WorldWideScience

Sample records for birren eric lai

  1. The Eric Cantor Upset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2014-01-01

    US update. The surprise primary defat of Eric Cantor, which shows that the Tea Party is still in business......US update. The surprise primary defat of Eric Cantor, which shows that the Tea Party is still in business...

  2. ESTIMATES OF THE LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI USING LAI-2000 AND HEMISPHERICAL PHOTOS IN Eucalyptus PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhasmin Paiva Rody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the Leaf Area Index (LAI by indirect methods in plantations of Eucalyptus clones in two distinct physical-climatic sites, during the dry and rainy periods. The study was performed in four young and adult Eucalyptus stands, located in Rio Doce basin, eastern Minas Gerais state (Brazil situated in areas of lower and higher altitudes. Nine plots were allocated in each stand. Experimental data were collected in months representing the driest and the wettest periods. LAI indirect measurements were performed using the LAI-2000 equipment and cameras with hemispherical lens. To verify the accuracy of estimation, a destructive analysis was also performed. The LAI measurements by the LAI-2000 was the one which best correlated with the observed LAI (R =0.90, although the hemispherical photos had presented good potential use. It is verified that the LAI of stands in the higher altitudes region, surpassed those of lower altitudes, which was also observed by the indirect methods. The destructive analysis indicates lower values of LAI measured in the dry season although this variation is only significant for higher altitudes. This behavior is also observed for estimates with the LAI-2000, different from the hemispherical photographs which did not identify seasonality of LAI.

  3. Aseka, Eric Masinde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aseka, Eric Masinde. Vol 24, No 3 (1999) - Articles Ethnicity, Governance and Prevention of Conflict: State of the Issue and Research Perspectives Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0850-3907. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  4. Three Different Methods of Estimating LAI in a Small Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, H. N.; Ewers, B. E.; Beverly, D.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a critical input of models that improve predictive understanding of ecology, hydrology, and climate change. Multiple techniques exist to quantify LAI, most of which are labor intensive, and all often fail to converge on similar estimates. . Recent large-scale bark beetle induced mortality greatly altered LAI, which is now dominated by younger and more metabolically active trees compared to the pre-beetle forest. Tree mortality increases error in optical LAI estimates due to the lack of differentiation between live and dead branches in dense canopy. Our study aims to quantify LAI using three different LAI methods, and then to compare the techniques to each other and topographic drivers to develop an effective predictive model of LAI. This study focuses on quantifying LAI within a small (~120 ha) beetle infested watershed in Wyoming's Snowy Range Mountains. The first technique estimated LAI using in-situ hemispherical canopy photographs that were then analyzed with Hemisfer software. The second LAI estimation technique was use of the Kaufmann 1982 allometrerics from forest inventories conducted throughout the watershed, accounting for stand basal area, species composition, and the extent of bark beetle driven mortality. The final technique used airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) first DMS returns, which were used to estimating canopy heights and crown area. LIDAR final returns provided topographical information and were then ground-truthed during forest inventories. Once data was collected, a fractural analysis was conducted comparing the three methods. Species composition was driven by slope position and elevation Ultimately the three different techniques provided very different estimations of LAI, but each had their advantage: estimates from hemisphere photos were well correlated with SWE and snow depth measurements, forest inventories provided insight into stand health and composition, and LIDAR were able to quickly and

  5. Biting. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This column summarizes recent ERIC documents and journal articles, and highlights some World Wide Web resources, that discuss issues related to the problem of children biting in preschool. (Contains 13 annotated summaries.) (SD)

  6. Continuous measurement of leaf area index (LAI) over broadleaf crop fields in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Ye, Y.; Liu, W.; Wei, S.; Ma, L.

    2017-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the essential climate variables used in many ecological and land surface process models. Global LAI products have been provided routinely by many remote sensing projects. Reliable and consistent LAI estimates are a priority for LAI validation study and the application communities. In situ LAI measurements are a critical component of our ongoing global LAI validation efforts. Automatic methods, e.g., PASTIS-57, and smartphone applications (APPs) have become increasingly available for efficient field LAI measurements. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of automatic and portable smartphone LAI measurements together with traditional indirect optical LAI measurements. A seasonal field campaign was carried out to take continuous LAI measurements over corn, soybean, and sorghum fields in northeast China in 2016. Field LAI measurement was made with the automatic PASTIS-57, two smartphone applications, PocketLAI and LAISmart, and two handheld optical instruments, LAI-2200 and digital hemispherical photography (DHP). The results show that PASTIS-57 provides a convenient and accurate LAI estimation method as compared to LAI-2200 and DHP. LAI estimates from smartphone applications are generally smaller than the LAI-2200 and DHP values. In addition to the LAI measurements, continuous clumping index (CI) measurements were also obtained. The seasonal continuous LAI and CI measurements obtained from this study are valuable for the validation of remote sensing products.

  7. A Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI), International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-12-12

    Satellite remote sensing has been used successfully to map leaf area index (LAI) across landscapes, but advances are still needed to exploit multi-scale data streams for producing LAI at both high spatial and temporal resolution. A multi-scale Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI) has been developed to generate 4-day time-series of Landsat-scale LAI from existing medium resolution LAI products. STEM-LAI has been designed to meet the demands of applications requiring frequent and spatially explicit information, such as effectively resolving rapidly evolving vegetation dynamics at sub-field (30 m) scales. In this study, STEM-LAI is applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based LAI data and utilizes a reference-based regression tree approach for producing MODIS-consistent, but Landsat-based, LAI. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) is used to interpolate the downscaled LAI between Landsat acquisition dates, providing a high spatial and temporal resolution improvement over existing LAI products. STARFM predicts high resolution LAI by blending MODIS and Landsat based information from a common acquisition date, with MODIS data from a prediction date. To demonstrate its capacity to reproduce fine-scale spatial features observed in actual Landsat LAI, the STEM-LAI approach is tested over an agricultural region in Nebraska. The implementation of a 250 m resolution LAI product, derived from MODIS 1 km data and using a scale consistent approach based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), is found to significantly improve accuracies of spatial pattern prediction, with the coefficient of efficiency (E) ranging from 0.77–0.94 compared to 0.01–0.85 when using 1 km LAI inputs alone. Comparisons against an 11-year record of in-situ measured LAI over maize and soybean highlight the utility of STEM-LAI in reproducing observed LAI dynamics (both characterized by r2 = 0

  8. Report of the ERIC Management Review Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Launor F.; And Others

    The mission of the ERIC Management Review Group was to examine the practices and procedures used by Central ERIC Management in their guidance and management of the 19 ERIC clearinghouses. The major topics covered in this report are: recommendations; the role of the clearinghouses; the bibliographic and documentation function; the interpretation…

  9. Gregory Bateson and Eric Voegelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that two important thinkers of the 20th century, Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) and Eric Voegelin (1901-1985), developed a set of ideas that are of importance to the history of the human sciences. The article also argues that their ideas display similarities that have not yet been...

