in regard to the causes, available interventions, and contemporary research for future applications. PMID:24966497

  6. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  7. Dating by C14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of studies made with two assemblies for dating geological and archaeological objects with C14. The advantages and drawbacks of three ways of determining C14 activity in solid, liquid and gaseous substances are discussed. Data are given of the chemical preparation and cleaning of the gaseous carbon compounds ethane, acetylene and carbon dioxide, and the calculation of their C14 activity. The report assesses the mistakes that can be made in determining age by C14, and gives data for geological and archaeological objects in the Soviet Union. (author)

  8. Onset of autumn shapes the timing of birth in Pyrenean chamois more than onset of spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkgy, Charlotte; Garel, Mathieu; Appolinaire, Joël; Loison, Anne; Toïgo, Carole

    2016-03-01

    In seasonal environments, birth dates are a central component for a species' life history, with potential long-term fitness consequences. Yet our understanding of selective pressures of environmental changes on birth dates is limited in wild mammals due to the difficulty of data collection. In a context of rapid climate change, the question of a possible mismatch between plant phenology and birth phenology also remains unanswered for most species. We assessed whether and how the timing of birth in a mountain mammal (isard, also named Pyrenean chamois, Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) tracked changes in plant growing season, accounting for maternal traits, individual heterogeneity and population density. We not only focused on spring conditions but also assessed to what extent onset of autumn can be a driver of phenological biological events and compared the magnitude of the response to the magnitude of the environmental changes. We relied on a 22-year study based on intensively monitored marked individuals of known age. Births were highly synchronized (80% of kids born within 25 days) and highly repeatable (84%; between-female variation of 9.6 days, within-female variation of 4.2 days). Individual phenotypic plasticity allows females to respond rapidly to interannual changes in plant phenology but did not prevent the existence of a mismatch: a 10-day advance in the autumn or spring plant phenology led to 3.9 and 1.3 days advance in birth dates, respectively. Our findings suggest that plant phenology may act as a cue to induce important stages of the reproductive cycle (e.g. conception and gestation length), subsequently affecting parturition dates, and stressed the importance of focusing on long-term changes during spring for which females may show much lower adaptive potential than during autumn. These results also question the extent to which individual plasticity along with high heterogeneity among individuals will allow species to cope with demographic

  9. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern forensic science has to deal not only with homicides and other traditional crimes but also with more global threats such as the smuggling of nuclear materials, clandestine production of weapons of mass destruction, stockpiling of illicit drugs by state controlled groups and war crimes. Forensic applications have always benefited from the use of advanced analytical tools that can characterize materials found at crime scenes. In this paper we will discuss the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as an ultrasensitive tool for the crime laboratories of the third millennium. An important objective in forensic science is to order past events chronologically by analysing materials associated with criminal actions. Radiocarbon dating is known to the general public for its application to historical and prehistorical investigations. Examples of forensic significance include the assassination of the Inca Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro in the early 1530s, the possible murder of the Tyrolean Ice Man (Oetzi) 5300 years ago and the analysis of the burial cloths allegedly associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ . Recent murders, including those associated with war crimes in the Balkans during the 1990s, can be studied using 14C bomb pulse dating. This method has other forensic applications, including investigation of frauds related to food and wine counterfeiting, dating of opium crops and dating of substances used in biological warfare. AMS extends the applicability of the radiocarbon method, allowing the analysis of 14C in submilligram organic samples. Specific molecular compounds extracted from bones, hair, skin and other carbon bearing substances of forensic significance can now be dated, enhancing the sensitivity and reliability of chronological determinations. AMS can also be used to analyse rare actinide isotopes released into the environment during the clandestine production of nuclear weapons or associated with the smuggling of nuclear materials. In

  10. ESR dating of pseudotachylite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, A.; Toyoda, S.; Takagi, H.; Arita, K.

    2002-12-01

    ESR (electron spin resonance) dating method has been used to determine the ages of quaternary events. When a mineral receives natural radiation, a part of paired electrons in quartz are ionized, and are trapped by lattice defects and impurties as unpaired electrons. The amount of unpaired electrons increases with time. The ESR age is obtained by dividing the total dose of natural radiation by the natural dose rate. Gamma ray doses are given to the sample to obtain the total dose by extrapolating the dose response of the signal intensity to the zero ordinate. The natural dose rate is calculated from U, Th, and K concentrations, and so on. Quartz is one of the promising minerals useful for ESR dating. In the present paper, we attempted to obtain ages of a land slide event. We collected pseudotachylite from Lantan, Himalaya. A land of about 4 km in diameter has found to have slid several kilometers resulting in pseudotachylite at the base. The samples were gently crushed sieved and soaked in 6N HCl for 1 night and then in 20% HF for two hours, but quartz grains were too small to be extracted. However, ESR signals of characteristic quartz were observed. As long as the sample is uniform, it is not crucial to extract pure quartz grains. With the usual procedure of ESR dating, gamma ray irradiation and ESR measurements, we obtained accumulated natural doses of 290 to 450 Gy. The concentrations of radioactive elements, K, U, Th, which give most of the natural dose to quartz grains, were measured by the low background gamma ray spectrometry. We obtained 7.62 ppm of uranium, 21.1 ppm of thorium, and 3.72% of K2O. Assuming the cosmic dose rate of 0.1mGy/y, we obtained 6.08 mGy/y as the natural dose rate. The ESR ages are obtained by dividing the accumulated doses by the natural dose rate to be 49ka from Al center signal (an electronic hole trapped at Al impurity in quartz) and 74ka from Ti center signal (an electron trapped at Ti impurity in quartz) for a sample, and 56ka and

  11. Birth of a new galaxy

    CERN Multimedia

    Rodgers, L

    2001-01-01

    Scientists using the Hubble telescope have been amazed by the number of stars being created in galaxy NGC 3310. But while some scientists are observing the birth of new stars, others are predicting the end of the universe. According to supersymmetry it is possible that the universe could spontaneously change to a state where the electric force is switched off, resulting in the disintegration of all matter. Called 'vacuum fluctuation', this event is even less likely than winning the lottery jackpot twice in the same day however (1/2 page).

  12. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002), data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01) increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The bin...

  13. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  14. New assessment of the effects of birth order and socioeconomic status on birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowding, V M

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the 20 698 singleton births occurring in one year to women resident in the Greater Dublin area provided information on birth weight, birth order, and social class. Low (less than or equal to 2500 g), suboptimal (less than or equal to 3000 g), and optimal (3001-4499 g) birth weights all showed a linear relation with social class. The incidence of low and suboptimal birth weight was highest in first, fifth, and subsequent births, and conversely optimal weight was commonest in second...

  15. Radiocarbon dates XXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This list includes 105 radiocarbon age determinations on 104 geological samples made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. They are on samples from various areas as follows: Labrador Shelf (2); Newfoundland (12); Nova Scotia (2); New Brunswick (1); Quebec (3); Ontario (1); Manitoba (1); Alberta (2); British Columbia (15); Yukon Territory (35); Northwest Territories, Mainland (10); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (21). Details of background and standard for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from November 4, 1980 to October 31, 1981 are summarized in Tables 1 and 2; Table 3 gives the number of counts used to determine the average background and standard counting rates; and Table 4 lists the number of different background and standard gas preparations used for counting

  16. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Bailey, K.; Jiang, W.; Müller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Zappala, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport processes in the terrestrial environment, the long-lived noble-gas isotope 81Kr (half-life = 230 kyr) is the ideal tracer for studying old water and ice in the age range of 10^5-10^6 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr dating, a concept pursued in the past four decades by numerous laboratories employing a variety of techniques, is now available for the first time to the earth science community at large. This is made possible by the development of ATTA-3 (Jiang et al., GCA 91, 1-6; 2012), an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis method (Chen et al., Science 286, 1139-1141; 1999). The instrument is capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10^-14-10^-10. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150 - 1,500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 - 10 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 - 200 kg of water or 40 - 80 kg of ice. For 85Kr/Kr analysis, the required sample size is generally smaller by an order of magnitude because of the isotope's higher initial abundance in the atmosphere. The Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating is currently equipped to analyze up to 120 samples per year. With future equipment upgrades, this limit can be increased as demand grows. In the period since November 2011, the Laboratory has measured both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios in over 50 samples that had been extracted by collaborators from six different continents. The samples were from groundwater wells in the Great Artesian Basin (Australia), Guarani Aquifer (Brazil), and Locust Grove (Maryland); from brine wells of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (New Mexico); from geothermal steam vents in Yellowstone National Park; from near-surface ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica; and from deep mines in South Africa. Sample collection and purification was performed by groups including the University of Illinois at Chicago, University

  17. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinski R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Zielinski,1 Kelly Ackerson,2 Lisa Kane Low1,3,4 1School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Bronson School of Nursing, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Women’s Studies Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to

  18. Cesarean Birth: A Journey in Historical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago seems like yesterday: a time of immense socioeconomic changes, explosion of an "Internet" computer concept, and identification of human immunodeficiency virus. Like all events of the past, transformations in obstetrics developed over time. Cesarean birth can be better understood in a broader context when one considers how the art of obstetric practice has evolved. Cesarean birth progressed from delivering a fetus perimortem or postmortem to a time of operative births that simultaneously juggle a woman's safety, satisfaction, and freedom of choice concerning birth options. Thirty years of increasing cesarean birth rates have prompted government agencies, national organizations, state-level perinatal collaborative groups, and experts to address these rates and the impact on maternal-child health and healthcare systems. The purpose of this article is to explain cesarean birth's remarkable impact on obstetrics by reviewing key historical periods, current advances, and upcoming trends. PMID:27465462

  19. Urgent global opportunities to prevent birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Oakley, Godfrey P; Brent, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    Birth defects are an urgent global health priority. They affect millions of births worldwide. But their prevalence and impact are largely under-ascertained, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. Fortunately, a large proportion of birth defects can be prevented. This review examines the global prevalence and primary prevention methods for major preventable birth defects: congenital rubella syndrome, folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly, fetal alcohol syndrome, Down syndrome, rhesus hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn; and those associated with maternal diabetes, and maternal exposure to valproic acid or iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Challenges to prevention efforts are reviewed. The aim of this review is to bring to the forefront the urgency of birth defects prevention, surveillance, and prenatal screening and counseling; and to help public health practitioners develop population-based birth defects surveillance and prevention programs, and policy-makers to develop and implement science-based public health policies. PMID:24333206

  20. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink;

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...

  1. Does time since immigration modify neighborhood deprivation gradients in preterm birth? A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo Luis; Frank, John William; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard Henry

    2011-10-01

    Immigrants' health is jointly influenced by their pre- and post-migration exposures, but how these two influences operate with increasing duration of residence has not been well-researched. We aimed to examine how the influence of maternal country of birth and neighborhood deprivation effects, if any, change over time since migration and how neighborhood effects among immigrants compare with those observed in the Canadian-born population. Birth data from Ontario hospital records (2002-2007) were linked with an official Canadian immigration database (1985-2000). The outcome measure was preterm birth. Neighborhoods were ranked according to a neighborhood deprivation index developed for Canadian urban areas and collapsed into tertiles of approximately equal size. Time since immigration was measured from the date of arrival to Canada to the date of delivery, ranging from 1 to 22 years. We used cross-classified random effect models to simultaneously account for the membership of births (N = 83,233) to urban neighborhoods (N = 1,801) and maternal countries of birth (N = 168). There were no differences in preterm birth between neighborhood deprivation tertiles among immigrants with less than 15 years of residence. Among immigrants with 15 years of stay or more, the adjusted absolute risk difference (ARD%, 95% confidence interval) between high-deprived (tertile 3) and low-deprived (tertile 1) neighborhoods was 1.86 (0.68, 2.98), while the ARD% observed among the Canadian-born (N = 314,237) was 1.34 (1.11, 1.57). Time since migration modifies the neighborhood deprivation gradient in preterm birth among immigrants living in Ontario cities. Immigrants reached the level of inequalities in preterm birth observed at the neighborhood level among the Canadian-born after 14 years of stay, but neighborhoods did not influence preterm birth among more recent immigrants, for whom the maternal country of birth was more predictive of preterm birth. PMID:21503816

  2. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  3. Vaginal birth after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar B Bangal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.

  4. First birth trends in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Frejka; Jean-Paul Sardon

    2006-01-01

    Levels and trends of various facets concerning first births are continuously changing. The evidence confirms that the postponement of first births is an ongoing and persisting process which started in western countries among cohorts of the 1940s, but only in the 1960s cohorts in Central and Eastern Europe. The mean age of women having first births is universally rising. Fertility of older women was increasing. The decline in childbearing of young women is robust among the cohorts of the late ...

  5. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qiang; ZHI Qi-Jun; ZHANG Xiao-ping; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qurit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth.

  6. Son Preference and Second Birth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    Preference for bearing sons is a common social custom and cultural tradition in China. In 1979, China installed the stringent one-child policy which firmly controls second and higher order birth, although with a few exceptions which allow couples to have two children. Thus to explore son preference value and its connection with second order birth is of great interest. With birth history data of 2412 women between 18 to 52 years old from 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted ...

  7. Low Birth Weight Causes Survey in Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    F. Eghbalian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Neonatal mortality rate is one of the main health problems which is affected by prenatal status, maternal, fetal and perinatal conditions. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the main causes of neonatal and infantile mortality. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the LBW causes in neonates. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was done on 1500 neonates, born in Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, 2004. Data such as birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, birth inte...

  8. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan, Monique

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of sibship size and birth order on educational attainment, for the United States and the Netherlands. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of sibship size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation with years of education for different family sizes separately; this avoids the problem that estimated ef...

  9. Education, Birth Order, and Family Size

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Jesper; Birchenall, Javier A.; Mansour, Hani; Urzua, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a general framework to analyze the trade-off between education and family size. Our framework incorporates parental preferences for birth order and delivers theoretically consistent birth order and family size effects on children's educational attainment. We develop an empirical strategy to identify these effects. We show that the coefficient on family size in a regression of educational attainment on birth order and family size does not identify the family size effect as defined...

  10. Estimation for general birth-death processes

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Forrest W.; Minin, Vladimir N.; Suchard, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Birth-death processes (BDPs) are continuous-time Markov chains that track the number of “particles” in a system over time. While widely used in population biology, genetics and ecology, statistical inference of the instantaneous particle birth and death rates remains largely limited to restrictive linear BDPs in which per-particle birth and death rates are constant. Researchers often observe the number of particles at discrete times, necessitating data augmentation procedures such as expectat...

