WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth date

  1. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J

    2005-04-19

    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  2. [Study of dates of birth and death of WANG Tao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen-Min

    2011-03-01

    The dates of birth and death of WANG Tao, a famous doctor in Tang dynasty, are not found in literature and scholars have different points upon this subject. It could be sure that WANG Tao was appointed mayor of Huayuan county in the ninth year of Kaiyuan period (721) and in December of the fourteenth year of Tianbao period (756) he the revolt in Hejian. The recording after 756 could not be found in literature. According to the official system in Tang dynasty that officers retired at their age of 70, it could be sure that WANG Tao was less than 70 year old in 756. Considering his age when he was the county mayor in 721, it could be speculated that WANG Tao was born during the third year of Chuigong period (687) to the second year of Changshou period (693), and his death date should be some date after 756. But it couldn't be validated. PMID:21624275

  3. Year of Birth Determination Using Radiocarbon Dating of Dental Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 (14C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, 14C levels in the enamel represent 14C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  4. Year of Birth Determination Using Radiocarbon Dating of Dental Enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A; Spalding, K L

    2009-03-10

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, {sup 14}C levels in the enamel represent {sup 14}C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  5. Moon phase at the dates of birth and decease of anthroposophic pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, J

    2000-04-01

    Early adherents of Rudolf Steiner, the founder of the anthroposophical movement, tend to be born and to die during the dark half of the lunar month. There is significant correlation (P = 0.03) between the distributions of the lunar elongation at birth and at decease. However, this correlation does not operate at the level of individuals, suggesting that the effects of birth date and death date are statistically independent. PMID:10859659

  6. Dating the time of birth: A radiocarbon calibration curve for human eye-lens crystallines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heinemeier, Jan; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2010-01-01

    Radiocarbon bomb-pulse dating has been used to measure the formation age of human eye-lens crystallines. Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye-lens that consist of virtually inert tissue. The experimental data show that the radiocarbon ages to a large extent reflect the time of birth...

  7. The Benefits of Delayed Primary School Enrollment: Discontinuity Estimates Using Exact Birth Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.; Shapiro, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper estimates the effect of delayed school enrollment on student outcomes, using administrative data on Chilean students that include exact birth dates. Regression-discontinuity estimates, based on enrollment cutoffs, show that a one-year delay decreases the probability of repeating first grade by two percentage points, and increases fourth…

  8. Mismatch between birth date and vegetation phenology slows the demography of roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriane Plard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marked impacts of climate change on biodiversity have frequently been demonstrated, including temperature-related shifts in phenology and life-history traits. One potential major impact of climate change is the modification of synchronization between the phenology of different trophic levels. High phenotypic plasticity in laying date has allowed many bird species to track the increasingly early springs resulting from recent environmental change, but although changes in the timing of reproduction have been well studied in birds, these questions have only recently been addressed in mammals. To track peak resource availability, large herbivores like roe deer, with a widespread distribution across Europe, should also modify their life-history schedule in response to changes in vegetation phenology over time. In this study, we analysed the influence of climate change on the timing of roe deer births and the consequences for population demography and individual fitness. Our study provides a rare quantification of the demographic costs associated with the failure of a species to modify its phenology in response to a changing world. Given these fitness costs, the lack of response of roe deer birth dates to match the increasingly earlier onset of spring is in stark contrast with the marked phenotypic responses to climate change reported in many other mammals. We suggest that the lack of phenotypic plasticity in birth timing in roe deer is linked to its inability to track environmental cues of variation in resource availability for the timing of parturition.

  9. Total-Evidence Dating under the Fossilized Birth-Death Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Stadler, Tanja; Klopfstein, Seraina; Heath, Tracy A; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-03-01

    Bayesian total-evidence dating involves the simultaneous analysis of morphological data from the fossil record and morphological and sequence data from recent organisms, and it accommodates the uncertainty in the placement of fossils while dating the phylogenetic tree. Due to the flexibility of the Bayesian approach, total-evidence dating can also incorporate additional sources of information. Here, we take advantage of this and expand the analysis to include information about fossilization and sampling processes. Our work is based on the recently described fossilized birth-death (FBD) process, which has been used to model speciation, extinction, and fossilization rates that can vary over time in a piecewise manner. So far, sampling of extant and fossil taxa has been assumed to be either complete or uniformly at random, an assumption which is only valid for a minority of data sets. We therefore extend the FBD process to accommodate diversified sampling of extant taxa, which is standard practice in studies of higher-level taxa. We verify the implementation using simulations and apply it to the early radiation of Hymenoptera (wasps, ants, and bees). Previous total-evidence dating analyses of this data set were based on a simple uniform tree prior and dated the initial radiation of extant Hymenoptera to the late Carboniferous (309 Ma). The analyses using the FBD prior under diversified sampling, however, date the radiation to the Triassic and Permian (252 Ma), slightly older than the age of the oldest hymenopteran fossils. By exploring a variety of FBD model assumptions, we show that it is mainly the accommodation of diversified sampling that causes the push toward more recent divergence times. Accounting for diversified sampling thus has the potential to close the long-discussed gap between rocks and clocks. We conclude that the explicit modeling of fossilization and sampling processes can improve divergence time estimates, but only if all important model aspects

  10. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for birth weight, birth date, dystocia, and survival as traits of dam in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1991-09-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated as traits of the dam in F2 progeny of F1 dams and F3 and 4 progeny of F2 and 3 dams in three composite populations of beef cattle. Traits included birth weight, birth date, calving difficulty percentage, and survival percentage at birth, 72 h, and weaning for calves with dams of different age classes. Breed effects were evaluated for the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 C, 1/4 B, 1/4 L, 1/4 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Among calves with 2-yr-old dams, breed effects were significant for birth weight, birth date, calving difficulty percentage, and survival percentage at birth but not at 72 h and weaning. Calf survival at weaning was lowest for smallest (less than mu - 1.5 sigma) and largest (greater than mu + 1.5 sigma) birth weight classes and did not differ among intermediate birth weight classes. Calves with difficult births with 2-yr-old dams were significantly heavier at birth (39.6 vs 35.4 kg) and had significantly lower survival at 72 h (87.1 vs 92.2%) and at weaning (77.4 vs 85.1%) than calves with 2-yr-old dams that did not experience difficult births. Among calves with dams greater than or equal to 3 yr old and from dams of all ages, breed group effects generally were significant for the traits analyzed. Important breed group effects on dystocia and survival traits were observed independent of breed group effects on birth weight. Effects of heterosis were significant for birth weight for each generation of each composite population and for the mean of the three composite populations. Generally, heterosis effects for calving difficulty percentage were not significant. Effects of heterosis generally were significant for date of birth (earlier) for each composite population and for

  11. Association between exposure to ambient air pollution before conception date and likelihood of giving birth to girls in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Liang, Zhijiang; Liu, Tao; Di, Qian; Qian, Zhengmin; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Guo, Lingchuan; Ma, Wenjun; Zhao, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    A few studies have linked ambient air pollution with sex ratio at birth. Most of these studies examined the long-term effects using spatial or temporal comparison approaches. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exposure to air pollution before conception date could affect the likelihood of the offspring being male or female. We used the information collected in a major maternal hospital in Guangzhou, China. The parental exposure to air pollution was assessed using the air pollution concentration before the conception date. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between air pollution exposure and birth sex with adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as maternal age, parental education levels, long-term trend, season, and weather condition (mean temperature and relative humidity). The analysis revealed that higher air pollution was associated with higher probability of female newborns, with the effective exposure around one week prior to conception date. In the one-pollutant models, PM10, SO2 and NO2 had significant effects. For example, the excess risk was 0.61% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.36%, 0.86%) for a 10 ug/m3 increase in lag 2 day's PM10, 0.42% (95% CI: 0.21%, 0.64%) for lag 3 day's SO2 and 0.97% (95% CI: 0.44%, 1.50%) for lag 3 day's NO2; and in two-pollutant models, PM10 remained statistically significant. These results suggest that parental exposure to ambient air pollution a few days prior to conception might be a contributing factor to higher probability of giving birth to female offspring in Guangzhou.

  12. On Date of Birth of TAO Xingzhi%陶行知先生之诞辰考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏德清

    2011-01-01

    After TAO Xingzhi's death, his date of birth has become a controversy. The paper holds that the date of his birth is on May 11, 1892 after a survey on documents covering his diploma, time of his taking a teaching position, address list of graduates of Nanjing Xiaozhuang University, board of directors of Nanjing Xiaozhuang University, and his relatives.%陶行知生辰问题,陶行知在世时无异议;陶行知去世后,众说纷纭,莫哀一时。本文从学历证明、回国任教证明、南京晓庄毕业同学通信录证明及晓庄学院校董履历证明、亲属证明等八个方面进行了考证,考证结论是陶行知生于1892年11月5日。

  13. Healing patterns of clavicular birth injuries as a guide to fracture dating in cases of possible infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Michele M.; Forbes, Peter W.; Buonomo, Carlo; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Dating fractures is critical in cases of suspected infant abuse. There are little scientific data to guide radiologists, and dating is generally based on personal experience and conventional wisdom. Since birth-related clavicular fractures are not immobilized and their age is known, we propose that an assessment of these injuries may serve as a guide for dating inflicted fractures in young infants, acknowledging that patterns observed in the clavicle may not be entirely generalizable to other bones injured in the setting of abuse. One hundred thirty-one radiographs of presumed birth-related clavicular fractures in infants between 0 and 3 months of age were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists with 30 and 15 years' experience. Readers were asked to evaluate images based on several parameters of fracture healing, with a focus on subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF) and callus formation. SPNBF and callus were each evaluated with regard to presence, thickness and character. Responses were correlated with known fracture ages. SPNBF was rarely seen in fractures less than 7 days old and was most often present by 10 days. Callus formation was rarely seen in fractures less than 9 days old and was most often present by 15 days. SPNBF thickness increased with fracture age and the character of SPNBF evolved from single-layered to solid/multilayered. Callus thickness decreased with fracture age and callus matrix evolved from soft to intermediate to hard in character. There is an evolution in clavicular fracture healing in young infants that follows a predictable pattern. These findings afford the prospect that predictable patterns of infant clavicular fracture healing can provide an evidence base that may be applicable in cases of suspected infant abuse. (orig.)

  14. Healing patterns of clavicular birth injuries as a guide to fracture dating in cases of possible infant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dating fractures is critical in cases of suspected infant abuse. There are little scientific data to guide radiologists, and dating is generally based on personal experience and conventional wisdom. Since birth-related clavicular fractures are not immobilized and their age is known, we propose that an assessment of these injuries may serve as a guide for dating inflicted fractures in young infants, acknowledging that patterns observed in the clavicle may not be entirely generalizable to other bones injured in the setting of abuse. One hundred thirty-one radiographs of presumed birth-related clavicular fractures in infants between 0 and 3 months of age were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists with 30 and 15 years' experience. Readers were asked to evaluate images based on several parameters of fracture healing, with a focus on subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF) and callus formation. SPNBF and callus were each evaluated with regard to presence, thickness and character. Responses were correlated with known fracture ages. SPNBF was rarely seen in fractures less than 7 days old and was most often present by 10 days. Callus formation was rarely seen in fractures less than 9 days old and was most often present by 15 days. SPNBF thickness increased with fracture age and the character of SPNBF evolved from single-layered to solid/multilayered. Callus thickness decreased with fracture age and callus matrix evolved from soft to intermediate to hard in character. There is an evolution in clavicular fracture healing in young infants that follows a predictable pattern. These findings afford the prospect that predictable patterns of infant clavicular fracture healing can provide an evidence base that may be applicable in cases of suspected infant abuse. (orig.)

  15. [Influence of tobacco smoking on newborn's birth weight--analisys of dates concerning births from Maternity Hospital named. Dr S. Mossor's in Opole City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzikowski, Wojciech; Pirogowicz, Iwona

    2008-01-01

    Despite wide education, tobacco smoking while being pregnant is very important issue in perinatology. It is important problem because of life style of polish society, including pregnant women. Clinical observation of this issue is pointing on risk of occurring pathology in pregnancy, unfavorable consequences for neonate also many distant pathological effects among children. Purpose of this was getting an answer for question: whether in current social and economic situation there is connection between low birth mass and smoking tobacco during pregnancy. Under analysis were found births between 38th and 40th one hundred successive births (according to book of birth-room from 2860 labors in hospital in Opol, 2007) of mothers are smoking up to 10 cigarettes a day (group I), mothers smoking 11-20 cigarettes a day (group II) and mothers that are not smoking. This works affirms that smoking has negative influence on child birth mass. It is also displayed that higher the number of smoked cigarettes the higher percent of newborns with low birth mass and higher number o fetus with intrauterine growth retardation. Among mothers that are smoking the biggest group were young women (mean. 24, years) and multipara female (58%). PMID:19189515

  16. Hydroxyurea-mediated neuroblast ablation establishes birth dates of secondary lineages and addresses neuronal interactions in the developing Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovick, Jennifer K; Hartenstein, Volker

    2015-06-01

    The Drosophila brain is comprised of neurons formed by approximately 100 lineages, each of which is derived from a stereotyped, asymmetrically dividing neuroblast. Lineages serve as structural and developmental units of Drosophila brain anatomy and reconstruction of lineage projection patterns represents a suitable map of Drosophila brain circuitry at the level of neuron populations ("macro-circuitry"). Two phases of neuroblast proliferation, the first in the embryo and the second during the larval phase (following a period of mitotic quiescence), produce primary and secondary lineages, respectively. Using temporally controlled pulses of hydroxyurea (HU) to ablate neuroblasts and their corresponding secondary lineages during the larval phase, we analyzed the effect on development of primary and secondary lineages in the late larval and adult brain. Our findings indicate that timing of neuroblast re-activation is highly stereotyped, allowing us to establish "birth dates" for all secondary lineages. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that, whereas the trajectory and projection pattern of primary and secondary lineages is established in a largely independent manner, the final branching pattern of secondary neurons is dependent upon the presence of appropriate neuronal targets. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the degree of neuronal plasticity during Drosophila brain development. PMID:25773365

  17. A novel analytical method, Birth Date Selection Mapping, detects response of the Angus (Bos taurus genome to selection on complex traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker Jared E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several methods have recently been developed to identify regions of the genome that have been exposed to strong selection. However, recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that polygenic models are required to identify the genomic regions that are more moderately responding to ongoing selection on complex traits. We examine the effects of multi-trait selection on the genome of a population of US registered Angus beef cattle born over a 50-year period representing approximately 10 generations of selection. We present results from the application of a quantitative genetic model, called Birth Date Selection Mapping, to identify signatures of recent ongoing selection. Results We show that US Angus cattle have been systematically selected to alter their mean additive genetic merit for most of the 16 production traits routinely recorded by breeders. Using Birth Date Selection Mapping, we estimate the time-dependency of allele frequency for 44,817 SNP loci using genomic best linear unbiased prediction, generalized least squares, and BayesCπ analyses. Finally, we reconstruct the primary phenotypes that have historically been exposed to selection from a genome-wide analysis of the 16 production traits and gene ontology enrichment analysis. Conclusions We demonstrate that Birth Date Selection Mapping utilizing mixed models corrects for time-dependent pedigree sampling effects that lead to spurious SNP associations and reveals genomic signatures of ongoing selection on complex traits. Because multiple traits have historically been selected in concert and most quantitative trait loci have small effects, selection has incrementally altered allele frequencies throughout the genome. Two quantitative trait loci of large effect were not the most strongly selected of the loci due to their antagonistic pleiotropic effects on strongly selected phenotypes. Birth Date Selection Mapping may readily be extended to temporally-stratified human

  18. Study on Min Ziqian's date of birth and family background%闵子骞生年及家庭出身考辨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单冬冬

    2016-01-01

    Min Ziqian has been respected as a Confucian sage and moral model both officially and non-governmentally in the past 2,000 years. But he was little mentioned in historical literature. Knowledge about his date of birth and family background depends only on Min Genealogy and local chronicles. About the date of birth and family background, there are two kinds of view. One holds that Min Ziqian was born in the fifth year after Luzhao Gong was in power, was the son of Min Mafu who was Dafu of Lu. The other suggests that Min was born in the seventh year after Luzhao Gong was in power and the son of Min Zhongbin who was Weili of Lu. My study shows Min Ziqian was born in the fifth year after Luzhao Gong was in power, but the statement that he was the son of Min Mafu is wrong, the statement that he was the son of Min Zhongbin is more convincing.%二千余年来,闵子骞作为儒家先贤、道德楷模,无论在官方还是在民间都备受尊崇。然而由于史料中关于闵子骞的记载较少,对于闵子骞生年、家庭出身等问题的认识往往只能简单依据现存的闵氏宗谱、地方志等,史料来源较为单一,且颇多矛盾之处。目前关于闵子骞生年与出身有两种说法:一种是闵子骞生于鲁昭公五年,系鲁国大夫闵马父之子;另一种是闵子骞生于鲁昭公七年,系鲁国委吏闵仲滨之子。通过考证,可以确定闵子骞生于鲁昭公五年,但其系闵马父之子的说法有误,其系鲁国委吏闵仲滨之子的说法则更为可信。

  19. The Analysis of Shi Jianwu's Birth-and-death Dates%(唐)施肩吾生卒年限推断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹飘飘

    2012-01-01

    本文从施肩吾的诗文作品着手,找寻能够显示施肩吾年龄或生存年代的线索,从施肩吾曾下第的经历,以及诗句"年来如抛梭,不老应不得"中折射出的沧桑感,判断出施肩吾进士及第时已人到中年,由此推出他可能出生于唐德宗建中-贞元年间。又据施肩吾的《述灵响词序》和《西山集》序言提供的两个时间线索,推出唐文宗开成六年施肩吾仍然在世。而且,施肩吾的《与徐凝书》和《喜友再相逢》,也证实了他的迟暮。最后结合《吴兴备志》和《施氏宗谱》的说法,综合考量,暂定施肩吾的生卒年限为唐德宗建中元年(780)——唐懿宗咸通二年(861)之间。%The thesis tries to find out some clues about Shi Jianwu's birth-and-death dates from his literature.Firstly,according to the experience that Shi Jianwu once failed in the examination getting the qualification to be an official,as well as his poem "Time flies,only if be old can get the qualification" which reflected a sense of vicissitudes,it could tell that Shi Jianwu was an old man when he passed the examination.So he may be born between "Jian-Zhong" to "Zhen-Yuan" under the rule of emperor "DeZhong" on Tang Dynasty.Then,another two articles written by Shi Jianwu contained two time clues,which told Shi Jianwu had still been alive in the sixth year of "Kai-Cheng" under the rule of emperor "Wen Zhong" on Tang Dynasty.And it could be proved that Shi Jianwu's longevity through a letter to Ning Xu and happy to be met again with friend written by Shi Jianwu too.Above all,combining the records from Wu-Xing records and genealogy of Shi as the last name,Jianwu Shi' birth-and-death dates could be limited between the first year of "Jian-Zhong" ruled by emperor "De Zhong" to the second year of "Xian-Tong" ruled by "Yi Zhong" on Tang Dynasty,which means that Jianwu Shi may be born in AD 780 and dead in AD 861.

  20. Validity of pre and post-term birth rates based on the date of last menstrual period compared to early obstetric ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nilza Lima Medeiros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the last menstrual period (LMP estimate in determining pre and post-term birth rates, in a prenatal cohort from two Brazilian cities, São Luís and Ribeirão Preto. Pregnant women with a single fetus and less than 20 weeks' gestation by obstetric ultrasonography who received prenatal care in 2010 and 2011 were included. The LMP was obtained on two occasions (at 22-25 weeks gestation and after birth. The sensitivity of LMP obtained prenatally to estimate the preterm birth rate was 65.6% in São Luís and 78.7% in Ribeirão Preto and the positive predictive value was 57.3% in São Luís and 73.3% in Ribeirão Preto. LMP errors in identifying preterm birth were lower in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of LMP for the estimate of the post-term birth rate was very low and tended to overestimate it. LMP can be used with some errors to identify the preterm birth rate when obstetric ultrasonography is not available, but is not suitable for predicting post-term birth.

  1. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  2. Post-neonatal mortality, morbidity, and developmental outcome after ultrasound-dated preterm birth in rural Malawi: a community-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Gladstone

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is considered to be associated with an estimated 27% of neonatal deaths, the majority in resource-poor countries where rates of prematurity are high. There is no information on medium term outcomes after accurately determined preterm birth in such settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This community-based stratified cohort study conducted between May-December 2006 in Southern Malawi followed up 840 post-neonatal infants born to mothers who had received antenatal antibiotic prophylaxis/placebo in an attempt to reduce rates of preterm birth (APPLe trial ISRCTN84023116. Gestational age at delivery was based on ultrasound measurement of fetal bi-parietal diameter in early-mid pregnancy. 247 infants born before 37 wk gestation and 593 term infants were assessed at 12, 18, or 24 months. We assessed survival (death, morbidity (reported by carer, admissions, out-patient attendance, growth (weight and height, and development (Ten Question Questionnaire [TQQ] and Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool [MDAT]. Preterm infants were at significantly greater risk of death (hazard ratio 1.79, 95% CI 1.09-2.95. Surviving preterm infants were more likely to be underweight (weight-for-age z score; p<0.001 or wasted (weight-for-length z score; p<0.01 with no effect of gestational age at delivery. Preterm infants more often screened positively for disability on the Ten Question Questionnaire (p = 0.002. They also had higher rates of developmental delay on the MDAT at 18 months (p = 0.009, with gestational age at delivery (p = 0.01 increasing this likelihood. Morbidity-visits to a health centre (93% and admissions to hospital (22%-was similar for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 years of life, infants who are born preterm in resource poor countries, continue to be at a disadvantage in terms of mortality, growth, and development. In addition to interventions in the immediate neonatal period, a refocus on early childhood is

  3. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... in which they give birth. Do you want music and low lighting? How about the freedom to ...

  4. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors, and social, personal, and economic characteristics. Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing ... My last baby was born early. Is there anything I can do in this pregnancy to keep ...

  5. Introduction: Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Imogen

    2009-01-01

    We are all born. Hannah Arendt suggests that the absence of this primary fact from histories of thought represents a significant lacuna in political and philosophical traditions. For Arendt natality, the capacity to begin, is the foundational fact of all thought, all politics and all action. Without some fundmental understanding of the place of birth, there can, she suggests, be no social change, no human future. Arendt’s insistence on thinking birth as the basis for politics is radical in th...

  6. 《唐诗镜》作者陆时雍生卒年新考%A New Textual Study of the Date of Birth and Decease of Lu Shiyong Author of Tang Shi Jing(唐诗镜)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贺

    2012-01-01

    There are two celebrities identically named Lu Shiyong in the Ming Dynasty.One was born in 1633 in Tongxiang County,Zhejiang Province,styling himself Zhongzhao(some believe it to be Zhaozhong);and he was a noted poem critic in the period of Emperor Jiajing's reign(1522—1566) of the Ming Dynasty.The other was born in Guian County,Zhejiang Province,who,styled Youchun,was a successful candidate in the highest imperial examinations of Emperor Jiajing's reign.For fear that the two identical names should cause a great deal of confusion on the part of readers,this paper conducts a textual study of the life and deeds of the two.Meanwhile,the present author also detailedly examines the date of birth and decease of the former Lu Shiyong,a native of Tongxiang County and author of Tang Shi Jing(唐诗镜).%明有二陆时雍,一为浙江桐乡陆时雍,字仲昭,一字昭仲,浙江桐乡县人,崇祯六年(1633年)癸酉贡生,是我国明代嘉靖时期著名的诗歌批评家。《明史》、《清史稿》均无传。一为浙江归安陆时雍,字幼淳,归安人,嘉靖进士。疑此二人事迹相混,文章拟对二人生平进行考证。同时笔者将对《唐诗镜》作者桐乡陆时雍的生卒年进行详考。

  7. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...

  8. Date Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Date Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Date Rape Print A A ... en español Violaciones durante citas What Is Date Rape? When people think of rape , they might picture ...

  9. Clara's birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  10. Radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper on radiometric dating is a chapter in a handbook of Holocene Palaeoecology and Palaeohydrology. This chapter is part of a section on dating methods. Radiocarbon dating is discussed with respect to the apparent ages of lake sediments, seawater, sea creatures and plants. Isotope dating methods for the late Holocene deposits involving 210Pb, 137Cs, sup(239, 240)Pu, 241Am, 32Si and 39Ar are also described. (U.K.)

  11. Radiocarbon Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-20

    Radiocarbon dating can be used to determine the age of objects that contain components that were once alive. In the case of human remains, a radiocarbon date can distinguish between a crime scene and an archeological site. Documents, museum artifacts and art objects can be dated to determine if their age is correct for the historical context. A radiocarbon date does not confirm authenticity, but it can help identify a forgery.

  12. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  13. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  14. Beating Birth Defects (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-17

    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.  Created: 1/17/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/17/2013.

  15. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998.......Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  16. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z.; Xuyên Hoàng; Toan Ngo Van

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births) has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 wom...