  10. ERIC Abstracts: A Collection of ERIC Document Resumes on Educational Planning. ERIC Abstracts Series, Number Fourteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    ERIC abstracts on educational planning, announced in RIE through December 1970, are presented. The key terms used in compiling this collection are "critical path method,""educational planning,""operations research," and "program budgeting." The following information is presented for each document: Author, title, place of publication, publisher,…

  11. Assimilation of LAI time-series in crop production models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Rijk, Bert; Nannes, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is worldwide a large consumer of freshwater, nutrients and land. Spatial explicit agricultural management activities (e.g., fertilization, irrigation) could significantly improve efficiency in resource use. In previous studies and operational applications, remote sensing has shown to be a powerful method for spatio-temporal monitoring of actual crop status. As a next step, yield forecasting by assimilating remote sensing based plant variables in crop production models would improve agricultural decision support both at the farm and field level. In this study we investigated the potential of remote sensing based Leaf Area Index (LAI) time-series assimilated in the crop production model LINTUL to improve yield forecasting at field level. The effect of assimilation method and amount of assimilated observations was evaluated. The LINTUL-3 crop production model was calibrated and validated for a potato crop on two experimental fields in the south of the Netherlands. A range of data sources (e.g., in-situ soil moisture and weather sensors, destructive crop measurements) was used for calibration of the model for the experimental field in 2010. LAI from cropscan field radiometer measurements and actual LAI measured with the LAI-2000 instrument were used as input for the LAI time-series. The LAI time-series were assimilated in the LINTUL model and validated for a second experimental field on which potatoes were grown in 2011. Yield in 2011 was simulated with an R2 of 0.82 when compared with field measured yield. Furthermore, we analysed the potential of assimilation of LAI into the LINTUL-3 model through the 'updating' assimilation technique. The deviation between measured and simulated yield decreased from 9371 kg/ha to 8729 kg/ha when assimilating weekly LAI measurements in the LINTUL model over the season of 2011. LINTUL-3 furthermore shows the main growth reducing factors, which are useful for farm decision support. The combination of crop models and sensor

  12. The future seen from Erice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A few specialists have been finding time to think beyond the LEP electron- positron Collider now being built at CERN and the SSC Superconducting Super Collider proposed for the US to the physics needs and accelerator possibilities of the future. Despite the modest effort, a lot of progress has been made in sorting the wheat from the chaff amongst proposed accelerator schemes and in defining crucial features of future machines. Some of this thinking came together at a seminar on 'New Techniques for Future Accelerators' held in Erice, Sicily, from 12-17 May

  13. Adolescents: Your Children and Mine. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demo, Mary Penasack

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 10 items from the ERIC collection covering various aspects of adolescence: the impact of pop music, attitudes about drinking, television viewing, the effect of the new morality, the adolescent learning process, popular books, attitudes toward school, and others. (JMF)

  14. Women's Suffrage: A Sampler of ERIC Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the resources available from the ERIC System on issues related to women's suffrage and women's rights. Includes an annotated bibliography of six resources, including lesson plans and historiography reviews. (CFR)

  15. Early Childhood Curricula. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes recent ERIC documents and journal articles, and highlights some World Wide Web resources that describe, evaluate, or compare various curricula or instructional methods, such as Creative Curriculum, High/Scope, the Montessori Method, Waldorf Schools, and Direct Instruction. (Author)

  16. Carbon economics of LAI drive photosynthesis patterns across an Amazonian precipitation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Sophie; Williams, Mathew; Meir, Patrick; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2017-04-01

    The Amazon rainforest is an integral part of the terrestrial carbon cycle, yet whilst the physiological response of its plants to water availability is increasingly well quantified, constraints to photosynthesis through adaptive response to precipitation regime have received little attention. We use the Soil Plant Atmosphere model to apportion variation in photosynthesis to individual drivers for plots with detailed measurements of carbon cycling, leaf traits and canopy properties, along an Amazonian mean annual precipitation (MAP) gradient. We hypothesised that leaf area index (LAI) would be the principal driver of variation in photosynthesis. Differences in LAI are predicted to result from economic factors; plants balance the carbon cost of leaf construction and maintenance with assimilation potential, to maximise canopy carbon export. Model analysis showed that LAI was the primary driver of differences in GPP along the precipitation gradient, accounting for 49% of observed variation. Meteorology accounted for 19%, whilst plant traits accounted for only 5%. To explain the observed spatial trends in LAI we undertook model experiments. For each plot the carbon budget was quantified iteratively using the field measured LAI time-series of the other plots, keeping meteorology, soil and plant traits constant. The mean annual LAI achieving maximum photosynthesis and net canopy carbon export increased with MAP, reflecting observed LAI trends. At the driest site, alternative, higher LAI strategies were unsustainable. The carbon cost of leaf construction and maintenance was disproportional to GPP achieved. At high MAP, increased foliar carbon costs were remunerative and GPP was maximised by high LAI. Our evidence therefore suggests that observed LAI trends across the precipitation gradient are driven by carbon economics. Forests LAI response to temporal changes in precipitation reflects trends observed across spatial gradients, identifying LAI as a key mechanism for plant

  17. Comparing the Dry Season In-Situ Leaf Area Index (LAI Derived from High-Resolution RapidEye Imagery with MODIS LAI in a Namibian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Mayr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Leaf Area Index (LAI is one of the most frequently applied measures to characterize vegetation and its dynamics and functions with remote sensing. Satellite missions, such as NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS operationally produce global datasets of LAI. Due to their role as an input to large-scale modeling activities, evaluation and verification of such datasets are of high importance. In this context, savannas appear to be underrepresented with regards to their heterogeneous appearance (e.g., tree/grass-ratio, seasonality. Here, we aim to examine the LAI in a heterogeneous savanna ecosystem located in Namibia’s Owamboland during the dry season. Ground measurements of LAI are used to derive a high-resolution LAI model with RapidEye satellite data. This model is related to the corresponding MODIS LAI/FPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation scene (MOD15A2 in order to evaluate its performance at the intended annual minimum during the dry season. Based on a field survey we first assessed vegetation patterns from species composition and elevation for 109 sites. Secondly, we measured in situ LAI to quantitatively estimate the available vegetation (mean = 0.28. Green LAI samples were then empirically modeled (LAImodel with high resolution RapidEye imagery derived Difference Vegetation Index (DVI using a linear regression (R2 = 0.71. As indicated by several measures of model performance, the comparison with MOD15A2 revealed moderate consistency mostly due to overestimation by the aggregated LAImodel. Model constraints aside, this study may point to important issues for MOD15A2 in savannas concerning the underlying MODIS Land Cover product (MCD12Q1 and a potential adjustment by means of the MODIS Burned Area product (MCD45A1.

  18. Downscaling of coarse resolution LAI products to achieve both high spatial and temporal resolution for regions of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-11-12

    This paper presents a flexible tool for spatio-temporal enhancement of coarse resolution leaf area index (LAI) products, which is readily adaptable to different land cover types, landscape heterogeneities and cloud cover conditions. The framework integrates a rule-based regression tree approach for estimating Landsat-scale LAI from existing 1 km resolution LAI products, and the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) to intelligently interpolate the downscaled LAI between Landsat acquisitions. Comparisons against in-situ records of LAI measured over corn and soybean highlights its utility for resolving sub-field LAI dynamics occurring over a range of plant development stages.

  19. Development of regional wheat VI-LAI models using Resourcesat-1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 6. Development of regional wheat VI-LAI models using Resourcesat-1 AWiFS data ... The present study aimed at developing empirical vegetation index VI-LAI models for wheat using AWiFS optical data in four bands and in-situ measurements sampled ...

  20. ERIC Abstracts: A Collection of ERIC Document Resumes on Systems Approaches in Education. ERIC Abstracts Series, Number Eight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    ERIC abstracts on systems approaches in education, announced in RIE through January 1970, are compiled. The key terms used in compiling this collection are "systems approach,""systems analysis,""critical path method," and "systems concepts." The following information is presented for each document: author, title, place of publication, publisher,…

  1. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  2. Review of "Cultures merging" by Eric Jones

    OpenAIRE

    Schlicht, Ekkehart

    2016-01-01

    This is an electronic reprint of a review of the book "Cultures Merging: A Historical and Economic Critique of Culture" by Eric L. Jones, Princeton: Princeton University Press that appeared in the Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 2007, vol. 163, issue 3, pages 526-529, URL \\url{http://www.jstor.org/stable/40752660}.