  11. The APPLe Study: A Randomized, Community-Based, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Azithromycin for the Prevention of Preterm Birth, with Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Nynke R.; White, Sarah A.; Goodall, Mark; Ntonya, Chikondi; Kayira, Edith; Kafulafula, George; Neilson, James P

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Most pregnancies last about 40 weeks. Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation (the period during which a baby develops in its mother) is defined as a preterm birth. In industrialized countries, 5%–10% of all births are preterm. Figures for preterm births are harder to obtain for low-income countries because of uncertainties about gestational dates but, in both rich and poor countries, preterm birth is a major cause of infant death and illness around the time...

  12. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  13. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Bahl Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Jose Martines; Nita Bhandari; Zrinka Biloglav; Karen Edmond; Sharad Iyengar; Michael Kramer; Lawn, Joy E; Manandhar, D.S.; Rintaro Mori; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Sachdev, H.P.S.; Nalini Singhal; Mark Tomlinson; Cesar Victora

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW), as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4.

  14. The current state of birth outcome and birth defect surveillance in northern regions of the world

    OpenAIRE

    Arbour, Laura; Melnikov, Vladimir; McIntosh, Sarah; Olsen, Britta; Osborne, Geraldine; Vaktskjold, Arild

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Little is known about the rates of congenital anomalies in the northernmost regions of the world. As in other parts of the world, it is crucial to assess the relative rates and trends of adverse birth outcomes and birth defects, as indicators of population health and to develop public health strategies for prevention. The aim of this review is to catalogue existing and developing birth outcome and birth defect surveillance within and around the geographic jurisdiction of the Inter...

  15. Thermoluminescence dating of historical buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of ceramic materials is nowadays a consolidated and powerful archaeometric technique. The Luminescence Dating Laboratory of the Department of Material Science (Milano Bicocca University) started its activity in this field in 1980 and since then several thousands of samples have been successfully dated. In recent years TL dating has been extensively and systematically applied to bricks sampled from historical buildings spanning from Roman period to the late XVIII century. This particular application of TL dating technique is presented, and its potential and specificity are illustrated and discussed. (author)

  16. Birth Order and Perceived Birth Order of Chemically Dependent and Academic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Kristie G.; Newlon, Betty J.

    Birth order as it relates to family constellation is one of the principle concepts of Adlerian theory, and has implications for the understanding of chemical addiction. Adler premised that it was the individual's interpretation of his/her birth circumstances that was more important than sequential birth order. This study examined whether…

  17. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  18. Growth mixture modeling of academic achievement in children of varying birth weight risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Charak, David; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry

    2009-07-01

    The extremes of birth weight and preterm birth are known to result in a host of adverse outcomes, yet studies to date largely have used cross-sectional designs and variable-centered methods to understand long-term sequelae. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) that utilizes an integrated person- and variable-centered approach was applied to identify latent classes of achievement from a cohort of school-age children born at varying birth weights. GMM analyses revealed 2 latent achievement classes for calculation, problem-solving, and decoding abilities. The classes differed substantively and persistently in proficiency and in growth trajectories. Birth weight was a robust predictor of class membership for the 2 mathematics achievement outcomes and a marginal predictor of class membership for decoding. Neither visuospatial-motor skills nor environmental risk at study entry added to class prediction for any of the achievement skills. Among children born preterm, neonatal medical variables predicted class membership uniquely beyond birth weight. More generally, GMM is useful in revealing coherence in the developmental patterns of academic achievement in children of varying weight at birth and is well suited to investigations of sources of heterogeneity. PMID:19586210

  19. Radiation in archaeometry: archaeological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline inclusions contained in ceramics act as thermoluminescent dosimeters, the irradiation source being the natural radiation environment. Because of this, various ceramic materials (pottery, bricks, cooked clays, bronze clay-cores) have been dated by thermoluminescence (TL). A short review of the main possibilities of TL dating is given, with some examples that enlighten the advantages and limits of this method in the field of archaeological dating, compared to TL dating of buildings. The assessment of the chronology of Valdivia culture (Ecuador), based on a three-year project of TL dating, is presented and discussed. The overall uncertainty at around 4-5% can be considered the best limit presently available. The uncertainty distribution found among 700 archaeological TL datings and for about 500 building TL datings is also presented. (author)

  20. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  1. Season of birth of breast cancer patients and its relation to patients' reproductive history in Tokyo, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao,Hiroko

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal distribution of the birth dates of 405 pre-menopausal and 285 post-menopausal breast cancer patients was investigated in order to determine whether or not the season of their birth was related to various reproductive risk factors of breast cancer, including nulliparity, late age at first birth, early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and a history of benign breast diseases. The seasonal distributions of births were compared between groups of patients categorized according to whether they possessed each risk factor or not, separately for pre- and post-menopausal patients. Patients with the same menopausal status generally had the same seasonal distribution of births, irrespective of whether or not they possessed a risk factor. Moreover, low-risk patients exhibited more deviation in the seasonal distribution of birth from general births than the high-risk patients. These results suggest that the distinctive seasonal distribution of birth observed in breast cancer patients is basically a phenomenon independent from the effect of the reproductive history on the occurrence of breast cancer, and that specific seasonal factors are involved at the fetal or neonatal stage in the etiology of breast cancer.

  2. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby. If you give birth in a teaching hospital, medical students or residents might be present during the birth. ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web ... For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  3. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a...... fast acting effect on fish oil....

  4. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f...

  5. Witnessing a Natural, Safe, and Healthy Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses her experience witnessing a natural, safe, and healthy home birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  6. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partners (Namerow, Kalmuss, & Cushman, 1997). A few birth parents report being overprotective of their subsequent children because they are afraid of repeating the This material may be freely reproduced and distributed. However, when ... Birth Parents https://www.childwelfare.gov experience of separation and ...

  7. Catholics vs. Protestants - Birth and Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July......Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July...

  8. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence. PMID:22581677

  9. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil;

    2016-01-01

    Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied to...... determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function. The...

  10. Respiratory consequences of late preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Katharine C; Lucas, Jane S A

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries most preterm births occur between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Deliveries during this 'late preterm' period are increasing and, since even mild prematurity is now recognised to be associated with adverse health outcomes, this presents healthcare challenges. Respiratory problems associated with late preterm birth include neonatal respiratory distress, severe RSV infection and childhood wheezing. Late preterm birth prematurely interrupts in utero lung development and is associated with maternal and early life factors which adversely affect the developing respiratory system. This review considers 1) mechanisms underlying the association between late preterm birth and impaired respiratory development, 2) respiratory morbidity associated with late preterm birth, particularly long-term outcomes, and 3) interventions which might protect respiratory development by addressing risk factors affecting the late preterm population, including maternal smoking, early life growth restriction and vulnerability to viral infection. PMID:25554628

  11. The piglet&apos;s behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencová V.; Mlyneková L.; Mlynek J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  12. Factors associated with thymic size at birth among low and normal birth-weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of gestational and perinatal exposures on thymic size in 366 normal birth weight and 426 low birth weight (LBW) neonates in Guinea-Bissau in West Africa. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, thymic size was measured at birth by the use of ultrasound. Information......% CI. RESULTS: Determinants of thymic size among normal birth weight infants were pathologic amniotic fluid (adjusted GMR for thymic index: 0.84 [0.74-0.96]) and male sex (GMR: 1.13 [1.06-1.22]). Among LBW infants, birth season (1.11 [1.01-1.22]), maternal body temperature (0.89 [0...

  13. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo;

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of...... age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer...... statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited...

  14. Radiation in archaeometry: archaeological dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most recurring questions in archaeometry concerns the age of the studied objects. Not all the materials can be dated so far, but the presence of the natural radiation environment has been of great help in finding mechanisms on which many dating techniques are based. The continuous irradiation from the naturally occurring radioisotopes and from cosmic rays causes the filling of electronic trapping levels in non-metallic materials. This kind of materials can, in principles, be dated through the analysis of these filled electronic traps, provided that the manufacturing of the object to be dated coincides with the starting time of filling traps. This condition is satisfied in the case of Thermoluminescence (TL) Dating, that can in principle be applied to all materials whose manufacturing requires a high temperature heating, typically all kinds of clays, but also bricks, burnt flints, porcelains, cooked hearths, bronze clay-cores. The main fields of application of TL Dating are then architectural history, through the analysis of bricks, and Dating in Archaeology which is the subject of this work. A number of examples will be reported to put in evidence usefulness and limits of TL Dating in Archaeology. The statistical precision that can be achieved is limited by the number of different measurements and treatments that are necessary. In some cases the incompleteness of information, typically in relation to environmental radiation and water content in the burial site, can seriously limit TL Dating precision. The sources of errors that affect TL Dating and the meaningful contribution to the archaeological research coming from TL Dating, when correctly and extensively applied, will be discussed relatively to some archaeological excavations and to a few important bronze statues, that have been dated through the analysis of their clay-cores. (author)

  15. Births By Age of Mother, 1960-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is for California live births by age of mother, for years 1960-2013. The live birth counts per age bracket represent the live births to California...

  16. 10 Things You Need to Know about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Features 10 Things You Need To Know About Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... death. Learn more. 1. Did you know that birth defects are common? Fact: Birth defects affect 1 in ...

  17. Preterm and Very Preterm Births by County 2010-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains percent preterm and very preterm live births by maternal county of residence. Preterm births are all lives births less than 37 weeks of...

  18. Pesticide appliers, biocides, and birth defects in rural Minnesota.

    OpenAIRE

    Garry, V F; Schreinemachers, D; Harkins, M E; Griffith, J

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies by our group suggested the possibility that offspring of pesticide appliers might have increased risks of birth anomalies. To evaluate this hypothesis, 935 births to 34,772 state-licensed, private pesticide appliers in Minnesota occurring between 1989 and 1992 were linked to the Minnesota state birth registry containing 210,723 live births in this timeframe. The birth defect rate for all birth anomalies was significantly increased in children born to private appliers. Specific...

  19. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  20. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt;

    2009-01-01

    maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with <10 years of education had similarly increased risks of very, and to a lesser extent moderately, preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient...... increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...

  1. Sex Ratio at Birth in Croatia: Update

    OpenAIRE

    PAVIĆ, DARIO

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that the sex ratio at birth is partially determined by environmental and social factors. The modern change in those factors serves as an explanation for the secular decline in sex ratio at birth in most of the industrialized countries. This article is the reexamination of the results from my previous communication in which no trend in sex ratio at birth was established for the Croatian data from 1946 to 2007. The data for the years 2008 to 2011 were added, which didn’...

  2. Alcohol use, conception time, and birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    Predictors of birth weight and birth length were studied using sociodemographic data collected from 2259 women who resided in Funen County, Denmark, and delivered a healthy child during the period 1978-9 at Odense University Hospital. Low birth weight was significantly related to tobacco use in the year of delivery (p less than 0.01), alcohol use during the same period (p less than 0.05), and a delay in conception of over six months (p less than 0.01). Smoking history and a delay in conceptio...

  3. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as

  4. Trends in birth prevalence of cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P O; Cooke, T.; Rosenbloom, I; Cooke, R W

    1987-01-01

    A register of children with cerebral palsy born in the period 1966-77 to mothers resident in the Mersey region was compiled from several different data sources. There were 685 cases, with a male:female ratio of 1.4:1. The birth prevalence of cerebral palsy ranged from 1.18 to 1.97 per 1000 live births each year, with a mean of 1.51 per 1000 live births. There was no discernible trend in overall prevalence, but there was a highly significant upward trend in the prevalence of cerebral palsy amo...

  5. BIRTH ORDER AMONG NORTHERN INDIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Agarwal; Sunil Kumar Garg; Megha Kulshreshtha Mishra; Lalita Chaudhary

    2011-01-01

    Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the ...

  6. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad.Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all children referred to educational organizations for screening before entering school in Mashhad, Iran. 2400 children enrolled in the study and were evaluated for amblyopia, refractive errors, color vision disturbance and optic nerve problems. Data were analyzed by SPSS.Findings: Prevalence of ophthalmic problems in all children was 5.43% and in low birth weight and normal birth weight 8.29% and 5.74% respectively. Incidence of ophthalmic problems was significantly (P=0.029 higher in low birth weight children than in normal birth weight children. The most common ophthalmic disease in both low birth weight and normal birth weight children was refractive errors 81.5% vs. 68.8 % (P< 0.05. Prevalence of myopia, amblyopia and color vision disturbance was also higher in low birth weight than in normal birth weight children.Conclusion:Low birth weight children are at greater risk of the visual impairment that may occur at an early age and result in long term morbidity. Visual outcome of low birth weight neonates should be evaluated routinely.

  7. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Amiri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all children referred to educational organizations for screening before entering school in Mashhad, Iran. 2400 children enrolled in the study and were evaluated for amblyopia, refractive errors, color vision disturbance and optic nerve problems. Data were analyzed by SPSS. Findings: Prevalence of ophthalmic problems in all children was 5.43% and in low birth weight and normal birth weight 8.29% and 5.74% respectively. Incidence of ophthalmic problems was significantly (P=0.029 higher in low birth weight children than in normal birth weight children. The most common ophthalmic disease in both low birth weight and normal birth weight children was refractive errors 81.5% vs. 68.8 % (P<0.05. Prevalence of myopia, amblyopia and color vision disturbance was also higher in low birth weight than in normal birth weight children. Conclusion:Low birth weight children are at greater risk of the visual impairment that may occur at an early age and result in long term morbidity. Visual outcome of low birth weight neonates should be evaluated routinely.

  8. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  9. The comparison of absolute dating (Radiocarbon dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute dating (radiocarbon, 14C dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples in Temanggung regency (district) of Central Java Province have been carried out. The field sampling was done especially with the purpose to obtain vertical data, so that excavation method was adopted in the case. The main data were the ecofacts of organic habitation such as bones, woods, charcoals, shells, and paper artefacts. The artefacts data were used as a comparison. The comparative data analysis were conducted at Yogyakarta archaeological Department Laboratory, thus included dating of artefacts which were performed according to archaeological analysis procedures, generally based on the attributes attached to the artefacts, whereas the absolute dating of charcoal samples were performed in the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre. Based on the relative dating of epigraphy content on the andesit rock from Gondosuli Temple which showed the year of 754 Saka or 832 AD, the Pringapus Temple was estimated to be built in the 850 AD. According to the absolute dating (Radiocarbon Dating with delta 13C and tree ring corrections) the age for Gondosuli temple based on GDS/LU-2/Spit-7 samples is (384 -602) AD and from GDS/LU-2/Spit-8 = (452 - 652) AD. With these significant differences in the results obtained, it can be concluded that culture environment where the sample were collected already existed before the temple was built. Further investigation is still required

  10. Dating the Quaternary: progress in luminescence dating of sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Olav B.; Roberts, Richard G.