  17. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  18. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... 100% effective method of birth control. LEARN MORE IUD An IUD is a T-shaped device that ...

  19. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  20. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  1. [Evaluation of the quality of birth registration data in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, R J

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of the quality of data published in "Estatisticas do Registro Civil, 1974-79" (Vital Registration Statistics, 1974-79) concerning children ever born in Brazil and its states is presented. Qualitative analysis of these variables is included: time period between date of birth and date of registration, mother's permanent place of birth, type of delivery, sex, and mother's age at time of delivery. (author's modified)

  2. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  3. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  4. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  5. Adolescent Births 2010-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — http://tinyurl.com/AdolescentBirthRatesMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfRepeatBirthsMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfBirthsInHighPoverty. This dataset contains...

  6. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  7. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  8. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... there is a problem with a baby's body chemistry, it is called a metabolic birth defect. Metabolic ...

  9. Emmetropisation following preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, K J; McCulloch, D L; Shepherd, A.J.; Wilkinson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: Even in the absence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), premature birth signals increased risk for abnormal refractive development. The present study examined the relation between clinical risk factors and refractive development among preterm infants without ROP.

  10. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 717-933-9743 Accredited since January 2016 100 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited ... Birthing Center-Cedar Park Accredited 1130 Cottonwood Creek Trail Building D Suite 2 Cedar Park, TX 78613 ...

  11. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... later if you prefer. Now let me turn things over to the obstetrician performing the delivery to ...

  12. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  13. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... hour, operating surgeon Dr. Leah Ridgway will perform a caesarean section delivery while Dr. Reagan Wittek will ...

  14. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after delivery. And that's over here so that mom can hear the baby and the baby will ... So we don't encourage elective first-time moms having a cesarean birth. 00:09:12 LEAH ...

  15. FAVORED ZODIAC FOR CELEBRITY BIRTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah M. Adel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To find any favored zodiac sign for celebrity births, a sample of 100 celebrities were randomly selected from people of different walks of life. The sample contained politicians, natural scientists, social scientists, Authors of literary works, social workers, humanitarian workers, business personnel, sports icons, singers, actors, actresses, etc. etc. from history and from the current time. The zodiac signs for the celebrities were found from their known dates of births. In the analysis of data, zodiac signs and the number of celebrities were represented as the independent x and the dependent y variables, respectively. For academic interests for the 9th grade high school juniors (at the time of the project performance, the co-authors of this article, as well as for the potentially illustrative uses in high school mathematics textbooks, bar and scatter plots were made, the line of best-fit and the equation of the line were found, probabilities of occurrences of celebrities for each of the zodiac signs were calculated and the correlation coefficients between the variables were determined for the sample. It was found that the zodiac Aquarius has the largest number of celebrities in the sample and that the two variables are moderately correlated. The sample sizes which were increased to 200 and then 300. By including another 100 more celebrities to find if the trend remains unchanged. In all the three cases, Aquarius turned out to be the zodiac when most of the celebrities are born.

  16. Periviable birth: Interim update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  17. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  18. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  19. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dating violence prevention initiative seeks to reduce dating violence and increase healthy relationships in high-risk urban communities through comprehensive, multisector prevention. Division of Adolescent ...

  20. Births: Final Data for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Osterman, Michelle J K; Curtin, Sally C; Matthews, T J

    2015-12-01

    This report presents 2014 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality. Birth and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence and birth rates by age and race of father also are shown. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. PMID:26727629

  1. The Birth of "Frankenstein"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  2. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  3. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  4. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available CESAREAN SECTION SHAWNEE MISSION MEDICAL CENTER MERRIAM, KANSAS March 13, 2008 00:00:09 ANNOUNCER: Tonight you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. Over the next hour, ...

  5. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Z Guilmoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  6. Where are the Sunday babies? II. Declining weekend birth rates in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Alexander; Reinhard, Sarah C.

    2008-02-01

    Birth dates from almost 3 million babies born between 1969 and 2005 in Switzerland were analyzed for the weekday of birth. As in other countries but with unprecedented amplitude, a very marked non-random distribution was discovered with decreasing numbers of births on weekends, reaching -17.9% in 2005. While most of this weekend births avoidance rate is due to fewer births on Sundays (up to -21.7%), the downward trend is primarily a consequence of decreasing births on Saturdays (up to -14.5%). For 2005, these percentages mean that 3,728 fewer babies are born during weekends than could be expected from equal distribution. Most interestingly and surprisingly, weekend birth-avoiding rates are significantly correlated with birth numbers ( r = 0.86), i.e. the lower the birth number per year, the lower the number of weekend births. The increasing avoidance of births during weekends is discussed as being a consequence of increasing numbers of caesarean sections and elective labor induction, which in Switzerland reach 29.2 and 20.5%, respectively, in 2004. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that both primary and secondary caesarean sections are significantly correlated with weekend birth avoidance rates. It is therefore likely that financial aspects of hospitals are a factor determining the avoidance of weekend births by increasing the numbers of caesarean sections.

  7. Radiocarbon dating of artworks

    OpenAIRE

    Krajcar Bronić, Ines; Horvatinčić, Nada; Barešić, Jadranka; Sironić, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Absolute dating of artworks and cultural heritage objects is one of the most important issues in art history studies and essential for evaluating original art objects, differentiating between originals and later imitations and/or frauds and recognizing subsequent repairs and restauration works. The radiocarbon dating (14C dating) method is one of the most well-known radiometric methods of absolute dating, which can be applied for dating materials of biogenic origin, such as wood, charcoal, bo...

  8. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. van Os; A.J.E.M. van Dam

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a l

  9. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......-SIGHT were compared on 12 term newborns delivered by elective caesarean section. During the 10 min following umbilical cord clamping, cStO2 was measured simultaneously with the neonatal sensors from each device. Repeated measurements were taken the following day. RESULTS: Three and 8 min after clamping......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  10. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

    2010-01-01

    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  11. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  12. Teen Smoking and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    MaryBeth Walker; Erdal Tekin; Sally Wallace

    2007-01-01

    In the U.S. teen mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than non-teen mothers. There is also substantial evidence that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome in both the short and long term for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen age smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques including fixed effects and a matching estimat...

  13. New Information About Premature Births (For Healthcare Providers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    Dr. William Callaghan describes the findings from a CDC study which sought to understand how preterm birth contributes to infant mortality rates in the United States.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  14. Vital Signs – Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This podcast is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  15. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Expiration Dates Matter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... video, FDA Pharmacist Ilisa Bernstein explains how expiration dates help determine if medicine is safe to use ...

  16. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Expiration Dates Matter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... Update video, FDA Pharmacist Ilisa Bernstein explains how expiration dates help determine if medicine is safe to ...

  17. Parsing and Matching Dates in VIAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny A. Toves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual International Authority File (OCLC Online Computer Library Center 2013 http://viaf.org is built from dozens of authority files with tens of millions of names in more than 150 million authority and bibliographic records expressed in multiple languages, scripts and formats. One of the main tasks in VIAF is to bring together personal names which may have various dates associated with them, such as birth, death or when they were active. These dates can be quite complicated with ranges, approximations, BCE dates, different scripts, and even different calendars. Analysis of the nearly 400,000 unique date strings in VIAF led us to a parsing technique that relies on only a few basic patterns for them. Our goal is to correctly interpret at least 99% of all the dates we find in each of VIAF’s authority files and to use the dates to facilitate matches between authority records. Python source code for the process described here is available at https://github.com/OCLC-Developer-Network/viaf-dates.

  18. Radiometric Dating Does Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, G. Brent

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

  19. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  20. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  1. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  2. Left behind by birth month

    OpenAIRE

    Solli, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative from Norway I investigate birth month effects on school performance at age 16, educational achievement at age 19 and 25 and earnings at age 30. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher 10th grade GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are similar across gender, but stronger for less advantaged children. The birth month effects are robust to controlling for sibling fixed effects. On longer term outcome...

  3. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  4. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  5. Carbon 14 dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gives a first introduction to 14C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)

  6. Birth Order: Reconciling Conflicting Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the confluence model as a theory specifying the process by which the intellectual environment modifies intellectual development. Using this model, explores the contradiction between prediction of secular trends in test scores by trends in aggregate birth order and the lack of prediction of individual test scores by birth order using…

  7. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  8. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  9. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  10. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  11. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  12. Quaternary dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40Ar/39Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)

  13. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  14. Correlates of Unwanted Births in Bangladesh: A Study through Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brijesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unwanted birth is an important public health concern due to its negative association with adverse outcomes of mothers and children as well as socioeconomic development of a country. Although a number of studies have been investigated the determinants of unwanted births through logistic regression analysis, an extensive assessment using path model is lacking. In the current study, we applied path analysis to know the important covariates for unwanted births in Bangladesh. Methods The study used data extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. It considered sub-sample consisted of 7,972 women who had given most recent births five years preceding the date of interview or who were currently pregnant at survey time. Correlation analysis was used to find out the significant association with unwanted births. This study provided the factors affecting unwanted births in Bangladesh. The path model was used to determine the direct, indirect and total effects of socio-demographic factors on unwanted births. Results The result exhibited that more than one-tenth of the recent births were unwanted in Bangladesh. The differentials of unwanted births were women’s age, education, age at marriage, religion, socioeconomic status, exposure of mass-media and use of family planning. In correlation analysis, it showed that unwanted births were positively correlated with women age and place of residence and these relationships were significant. On the contrary, unwanted births were inversely significantly correlated with education and social status. The total effects of endogenous variables such as women age, place of residence and use of family planning methods had favorable effect on unwanted births. Conclusion Policymakers and program planners need to design programs and services carefully to reduce unwanted births in Bangladesh, especially, service should focus on helping those groups of women who were identified in the analysis as being at

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  16. What to include in your birth plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - birth plan ... Birth plans are guides that parents-to-be make to help their health care providers best support them during ... things to consider before you make a birth plan. This is a great time to learn about ...

  17. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > ... Before Birth Print A A A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a ...

  18. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  19. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  20. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also. PMID:6747384

  1. A Study on Birth Asphyxia at Tertiary Health Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta A Dalal

    2013-08-01

    Methodology: This was the cross sectional study conducted in the tertiary care centre of Ahmedabad on the full term babies with birth asphyxia. The maternal, fetal and newborn correlates were recorded according to predesigned proforma. Results: There were total 401 (6.6% babies born with apgar score of less than 7 at one minute and among them, 320 (79.8% were full term babies and 81 (20.2% were preterm babies. Among the babies 52.5% were male, 56.9% were primigravida, and only 41.9% had antenatal care present, 42.2% had MSL and 47.2% were small for date babies. Conclusion: Birth asphyxia is common the babies of the mother who had not received proper antenatal care. Maternal anaemia, primipara, meconium stained liquor babies have more chances of getting birth asphyxia. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 374-376

  2. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo Leal Maria; da Silva Antônio Augusto; Dias Marcos Augusto; da Gama Silvana Granado; Rattner Daphne; Moreira Maria; Filha Mariza Miranda; Domingues RosaMariaSoaresMadeira; Pereira Ana Paula; Torres Jacqueline; Bittencourt Sonia Duarte; D’orsi Eleonora; Cunha Antonio JLA; Leite Alvaro Jorge; Cavalcante Rejane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods ...

  3. NAIP 2012 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  4. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Expiration Dates Matter ... recalls [ARCHIVED] CDER FOIA Electronic Reading Room Related Consumer Updates How to Dispose of Unused Medicines Identifying ...

  5. Radiometric dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra-210Pb, U-Pa, 14C, 36Cl, 10Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  6. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-mail | Consumer Updates RSS Feed If your medicine has expired, it may not provide the treatment ... Bernstein explains how expiration dates help determine if medicine is safe to use and will work as ...

  7. Dating and Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS Awareness Day World AIDS Day Conferences 30 Years of ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Dating and Marriage ...

  8. NAIP 2014 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2014 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  9. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Sell by Feb 14" is a ...

  10. Principles of radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major contributions that the study of meteorites has made to our understanding of the origin of the solar system is in defining when that event took place. In addition, several other important events in early solar-system history have been dated using radiochronological techniques applied to meteorites. The principles on which those applications of radiometric dating are based are outlined. 24 references

  11. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  12. Birth and death of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of stars is summarized, giving emphasis to the phenomena related with their formation (birth) and their late stages (death). We also remark the basic physical concepts that regulate stellar evolution

  13. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  14. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    OpenAIRE

    James, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done.

  15. Defying birth defects through diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Crider, Krista S.; Lynn B. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    The risk of certain birth defects can be modified by maternal diet. A high-fat maternal mouse diet has recently been reported to substantially increase the penetrance of birth defects known to be associated with a deficiency of transcription factor Cited2 as well as induce cleft palate. These effects were associated with a more than twofold reduction in embryonic expression of Pitx2c. This investigation suggests the need to further explore this provocative gene-diet interaction in human studies.

  16. Birth in an Ordinary Instant

    OpenAIRE

    De Vries, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Our daily lives are a series of ordinary moments and unnoticed thresholds—times that define us in ways we often do not give much attention. While we consider childbirth to be one of life's extra-ordinary events, the hours of labor and birth need not be dramatic (or traumatic) ones. I describe a quiet, well-supported birth in the Netherlands that is cause for celebration of the beauty of an ordinary instant that can define and enrich the human experience.

  17. Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes among Women with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Wyszynski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine pregnancy and birth outcomes among women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP or chronic ITP (cITP diagnosed before or during pregnancy. Methods. A linkage of mothers and babies within a large US health insurance database that combines enrollment data, pharmacy claims, and medical claims was carried out to identify pregnancies in women with ITP or cITP. Outcomes included preterm birth, elective and spontaneous loss, and major congenital anomalies. Results. Results suggest that women diagnosed with ITP or cITP prior to their estimated date of conception may be at higher risk for stillbirth, fetal loss, and premature delivery. Among 446 pregnancies in women with ITP, 346 resulted in live births. Women with cITP experienced more adverse outcomes than those with a pregnancy-related diagnosis of ITP. Although 7.8% of all live births had major congenital anomalies, the majority were isolated heart defects. Among deliveries in women with cITP, 15.2% of live births were preterm. Conclusions. The results of this study provide further evidence that cause and duration of maternal ITP are important determinants of the outcomes of pregnancy.

  18. Radiocarbon Dating the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, M. A.; Gajewski, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Anthropocene has no agreed start date since current suggestions for its beginning range from Pre-Industrial times to the Industrial Revolution, and from the mid-twentieth century to the future. To set the boundary of the Anthropocene in geological time, we must first understand when, how and to what extent humans began altering the Earth system. One aspect of this involves reconstructing the effects of prehistoric human activity on the physical landscape. However, for global reconstructions of land use and land cover change to be more accurately interpreted in the context of human interaction with the landscape, large-scale spatio-temporal demographic changes in prehistoric populations must be known. Estimates of the relative number of prehistoric humans in different regions of the world and at different moments in time are needed. To this end, we analyze a dataset of radiocarbon dates from the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database (CARD), the Palaeolithic Database of Europe and the AustArch Database of Australia, as well as published dates from South America. This is the first time such a large quantity of dates (approximately 60,000) has been mapped and studied at a global scale. Initial results from the analysis of temporal frequency distributions of calibrated radiocarbon dates, assumed to be proportional to population density, will be discussed. The utility of radiocarbon dates in studies of the Anthropocene will be evaluated and potential links between population density and changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, climate, migration patterning and fire frequency coincidence will be considered.

  19. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where...

  20. Water Birth at Home: Two Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Angha, Amanda M.; Scaer, Roberta M.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, a grandmother, with a long history as an author and activist for normal birth, and her daughter, a new mother, offer their unique experiences of a water birth at home, attended by family members and midwives. Their unique perspectives demonstrate the trust in the normal birth process that is possible for every birth.

  1. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    2001-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by obs

  2. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  3. Home Birth: The Wave of the Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    A childbirth educator expresses frustration with a medical system that does not work for women or for many maternity care providers. She suggests out-of-hospital birth as an alternative. This column explores the safety of home birth, women's experiences of home birth, and the issues related to home birth once again being the standard. Childbirth educators are encouraged to present home birth as a viable choice.

  4. Quantum Dating Market

    OpenAIRE

    Arizmendi, C. M.; Zabaleta, O. G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the dating market decision problem under the quantum mechanics point of view. Quantum states whose associated amplitudes are modified by men strategies are used to represent women. Grover quantum search algorithm is used as a playing strategy. Success is more frequently obtained by playing quantum than playing classic.

  5. Expiration Dates Matter

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Expiration Dates Matter Share ...

  6. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers.......Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...

  7. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  8. Thermoluminescence dating of pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into two parts. The first half describes on the history of thermoluminescence dating, and the latter half, the principle and measurement examples. It was in late 1955 that the measurement of radiation dose using thermoluminescence began. The method to thermoluminescence dating was developed when it was found that most natural stones emit the thermoluminescence. About Greek earthen wares, the study of which was presented in 1961 by G. Kennedy of University of California, the dating was able to be made within the standard deviation of 10%. Since then, this dating method progressed rapidly, and a number of laboratories are now forwarding the investigation. In the samples of natural materials, intensity of thermoluminescence I is proportional to natural radiation dose D which has been absorbed by the samples, i.e. I = kD, where k is the susceptibility of thermoluminescence of the samples. Since k is different in each sample, D can be determined by irradiating the sample with β or γ ray of known dose D0, measuring its luminescence I0, and eliminating k through these two equations, because i0 = kD0. Next, if t is assumed to be the time passed since a pottery was made, D is expressed as Rt, where R is the natural radiation dose per year absorbed by the pottery. Thus t is determined if R is known. The report describes on the method of measuring R. As an example, the results of measurement of the potteries excavated at Iwakura remains, Yorikura, Taishaku-kyo, are listed. Results by 14C dating are also described for reference. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  10. Alarming Rise In Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A rapid rise in birth defects has prompted China to look for causes and solutionsEvery 60 seconds two children are born in China with a handicap.It’s an alarming fact,but one that young adults across the country who hope to have children face every day. At a conference on the prevention of birth defects in Chengdu of Sichuan Province in September,Vice Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission Jiang Fan revealed this inconvenient truth, supported by shocking statistics.

  11. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes.

  12. Team training for safer birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women.

  13. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. PMID:23520357

  14. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  15. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  16. What's the date of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘京西

    2009-01-01

    @@ A:What's the date of our final examination? B:I'm not sure.I'll have to look it up.I'll let youknow tomorrow. A:Thank you. A:我们期末考试是哪一天? B:我也说不清.我给你查查,明天告诉你. A:谢谢你.

  17. Truly Blind Dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Compared to parties,bars and nightclubs,in many countries parks are a site for family leisure and recreation and not a spot to find a date.It is not the case in China.Spouse-hunting fairs in big city parks organized by parents eager to see their children tie the knot have made parks in China a haven for relationshiphunters and their parents.

  18. Date and Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJingxian

    1996-01-01

    Nowadays the pace of social life is very fast.TO make clear date and time is very important to everyone,especially those who are away fromhome.You need to learn ways to express date and time in Chinese.Otherwise how can you make arrangements with your Chinese friends?41.请问,今天(是)几号?Qǐngwèn,jīntiān(shǐ)jǐ hào?(May I ask,what is the date today?)In Chinese,jǐntiān.míngtiān,hòutiān and dàhòutiān are used to express today,tomorrow,the day after tomorrow,and the fourth day fromnow.jǐ(how many)is a character used in questioning the number from two to nine.If one asks the number above nine,then shí(ten),bǎi

  19. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  20. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  1. The Airway Microbiome at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  2. The Airway Microbiome at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H.; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  3. Spinal cord injury at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G;

    2008-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...

  4. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy during pregnancy, and giving your baby a healthy start in life will help you to have peace of mind. Before pregnancy » During pregnancy » To learn about CDC’s work to help prevent birth defects, visit our Research and Tracking page. Related Links Disability and Health ...

  5. Preterm birth and its outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Radhanpuri

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: In our population preterm birth is more common in poor socio economic status, women with anaemia, malnutrition and these factors can be eliminated by proper nutrition and health education by health workers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 153-157

  6. Cancer risk in children and adolescents with birth defects: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D Botto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Arizona, Iowa. A cohort of 44,151 children and young adolescents (0 through 14 years of age with selected major, non-chromosomal birth defects or chromosomal anomalies was compared to a reference cohort of 147,940 children without birth defects randomly sampled from each state's births and frequency matched by year of birth. The primary outcome was rate of cancer prior to age 15 years, by type of cancer and type of birth defect. The incidence of cancer was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.7 in children with birth defects (123 cases of cancer compared to the reference cohort; the incidence rates were 33.8 and 11.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. However, the excess risk varied markedly by type of birth defect. Increased risks were seen in children with microcephaly, cleft palate, and selected eye, cardiac, and renal defects. Cancer risk was not increased with many common birth defects, including hypospadias, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, or hydrocephalus. CONCLUSION: Children with some structural, non-chromosomal birth defects, but not others, have a moderately increased risk for childhood cancer. Information on such selective risk can promote more effective clinical evaluation, counseling, and research.

  7. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  8. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, J. C.; Jiang, W.; Bailey, K. G.; Lu, Z. T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport in the terrestrial environment, 81Kr (half-life = 230,000 yr) is the ideal tracer for old water and ice with mean residence times in the range of 105-106 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr-dating is now available to the earth science community at large thanks to the development of an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method. ATTA is a laser-based atom counting method where individual neutral atoms of the desired isotope are selectively captured by laser beams, and their fluorescence detected via a CCD camera. ATTA is unique among trace analysis techniques in that it is free of interferences from any other isotopes, isobars, atomic or molecular species. The ATTA instrument at Argonne's Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating is capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10-14-10-10. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150 kyr - 1500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 kg of water or 40 kg of ice. For 85Kr/Kr analysis, the sample size can be smaller by an order of magnitude. We are continually developing the method towards higher counting efficiency, smaller sample sizes requirements, and higher sample throughput rates. In the past four years, we have performed radiokrypton analysis of over 150 groundwater and ice samples extracted by collaborators from all seven continents. Sample collection and purification was performed by groups including the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois at Chicago, the University of Bern, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Radiocarbon dating: use and abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the problems associated with radiocarbon dating are discussed with particular reference to the British neolithic site of Briar Hill, Northampton, England. The problems arise when co-ordinating the radiocarbon dates with observed stratigraphy. In particular, three dates are much earlier than expected and no explanation of the early dates can be given as they represent neither sequence nor context. Doubts as to the validity of the dating and, hence, interpretation are expressed. (U.K.)

  10. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  11. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  12. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between pregnancies > Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth E-mail to ... talk to other women like me who are thinking about pregnancy after having a premature baby? Visit ...

  13. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  14. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  15. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  16. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. PMID:22375565

  17. Methodological challenges when estimating the effects of season and seasonal exposures on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shilu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many previous studies have found seasonal patterns in birth outcomes, but with little agreement about which season poses the highest risk. Some of the heterogeneity between studies may be explained by a previously unknown bias. The bias occurs in retrospective cohorts which include all births occurring within a fixed start and end date, which means shorter pregnancies are missed at the start of the study, and longer pregnancies are missed at the end. Our objective was to show the potential size of this bias and how to avoid it. Methods To demonstrate the bias we simulated a retrospective birth cohort with no seasonal pattern in gestation and used a range of cohort end dates. As a real example, we used a cohort of 114,063 singleton births in Brisbane between 1 July 2005 and 30 June 2009 and examined the bias when estimating changes in gestation length associated with season (using month of conception and a seasonal exposure (temperature. We used survival analyses with temperature as a time-dependent variable. Results We found strong artificial seasonal patterns in gestation length by month of conception, which depended on the end date of the study. The bias was avoided when the day and month of the start date was just before the day and month of the end date (regardless of year, so that the longer gestations at the start of the study were balanced by the shorter gestations at the end. After removing the fixed cohort bias there was a noticeable change in the effect of temperature on gestation length. The adjusted hazard ratios were flatter at the extremes of temperature but steeper between 15 and 25°C. Conclusions Studies using retrospective birth cohorts should account for the fixed cohort bias by removing selected births to get unbiased estimates of seasonal health effects.

  18. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP ) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study wa...

  19. Quality of newborn care at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, AJ; Marchant, T

    2014-01-01

    Quality of care can be measured by seeing if skilled birth attendants use simple approaches to save lives. Skilled birth attendants range from trained community health workers to nurses, doctors and midwives. Findings from three low-income settings show quality of care for the newborn is low even when a skilled birth attendant is at the mother’s side during birth. Source: 2012 Baseline survey data, the IDEAS project, based at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Funded by the...