  3. Eric Garcia: Warrior with a Pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Eric Garcia's large-scale oil paintings, drawings, installations, prints, and political cartoons examine versions of American history that have been overlooked and whitewashed. Aware that dominant history reflects a strategy of power, Garcia embraces the confluence of history, culture, and politics to challenge historical mythologies and…

  4. Manejo de riesgo (Risk Management). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest in Spanish discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to…

  5. Learning from a Sea Snail: Eric Kandel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 6. Learning from a Sea Snail: Eric Kandel. Rohini Balakrishnan. Research News Volume 6 Issue 6 June 2001 pp 86-90. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/06/0086-0090 ...

  6. Analysis on Difference of Forest Phenology Extracted from EVI and LAI Based on PhenoCams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Jing, L.; Qinhuo, L.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface phenology can make up for the deficiency of field observation with advantages of capturing the continuous expression of phenology on a large scale. However, there are some variability in phenological metrics derived from different satellite time-series data of vegetation parameters. This paper aims at assessing the difference of phenology information extracted from EVI and LAI time series. To achieve this, some web-camera sites were selected to analyze the characteristics between MODIS-EVI and MODIS-LAI time series from 2010 to 2014 for different forest types, including evergreen coniferous forest, evergreen broadleaf forest, deciduous coniferous forest and deciduous broadleaf forest. At the same time, satellite-based phenological metrics were extracted by the Logistics algorithm and compared with camera-based phenological metrics. Results show that the SOS and EOS that are extracted from LAI are close to bud burst and leaf defoliation respectively, while the SOS and EOS that are extracted from EVI is close to leaf unfolding and leaf coloring respectively. Thus the SOS that is extracted from LAI is earlier than that from EVI, while the EOS that is extracted from LAI is later than that from EVI at deciduous forest sites. Although the seasonal variation characteristics of evergreen forests are not apparent, significant discrepancies exist in LAI time series and EVI time series. In addition, Satellite- and camera-based phenological metrics agree well generally, but EVI has higher correlation with the camera-based canopy greenness (green chromatic coordinate, gcc) than LAI.

  7. Evaluation of MODIS-LAI products in the tropical dry secondary forest of Mata Seca, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamarte Loreto, Payri Alejandra

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) advances scientific knowledge of the role of secondary forests in forest area conservation. MODIS-LAI products provide an alternative, efficient and cost-effective method for measuring LAI in Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs). The performance of MODIS-LAI satellite products in a TDF was studied as a function of successional stages by (1) estimating seasonal LAI variations compared to in situ LAI values (2) using dry season MODIS-LAI products to estimate Woody Area Index (WAI) (3) estimating phenology changes through comparisons to in situ data. The study demonstrates (1) MODIS-LAI product showed agreement with in situ values with increasing successional stage. (2) MODIS-LAI product showed best agreement to in situ WAI values in the intermediate successional stage. (3) TIMESAT analysis indicated that MODIS-LAI products detected start-of-season 1-2 weeks before in situ values and end-of-season 20-30 days after in situ values, indicating that MODIS-LAI product captures canopy leafing, but is not suitable for detecting senescence. Keywords: Leaf Area Index, Validation, MODIS, Woody Area Index, Phenology, Tropical Secondary Forest Succession, Hemispherical Photography, LAI-2000,.

  8. Constructing seasonal LAI trajectory by data-model fusion for global evergreen needle-leaf forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J.; Mo, G.

    2010-12-01

    For decades, advancements in optical remote sensors made it possible to produce maps of a biophysical parameter--the Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is critically necessary in regional and global modeling of exchanges of carbon, water, energy and other substances, across large areas in a fast way. Quite a few global LAI products have been generated since 2000, e.g. GLOBCARBON (Deng et al., 2006), MODIS Collection 5 (Shabanov et al., 2007), CYCLOPES (Baret et al., 2007), etc. Albeit these progresses, the basic physics behind the technology restrains it from accurate estimation of LAI in winter, especially for northern high-latitude evergreen needle-leaf forests. Underestimation of winter LAI in these regions has been reported in literature (Yang et al., 2000; Cohen et al., 2003; Tian et al., 2004; Weiss et al., 2007; Pisek et al., 2007), and the distortion is usually attributed to the variations of canopy reflectance caused by understory change (Weiss et al., 2007) as well as by the presence of ice and snow on leaves and ground (Cohen, 2003; Tian et al., 2004). Seasonal changes in leaf pigments can also be another reason for low LAI retrieved in winter. Low conifer LAI values in winter retrieved from remote sensing make them unusable for surface energy budget calculations. To avoid these drawbacks of remote sensing approaches, we attempt to reconstruct the seasonal LAI trajectory through model-data fusion. A 1-degree LAI map of global evergreen needle-leaf forests at 10-day interval is produced based on the carbon allocation principle in trees. With net primary productivity (NPP) calculated by the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) (Chen et al., 1999), carbon allocated to needles is quantitatively evaluated and then can be further transformed into LAI using the specific leaf area (SLA). A leaf-fall scheme is developed to mimic the carbon loss caused by falling needles throughout the year. The seasonally maximum LAI from remote sensing data for each pixel

  9. ISLSCP II Leaf Area Index (LAI) from Field Measurements, 1932-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leaf Area Index (LAI) data from the scientific literature, covering the period from 1932-2000, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)...

  10. ISLSCP II Leaf Area Index (LAI) from Field Measurements, 1932-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Leaf Area Index (LAI) data from the scientific literature, covering the period from 1932-2000, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF MODIS LAI (W4) IN LOBLOLLY PINE (P. TAEDA) FOREST TYPE, APPOMATTOX, VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency initiated MODIS MODI5A2LAI validation research (2002) in the evergreen needle leaf biome, as defined in the MOD12 classification, in a regional study located in the southeastern United States.

  12. LBA-ECO CD-08 Leaf Carbon, Nitrogen, LAI, and Isotope Data, Manaus, Brazil: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements for carbon (C), nitrogen (N), leaf area index (LAI), and carbon isotope ratio data (13C and 14C) of leaves sampled at the Manaus...

  13. LBA-ECO CD-08 Leaf Carbon, Nitrogen, LAI, and Isotope Data, Manaus, Brazil: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides measurements for carbon (C), nitrogen (N), leaf area index (LAI), and carbon isotope ratio data (13C and 14C) of leaves sampled at...

  14. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ON LOBLOLLY PINE FOREST STANDS WITH COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in the southeastern United States. Previous studies have shown that understory can a...

  15. LBA-ECO CD-04 LAI Estimated from Photos, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains summary data for monthly leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) at the km 83 Tower Site, in the Tapajos National Forest, Para,...

  16. LAI inversion from optical reflectance using a neural network trained with a multiple scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The inversion of the leaf area index (LAI) canopy parameter from optical spectral reflectance measurements is obtained using a backpropagation artificial neural network trained using input-output pairs generated by a multiple scattering reflectance model. The problem of LAI estimation over sparse canopies (LAI 1000 percent for low LAI. Minimization methods applied to merit functions constructed from differences between measured reflectances and predicted reflectances using multiple-scattering models are unacceptably sensitive to a good initial guess for the desired parameter. In contrast, the neural network reported generally yields absolute percentage errors of <30 percent when weighting coefficients trained on one soil type were applied to predicted canopy reflectance at a different soil background.