    2006-10-01

    Luminescence dating comprises a collection of numerical-age techniques that are among the most significant chronological tools currently used in Quaternary research. This paper briefly reviews the key historical developments in luminescence dating, from its roots in thermoluminescence dating of heated minerals to the development of optical dating methods for sunlight-exposed sediments. We describe the principles and practicalities of the various techniques commonly used in luminescence dating, including multiple-aliquot, single-aliquot and single-grain procedures, and we discuss some of the latest approaches to recognising and minimising potential errors in age estimation (e.g., by means of component analysis and dose distribution methods in optical dating). The overview also introduces the other papers in this special issue of Quaternary Science Reviews, which address a selection of important issues in basic research, technique development and application of luminescence dating to critical questions in the geological and archaeological sciences, illustrated with examples from around the world and the last million years of Earth history.

  11. Evaluation of the hospital discharge diagnoses index and the birth certificate as sources of information on birth defects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hexter, A C; Harris, J.A.; Roeper, P; Croen, L A; Krueger, P.; Gant, D

    1990-01-01

    The hospital discharge diagnoses index (DI) for newborns and the birth certificate were evaluated as sources of information about birth defects by comparing them with the same births in the case registry of the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBDMP). The CBDMP is an active surveillance system; the staff visit hospitals to identify children with birth defects diagnosed in the first year of life. The study population comprised 66,481 live births to residents of five counties in the...

  12. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... GA, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age......, low birth weight increased the risk of infantile colic in children born at term (gestational weeks 37-41)....

  13. Noncontraceptive Benefits of Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All birth control pills can improve acne and hair growth in the midline that the sugar or placebo ... not be making progesterone, which in the abnormal hair growth. However, when a woman has more prevents the ...

  14. Folic acid and birth defect prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of certain birth defects. These include spina bifida, anencephaly, and some heart defects. Experts recommend women who ... Women who have had a baby with a neural tube defect may need a higher dose of folic acid. ...

  15. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  16. IOC Rescinds Ban on Birth Control Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    A review of the International Olympic Committee's ban and subsequent reinstatement of a certain drug found in birth-control pills points out the need for careful analysis of drugs and their effects before they are banned. (CB)

  17. Maternal Age and Birth Defects in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, Fariba; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Birth defect is a global health problem with more severe consequences in low and middle income countries (LMICs), where it is estimated that more than 94% of severe defects and 95% of affected children\\'s death occur

  18. Agricultural Compounds in Water and Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Weyer, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Agricultural compounds have been detected in drinking water, some of which are teratogens in animal models. The most commonly detected agricultural compounds in drinking water include nitrate, atrazine, and desethylatrazine. Arsenic can also be an agricultural contaminant, although arsenic often originates from geologic sources. Nitrate has been the most studied agricultural compound in relation to prenatal exposure and birth defects. In several case-control studies published since 2000, women giving birth to babies with neural tube defects, oral clefts, and limb deficiencies were more likely than control mothers to be exposed to higher concentrations of drinking water nitrate during pregnancy. Higher concentrations of atrazine in drinking water have been associated with abdominal defects, gastroschisis, and other defects. Elevated arsenic in drinking water has also been associated with birth defects. Since these compounds often occur as mixtures, it is suggested that future research focus on the impact of mixtures, such as nitrate and atrazine, on birth defects. PMID:27007730

  19. Care Practices That Support Normal Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  20. Birth-death processes on trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider birth-death processes on a tree T and we are interested when it is regular, recurrent and ergodic (strongly, exponentially). By constructing two corresponding birth death processes on Z+, we obtain computable conditions sufficient or necessary for that (in many cases, these two conditions coincide). With the help of these constructions, we give explicit upper and lower bounds for the Dirichlet eigenvalue λ0. At last, some examples are investigated to justify our results.

  1. Are Hispanic Women Happier About Unintended Births?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartnett, Caroline Sten

    2012-01-01

    Reducing unintended pregnancies – particularly among Hispanic and Black women, who have relatively high rates – is a key public health goal in the United States. However, descriptive literature has suggested that Hispanic women are happier about these pregnancies compared with White and Black women, which could mean that there is variation across groups in the consequences of the resulting births. The purpose of this study was to examine variations in happiness about unintended births by race...

  2. From Hospital Deliveries to Home Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Woude, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Working in a busy labor/delivery unit gave me insight into the care that my Lamaze childbirth education students would encounter. I was troubled by the number of interventions taking place. The interventions interfered with a woman's ability to work with her labor; some interventions were actually creating problems or even crises. My experiences at this hospital motivated me to become involved with home birth, restoring my belief that birth is a normal process.

  3. Management of the Nuchal Cord at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David JR Hutchon FRCOG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Although nuchal cord is a common occurrence at birth, there is little attention to its importance or management at birth, and teaching includes premature clamping and cutting of the cord as the common option.  Although grade 1 evidence is lacking, the optimal management of the nuchal cord,  the Somersault manoeuvre  is not taught or included in any current guidelines. What evidence there is, presented in this review.

  4. Mental health in women experiencing preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Misund, Aud R; Nerdrum, Per; Diseth, Trond H

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to explore the degree of psychological distress, anxiety, and trauma related stress reactions in mothers who experience preterm birth. Secondarily, we wanted to identify possible predictors of maternal mental health problems. Methods Twenty-nine mothers of 35 premature children born before 33rd week of pregnancy were assessed within two weeks after given birth. The standardized psychometric methods; Impact of Event Scale (IES), General Health Questionnaire ...

  5. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  6. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi′an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Soc...

  7. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Min; Ping, Zhiguang; Zhang, Shuiping; He, Yuying; Dong, Rui; Guo, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi’an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003–2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Social ...

  8. Size at birth and preterm birth in women with lifetime eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micali, N; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eating disorders are associated with lower size at birth, symmetric growth restriction, and preterm birth; and whether pregnancy smoking explains the association between anorexia nervosa and fetal growth. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort study. SETTING......: Maternal anorexia nervosa (both active and past) is associated with lower size at birth and symmetric growth restriction, with evidence of worse outcomes in women with active disorder. Women with anorexia nervosa should be advised about achieving full recovery before conceiving. Similarly, targeting...

  9. Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: longitudinal population based study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Richards; HARDY, R.; Kuh, D.; Wadsworth, M E J

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between birth weight and cognitive function in the normal population.Design A longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study.Participants 3900 males and females born in 1946.Main outcome measures Cognitive function from childhood to middle life (measured at ages 8, 11, 15, 26, and 43 years).Results Birth weight was significantly and positively associated with cognitive ability at age 8 (with an estimated standard deviation score of 0.44 (95%, confidenc...

  10. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Akbar Derakhshan; Farhat Ahmadshah; Rana Amiri; Habiballah Esmaeli

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all chil...

  11. Refractive Status at Birth: Its Relation to Newborn Physical Parameters at Birth and Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Raji Mathew; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Puliyel, Jacob Mammen; Varughese, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Background Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth. Methods All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were e...

  12. The birth memories and recall questionnaire (BirthMARQ): development and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, S.; Crawley, R.; Wilkie, S; Ayers, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childbirth is a challenging and emotive experience that is accompanied by strong positive and/or negative emotions. Memories of birth may be associated with how women cognitively process birth events postpartum and potentially their adaptation to parenthood. Characteristics of memories for birth may also be associated with postnatal psychological wellbeing. This paper reports the development and evaluation of a questionnaire to measure characteristics of memories of childbirth and...

  13. Prenatal Care Demand and its Effects on Birth Outcomes by Birth Defect Status in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Wehby, George L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to identify determinants of prenatal care demand and evaluate the effects of this demand on low birth weight and preterm birth. Delay in initiating prenatal care was modeled as a function of pregnancy risk indicators, enabling factors, and regional characteristics. Conditional maximum likelihood (CML) estimation was used to model self-selection into prenatal care use when estimating its effectiveness. Birth registry data was collected post delivery on infants with and withou...

  14. Building capacity for birth defects surveillance in Africa: Implementation of an intermediate birth defects surveillance workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Alina; Valencia, Diana; Sekkarie, Ahlia; Hillard, Christina L.; Williams, Jennifer; Groisman, Boris; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Bauwens, Lieven; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Each year around the world, it is estimated that 300,000 neonates are born with a neural tube defect. Many countries, however, are still lacking comprehensive birth defects surveillance registries. Comprehensive birth defects surveillance systems can help countries understand the magnitude and distribution of the problem. These systems can also provide information about biological, contextual, social and environmental determinants of birth defects. This information in turn can be used to iden...

  15. Low birth weight and health expenditures from birth to late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hummer, Michael; Lehner, Thomas; Gerald J. Pruckner

    2012-01-01

    Using administrative panel data of health insurants, we estimate the effects of low birth weight on health service utilization among children and young adults between birth and 21 years old. To account for time-invariant heterogeneity of mothers, we use sibling fixed- effects estimation. We find that low birth weight strongly increases subsequent health expenditures and that the effect is particularly pronounced in the first year of life. Starting in compulsory schooling, we observe a shift i...

  16. Staying home to give birth: why women in the United States choose home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Debora; Bennett, Catherine; McFarlin, Barbara; Freeze, Rixa

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 1% of American women give birth at home and face substantial obstacles when they make this choice. This study describes the reasons that women in the United States choose home birth. A qualitative descriptive secondary analysis was conducted in a previously collected dataset obtained via an online survey. The sample consisted of 160 women who were US residents and planned a home birth at least once. Content analysis was used to study the responses from women to one essay question: "Why did you choose home birth?" Women who participated in the study were mostly married (91%) and white (87%). The majority (62%) had a college education. Our analysis revealed 508 separate statements about why these women chose home birth. Responses were coded and categorized into 26 common themes. The most common reasons given for wanting to birth at home were: 1) safety (n = 38); 2) avoidance of unnecessary medical interventions common in hospital births (n = 38); 3) previous negative hospital experience (n = 37); 4) more control (n = 35); and 5) comfortable, familiar environment (n = 30). Another dominant theme was women's trust in the birth process (n = 25). Women equated medical intervention with reduced safety and trusted their bodies' inherent ability to give birth without interference. PMID:19249657

  17. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)

  18. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births

  19. Folic acid and primary prevention of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Carbone, Pietro; Granata, Orietta; Baldi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Birth defects (BDs) are an important public health problem, due to their overall incidence, occurring in 2-3% of live births in European Union. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among major NTDs, due to their severity and relatively high incidence; in the meanwhile NTDs are also the most effectively preventable BDs to date. In particular, an adequate folic acid (FA) intake reduces both the occurrence and the recurrence of NTDs; FA is the synthetic form of folates, naturally occurring vitamins in a number of foods, especially vegetables. The daily intake of 0.4 mg of FA should be recommended to all women of childbearing age who plan to become pregnant. The Italian Network for Primary Prevention of BDs through FA Promotion has achieved a significant improvement in FA awareness and use in the periconceptional period. Nevertheless, primary prevention of BDs needs to make further progress; the Italian National Centre for Rare Diseases participates in european sureveillance of congenital anomalies (EUROCAT) Joint Action as coordinator of activities on the effectiveness of BDs prevention. Mandatory food fortification with FA has not been introduced in any European country. The health benefits of FA in reducing the risk of NTDs are undisputed; however mechanistic and animal studies suggest a relationship between high FA intakes and increased cancer promotion, while human studies are still inconsistent and inconclusive. A Working Group organized by the European Food Safety Authority pointed out significant uncertainties about fortification safety and the need for more studies; currently, FA intake from fortified foods and supplements should not exceed 1 mg/day in adults. In conclusion, based on up-to-date scientific evidence, the Italian Network strategy pivots on periconceptional supplementation integrated with promotion of healthy eating habits, support to health education, enhancing the role of women in managing life choices about their health and pregnancy and increasing

  20. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  1. Dating by electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some natural materials behave like dosimeters in front of the ionizing particle flux coming from environmental radioactivity and the cosmic radiation. This property is used for the dating by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Before presenting the basic principles of the EPR analysis and the dating method which uses such a phenomenous, it is reviewed several types of application currently in course of development. (L.C.)

  2. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  3. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  4. Obstetric Care Consensus No. 4: Periviable Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  5. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study was conducted by eliciting history from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who w ere treated in Rani Chandra Mani Devi Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. De tailed history was taken from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who were treated in this hospital. History regarding the period of gestation at which the child was born (preterm or full term, any previous history of pre - term delivery or abortions, was obtained from the mothers and the data analyzed . RESULTS: From this study it was observed the proportional association of pre - term births to cerebral palsy is 33 out 99 i.e., about 33.33%, Of these 33 cerebral palsy children highest association being with birth at 28 wks gestation (51 %. This study also shows th at the mothers with a previous history of preterm delivery have 14.4 times higher risk of subsequent pre term delivery; those with previous history of abortions have 5.7 times risk of pre - term delivery than mothers without such history. CONCLUSION: From th is study it was concluded that the pre - term birth plays a major role as a risk factor in the development of cerebral palsy with mothers having previous pre term delivery and previous abortions adding further to this risk.

  6. How Do Women Who Plan Home Birth Prepare for Childbirth?

    OpenAIRE

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    In this column, the findings of a secondary analysis of data from a larger qualitative study of the experience of home birth are discussed. The aim was to describe the ways in which women who plan home birth prepare for their births. The findings provide support for the idea of birth preparation and education occurring throughout pregnancy and describe the ways in which women planning to give birth at home develop confidence, plan for support, and make decisions related to the particulars of ...

  7. Analysis of Birth weight using Singular Value Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarajan, D; Nagarajan, V; Seethalekshmi, V

    2010-01-01

    The researchers have drawn much attention about the birth weight of newborn babies in the last three decades. The birth weight is one of the vital roles in the babys health. So many researchers such as (2),(1) and (4) analyzed the birth weight of babies. The aim of this paper is to analyze the birth weight and some other birth weight related variable, using singular value decomposition and multiple linear regression.

  8. Birth weight for gestational age among Flemish twin population

    OpenAIRE

    Doom, E.C.G.; Delbaere, I.; Martens, G.; Temmerman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop birth weight references for twins. Mean birth weights of individual twins are lower than those of singletons, hence singleton birth weight curves may not be suitable to assess twin birth weights. Study design: Twin birth weight curves were developed according to gestational age, gender, parity and mode of conception. The curves are based on population-based data of 40,494 twins born in Flanders, Belgium between 1987 and 2007. Results: A differen...