  20. Birth in prison: pregnancy and birth behind bars in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Ayres, Barbara Vasques da Silva; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The high vulnerability of incarcerated women is worsened when they are pregnant and give birth during imprisonment. This article traces the profile of incarcerated women living with their children in female prison units of the capitals and metropolitan regions of Brazil and describes pregnancy and childbirth conditions and healthcare practices while in incarceration. This study is an analysis of a series of cases resultant from a national census conducted between August 2012 and January 2014. This analysis included 241 mothers. Of these, 45% were younger than 25 years old, 57% were dark skinned, 53% had studied less than eight years and 83% were multiparous. At the time of incarceration, 89% were already pregnant and two thirds did not want the current pregnancy. Access to prenatal care was inadequate for 36% of the women. During their hospital stay, 15% referred to having suffered some type of violence (verbal, psychological, or physical). Only 15% of the mothers rated the care received during their hospital stay as excellent. They had low social/familial support and more than one third reported the use of handcuffs during their hospital stay. Incarcerated mothers received poorer healthcare during pregnancy and birth when compared with non-incarcerated users of the public sector. This study also found violations of human rights, especially during birth.

  1. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  2. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.; Snyder, Nancy O., Comp.

    Between 1986 and 1991 the teen birth rate rose by nearly one-fourth, although very small declines were evident in 1992 and 1993. This decline was concentrated among older teens; the number of births to adolescents aged 17 and younger continued to rise. The percentage of teen births that occurred outside of marriage rose to 72%. In 1991, the most…

  3. Birth-death processes and associated polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van Erik A.

    2003-01-01

    We consider birth-death processes on the nonnegative integers and the corresponding sequences of orthogonal polynomials called birth-death polynomials. The sequence of associated polynomials linked with a sequence of birth-death polynomials and its orthogonalizing measure can be used in the analysis

  4. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  5. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  6. ESR dating of pseudotachylite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, A.; Toyoda, S.; Takagi, H.; Arita, K.

    2002-12-01

    ESR (electron spin resonance) dating method has been used to determine the ages of quaternary events. When a mineral receives natural radiation, a part of paired electrons in quartz are ionized, and are trapped by lattice defects and impurties as unpaired electrons. The amount of unpaired electrons increases with time. The ESR age is obtained by dividing the total dose of natural radiation by the natural dose rate. Gamma ray doses are given to the sample to obtain the total dose by extrapolating the dose response of the signal intensity to the zero ordinate. The natural dose rate is calculated from U, Th, and K concentrations, and so on. Quartz is one of the promising minerals useful for ESR dating. In the present paper, we attempted to obtain ages of a land slide event. We collected pseudotachylite from Lantan, Himalaya. A land of about 4 km in diameter has found to have slid several kilometers resulting in pseudotachylite at the base. The samples were gently crushed sieved and soaked in 6N HCl for 1 night and then in 20% HF for two hours, but quartz grains were too small to be extracted. However, ESR signals of characteristic quartz were observed. As long as the sample is uniform, it is not crucial to extract pure quartz grains. With the usual procedure of ESR dating, gamma ray irradiation and ESR measurements, we obtained accumulated natural doses of 290 to 450 Gy. The concentrations of radioactive elements, K, U, Th, which give most of the natural dose to quartz grains, were measured by the low background gamma ray spectrometry. We obtained 7.62 ppm of uranium, 21.1 ppm of thorium, and 3.72% of K2O. Assuming the cosmic dose rate of 0.1mGy/y, we obtained 6.08 mGy/y as the natural dose rate. The ESR ages are obtained by dividing the accumulated doses by the natural dose rate to be 49ka from Al center signal (an electronic hole trapped at Al impurity in quartz) and 74ka from Ti center signal (an electron trapped at Ti impurity in quartz) for a sample, and 56ka and

  7. Radiocarbon dates XXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This list includes 105 radiocarbon age determinations on 104 geological samples made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. They are on samples from various areas as follows: Labrador Shelf (2); Newfoundland (12); Nova Scotia (2); New Brunswick (1); Quebec (3); Ontario (1); Manitoba (1); Alberta (2); British Columbia (15); Yukon Territory (35); Northwest Territories, Mainland (10); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (21). Details of background and standard for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from November 4, 1980 to October 31, 1981 are summarized in Tables 1 and 2; Table 3 gives the number of counts used to determine the average background and standard counting rates; and Table 4 lists the number of different background and standard gas preparations used for counting

  8. Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Bailey, K.; Jiang, W.; Müller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Zappala, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport processes in the terrestrial environment, the long-lived noble-gas isotope 81Kr (half-life = 230 kyr) is the ideal tracer for studying old water and ice in the age range of 10^5-10^6 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr dating, a concept pursued in the past four decades by numerous laboratories employing a variety of techniques, is now available for the first time to the earth science community at large. This is made possible by the development of ATTA-3 (Jiang et al., GCA 91, 1-6; 2012), an efficient and selective atom counter based on the Atom Trap Trace Analysis method (Chen et al., Science 286, 1139-1141; 1999). The instrument is capable of measuring both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios of environmental samples in the range of 10^-14-10^-10. For 81Kr-dating in the age range of 150 - 1,500 kyr, the required sample size is 5 - 10 micro-L STP of krypton gas, which can be extracted from approximately 100 - 200 kg of water or 40 - 80 kg of ice. For 85Kr/Kr analysis, the required sample size is generally smaller by an order of magnitude because of the isotope's higher initial abundance in the atmosphere. The Laboratory for Radiokrypton Dating is currently equipped to analyze up to 120 samples per year. With future equipment upgrades, this limit can be increased as demand grows. In the period since November 2011, the Laboratory has measured both 81Kr/Kr and 85Kr/Kr ratios in over 50 samples that had been extracted by collaborators from six different continents. The samples were from groundwater wells in the Great Artesian Basin (Australia), Guarani Aquifer (Brazil), and Locust Grove (Maryland); from brine wells of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (New Mexico); from geothermal steam vents in Yellowstone National Park; from near-surface ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica; and from deep mines in South Africa. Sample collection and purification was performed by groups including the University of Illinois at Chicago, University

  9. Modeling The Effects of Mother’s Age at First Birth on Child Health at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Mbu Daniel Tambi

    2014-01-01

    This study models the impact of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth in Cameroon. The objectives are: (1) investigate the implication of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth; (2) examine the impact of mother’s age groups on birth weight, and (3) suggest economic policies to ameliorate the mother’s age – child health relationship. We make used of the control function approach to determine the relationship between mother’s age at first birth and birth...

  10. Risk Attitudes and Birth Order

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2013-01-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradict...

  11. The partial-birth stratagem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Wisconsin, physicians stopped performing abortions when a Federal District Court Judge refused to issue a temporary restraining order against the state's newly enacted "partial birth" abortion ban that was couched in such vague language it actually covered all abortions. While ostensibly attempting to ban late-term "intact dilation and extraction," the language of the law did not refer to that procedure or to late terms. Instead, it prohibited all abortions in which a physician "partially vaginally delivers a living child, causes the death of the partially delivered child with the intent to kill the child and then completes the delivery of the child." The law also defined "child" as "a human being from the time of fertilization" until birth. It is clear that this abortion ban is unconstitutional under Row v. Wade, and this unconstitutionality is compounded by the fact that the law allowed no exception to protect a woman's health, which is required by Roe for abortion bans after fetal viability. Wisconsin is only one of about 28 states that have enacted similar laws, and only two have restricted the ban to postviability abortions. Many of these laws have been struck down in court, and President Clinton has continued to veto the Federal partial-birth bill. The Wisconsin Judge acknowledged that opponents of the ban will likely prevail when the case is heard, but his action in denying the temporary injunction means that many women in Wisconsin will not receive timely medical care. The partial birth strategy is really only another anti-abortion strategy. PMID:12348556

  12. Births: Final Data for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when it was at its historic peak of 51.8 per 1,000. The percentage of all births ... 45.3 46.0 47.5 49.9 51.8 51.8 50.3 47.2 46.0 44.7 ... 26.3 78.0 102.9 86.3 51.8 23.3 2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,610.5 0.8 ...

  13. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth; Ackerson, Kelly; Kane Low, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to maternal and neonatal outcomes of planned home birth, and discuss strengths, limitations, and opportunities regarding planned home birth. PMID:25914559

  14. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  15. Home Births in the United States, 1990-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Home Births in the United States, 1990–2009 Recommend ... Keywords: birth certificates, out-of-hospital birth U.S. home births increased by 29% from 2004 to 2009. ...

  16. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way. PMID:24873114

  17. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  18. Onset of autumn shapes the timing of birth in Pyrenean chamois more than onset of spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkgy, Charlotte; Garel, Mathieu; Appolinaire, Joël; Loison, Anne; Toïgo, Carole

    2016-03-01

    In seasonal environments, birth dates are a central component for a species' life history, with potential long-term fitness consequences. Yet our understanding of selective pressures of environmental changes on birth dates is limited in wild mammals due to the difficulty of data collection. In a context of rapid climate change, the question of a possible mismatch between plant phenology and birth phenology also remains unanswered for most species. We assessed whether and how the timing of birth in a mountain mammal (isard, also named Pyrenean chamois, Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) tracked changes in plant growing season, accounting for maternal traits, individual heterogeneity and population density. We not only focused on spring conditions but also assessed to what extent onset of autumn can be a driver of phenological biological events and compared the magnitude of the response to the magnitude of the environmental changes. We relied on a 22-year study based on intensively monitored marked individuals of known age. Births were highly synchronized (80% of kids born within 25 days) and highly repeatable (84%; between-female variation of 9.6 days, within-female variation of 4.2 days). Individual phenotypic plasticity allows females to respond rapidly to interannual changes in plant phenology but did not prevent the existence of a mismatch: a 10-day advance in the autumn or spring plant phenology led to 3.9 and 1.3 days advance in birth dates, respectively. Our findings suggest that plant phenology may act as a cue to induce important stages of the reproductive cycle (e.g. conception and gestation length), subsequently affecting parturition dates, and stressed the importance of focusing on long-term changes during spring for which females may show much lower adaptive potential than during autumn. These results also question the extent to which individual plasticity along with high heterogeneity among individuals will allow species to cope with demographic

  19. Birth of a new galaxy

    CERN Multimedia

    Rodgers, L

    2001-01-01

    Scientists using the Hubble telescope have been amazed by the number of stars being created in galaxy NGC 3310. But while some scientists are observing the birth of new stars, others are predicting the end of the universe. According to supersymmetry it is possible that the universe could spontaneously change to a state where the electric force is switched off, resulting in the disintegration of all matter. Called 'vacuum fluctuation', this event is even less likely than winning the lottery jackpot twice in the same day however (1/2 page).

  20. The domestication of human birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Stefanović

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the burial places of newborns at the prehistoric site at Lepenski Vir (Serbia revealed the possibility that deliveries took place inside houses that were heated. Warm houses provided a thermally stable environment which, in turn, could solve the problem of thermoregulation, that is critical for the survival of babies. In this study it is shown that the creation of these good conditions for giving birth could have been an important step in human evolution that could have led to a demographic expansion.

  1. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    and infant health) of a variety of exposures during pregnancy, as well as examples showing different methodological approaches in design and analyses of the studies, are presented. RESEARCH TOPICS: The exposures of interest include alcohol drinking, coffee intake, smoking, use of nicotine substitutes......, physical exercise, working conditions, medication and infections during pregnancy, and environmental possible toxins. The study designs cover straightforward cohort analyses, case-control studies and sub-cohort analyses with enriched data collection. CONCLUSION: So far, the Danish National Birth Cohort has...

  2. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  3. New assessment of the effects of birth order and socioeconomic status on birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowding, V M

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the 20 698 singleton births occurring in one year to women resident in the Greater Dublin area provided information on birth weight, birth order, and social class. Low (less than or equal to 2500 g), suboptimal (less than or equal to 3000 g), and optimal (3001-4499 g) birth weights all showed a linear relation with social class. The incidence of low and suboptimal birth weight was highest in first, fifth, and subsequent births, and conversely optimal weight was commonest in second...

  4. Planned home birth: benefits, risks, and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinski R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Zielinski,1 Kelly Ackerson,2 Lisa Kane Low1,3,4 1School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Bronson School of Nursing, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Women’s Studies Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: While the number of women in developed countries who plan a home birth is low, the number has increased over the past decade in the US, and there is evidence that more women would choose this option if it were readily available. Rates of planned home birth range from 0.1% in Sweden to 20% in the Netherlands, where home birth has always been an integrated part of the maternity system. Benefits of planned home birth include lower rates of maternal morbidity, such as postpartum hemorrhage, and perineal lacerations, and lower rates of interventions such as episiotomy, instrumental vaginal birth, and cesarean birth. Women who have a planned home birth have high rates of satisfaction related to home being a more comfortable environment and feeling more in control of the experience. While maternal outcomes related to planned birth at home have been consistently positive within the literature, reported neonatal outcomes during planned home birth are more variable. While the majority of investigations of planned home birth compared with hospital birth have found no difference in intrapartum fetal deaths, neonatal deaths, low Apgar scores, or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, there have been reports in the US, as well as a meta-analysis, that indicated more adverse neonatal outcomes associated with home birth. There are multiple challenges associated with research designs focused on planned home birth, in part because conducting randomized controlled trials is not feasible. This report will review current research studies published between 2004 and 2014 related to

  5. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink;

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...

  6. The rising home birth trend in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlan Aliyev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years home birth rates are increased in the whole world, mainly in the United States (US. Between 2004-2012, non-hospital births increasing rate is 89% in the US. Home birth increased especially among the married, non-Hispanic, over 35 years of age, multipar and singleton pregnancies. However the high rate of cesarean birth did not increase in recent years in the US, now it has been stable at 32%. It is reported that the stability of the cesarean rate is related to rising rate of home birth. In this mini review, the rising rate of home birth and its consequences in the US were discussed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1669-1671

  7. Cesarean Birth: A Journey in Historical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago seems like yesterday: a time of immense socioeconomic changes, explosion of an "Internet" computer concept, and identification of human immunodeficiency virus. Like all events of the past, transformations in obstetrics developed over time. Cesarean birth can be better understood in a broader context when one considers how the art of obstetric practice has evolved. Cesarean birth progressed from delivering a fetus perimortem or postmortem to a time of operative births that simultaneously juggle a woman's safety, satisfaction, and freedom of choice concerning birth options. Thirty years of increasing cesarean birth rates have prompted government agencies, national organizations, state-level perinatal collaborative groups, and experts to address these rates and the impact on maternal-child health and healthcare systems. The purpose of this article is to explain cesarean birth's remarkable impact on obstetrics by reviewing key historical periods, current advances, and upcoming trends. PMID:27465462

  8. Vaginal birth after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar B Bangal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.

  9. Does time since immigration modify neighborhood deprivation gradients in preterm birth? A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo Luis; Frank, John William; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard Henry

    2011-10-01

    Immigrants' health is jointly influenced by their pre- and post-migration exposures, but how these two influences operate with increasing duration of residence has not been well-researched. We aimed to examine how the influence of maternal country of birth and neighborhood deprivation effects, if any, change over time since migration and how neighborhood effects among immigrants compare with those observed in the Canadian-born population. Birth data from Ontario hospital records (2002-2007) were linked with an official Canadian immigration database (1985-2000). The outcome measure was preterm birth. Neighborhoods were ranked according to a neighborhood deprivation index developed for Canadian urban areas and collapsed into tertiles of approximately equal size. Time since immigration was measured from the date of arrival to Canada to the date of delivery, ranging from 1 to 22 years. We used cross-classified random effect models to simultaneously account for the membership of births (N = 83,233) to urban neighborhoods (N = 1,801) and maternal countries of birth (N = 168). There were no differences in preterm birth between neighborhood deprivation tertiles among immigrants with less than 15 years of residence. Among immigrants with 15 years of stay or more, the adjusted absolute risk difference (ARD%, 95% confidence interval) between high-deprived (tertile 3) and low-deprived (tertile 1) neighborhoods was 1.86 (0.68, 2.98), while the ARD% observed among the Canadian-born (N = 314,237) was 1.34 (1.11, 1.57). Time since migration modifies the neighborhood deprivation gradient in preterm birth among immigrants living in Ontario cities. Immigrants reached the level of inequalities in preterm birth observed at the neighborhood level among the Canadian-born after 14 years of stay, but neighborhoods did not influence preterm birth among more recent immigrants, for whom the maternal country of birth was more predictive of preterm birth. PMID:21503816

  10. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan, Monique

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of sibship size and birth order on educational attainment, for the United States and the Netherlands. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of sibship size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation with years of education for different family sizes separately; this avoids the problem that estimated ef...

  11. Education, Birth Order, and Family Size

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Jesper; Birchenall, Javier A.; Mansour, Hani; Urzua, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a general framework to analyze the trade-off between education and family size. Our framework incorporates parental preferences for birth order and delivers theoretically consistent birth order and family size effects on children's educational attainment. We develop an empirical strategy to identify these effects. We show that the coefficient on family size in a regression of educational attainment on birth order and family size does not identify the family size effect as defined...

  12. Low Birth Weight Causes Survey in Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    F. Eghbalian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Neonatal mortality rate is one of the main health problems which is affected by prenatal status, maternal, fetal and perinatal conditions. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the main causes of neonatal and infantile mortality. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the LBW causes in neonates. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was done on 1500 neonates, born in Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, 2004. Data such as birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, birth inte...

  13. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qiang; ZHI Qi-Jun; ZHANG Xiao-ping; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qurit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth.

  14. Estimation for general birth-death processes

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Forrest W.; Minin, Vladimir N.; Suchard, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Birth-death processes (BDPs) are continuous-time Markov chains that track the number of “particles” in a system over time. While widely used in population biology, genetics and ecology, statistical inference of the instantaneous particle birth and death rates remains largely limited to restrictive linear BDPs in which per-particle birth and death rates are constant. Researchers often observe the number of particles at discrete times, necessitating data augmentation procedures such as expectat...

  15. Radiocarbon Dating, Memories, and Hopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, W. F.

    1972-10-01

    The history of radiocarbon dating from 1939 to the present is reviewed. The basic principles of radiocarbon dating are that cosmic rays make living things radioactive with {sup 14}C to a certain level fixed by the environment and that at death the intake of food stops so no replenishment of the {sup 14}C steadily lost by the immutable decay occurs. Therefore measurement of the degree of decay gives the time lapse since death, i.e., the radiocarbon age. The equipment developed and experiments performed to measure the specific activity of specimens to be dated are described. The results obtained by world-wide experimenters are discussed. These showed that on simultaneity radiocarbon dating is apparently reliable but that absolute dates may be incorrect by as much as 600 to 700 y. The value of radiocarbon dating to archaeologists, geologists, climatologists, and historians is stressed. (LCL)

  16. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  17. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  18. Refeeding syndrome in a small-for-dates micro-preemie receiving early parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Mikami, Masamitsu; Oda, Hirotsugu; Hata, Daisuke

    2012-10-01

    This report describes a small-for-date extremely low birth weight infant who manifested bradycardic events, respiratory failure, and hemolytic jaundice during her first week of life. These complications were attributed to severe hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia. Inadequate supply and refeeding syndrome triggered by early aggressive parenteral nutrition were responsible for electrolyte abnormalities.

  19. Birth Order and Perceived Birth Order of Chemically Dependent and Academic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Kristie G.; Newlon, Betty J.

    Birth order as it relates to family constellation is one of the principle concepts of Adlerian theory, and has implications for the understanding of chemical addiction. Adler premised that it was the individual's interpretation of his/her birth circumstances that was more important than sequential birth order. This study examined whether…

  20. Saving Lives at Birth : The Impact of Home Births on Infant Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.; Trandafir, M.; van Ewijk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogene

  1. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill;

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  2. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  3. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  4. Effect of Social Factors on Cesarean Birth in Primiparous Women: A Cross Sectional Study (Social Factors and Cesarean Birth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONER, Can; CATAK, Binali; SÜTLÜ, Sevinç; KILINÇ, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Background: P Cesarean delivery rates have been increasing throughout the world. Parallel to the developments in the world the cesarean rate in Turkey has risen to 48.1% in 2013. Some of the social factors were related with cesarean births. The purpose of this study was to determine cesarean birth rates and to find out social factors affecting the cesarean birth in primiparous women. Methods: This study was conducted in Burdur Province, Turkey between the dates of 1 Jan 2012–31 Dec 2012 on 223 primiparous women. The data was collected with data collection form prepared by the researchers by using face-to-face interview technique. In these analyses, chi-square and Backward Logistic regression analyses were used. Results: In multivariate analyses, the place of delivery (OR: 11.2 [2.9–42.46] in private hospital and OR: 6.1 [2.6–14.1] in university hospital); time of the birth (OR: 7.1 [3.1–16.0]); doctor’s effect (OR: 4.0 [1.8–8.95]) and husband’s employment status (OR: 2.23 [1.0–4.7]) have been identified as factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women. Conclusion: Although the results do not show all of the factors affecting the caesarean delivery in primiparous women, they reveal that medical reasons are not the only reason in this increase trend. Health policy makers and health professionals are required to identify the causes of this increase and to take measures. PMID:27648420

  5. Growth mixture modeling of academic achievement in children of varying birth weight risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Charak, David; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry

    2009-07-01

    The extremes of birth weight and preterm birth are known to result in a host of adverse outcomes, yet studies to date largely have used cross-sectional designs and variable-centered methods to understand long-term sequelae. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) that utilizes an integrated person- and variable-centered approach was applied to identify latent classes of achievement from a cohort of school-age children born at varying birth weights. GMM analyses revealed 2 latent achievement classes for calculation, problem-solving, and decoding abilities. The classes differed substantively and persistently in proficiency and in growth trajectories. Birth weight was a robust predictor of class membership for the 2 mathematics achievement outcomes and a marginal predictor of class membership for decoding. Neither visuospatial-motor skills nor environmental risk at study entry added to class prediction for any of the achievement skills. Among children born preterm, neonatal medical variables predicted class membership uniquely beyond birth weight. More generally, GMM is useful in revealing coherence in the developmental patterns of academic achievement in children of varying weight at birth and is well suited to investigations of sources of heterogeneity. PMID:19586210

  6. Birthweight percentiles for twin birth neonates by gestational age in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Zhou, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Localized birthweight references for gestational ages serve as an essential tool in accurate evaluation of atypical birth outcomes. Such references for twin births are currently not available in China. The aim of this study was to construct up-to-data sex specific birth weight references by gestational ages for twin births in China. We conducted a population-based analysis on the data of 22,507 eligible living twin infants with births dated between 8/01/2006 and 8/31/2015 from all 95 hospitals within the Wuhan area. Gestational ages in complete weeks were determined using a combination of last-menstrual-period based (LMP) estimation and ultrasound examination. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th percentiles birth weight by sex and gestational age were made using 11,861 male and 10,646 female twin newborns with gestational age 26–42 weeks. Separate birthweight percentiles curves for male and female twins were constructed. In summary, our study firstly presents percentile curves of birthweight by gestational age for Chinese twin neonates. Further research is required for the validation and implementation of twin birthweight curves into clinical practice. PMID:27506479

  7. Catholics vs. Protestants - Birth and Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July......Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July...

  8. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...

  9. Witnessing a Natural, Safe, and Healthy Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2009-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses her experience witnessing a natural, safe, and healthy home birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  10. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partners (Namerow, Kalmuss, & Cushman, 1997). A few birth parents report being overprotective of their subsequent children because they are afraid of repeating the This material may be freely reproduced and distributed. However, when ... Birth Parents https://www.childwelfare.gov experience of separation and ...

  11. Season of birth of breast cancer patients and its relation to patients' reproductive history in Tokyo, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao,Hiroko

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal distribution of the birth dates of 405 pre-menopausal and 285 post-menopausal breast cancer patients was investigated in order to determine whether or not the season of their birth was related to various reproductive risk factors of breast cancer, including nulliparity, late age at first birth, early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and a history of benign breast diseases. The seasonal distributions of births were compared between groups of patients categorized according to whether they possessed each risk factor or not, separately for pre- and post-menopausal patients. Patients with the same menopausal status generally had the same seasonal distribution of births, irrespective of whether or not they possessed a risk factor. Moreover, low-risk patients exhibited more deviation in the seasonal distribution of birth from general births than the high-risk patients. These results suggest that the distinctive seasonal distribution of birth observed in breast cancer patients is basically a phenomenon independent from the effect of the reproductive history on the occurrence of breast cancer, and that specific seasonal factors are involved at the fetal or neonatal stage in the etiology of breast cancer.

  12. Changes in Family Income around the Time of Birth of Children in Germany between 1985 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schulze

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While the course and the determinants of fertility behaviour have been investigated intensively, the monetary consequences of birth have hardly been considered empirically to date. Therefore, this paper focuses on the short-term (equivalent household income changes around the time of births in a longitudinal perspective and examines them for their causes. For the analyses of the longitudinal data (GSOEP-Data 1984-2005, fixed effects panel regression models were computed. The results show that the short-term socioeconomic consequences of birth have clearly increased in the last two decades and first births in particular are associated with disproportionately severe socioeconomic consequences, while further births are rarely accompanied by negative changes in the households’ socioeconomic situations. Furthermore, household income losses attributable to births only arise in double income households and increase gradually in line with a rising level of household income before birth. Hence, the analyses suggest the need for more adequate state assistance with respect to family support. Beside the provision of adequate infrastructural conditions which allow mothers to be employed, also the payments to compensate for child-related costs (“Kindergeld” should be – in contrast to the present practice in Germany – increased and re-adjusted with respect to the child’s position in the birth sequence.