  17. A New Global LAI Product and Its Use for Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Liu, R.; Ju, W.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    For improving the estimation of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle, a new time series of the leaf area index (LAI) is generated for the global land surface at 8 km resolution from 1981 to 2012 by combining AVHRR and MODIS satellite data. This product differs from existing LAI products in the following two aspects: (1) the non-random spatial distribution of leaves with the canopy is considered, and (2) the seasonal variation of the vegetation background is included. The non-randomness of the leaf spatial distribution in the canopy is considered using the second vegetation structural parameter named clumping index (CI), which quantifies the deviation of the leaf spatial distribution from the random case. Using the MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function product, a global map of CI is produced at 500 m resolution. In our LAI algorithm, CI is used to convert the effective LAI obtained from mono-angle remote sensing into the true LAI, otherwise LAI would be considerably underestimated. The vegetation background is soil in crop, grass and shrub but includes soil, grass, moss, and litter in forests. Through processing a large volume of MISR data from 2000 to 2010, monthly red and near-infrared reflectances of the vegetation background is mapped globally at 1 km resolution. This new LAI product has been validated extensively using ground-based LAI measurements distributed globally. In carbon cycle modeling, the use of CI in addition to LAI allows for accurate separation of sunlit and shaded leaves as an important step in terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration modeling. Carbon flux measurements over 100 sites over the globe are used to validate an ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). The validated model is run globally at 8 km resolution for the period from 1981 to 2012 using the LAI product and other spatial datasets. The modeled results suggest that changes in vegetation structure as quantified

  18. Estimation of Leaf Area Index (LAI) Through the Acquisition of Ground Truth Data in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, G.; Hawk, A.; Lue, E.; Ottman, D.; Schiffman, B.; Ghosh, M.; Melton, F.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important indicator of ecosystem health. Remote sensing offers the only feasible method of estimating LAI at global and regional scales. Land managers can efficiently monitor changes in vegetation by using NASA data products such as the MODIS LAI 1km product. To increase confidence in use of the MODIS LAI product in Yosemite National Park, we investigated the accuracy of remotely sensed LAI data and created LAI maps using three optical in-situ instruments: the LAI-2000 instrument, digital hemispheric photography (DHP), and the Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC) instrument. We compared our in-situ data with three spectral vegetation indices derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery: Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), Simple Ratio (SR), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to produce models which created LAI maps at 30m and 1km resolution. The strongest correlations occurred between DHP LAI values and RSR. Pixel values from the 1km LAI map were then compared to pixel values from a MODIS LAI map. A strong correlation exists between our in-situ data and MODIS LAI values which confirms its accuracy for use by the National Park Service as a decision support tool in Yosemite. The MODIS LAI product is particularly useful because of its high temporal resolution of 1-2 days and can be used to monitor current and future vegetation changes. The model created using the in-situ data can also be applied to Landsat data to provide thirty years of historical LAI values.

  19. Comparison of the New LEAF Area INDEX (LAI 3G) with the Kazahstan-Wide LEAF Area INDEX DATA SET (GGRS-LAI) over Central ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappas, M.; Propastin, P.; Degener, J.; Renchin, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term global data sets of Leaf Area Index (LAI) are important for monitoring global vegetation dynamics. LAI indicating phenological development of vegetation is an important state variable for modeling land surface processes. The comparison of long-term data sets is based on two recently available data sets both derived from AVHRR time series. The LAI 3g data set introduced by Zaichun Zhu et al. (2013) is developed from the new improved third generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI3g) and best-quality MODIS LAI data. The second long-term data set is based on the 8 km spatial resolution GIMMS-AVHRR data (GGRS-data set by Propastin et al. 2012). The GGRS-LAI product uses a three-dimensional physical radiative transfer model which establishes relationship between LAI, vegetation fractional cover and given patterns of surface reflectance, view-illumination conditions and optical properties of vegetation. The model incorporates a number of site/region specific parameters, including the vegetation architecture variables such as leaf angle distribution, clumping index, and light extinction coefficient. For the application of the model to Kazakhstan, the vegetation architecture variables were computed at the local (pixel) level based on extensive field surveys of the biophysical properties of vegetation in representative grassland areas of Kazakhstan. The comparison of both long-term data sets will be used to interpret their quality for scientific research in other disciplines. References:Propastin, P., Kappas, M. (2012). Retrieval of coarse-resolution leaf area index over the Republic of Kazakhstan using NOAA AVHRR satellite data and ground measurements," Remote Sensing, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 220-246. Zaichun Zhu, Jian Bi, Yaozhong Pan, Sangram Ganguly, Alessandro Anav, Liang Xu, Arindam Samanta, Shilong Piao, Ramakrishna R. Nemani and Ranga B. Myneni (2013). Global Data Sets of Vegetation Leaf Area

  20. Digital cover photography for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in apple trees using a variable light extinction coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAI(D)), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAI(M)). Results showed that the LAI(M) was able to estimate LAI(D) with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (f(f)) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  1. Retrieval of Vertical LAI Profiles Over Tropical Rain Forests using Waveform Lidar at La Selva, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Dubayah, Ralph; Swatantra, Anu; Hofton, Michelle; Sheldon, Sage; Clark, David B.; Blair, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the potential of waveform lidar in mapping the vertical and spatial distributions of leaf area index (LAI) over the tropical rain forest of La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. Vertical profiles of LAI were derived at 0.3 m height intervals from the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data using the Geometric Optical and Radiative Transfer (GORT) model. Cumulative LAI profiles obtained from LVIS were validated with data from 55 ground to canopy vertical transects using a modular field tower to destructively sample all vegetation. Our results showed moderate agreement between lidar and field derived LAI (r2=0.42, RMSE=1.91, bias=-0.32), which further improved when differences between lidar and tower footprint scales (r2=0.50, RMSE=1.79, bias=0.27) and distance of field tower from lidar footprint center (r2=0.63, RMSE=1.36, bias=0.0) were accounted for. Next, we mapped the spatial distribution of total LAI across the landscape and analyzed LAI variations over different land cover types. Mean values of total LAI were 1.74, 5.20, 5.41 and 5.62 over open pasture, secondary forests, regeneration forests after selective-logging and old-growth forests respectively. Lastly, we evaluated the sensitivities of our LAI retrieval model to variations in canopy/ground reflectance ratio and to waveform noise such as induced by topographic slopes. We found for both, that the effects were not significant for moderate LAI values (about 4). However model derivations of LAI might be inaccurate in areas of high-slope and high LAI (about 8) if ground return energies are low. This research suggests that large footprint waveform lidar can provide accurate vertical LAI profile estimates that do not saturate even at the high LAI levels in tropical rain forests and may be a useful tool for understanding the light transmittance within these canopies.

  2. Estimation of Spatial Trends in LAI in Heterogeneous Semi-arid Ecosystems using Full Waveform Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, N. F.; Ilangakoon, N.; Spaete, L.; Dashti, H.

    2017-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key structural trait that is defined by the plant functional type (PFT) and controlled by prevailing climate- and human-driven ecosystem stresses. Estimates of LAI using remote sensing techniques are limited by the uncertainties of vegetation inter and intra-gap fraction estimates; this is especially the case in sparse, low stature vegetated ecosystems. Small footprint full waveform lidar digitizes the total amount of return energy with the direction information as a near continuous waveform at a high vertical resolution (1 ns). Thus waveform lidar provides additional data matrices to capture vegetation gaps as well as PFTs that can be used to constrain the uncertainties of LAI estimates. In this study, we calculated a radiometrically calibrated full waveform parameter called backscatter cross section, along with other data matrices from the waveform to estimate vegetation gaps across plots (10 m x 10 m) in a semi-arid ecosystem in the western US. The LAI was then estimated using empirical relationships with directional gap fraction. Full waveform-derived gap fraction based LAI showed a high correlation with field observed shrub LAI (R2 = 0.66, RMSE = 0.24) compared to discrete return lidar based LAI (R2 = 0.01, RMSE = 0.5). The data matrices derived from full waveform lidar classified a number of deciduous and evergreen tree species, shrub species, and bare ground with an overall accuracy of 89% at 10 m. A similar analysis was performed at 1m with overall accuracy of 80%. The next step is to use these relationships to map the PFTs LAI at 10 m spatial scale across the larger study regions. The results show the exciting potential of full waveform lidar to identify plant functional types and LAI in low-stature vegetation dominated semi-arid ecosystems, an ecosystem in which many other remote sensing techniques fail. These results can be used to assess ecosystem state, habitat suitability as well as to constrain model uncertainties in