  9. Thermoluminescence dating (TL-Dating): an absolute method for archeological dating of ceramic base materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence dating is one of the known techniques that have been established in many laboratories across the regions. This technique is capable to date the archeological ceramic base materials and provides an absolute measurement with an accuracy of 5%. The study involves the dating of ceramic clay from historical site at Sungai Mas, Kuala Muda, Kedah. Pieces of broken poetry of archeological sample excavated by the Museum Department and Antiquity (JM4) have been dated using the TLD techniques at MINT laboratory. A TLD dosemeter of LiF chips is used for the background and sample dose measurement. The preparation of sample and the calibration techniques for the estimation of palaedose or dose presented in the sample since distant past is established. Results indicate that the samples are in the era of civilization from 200BP to 1600BP. Error factors associated in the measurement procedures are also discussed

  10. Thermoluminescence dating (TL-dating): measurement and accuracy factors in archaeological dating of ceramic base materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence dating is one of the known techniques that have been established in many laboratories across the region. This technique is capable of dating the archaeological ceramic base materials and provide an absolute measurement with an accuracy of ±15%. The study involves the dating of pottery from a historical site at Sungai Mas, Mukim Kota, Daerah Kuala Muda, Kedah. Pieces of broken pottery of archaeological sample excavated by the Museum Department and Antiquity (JMA) have been dated using the thermoluminescence detector (TLD) techniques at MINT laboratory. A TLD dosemeter of LiF chips is used for the measurement of background and sample dose measurement. The preparation of sample and the calibration techniques for the estimation of palaedose or dose presented in the sample since distant past is established. Results indicate that the samples are in the era of civilization from 200 BP to 1600 BP. Error factors associated in the measurement procedures were identified and discussed. (Author)

  11. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill;

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at bir...

  12. Home birth or short-stay hospital birth in a low risk population in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J.J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands women with low risk pregnancies can choose whether they want to give birth at home or in hospital, under the care of their own primary caregiver. The majority of these women prefer to give birth at home, but over the last few decades an increasing number of low risk women have cho

  13. [Reliability of birth defect data on birth certificates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Fernando Antônio Ramos; Llerena Jr, Juan Clinton; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Cunha, Cynthia Braga da; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed the reliability of birth certificate data related to birth defects in Brazil's Live Birth Information System (SINASC). We selected 24 maternity hospitals in the Unified National Health System (SUS) and compared the reports of birth defects from birth certificates with medical records of mothers and live born infants in the city of Rio de Janeiro for the year 2004. After transposing the data to a specific form, the birth defects were coded by types and organ systems and compared to the SINASC data. The most commonly affected organs involved the central nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Agreement was more than 50% for the digestive, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems and chromosomal anomalies. Prevalence-adjusted kappa varied according to 2 or 3-digit ICD-10 analysis, with better results for the musculoskeletal, digestive, and genitourinary systems and congenital anomalies, and worse for the central nervous and cardio-circulatory systems, eye, neck, and ear malformations, and cleft lip and palate. The results were unsatisfactory, suggesting the need for more investments to train the persons responsible for completing birth certificates in maternity hospitals and develop a model for coding birth defects on these documents. PMID:18278291

  14. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Bahl Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW, as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of pre-conception treatment for periodontal disease to improve periodontal status during pregnancy and birth outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Su, Yi; Zhang, Yiming; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence has suggested that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, several large clinical randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduced the incidence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. It has been suggested that the pre-conception period may be an optimal period for periodontal disease treatment rather than during pregnancy. To date, no randomized cont...

  16. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and birth defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S S; Huang, Y; Wang, C Y; Ren, A G

    2016-06-01

    Birth defects are one of the most common adverse birth outcomes, which create a heavy economic burden to the country, society and family. And they are also one of the biggest problems facing public health today. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of toxic pollutants existing in the environment widely, resulting from incomplete organic matter combustion, and can be taken into the body through various ways including the digestive tract, respiratory tract and so on. Recent researches suggest that the exposure of PAHs may be associated with various birth defects, while the special mechanism isn't very clear. This paper is a review of the relationship between PAHs and birth defects from the aspects of epidemiological data, experimental evidence on animals, which indicates that exposure of PAHs during pregnancy may be associated with birth defects including congenital heart defects, neural tube defects and cleft lip/plate. Furthermore, we explored the possible mechanism, including oxidative stress, oxidative damage and the changes of signal transduction pathway in order to provide some recommendations and suggestions on the future work. PMID:27256742

  17. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah;

    2007-01-01

    maternal conditions. There was no elevation in risk of fatal birth defect if the father was admitted with schizophrenia or any other psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: There are many possible explanations for a higher risk of fatal birth defect with maternal schizophrenia and affective disorder. These......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... estimated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Risk of fatal birth defect was elevated in relation to history of any maternal admission and also with affective disorders specifically, although the strongest effect found was with maternal schizophrenia. The rate was more than doubled in this group compared to...

  18. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of metabolism in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Hamad Al Bu Ali; Magdy Hassan Balaha; Mohammed Saleh Al Moghannum; Ibrahim Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Background Birth defects and inborn errors of metabolism are related to variable poor perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Our aim was to explore the pattern and prevalence of birth defects and metabolic birth errors in Al-Ahsa Governorate in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Methods This retrospective case control study was done from April 2006 to 2009. Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control g...

  19. A population-based study of birth defects in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, M K; Ho, J J; Khatijah, N N

    2005-01-01

    Birth defects are one of the leading causes of paediatric disability and mortality in developed and developing countries. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. One of the objectives of this study was to determine the epidemiology of major birth defects in births during the perinatal period in Kinta district, Perak, Malaysia over a 14-month period, using a population-based birth defect register. There were 253 babies with major birth defects in 17,720 births, giving an incidence of 14.3/1000 births, a birth prevalence of 1 in 70. There were 80 babies with multiple birth defects and 173 with isolated birth defects. The exact syndromic diagnosis of the babies with multiple birth defects could not be identified in 18 (22.5%) babies. The main organ systems involved in the isolated birth defects were cardiovascular (13.8%), cleft lip and palate (11.9%), clubfeet (9.1%), central nervous system (CNS) (including neural tube defects) (7.9%), musculoskeletal (5.5%) and gastrointestinal systems (4.7%), and hydrops fetalis (4.3%). The babies with major birth defects were associated with lower birth weights, premature deliveries, higher Caesarean section rates, prolonged hospitalization and increased specialist care. Among the cohort of babies with major birth defects, the mortality rate was 25.2% during the perinatal period. Mothers with affected babies were associated with advanced maternal age, birth defects themselves or their relatives but not in their other offspring, and significantly higher rates of previous abortions. The consanguinity rate of 2.4% was twice that of the control population. It is concluded that a birth defects register is needed to monitor these developments and future interventional trials are needed to reduce birth defects in Malaysia. PMID:16096215

  20. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  1. Thermoluminescence dating of ancient ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute dating by the thermoluminescence technique, rather than the relative dating previously aimed for, is possible if allowance is made for radiation attenuation effects. To do this the thermoluminescence measurements are made on crystalline inclusions separated out from the fine-grained clay matrix. These inclusions, which are usually quartz, are large enough for their average radiation dose from alpha particles originating in the clay matrix to be negligible. Since the uranium and thorium are carried predominantly in the clay matrix, the natural thermoluminescence acquired by the inclusions comes effectively only from the beta and gamma contributions. A preliminary test programme on known-age pottery fragments dating back to 8000 B. P. has given correct absolute ages to within ± 20%. (author)

  2. Summer birth and deficit schizophrenia: Cantabria, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Herrera Castanedo, Sara; Vazquez-Barquero, Jose L

    2002-08-01

    An association between deficit schizophrenia and summer birth has previously been reported. The authors attempted to replicate this association in a population-based study of incident cases of psychosis in the autonomous region of Cantabria, in northern Spain. Schizophrenia patients were categorized into deficit (N = 22) and nondeficit (N = 55) groups, and the pattern in the two groups was compared. After accounting for the variance due to disorganization, hallucinations and delusions, and demographic variables, deficit schizophrenia had a significant association with summer birth; this association did not depend on a single definition of summer. For instance, among the deficit patients, 59% were born from May to August, in contrast to 18% of nondeficit patients and 34% of the general population. These results confirm the association between summer birth in the Northern Hemisphere and deficit as opposed to nondeficit schizophrenia. The existence of a different risk factor for the two groups suggests a difference in etiology and pathophysiology. PMID:12193837

  3. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  4. Myelination in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognostic significance of cerebral myelination was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in very low birth weight infants. Myelination was graded in two specified sites, optic radiation and corpus callosum, based on the stages of normal term babies and healthy premature infants. The subjects were 30 preterm infants weighing less than 1,500 gm at birth. MRI was performed at 4 to 7 months (corrected age). The normal myelination stage was seen in 18 cases, while a delayed stage was noticed in 12 cases. In the normal myelination group, only 1 case (6%) had handicaps. In the delayed myelination group, 8 cases (67%) had handicaps. Our results showed that delayed myelination was closely related to a poor prognosis. We believe that MRI would be a very good imaging modality for predicting the outcome of very low birth weight infants, particularly in terms of evaluation of myelination. (author)

  5. Antimicrobials for Preterm Birth Prevention: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Preterm birth (PTB remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n=26 or meta-analysis (n=5 for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth.

  6. Future directions in preterm birth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Joses; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    The problem of preterm birth continues to pose one of the most significant research challenges that we face due to its immense scope and complexity. With evidence that 95% of cases of spontaneous preterm birth are intractable to current interventions, our best hope in resolving this problem may lie in new, innovative ideas. Novel approaches to researching preterm birth are currently underway, building upon our prior discoveries and probing into the unknown on multiple fronts. Here we discuss some of the major focuses of future investigation that provide a promising outlook for discovery, including advanced techniques to evaluate the cervix, new strategies to identify the role of the microbiome, and advances in molecular and epigenetic-based research. PMID:26640166

  7. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in...... the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  8. The complexity behind the date

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    For the waiting world, and indeed for most of us here at CERN, ‘the LHC schedule’ simply means the date that the LHC will restart - and we only take notice when that end-date changes. But in fact the schedule is a constantly evolving intricate document coordinating all the repairs, consolidation and commissioning in every part of the machine. So, what actually goes on behind the scenes in timing and planning all the work on one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built?

  9. Thermoluminescence dating of stalagmitic calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence (TL) method of dating stalagmitic calcite has been applied to twenty-seven samples from two paleolithic cave sites; Pontnewydd, Wales, and Caune de L'Arago, Tautavel, France. Environmental dose-rates were evaluated mainly by means of CaF2 capsule burials. The ages of the stalagmitic samples were independently determined by means of the uranium series disequilibrium method. In general, good agreement is found between the TL and uranium series dates, which cover a range from approximately 15 000 to 300 000 years B.P. It is estimated that the TL method should extend to the order of a million years in good circumstances. (author)

  10. Undiagnosed coeliac disease in a father does not influence birthweight and preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2012-01-31

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of coeliac disease (CD) in the father on birthweight and preterm birth. We investigated the association between paternal CD and birthweight and preterm birth. Medical records of all singleton live-born children in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 were linked to information about parents\\' diseases. Fathers who were diagnosed with CD were then identified. Fathers with CD were considered treated if they were diagnosed before pregnancy and untreated if they were diagnosed after the date of conception. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small-for-gestational age (birthweight<10th centile for gestational age) and preterm birth (<37 weeks). We compared the offspring of men without CD (n = 1 472 352) and offspring of those with CD [untreated (n = 138) and treated (n = 473)]. There was no significant association between untreated CD in the father and birthweight (adjusted mean difference = -3 g; [95% CI -46, 40]) or preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, [95% CI 0.53, 1.37]) (compared with no CD). There was some evidence for an association between treated paternal CD and birthweight (adjusted mean difference = -81 g; [95% CI -161, -3]), but not preterm birth (adjusted OR = 1.76, [95% CI 0.95, 3.26]). Untreated paternal CD was not associated with an increased risk of reduced birthweight, or of preterm birth. There was some evidence that diagnosis and presumed treatment of paternal CD with a gluten-free diet is associated with reduced birthweight.

  11. Season of sampling and season of birth influence serotonin metabolite levels in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen J Luykx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal studies have revealed seasonal patterns in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF monoamine (MA turnover. In humans, no study had systematically assessed seasonal patterns in CSF MA turnover in a large set of healthy adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Standardized amounts of CSF were prospectively collected from 223 healthy individuals undergoing spinal anesthesia for minor surgical procedures. The metabolites of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA, dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA and norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, MPHG were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Concentration measurements by sampling and birth dates were modeled using a non-linear quantile cosine function and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS, span = 0.75. The cosine model showed a unimodal season of sampling 5-HIAA zenith in April and a nadir in October (p-value of the amplitude of the cosine = 0.00050, with predicted maximum (PC(max and minimum (PC(min concentrations of 173 and 108 nmol/L, respectively, implying a 60% increase from trough to peak. Season of birth showed a unimodal 5-HIAA zenith in May and a nadir in November (p = 0.00339; PC(max = 172 and PC(min = 126. The non-parametric LOESS showed a similar pattern to the cosine in both season of sampling and season of birth models, validating the cosine model. A final model including both sampling and birth months demonstrated that both sampling and birth seasons were independent predictors of 5-HIAA concentrations. CONCLUSION: In subjects without mental illness, 5-HT turnover shows circannual variation by season of sampling as well as season of birth, with peaks in spring and troughs in fall.

  12. The Demand for Season of Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Oreffice, S; Clarke, D.; Quintana-Domeque, C

    2016-01-01

    We study the determinants of season of birth of the first child, for White non-Hispanic married women aged 25-45 in the US, using birth certificate and Census data. The prevalence of good season (quarters 2 and 3) is significantly related to mother’s age, education, and smoking status during pregnancy, as well as to receiving WIC food during pregnancy and to pre-pregnancy body mass index. Moreover, those who did not use assisted reproductive technology (ART) present a higher prevalence of good s...

  13. Continuing Education Module The Courage to Birth

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Childbirth educator Kathryn McGrath reflects on fear and courage and comes to see some levels of fear as a normal part of the process of pregnancy and birth and not something to be brushed aside. In this article, originally presented as a keynote address in 2005 at the Lamaze International Annual Conference, McGrath discusses fear during pregnancy and birth and presents ways in which the childbirth educator can acknowledge and accept women’s fears, and help find the courage they need to give ...

  14. Born Toon Soon: Preterm birth matters

    OpenAIRE

    Howson, Christopher P; Mary V Kinney; McDougall, Lori; Joy E Lawn

    2013-01-01

    Urgent action is needed to address preterm birth given that the first country-level estimates show that globally 15 million babies are born too soon and rates are increasing in most countries with reliable time trend data. As the first in a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on the global policy context. Preterm birth is critical for progress on Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG) for child survival by 2015 and beyond, and gives added value to maternal health (MDG 5) inve...

  15. Can Higher Cigarette Taxes Improve Birth Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, William N.; Ringel, Jeanne S

    1997-01-01

    This study uses within-state variation in taxes over the 1989-1992 time period to test whether maternal smoking and birth outcomes are responsive to higher state cigarette taxes. Data on the outcomes of interest are taken from the Natality Detail files, generating a sample of roughly 10.5 million births. The results indicate that smoking participation declines when excise taxes are increased. The elasticity of demand for cigarettes is estimated to be appro- ximately -0.25. In addition, estima...