  13. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence.

  14. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil;

    2016-01-01

    Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied...... to determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function...

  15. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence. PMID:22581677

  16. The piglet&apos;s behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencová V.; Mlyneková L.; Mlynek J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  17. Can low birth weight be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S S

    1985-01-01

    In the US low birth weight is the major factor associated with the death of infants in the 1st 4 weeks of life. Over the 1st 1/2 of the century, infant mortality declined from about 100 to about 30 deaths/1000 live births. But most of this decline has been attributed to decreases in the rate of postneonatal mortality (deaths from 28 days to the 1st birthday). Declines in low-birth-weight rates have been concentrated among babies whose mothers are at lowest risk. Low-birth-weight infants who do survive face increased risk of a range of childhood illnesses and developmental problems. The problem of low birth weight is also important for economic reasons. More than US$1.5 billion is spent annually on neonatal intensive care services in the US. Teenage mothers, blacks, and women of low socioeconomic status are at high risk of having a baby of low birth weight. Pregnancy intervals of shorter than 6 months, a variety of chronic illnesses, multiple pregnancies, smoking, and failure to obtain, or delay in initiating, prenatal care also increase the risk that a woman will have a low-birth-weight baby. The Institute of Medicine committee has outlined an approach to the prevention of low birth weight that emphasizes 5 principal points: 1) pre-pregnancy identification of high risk women with more and improved counseling, health education, and family planning services; 2) increase the availability and quality of early prenatal care; 3) strengthen and expand the content of prenatal services; 4) mount a public information campaign aimed at preventing low-birth-weight; 5) research. If these measures are implemented, it has been estimated that US$41 million can be saved each year from the US$188 million the government spends annually for the care of low-birth-weight babies. The federal government must take a leadership role if these measures are to be successful. PMID:3842660

  18. Preterm and Very Preterm Births by County 2010-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains percent preterm and very preterm live births by maternal county of residence. Preterm births are all lives births less than 37 weeks of...

  19. Births By Age of Mother, 1960-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is for California live births by age of mother, for years 1960-2013. The live birth counts per age bracket represent the live births to California...

  20. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  1. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  2. Dating by electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some natural materials behave like dosimeters in front of the ionizing particle flux coming from environmental radioactivity and the cosmic radiation. This property is used for the dating by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Before presenting the basic principles of the EPR analysis and the dating method which uses such a phenomenous, it is reviewed several types of application currently in course of development. (L.C.)

  3. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  4. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  5. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  6. BIRTH ORDER AMONG NORTHERN INDIAN MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Agarwal; Sunil Kumar Garg; Megha Kulshreshtha Mishra; Lalita Chaudhary

    2011-01-01

    Background: Birth order is claimed to be linked with academic achievement. However, many scientists do not accept it. Objective: To assess the association of birth order in North Indian medical students with number of attempts to cross the competition bar. Study design: Cross sectional study. Setting and participation: M.B.B.S. 1st year students of L.L.R.M. Medical College, Meerut. Statistical analysis used: Chi Square test. Methods: Enquiry of Birth order and number of attempts to crack the ...

  7. Trends in birth prevalence of cerebral palsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P O; Cooke, T.; Rosenbloom, I; Cooke, R W

    1987-01-01

    A register of children with cerebral palsy born in the period 1966-77 to mothers resident in the Mersey region was compiled from several different data sources. There were 685 cases, with a male:female ratio of 1.4:1. The birth prevalence of cerebral palsy ranged from 1.18 to 1.97 per 1000 live births each year, with a mean of 1.51 per 1000 live births. There was no discernible trend in overall prevalence, but there was a highly significant upward trend in the prevalence of cerebral palsy amo...

  8. Alcohol use, conception time, and birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    Predictors of birth weight and birth length were studied using sociodemographic data collected from 2259 women who resided in Funen County, Denmark, and delivered a healthy child during the period 1978-9 at Odense University Hospital. Low birth weight was significantly related to tobacco use in the year of delivery (p less than 0.01), alcohol use during the same period (p less than 0.05), and a delay in conception of over six months (p less than 0.01). Smoking history and a delay in conceptio...

  9. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... with GA gestational weeks 32-40. Finally, after adjusting for GA......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...

  10. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as

  11. Women's perceptions of caesarean birth: a Roy international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Aber, Cynthia; Haussler, Susan; Weiss, Marianne; Myers, Sheila Taylor; Hall, Jaye L; Waters, V Lynn; King, Charlette; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu; Rantanen, Anja; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Newton, Jennifer; Silva, Virginia

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this Roy adaptation model-based multi-site international mixed method study was to examine the relations of type of caesarean birth (unplanned/planned), number of caesarean births (primary/repeat), and preparation for caesarean birth to women's perceptions of and responses to caesarean birth. The sample included 488 women from the United States (n = 253), Finland (n = 213), and Australia (n = 22). Path analysis revealed direct effects for type of and preparation for caesarean birth on responses to caesarean birth, and an indirect effect for preparation on responses to caesarean birth through perception of birth the experience.

  12. Thermoluminescence dating (TL-Dating): an absolute method for archeological dating of ceramic base materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence dating is one of the known techniques that have been established in many laboratories across the regions. This technique is capable to date the archeological ceramic base materials and provides an absolute measurement with an accuracy of 5%. The study involves the dating of ceramic clay from historical site at Sungai Mas, Kuala Muda, Kedah. Pieces of broken poetry of archeological sample excavated by the Museum Department and Antiquity (JM4) have been dated using the TLD techniques at MINT laboratory. A TLD dosemeter of LiF chips is used for the background and sample dose measurement. The preparation of sample and the calibration techniques for the estimation of palaedose or dose presented in the sample since distant past is established. Results indicate that the samples are in the era of civilization from 200BP to 1600BP. Error factors associated in the measurement procedures are also discussed

  13. Transfer to hospital in planned home births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blix, Ellen; Kumle, Merethe; Kjærgaard, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern about the safety of homebirths, especially in women transferred to hospital during or after labour. The scope of transfer in planned home births has not been assessed in a systematic review. This review aimed to describe the proportions and indications for transfer from...... home to hospital during or after labour in planned home births. METHODS: The databases Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl, Svemed+, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the MeSH term "home childbirth". Inclusion criteria were as follows: the study population was women who chose planned home birth...... at the onset of labour; the studies were from Western countries; the birth attendant was an authorised midwife or medical doctor; the studies were published in 1985 or later, with data not older than from 1980; and data on transfer from home to hospital were described. Of the 3366 titles identified, 83 full...

  14. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  15. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  16. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  17. IOC Rescinds Ban on Birth Control Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    A review of the International Olympic Committee's ban and subsequent reinstatement of a certain drug found in birth-control pills points out the need for careful analysis of drugs and their effects before they are banned. (CB)

  18. Birth and Evolution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Faucher-Giguere, C A

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the birth and evolution of Galactic isolated radio pulsars. We begin by estimating their birth space velocity distribution from proper motion measurements of Brisken et al. (2002, 2003). We find no evidence for multimodality of the distribution and favor one in which the absolute one-dimensional velocity components are exponentially distributed and with a three-dimensional mean velocity of 380^{+40}_{-60} km s^-1. We then proceed with a Monte Carlo-based population synthesis, modelling the birth properties of the pulsars, their time evolution, and their detection in the Parkes and Swinburne Multibeam surveys. We present a population model that appears generally consistent with the observations. Our results suggest that pulsars are born in the spiral arms, with a Galactocentric radial distribution that is well described by the functional form proposed by Yusifov & Kucuk (2004), in which the pulsar surface density peaks at radius ~3 kpc. The birth spin period distribution extends to several h...

  19. Neonatal Medical Exposures and Characteristics of Low Birth Weight Hepatoblastoma Cases: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Lucie M.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Ross, Julie A.; Feusner, James H.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Malogolowkin, Marcio H.; Krailo, Mark D.; Miller, Nicole; Fonstad, Rachel; Spector, Logan G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatoblastoma is a malignancy of young children. Low birth weight is associated with significantly increased risk of hepatoblastoma and neonatal medical exposures are hypothesized as contributors. This study represents the largest case–control study of hepatoblastoma to date and aimed to define the role of neonatal exposures in hepatoblastoma risk among low birth weight children. Procedure Incident hepatoblastoma cases who were born rays than in case series previously reported in the neonatal literature. Conclusions This study presents the largest case series of hepatoblastoma in <2,500 g birth weight infants with accompanying neonatal medical exposure data. Findings confirm that birth weight is highly correlated with exposure intensity, and neonatal exposures are themselves highly correlated, which hampers the identification of a causal exposure among hepatoblastoma cases. Experimental models or genetic susceptibility testing may be more revealing of etiology. PMID:25044669

  20. From Hospital Deliveries to Home Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Woude, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Working in a busy labor/delivery unit gave me insight into the care that my Lamaze childbirth education students would encounter. I was troubled by the number of interventions taking place. The interventions interfered with a woman's ability to work with her labor; some interventions were actually creating problems or even crises. My experiences at this hospital motivated me to become involved with home birth, restoring my belief that birth is a normal process.

  1. Birth-death processes on trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider birth-death processes on a tree T and we are interested when it is regular, recurrent and ergodic (strongly, exponentially). By constructing two corresponding birth death processes on Z+, we obtain computable conditions sufficient or necessary for that (in many cases, these two conditions coincide). With the help of these constructions, we give explicit upper and lower bounds for the Dirichlet eigenvalue λ0. At last, some examples are investigated to justify our results.

  2. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  3. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi′an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Soc...

  4. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Min; Ping, Zhiguang; Zhang, Shuiping; He, Yuying; Dong, Rui; Guo, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects, incidence, distribution, occurrence regularity, and their relevant factors in Xi’an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures. Methods: The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003–2012. Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input, and Statistical Package for the Social ...

  5. Low birth weight and health expenditures from birth to late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hummer, Michael; Lehner, Thomas; Gerald J. Pruckner

    2012-01-01

    Using administrative panel data of health insurants, we estimate the effects of low birth weight on health service utilization among children and young adults between birth and 21 years old. To account for time-invariant heterogeneity of mothers, we use sibling fixed- effects estimation. We find that low birth weight strongly increases subsequent health expenditures and that the effect is particularly pronounced in the first year of life. Starting in compulsory schooling, we observe a shift i...

  6. Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: longitudinal population based study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Richards; HARDY, R.; Kuh, D.; Wadsworth, M E J

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between birth weight and cognitive function in the normal population.Design A longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study.Participants 3900 males and females born in 1946.Main outcome measures Cognitive function from childhood to middle life (measured at ages 8, 11, 15, 26, and 43 years).Results Birth weight was significantly and positively associated with cognitive ability at age 8 (with an estimated standard deviation score of 0.44 (95%, confidenc...

  7. Size at birth and preterm birth in women with lifetime eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micali, N; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eating disorders are associated with lower size at birth, symmetric growth restriction, and preterm birth; and whether pregnancy smoking explains the association between anorexia nervosa and fetal growth. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort study. SETTING......: Maternal anorexia nervosa (both active and past) is associated with lower size at birth and symmetric growth restriction, with evidence of worse outcomes in women with active disorder. Women with anorexia nervosa should be advised about achieving full recovery before conceiving. Similarly, targeting...

  8. The birth memories and recall questionnaire (BirthMARQ): development and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, S.; Crawley, R.; Wilkie, S; Ayers, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childbirth is a challenging and emotive experience that is accompanied by strong positive and/or negative emotions. Memories of birth may be associated with how women cognitively process birth events postpartum and potentially their adaptation to parenthood. Characteristics of memories for birth may also be associated with postnatal psychological wellbeing. This paper reports the development and evaluation of a questionnaire to measure characteristics of memories of childbirth and...

  9. Maternal exposure to methotrexate and birth defects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, April L; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Reefhuis, Jennita; Arena, J Fernando

    2014-09-01

    Methotrexate is an anti-folate medication that is associated with increased risk of multiple birth defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States, we examined mothers exposed to methotrexate. The study population included mothers of live-born infants without major birth defects (controls) and mothers of fetuses or infants with a major birth defect (cases), with expected dates of delivery between October 1997 and December 2009. Mothers of cases and controls were asked detailed questions concerning pregnancy history, demographic information, and exposures in a telephone interview. Approximately 0.06% (n = 16/27,623) of case and 0.04% (n = 4/10,113) of control mothers reported exposure to methotrexate between 3 months prior to conception through the end of pregnancy. Of the 16 case infants, 11 (68.8%) had a congenital heart defect (CHD). The observed CHDs included atrial septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, valvar pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defects (VSDs), and total anomalous pulmonary venous return. One case infant had microtia in addition to a VSD and another had VACTER association. Exposed cases without a CHD had one of the following birth defects: cleft palate, hypospadias, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or craniosynostosis. Based on a limited number of methotrexate-exposed mothers, our findings support recent case reports suggesting an association between early pregnancy exposure to methotrexate and CHDs. Because of the rarity of maternal periconceptional exposure to methotrexate, long-term, population-based case-control studies are needed to confirm these findings and better evaluate the association between methotrexate and birth defects.

  10. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  11. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt;

    2009-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic posi......During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio......-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (preterm birth (32-36 gestational weeks) were calculated...... by maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient...

  12. [With the fourth sentence of the First Chamber on wrongful birth: is it possible to start talking about "jurisprudence"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angel Yágüez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Chamber number 1 of the Spanish Supreme Court of Justice has announced its fourth wrongful birth case decision dated December 18, 2003. The issue is whether we can state that with these four rulings there is a genuine law of precedent, that is, reiterated doctrine of the Supreme Court of Justice on this matter (Article 1.6 of the Civil Code).

  13. Perinatal factors related to negative or positive recall of birth experience in women 3 years postpartum in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, M.; Baston, H.; Schönbeck, Y.; Pal, K. van der; Prins, M.; Green, J.; Buitendijk, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little research has been conducted to date on women's postnatal emotional well-being and satisfaction with the care received in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to investigate Dutch women's views of their birth experience 3 years after the event. Methods: A questionnaire was ma

  14. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births

  15. Staying home to give birth: why women in the United States choose home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Debora; Bennett, Catherine; McFarlin, Barbara; Freeze, Rixa

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 1% of American women give birth at home and face substantial obstacles when they make this choice. This study describes the reasons that women in the United States choose home birth. A qualitative descriptive secondary analysis was conducted in a previously collected dataset obtained via an online survey. The sample consisted of 160 women who were US residents and planned a home birth at least once. Content analysis was used to study the responses from women to one essay question: "Why did you choose home birth?" Women who participated in the study were mostly married (91%) and white (87%). The majority (62%) had a college education. Our analysis revealed 508 separate statements about why these women chose home birth. Responses were coded and categorized into 26 common themes. The most common reasons given for wanting to birth at home were: 1) safety (n = 38); 2) avoidance of unnecessary medical interventions common in hospital births (n = 38); 3) previous negative hospital experience (n = 37); 4) more control (n = 35); and 5) comfortable, familiar environment (n = 30). Another dominant theme was women's trust in the birth process (n = 25). Women equated medical intervention with reduced safety and trusted their bodies' inherent ability to give birth without interference. PMID:19249657

  16. The complexity behind the date

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    For the waiting world, and indeed for most of us here at CERN, ‘the LHC schedule’ simply means the date that the LHC will restart - and we only take notice when that end-date changes. But in fact the schedule is a constantly evolving intricate document coordinating all the repairs, consolidation and commissioning in every part of the machine. So, what actually goes on behind the scenes in timing and planning all the work on one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built?

  17. Folic acid and primary prevention of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Carbone, Pietro; Granata, Orietta; Baldi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Birth defects (BDs) are an important public health problem, due to their overall incidence, occurring in 2-3% of live births in European Union. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among major NTDs, due to their severity and relatively high incidence; in the meanwhile NTDs are also the most effectively preventable BDs to date. In particular, an adequate folic acid (FA) intake reduces both the occurrence and the recurrence of NTDs; FA is the synthetic form of folates, naturally occurring vitamins in a number of foods, especially vegetables. The daily intake of 0.4 mg of FA should be recommended to all women of childbearing age who plan to become pregnant. The Italian Network for Primary Prevention of BDs through FA Promotion has achieved a significant improvement in FA awareness and use in the periconceptional period. Nevertheless, primary prevention of BDs needs to make further progress; the Italian National Centre for Rare Diseases participates in european sureveillance of congenital anomalies (EUROCAT) Joint Action as coordinator of activities on the effectiveness of BDs prevention. Mandatory food fortification with FA has not been introduced in any European country. The health benefits of FA in reducing the risk of NTDs are undisputed; however mechanistic and animal studies suggest a relationship between high FA intakes and increased cancer promotion, while human studies are still inconsistent and inconclusive. A Working Group organized by the European Food Safety Authority pointed out significant uncertainties about fortification safety and the need for more studies; currently, FA intake from fortified foods and supplements should not exceed 1 mg/day in adults. In conclusion, based on up-to-date scientific evidence, the Italian Network strategy pivots on periconceptional supplementation integrated with promotion of healthy eating habits, support to health education, enhancing the role of women in managing life choices about their health and pregnancy and increasing

  18. 21 CFR 1312.25 - Expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration date. 1312.25 Section 1312.25 Food and... SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.25 Expiration date. An export permit shall not be valid after the date specified therein, which date shall conform to the expiration date specified in...

  19. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  20. Comparative study of radioimmunoassay dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioimmunoassay is frequently used in clinical chemistry for the concentration determination of several substances like hormones as thyrotropine and thyroxine. In this experiment the dates of tyroxine radioimmunoassay are processed by three methods: a) like the recommendation of the IAEA, b) Dr. G. Chase method, c) according to the provider. The best method was Dr. Chase's. (author)

  1. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study was conducted by eliciting history from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who w ere treated in Rani Chandra Mani Devi Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. De tailed history was taken from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who were treated in this hospital. History regarding the period of gestation at which the child was born (preterm or full term, any previous history of pre - term delivery or abortions, was obtained from the mothers and the data analyzed . RESULTS: From this study it was observed the proportional association of pre - term births to cerebral palsy is 33 out 99 i.e., about 33.33%, Of these 33 cerebral palsy children highest association being with birth at 28 wks gestation (51 %. This study also shows th at the mothers with a previous history of preterm delivery have 14.4 times higher risk of subsequent pre term delivery; those with previous history of abortions have 5.7 times risk of pre - term delivery than mothers without such history. CONCLUSION: From th is study it was concluded that the pre - term birth plays a major role as a risk factor in the development of cerebral palsy with mothers having previous pre term delivery and previous abortions adding further to this risk.

  2. Safe Sext: Adolescents’ Use of Technology to Communicate about Sexual Health with Dating Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Nesi, Jacqueline; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined adolescents’ technology-based sexual communication with dating partners, and evaluated associations between technology-based communication and condom use. Methods Participants were 176 high school students who indicated their use of technology to communicate with partners about condoms, birth control, STIs, HIV/AIDS, pregnancy, and sexual limits. Sexually active youth also reported their frequency of condom use. Results Many adolescents (49%) used technology to discuss sexual health with partners, with rates varying by topic. Girls were more likely than boys to discuss HIV, pregnancy, and sexual limits. Ethnic minorities were more likely than Whites to discuss condoms, STIs, HIV, pregnancy, and birth control. Importantly, rates of consistent condom use were three-times higher among youth using technology to discuss condoms and birth control. Conclusions Results provide novel preliminary evidence about adolescents’ use of technology to discuss sexual health, and demonstrate links between technology-based communication and condom use among sexually active youth. PMID:24512716

  3. Maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy and neonatal health: evidence to date and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karras, Spyridon N; Fakhoury, Hana; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Grant, William B; van den Ouweland, Johannes M; Colao, Anna Maria; Kotsa, Kalliopi

    2016-08-01

    Low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy have been associated with a plethora of adverse neonatal outcomes, including small for gestational age and preterm births, detrimental effect on offspring bone and teeth development, and risk of infectious diseases. Although most observational studies indicate a significant linear relationship between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the above outcomes, some randomized controlled trials to date are inconclusive, mostly due to differences in study design and supplementation regimen. The currently available results indicate that vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, dental caries of infancy, and neonatal infectious diseases such as respiratory infections and sepsis. This narrative review aims to summarize available trial results regarding the effect of low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy, in conjunction with neonatal outcomes on the field, with a discourse on the appropriate clinical approach of this important issue. PMID:27493691

  4. What to Expect After Your Due Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG What to Expect After Your Due Date Home For ... Your Due Date FAQ069, August 2011 PDF Format What to Expect After Your Due Date Pregnancy What ...

  5. Birth weight for gestational age among Flemish twin population

    OpenAIRE

    Doom, E.C.G.; Delbaere, I.; Martens, G.; Temmerman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop birth weight references for twins. Mean birth weights of individual twins are lower than those of singletons, hence singleton birth weight curves may not be suitable to assess twin birth weights. Study design: Twin birth weight curves were developed according to gestational age, gender, parity and mode of conception. The curves are based on population-based data of 40,494 twins born in Flanders, Belgium between 1987 and 2007. Results: A differen...

  6. How Do Women Who Plan Home Birth Prepare for Childbirth?

    OpenAIRE

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    In this column, the findings of a secondary analysis of data from a larger qualitative study of the experience of home birth are discussed. The aim was to describe the ways in which women who plan home birth prepare for their births. The findings provide support for the idea of birth preparation and education occurring throughout pregnancy and describe the ways in which women planning to give birth at home develop confidence, plan for support, and make decisions related to the particulars of ...

  7. Analysis of Birth weight using Singular Value Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarajan, D; Nagarajan, V; Seethalekshmi, V

    2010-01-01

    The researchers have drawn much attention about the birth weight of newborn babies in the last three decades. The birth weight is one of the vital roles in the babys health. So many researchers such as (2),(1) and (4) analyzed the birth weight of babies. The aim of this paper is to analyze the birth weight and some other birth weight related variable, using singular value decomposition and multiple linear regression.

  8. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Barrios, Margarita E.; Alvarado, German F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth. PMID:27463110

  9. Home birth or short-stay hospital birth in a low risk population in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J.J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands women with low risk pregnancies can choose whether they want to give birth at home or in hospital, under the care of their own primary caregiver. The majority of these women prefer to give birth at home, but over the last few decades an increasing number of low risk women have cho

  10. EXPOSURE TO AREA-LEVEL PRETERM BIRTH DISPARITY AND EFFECTS ON BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black–white disparity in preterm birth (PTB) is persistent and not explained by individual factors. Given that exposure to inequality is associated with increased risk of adverse health, we examined PTB risk (birth <37 weeks gestational age) explained by living in U.S. census tra...

  11. Low birth weight in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, H M; Ismail, N N; Gebbie, D A

    1991-06-01

    Low birth weight babies are defined as those weighing under 2,500 g. They make 13.5% of all births at the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur but contribute to 74.8% of all deaths. They are most likely to be Indian babies and least likely to be Chinese. Among all 3 communities, the primigravidae tend to produce smaller babies than multiparae but this is also true for the Indian of parity more than 3. The Malay teenager is more likely to produce small babies than their older counterparts but not so with the Indian and Chinese. There are definite clinical factors associated with or causing the births of small babies and the lighter the baby, the more influential are these factors. Maternal hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage, multiple pregnancy and unexplained intrauterine death are the 4 outstanding associations with both low birth weight and perinatal death. Although the spontaneous (often premature) onset of labour was the commonest preceding factor, it was much less important in the lowest birth weight groups of babies and was a less important contributor to perinatal death.

  12. Effects of altitude versus economic status on birth weight and body shape at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giussani, D A; Phillips, P S; Anstee, S; Barker, D J

    2001-04-01

    The compelling evidence linking small size at birth with later cardiovascular disease has renewed and amplified a clinical and scientific interest in the determinants of fetal growth. Although the effects of maternal nutrition on fetal growth have been extensively studied, comparatively little is known about the effects of maternofetal hypoxia. This study tested the hypothesis that in highland regions, high altitude rather than maternal economic status is associated with reduced and altered fetal growth by investigating the effects of high altitude versus economic status on birth weight and body shape at birth in Bolivia. Bolivia is geographically and socioeconomically unique. It contains several highland (>3500 m above sea level) and lowland (weight, body length, and head circumference were compared between a high- (n = 100) and low- (n = 100) income region of La Paz (3649 m; largest high-altitude city) and a high- (n = 100) and low- (n = 100) income region of Santa Cruz (437 m; largest low-altitude city). In addition, the frequency distribution across the continuum of birth weights was plotted for babies born from high- and low-income families in La Paz and Santa Cruz. Mean birth weights were lower in babies from La Paz than in babies from Santa Cruz in both high- and low-income groups. The cumulative frequency curve across all compiled birth weights was shifted to the left in babies from La Paz compared with those from Santa Cruz, regardless of economic status. The frequency of low birth weight (head circumference:birth weight ratio. These findings suggest that high altitude rather than economic status is associated with low birth weight and altered body shape at birth in babies from Bolivia. PMID:11264431

  13. Neutrino, radioactivity and dating wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wine is a witness of the radioactivity of the atmosphere at the moment of grapes were collected. The possibility of measuring very low radioactivity levels (that was developed for studying neutrinos) has permitted the design of a new non-destructive method of dating bottled wines. This method is based on the detection of the 661 keV photon released whenever an atom of cesium 137 decays. This photon has enough energy to cross the thickness of glass and be detected. The presence of cesium 137 in the atmosphere is mainly due to the military atomic tests performed from 1950 to 1963 and to the Chernobyl accident that took place in 1986, as a consequence this method is valid to date wines that were produced only after 1950. (A.C.)