  3. Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

  4. A Cost-Constrained Sampling Strategy in Support of LAI Product Validation in Mountainous Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Yin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid on leaf area index (LAI retrieval in mountainous areas. Mountainous areas present extreme topographic variability, and are characterized by more spatial heterogeneity and inaccessibility compared with flat terrain. It is difficult to collect representative ground-truth measurements, and the validation of LAI in mountainous areas is still problematic. A cost-constrained sampling strategy (CSS in support of LAI validation was presented in this study. To account for the influence of rugged terrain on implementation cost, a cost-objective function was incorporated to traditional conditioned Latin hypercube (CLH sampling strategy. A case study in Hailuogou, Sichuan province, China was used to assess the efficiency of CSS. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, land cover type, and slope were selected as auxiliary variables to present the variability of LAI in the study area. Results show that CSS can satisfactorily capture the variability across the site extent, while minimizing field efforts. One appealing feature of CSS is that the compromise between representativeness and implementation cost can be regulated according to actual surface heterogeneity and budget constraints, and this makes CSS flexible. Although the proposed method was only validated for the auxiliary variables rather than the LAI measurements, it serves as a starting point for establishing the locations of field plots and facilitates the preparation of field campaigns in mountainous areas.

  5. Eric Ambler and the Trick of Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Priotti

    2018-01-01

    One of the dominant themes of Eric Ambler's novels of the 1930s is certainly the crossing of frontiers as both a physical and symbolic element, which results not only in the living of a nightmarish adventure but also in what spy fiction expert Michael Denning defines as 'loss of innocence'. Focusing mainly on two of Ambler's novels, Epitaph for a Spy and Cause for Alarm, the essay analyses the experience abroad as a challenge both for the protagonists' worldviews and for the readers' expectat...

  6. Remote-Sensing Biophysical Models for Estimating Lai of Irrigated Crops in Murry Darling Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittamperuma, I.; Hafeez, M.; Pakparvar, M.; Louis, J.

    2012-07-01

    Remote sensing is a rapid and reliable method for estimating crop growth data from individual plant to crops in irrigated agriculture ecosystem. The LAI is one of the important biophysical parameter for determining vegetation health, biomass, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration (ET) for the modelling of crop yield and water productivity. Ground measurement of this parameter is tedious and time-consuming due to heterogeneity across the landscape over time and space. This study deals with the development of remote-sensing based empirical relationships for the estimation of ground-based LAI (LAIG) using NDVI, modelled with and without atmospheric correction models for three irrigated crops (corn, wheat and rice) grown in irrigated farms within Coleambally Irrigation Area (CIA) which is located in southern Murray Darling basin, NSW in Australia. Extensive ground truthing campaigns were carried out to measure crop growth and to collect field samples of LAI using LAI- 2000 Plant Canopy Analyser and reflectance using CROPSCAN Multi Spectral Radiometer at several farms within the CIA. A Set of 12 cloud free Landsat 5 TM satellite images for the period of 2010-11 were downloaded and regression analysis was carried out to analyse the co-relationships between satellite and ground measured reflectance and to check the reliability of data sets for the crops. Among all the developed regression relationships between LAI and NDVI, the atmospheric correction process has significantly improved the relationship between LAI and NDVI for Landsat 5 TM images. The regression analysis also shows strong correlations for corn and wheat but weak correlations for rice which is currently being investigated.

  7. Generating Global Products of LAI and FPAR from Suomi-NPP VIIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Yan, K.; Chen, C.; Xu, B.; Song, W.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Myneni, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    As important parameters in most global models of climate, hydrology, biogeochemistry and ecosystem, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) have been derived from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data since 2000 with great success. To ensure the long-term continuity of earth system record after the upcoming retirement of MODIS, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on board the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) spacecraft was launched in October 2011 representing an expansion of MODIS. The VIIRS was designed considerably similar to MODIS in respects of quality of radiation measurements, spectral coverage, revisiting interval and spatial resolution. However, the discrepancies between VIIRS and MODIS can still result in visible LAI/FPAR inconsistency if the retrieval algorithm was not adjusted. In this study, we adjust the MODIS Look-Up-Table (LUT) to tackle the differences between MODIS and VIIRS Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF) data (i.e. MYD09GA and VNP09GA) based on the theory of spectral invariance. The adjustment procedure is aiming to locate a combination of single scattering albedos (SSA) at red and NIR bands that maximizes the main algorithm coverage (Retrieval Index, RI) and minimizes the RMSE and LAI histogram disagreement between VIIRS and MODIS Collection 6 (C6) LAI. Compared with MODIS, a set of smaller red band SSA and larger NIR band SSA for 8 biomes are used for VIIRS. The direction of SSA changes is consistent with the BRF changes (i.e. VNP09GA underestimates and overestimates MYD09GA at red and NIR bands, respectively), which is expected by the theory of spectral invariance. The preliminary evaluation of VIIRS LAI/FPAR is achieved by the comparison with MODIS C6 dataset. We note that VIIRS agrees well with MODIS in terms of both LAI/FPAR spatial and temporal patterns over all biomes. VIIRS achieves comparable RI

  8. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation of Boreal Forest Using Wide Optics Airborne Winter Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stenberg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new simple airborne method based on wide optics camera is developed for leaf area index (LAI estimation in coniferous forests. The measurements are carried out in winter, when the forest floor is completely snow covered and thus acts as a light background for the hemispherical analysis of the images. The photos are taken automatically and stored on a laptop during the flights. The R2 value of the linear regression of the airborne and ground based LAI measurements was 0.89.

  9. Estimation of leaf area index for cotton canopies using the LI-COR LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, S.K.; Lascano, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of leaf area index (LAI) is useful for understanding cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth, water use, and canopy light interception. Destructive measurement is time consuming and labor intensive. Our objective was to evaluate sampling procedures using the Li-Cor (Lincoln, NE) LAI 2000 plant canopy analyzer (PCA) for nondestructive estimation of cotton LAI on the southern High Plains of Texas. We evaluated shading as a way to allow PCA measurements in direct sunlight and the influence of solar direction when using this procedure. We also evaluated a test of canopy homogeneity (information required for setting PCA field of view), determined the number of below-canopy measurements required, examined the influence of leaf wilting on PCA LAI determinations, and tested an alternative method (masking the sensor's two outer rings) for calculating LAI from PCA measurements. The best agreement between PCA and destructively measured LAI values was obtained when PCA observations were made either during uniformly overcast conditions or around solar noon using the shading method. Heterogeneous canopies with large gaps between rows required both a restricted (45 degrees) azimuthal field of view and averaging the LAI values for two transects, made with the field of view parallel and then perpendicular to the row direction. This method agreed well (r2 = 0.84) with destructively measured LAI in the range of 0.5 to 3.5 and did not deviate from a 1:1 relationship. The PCA underestimated LAI by greater than or equal 20% when measurements were made on canopies wilted due to water stress. Masking the PCA sensor's outer rings did not improve the relationship between estimated and measured LAI in the range of LAI sampled

  10. Estimating the leaf area index (LAI) of black wattle from Landsat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regression analysis revealed that actual LAI had significant relationships with PAI and NDVI. The results indicate the potential of the Landsat ETM+ satellite imageries to estimate values of important canopy attributes of A. mearnsii that are related to stand productivity that may be used as inputs into process-based models ...

  11. Potential performances of remotely sensed LAI assimilation in WOFOST model based on an OSS experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curnel, Y.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Duveiller, G.; Defourny, P.