  16. Intertwining of birth-and-death processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swart, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-14. ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Intertwining of Markov processes * birth and death process * averaged Markov process * first passage time * coupling * eigenvalues Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/swart-intertwining of birth-and-death processes.pdf

  17. Birth Order and BMI in Teenage Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Koziel, S.; Kolodziej, H.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relation of birth order to relative weight and prevalence of obesity in a group of 13–15 years old girls. In 1997, 1458 girls were examined. The height and weight measured by trained staff were recorded. Family size and birth order were obtained by a questionnaire. For the purpose of the present study, 776 and 250 girls coming from two- and three-child full families, respectively, were selected from the total sample on the basis of ...

  18. Pregnancy and birth cohort resources in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley;

    2013-01-01

    During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross-cohort...... collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net....

  19. 21 CFR 1312.25 - Expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration date. 1312.25 Section 1312.25 Food and... SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.25 Expiration date. An export permit shall not be valid after the date specified therein, which date shall conform to the expiration date specified in...

  20. Effects of air pollution on birth weight among children born between 1995 and 1997 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Yuh; Tseng, Yaw-Tseng; Chang, Chih-Ching

    2003-05-01

    Recent studies have suggested that exposure to air pollution might be associated with low birth weight. The effects of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and particulate matter less than 10 microm (PM(10)) were examined on birth weight in each trimester of pregnancy. The study group included all full-term singleton live births during 1995-1997 to women living within about 2 km of an air pollution monitoring site in Kaohsiung. Measurements of SO(2) and PM(10) collected at six air quality monitoring stations were used to estimate the influence of exposures on different pregnancy trimesters. This was done by averaging daily ambient air pollution concentrations during the corresponding days based on the birth date and gestational age of each child. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of air pollution on birth weight adjusting for possible confounders including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant gender. The estimated reduction in birth weight was 0.52 g for 1 microg/m (3) increase in either SO(2) or PM(10) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:12746128

  1. Seasonality of birth patterns in an Australian cohort of patients with biopsy-confirmed idiopathic inflammatory myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, R; Hakendorf, P; Limaye, V

    2016-05-01

    Environmental exposures in the foetal period may predispose to autoimmunity. Aim of this study is to investigate whether seasonality in birth patterns exists in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). We used Stata (StataCorp USA, version 13.0) and the user-written routine command 'circsummarise' to assess birth seasonality among South Australian patients with histologically confirmed IIM subsequent to 1980 using their date of birth. There was no evidence for a seasonal birth pattern among IIM patients overall (n = 568), however there were some ethnic variances in birth patterns among non-Caucasian patients. There was evidence for birth seasonality among both Aboriginal (mean = 7 July, Rayleigh P = 0.04) and Asian patients (mean = 12 August, Rayleigh P-value = 0.038). Non-Caucasians born in the third quarter of the calendar year may have an increased risk of developing IIM. Large international studies of IIM patients of diverse ethnicity are required to clarify the role of perinatal exposures in disease susceptibility. PMID:27170240

  2. Comparative study of radioimmunoassay dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioimmunoassay is frequently used in clinical chemistry for the concentration determination of several substances like hormones as thyrotropine and thyroxine. In this experiment the dates of tyroxine radioimmunoassay are processed by three methods: a) like the recommendation of the IAEA, b) Dr. G. Chase method, c) according to the provider. The best method was Dr. Chase's. (author)

  3. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the...

  4. Online Dating and Conjugal Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Dannagal Goldthwaite; Caplan, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-presentation in the online dating profiles of 241 widowed and 280 divorced individuals between 18 and 40 years old. A content analysis of open-ended user-generated profiles assessed the presence or absence of various themes, including the user's marital status, the backstory of their lost relationship, and whether they…

  5. Thermoluminescence dating of dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescent response of the synthetic hydroxylapatite was studied, this material being the fundamental inorganic constituent of dental enamel. In order to make an attempt at archaeological TL dating of teeth, a chemical deproteination procedure of enamel was established, and the pre-dose effects of separated mineral grains extracted from 100 to 6000 years old human teeth were investigated. (orig.)

  6. Teen-Age Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Karla J.

    It has been estimated that one out of three teenage girls will be involved in an abusive relationship or experience violence in their relationships. Given the fact that studies are showing higher incidence of dating violence reported among teenagers, the importance and usefulness of this topic for anyone who works with adolescents cannot be…

  7. Dating volcanic ash by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that accurate thermoluminescence (TL) dates can be obtained on Holocene tephra, both distal and proximal, by utilizing the 2-11 μm glass particles. This glass has the desirable properties of showing no increase in α count-rates on sealing, having no supralinearity correction, exhibiting no anomalous fading, and being relatively sensitive to additive γ doses. (autor)

  8. Recent advances in thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially the application of thermoluminescent dating was to ancient pottery and other baked clay, the detection of forgeries in art ceramics having a particularly powerful impact. In recent years there has been a growing extension of TL into non-pottery materials. Heated flints from paleolithic fire-places is one application. Another is in the dating of igneous rocks from recent volcanic events; formerly this had been impossible on account of the malign phenomenon of non-thermal ('anomalous') fading exhibited by volcanic minerals but this is now being circumvented by utilising TL in the 6000C region of the glow curve. TL dating has also been extended to unburnt calcite, one application being stalagmitic floors in paleolithic caves. Another recent development is the use of TL for dating aeolian sediment and some types of waterborne sediment. These developments give prospect of establishing a TL-based chronology, both for archaeology and quaternary research, extending back well beyond the range of radiocarbon, perhaps reaching a million years ago. (author)

  9. Models dated by 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 210Pbex present in sediments, regardless of their origin, decays following the law of radioactive decay. If the rate of sediment accumulation and flow of 210Pb are constant and there are no redistribution processes of 210Pbex in the sediment, a profile of 210Pbex should be perfectly exponential. Although some of these conditions are not met in all cases and observed profiles are rarely found perfect exponentials, models dated by 210Pb described in this chapter allow to obtain valid dated. Anyway, the models described should be seen as tools of interpretation and the dates obtained as estimates to be corroborated by alternative observations. It is recommended to the reader to go deeper into the topics discussed in this chapter reading references and bibliography at the end. Throughout, the closed system hypothesis must be met. For dating of sediments implies that the radionuclide used is integrated into the matrix tested unaffected by redistribution processes. No cases of mixed sediments or showing evidence of mobility by diagenesis are addressed in this chapter, although we believe that in some circumstances estimates of the accumulation rates are provided but not of the age of formation. Starting with the first published use of 210Pb as a tool dating ice cores, different authors develop model conditions adapted to the dating of sediments. In this chapter we describe the most widely used models, which are based on assumptions about the flow of 210Pbex the sediment surface, the rate of accumulation and concentration of initial210Pbex in surface sediments. The models describing nomenclatures have been different and even contradictory. To facilitate reading of the chapter we propose a nomenclature based on the fundamental assumptions of each model (not in implementation) and have homogenised the nomenclature used. While the model most commonly used for dating sediments is the CF (Constant Flux - Constant Flow), commonly known as CRS (Constant Rate of Supply), the

  10. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtekar Shyam; Kulkarni Madhav; Sadavarte Vaishali; Ashtekar Ratna

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight b...

  11. Home birth or short-stay hospital birth in a low risk population in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J. J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands women with low risk pregnancies can choose whether they want to give birth at home or in hospital, under the care of their own primary caregiver. The majority of these women prefer to give birth at home, but over the last few decades an increasing number of low risk women have chosen a hospital birth, leaving hospital with their baby shortly after delivery. As both this trend and its effects have not been extensively investigated, a study was designed to examine the determi...

  12. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy...... results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...

  13. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Rafael A; Lin Xi; Campbell Joy M; Moeser Adam J; Odle Jack

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birt...

  14. What to Expect After Your Due Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG What to Expect After Your Due Date Home For ... Your Due Date FAQ069, August 2011 PDF Format What to Expect After Your Due Date Pregnancy What ...

  15. TL dating: a novel form of differential dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic age equation of thermoluminescence dating contains two types of quantities, namely accumulated dose and dose-rates which, on closer inspection, are dependent on the size of grains used in the dating experiment. This is caused by the attenuation of radiation within the grains and can be made more explicit by introducing functions into the age equation, which quantitatively describe the effect of attenuation. The age then becomes a function of grain size and concentration of radioactive elements. As the specific functions for alpha- beta- and gamma-radiation contribute to very different degrees to the total annual dose, a potential age determination is offered. In a first approximation it is based only on the grain size attenuation of beta-radiation to which the object was exposed. Such kind of dating requires several grain sizes to be investigated, preferably ranging from 100 to 1000 μm in order to make differences in the archaeodose more easily measurable. The linear relation between archaeodose and attenuation factor of beta-radiation permits the evaluation of the age from the gradient and the environmental dose-rate from the intercept of an appropriate plot. The technique has been tested with quartz grains extracted from 700 to 800-years-old bricks. (author)

  16. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895

  17. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895

  18. Socio-emotional development following very preterm birth: pathways to psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eMontagna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; <32 weeks of gestation has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset.Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity.However, the aetiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies.Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological and psychosocial factors.

  19. Birth, life and death of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows how particle physics allowed, while re-creating the conditions which existed at its birth, to establish a real archeology of the Universe, and how this one is used as a laboratory by physicists to prepare the experiments developed with accelerators

  20. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  1. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting was...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  2. The Birth and Death of a Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M

    2016-01-01

    This letter is meant to be a brief survey of several recent publications providing a simple, sequential explanation of Dark Energy, Inflation and Dark Matter, which leads to a simple picture of the why and the how of the Big Bang, and thence to a possible understanding of the birth and death of a Universe.

  3. Birth injuries to the epiphyseal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A birth injury in the vicinity of a joint might lead to a fracture through the epiphyseal cartilage. The criteria for diagnosing such a fracture at radiography are considered and the continued remodelling of the bone demonstrated. The history of 2 cases with late diagnosis and serious long-term sequelae are described, in order to emphasize the necessity of early radiography. (Auth.)

  4. Characterization of Live Birth with Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Acosta Batista

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the congenital malformations constitute the first cause of infantile death in developed countries, as well as the second cause of death in Cuba, in younger children of an elderly year. Objective: characterizing the live birth newborns with congenital malformations at Marianao municipality during the year 2011. Methods: descriptive, cross-section study of 30- live birth with congenital malformations at Marianao municipality in Havana, during the year 2011. Some of analyzed variables were: sex, affected system, congenital malformation, type of malformation, severity, birth weight, gestational age, prenatal diagnosis, family history of congenital malformation, maternal age, among others. Results: the masculine sex was the more affected, with 18 cases that represented the 60 %. The Polydactyl was the malformation further frequent, with 23.3 %, followed by the pre-aural appendix, with 10 %. The 20 % was born pre-term and only in the 10 % of the cases was obtained a positive result in the tests of prenatal diagnosis. Conclusions: the live birth with MC were characterized to be males with isolated MC and less severe, full term, normopeso, without family history of the aforementioned affection and with a negative prenatal diagnosis. The majority of mothers belonged to 20-35's age group years, they suffered from hypertension and during pregnancy, the principal diseases that they presented were the sepsis and anemia.

  5. Cerebral Palsy Among Term and Postterm Births

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2010-01-01

    The relation of risk of cerebral palsy (CP) with gestational age among term and postterm births was investigated by researchers at the University of Bergen, Norway, and the Epidemiology Branch, NIH, Durham, NC, using Norway’s national health and insurance registries.

  6. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  7. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana;

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...... literature, there are no specific proteomic biomarkers capable of accurately predicting PTB....

  8. Tetracycline resistance genes acquired at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Serrano, Angela M; Contreras, Mónica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2013-06-01

    Newborns acquire their first microbiota at birth. Maternal vaginal or skin bacteria colonize newborns delivered vaginally or by C-section, respectively (Dominguez-Bello et al. 2010 #884). We aimed to determine differences in the presence of four tetracycline (tet) resistance genes, in the microbes of ten newborns and in the mouth and vagina of their mothers, at the time of birth. DNA was amplified by PCR with primers specific for [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)]. Maternal vaginas harbored all four tet resistance genes, but most commonly tet(M) and tet(O) (63 and 38 %, respectively). Genes coding for tet resistance differed by birth mode, with 50 % of vaginally delivered babies had tet(M) and tet(O) and 16 and 13 % of infants born by C-section had tet(O) and tet(W), respectively. Newborns acquire antibiotic resistance genes at birth, and the resistance gene profile varies by mode of delivery. PMID:23483141

  9. Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Discusses background and nature of alcohol-related birth defects. Describes a continuum of impairment to offspring of drinking mothers that is dose-related and produces serious behavioral/learning deficits. The continuum includes young people of normal intelligence who perform below expected levels and find school adjustment difficult. Offers…

  10. Sibship size, birth order, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2005-10-01

    In a sample of 273 American college students who were administered seven personality tests, only death obsession scores were consistently associated with sibship size and birth order (not optimism, pessimism, anxiety, a Taoist orientation, suicidal ideation, or obsessive-compulsive tendencies). PMID:16342569

  11. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrijheid, M.; Casas, M.; Bergström, A.; Carmichael, A.; Cordier, S.; Eggesbø, M.; Eller, E.; Fantini, M. P.; Fernández, M. F.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Hohmann, C.; Karvonen, A. M.; Keil, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Koppen, G.; Krämer, U.; Kuehni, C. E.; Magnus, P.; Majewska, R.; Andersen, A. M. N.; Patelarou, E.; Petersen, M. S.; Pierik, F. H.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Santos, A. C.; Slama, R.; Šrám, Radim; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Toft, G.; Trnovec, T.; Vandentorren, S.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wright, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2012), s. 29-37. ISSN 0091-6765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : environment pollution * child health * European birth cohorts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2012

  12. Sexual Communication Between Early Adolescents and Their Dating Partners, Parents, and Best Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; HELMS, SARAH W.; Golin, Carol E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed early adolescents' sexual communication with dating partners, parents, and best friends about six sexual health topics: condoms, birth control, STDs, HIV/AIDS, pregnancy, and abstinence/waiting. Using a school-based sample of 603 youth (ages = 12–15; 57% female; 46% Caucasian), we examined communication differences across demographic and developmental factors, tested whether communication with parents and best friends was associated with greater communication with partners...