  14. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    at the university or divinity school level, but also to scholars of the Hebrew Bible in general who have not been exposed to the full scope of issues. The book is useful to a wide range of readers by introducing topics at a basic level before entering into detailed discussion. Among the many issues discussed......Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...

  15. Antimicrobials for Preterm Birth Prevention: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Preterm birth (PTB remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n=26 or meta-analysis (n=5 for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth.

  16. Summer birth and deficit schizophrenia: Cantabria, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Herrera Castanedo, Sara; Vazquez-Barquero, Jose L

    2002-08-01

    An association between deficit schizophrenia and summer birth has previously been reported. The authors attempted to replicate this association in a population-based study of incident cases of psychosis in the autonomous region of Cantabria, in northern Spain. Schizophrenia patients were categorized into deficit (N = 22) and nondeficit (N = 55) groups, and the pattern in the two groups was compared. After accounting for the variance due to disorganization, hallucinations and delusions, and demographic variables, deficit schizophrenia had a significant association with summer birth; this association did not depend on a single definition of summer. For instance, among the deficit patients, 59% were born from May to August, in contrast to 18% of nondeficit patients and 34% of the general population. These results confirm the association between summer birth in the Northern Hemisphere and deficit as opposed to nondeficit schizophrenia. The existence of a different risk factor for the two groups suggests a difference in etiology and pathophysiology. PMID:12193837

  17. Replicating Cardiovascular Condition-Birth Month Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Boland, Mary Regina; Miotto, Riccardo; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Dudley, Joel T.

    2016-01-01

    Independent replication is vital for study findings drawn from Electronic Health Records (EHR). This replication study evaluates the relationship between seasonal effects at birth and lifetime cardiovascular condition risk. We performed a Season-wide Association Study on 1,169,599 patients from Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH) to compute phenome-wide associations between birth month and CVD. We then evaluated if seasonal patterns found at MSH matched those reported at Columbia University Medical Center. Coronary arteriosclerosis, essential hypertension, angina, and pre-infarction syndrome passed phenome-wide significance and their seasonal patterns matched those previously reported. Atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, and chronic myocardial ischemia had consistent patterns but were not phenome-wide significant. We confirm that CVD risk peaks for those born in the late winter/early spring among the evaluated patient populations. The replication findings bolster evidence for a seasonal birth month effect in CVD. Further study is required to identify the environmental and developmental mechanisms. PMID:27624541

  18. [Risk of preterm birth in twin pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, J; Nowakowska, D; Jaczewski, B; Wenerski, J; Oszukowski, P; Krasomski, G

    2000-11-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the selected risk factors in twin pregnancies. Retrospective analysis was carried out in the Research Institute Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital (ICZMP) in Lodz and covered data from the period of time between 1989-1999. Out of 38,066 deliveries which had place in the ICZMP 538 twin pregnancies were enrolled in the study. We evaluated usual risk factors for preterm birth such as body mass index, short cervical length, beta-mimetics admission, presence of bleeding and contractions as well as socio-demographical characteristics such as age, parity, martial status and educational level. Univariate analysis and ?2 test were preformed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. For multivariate analysis logistic regression model was used. Most of the risk factors for preterm birth were not significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth of twins. PMID:11216165

  19. Birth Order and BMI in Teenage Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Koziel, S.; Kolodziej, H.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relation of birth order to relative weight and prevalence of obesity in a group of 13–15 years old girls. In 1997, 1458 girls were examined. The height and weight measured by trained staff were recorded. Family size and birth order were obtained by a questionnaire. For the purpose of the present study, 776 and 250 girls coming from two- and three-child full families, respectively, were selected from the total sample on the basis of ...

  20. Can Higher Cigarette Taxes Improve Birth Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, William N.; Ringel, Jeanne S

    1997-01-01

    This study uses within-state variation in taxes over the 1989-1992 time period to test whether maternal smoking and birth outcomes are responsive to higher state cigarette taxes. Data on the outcomes of interest are taken from the Natality Detail files, generating a sample of roughly 10.5 million births. The results indicate that smoking participation declines when excise taxes are increased. The elasticity of demand for cigarettes is estimated to be appro- ximately -0.25. In addition, estima...

  1. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

    One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

  2. Sexual Communication Between Early Adolescents and Their Dating Partners, Parents, and Best Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; HELMS, SARAH W.; Golin, Carol E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed early adolescents' sexual communication with dating partners, parents, and best friends about six sexual health topics: condoms, birth control, STDs, HIV/AIDS, pregnancy, and abstinence/waiting. Using a school-based sample of 603 youth (ages = 12–15; 57% female; 46% Caucasian), we examined communication differences across demographic and developmental factors, tested whether communication with parents and best friends was associated with greater communication with partners...

  3. Undiagnosed coeliac disease in a father does not influence birthweight and preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2012-01-31

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of coeliac disease (CD) in the father on birthweight and preterm birth. We investigated the association between paternal CD and birthweight and preterm birth. Medical records of all singleton live-born children in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 were linked to information about parents\\' diseases. Fathers who were diagnosed with CD were then identified. Fathers with CD were considered treated if they were diagnosed before pregnancy and untreated if they were diagnosed after the date of conception. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small-for-gestational age (birthweight<10th centile for gestational age) and preterm birth (<37 weeks). We compared the offspring of men without CD (n = 1 472 352) and offspring of those with CD [untreated (n = 138) and treated (n = 473)]. There was no significant association between untreated CD in the father and birthweight (adjusted mean difference = -3 g; [95% CI -46, 40]) or preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, [95% CI 0.53, 1.37]) (compared with no CD). There was some evidence for an association between treated paternal CD and birthweight (adjusted mean difference = -81 g; [95% CI -161, -3]), but not preterm birth (adjusted OR = 1.76, [95% CI 0.95, 3.26]). Untreated paternal CD was not associated with an increased risk of reduced birthweight, or of preterm birth. There was some evidence that diagnosis and presumed treatment of paternal CD with a gluten-free diet is associated with reduced birthweight.

  4. Season of sampling and season of birth influence serotonin metabolite levels in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen J Luykx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal studies have revealed seasonal patterns in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF monoamine (MA turnover. In humans, no study had systematically assessed seasonal patterns in CSF MA turnover in a large set of healthy adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Standardized amounts of CSF were prospectively collected from 223 healthy individuals undergoing spinal anesthesia for minor surgical procedures. The metabolites of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA, dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA and norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, MPHG were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Concentration measurements by sampling and birth dates were modeled using a non-linear quantile cosine function and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS, span = 0.75. The cosine model showed a unimodal season of sampling 5-HIAA zenith in April and a nadir in October (p-value of the amplitude of the cosine = 0.00050, with predicted maximum (PC(max and minimum (PC(min concentrations of 173 and 108 nmol/L, respectively, implying a 60% increase from trough to peak. Season of birth showed a unimodal 5-HIAA zenith in May and a nadir in November (p = 0.00339; PC(max = 172 and PC(min = 126. The non-parametric LOESS showed a similar pattern to the cosine in both season of sampling and season of birth models, validating the cosine model. A final model including both sampling and birth months demonstrated that both sampling and birth seasons were independent predictors of 5-HIAA concentrations. CONCLUSION: In subjects without mental illness, 5-HT turnover shows circannual variation by season of sampling as well as season of birth, with peaks in spring and troughs in fall.

  5. Associations of Rhesus and non-Rhesus maternal red blood cell alloimmunization with stillbirth and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Lee, Brian K; Wikman, Agneta T; Johansson, Stefan; Reilly, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with anti-D antibodies are well-recognized, much less is known concerning alloimmunization with other red blood cell antibodies detected during routine maternal screening. To date, most reports of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with non-anti-D antibodies have been from small case studies. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of maternal alloimmunization with specific red blood cell antibodies and the risks of preterm birth and stillbirth in the Swedish population. Methods: All antibody screening, outcome and covariate data were obtained through linkages of Swedish national health and data registers. Follow-up in these population-based registers was available up to 31 December 2002. The final study sample consisted of 1 022 569 singleton births from 668 952 mothers during 1987–2002. Results: In total, 1.3% of the 1 022 569 study pregnancies were alloimmunized. In adjusted logistic regression models, compared with having no antibodies, alloimmunization with anti-D, anti-E, anti-C and anti-c was associated with increased risk of both stillbirth and preterm birth. In addition, anti-Kell was associated with increased risk of preterm birth and anti-Lea with increased risk of stillbirth. Compared with firstborn children, risk of preterm birth associated with alloimmunization was greater in subsequent births Conclusions: In the largest study to date, alloimmunization with Rhesus, K- and -Lea red blood cell antibodies increased the risk of preterm birth and/or stillbirth. The association of anti-Lea with stillbirth was an unexpected finding. Further study of the consequences of non-anti-D alloimmunization is warranted. PMID:24801308

  6. INVESTIGATION OF BIRTHS DELIVERED IN A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Senih MAYDA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the records of the births delivered in the Hospital of Duzce Medical School to determine the frequency of low birth weight, stillbirth, sezerian ratio; the relation between these variables and age of mother, number of pregnancy, birth weight, sex of the baby, way of the delivery. Data of this descriptive study was obtained from all the records of births delivered in this hospital from February 2001 to 2005 October. Number of total births according to the records was 2562. According to 2495 (97.4% birth records in which data if the baby was stillbirth or not had been written the number of stillbirth was 112 (4.5%. According to 2491 (97.25 birth records data about birth weight had been written the number of babies with low birth weight (less than 2500 gr was 564 (22.6%. Stillbirth was found related with low birth weight (x2=193.186, p<0.001; and low birth weight with female sex of the baby (x2 = 16.16, p<0.001, and less than 19 years of mothers’ ages. Of 2521 births, 1190 (47.2% was cesarean section. The results of this study showed that birth record of this hospital hasn’t included the data which must be at birth records. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 408-415

  7. 7 CFR 987.12 - Marketable dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.12 Marketable dates. Marketable... exeption of Canada. The Committee may establish different requirements for different countries. (d) Product dates. Product dates are marketable dates that are inspected and certified as meeting the...

  8. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Rafael A; Lin Xi; Campbell Joy M; Moeser Adam J; Odle Jack

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birt...

  9. Home birth or short-stay hospital birth in a low risk population in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J. J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands women with low risk pregnancies can choose whether they want to give birth at home or in hospital, under the care of their own primary caregiver. The majority of these women prefer to give birth at home, but over the last few decades an increasing number of low risk women have chosen a hospital birth, leaving hospital with their baby shortly after delivery. As both this trend and its effects have not been extensively investigated, a study was designed to examine the determi...

  10. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy...... results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...

  11. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtekar Shyam; Kulkarni Madhav; Sadavarte Vaishali; Ashtekar Ratna

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight b...

  12. The Birth and Death of a Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M

    2016-01-01

    This letter is meant to be a brief survey of several recent publications providing a simple, sequential explanation of Dark Energy, Inflation and Dark Matter, which leads to a simple picture of the why and the how of the Big Bang, and thence to a possible understanding of the birth and death of a Universe.

  13. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  14. Occupational Lifting, Fetal Death and Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  15. Sibship size, birth order, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2005-10-01

    In a sample of 273 American college students who were administered seven personality tests, only death obsession scores were consistently associated with sibship size and birth order (not optimism, pessimism, anxiety, a Taoist orientation, suicidal ideation, or obsessive-compulsive tendencies).

  16. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  17. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana;

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  18. Pregnancy and birth cohort resources in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley;

    2013-01-01

    During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross...

  19. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated i...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks....... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  20. Birth Order and Marital Bliss in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Leonard; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This study offers a rank order of successful marriages, according to birth order in Israel. The results of two studies show that marriage consisting of a first born and a later born are more successful than marriages composed of two first borns or two later borns. (Author/PC)

  1. Birth injuries to the epiphyseal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A birth injury in the vicinity of a joint might lead to a fracture through the epiphyseal cartilage. The criteria for diagnosing such a fracture at radiography are considered and the continued remodelling of the bone demonstrated. The history of 2 cases with late diagnosis and serious long-term sequelae are described, in order to emphasize the necessity of early radiography. (Auth.)

  2. Characterization of Live Birth with Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Acosta Batista

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the congenital malformations constitute the first cause of infantile death in developed countries, as well as the second cause of death in Cuba, in younger children of an elderly year. Objective: characterizing the live birth newborns with congenital malformations at Marianao municipality during the year 2011. Methods: descriptive, cross-section study of 30- live birth with congenital malformations at Marianao municipality in Havana, during the year 2011. Some of analyzed variables were: sex, affected system, congenital malformation, type of malformation, severity, birth weight, gestational age, prenatal diagnosis, family history of congenital malformation, maternal age, among others. Results: the masculine sex was the more affected, with 18 cases that represented the 60 %. The Polydactyl was the malformation further frequent, with 23.3 %, followed by the pre-aural appendix, with 10 %. The 20 % was born pre-term and only in the 10 % of the cases was obtained a positive result in the tests of prenatal diagnosis. Conclusions: the live birth with MC were characterized to be males with isolated MC and less severe, full term, normopeso, without family history of the aforementioned affection and with a negative prenatal diagnosis. The majority of mothers belonged to 20-35's age group years, they suffered from hypertension and during pregnancy, the principal diseases that they presented were the sepsis and anemia.

  3. Sibship size, birth order, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2005-10-01

    In a sample of 273 American college students who were administered seven personality tests, only death obsession scores were consistently associated with sibship size and birth order (not optimism, pessimism, anxiety, a Taoist orientation, suicidal ideation, or obsessive-compulsive tendencies). PMID:16342569

  4. Maastricht essential fatty acid birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; De Groot, Renate; Stratakis, Nikos; Gielen, Marij; Hornstra, Gerard; Zeegers, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The Maastricht Essential Fatty Acid Birth cohort (MEFAB) was established in 1989 to study the changes in fatty acid concentration during pregnancy and how this related to the fatty acid concentrations of the neonate. The original sample contains data of 1203 subjects. Some participants whom particip

  5. Socio-emotional development following very preterm birth: pathways to psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eMontagna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; <32 weeks of gestation has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset.Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity.However, the aetiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies.Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological and psychosocial factors.

  6. Maternal and Live-birth Outcomes of Pregnancies following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324

  7. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895

  8. Tectonic calibrations in molecular dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ullasa KODANDARAMAIAH

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dating techniques require the use of calibrations, which are usually fossil or geological vicariance-based.Fossil calibrations have been criticised because they result only in minimum age estimates. Based on a historical biogeographic perspective, Ⅰ suggest that vicariance-based calibrations are more dangerous. Almost all analytical methods in historical biogeography are strongly biased towards inferring vicariance, hence vicariance identified through such methods is unreliable. Other studies, especially of groups found on Gondwanan fragments, have simply assumed vicariance. Although it was previously believed that vicariance was the predominant mode of speciation, mounting evidence now indicates that speciation by dispersal is common, dominating vicariance in several groups. Moreover, the possibility of speciation having occurred before the said geological event cannot be precluded. Thus, geological calibrations can under- or overestimate times, whereas fossil calibrations always result in minimum estimates. Another major drawback of vicariant calibrations is the problem of circular reasoning when the resulting estimates are used to infer ages of biogeographic events. Ⅰ argue that fossil-based dating is a superior alternative to vicariance, primarily because the strongest assumption in the latter, that speciation was caused by the said geological process, is more often than not the most tenuous. When authors prefer to use a combination of fossil and vicariant calibrations, one suggestion is to report results both with and without inclusion of the geological constraints. Relying solely on vicariant calibrations should be strictly avoided.

  9. RETROSPECTIVE CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF STILL BIRTH AND NEONATAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVE: Aim was to evaluate clinical and associated risk factors for still births and neonatal deaths at tertiary health care centre. METHODS: A retrospective analytical study of new born at birth conducted at tertiary health care centre for three consecutive years. Demographic variables, status of new born at birth, NICU care and neonatal causes of death were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 1072,990,995 births for 2011, 2012, and 2013 year respectively Still births were 30, 36 and 41 and newborn deaths were 15,8,15 for three consecutive years. Mean age of mother was 25.35 yrs standard deviation 4.4. 82 % of still births were preterm. Maximum 67% of still births birth weight was less than 1.5 kg. NICU admission included 51% full term neonate, 44% preterm and 5% post term neonate. Maximum (51% NICU admissions neonatal birth weight was less < 1.5 kg.79% of dead neonates were preterm. Life threatening congenital defects was seen in 26%. Cause of death birth asphyxia 37% hyaline membrane disease 15%. CONCLUSION: Statistically significant mean gestational age of baby with mother was 38.26 weeks (SD 2.260, NICU neonates 36.70 weeks (SD 3.3 and still births 31.34 weeks (SD 4.6. Maternal urinary tract infection, Hypertensive diseases, diabetes mellitus were major reasons for stillbirths. Neonatal mortality from 26% reduced to 8% with increasing birth weight. Major neonatal deaths are because of birth asphyxia, congenital defects. Low Birth Weight and prematurity were overlapping factor for neonatal death. Still birth rate was 35; perinatal mortality rate was 44/1000 live births. Early neonatal mortality rate & Total neonatal mortality rate was 12 /1000 live births each

  10. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  12. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  13. Food availability at birth limited reproductive success in historical humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Ian J; Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Helle, Samuli; Russell, Andrew F; Lummaa, Virpi

    2010-12-01

    Environmental conditions in early life can profoundly affect individual development and have consequences for reproductive success. Limited food availability may be one of the reasons for this, but direct evidence linking variation in early-life nutrition to reproductive performance in adulthood in natural populations is sparse. We combined historical agricultural data with detailed demographic church records to investigate the effect of food availability around the time of birth on the reproductive success of 927 men and women born in 18th-century Finland. Our study population exhibits natural mortality and fertility rates typical of many preindustrial societies, and individuals experienced differing access to resources due to social stratification. We found that among both men and women born into landless families (i.e., with low access to resources), marital prospects, probability of reproduction, and offspring viability were all positively related to local crop yield during the birth year. Such effects were generally absent among those born into landowning families. Among landless individuals born when yields of the two main crops, rye and barley, were both below median, only 50% of adult males and 55% of adult females gained any reproductive success in their lifetime, whereas 97% and 95% of those born when both yields were above the median did so. Our results suggest that maternal investment in offspring in prenatal or early postnatal life may have profound implications for the evolutionary fitness of human offspring, particularly among those for which resources are more limiting. Our study adds support to the idea that early nutrition can limit reproductive success in natural animal populations, and provides the most direct evidence to date that this process applies to humans.

  14. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi′an City from 2003 to 2012. NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention, while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  15. Comparison of birth weight between school health records and medical birth records in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Bjørn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare reported birth weight (BW) information in school health records with BW from medical birth records, and to investigate if maternal and offspring characteristics were associated with any discrepancies. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, 1973......-1991. PARTICIPANTS: The study was based on BW recorded in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) and in The Medical Birth Register (MBR). The registers were linked via the Danish personal identification number. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Statistical comparisons of BW in the registers were......'s age at recall and by marital status (children of married women had the highest odds). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, BW information in school health records agreed very well with BW from medical birth records, suggesting that reports of BWs in school health records in Copenhagen, Denmark generally are valid....

  16. Unnatural birth? : medical pain management technology and the naturalness of birth

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how medical pain management technology affects the concept of natural birth.The relationship between medical pain management technology and natural birth is discussed in a structural framework in which medicalization, risk, and identity are acknowledged as important issues within the current childbirth paradigm. The analysis is based on thirteen in-depth interviews with Norwegian midwives and mothers on their perceptions of medical pain management technolo...

  17. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... genetic effects directly linked with maternal illness, lifestyle factors (diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs), poor antenatal care, psychotropic medication toxicity, and gene-environment interactions. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms...

  18. Consolidating Birth-Death and Death-Birth Processes in Structured Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Zukewich; Venu Kurella; Michael Doebeli; Christoph Hauert

    2013-01-01

    Network models extend evolutionary game theory to settings with spatial or social structure and have provided key insights on the mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation. However, network models have also proven sensitive to seemingly small details of the model architecture. Here we investigate two popular biologically motivated models of evolution in finite populations: Death-Birth (DB) and Birth-Death (BD) processes. In both cases reproduction is proportional to fitness and death...

  19. Passive smoking and preterm birth in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jie; He, Xiaochun; Cui, Hongmei; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Honghong; Dang, Yun; Han, Xudong; Chen, Ya; Tang, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Hanru; Bai, Haiya; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhu, Daling; Lin, Xiaojuan; Lv, Ling; Xu, Xiaoying; Lin, Ru; Yao, Tingting; Su, Jie; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Wendi; Wang, Yueyuan; Ma, Bin; Liu, Sufen; Huang, Huang; Lerro, Catherine; Zhao, Nan; Liang, Jiaxin; Ma, Shuangge; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

    2014-07-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between maternal passive smoking and the risk of preterm birth have reached inconsistent conclusions. A birth cohort study that included 10,095 nonsmoking women who delivered a singleton live birth was carried out in Lanzhou, China, between 2010 and 2012. Exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth (<32 completed weeks of gestation; odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 2.76) but not moderate preterm birth (32-36 completed weeks of gestation; odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.81, 1.19). Risk of very preterm birth increased with the duration of exposure (P for trend = 0.0014). There was no variability in exposures by trimester. The associations were consistent for both medically indicated and spontaneous preterm births. Overall, our findings support a positive association between passive smoking and the risk of very preterm birth. PMID:24838804

  20. CDC Reports Six Cases of Birth Defects Caused by Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports Six Cases of Birth Defects Caused by Zika Three babies born with defects, while three pregnancies ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- In the first reporting of Zika-related birth defects in the United States, federal ...

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Antibiotic Administration during Pregnancy and Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise;

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors....

  2. Teen Birth Rate At Record Low in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158550.html Teen Birth Rate at Record Low in U.S. They' ... 2016 THURSDAY, April 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The teen birth rate in the United States has reached ...

  3. Fertility Drugs and the Risk of Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fertility drugs and the risk of multiple births Infertility treatments that cause multiple eggs to develop make ... birth, the babies might not get all the nutrition that is carried by the blood from their ...

  4. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal ...

  5. Relationship between gestational age, birth weight and deciduous tooth eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Mohamed Khalifa

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Delayed tooth eruption was related to lower birth weight and prematurity. The delayed eruption in preterm babies may be related to premature birth and not to a delay in dental development.

  6. Training traditional birth attendants to use misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat in home births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Quaiyum, Md Abdul; Passano, Paige; Bell, Suzanne; Bohl, Daniel D; Hossain, Shahed; Azmi, Ashrafi Jahan; Begum, Mohsina

    2012-12-01

    A 50-fold disparity in maternal mortality exists between high- and low-income countries, and in most contexts, the single most common cause of maternal death is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In Bangladesh, as in many other low-income countries, the majority of deliveries are conducted at home by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or family members. In the absence of skilled birth attendants, training TBAs in the use of misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat to measure postpartum blood loss may strengthen the ability of TBAs to manage PPH. These complementary interventions were tested in operations research among 77,337 home births in rural Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBAs' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and changes in attitudes and practices related to PPH management in home births after undergoing training on the use of misoprostol and the blood collection delivery mat. We conclude that the training was highly effective and that the two interventions were safely and correctly used by TBAs at home births. Data on TBA practices indicate adherence to protocol, and 18 months after the interventions were implemented, TBA knowledge retention remained high. This program strengthens the case for community-based use of misoprostol and warrants consideration of this intervention as a potential model for scale-up in settings where complete coverage of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) remains a distant goal. PMID:22921713

  7. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  8. The first injustice : Socio-economic inequalities in birth outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Gisselmann, Marit

    2007-01-01

    Adverse birth outcomes like preterm birth and infant mortality are unevenly distributed across socio-economic groups. Risks are usually lowest in groups with high socio-economic status and increase with decreasing status. The general aim of this thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the relation between socio-economic status and birth outcomes, focussing on maternal education and class, studying a range of birth outcomes. More specific aims were to investigate the relation between ...

  9. Birth Order and the Intrahousehold Allocation of Time and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Pörtner, Claus Christian

    2002-01-01

    A potential determinant of intrahousehold distribution is the birth order of children. While a number of studies have analysed birth order effects in developed countries there are still only a few dealing with developing countries. This paper develops a model of intrahousehold allocation with endogenous fertility, which captures the relation between birth order and investment in children and shows that a birth order effect in intrahousehold allocation can arise even without assumptions about ...