    2011-01-01

    An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) has been defined to assess the potentialities of assimilating winter wheat leaf area index (LAI) estimations derived from remote sensing into the crop growth model WOFOST. Two assimilation strategies are considered: one based on Ensemble Kalman Filter

  12. LAI and chlorophyll estimation for a heterogeneous grassland using hyperspectral measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.K.; Schlerf, M.; Atzberger, C.; Corsi, F.; Cho, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study shows that leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) can be mapped in a heterogeneous Mediterranean grassland from canopy spectral reflectance measurements. Canopy spectral measurements were made in the field using a GER 3700

  13. MODIS land cover and LAI collection 4 product quality across nine states in the western hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maiersperger; David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Dirk Pflugmacher; Robert E. Kennedy; Alan Kirschbaum; Steven W. Running; Marcos Costa; Stith T. Gower

    2006-01-01

    Global maps of land cover and leaf area index (LAI) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) reflectance data are an important resource in studies of global change, but errors in these must be characterized and well understood. Product validation requires careful scaling from ground and related measurements to a grain commensurate with MODIS...

  14. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS ON LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA) FOLLOWING COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite-derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in Virginia and North Carolina. In order to separate NDVI contributions of the dominantc...

  15. Development of regional wheat VI-LAI models using Resourcesat-1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , IRS-1D LISS-. III (Chaurasia et al 2006; Pandya et al 2003;. Rastogi et al 2000; Singh et al 2005) ...... inversion approach of canopy radiative transfer simulation using surface reflectances would be ideal to retrieve LAI to eliminate such ...

  16. Golden Girl: Mary Lai Reflects as She Marks Her 50th Anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowski, Jay

    1996-01-01

    The career and administrative style of Mary M. Lai, who celebrates her 50th year as chief financial officer at Long Island University (New York), are discussed. Her perspectives on change in higher education and in the institution during that time, the administrator's role, current challenges for financial officers, and the college environment as…

  17. CAS Accelerator Physics held in Erice, Italy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Superconductivity for Accelerators, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 24 April-4 May, 2013.   Photo courtesy of Alessandro Noto, Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture. Following a handful of summary lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of superconductivity, the course covered a wide range of topics related to superconductivity and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful with 94 participants representing 23 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Belorussia, Canada, China, India, Japan and the United States (for the first time a young Ethiopian lady, studying in Germany, attended this course). The programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars and 7 hours of case study. The case studies were p...

  18. ERIC Resources for Teaching about the Seventies and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cheryl; Seiter, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights a variety of ERIC materials to use for instruction and reflection about the 1970s. Materials cover Watergate, environmental issues, drug use, the new ethnicity, terrorism, the Vietnam War, and women's employment. (LS)

  19. Freedom of Expression: A Troublesome Imperative. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Polito, Carolyn M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 19 items from ERIC identifying troublesome paradoxes regarding the media and freedom of expression. Items are categorized by issues identified as relevant to radio and television, commercial advertising, and the press. (JMF)

  20. Understanding Mathematics and Culture in Rural Contexts. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, William S.

    This ERIC Digest provides an overview of concepts, writers, and tenets associated with the study of mathematics and culture and offers researchers a framework for the field, particularly with regard to rural contexts. (Author)

  1. Eric Soovere fotodest sõjafotograafia kontektis / Ahto Sooaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooaru, Ahto

    2011-01-01

    Püütakse selgitada Eric Soovere piltide ja teksti tausta põgenemisel kodumaalt, näidatakse tema töö tähtsust Eesti visuaalkultuuris ja käsitletakse ka sõjafotograafia ajalugu ning sõjafotograafia peegeldusi kunstis. Praktilise tööna sündis DVD, kuhu on koondatud Eric Soovere päevik ja fotomaterjal kaasaegse formaadina

  2. Quantifying forest LAI succession in sub-tropical forests using time-series of Landsat data, 1987 -2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Song, J.; Wang, J.; Chen, S.; Yu, B.; Liao, L.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring the dynamics of leaf area index (LAI) throughout the life-cycle of forests (from seeding to maturity) is vital for simulating forest growth and quantifying carbon sequestration. However, all current global LAI produts show extremely low accuracy in forests and the coarse spatial resolution(nearly 1-km) mismatch with the spatial scale of forest inventory plots (nearly 26m*26m). To date, several studies have explored the possibility of satellite data to classify forest succession or predict stand age. And a few studies have explored the potential of using long term Landsat data to monitor the growing trend of forests, but no studies have quantified the inter-annual and intra-annual LAI dynamics along with forest succession. Vegetation indexes are not perfect variables in quantifying forest foliage dynamics. Hallet (1995) suggested remote sensing of biophysical characteristics should shift away from direct inference from vegetation indices toward more physically based algorithms. This work intends to be a pioneer example for improving the accuracy of forests LAI and providing temporal-spatial matching LAI datasets for monitoring forest processes. We integrates the Geometric-Optical and Radiative Transfer (GORT) model with the Physiological Principles Predicting Growth (3-PG) model to improve the estimation of the forest canopy LAI dynamics. Reflectance time-series data from 1987 to 2015 were collected and preprocessed for forests in southern China, using all available Landsat data (with instruments, including digital hemispheric photographs (DHP), LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (LI-COR), and Tracing radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC). Results show that the relationship between spectral metrics of satellite images and forest LAI is clear in early stages before maturity. 3-PG provide accurate inter-annual trend of forest LAI, while satellite images provide clear intra-annual LAI dynamics. We concluded that the GORT-3PG model improved the LAI

  3. Development of regional wheat VI-LAI models using Resourcesat-1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    models for wheat using AWiFS optical data in four bands and in-situ measurements sampled over five ... spatial LAI into crop models is important in simu- .... initiation–tillering. Clay loam and b lack. PBW234 flow ering–milking. MGPR. (Bihar). 15. Nov em b er–15. Decem b er. 5. W. H542,. PBW502,. WH343,. Crown ro ot.

  4. Assessment of tundra-taiga boundary changes using MODIS LAI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-ji; Han, Kyung-Soo; Pi, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Sang-Il; Kim, In-Hwan

    2011-11-01

    Surface of the earth temperature of the earth caused phenomenon that rise and is global warming as greenhouse gas concentration into waiting by continuous discharge of greenhouse gas increases since passing industrial revolution. While gravity about climate fluctuation is risen worldwide, place that can diminish successively biggest surface of the earth change by global warming is high latitude area of polar regions. This study observed distribution of vegetation to confirm change of tundra-taiga boundary. Tundra-taiga boundary is used to observe the transfer of vegetation pattern because it is very sensitive to human activity, natural disturbances and climate change. The circumpolar tundra-taiga boundary could observe reaction about some change. Reaction and confirmation about climate change were definite than other place. This study used Leaf Area Index(LAI) 8-Day data in August from 2000 to 2009 that acquire from Terra satellite MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer(MODIS) sensor and used Köppen Climate Map, Global Land Cover 2000 for reference data. This study conducted analysis of spatial distribution in low density vegetated areas and inter-annual / zonal analysis for using the long period data of LAI. Change of LAI was confirmed by analysis based on boundary value of LAI in study area. Development of vegetation could be confirmed by area of grown vegetation(730,325km2 ) than area of reduced vegetation(22,372km2 ) in tundra climate. Also, area was increased with the latitude 64°N~66° N as the center and around the latitude 62° N through area analysis by latitude. Vegetation of tundra-taiga boundary was general increase from 2000 to 2009. While area of reduced vegetation was a little, area of vegetation growth and development was increased significantly.

  5. EPIC Forest LAI Dataset: LAI estimates generated from the USDA Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC) model (a widely used, field-scale, biogeochemical model) on four forest complexes spanning three physiographic provinces in VA and NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data depicts calculated and validated LAI estimates generated from the USDA Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC) model (a widely used, field-scale,...