  13. Adult sensory capacities as a function of birth risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, R E; Coren, S

    1996-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between birth risk factors and sensory capacity in 1245 young adults (mean age = 19.9 years). Nine birth risk factors were included (long labour, breech birth, breathing difficulty, instrument delivery, Caesarian delivery, multiple birth, premature birth, low birth weight, and high-risk birth order) and six sensory capacities were tested (Snellen visual acuity, stereopsis, color discrimination, pure-tone hearing, speech recognition, and sound localization). Mild birth stressors were strongly predictive of reduced visual acuity and stereoscopic discrimination, and mildly predictive for the other sensory measures. The fact that vision was more vulnerable to the effects of birth stress than audition may be due to the slower maturation of the visual system. Of the birth stressors examined, twinning was found to have the largest effect on sensory function, possibly because it often occurs conjointly with other birth stressors such as low birth weight, breech presentation, and breathing difficulty and may involve the use of birthing instruments such as forceps. PMID:8877623

  14. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  16. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  17. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi′an City from 2003 to 2012. NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention, while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  18. New application of thermoluminescence: dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle is described of applying thermoluminescence in archeological dating of ceramics, building material, glass and porcelain specimens containing a sufficient amount of silicate microcrystals capable of radiation excitation with a sufficient depth of electron traps in which trapped electrons reside at normal ambient temperature (+-40 degC). For measurement, a piece of the specimen (5 to 50 mg) is powdered and its thermoluminescent (TL) curve is measured by an appropriate equipment. The specimen is then irradiated several times with a known dose and the dose absorbed by the specimen during its history is determined from calibration TL curves. The dose rate due to cosmic radiation and natural radioactivity of the specimen and its environment can either be calculated or measured. The absolute age determination error is +-10%, the determinable range of age is 1 to 106 years. As against 14C dating the TL method is less labour demanding and costly. (Ha)

  19. Neutrino, radioactivity and dating wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wine is a witness of the radioactivity of the atmosphere at the moment of grapes were collected. The possibility of measuring very low radioactivity levels (that was developed for studying neutrinos) has permitted the design of a new non-destructive method of dating bottled wines. This method is based on the detection of the 661 keV photon released whenever an atom of cesium 137 decays. This photon has enough energy to cross the thickness of glass and be detected. The presence of cesium 137 in the atmosphere is mainly due to the military atomic tests performed from 1950 to 1963 and to the Chernobyl accident that took place in 1986, as a consequence this method is valid to date wines that were produced only after 1950. (A.C.)

  20. Consolidating Birth-Death and Death-Birth Processes in Structured Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Zukewich; Venu Kurella; Michael Doebeli; Christoph Hauert

    2013-01-01

    Network models extend evolutionary game theory to settings with spatial or social structure and have provided key insights on the mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation. However, network models have also proven sensitive to seemingly small details of the model architecture. Here we investigate two popular biologically motivated models of evolution in finite populations: Death-Birth (DB) and Birth-Death (BD) processes. In both cases reproduction is proportional to fitness and death...

  1. Unnatural birth? : medical pain management technology and the naturalness of birth

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how medical pain management technology affects the concept of natural birth.The relationship between medical pain management technology and natural birth is discussed in a structural framework in which medicalization, risk, and identity are acknowledged as important issues within the current childbirth paradigm. The analysis is based on thirteen in-depth interviews with Norwegian midwives and mothers on their perceptions of medical pain management technolo...

  2. Unusual Birth Trauma Involving Face: A Completely Preventable Iatrogenic Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmila, Vijayan; Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun

    2014-01-01

    Birth injuries involving face are easily recognizable, but are often under-reported. Most of these injuries are associated with face presentation. We report an iatrogenic, but potentially preventable facial birth injury sustained by an unborn child in institutional setup.

  3. Fertility Drugs and the Risk of Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fertility drugs and the risk of multiple births Infertility treatments that cause multiple eggs to develop make ... birth, the babies might not get all the nutrition that is carried by the blood from their ...

  4. Increased birth spacing reduces health risks for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article reports results from multivariate cross-country analyses on the effect of birth intervals on mortality and health. A comparison of six demographic and health surveys in 17 countries revealed that short birth spacing increases health risks for children. Furthermore, mothers were noted to have too many births too soon after another, which causes substantial health and survival risks for their children. Babies were likewise predisposed to a low birth size and birth weight, poor nutritional status, infant mortality and under-five mortality. Data from India and Egypt indicated that most birth intervals were too short, about 60% were under 36 months and over 25% were under 24 months. Although mothers claim their desire to have longer birth intervals, programs must be initiated to inform these women of the advantages of increased birth spacing. PMID:12349603

  5. Teen Birth Rate At Record Low in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158550.html Teen Birth Rate at Record Low in U.S. They' ... 2016 THURSDAY, April 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The teen birth rate in the United States has reached ...

  6. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal ...

  7. FastStats: Birth Defects or Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Birth Defects or Congenital Anomalies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Data Set [PDF - 993 KB] Search Tables for Birth Defects in Health Data Interactive Trends in Spina Bifida ...

  8. Study Explores Mechanism Between Zika Virus, Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158048.html Study Explores Mechanism Between Zika Virus, Birth Defects Protein on fetal stem cells provides pathway for ... Zika virus might cause severe brain and eye birth defects. The Zika outbreak in Brazil and other parts ...

  9. Girl with Zika Birth Defect Born At New Jersey Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159145.html Girl With Zika Birth Defect Born at New Jersey Hospital The mother was ... Jersey hospital to a baby girl with the birth defect characteristic of the disease, officials said. The baby ...

  10. Scientists Report Insights into Zika Virus and Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_157604.html Scientists Report Insights Into Zika Virus and Birth Defect The pathogen appears to attack ... 2016 FRIDAY, March 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus may cause the birth defect microcephaly by targeting ...

  11. CDC Reports Six Cases of Birth Defects Caused by Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports Six Cases of Birth Defects Caused by Zika Three babies born with defects, while three pregnancies ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In the first reporting of Zika-related birth defects in the United States, federal ...

  12. Teen Birth Rate At Record Low in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158550.html Teen Birth Rate at Record Low in U.S. They' ... 2016 THURSDAY, April 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The teen birth rate in the United States has reached ...

  13. Training traditional birth attendants to use misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat in home births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Quaiyum, Md Abdul; Passano, Paige; Bell, Suzanne; Bohl, Daniel D; Hossain, Shahed; Azmi, Ashrafi Jahan; Begum, Mohsina

    2012-12-01

    A 50-fold disparity in maternal mortality exists between high- and low-income countries, and in most contexts, the single most common cause of maternal death is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In Bangladesh, as in many other low-income countries, the majority of deliveries are conducted at home by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or family members. In the absence of skilled birth attendants, training TBAs in the use of misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat to measure postpartum blood loss may strengthen the ability of TBAs to manage PPH. These complementary interventions were tested in operations research among 77,337 home births in rural Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBAs' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and changes in attitudes and practices related to PPH management in home births after undergoing training on the use of misoprostol and the blood collection delivery mat. We conclude that the training was highly effective and that the two interventions were safely and correctly used by TBAs at home births. Data on TBA practices indicate adherence to protocol, and 18 months after the interventions were implemented, TBA knowledge retention remained high. This program strengthens the case for community-based use of misoprostol and warrants consideration of this intervention as a potential model for scale-up in settings where complete coverage of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) remains a distant goal. PMID:22921713

  14. Impact of multiple births on late and moderate prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refuerzo, Jerrie S

    2012-06-01

    Multiple gestations have an increased risk of pregnancy complications compared with singletons. Delay in childbearing and assisted reproductive techniques have remained common reasons for the increase in multiple gestations over the last few decades. Higher rates of both spontaneous and indicated preterm birth in twins and triplets lead to a significant proportion of the moderate preterm birth and late preterm birth rates. The article is a review of the causes of preterm birth and morbidities associated with these pregnancies. PMID:22364678

  15. Birth order and a two-dimensional assessment of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, F H

    1975-04-01

    Higher order personality dimensions of extraversion-introversion and neuroticism were studied as functions of birth order in two-sib families, using 141 female subjects, with control over sex of sibling and sib age separation. No significant personality dimension variance was attributable to birth order in females. The results were considered briefly in terms of the importance of birth order, heritability questions, and the possible contribution of birth order to lower order traits. PMID:1151602

  16. The first injustice : Socio-economic inequalities in birth outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Gisselmann, Marit

    2007-01-01

    Adverse birth outcomes like preterm birth and infant mortality are unevenly distributed across socio-economic groups. Risks are usually lowest in groups with high socio-economic status and increase with decreasing status. The general aim of this thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the relation between socio-economic status and birth outcomes, focussing on maternal education and class, studying a range of birth outcomes. More specific aims were to investigate the relation between ...

  17. Birth defects in India: Hidden truth, need for urgent attention

    OpenAIRE

    Rinku Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Birth defects (structural, functional and metabolic disorder present from birth, may be diagnosed later) rising up as an important cause of infant mortality even in developing countries where infant mortality has been reduced to much extent. Seventy percent of birth defects are preventable through the application of various cost effective community genetic services. Indian people are living in the midst of risk factors for birth defects, e.g., universality of marriage, high fertility, larg...

  18. Prenatal Depression and Adverse Birth Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Accortt, EE; Cheadle, ACD; Dunkel Schetter, C

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York Complications related to preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Prenatal depression is a hypothesized psychosocial risk factor for both birth outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine evidence published between 1977 and 2013 on prenatal depression and risks of these primary adverse birth outcomes. A systematic search of the PUBMED and PsycINFO databases was conduc...

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Antibiotic Administration during Pregnancy and Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise;

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors.......Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors....

  20. Institutional and Cultural Perspectives on Home Birth in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Meroz, Michal (Rosie); Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2015-01-01

    This study exposes doctors’ and midwives’ perceptions and misperceptions regarding home birth by examining their views on childbirth in general and on risk associated with home births in particular. It relies on an approach of risk communication and an anthropological framework. In a qualitative-constructive study, 19 in-depth interviews were conducted with hospital doctors, hospital midwives, home-birth midwives, and a home-birth obstetrician. Our findings reveal that hospital midwives and d...

  1. Women in the driving seat: birth centre insights

    OpenAIRE

    Deery, Ruth; Jones, Pat; Phillips, Mari

    2007-01-01

    Birth centres seek to promote physiological childbirth by recognising, respecting and safeguarding normal birth processes.This philosophy enableswomen and their families to experience a positive start to parenthood (Kirkham2003a).Midwives are also able to practise ‘realmidwifery’ (Kirkham2003b: 14). Indeed,when there is no risk tomother or baby, themother should be the personwho decideswhere her birth will take place (DoH2004).Astructured reviewof birth cen...

  2. Pathways of the determinants of unfavourable birth outcomes in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Magadi, Monica; Diamond, Ian; Madise, Nyovani; Smith, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the pathways of the determinants of unfavourable birth outcomes, such as premature birth, the size of the baby at birth, and Caesarean section deliveries in Kenya, using graphical loglinear chain models. The results show that a number of factors which do not have direct associations with unfavourable birth outcomes contribute to these outcomes indirectly through intermediate factors. Marital status, the desirability of a pregnancy, the use of family planning, and access to...

  3. Radiodiagnosis of pelvic birth injuries and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konycheva, E.A.; Loskutova, L.A. (Bashkirskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    A study was made of the changes in the pelvic articulations in women with birth injuries 2-5 years following birth on the basis of the clinicoroentgenological findings. Pathological adhesion of birth injuries of the pelvic bones, that manifested itself in the formation of callus and arthrosis of the public and sacroiliac articulations, was noted. The study confirmed incomplete rehabilitation in this group of women. For prognosis of subsequent parturition roentgenopelvimetry is recommended for women with birth injuries of the pelvic girdle.

  4. Birth Order and the Intrahousehold Allocation of Time and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Pörtner, Claus Christian

    2002-01-01

    A potential determinant of intrahousehold distribution is the birth order of children. While a number of studies have analysed birth order effects in developed countries there are still only a few dealing with developing countries. This paper develops a model of intrahousehold allocation with endogenous fertility, which captures the relation between birth order and investment in children and shows that a birth order effect in intrahousehold allocation can arise even without assumptions about ...

  5. Gestational Age, Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth and Risk for Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuelian; Vestergaard, Mogens; Carsten B Pedersen; Christensen, Jakob; Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the association between gestational age, birth weight, intrauterine growth and epilepsy in a population-based cohort of 1.4 million singletons born in Denmark (1979-2002). A total of 14,334 individuals were registered with epilepsy in the Danish National Hospital Register as inpatients (1979-2002) and outpatients (1995-2002). Information on gestational age and birth weight was obtained from Danish Medical Birth Registry. Children small at birth were identified through tw...

  6. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    OpenAIRE

    van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM; Middeldorp Christel M; Lamb Diane J; Vink Jacqueline M; Haak Monique C; Boomsma Dorret I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the N...

  7. Occupational lifting of heavy loads and preterm birth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Juhl, Mette; Bonde, Jens Peter; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day.......To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day....

  8. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection

  9. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection.

  10. Application of total soil organic matter dating in kurgan studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isolated hillocks called 'kurgans' belong to the landscape of the Great Hungarian Plain. Some of them were settlements in the ancient time. The investigated Csipoe-halom is one of the kurgans served as burial place. Under the mound the several thousand-year-old soil surface has been buried so it preserves the soil forms that existed in the time of mound's birth, while the distant surroundings of the mound developed forth and shows the marks of soil formation since then. On the basis of their morphological and visual studies the structure and layers of the mound could be reconstructed. Sample selection for 14C dating based on visually observed stratigraphic changes in the important reference layers. (N.T.)

  11. The Relationship between Birth Order and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Crystal M.

    This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between birth order and several variables, especially academic achievement. One study found a relationship between leadership skills and birth order for males. Several studies found no relationship between birth order and academic achievement; grade point average; self-esteem; locus of control…

  12. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Lamb; C.M. Middeldorp; C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt; J.M. Vink; M.C. Haak; D.I. Boomsma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on importan

  13. Paternal race/ethnicity and very low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Fulda, Kimberly G; Kurian, Anita K; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Moerbe, Micky M

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose was to examine the association between paternal race/ethnicity and very low birth weight stratified by maternal race/ethnicity. Methods Birth data for Tarrant County, Texas 2006–2010 were analyzed. Very low birth weight was dichotomized as yes (

  14. Dylan's Birth: From His Mother's and Grandmother's Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hotelling, Claire N.; Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    In this column, an adolescent mother demonstrates how preparation, Lamaze education, supportive caregivers, and an inner wisdom about the normalcy of birth enabled her to have a safe and satisfying birth. The grandmother, an experienced Lamaze educator and doula, also tells of her transformational experience as she watched her daughter give birth with strength and wisdom.

  15. Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…

  16. 7 CFR 987.12 - Marketable dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.12 Marketable dates. Marketable... exeption of Canada. The Committee may establish different requirements for different countries. (d) Product dates. Product dates are marketable dates that are inspected and certified as meeting the...

  17. Follow-up studies of children with birth defects in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, Rolv T.; Rolv Skjærven

    2009-01-01

    In two studies published from data in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we described the survival, tendency to reproduce and subsequent recurrence of birth defects in offspring for children with a range of categories of birth defects. The studies were done separately for girls and boys. The current review summarizes data from these reports and makes some comparisons between boys and girls. More boys than girls are born with birth defects. The survival and tendency to reproduce showed great...