  10. Gestational Age, Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth and Risk for Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuelian; Vestergaard, Mogens; Carsten B Pedersen; Christensen, Jakob; Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the association between gestational age, birth weight, intrauterine growth and epilepsy in a population-based cohort of 1.4 million singletons born in Denmark (1979-2002). A total of 14,334 individuals were registered with epilepsy in the Danish National Hospital Register as inpatients (1979-2002) and outpatients (1995-2002). Information on gestational age and birth weight was obtained from Danish Medical Birth Registry. Children small at birth were identified through tw...

  11. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    OpenAIRE

    van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM; Middeldorp Christel M; Lamb Diane J; Vink Jacqueline M; Haak Monique C; Boomsma Dorret I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the N...

  12. Institutional and Cultural Perspectives on Home Birth in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Meroz, Michal (Rosie); Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat

    2015-01-01

    This study exposes doctors’ and midwives’ perceptions and misperceptions regarding home birth by examining their views on childbirth in general and on risk associated with home births in particular. It relies on an approach of risk communication and an anthropological framework. In a qualitative-constructive study, 19 in-depth interviews were conducted with hospital doctors, hospital midwives, home-birth midwives, and a home-birth obstetrician. Our findings reveal that hospital midwives and d...

  13. Women in the driving seat: birth centre insights

    OpenAIRE

    Deery, Ruth; Jones, Pat; Phillips, Mari

    2007-01-01

    Birth centres seek to promote physiological childbirth by recognising, respecting and safeguarding normal birth processes.This philosophy enableswomen and their families to experience a positive start to parenthood (Kirkham2003a).Midwives are also able to practise ‘realmidwifery’ (Kirkham2003b: 14). Indeed,when there is no risk tomother or baby, themother should be the personwho decideswhere her birth will take place (DoH2004).Astructured reviewof birth cen...

  14. Birth order and a two-dimensional assessment of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, F H

    1975-04-01

    Higher order personality dimensions of extraversion-introversion and neuroticism were studied as functions of birth order in two-sib families, using 141 female subjects, with control over sex of sibling and sib age separation. No significant personality dimension variance was attributable to birth order in females. The results were considered briefly in terms of the importance of birth order, heritability questions, and the possible contribution of birth order to lower order traits. PMID:1151602

  15. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection.

  16. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site: Phase 2 -- Birth defects. Technical progress report, year 01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Region Health Information System Birth Defects Registry (SRRHIS-BDR) began on September 30, 1994. As with the SRRHIS Cancer Registry, surveillance of the 12 Georgia counties was subcontracted to Emory University School of Public Health. Collaborative efforts between the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and Emory University staffs have been characterized by warm relationships and commitment to developing a state of the art registry. As a result of early planning efforts, the authors were able to actually activate the data collection. As of the end of September 1995, partial data from the 1994 birth cohort and up-to-date data for the 1995 birth cohort had been collected on the South Carolina side. The Georgia Staff started later and have not yet caught up to the 1994 level. South Carolina was able to start earlier because they were fortunate to quickly recruit an abstractor. Also, by the end of the first year, an innovative automated data entry system for laptop computers was developed by the computer staff to facilitate and improve data collection

  17. Extension of the preceding birth technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A

    1994-01-01

    The Brass-inspired Preceding Birth Technique (PBT), is an indirect estimation technique with low costs of administration. PBT involves asking women at a time close to delivery about the survival of the preceding births. The proportion dead is close to the probability of dying between the birth and the second birthday or an index of early childhood mortality (II or Q). Brass and Macrae have determined that II is an estimate of mortality between birth and an age lower than the birth interval or around 4/5 of the birth interval. Hospital and clinic data are likely to include a concentration of women with lower risks of disease because of higher educational levels and socioeconomic status. A simulation of PBT data from the World Fertility Survey for Mexico and Peru found that the proportions of previously dead children were 0.156 in Peru and 0.092 in Mexican home deliveries. Maternity clinic proportions were 0.088 in Peru and 0.066 in Mexico. Use of clinic and hospital data collection underestimated mortality by 32% in Peru and 15% in Mexico. Another alternative was proposed: interviewing women at some other time than delivery. If the interview was during a child/infant intervention after delivery, the subsample would still be subject to a bias, but this problem could be overcome by computing the weighted average of the actual probability of the older child being dead and the conditional probability of the younger child being dead or both younger and older children being dead. Correction factors could be applied using the general standard of the logit life table system of Brass. Calculation of a simple average of the ages of the younger children could provide enough information to help decide which tables to use. Five surveys were selected for testing the factors of dependence between probabilities of death of successive siblings: Bangladesh, Lesotho, Kenya, Ghana, and Guyana. Higher mortality was related to lower dependency factors between the probabilities of death

  18. The Relationship between Birth Order and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Crystal M.

    This paper reviews the literature on the relationship between birth order and several variables, especially academic achievement. One study found a relationship between leadership skills and birth order for males. Several studies found no relationship between birth order and academic achievement; grade point average; self-esteem; locus of control…

  19. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  20. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design...

  1. Dylan's Birth: From His Mother's and Grandmother's Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hotelling, Claire N.; Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    In this column, an adolescent mother demonstrates how preparation, Lamaze education, supportive caregivers, and an inner wisdom about the normalcy of birth enabled her to have a safe and satisfying birth. The grandmother, an experienced Lamaze educator and doula, also tells of her transformational experience as she watched her daughter give birth with strength and wisdom.

  2. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Lamb; C.M. Middeldorp; C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt; J.M. Vink; M.C. Haak; D.I. Boomsma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on importan

  3. CALF CIRCUMFERENCE AT BIRTH: A SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  4. 7 CFR 1773.8 - Audit date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Audit Requirements § 1773.8 Audit date. (a) The annual... change the as of audit date is obtained, in writing, from RUS. (1) A borrower may request a change in...

  5. What Is Rape and Date Rape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is rape and date rape? What is rape and date rape? Get help National Sexual Assault Hotline 800-656- ... drinking, it is NOT your fault. What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any kind of ...

  6. Teaching the Mathematics of Radioactive Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, James H.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method used to teach the concept of radiometric dating using mathematical equations. Explores the lack of information in textbooks on how to solve radiometric dating problems using mathematical concepts. (SAH)

  7. Refractive status at birth: its relation to newborn physical parameters at birth and gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Mathew Varghese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth. METHODS: All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were eligible for the study. Refraction was performed within the first week of life. 0.8% tropicamide with 0.5% phenylephrine was used to achieve cycloplegia and paralysis of accommodation. 599 newborn babies participated in the study. Data pertaining to the right eye is utilized for all the analyses except that for anisometropia where the two eyes were compared. Growth parameters were measured soon after birth. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to see the association of refractive status, (mean spherical equivalent (MSE, astigmatism and anisometropia with each of the study variables, namely gestation, length, weight and head circumference. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was carried out to identify the independent predictors for each of the outcome parameters. RESULTS: Simple linear regression showed a significant relation between all 4 study variables and refractive error but in multiple regression only gestational age and weight were related to refractive error. The partial correlation of weight with MSE adjusted for gestation was 0.28 and that of gestation with MSE adjusted for weight was 0.10. Birth weight had a higher correlation to MSE than gestational age. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to look at refractive error against all these growth parameters, in preterm and term babies at birth. It would appear from this study that birth weight rather than gestation should be used as criteria for screening for refractive error

  8. Giving Birth No Longer Means Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    GIVING birth to a child was a life-or-death struggle forthe mother and baby as late as the early half of thiscentury;an estimate survey revealed a mortality rate amongmothers as high as 15 per thousand and infant mortality as highas 200 per tnousand at that time.Midwifery was oftenpracticed by the mother-in-law,the mother herself,or morepopularly,by an elderly woman in the village who practiced

  9. Strategic Parenting, Birth Order and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hotz, V. Joseph; Pantano, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by new evidence, there has been renewed interest about the effects of birth order on human capital accumulation. The underlying causal mechanisms for such effects remain unsettled. We consider a model in which parents impose more stringent disciplinary environments in response to their earlier-born children's poor performance in school in order to deter such outcomes for their later-born offspring. We provide robust empirical evidence that school performance of children in the NLSY-C d...

  10. Teenagers born at extremely low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, Michael F.; Grunau, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence constitutes a major transition for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) teenagers. Recent studies of ELBW teenagers born in the 1980s have provided information about the growth and developmental characteristics of these individuals in adolescence and in early adulthood. ELBW teenagers are shorter and lighter than their full-term peers, and have a smaller head circumference. Cognitive and academic vulnerabilities documented during the school years, particularly difficulties with nonve...

  11. The father's decision making in home birth

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Mollá, Teresa; Solano Ruiz, María del Carmen; Siles González, José; Sánchez-Peralvo, Marta; Méndez-Pérez, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This work sought to inquire on the father's role on the decision making regarding home birth from the perspective of both partners. Methodology. The design was ethnographic of qualitative nature, conducted in the province of Alicante, Spain. A total of 11 couples participated voluntarily in the study. To gather the data, the following techniques were used: two life stories, five narrations, and in-depth interviews of all the study participants. The data obtained were analyzed with ...

  12. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight. PMID:26398873

  13. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  14. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Moiduddin; Massey, Douglas S.

    2008-01-01

    In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse). We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce ...

  15. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho; Diana Barbosa Cunha; Ana Paula Pereira Esteves; Elisa Maria de Aquino Lacerda; Mariza Miranda Theme Filha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by explo...

  16. Rethinking benchmark dates in international relations

    OpenAIRE

    Buzan, Barry; Lawson, George

    2014-01-01

    International Relations (IR) has an ‘orthodox set’ of benchmark dates by which much of its research and teaching is organized: 1500, 1648, 1919, 1945 and 1989. This article argues that IR scholars need to question the ways in which these orthodox dates serve as internal and external points of reference, think more critically about how benchmark dates are established, and generate a revised set of benchmark dates that better reflects macro-historical international dynamics. The first part of t...

  17. Datingguiden - Din guide til bedre online dating

    OpenAIRE

    l'Anglois-Nordgren, Louise Axen; Clausen, Michelle Simone Gram; Nielsen, Helena Louise Lading; Rahbek, Simone Rebekka

    2015-01-01

    The following study will address in which manner it is possible to create an informative communication product, which informs users of online dating about the different aspects of using online dating. The overall purpose of this study is therefore to answer the problem statement listed below: How can we create an informative communication product, which can enlighten users of online dating at the age of 18-34? To answer the problem statement, an informative online dating guide website h...

  18. Luminescence dating of storm-surge sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Geological evidence of storm surges has the potential to provide vital information on storm-surge risk. Sediment from the coastal dunes of the Netherlands contains evidence of extreme floods that occurred before reliable measurements of water level began. For these sediments to be useful in flood-risk analysis, they need to be reliably dated. This thesis investigates the use of Luminescence dating for storm-surge sediment. Luminescence dating is a radiometric dating method, which uses tiny li...

  19. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success. PMID:20078824

  20. On Variation of Single Birth Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ping Li

    2006-01-01

    Suppose {X(t); t≥0} is a single birth process with birth rate qii+1 (i≥0) and death rate qij (i >j≥ 0). It is proved in this paper that (i) if there exists a constant c ≥ 0 such that b(i) - a(i) + ci is nondecreasing with respect to i and a(i) + u(i) - ci ≥ 0 (i ≥ 0), then VarX(t) - EX(t)≥-X(0)e-2ct, t ≥ 0,or (ii) if there exists a constant c ≥ 0 such that b(i) - a(i) + ci is non-increasing with respect to i and a(i)+u(i) - ci ≤ 0 (i ≥ 0), then VarX(t) - EX(t)≤-X(0)e-2ct, t ≥ 0.Here b(i) = qii+1, a(0) =0, a(i) =i∑j=1qii-j (i≥1), u(0) =u(1) =0 and u(i)=1/2i∑j=2j(j - 1)qii-j (i ≥ 2).This result covers the results for birth-death processes obtained in [7].

  1. Premature birth: An Enigma for the Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infants born preterm are at greater risk than infants born at term for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Complications include acute respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems, as well as longer-term motor, cognitive, visual, hearing, behavioral, social-emotional, health, and growth problems. The birth of a preterm infant can also bring considerable emotional and economic costs to families and have implications for public-sector services, such as health insurance, educational, and other social support systems. The greatest risk of mortality and morbidity is for those infants born at the earliest gestational ages. However, those infants born nearer to term represent the greatest number of infants born preterm and also experience more complications than infants born at term. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality. This paper deals with various issues related to the premature deliveries from socio-biological perspectives.

  2. 38 CFR 21.4135 - Discontinuance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... training: Date of last training. (iv) Farm cooperative training: Date of last class attendance. (v....4135, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... educational assistance shall be the last date of attendance. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3680) (b) Election...

  3. 7 CFR 953.120 - Nomination date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STATES Rules and Regulations Change in Date for Completing Nominations, Term of Office, and Fiscal Period § 953.120 Nomination date. The names of committee nominees shall be supplied to the Secretary in such... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination date. 953.120 Section 953.120...

  4. Memory for time: How people date events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J. Janssen; A.G. Chessa; J.M.J. Murre

    2006-01-01

    The effect of different formats on the accuracy of dating news and the distribution of personal events was examined in four conditions. In the first, participants had to date events in the absolute time format (e.g., "July 2004"), and in the second, they had to date events in the relative time forma

  5. 29 CFR 4281.11 - Valuation dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation dates. 4281.11 Section 4281.11 Labor Regulations... Valuation of Plan Benefits and Plan Assets § 4281.11 Valuation dates. (a) Annual valuations of mass-withdrawal-terminated plans. The valuation dates for the annual valuation required under section 4281(b)...

  6. 40 CFR 57.106 - Expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expiration date. 57.106 Section 57.106 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PRIMARY NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS General § 57.106 Expiration date. Each NSO shall state its expiration date. No...

  7. 21 CFR 211.137 - Expiration dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration dating. 211.137 Section 211.137 Food... § 211.137 Expiration dating. (a) To assure that a drug product meets applicable standards of identity, strength, quality, and purity at the time of use, it shall bear an expiration date determined...

  8. 40 CFR 425.05 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 425.05 Section 425.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.05 Compliance dates. The compliance date for new source...

  9. Birth preparedness and place of birth in Tandahimba district, Tanzania: what women prepare for birth, where they go to deliver, and why

    OpenAIRE

    Tancred, Tara; Marchant, Tanya; Hanson, Claudia; Schellenberg, Joanna; Manzi, Fatuma

    2016-01-01

    Background As making preparations for birth and health facility delivery are behaviours linked to positive maternal and newborn health outcomes, we aimed to describe what birth preparations were made, where women delivered, and why. Methods Outcomes were tabulated using data derived from a repeated sample (continuous) quantitative household survey of women aged 13–49 who had given birth in the past year. Insights into why behaviours took place emerged from analysis of in-depth interviews (12)...

  10. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  11. Birth length and weight as predictors of breast cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatten Lars J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth size, and particularly birth length, is positively associated with breast cancer risk in adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine whether birth size is associated with survival among breast cancer patients. Methods Information on birth size (weight, length and ponderal index (kg/length (m3 was collected from birth archives for 331 breast cancer patients who were diagnosed at two university hospitals in Norway (Bergen and Trondheim. The patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until death from breast cancer, death from another cause, or to the end of follow-up, and birth size was related to survival, using Cox regression analysis. Results Breast cancer patients with birth length ≥ 52 cm had nearly twice the risk of dying (hazard ratio, 1.92, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.41 from breast cancer compared to women with birth length less than 48 cm, after adjustment for place of birth and year of diagnosis. Similar analyses related to birth weight and ponderal index showed no clear association with breast cancer survival. Conclusions Poorer outcome of breast cancer patients with high birth length may reflect effects of factors that stimulate longitudinal growth and simultaneously increase the risk of metastases and fatal outcome. It is possible that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF system is involved in the underlying mechanisms.

  12. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  13. Spatiotemporal Property Analysis of Birth Defects in Wuxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI-LEI WU; GONG CHEN; XIN-MING SONG; CHENG-FU LI; LEI ZHANG; LAN LIU; XIAO-YING ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the temporal trends and spatial patterns of birth defects occurring in Wuxi, a developed region of China. Methods Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the temporal trends of birth defect prevalence based on the birth defect rates over the past 16 years. Birth defect cases with detailed personal and family information were geo-coded and the relative risk in each village was calculated. General G statistic was used to test the spatial property with different scales. Results Wavelet analysis showed an increasing temporal trend of birth defects in this region. Clustering analysis revealed that changes continued in the spatial patterns with different scales. Conclusion Wuxi is confronted with severe challenges to reduce birth defect prevalence. The risk factors are stable and show no change with spatial scale but an increasing temporal trend. Interventions should be focused on villages with a higher prevalence of birth defects.

  14. The social determinants of infant mortality and birth outcomes in Western developed nations: a cross-country systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-06-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world.

  15. The Ancient Globular Clusters Were Much More Massive At Birth

    CERN Document Server

    Conroy, Charlie

    2011-01-01

    All globular clusters (GCs) studied to date show evidence for internal variation in their light element abundances. These variations have been interpreted as evidence for multiple star formation episodes within GCs, with secondary episodes fueled, at least in part, by the ejecta of AGB stars from a first generation of stars. A major puzzle emerging from this otherwise plausible scenario is that the fraction of stars associated with the second episode of star formation is observed to be much larger than expected for a standard IMF. The present work investigates this tension by modeling the observed anti-correlation between [Na/Fe] and [O/Fe] for 20 Galactic GCs. A strong correlation is found between the fraction of current GC stellar mass comprised of pure AGB ejecta, f_p, and GC mass. This fraction varies from 0.20 at low masses (10^4.5 Msun) to 0.45 at high masses (10^6.5 Msun). The fraction of mass associated with pure AGB ejecta is directly related to the total mass of the cluster at birth; the ratio betwe...

  16. Amelia : A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all conti

  17. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...... prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...... women faced twice the risk. In the adjusted analysis, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PPROM and for induced preterm delivery in obese women were 1.5 [1.2, 1.9] and 1.2 [1.0, 1.6] respectively. When obesity-related diseases were accounted for, no excess risk of induced preterm...

  18. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo

    2015-01-01

    Background:To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects,incidence,distribution,occurrence regularity,and their relevant factors in Xi'an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures.Methods:The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012.Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input,and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation,New York,NY,USA) was used for descriptive analysis.x2 test,Spearman correlation and linear-by-linear association trend test were used for statistical analyses.Results:The birth defect rate declined from 9.18% in 2003 to 7.00% in 2012 (x2 =45.00 l,P < 0.01) with a mean value of 7.85%,which is below the Chinese national average level (x2 =20.451,P < 0.01).The order of five most common birth defects has changed.The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) increased with time,particularly after 2012,it became the most frequent type (rs =0.808,P < 0.001).Till then,the number of neural tube defects (NTDs) declined significantly (x2 =76.254,P < 0.01).The average birth defects rate of 8.11% in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (7.56%,x2 =7.919,P < 0.01) and much higher in males (8.28%) than that in females (7.18%,x2 =32.397,P < 0.0 1).Maternal age older than 35 years (x2 =35.298,P < 0.01) is the most dangerous age bracket of birth defects than maternal age younger than 20 years (x2 =7.128,P < 0.0l).Conclusions:A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi'an City from 2003 to 2012.NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention,while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  19. Correlates of cyber dating abuse among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    Recent advancements in technology (e.g., social networking, texting) have created new ways for dating youth to relate to one another, including in abusive ways via "cyber dating abuse." Cyber dating abuse is a form of teen dating violence that overlaps with other types of abuse (e.g., psychological) but also has several unique characteristics. Given the phenomenon's limited presence in dating violence literature, we focus on identifying how experiencing cyber dating abuse relates to youths' individual behaviors and experiences (e.g., substance use, sexual activity), psychosocial adjustment, school connection, family relationships, and partner relationships. A total of 3,745 youth (52% female, 74% White) in three northeastern states participated in the survey and reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. We found that experiences of cyber dating abuse were most significantly correlated with being female, committing a greater variety of delinquent behaviors, having had sexual activity in one's lifetime, having higher levels of depressive symptoms, and having higher levels of anger/hostility. Further, cyber dating abuse appeared somewhat more strongly related to depressive symptoms and delinquency than did other forms of teen dating violence and abuse.

  20. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers.

  1. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  2. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers. PMID:26906339

  3. Birth and Evolution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the birth and evolution of isolated radio pulsars using a population synthesis method, modeling the birth properties of the pulsars, their time evolution, and their detection in the Parkes and Swinburne Multibeam (MB) surveys. Together, the Parkes and Swinburne MB surveys [1, 2] have detected nearly 2/3 of the known pulsars and provide a remarkably homogeneous sample to compare with simulations. New proper motion measurements [3, 4] and an improved model of the distribution of free electrons in the interstellar medium, NE2001 [5], also make revisiting these issues particularly worthwhile. We present a simple population model that reproduces the actual observations well, and consider others that fail. We conclude that: pulsars are born in the spiral arms, with the birthrate of 2.8+/-0.5 pulsars/century peaking at a distance ~3 kpc from the Galactic centre, and with mean initial speed of 380-60+40 km s-1 the birth spin period distribution extends to several hundred milliseconds, with no evidence of multimodality, implying that characteristic ages overestimate the true ages of the pulsars by a median factor >2 for true ages <30,000 yr models in which the radio luminosities of the pulsars are random generically fail to reproduce the observed P-Ṗ diagram, suggesting a relation between intrinsic radio luminosity and (P,Ṗ) radio luminosities L~Ė provides a good match to the observed P-Ṗ diagram; for this favored radio luminosity model, we find no evidence for significant magnetic field decay over the lifetime of the pulsars as radio sources (~100 Myr).

  4. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  5. Postpartum Care Services and Birth Features of The Women Who Gave Birth in Burdur in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15

  6. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert;

    2013-01-01

    hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N......=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite...

  7. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.

  8. The Diversity of Transients from Magnetar Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Brian D.; Margalit, Ben; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

    2015-01-01

    Strongly-magnetized, rapidly-rotating neutron stars are contenders for the central engines of both long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). Models for typical (~minute long) LGRBs invoke magnetars with high dipole magnetic fields (Bd > 1e15 G) and short spin-down times, while models for SLSNe-I invoke neutron stars with weaker fields and longer spin-down times of weeks. Here we identify a transition region in the space of Bd and birth perio...

  9. Reenacting the birth of an intron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Aspden, Julie L.; Rio, Donald C.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2011-07-01

    An intron is an extended genomic feature whose function requires multiple constrained positions - donor and acceptor splice sites, a branch point, a polypyrimidine tract and suitable splicing enhancers - that may be distributed over hundreds or thousands of nucleotides. New introns are therefore unlikely to emerge by incremental accumulation of functional sub-elements. Here we demonstrate that a functional intron can be created de novo in a single step by a segmental genomic duplication. This experiment recapitulates in vivo the birth of an intron that arose in the ancestral jawed vertebrate lineage nearly half a billion years ago.

  10. Breakdown of Benford's Law for Birth Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, M; Ileanu, B

    2014-01-01

    Long birth time series for Romania are investigated from Benford's law point of view, distinguishing between families with a religious (Orthodox and Non-Orthodox) affiliation. The data extend from Jan. 01, 1905 till Dec. 31, 2001, i.e. over 97 years or 35 429 days. The results point to a drastic breakdown of Benford's law. Some interpretation is proposed, based on the statistical aspects due to population sizes, rather than on human thought constraints when the law breakdown is usually expected. Benford's law breakdown clearly points to natural causes.