  6. Suicide Prevention in Schizophrenia: Do Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics (LAIs) have a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Orsolini, Laura; Lamis, Dorian A; Goldsmith, David R; Nardella, Adele; Falcone, Giulia; Corigliano, Valentina; Luciano, Mario; Fiorillo, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Suicide risk is a major cause of death among patients with schizophrenia. Death by suicide has been reported in approximately 5% of schizophrenia patients although this figure appears to be an underestimate of the problem. A number of risk factors are routinely reported as associated with suicide risk among these patients, some of which are modifiable by targeted therapeutic strategies. Clozapine is the only compound that gathered evidence as an effective treatment for reducing suicide risk in schizophrenia. Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics (LAIs) have a range of advantages in terms of efficacy, safety and tolerability in the treatment of schizophrenia, and one area of interest is whether LAI-treatment may decrease suicidality by indirectly acting on a range of risk factors for suicide specific to schizophrenia patients. This background encouraged the present review of research pertaining to LAIs in relation to modifiable risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia. We viewed our task as gathering, speculating and critically appraising the available research relevant to the topic, with the aim of formulating a hypothesis to be tested with further research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. ERIC Abstracts: A Collection of ERIC Document Resumes on the Use of Futurism in Educational Planning. ERIC Abstracts Series, Number Thirty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC. National Academy for School Executives.

    Futurism is a process of speculation on alternative possibilities for the future. Such a process leads to a clearer conception of future needs and resources. Applied to education, futurism can aid in longrange planning on a local, district, State, or national level. ERIC abstracts on the application of futurism to educational planning, announced…

  8. LBA-ECO CD-15 LAI and Productivity Data, km 67, Tapajos National Forest: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides mean leaf area index (LAI), dendrometry band measurements, and litterfall mass from samples collected at the km 67 research site,...

  9. LBA-ECO CD-15 LAI and Productivity Data, km 67, Tapajos National Forest: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides mean leaf area index (LAI), dendrometry band measurements, and litterfall mass from samples collected at the km 67 research site, Topajos...

  10. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from the NOAA Climate Data...

  11. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete-Echeverría

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io and transmitted radiation (I through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID, which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM. Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68. However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  12. Saladusi mäletavad pildid : järelvaade Eric Soovere fotograafilisele dokumentalistikale / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2010-01-01

    Eric Sooverest ja tema fotoloomingust. Eric Soovere ja Johannes Pääsukese loomingu võrdlus. Katkendeid Eric Soovere raamatust "Käru ja kaameraga : pilte ja päevikulehti põgenemisteelt 1944-1949". Pikemalt emigreerumisest Ameerikasse

  13. MICROsearch--A Project to Extend the ERIC Database to Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W. Bruce

    A project at the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources has resulted in the extension of the ERIC database to microcomputer. Small subject-related files for current-awareness purposes are downloaded from the ERIC tapes and are made available for searching with Apple II Plus microcomputers. Since the target audience for this system is…

  14. AskERIC and the Virtual Library: Lessons for Emerging Digital Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David

    1995-01-01

    Explores major issues in creating and maintaining Internet services for AskERIC, an educational digital library started by the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system. Highlights include the importance of user input to shape the service, human intermediaries, AskERIC as a virtual library, future directions, and a copy of the AskERIC…

  15. Entrevista com Eric McLuhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLuhan, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshall McLuhan faria 100 anos em 2011. Para marcar esta data, que já provocou uma recente revisitação à obra do teórico, o XI Seminário Internacional da Comunicação, promovido pela PUCRS, destacou temas como as relações do homem com as tecnologias e os efeitos psicológicos das mídias para nortear às discussões dos três dias de evento. Mas se engana que acredita que entender a obra mcluhiana é tarefa fácil. Mesmo tendo se dedicado com afinco a explicar metáforas como ‘o meio é a mensagem’ e ‘aldeia global’, McLuhan nunca chegou a ser completamente entendido. Ou as pessoas não sedavam ao trabalho de entendê-lo, ou, simplesmente, não conseguiam enxergar as mudanças que estavam acontecendo com a mesma clareza que o pesquisador. Numa tentativa não só de entender a obra do ‘profeta da globalização’, mas de ampliar os entendimentos sobre as tecnologias e as extensões do homem, Eric McLuhan, filho do teórico, participou como palestrante do Seminário para falar, entre outros assuntos, da percepção acadêmica quanto a obra de seu pai, além de introduzir novas ideias sobre televisão, globalização e ecologia

  16. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volume 1 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 2 is filled wit

  17. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volumes 1 and 2 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 3 is fil

  18. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 4 is

  19. Integration of ALS and TLS for calibration and validation of LAI profiles from large footprint lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armston, J.; Tang, H.; Hancock, S.; Hofton, M. A.; Dubayah, R.; Duncanson, L.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Blair, J. B.; Disney, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is designed to provide measurements of forest vertical structure and above-ground biomass density (AGBD) over tropical and temperate regions. The GEDI is a multi-beam waveform lidar that will acquire transects of forest canopy vertical profiles in conditions of up to 99% canopy cover. These are used to produce a number of canopy height and profile metrics to model habitat suitability and AGBD. These metrics include vertical leaf area index (LAI) profiles, which require some pre-launch refinement of large-footprint waveform processing methods for separating canopy and ground returns and estimation of their reflectance. Previous research developments in modelling canopy gap probability to derive canopy and ground reflectance from waveforms have primarily used data from small-footprint instruments, however development of a generalized spatial model with uncertainty will be useful for interpreting and modelling waveforms from large-footprint instruments such as the NASA Land Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) with a view to implementation for GEDI. Here we present an analysis of waveform lidar data from the NASA Land Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS), which were acquired in Gabon in February 2016 to support the NASA/ESA AfriSAR campaign. AfriSAR presents a unique opportunity to test refined methods for retrieval of LAI profiles in high above-ground biomass rainforests (up to 600 Mg/ha) with dense canopies (>90% cover), where the greatest uncertainty exists. Airborne and Terrestrial Laser Scanning data (TLS) were also collected, enabling quantification of algorithm performance in plots of dense canopy cover. Refinement of canopy gap probability and LAI profile modelling from large-footprint lidar was based on solving for canopy and ground reflectance parameters spatially by penalized least-squares. The sensitivities of retrieved cover and LAI profiles to variation in canopy and ground reflectance showed improvement

  20. Research from the ERIC Files: July 1991-June 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Barbara B.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research on school library media programs from the ERIC database that addressed the status of school library media programs, the information seeking process, the use of technology, censorship, school library media collections, collection development, funding, use studies, the role of the library media specialist, and professional training.…

  1. Research from the ERIC Files: July 1992-June 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 49 reports of research on school library media programs from the ERIC database that address the status of school library media programs, library media resources, the use of technology, the role of the school library media specialist, and professional training. (49 references) (KRN)

  2. The Role of Different Literary Genres (ERIC/RCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl B.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that each type of literature presented to young readers serves two important functions: to develop a schema for that literary genre; and to encourage the application of thinking skills in a variety of literary engagements. Presents four related resources from the ERIC database. (MG)

  3. Recent International Documents and Journal Articles from the ERIC Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Annotates recent international documents and journal articles from the ERIC database. Document topics include racial equality, and balancing early childhood education and work. Journal article topics include foster care in Iraqi Kurdistan; child care in Sweden; teacher-child interaction in Australian centers; teacher education in Brazil, Iceland,…

  4. The Gilded Age: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of teaching materials and general background information from the ERIC database on the Gilded Age and directions for obtaining the full text of these materials; topics include, but are not limited to, immigration, the 1896 presidential election, the Populist movement, the Industrial Revolution, urbanization, and the development of…

  5. Drug Testing. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    The issue of drug testing is the focus of this ERIC Digest. Several aspects of drug testing discussed in question-and-answer format: (1) What is the current status of drug use in the schools? (2) What legal questions arise when schools consider drug testing? (3) How might drug testing be applied in a fair, economical, and legally safe manner? (4)…

  6. DSM-5 and ADHD ? an interview with Eric Taylor

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this podcast we talk to Prof Eric Taylor about the changes to the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in DSM-5 and how these changes will affect clinical practice. The podcast for this interview is available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/sites/2999/download/Taylor.mp3.