  18. Laterality Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998–2007): Birth Prevalence and Descriptive Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Angela E.; Krikov, Sergey; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Frías, Jaime L.; Belmont, John; Anderka, Marlene; Geva, Tal; Getz, Kelly D; Botto, Lorenzo D.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007. We identified 517 nonsyndromic cases (378 heterotaxy, 73.1%; 139 situs inversus totalis [SIT], 26.9%) resulting in an estimated birth prevalence of 1.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence inte...

  19. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert;

    2013-01-01

    hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N...... of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second......=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite...

  20. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success. PMID:20078824

  1. Refractive status at birth: its relation to newborn physical parameters at birth and gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Mathew Varghese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth. METHODS: All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were eligible for the study. Refraction was performed within the first week of life. 0.8% tropicamide with 0.5% phenylephrine was used to achieve cycloplegia and paralysis of accommodation. 599 newborn babies participated in the study. Data pertaining to the right eye is utilized for all the analyses except that for anisometropia where the two eyes were compared. Growth parameters were measured soon after birth. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to see the association of refractive status, (mean spherical equivalent (MSE, astigmatism and anisometropia with each of the study variables, namely gestation, length, weight and head circumference. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was carried out to identify the independent predictors for each of the outcome parameters. RESULTS: Simple linear regression showed a significant relation between all 4 study variables and refractive error but in multiple regression only gestational age and weight were related to refractive error. The partial correlation of weight with MSE adjusted for gestation was 0.28 and that of gestation with MSE adjusted for weight was 0.10. Birth weight had a higher correlation to MSE than gestational age. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to look at refractive error against all these growth parameters, in preterm and term babies at birth. It would appear from this study that birth weight rather than gestation should be used as criteria for screening for refractive error

  2. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence dating of sediments, whose principles and present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for the TL behaviour of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intra continental, eolian and fluvial-type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the basis of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of + - 10-15%. (Author)

  3. Age dating of young groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the past 40 years, a variety of methods have been developed that can provide information on the age of young groundwater (0-50 year timescale). Groundwater age refers to the time elapsed since recharge, but is model dependent, being based on an interpretation of measured concentrations of environmental tracers in groundwater samples. As a reference point, an 'apparent age', which assumes unmixed samples (piston flow) is often reported, although a number of mathematical models have been developed that can be used to interpret mean age (residence time) of water that discharges from a groundwater reservoir. Other applications incorporate environmental tracer data in the calibration of numerical models of groundwater flow. Environmental tracers that have proven most useful in providing groundwater age information have an atmospheric source and can be grouped according to (1) those based on measurement of the concentrations of both parent and daughter isotopes, such as in applications of 3H/3He in groundwater, (2) those based on the measurement of the activity of a single radionuclide in groundwater, such as in applications of 3H and 85Kr in groundwater dating, and (3) those based on measurement of the concentration of anthropogenic gases in groundwater, such as in applications of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). In the first case, the initial concentration of the radionuclide is reconstructed from the measured concentrations of the parent and daughter isotopes and age is then determined from the decay equation. The second case requires a priori definition of the initial concentration of the radionuclide recharged to the aquifer, and then age is estimated from the measured concentration and the decay equation. In the third case, age information is derived from a prior knowledge of the atmospheric input function of an anthropogenic gas, its solubility in water, and the measured concentration in the water sample. Each method has

  4. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments, whose principles, present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for TL behavior of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200 μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intracontinental, eolian and fluvial - type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the base of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of +- 10-15%. (Author)

  5. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Moiduddin; Massey, Douglas S.

    2008-01-01

    In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse). We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce ...

  6. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  7. Neonatal skull depression unassociated with birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With few exceptions, a depression of the calvaria in a neonate is caused by birth trauma and often is associated with fracture. Localized depression of the skull without trauma is rare, and such a case is reported here. The cause, complications, and treatment of this condition are briefly discussed. Computed tomography (CT) was useful in clinical management. Although sizable, the depression was not associated with neurologic features and disappeared spontaneously

  8. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight. PMID:26398873

  9. Birth and Early Development of Indian Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kak, Subhash

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the birth and early development of Indian astronomy. Taking account of significant new findings from archaeology and literary analysis, it is shown that early mathematical astronomy arose in India in the second millennium BC. The paper reviews the astronomy of the period of the Vedas, the Brahmanas, and the Vedanga Jyotisha. The origins of Puranic cosmology are also explained.

  10. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Martens Guy; Van Hoorick Katrien; Vandermotte Valerie; Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean sect...

  11. Cohort Profile: Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Samuel C.; Fall, Caroline HD

    2014-01-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997-1998, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 w...

  12. Giving Birth No Longer Means Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    GIVING birth to a child was a life-or-death struggle forthe mother and baby as late as the early half of thiscentury;an estimate survey revealed a mortality rate amongmothers as high as 15 per thousand and infant mortality as highas 200 per tnousand at that time.Midwifery was oftenpracticed by the mother-in-law,the mother herself,or morepopularly,by an elderly woman in the village who practiced

  13. Teenagers born at extremely low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, Michael F.; Grunau, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence constitutes a major transition for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) teenagers. Recent studies of ELBW teenagers born in the 1980s have provided information about the growth and developmental characteristics of these individuals in adolescence and in early adulthood. ELBW teenagers are shorter and lighter than their full-term peers, and have a smaller head circumference. Cognitive and academic vulnerabilities documented during the school years, particularly difficulties with nonve...

  14. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho; Diana Barbosa Cunha; Ana Paula Pereira Esteves; Elisa Maria de Aquino Lacerda; Mariza Miranda Theme Filha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by explo...

  15. Documenting the birth of a financial economy

    OpenAIRE

    Suri, Tavneet; Jack, William; Stoker, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to store, send, and receive money on their mobile phone via text message. This system has opened up basic financial services to many who were previously excluded, and has had real and measurable impacts on the ability of households to protect themselves against health risks. Using ...

  16. Taxation and the Birth of Foreign Subsidiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Werner Sinn

    1990-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of tax policy on foreign direct investment with a particular emphasis on immature subsidiaries. Among other things it shows that taxes on repatriations reduce the subsidiary's "birth weight", that lump sum taxes reduce its cost of capital, and that the possibility of deferral increases this cost. The paper rejects the popular weighted average specification of the subsidiary's cost of capital.

  17. Transfer to hospital in planned home births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blix, Ellen; Kumle, Merethe; Kjærgaard, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    planning for home births. Transfer for indication for foetal distress varied from 1.0% to 3.6%, postpartum haemorrhage from 0% to 0.2% and respiratory problems in the infant from 0.3% to 1.4%. The proportion of emergency transfers varied from 0% to 5.4%. CONCLUSION: Future studies should report indications...... for transfer from home to hospital and provide clear definitions of emergency transfers....

  18. Strategic Parenting, Birth Order and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hotz, V. Joseph; Pantano, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by new evidence, there has been renewed interest about the effects of birth order on human capital accumulation. The underlying causal mechanisms for such effects remain unsettled. We consider a model in which parents impose more stringent disciplinary environments in response to their earlier-born children's poor performance in school in order to deter such outcomes for their later-born offspring. We provide robust empirical evidence that school performance of children in the NLSY-C d...

  19. On Variation of Single Birth Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ping Li

    2006-01-01

    Suppose {X(t); t≥0} is a single birth process with birth rate qii+1 (i≥0) and death rate qij (i >j≥ 0). It is proved in this paper that (i) if there exists a constant c ≥ 0 such that b(i) - a(i) + ci is nondecreasing with respect to i and a(i) + u(i) - ci ≥ 0 (i ≥ 0), then VarX(t) - EX(t)≥-X(0)e-2ct, t ≥ 0,or (ii) if there exists a constant c ≥ 0 such that b(i) - a(i) + ci is non-increasing with respect to i and a(i)+u(i) - ci ≤ 0 (i ≥ 0), then VarX(t) - EX(t)≤-X(0)e-2ct, t ≥ 0.Here b(i) = qii+1, a(0) =0, a(i) =i∑j=1qii-j (i≥1), u(0) =u(1) =0 and u(i)=1/2i∑j=2j(j - 1)qii-j (i ≥ 2).This result covers the results for birth-death processes obtained in [7].

  20. Premature birth: An Enigma for the Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infants born preterm are at greater risk than infants born at term for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Complications include acute respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems, as well as longer-term motor, cognitive, visual, hearing, behavioral, social-emotional, health, and growth problems. The birth of a preterm infant can also bring considerable emotional and economic costs to families and have implications for public-sector services, such as health insurance, educational, and other social support systems. The greatest risk of mortality and morbidity is for those infants born at the earliest gestational ages. However, those infants born nearer to term represent the greatest number of infants born preterm and also experience more complications than infants born at term. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality. This paper deals with various issues related to the premature deliveries from socio-biological perspectives.

  1. Observations on birth planning in China, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, F S; Oakley, D

    1978-01-01

    The People's Republic of China has a national family planning program which encourages late marriage, small families, and long birth intervals. The program attempts to make modern contraceptive, sterilization, and abortion services easily accessible. The birth planning program in 2 communes - Wan-Tou and Chang-Ching - is described in detail. In both communes, propaganda teams seek to reeducate the people to the new norms. Nearly 90% of all eligible women are using some form of birth control; in Wan-Tou more than 60% are using IUDs and less than 10% have been sterilized while in Chang-Ching the proportions are reversed. Both communities view family planning as legitimate and place a high priority on it. Traditional views regarding male superiority and the desirability of large families are the main obstacles to the family planning program. Regional variations exist in contraceptive preferences but practice is higher than 90% throughout the country. Municipal records, a sample of which is discussed, are used to monitor progress. The program has succeeded in lowering the birthrate since the early 1960s but more effort will be needed in the future. PMID:639965

  2. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR. Methods In a sample of 1230 triplets from 410 families, the effects of assisted reproductive techniques, zygosity, birth order, gestational age, sex, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on birth weight were assessed. The resemblance among triplets for birth weight was estimated as a function of zygosity. Birth weight discordance within families was studied by the pair-wise difference between triplets, expressed as a percentage of the birth weight of the heaviest child. We compare data from triplets registered with the NTR with data from population records, which include live births, stillbirths and children that have deceased within days after birth. Results There was no effect of assisted reproductive techniques on triplet birth weight. At gestational age 24 to 40 weeks triplets gained on average 130 grams per week; boys weighed 110 grams more than girls and triplets of smoking mothers weighted 104 grams less than children of non-smoking mothers. Monozygotic triplets had lower birth weights than di- and trizygotic triplets and birth weight discordance was smaller in monozygotic triplets than in di- and trizygotic triplets. The correlation in birth weight among monozygotic and dizygotic triplets was 0.42 and 0.32, respectively. In nearly two-thirds of the families, the heaviest and the lightest triplet had a birth weight discordance over 15%. The NTR sample is representative for the Dutch triplet

  3. Birth preparedness and place of birth in Tandahimba district, Tanzania: what women prepare for birth, where they go to deliver, and why

    OpenAIRE

    Tancred, Tara; Marchant, Tanya; Hanson, Claudia; Schellenberg, Joanna; Manzi, Fatuma

    2016-01-01

    Background As making preparations for birth and health facility delivery are behaviours linked to positive maternal and newborn health outcomes, we aimed to describe what birth preparations were made, where women delivered, and why. Methods Outcomes were tabulated using data derived from a repeated sample (continuous) quantitative household survey of women aged 13–49 who had given birth in the past year. Insights into why behaviours took place emerged from analysis of in-depth interviews (12)...

  4. Tectonic calibrations in molecular dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ullasa KODANDARAMAIAH

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dating techniques require the use of calibrations, which are usually fossil or geological vicariance-based.Fossil calibrations have been criticised because they result only in minimum age estimates. Based on a historical biogeographic perspective, Ⅰ suggest that vicariance-based calibrations are more dangerous. Almost all analytical methods in historical biogeography are strongly biased towards inferring vicariance, hence vicariance identified through such methods is unreliable. Other studies, especially of groups found on Gondwanan fragments, have simply assumed vicariance. Although it was previously believed that vicariance was the predominant mode of speciation, mounting evidence now indicates that speciation by dispersal is common, dominating vicariance in several groups. Moreover, the possibility of speciation having occurred before the said geological event cannot be precluded. Thus, geological calibrations can under- or overestimate times, whereas fossil calibrations always result in minimum estimates. Another major drawback of vicariant calibrations is the problem of circular reasoning when the resulting estimates are used to infer ages of biogeographic events. Ⅰ argue that fossil-based dating is a superior alternative to vicariance, primarily because the strongest assumption in the latter, that speciation was caused by the said geological process, is more often than not the most tenuous. When authors prefer to use a combination of fossil and vicariant calibrations, one suggestion is to report results both with and without inclusion of the geological constraints. Relying solely on vicariant calibrations should be strictly avoided.

  5. Dating techniques in fault investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining the time of most recent fault movement is an important part of assessing a possible site for a nuclear power plant. The purpose of this paper is not to present research information but to provide a practical guide to some of the dating techniques available to the engineering geologist working on nuclear power plant siting. Emphasis is placed on the practical aspects, such as usable minerals, conditions necessary for them to yield correct dates, degree of accuracy, sample collection, sample size, and sample packaging. In this paper, the usual geologic field techniques are taken for granted (such as those used in stratigraphy, paleontology, and structural analysis) for assessing fault history. Laboratory techniques used in conjunction with or supplemental to field methods are discussed. The specific radiometric methods discussed are 14C(carbon-14), fission track, K-Ar (potassium-argon), thermoluminescense, Rb-Sr (rubidium-strontium), and U-Th (uranium-thorium). Racemization of amino acids, paleomagnetism, and fluid-inclusion techniques are the nonradiometric methods that are discussed. Our experiences with some of these techniques are described as well

  6. Birth length and weight as predictors of breast cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatten Lars J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth size, and particularly birth length, is positively associated with breast cancer risk in adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine whether birth size is associated with survival among breast cancer patients. Methods Information on birth size (weight, length and ponderal index (kg/length (m3 was collected from birth archives for 331 breast cancer patients who were diagnosed at two university hospitals in Norway (Bergen and Trondheim. The patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until death from breast cancer, death from another cause, or to the end of follow-up, and birth size was related to survival, using Cox regression analysis. Results Breast cancer patients with birth length ≥ 52 cm had nearly twice the risk of dying (hazard ratio, 1.92, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.41 from breast cancer compared to women with birth length less than 48 cm, after adjustment for place of birth and year of diagnosis. Similar analyses related to birth weight and ponderal index showed no clear association with breast cancer survival. Conclusions Poorer outcome of breast cancer patients with high birth length may reflect effects of factors that stimulate longitudinal growth and simultaneously increase the risk of metastases and fatal outcome. It is possible that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF system is involved in the underlying mechanisms.