  11. Sampling pottery in luminescence dating studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of dating pottery from Later Prehistoric sites in Britain revealed that pottery sampled from large features such as enclosure ditches is likely to be residual, i.e. not contemporary with the infilling of the feature. This is important since in luminescence dating such features are often preferred due to the simplification of the dosimetry. Dates obtained for the pottery from smaller contexts, however, were clustered and in agreement with the expected date. In the light of these findings, it is recommended that in situations where the purpose of dating the pottery is to date the feature, pottery be sampled from smaller, shorter-lived contexts. This introduces some complications in the dosimetry, but a simple means of determining the gamma dose rate is presented

  12. Preterm birth and structural brain alterations in early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nosarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM and white matter (WM maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and gestational age. Structural MRI data were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla system and analysed using the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 with a customized study-specific template. Similarly to results obtained at adolescent assessment, VPT young adults compared to controls demonstrated reduced GM volume in temporal, frontal, insular and occipital areas, thalamus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Increases in GM volume were noted in medial/anterior frontal gyrus. Smaller subcortical WM volume in the VPT group was observed in temporal, parietal and frontal regions, and in a cluster centred on posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix. Larger subcortical WM volume was found predominantly in posterior brain regions, in areas beneath the parahippocampal and occipital gyri and in cerebellum. Gestational age was associated with GM and WM volumes in areas where VPT individuals demonstrated GM and WM volumetric alterations, especially in temporal, parietal and occipital regions. VPT participants scored lower than controls on measures of IQ, executive function and non-verbal memory. When investigating GM and WM alterations and cognitive outcome scores, subcortical WM volume in an area beneath the left inferior frontal gyrus accounted for 14% of the variance of full-scale IQ (F = 12.9, p < 0.0001. WM volume in posterior corpus

  13. Sex ratios among infants with birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Adrian M; Richardson, Sandra D; Browne, Marilyn L; Carmichael, Suzan L; Canfield, Mark A; VanZutphen, Alissa R; Anderka, Marlene T; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2015-05-01

    A small number of population-based studies have examined sex differences among infants with birth defects. This study presents estimates of sex ratio for both isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies, as well as by race/ethnicity. Male-female sex ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for 25,952 clinically reviewed case infants included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2009), a large population-based case-control study of birth defects. The highest elevations in sex ratios (i.e., male preponderance) among isolated non-cardiac defects were for craniosynostosis (2.12), cleft lip with cleft palate (2.01), and cleft lip without cleft palate (1.78); the lowest sex ratios (female preponderance) were for choanal atresia (0.45), cloacal exstrophy (0.46), and holoprosencephaly (0.64). Among isolated cardiac defects, the highest sex ratios were for aortic stenosis (2.88), coarctation of the aorta (2.51), and d-transposition of the great arteries (2.34); the lowest were multiple ventricular septal defects (0.52), truncus arteriosus (0.63), and heterotaxia with congenital heart defect (0.64). Differences were observed by race/ethnicity for some but not for most types of birth defects. The sex differences we observed for specific defects, between those with isolated versus multiple defects, as well as by race/ethnicity, demonstrate patterns that may suggest etiology and improve classification. PMID:25711982

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants of birth weight > 2000 g after haemorrhagic shock at birth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jandeck, C; Kellner, U.; Kössel, H; Bartsch, M.; Versmold, H T; Foerster, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with low birth weight and low gestational age. For ROP screening examination is recommended in infants weighing 1500 g (n = 149) and who required additional oxygen supplementation or underwent surgery with general anaesthesia ...

  15. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo;

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years ...

  16. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins%Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qiang; ZHI Qi-Jun; ZHANG Xiao-Ping; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessa

  17. Birth defects, causal attributions, and ethnicity in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Amy P; Royle, Marjorie; Scheuerle, Angela E; Carmichael, Suzan L; Moffitt, Karen; Ramadhani, Tunu

    2014-10-01

    In order to translate research findings into effective prevention strategies, it is important to understand people's beliefs about the causes of poor health outcomes. However, with the exception of knowledge and beliefs about folic acid supplementation, little is known regarding women's causal attributions women regarding birth defects. We employed Attribution Theory constructs to analyze open-text interview responses from 2,672 control mothers in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study who gave birth in 1997-2005. Common themes included use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and medications during pregnancy. Stress and emotional upset were also suggested as possible causes of birth defects. Genetic- and heredity-related responses were more likely to be mentioned by Asian/Pacific Islander women compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic women were less likely to suggest several specific possible teratogens, such as paint, pesticides, or other chemicals, but were more likely to suggest events occurring during childbirth. Differences also emerged among ethnic groups for theoretical constructs, although most responses were categorized as controllable, changeable over time, and with an internal locus of causality. PMID:24682893

  18. Assessing risk factors for adverse birth outcomes and early childhood respiratory illness: an examination of supplement initiation and participation in Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, rate of preterm birth peaked in 2006 and little progress has been made to date despite ambitious Healthy People 2020 goals. Infants born premature are at higher risk of death and disability, including psychological conditions, learning difficulties and medical disabilities, than term newborns. Additionally, adverse birth outcomes are associated with asthma, the leading cause of chronic childhood illness and disability. According to the ‘Barker hypothesis’, intrauterin...

  19. Research on genetics of rice heading date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Heading date is one of the most important traits for rice adaptation to cultivation area and crop seasons, and it is mainly determined by photoperiod, basic vegetative growth, and temperature of cultivars. The diversity of combinations of photo-sensitive varieties and the basic vegetative, makes the heading date varied. On one hand, this supplies abundant resources for different ecotypes breeding; on the other hand, it complicates the inheritance of heading date. In recent years, transgression of late maturity has often been encountered, especially between indica and japonica subspecies, this had inhabited the use of hybrid vigor. Therefore, understanding the inheritance basis of heading date is very important for breeding practices.

  20. NERC radiocarbon dating: 1975-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the work of the Natural Environment Research Council Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory in connection with Quaternary research, over the last decade. A description is given of the development of the dating service and in-house research. Quaternary research investigations aided by radiocarbon dating are described under the topic headings: The late Devensian glacial maximum, late glacial, middle Devensian, palaeomagnetic secular variation in lake sediments, vegetational history, faunal history, palaeolimnology, ground water, volcanology, periglacial research, palaoeohydrology, geomorphology, quaternary events in low-latitudes, environmental archaeology, archaeology, deep sea sediments, continental shelf, coastal geomorphology, and radiocarbon dating in Antarctica. (U.K.)

  1. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  2. Birth Environments: A Woman's Choice in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ellise D

    2016-01-01

    A woman has many important decisions to make once discovering a pregnancy. One of those decisions with significant implications is where the birth will take place. The primary consideration for the majority of pregnant women when making a decision about birth environment is safety. However, other factors such as attitudes of family and friends, religious reasons, and confidence in the body's ability to give birth play a factor in the choice of birth environment. It is recommended that birth attendants use the process of shared decision making to assist pregnant women in making choices related to the birth environment. This process empowers the pregnant woman and provides a woman-centered and evidence-based approach to choices related to obstetrical care. PMID:27465454

  3. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:23719623

  4. Birth dimensions and risk of depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Nordentoft, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two British cohort studies have reported birth weight to be associated with self-reported depression in adulthood, even after adjustment for socio-economic factors. AIMS: To examine the relationship between birth dimensions and discharge from a psychiatric ward with a depression...... of depression. RESULTS: A total of 190 men, corresponding to 1.8% of the cohort, had a discharge diagnosis of depression. The Cox's regression analyses failed to show any association between birth dimensions (birth weight and ponderal index) and risk of psychiatric ward diagnosis of depression in adult life......, before or after adjustment for social indicators at birth. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support the existence of a relation between birth dimensions and psychiatric ward admission for depression in adult men....

  5. Best practice at the new birth review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to discuss the infant assessment component of the new birth review. The Healthy Child Programme (HCP) is the guidance that underpins the practice of health visiting at this contact. It should be clearly stated that this article is not referring to the Newborn and Infant Physical Examinations (NIPE) undertaken by medical practitioners and midwives at birth and by GPs at six weeks respectively. From reviewing other provider organisations' health visiting standards online, through discussions at professional. health visiting forums such as The National Professional Advisory Group and from the authors small qualitative study as part of a master's dissertation there appears to be a wide variation in health visiting practice. There are health visiting (HV) services that offer a universal infant assessment, while other HV services assess the infant in other ways at the request of the parent. However, some services do not undertake an infant assessment at all. The Health Visiting Core Specification states that the health visitor should be able to assess the baby's growth and be able to conduct an ongoing review. This paper discusses the historical background that underpins the different approaches and discusses the implications for different practice at a universal healthy child programme contact. The author discusses tools that evidence PMID:27183752

  6. Modeling Pulsar Trajectories to Determine Birth Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Albert, Brent; Chatterjee, Shami; Cordes, James M.; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Vlemmings, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Neutron stars are the remnants of massive stars after their deaths in supernova explosions. They typically have higher velocities than their progenitor stellar population due to either kicks from supernova asymmetries or from remnant velocities of compact binaries after they are disrupted by explosions. Velocities are large enough that pulsars will typically move large distances from their birth sites. By determining the present day location and velocity, we project back to twice the pulsars characteristic age to constrain the location of the progenitor star (within the uncertainty of the unknown line-of-sight velocity component). We use precision measurements of the proper motion and parallax determined with the Very Long Baseline Array as input to trajectory modeling that includes deceleration in the Galactic potential. Using a python implementation utilizing astropy and galpy, we verify the results of Vlemmings et al. (2004, ApJ, 610, 402) on two pulsars, B2020+28 and B2012+51, which found that the two objects very likely originated in the same star cluster and whose progenitor stars could have been in the same binary system. We have applied the trace back algorithm to other pulsars using the most recent astrometric measurements to identify their birth locations. Results on these objects will be reported.

  7. Late Preterm birth and its morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salcedo-Ramos Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: preterm birth is a public health problem due to its high incidence. It canbe extremely preterm, very preterm and late preterm, according to the gestational age.The late preterm birth is the most prevalent subgroup.Objective: identify the early complications and the long-term morbidity that morefrequently have been related with preterm born between 34 and 36 weeks/6 days ofpregnancy.Methods: thematic review. An electronic search was carried out in databases Pubmed,Science direct, EBSCOhost and Scielo. There were considered articles published sinceJanuary, 1997 to December, 2012 in Spanish and English. Obstetric texts also werereviewed.Results: 50 of 300 identified articles achieved the aim of the review. The most commoncomplications that had an early presentation were: hospital re-entry, respiratory problems, suction defects, hyperbilirubinemia and hypoglycemia. The most frequent latecomplications were: cerebral palsy, mental retardation, psychological and psychiatricdisorders, mainly schizophrenia and depressive disorders. The late preterm births present10% of the neonatal mortality.Conclusions: late preterm births present higher morbidity than those full-term births.It is not recommended to finish the pregnancy between 34 and 36 weeks without the adequate indication. Rev.Cienc.Biomed. 2012;4(1: 134-141RESUMEN:Introducción: el parto pretérmino es un problema de salud pública por su elevadaincidencia. Puede ser extremo, muy pretérmino o tardío, dependiendo de la edadgestacional. El parto pretérmino tardío es el subgrupo más prevalente.Objetivo: identificar las complicaciones tempranas y la morbilidad a largo plazo que másfrecuentemente se han relacionado con pretérminos nacidos entre las 34 y 36 semanas/6días de gestación.Metodología: revisión temática. Se realizó búsqueda electrónica en las bases de datosPubMed, Science direct, EBSCOhost y Scielo. Se consideraron artículos publicados desdeenero de 1997 a

  8. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T;

    2014-01-01

    between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... profiling did not reveal epigenetic signatures of birth weight discordance although some sites displayed age-dependent intra-pair differential methylation in the extremely discordant twin pairs....

  9. The effect of war on marriage, divorce and birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1993-01-01

    The impact of war on marriage, divorce, and birth rates in the United States from 1933 to 1986 is explored. The author concludes that "the involvement of the nation in military activities was accompanied by a decrease in marriage and birth rates but not by any change in divorce rates. Mobilization of the armed forces and demobilization had no discernible impact on divorce, marriage or birth rates."

  10. The Life-Changing Significance of Normal Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Humenick, Sharron S.

    2006-01-01

    Many do not fully understand the lifelong, significant benefits of a well-supported, normal birth. In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education reviews research that supports the life-changing advantages of a normal birthing experience. Further scientific study is encouraged in order to enhance previous, evidence-based data that demonstrate the positive outcomes of normal birth for women and their families. The editor also describes the contents of this journal issue, whic...

  11. Birth order and child outcomes: does maternal quality time matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Monfardini, Chiara; See, Sarah Grace

    2012-01-01

    Higher birth order positions are often associated with poorer outcomes, possibly due to fewer resources received within the household. Using a sample of PSID-CDS children, we investigate whether the birth order effects in their outcomes are due to unequal allocation of the particular resource represented by maternal quality time. OLS regressions show that the negative birth order effects on various test scores are only slightly diminished when maternal time is included among the regressors. T...

  12. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  13. Thoughts and emotions during traumatic birth: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ayers, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research shows that 1 to 9 percent of women will develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. The objective of this study was to examine thoughts and emotions during birth, cognitive processing after birth, and memories of birth that might be important in the development of postnatal posttraumatic stress symptoms. Methods: In a qualitative study, women with posttraumatic stress symptoms (n = 25) and without (n=25) were matched for obstetric eve...

  14. The use of psychosocial stress scales in preterm birth research

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Melissa J.; Grobman, William A.; Gollan, Jackie K; Borders, Ann E.B.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been identified as a potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, an association has not consistently been found, and a consensus on the extent to which stress and preterm birth are linked is still lacking. A literature search was performed with a combination of keywords and MeSH terms to detect studies of psychosocial stress and preterm birth. Studies were included in the review if psychosocial stress was measured with a standardized, validated instrument and the...

  15. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES) of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, singl...

  16. Employment opportunities and pre-marital births in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Ermisch, John

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, nearly two-fifths of births in Britain were outside marriage. This study estimates the impact of employment opportunities in the local labour market on the probability that a childless never married woman has a birth outside marriage. It uses the unemployment rate in the travel-to-work area in which the woman lives as the indicator of employment opportunities. The estimates indicate poorer employment opportunities increase the pre-marital first birth rate and discourage union formation.

  17. Ergodicity of Quasi-birth and Death Processes (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Ting HOU; Xiao Hua LI

    2007-01-01

    Quasi-birth and death processes with block tridiagonal matrices find many applications in various areas. Neuts gave the necessary and sufficient conditions for the ordinary ergodicity and found an expression of the stationary distribution for a class of quasi-birth and death processes. In this paper we obtain the explicit necessary and sufficient conditions for l-ergodicity and geometric ergodicity for the class of quasi-birth and death processes, and prove that they are not strongly ergodic.

  18. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuit, Ewoud; Stock, Sarah; Groenwold, Rolf H H;

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential...... benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix) or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death....

  19. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  20. Motor Developmental Status of Moderately Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    TAVASOLI, Azita; Aliabadi, Faranak; Eftekhari, Rooholah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Motor development is frequently reported to be impaired in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, but little is known about the moderately low birth weight (MLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MLBW preterm infants present developmental delay. Methods: In a historical cohort study, 18±2 month-old infants with a history of low birth weight (LBW) were identified. All infants with complications of LBW with negative effects on development were excluded. Health...

  1. Using microwaves in Disinsection of dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The date palm plays a very significant role in Tunisia in term of culture as well as social, economic and ecological aspects. The production of the dates which is estimated to 120.000 tons/year ensures the principal income for the majority of the oasis population of the South of Tunisia and constitutes the basis for agricultural, industrial, commercial and tourist activities, offering million of working days. The date palm is cultivated mainly for the production of dates which are consumed locally or also exported abroad but for its by-products (food of the cattle, wind breaks, fuel, construction) which are marketed and/ or used in the everyday life thus taking part in the sedentarisation of the populations and the maintenance of a fragile socio-economic balance. The date moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell. ( L will epidoptera, Pyralidae) is without question the most significant problem of the Tunisian date palm. The infestation of dates in the field and in the storage and packing houses enormously depreciates the marketable quality of dates and risk to compromise exports in particular those of the variety Deglet Nour. rates of infestations of about 20% are often recorded in Tunisia where as the European standards require rates lower than 5%. In Tunisia the desinsectisation of dates is done until now by the use of methyl bromide, its high toxicity substantially reduces the duration of date treatment, and consequently the treated volumes. The replacement of this product becomes an urgent need its use will not be authorized by 2015. Within the framework of a agreement between the Regional Research Center in Oasis Agriculture (CRRAO), The Interprofessional Grouping of Fruits (GIF), and the Italian Company IMETEC, the use one of micro-waves as a desinsectisation method of dates was evaluated. The results of this present work showed that total desinsectisation of dates by microwaves can be obtained only with homogeneous dates in term of water content. Total

  2. Chromatographic separation of fructose from date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eid, Salah M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a process for separating fructose from a mixture of sugars containing essentially fructose and glucose, obtained from date palm fruits. The extraction procedure of date syrup from fresh dates gave a yield of 86.5% solids after vacuum drying. A process for separating fructose from an aqueous solution of date syrup involved adding the date syrup solutions (20, 30 and 40% by weight) to a chromatographic column filled with Dowex polystyrene strong cation exchange gel matrix resin Ca2 + and divinylbenzene, a functional group, sulfonic acid, particle size 320 microm, with a flow rate of 0.025 and 0.05 bed volume/min, under 30 and 70 degrees C column temperature. After the date sugar solution batch, a calculated quantity of water was added to the column. Glucose was retained by the resin more weakly than fructose and proceeded faster into the water batch flowing ahead. Three fractions were collected: a glucose-rich fraction, a return fraction, and a fructose-rich fraction. The return fraction is based on when the peaks of fructose and glucose were reached, which could be determined by means of an analyzer (polarimeter) based on the property of glucose and fructose solutions to turn the polarization level of polarized light. A high yield of fructose is obtained at 70 degrees C column temperature with a flow rate of 0.025 bed volume/min and date syrup solution containing 40% sugar concentration. The low recovery by weight obtained using date syrup solutions having a sugar concentration of 20 and 30%, encourages the use of a concentration of 40%. However, with the 40% date syrup supply the average concentrations of glucose and fructose in the return fractions were more than 40%, which can be used for diluting the thick date syrup solution extracted from dates.

  3. Analysis of Artificial Radiocarbon in Different Skeletal and Dental Tissue Types to Evaluate Date of Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubelaker, D H; Buchholz, B A; Stewart, J

    2005-07-19

    Radiocarbon dating, with special reference to the modern bomb-curve, can provide useful information to elucidate the date of death of skeletonized human remains. Interpretation can be enhanced with analysis of different types of tissues within a single skeleton because of the known variability of formation times and remodeling rates. Analysis of radiocarbon content of teeth, especially the enamel in tooth crowns provides information about the date of formation in the childhood years and in consideration of the known timing of tooth formation can be used to estimate the birth date after 1950 A.D. Radiocarbon analysis of modern cortical and trabecular bone samples from the same skeleton may allow proper placement on the pre-1963 or post-1963 sides of the bomb-curve since most trabecular bone generally undergoes more rapid remodeling than does most cortical bone. Pre-1963 bone formation would produce higher radiocarbon values for most trabecular bone than for most cortical bone. This relationship is reversed for formation after 1963. Radiocarbon analysis was conducted in this study on dental, cortical and trabecular bone samples from two adult individuals of known birth (1925 and 1926) and death dates (1995 and 1959). As expected, the dental results correspond to pre-bomb bomb-curve values reflecting conditions during the childhoods of the individuals. The curve radiocarbon content of most bone samples reflected the higher modern bomb-curve values. Within the bone sample analyses, the values of the trabecular bone were higher than those of cortical bone and supported the known placement on the pre-1963 side of the bomb-curve.

  4. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  5. Analysis of 14C and 13C in teeth provides precise birth dating and clues to geographical origin

    OpenAIRE

    K, Alkass; BA, Buchholz; H, Druid; Spalding KL

    2011-01-01

    The identification of human bodies in situations when there are no clues as to the person’s identity from circumstantial data, poses a difficult problem to investigators. The determination of age and sex of the body can be crucial in order to limit the search to individuals that are a possible match. We analyzed the proportion of bomb pulse derived carbon-14 (14C) incorporated in the enamel of teeth from individuals from different geographical locations. The ‘bomb pulse’ refers to a significa...

  6. Mental Health in Low Birth Weight Individuals Approaching Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Line Knutsen

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, an increasing number of children have survived after preterm birth during the latest decades. These children are surviving at the borders of viability and are at increased risk for a number of adverse outcomes. Few studies have followed low birth weight populations into adulthood. In this study, three groups of children born in the Trøndelag counties of Norway in 1986-88 have been followed up from birth to twenty years of age. Two groups born with low birth weight were...

  7. Low Birth Rate and Women’s Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    CHINA has achieved remarkable results in birth control since adopting a basic state policy of family planning to control the birth rate and increase the population quality. According to the "1997 Statistic Bulletin for National Economy and Social Development," a document recently issued by the State Statistics Bureau, China maintained a low birth rate of 16.57 per thousand in 1997—a natural population growth of one percent. Women of child-bearing age now average about two births each, a decrease from six in 1970.

  8. Second-birth rates in Denmark from 1980 to 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Thygesen, Lau Caspar;

    2010-01-01

    A statistical age-period-cohort model was used to depict second-time birth rates and the spacing between the first and second child in Denmark, including 524,316 one-child mothers who gave birth to 296,923 second children 1980-1994. The spacing between the first and second child varies according...... to age, as older women had shorter duration from first to second child than younger women. Our results emphasize the importance of including an interaction between age and duration since first birth when analysing second-birth rates....

  9. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karema Corine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence decreased over the last six years (2002–2007. Therefore, the impact of malaria on birth outcomes is also expected to vary over time and space. Methods Obstetric indicators (birth weight and pregnancy outcome and malaria incidence were compared and analyzed to their association over time (2002–2007 and space. Birth data from 12,526 deliveries were collected from maternity registers of 11 different primary health centers located in different malaria endemic areas. Malaria data for the same communities were collected from the National Malaria Control Programme. Associations were sought with mixed effects models and logistic regression. Results In all health centres, a significant increase of birth weight over the years was observed (p Conclusion In Rwanda, birth weight and pregnancy outcome are not directly influenced by malaria, which is in contrast to many other studied areas. Although malaria incidence overall has declined and mean birth weight increased over the studied period, no direct association was found between the two. Socio-economic factors and improved nutrition could be responsible for birth weight changes in recent years.

  10. Seasonality of births: stability and change in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, B

    1989-08-01

    A marked seasonality of births for the two main ethnic groups of peninsular Malaysia, far exceeding the cyclic fluctuations in births in the United States and Canada, was reported for the 1960s. A 36% excess of births over the average monthly number was observed among Malays each January. Among the ethnic Chinese in Malaysia a regular periodicity in the numbers of births was also found, but it was far less marked and the peak occurred in October or November. The peaks in both groups were due in large measure to conceptions that correlate with religious observances or holidays. Here I report on cyclic birth patterns in peninsular Malaysia for the period 1970-1985. Rapid economic development has occurred during this time and has brought with it demographic changes, such as a massive rise in contraceptive use and a decline in birth rates. These demographic changes have been accompanied by the loss of the pronounced seasonal pattern of births among the Malays. The seasonality of Malay births is now of roughly the same magnitude as the seasonality in the United States and Canada, whereas seasonality of births among the Chinese in Malaysia remains essentially unchanged. PMID:2591915

  11. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and within family methods. Importantly, irrespective of method, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that ear...

  12. Older and wiser? : birth order and IQ of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar; Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway and focuses on the effect of birth order and family size on IQ, an outcome not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. Importantly, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest th...

  13. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorde...

  14. Calls to a home birth helpline: empowerment in childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, R; Kitzinger, C

    2005-01-01

    In the UK a woman has the right to decide to give birth at home, irrespective of whether she is expecting her first or a subsequent child and of any perceived ‘risk’ factors. However, the rate of home births in the UK is very low (around 2%), varies widely across the country and many women do not know how to arrange midwifery cover. The Home Birth helpline is a UK-based voluntary organisation offering support and information for women planning a home birth. In order to gain direct access to t...

  15. EVALUATION OF UNSAFE BIRTHS AND POSTPARTUM HOME CARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ERGIN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that mother/child deaths can be prevented by having safe births and taking routine postnatal home care. The aim of this study is to evaluate safety of births and postnatal home care visits of mothers having 0-11 month babies in the Center of Aydin. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to study a group of 806 mothers. Multistage sampling method was used. Health stations was taken as cluster units. One rural-one urban health station from ten health-centers was selected by random sampling method. Safety of births, type of births, complications after births, home visits by health personel at postpartum period were asked. Results: Unsafe births was 6,0% in Aydin. It was found that family income, mother?s age/occupation/educational level, social security, number of children, father?s occupation/educational level and household size, effects the safety of births. 59,9% of women were visited by widwives at the postpartum period and mean number of visits were 2,0 ±1,7. At this period 9,4% of women had complications, and these complications were two times greater at unsafe births. Conclusion: Although Aydin is in the west part of Turkey, unsafe births and inadequate postpartum home visits are seen. In order to prevent these problems, health centers must take more active role. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 321-329

  16. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  17. Psychosocial job strain and risk of adverse birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Hannerz, Harald; Juhl, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies examined the effects of prenatal stress on birth outcomes with diverging and inconclusive results. We aimed to examine if working with high job strain during pregnancy measured in week 16 was associated with risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small/large for gesta......A number of studies examined the effects of prenatal stress on birth outcomes with diverging and inconclusive results. We aimed to examine if working with high job strain during pregnancy measured in week 16 was associated with risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small...

  18. Older and wiser? : birth order and IQ of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway and focuses on the effect of birth order and family size on IQ, an outcome not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. Importantly, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that earlier born...