  7. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  8. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  9. The seasonal risk for deliberate self-harm. Determined by place of birth, but occurrence determined by place of residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Daniel Joseph; Hallmayer, Joachim Franz

    2008-01-01

    Groups at seasonal risk for deliberate self-harm (DSH) vary according to their geographic location. It is unknown, however, if seasonal risk factors for DSH are associated with place of birth or place of residence as these are confounded in all studies to date. In order to disaggregate place of birth from place of residence we examined general and seasonal risk factors for DSH in three different population birth groups living in Western Australia: Australian Aborigines, Australian born non-Aborigines, and UK migrants. We found Aborigines are at much higher general risk for DSH than non-Aborigines, but are not at seasonal risk, whereas non-Aboriginal Australians and UK migrants are. For UK migrants, this is only found for females. For all groups at seasonal risk this peaks during the austral (southern hemisphere) spring/summer. Furthermore, non-Aboriginal Australians and UK migrants show a consistent pattern of increased case fatality with increasing age. In contrast, case fatality does not increase with age among Australian Aborigines. Overall, despite living in the same environment, the three birth groups show different patterns of seasonal risk for DSH. In particular, the sex difference found between UK migrants and non-Aboriginal Australian birth groups suggests that predisposition toward seasonal risk for DSH is established early in life, but when present this is expressed according to local conditions. PMID:19069611

  10. Amelia : A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all conti

  11. The Ancient Globular Clusters Were Much More Massive At Birth

    CERN Document Server

    Conroy, Charlie

    2011-01-01

    All globular clusters (GCs) studied to date show evidence for internal variation in their light element abundances. These variations have been interpreted as evidence for multiple star formation episodes within GCs, with secondary episodes fueled, at least in part, by the ejecta of AGB stars from a first generation of stars. A major puzzle emerging from this otherwise plausible scenario is that the fraction of stars associated with the second episode of star formation is observed to be much larger than expected for a standard IMF. The present work investigates this tension by modeling the observed anti-correlation between [Na/Fe] and [O/Fe] for 20 Galactic GCs. A strong correlation is found between the fraction of current GC stellar mass comprised of pure AGB ejecta, f_p, and GC mass. This fraction varies from 0.20 at low masses (10^4.5 Msun) to 0.45 at high masses (10^6.5 Msun). The fraction of mass associated with pure AGB ejecta is directly related to the total mass of the cluster at birth; the ratio betwe...

  12. The BirthPlace collaborative practice model: results from the San Diego Birth Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz; Jackson; Lang; Ecker; Ganiats; Dickinson; Nguyen

    1998-07-01

    Objective: The search for quality, cost-effective health care programs in the United States is now a major focus in the era of health care reform. New programs need to be evaluated as alternatives are developed in the health care system. The BirthPlace program provides comprehensive perinatal services with certified nurse-midwives and obstetricians working together in an integrated collaborative practice serving a primarily low-income population. Low-risk women are delivered by nurse-midwives in a freestanding birth center (The BirthPlace), which is one component of a larger integrated health network. All others are delivered by team obstetricians at the affiliated tertiary hospital. Wellness, preventive measures, early intervention, and family involvement are emphasized. The San Diego Birth Center Study is a 4-year research project funded by the U.S. Federal Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (#R01-HS07161) to evaluate this program. The National Birth Center Study (NEJM, 1989; 321(26): 1801-11) described the advantages and safety of freestanding birth centers. However, a prospective cohort study with a concurrent comparison group of comparable risk had not been conducted on a collaborative practice-freestanding birth center model to address questions of safety, cost, and patient satisfaction.Methods: The specific aims of this study are to compare this collaborative practice model to the traditional model of perinatal health care (physician providers and hospital delivery). A prospective cohort study comparing these two health care models was conducted with a final expected sample size of approximately 2,000 birth center and 1,350 traditional care subjects. Women were recruited from both the birth center and traditional care programs (private physicians offices and hospital based clinics) at the beginning of prenatal care and followed through the end of the perinatal period. Prenatal, intrapartum, postpartum and infant morbidity and mortality are being

  13. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  14. Thermoluminescence dating of Hawaiian basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Rodd James

    1979-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of plagioclase separates from 11 independently dated alkalic basalts 4,500 years to 3.3 million years old and 17 tholeiitic basalts 16 years to 450,000 years old from the Hawaiian Islands were investigated for the purpose of developing a TL dating method for young volcanic rocks. Ratios of natural to artificial TL intensity, when normalized for natural radiation dose rates, were used to quantify the thermoluminescence response of individual samples for age-determination purposes. The TL ratios for the alkalic basalt plagioclase were found to increase with age at a predictable exponential rate that permits the use of the equation for the best-fit line through a plot of the TL ratios relative to known age as a TL age equation. The equation is applicable to rocks ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to trachyte over the age range from about 2,000 to at least 250,000 years before present (B.P.). The TL ages for samples older than 50,000 years have a calculated precision of less than :t 10 percent and a potential estimated accuracy relative to potassium-argon ages of approximately :t 10 percent. An attempt to develop a similar dating curve for the tholeiitic basalts was not as successful, primarily because the dose rates are on the average lower than those for the alkalic basalts by a factor of 6, resulting in lower TL intensities in the tholeiitic basalts for samples of equivalent age, and also because the age distribution of dated material is inadequate. The basic TL properties of the plagioclase from the two rock types are similar, however, and TL dating of tholeiitic basalts should eventually be feasible over the age range 10,000 to at least 200,000 years B.P. The average composition of the plagioclase separates from the alkalic basalts ranges from oligoclase to andesine; compositional variations within this range have no apparent effect on the TL ratios. The average composition of the plagioclase from the tholeiitic

  15. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background:To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects,incidence,distribution,occurrence regularity,and their relevant factors in Xi'an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures.Methods:The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012.Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input,and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation,New York,NY,USA) was used for descriptive analysis.x2 test,Spearman correlation and linear-by-linear association trend test were used for statistical analyses.Results:The birth defect rate declined from 9.18% in 2003 to 7.00% in 2012 (x2 =45.00 l,P < 0.01) with a mean value of 7.85%,which is below the Chinese national average level (x2 =20.451,P < 0.01).The order of five most common birth defects has changed.The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) increased with time,particularly after 2012,it became the most frequent type (rs =0.808,P < 0.001).Till then,the number of neural tube defects (NTDs) declined significantly (x2 =76.254,P < 0.01).The average birth defects rate of 8.11% in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (7.56%,x2 =7.919,P < 0.01) and much higher in males (8.28%) than that in females (7.18%,x2 =32.397,P < 0.0 1).Maternal age older than 35 years (x2 =35.298,P < 0.01) is the most dangerous age bracket of birth defects than maternal age younger than 20 years (x2 =7.128,P < 0.0l).Conclusions:A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi'an City from 2003 to 2012.NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention,while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  16. Season of birth and handedness in Serbian high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although behavioural dominance of the right hand in humans is likely to be under genetic control, departures from this population norm, i.e. left- or non-right-handedness, are believed to be influenced by environmental factors. Among many such environmental factors including, for example, low birth weight, testosterone level, and maternal age at birth, season of birth has occasionally been investigated. The overall empirical evidence for the season of birth effect is mixed. Methods We have investigated the effect of season of birth in an epidemiologically robust sample of randomly selected young people (n = 977, all born in the same year. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov type statistical test was used to determine season of birth. Results Neither the right-handed nor the non-right-handed groups demonstrated birth asymmetry relative to the normal population birth distribution. There was no between-group difference in the seasonal distribution of birth when comparing the right-handed to the non-right-handed groups. Conclusion The present study failed to provide support for a season of birth effect on atypical lateralisation of handedness in humans.

  17. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers. PMID:26906339

  18. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  19. Teaching the Mathematics of Radioactive Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, James H.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method used to teach the concept of radiometric dating using mathematical equations. Explores the lack of information in textbooks on how to solve radiometric dating problems using mathematical concepts. (SAH)

  20. What Is Rape and Date Rape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is rape and date rape? What is rape and date rape? Get help National Sexual Assault Hotline 800-656- ... drinking, it is NOT your fault. What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any kind of ...

  1. Thermoluminescence dating: past progress and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account of the historical development of thermoluminescence dating is followed by sections describing: non-thermal fading in volcanic feldspars; feldspars from pottery and burnt stones; stalagmitic calcite - use of image intensifier; sediment dating. (U.K.)

  2. Thermoluminescence dating of various archaeological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The archaelogical application of thermoluminescence dating is demonstrated by presenting typical cases from the Heidelberg Thermoluminescence Laboratory. The application examples include thermoluminescence dating on various ceramic materials from Neolithic to Medieval periods. (author)

  3. 7 CFR 1773.8 - Audit date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Audit Requirements § 1773.8 Audit date. (a) The annual... change the as of audit date is obtained, in writing, from RUS. (1) A borrower may request a change in...

  4. Postpartum Care Services and Birth Features of The Women Who Gave Birth in Burdur in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15

  5. Luminescence dating of storm-surge sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Geological evidence of storm surges has the potential to provide vital information on storm-surge risk. Sediment from the coastal dunes of the Netherlands contains evidence of extreme floods that occurred before reliable measurements of water level began. For these sediments to be useful in flood-risk analysis, they need to be reliably dated. This thesis investigates the use of Luminescence dating for storm-surge sediment. Luminescence dating is a radiometric dating method, which uses tiny li...

  6. Rethinking benchmark dates in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Buzan, Barry; Lawson, George

    2014-01-01

    International Relations (IR) has an ‘orthodox set’ of benchmark dates by which much of its research and teaching is organized: 1500, 1648, 1919, 1945 and 1989. This article argues that IR scholars need to question the ways in which these orthodox dates serve as internal and external points of reference, think more critically about how benchmark dates are established, and generate a revised set of benchmark dates that better reflects macro-historical international dynamics. The first part of t...

  7. The unexpected truth about dates and hypoglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dates are a concentrated source of essential nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates (CHOs), which are necessary for the maintenance of optimum health. Most of the CHOs in dates come from sugars including glucose and fructose. Dates are commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, particularly at the time of breaking the fast to provide instant energy and maintain blood sugar level. However, dates may cause hypoglycemia in a rare condition named as heredity fructose intolerance (HF...

  8. Datingguiden - Din guide til bedre online dating

    OpenAIRE

    l'Anglois-Nordgren, Louise Axen; Clausen, Michelle Simone Gram; Nielsen, Helena Louise Lading; Rahbek, Simone Rebekka

    2015-01-01

    The following study will address in which manner it is possible to create an informative communication product, which informs users of online dating about the different aspects of using online dating. The overall purpose of this study is therefore to answer the problem statement listed below: How can we create an informative communication product, which can enlighten users of online dating at the age of 18-34? To answer the problem statement, an informative online dating guide website h...

  9. Reenacting the birth of an intron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Aspden, Julie L.; Rio, Donald C.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2011-07-01

    An intron is an extended genomic feature whose function requires multiple constrained positions - donor and acceptor splice sites, a branch point, a polypyrimidine tract and suitable splicing enhancers - that may be distributed over hundreds or thousands of nucleotides. New introns are therefore unlikely to emerge by incremental accumulation of functional sub-elements. Here we demonstrate that a functional intron can be created de novo in a single step by a segmental genomic duplication. This experiment recapitulates in vivo the birth of an intron that arose in the ancestral jawed vertebrate lineage nearly half a billion years ago.

  10. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C;

    2006-01-01

    size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies of...... limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...

  11. The Diversity of Transients from Magnetar Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Brian D.; Margalit, Ben; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

    2015-01-01

    Strongly-magnetized, rapidly-rotating neutron stars are contenders for the central engines of both long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). Models for typical (~minute long) LGRBs invoke magnetars with high dipole magnetic fields (Bd > 1e15 G) and short spin-down times, while models for SLSNe-I invoke neutron stars with weaker fields and longer spin-down times of weeks. Here we identify a transition region in the space of Bd and birth perio...

  12. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.

  13. Multicultural Differences in Women's Expectations of Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marianne F

    2016-01-01

    This review surveyed qualitative and quantitative studies to explore the expectations around birth that are held by women from different cultures. These studies are grouped according to expectations of personal control expectations of support from partner/others/family; expectations of carel behavior from providers such as nurses, doctors, and/or midwives; expectations about the health of the baby; and expectations about pain in childbirth. Discussed are the findings and the role that Western culture in medicine, power and privilege are noted in providing care to these women. PMID:27263233

  14. Breakdown of Benford's Law for Birth Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, M; Ileanu, B

    2014-01-01

    Long birth time series for Romania are investigated from Benford's law point of view, distinguishing between families with a religious (Orthodox and Non-Orthodox) affiliation. The data extend from Jan. 01, 1905 till Dec. 31, 2001, i.e. over 97 years or 35 429 days. The results point to a drastic breakdown of Benford's law. Some interpretation is proposed, based on the statistical aspects due to population sizes, rather than on human thought constraints when the law breakdown is usually expected. Benford's law breakdown clearly points to natural causes.

  15. South Sudan: The Birth of an Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Werker, Eric David; Wyett, Kelly Jane; Ding, Shannon Shuang

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the birth of a new economy in a society that has only recently emerged from a 22-year-long civil war. The pace of growth so far has been fast but uneven. We find that aid and oil money are flowing rapidly into certain sectors, while other employment-generating areas of the economy, particularly agriculture, have barely changed their centuries-old ways. As a result, the recent windfall of wealth has yet to translate into tangible development benefits for the majority of the populati...

  16. 38 CFR 21.4135 - Discontinuance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... training: Date of last training. (iv) Farm cooperative training: Date of last class attendance. (v....4135, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... educational assistance shall be the last date of attendance. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3680) (b) Election...

  17. 29 CFR 4281.11 - Valuation dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation dates. 4281.11 Section 4281.11 Labor Regulations... Valuation of Plan Benefits and Plan Assets § 4281.11 Valuation dates. (a) Annual valuations of mass-withdrawal-terminated plans. The valuation dates for the annual valuation required under section 4281(b)...

  18. 40 CFR 425.05 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 425.05 Section 425.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.05 Compliance dates. The compliance date for new source...

  19. 38 CFR 21.7635 - Discontinuance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: last date of attendance; and (ii) Independent study: official date of change in status under the... course not leading to a standard college degree, VA will terminate payments effective the last date of...) Change in law or VA issue or interpretation. If there is a change in applicable law or VA issue, or...

  20. 40 CFR 57.106 - Expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expiration date. 57.106 Section 57.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS General § 57.106 Expiration date. Each NSO shall state its expiration date. No...