  19. Prenatal lignan exposures, pregnancy urine estrogen profiles and birth outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During pregnancy, human exposure to endogenous estrogens and xenoestrogens (such as lignans) may comprehensively impact the gestational maintenance and fetal growth. We measured the concentrations of 5 lignans and the profile of 13 estrogen metabolites (EMs) in the urine samples of 328 pregnant women and examined their associations with birth outcomes. We found significantly positive associations between gestational age and urinary matairesinol (MAT), enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), as well as 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs. There were consistently positive relationships between END and the 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs. The positive relationships of MAT, END and ENL exposures with the length of gestation were mainly in the low exposure strata of the levels of these EMs. This study reveals that MAT, END and ENL as well as 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs are associated with birth outcomes, and that there are interactive relationships between lignans and 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs with birth outcomes. - Highlights: • We examined relations between prenatal lignan exposures and birth outcomes. • We examined relations between pregnancy urine estrogen profiles and birth outcomes. • MAT, END and ENL are associated with birth outcomes. • 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs are associated with birth outcomes. • There are interactive relationships between ligans and EMs with birth outcomes. - Prenatal lignan exposures and EM levels were interactively related to birth outcomes

  20. Older and wiser? Birth order and IQ of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and within-family methods. Importantly, irrespective of method, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that ear...

  1. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and within-family methods. Importantly, irrespective of method, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that ear...

  2. Older and wiser? Birth order and IQ of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J Devereux; Black, Sandra E; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and within-family methods. Importantly, irrespective of method, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that ear...

  3. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and within-family methods. Importantly, irrespective of method, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that ear...

  4. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  5. Giving birth across the border: the San Diego-Tijuana connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, S; Jasis, M

    1992-02-01

    Large immigration flows of young Mexican women to the U.S.-Mexico border are increasing the demand for maternity services in the Southwest. To date no attempt has been made to determine how U.S. births are distributed among stable, permanent residents and transient migrants, such as border residents of Mexico who enter the U.S. temporarily, yet long enough to use health services. This exploratory study examines factors associated with childbirth in California by border residents of Tijuana, Mexico. Data on 184 women, 15-44 years old, who gave birth between 1982-87, were examined using a household survey and focus group discussions. The findings indicate that 10.4% of the sample crossed the border to give birth in the United States. Socio-economic and legal status, spoken English proficiency, history of U.S. residency, annual visits across the border, single parenthood and primiparity were factors significantly associated with childbirth in the United States. These factors, in addition to social class differentials in attitudes towards U.S. obstetrical care and citizenship-by-birth need to be examined in future studies of cross-border utilization of services. The findings also demonstrate that most U.S. deliveries were in the private sector and paid for out of pocket, representing a very low public health burden. Changes in Medicaid legislation, which have extended maternity care coverage to the undocumented, may encourage deliveries in the public sector. These effects, coupled with the bridging effects that newly legalized immigrant networks exert on friends and relatives, familiarizing them with U.S. health care resources, will require monitoring to determine changes in demand for U.S. maternity care by this population. PMID:1566123

  6. 40 CFR 141.152 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 141.152 Section 141.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Consumer Confidence Reports § 141.152 Effective dates. (a)...

  7. 16 CFR 1201.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... architectural glazing material is permanently labeled to indicate it conforms to ANSI Z97.1-1972 or 1975 or is... STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard § 1201.7 Effective date. The effective date of... be January 6, 1980. (b) Architectural glazing materials manufactured before July 6, 1977 may...

  8. 16 CFR 1401.6 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PERFORMANCE AND TECHNICAL DATA; REQUIREMENTS TO NOTIFY CONSUMERS AT POINT OF PURCHASE OF PERFORMANCE AND TECHNICAL DATA § 1401.6 Effective date. This part becomes effective February 20, 1978. ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 1401.6 Section...

  9. 16 CFR 1306.5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 1306.5 Section 1306.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF... lawn darts in the chain of distribution on or after that date....

  10. Accelerator mass spectrometry dating at Catalhoeyuek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goektuerk, E.H. [Dept. of Chemistry, Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Hillegonds, D.J.; Lipschutz, M.E. [Dept. of Chemistry, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hodder, I. [Dept. of Cultural and Social Anthropology, Standford Univ., Standford, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Several charred plant and charcoal samples from various stratigraphic levels of the Neolithic Site, Catalhoeyuek - Turkey, were dated in the AMS facility of Purdue University (PRIME Lab). Radiocarbon dates reveal a complicated chronology, as was foreseen from archeological investigations. Our measurements suggest that this unique Neolithic town may have been initiated at the East mound around 8390 BP. (orig.)

  11. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  12. 38 CFR 3.54 - Marriage dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage dates. 3.54..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.54 Marriage dates. A surviving spouse may qualify for pension, compensation, or dependency and indemnity compensation if the marriage to...

  13. 28 CFR 57.4 - Expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expiration date. 57.4 Section 57.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) INVESTIGATION OF DISCRIMINATION IN THE SUPPLY OF PETROLEUM TO THE ARMED FORCES § 57.4 Expiration date. This part shall remain in effect until...

  14. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, X.; Ding, M; Li, B.; Christiani, D C

    1994-01-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births...

  15. Radiocarbon dating prehistoric pottery from Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Craig, Oliver; Heron, Carl;

    2012-01-01

    -depositional contamination with organic carbon, such as humic acids, may also be problematic. We present these data with radiocarbon datings of contemporaneous terrestrial and aquatic samples to find out the true age of the pottery and estimate the reservoir age. Lipid analysis and bulk carbon and nitrogen stable isotope......Direct dating of the pottery is an important goal in archaeological research and many attempts have been made using radiocarbon. One important goal has been to date the earliest pottery in a region to assess the origin and dispersal of ceramic technology. Also with the increasing application of...... organic residue analysis to study pottery use, it has become important to combine residue data with direct dates on the artefact being investigated. In this study we have radiocarbon dated different organic materials associated with archaeological potsherds from three Ertebølle sites in Northern Germany...

  16. New Information About Premature Births (For Consumers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    A new study finds that prematurity is the most frequent cause of infant death in the United States. Learn more.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  17. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal

  18. Traditional birth attendants in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, L

    1988-03-01

    Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a very significant role in the lives of a multitude of people in the traditional settlements and societies. They are people of eminent dignity and personality because their valuable contribution to society is appreciated by all, and they are known as those who keep the secrets of their society. In this article some of the practices of the TBAs are described, including the use of herbs in pregnancy tests, determining whether a delivery will be difficult, and determining labor signs, as well as the traditional method of care for premature babies. No cash payment is made to TBAs for their services, but gifts of rum and kola nuts are offered. PMID:12157965

  19. Birth outcomes of women with celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Fonager, Kirsten; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine birthweight, low birthweight (celiac disease in relation to their first hospitalization for the disease. METHODS: This was a historical cohort study based on The Danish Medical Birth Registry...... data of celiac women discharged from Danish hospitals from 1977-1992. The study included 211 newborns to 127 mothers with celiac disease, and 1260 control deliveries. RESULTS: Before celiac women were first hospitalized the mean birthweight of their newborns was 238 g (95% confidence interval [95% CI......] = 150, 325 g) lower than that of the control women, after adjustment for potential confounders. After the first hospitalization the mean birthweight for newborns of diseased women was higher than that of controls, by 67 g (95% CI = -88, 223 g) after adjustment for potential confounders. Before celiac...

  20. The APPLe study: a randomized, community-based, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin for the prevention of preterm birth, with meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke R van den Broek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in both high- and low-income countries. The causes of preterm labour are multiple but infection is important. We have previously described an unusually high incidence of preterm birth (20% in an ultrasound-dated, rural, pregnant population in Southern Malawi with high burdens of infective morbidity. We have now studied the impact of routine prophylaxis with azithromycin as directly observed, single-dose therapy at two gestational windows to try to decrease the incidence of preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomized 2,297 pregnant women attending three rural and one peri-urban health centres in Southern Malawi to a placebo-controlled trial of oral azithromycin (1 g given at 16-24 and 28-32 wk gestation. Gestational age was determined by ultrasound before 24 wk. Women and their infants were followed up until 6 wk post delivery. The primary outcome was incidence of preterm delivery, defined as 6,200 pregnancies shows no effect on preterm birth (relative risk 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.22. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides no support for the use of antibiotics as routine prophylaxis to prevent preterm birth in high risk populations; prevention of preterm birth requires alternative strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN84023116

  1. Evidence of a Gene × Environment Interaction Between Birth Weight and Genetic Risk in the Prediction of Criminogenic Outcomes Among Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have revealed that low birth weight children have a heightened risk of various maladaptive outcomes, including academic challenges and delinquent involvement. However, very little research to date has examined whether the relationship between low birth weight, poor academic performance, and delinquent peer affiliation is moderated by genetic risk. Using data from the National Longitudinal study of Adolescent Health, the present study examines whether male adolescents born at very low birth weights are significantly predisposed to poor academic performance and delinquent peer affiliation. Moreover, we test whether the effect of birth weight on these outcomes is conditioned by level of genetic risk. We find no evidence that very low birth weight males are more likely to affiliate with delinquent peers or perform poorly in school during adolescence. However, upon examining gene-environment interactions, we find that being born at a very low birth weight does significantly increase the odds of poor academic performance and delinquent peer affiliation among males who possess a higher level of genetic risk. Limitations are noted and the implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25145687

  2. Young maternal age and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Antônio A M; Simões, Vanda M F; Barbieri, Marco A; Bettiol, Heloisa; Lamy-Filho, Fernando; Coimbra, Liberata C; Alves, Maria T S S B

    2003-10-01

    The association between young maternal age and preterm birth (PTB) remains controversial. In some studies the association disappeared after controlling for socio-economic and reproductive factors, thus indicating that social disadvantage rather than biological factors may be the explanation. However, in other studies the association persisted after adjustment. The relation between young maternal age and PTB was studied in a city located in Brazil, an underdeveloped country, where the prevalence of teenage pregnancy was high, 29%. A systematic sampling of 2541 hospital births, stratified by hospital, was performed in São Luís, Northeast Brazil, from March 1997 to February 1998. The risks of PTB for infants born to two groups of young mothers (insurance, and short maternal stature) in a logistic regression model, using mothers 25-29 years of age as the reference group. In the unadjusted analysis, the risk of PTB was higher for mothers < 18 years [odds ratio (OR) = 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64, 3.57]. Those aged 18 or 19 years were not at a higher risk of PTB (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.58, 1.38). After adjustment, the risk of PTB for mothers < 18 years was lower but remained significant after controlling for confounding (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.11, 2.60). After performing a stratified analysis according to parity, the risk of PTB among very young primiparae (<18 years) remained significant (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.02, 3.08), whereas the risk among non-primiparous adolescents was not significantly higher than the risk among mothers in the reference group. This suggests that the association between young maternal age and PTB may have a biological basis or an artifactual explanation (errors in gestational age estimation may be more common among very young mothers) or may be due to residual confounding. PMID:14629314

  3. Date Violence and Date Rape among Adolescents: Associations with Disordered Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2002-01-01

    A study assessed prevalence of date violence and rape in 81,247 adolescents. Approximately 9% of girls and 6% of boys had experienced date violence or rape. Date violence and rape was associated with higher rates of disordered eating behaviors and suicidal thoughts and attempts, and lower emotional well-being and self-esteem. (Contains…

  4. Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Alison L. Booth; Kee, Hiau Joo

    2006-01-01

    We use unique retrospective family background data from the 2003 British Household Panel Survey to explore the degree to which family size and birth order affect a child's subsequent educational attainment. Theory suggests a trade off between child quantity and 'quality'. Family size might adversely affect the production of child quality within a family. A number of arguments also suggest that siblings are unlikely to receive equal shares of the resources devoted by parents to their childr...

  5. Birth(death)/birth-death processes and their computable transition probabilities with statistical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Lam Si Tung; Xu, Jason; Crawford, Forrest W.; Minin, Vladimir N.; Suchard, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Birth-death processes track the size of a univariate population, but many biological systems involve interaction between populations, necessitating models for two or more populations simultaneously. A lack of efficient methods for evaluating finite-time transition probabilities of bivariate processes, however, has restricted statistical inference in these models. Researchers rely on computationally expensive methods such as matrix exponentiation or Monte Carlo approximation, restricting likel...

  6. The birth of Kaiser William II (1859-1941) and his birth injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, M G

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the events leading up to the birth of Kaiser William II in 1859. There is a full description of the clinical aspects of his breech delivery that resulted in an Erb-Duchenne palsy. The later physical and psychological effects of his paralysed left arm are discussed fully, as are the comments about Dr Eduard Arnold Martin (1799-1875), the obstetrician who delivered him.

  7. A Prescription for the Prevention of Birth Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Harold C.

    1984-01-01

    Factors influencing birth defects include maternal age (teenagers and women over 32 are at risk), genetics, drug use, diet habits, and environmental hazards. The physical, social, and economic costs of birth defects are extreme. Prevention must involve efforts to change some of these factors. (Author/CS)

  8. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development o...

  9. The indeterminate rate problem for birth-death processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van Erik A.

    1987-01-01

    A birth-death process is completely determined by its set of rates if and only if this set satisfies a certain condition C, say. If for a set of rates R the condition C is not fulfilled, then the problem arises of characterizing all birth-death processes which have rate set R (the indeterminate rate

  10. Ethics and professional responsibility: Essential dimensions of planned home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B; Grünebaum, Amos; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A

    2016-06-01

    Planned home birth is a paradigmatic case study of the importance of ethics and professionalism in contemporary perinatology. In this article we provide a summary of recent analyses of the Centers for Disease Control database on attendants and birth outcomes in the United States. This summary documents the increased risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity of planned home birth as well as bias in Apgar scoring. We then describe the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, which is based on the professional medical ethics of two major figures in the history of medical ethics, Drs. John Gregory of Scotland and Thomas Percival of England. This model emphasizes the identification and careful balancing of the perinatologist's ethical obligations to pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. This model stands in sharp contrast to one-dimensional maternal-rights-based reductionist model of obstetric ethics, which is based solely on the pregnant woman's rights. We then identify the implications of the professional responsibility model for the perinatologist's role in directive counseling of women who express an interest in or ask about planned home birth. Perinatologists should explain the evidence of the increased, preventable perinatal risks of planned home birth, recommend against it, and recommend planned hospital birth. Perinatologists have the professional responsibility to create and sustain a strong culture of safety committed to a home-birth-like experience in the hospital. By routinely fulfilling these professional responsibilities perinatologists can help to prevent the documented, increased risks planned home birth. PMID:26804379

  11. Explaining Educational Inequalities in Preterm Birth. The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Although a low socioeconomic status has consistently been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, little is known about the pathways through which socioeconomic disadvantage influences preterm birth. AIM: To examine mechanisms that might underlie the association b

  12. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are now taking any kind of birth control pill or are considering using one, keep these guidelines in mind: Don't mix smoking and "the pill." If you smoke cigarettes, make a serious effort to quit. If you cannot quit, choose ... of birth control. Cigarette smoking boosts the risk of serious health ...

  13. What Research Shows About Birth Order, Personality, and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahraes, Herbert

    This brief report summarizes the findings and conclusions of studies concerning the relation between birth order and various aspects of personality and intellectual development. Major topics discussed are the relation between birth order of the child and: (1) the effects of sex and spacing between siblings on personality characteristics of the…

  14. Birth Order and Education: Evidence from a Korean Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hyunkuk

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of birth order on education. This paper is the first to control for the mother’s age at first birth. While previous studies find that earlier-born children are better off, this paper finds no effects.

  15. Maternity care in the Netherlands: the changing home birth rate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Keirse, M.J.N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In 1965 two-thirds of all births in The Netherlands occurred at home. In the next 25 years, that situation became reversed with more than two-thirds of births occurring in hospital and fewer than one-third at home. Several factors have influenced that change, including the introduction of short-stay

  16. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  17. Ethics and professional responsibility: Essential dimensions of planned home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B; Grünebaum, Amos; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A

    2016-06-01

    Planned home birth is a paradigmatic case study of the importance of ethics and professionalism in contemporary perinatology. In this article we provide a summary of recent analyses of the Centers for Disease Control database on attendants and birth outcomes in the United States. This summary documents the increased risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity of planned home birth as well as bias in Apgar scoring. We then describe the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, which is based on the professional medical ethics of two major figures in the history of medical ethics, Drs. John Gregory of Scotland and Thomas Percival of England. This model emphasizes the identification and careful balancing of the perinatologist's ethical obligations to pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. This model stands in sharp contrast to one-dimensional maternal-rights-based reductionist model of obstetric ethics, which is based solely on the pregnant woman's rights. We then identify the implications of the professional responsibility model for the perinatologist's role in directive counseling of women who express an interest in or ask about planned home birth. Perinatologists should explain the evidence of the increased, preventable perinatal risks of planned home birth, recommend against it, and recommend planned hospital birth. Perinatologists have the professional responsibility to create and sustain a strong culture of safety committed to a home-birth-like experience in the hospital. By routinely fulfilling these professional responsibilities perinatologists can help to prevent the documented, increased risks planned home birth.

  18. Brief Report: Asperger's Syndrome and Sibling Birth Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karmen; Zimmerman, Andrew; Bauman, Margaret; Ferrone, Christine; Venter, Jacob; Spybrook, Jessaca; Henry, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Prior investigations suggest that birth order position may be associated with the risk for developing a pervasive developmental disorder. This retrospective chart review examined the birth order status of 29 psychiatrically-referred patients with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Eighty-six percent of the subjects were first born. The finding was…

  19. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...

  20. Getting to Know Your Baby and Yourself: Prenatal to Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grace C.

    This illustrated booklet on prenatal care and birth is part of a related curriculum on parenting and child development designed for school-age mothers. Conception, embryonic and fetal development, the birth process, nutrition during pregnancy, and emotional and physical characteristics of pregnant women are explained. Short quizzes and answers are…

  1. INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL CORRELATES OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIENER, GERALD

    LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN WERE STUDIED LONGITUDINALLY TO DETERMINE WHETHER--(1) THE RELATIVE INTELLECTUAL IMPAIRMENT OF PREMATURE CHILDREN IS STATIC OR CHANGES WITH TIME, (2) A LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILD NOT NOTED TO BE IN NEUROLOGICAL DISTRESS COULD HAVE A POOR PROGNOSIS, AND (3) SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS COULD ARISE AS A CONSEQUENCE…

  2. Birth Defects in India: Magnitude, Public Health Impact and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects refer to a group of diverse congenital conditions, which are responsible for stillbirths, neonatal deaths, chronic medical conditions and disability. Due to their low prevalence and high mortality, birth defects are not considered to be a significant health problem in India. Various data however identify that India may harbour a significant burden of birth defects, and that these conditions may be responsible for a considerable proportion of neonatal deaths in India. Although it is widely assumed that survival of patients with birth defects is low, data suggests that in 2002, there were nearly six million Indians living with impairments arising at birth. These data urge the need for implementation of a national birth defects programme in India, with a strong component of prevention. The need for significant research investments to understand the epidemiology and public health impact of birth defects in India is identified. Translation research, transcending the disciplines of medicine, public health and genetics is required to develop a low cost birth defects service as a component of the existing maternal and child health programme.

  3. Can Knowledge of Client Birth Order Bias Clinical Judgment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Allan E.

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians (N = 308) responded to identical counseling vignettes of a male client that differed only in the client's stated birth order. Clinicians developed different impressions about the client and his family experiences that corresponded with the prototypical descriptions of persons from 1 of 4 birth orders (i.e., first, middle, youngest, and…

  4. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Haan; E. Plug; J. Rosero

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential me

  5. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Haan; E. Plug; J. Rosero

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador using a large national database together with self-collected survey data. Using family fixed effects models we find significant positive birth order effects; earlier born children stay behind in their human ca

  6. Birth Order and Educational Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Boden, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between birth order and later educational outcomes in a birth cohort of more than 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of twenty-five. Being later born was associated with gaining fewer educational qualifications at secondary level and beyond. The use of nested models to control for the confounding…

  7. Intelligence and Birth Order in Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Dorret I.; van Beijsterveld, T. C. E. M.; Beem, A. L.; Hoekstra, R. A.; Polderman, T. J. C.; Bartels, M.

    2008-01-01

    The relation between intelligence and birth order was shown in a recent publication [Bjerkedal, T., Kristensen, P., Skjeret, G. A. & Brevik, J. I. (2007). Intelligence test scores and birth order among young Norwegian men (conscripts) analyzed within and between families. "Intelligence," 35, 503-514] to be negative. Subjects in this and in an…

  8. TL and EPR dating: some applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The intensity of thermoluminescence light emitted by a crystal is a function of radiation dose. The number of defects or of radicals in a crystal or organic substances is also a function of radiation dose. Since such defects or radicals present EPR signals, the EPR intensity is also a function of radiation dose. These facts are basis for radiation dosimetry and can be applied in dating of archaeological potteries or other materials, as well as in dating geological substances such as sediments, caves speleothemes, animal teeth and bones. Recent investigation on sensitized quartz based dosimeters and dating calcite covering ancient wall painting to find early settlers in Brazil will be presented. (Author)

  9. TL and EPR dating: some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensity of thermoluminescence light emitted by a crystal is a function of radiation dose. The number of defects or of radicals in a crystal or organic substances is also a function of radiation dose. Since such defects or radicals present EPR signals, the EPR intensity is also a function of radiation dose. These facts are basis for radiation dosimetry and can be applied in dating of archaeological potteries or other materials, as well as in dating geological substances such as sediments, caves speleothemes, animal teeth and bones. Recent investigation on sensitized quartz based dosimeters and dating calcite covering ancient wall painting to find early settlers in Brazil will be presented. (Author)

  10. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of young sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    of OSL dating, outlines the problems specific to the dating of young material, and then uses recent applications to young sediments to illustrate the greatly increased scope and potential of the method in geomorphology and the geology of recent deposits. The overall reliability of this new generation...... for determining the time of deposition of water-lain sediments from the coastal zone, and aeolian deposits from both coastal and inland environments. Our conclusion is supported by the growing popularity of OSL dating in geomorphology and geology...

  11. Development of thermoluminescence dating techniques at Oxford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-decade long history of thermoluminescene as a pottery dating method is surveyed with particular reference to the various problems that have been encountered in the Oxford Laboratory's research programme. Effects, such as supralinearity and radon emanation, are explained in terms of how they are measured and how their existence influences thermoluminescence (TL) dating accuracy (currently close to plus minus 7% per analysis). Illustrations of Thermoluminescence (TL) applications include a Nok culture terracotta from Nigeria and a Cambodia bronze Buddha figure of the Khmer period, dated ising the ceramic-like casting-core retained within it. (author)

  12. ESR dating of tooth enamel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five tooth samples from the palaeoanthropological site of Jinniushan were dated with both electron-spin-resonance (ESR) and uranium-series techniques. The ESR age of about 230 ka is in good agreement with the U-series dating result, which confirms the hypothesis of possible coexistence of Homo erect us and Homo sapiens in China. Problems in ESR dating are discussed such as: 1) inappropriate of simple exponential extrapolation for accumulated dose determination; 2)experimental measurement of alpha detection efficiency and radon emanation and 3)selection of U-uptake model

  13. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2013-01-01

    was followed up in the NPR for PCOS diagnoses from age 15 years until the end of 2006. Furthermore, information on maternal diabetes diagnoses was extracted from the NPR. RESULT(S): The risk of PCOS was significantly increased in women with birth weight =4,500 g (incidence rate ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...... female children born of Danish mothers in Denmark between 1973 and 1991 were included (n = 523,757) and followed for a total of 4,739,547 person-years at risk. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Information on birth weight was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register. The cohort...

  14. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  15. Color features for dating historical color images

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Basura; Muselet, Damien; Khan, Rahat; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    Fernando B., Muselet D., Khan R., Tuytelaars T., ''Color features for dating historical color image'', IEEE international conference on image processing - ICIP 2014, 5 pp., October 27-30, 2014, Paris, France.

  16. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  17. Climate signatures of grape harvest dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krieger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape harvest dates have been recorded in many European locations for several centuries, and potentially contain important information about past climate. In this study, we systematically analyse the relationship of grape harvest dates recorded in the Burgundy region (France with different climate data sets in order to understand the connection between climatic conditions and the time of harvest. The results point to a primary dependence of the grape harvest on the temperature from April to August. The strength of this connection depends on the winter to summer temperature relationship and increases over the last 100 years. The grape harvest date is also related to the winter temperature. This connection is non-stationary on interannual, but stable on decadal-to-multidecadal time scales. Therefore, the grape harvest date can be used for independent reconstructions of local April-to-August temperature on interannual time scales as well as remote winter temperature on decadal-to-multidecadal time scales.

  18. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  19. Physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn;

    2008-01-01

    -reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were collected prospectively for 87,232 singleton pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Hazard ratios for preterm birth according to hours of exercise per week, type of exercise, and metabolic equivalent-hours per week...

  20. A birth-weight questionnaire indicated that life style modifies the birth weight and metabolic syndrome relationship at age 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, S.J. te; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, van W.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between birth weight and the metabolic syndrome and the modifying effects of lifestyle in adults (36.5 years). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 273 subjects completed a birth-weight questionnaire; waist circumference, HDL and triglyceride concentrations, blood pres