  7. National Standards for Civics and Government. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmueller, Charles F.

    This ERIC digest discusses the National Standards for Civics and Government for students from grades K-12. The Standards are organized around five central questions dealing with the following subjects: (1) the nature and necessity of government; (2) the foundations of American constitutionalism; (3) the functioning of American government and the…

  8. Teaching and Learning about the Earth. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyonyong

    This ERIC Digest investigates the earth and space science guidelines of the National Science Education Standards. These guidelines are frequently referred to as the earth system and include components such as plate tectonics, the water cycle, and the carbon cycle. This Digest describes the development of earth systems science and earth systems…

  9. Kunst elada piiri peal / Eric Kluitenberg ; interv. Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kluitenberg, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Võrguteoreetik Eric Kluitenberg Amsterdamist valgustab 'Interstanding 3' 'Ülalpool piire' tagamaad ja seost Eestiga. Üritus toob Eestisse rahvusvahelisi tippteoreetikuid, kes analüüsivad elu piiri peal, ja kunstnikke, kes seda seisundit oma loomingus kajastavad. Osalema kutsutuid. Piiripealsuset seoses poliitika, interneti, meediaga, äärealadest.

  10. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  11. A New Equation for Deriving Vegetation Phenophase from Time Series of Leaf Area Index (LAI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Che

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurately modeling the land surface phenology based on satellite data is very important to the study of vegetation ecological dynamics and the related ecosystem process. In this study, we developed a Sigmoid curve (S-curve function by integrating an asymmetric Gaussian function and a logistic function to fit the leaf area index (LAI curve. We applied the resulting asymptotic lines and the curvature extrema to derive the vegetation phenophases of germination, green-up, maturity, senescence, defoliation and dormancy. The new proposed S-curve function has been tested in a specific area (Shangdong Province, China, characterized by a specific pattern in leaf area index (LAI time course due to the dominant presence of crops. The function has not yet received any global testing. The identified phenophases were validated against measurement stations in Shandong Province. (i From the site-scale comparison, we find that the detected phenophases using the S-curve (SC algorithm are more consistent with the observations than using the logistic (LC algorithm and the asymmetric Gaussian (AG algorithm, especially for the germination and dormancy. The phenological recognition rates (PRRs of the SC algorithm are obviously higher than those of two other algorithms. The S-curve function fits the LAI curve much better than the logistic function and asymmetric Gaussian function; (ii The retrieval results of the SC algorithm are reliable and in close proximity to the green-up observed data whether using the AVHRR LAI or the improved MODIS LAI. Three inversion algorithms shows the retrieval results based on AVHRR LAI are all later than based on improved MODIS LAI. The bias statistics reveal that the retrieval results based on the AVHRR LAI datasets are more reasonable than based on the improved MODIS LAI datasets. Overall, the S-curve algorithm has the advantage of deriving vegetation phenophases across time and space as compared to the LC algorithm and the AG

  12. Combined Use of Airborne Lidar and DBInSAR Data to Estimate LAI in Temperate Mixed Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peduzzi, Alicia; Wynne, Randolph Hamilton; Thomas, Valerie A.; Nelson, Ross F.; Reis, James J.; Sanford, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether leaf area index (LAI) in temperate mixed forests is best estimated using multiple-return airborne laser scanning (lidar) data or dual-band, single-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar data (from GeoSAR) alone, or both in combination. In situ measurements of LAI were made using the LiCor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer on 61 plots (21 hardwood, 36 pine, 4 mixed pine hardwood; stand age ranging from 12-164 years; mean height ranging from 0.4 to 41.2 m) in the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest, Virginia, USA. Lidar distributional metrics were calculated for all returns and for ten one meter deep crown density slices (a new metric), five above and five below the mode of the vegetation returns for each plot. GeoSAR metrics were calculated from the X-band backscatter coefficients (four looks) as well as both X- and P-band interferometric heights and magnitudes for each plot. Lidar metrics alone explained 69% of the variability in LAI, while GeoSAR metrics alone explained 52%. However, combining the lidar and GeoSAR metrics increased the R2 to 0.77 with a CV-RMSE of 0.42. This study indicates the clear potential for X-band backscatter and interferometric height (both now available from spaceborne sensors), when combined with small-footprint lidar data, to improve LAI estimation in temperate mixed forests.

  13. Estimating gross primary productivity of a tropical forest ecosystem over north-east India using LAI and meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb Burman, Pramit Kumar; Sarma, Dipankar; Williams, Mathew; Karipot, Anandakumar; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-10-01

    Tropical forests act as a major sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and store large amounts of carbon in biomass. India is a tropical country with regions of dense vegetation and high biodiversity. However due to the paucity of observations, the carbon sequestration potential of these forests could not be assessed in detail so far. To address this gap, several flux towers were erected over different ecosystems in India by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology as part of the MetFlux India project funded by MoES (Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India). A 50 m tall tower was set up over a semi-evergreen moist deciduous forest named Kaziranga National Park in north-eastern part of India which houses a significant stretch of local forest cover. Climatically this region is identified to be humid sub-tropical. Here we report first generation of the in situ meteorological observations and leaf area index (LAI) measurements from this site. LAI obtained from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is compared with the in situ measured LAI. We use these in situ measurements to calculate the total gross photosynthesis (or gross primary productivity, GPP) of the forest using a calibrated model. LAI and GPP show prominent seasonal variation. LAI ranges between 0.75 in winter to 3.25 in summer. Annual GPP is estimated to be 2.11 kg C m^{-2} year^{-1}.

  14. Eric Hobsbawm, sociólogo do milenarismo campesino Eric Hobsbawm, sociologist of peasant millenarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Löwy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Graças à problemática do milenarismo, a historiografia de Eric Hobsbawm integra toda a riqueza da subjetividade sociocultural, a profundidade das crenças, sentimentos e emoções em sua análise dos acontecimentos históricos, que não são mais, nessa perspectiva, percebidos simplesmente como produtos do jogo "objetivo" das forças econômicas ou políticas. Ainda distinguindo cuidadosamente os milenarismos primitivos dos revolucionários modernos, não deixa de mostrar sua afinidade eletiva. Isso não quer dizer que todos os movimentos revolucionários sejam milenaristas em sentido estrito ou, pior todavia, que respondam a um quiliasmo de tipo primitivo. Isso não impede afirmar que a afinidade entre os dois seja um fato fundamental na história das revoltas camponesas contra a modernização capitalista. Trata-se de uma das hipóteses de investigação mais interessantes esquematizadas em seus trabalhos desta época. Hobs-bawm ilustra seus propósitos com dois estudos de caso apaixonantes: o anarquismo rural na Andaluzia e as ligas camponesas da Sicília, os dois surgidos em fins do século XIX com prolongamentos no XX.Thanks to the problematic of millenarianism, Eric Hobsbawm's historiography incorporates all the richness of socio-cultural subjectivity - the depth of beliefs, feelings and emotions - into his analysis of historical events, which, from this viewpoint, are no longer perceived simply as products of the "objective" interplay of economic or political forces. Although he makes a careful distinction between primitive millenarianisms and modern revolutionary movements, Hobsbawm nevertheless shows their elective affinity between them. This does not mean that all revolutionary movements are millenarian in the strict sense or - which is even worse - that they are connected to a primitive type of chiliasm. All the same, the affinity between them is a basic fact in the history of peasant revolts against capitalist modernization. This

  15. Responses of LAI to rainfall explain contrasting sensitivities to carbon uptake between forest and non-forest ecosystems in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longhui; Wang, Ying-Ping; Beringer, Jason; Shi, Hao; Cleverly, James; Cheng, Lei; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo; Hutley, Lindsay; Lu, Xingjie; Piao, Shilong; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yu, Qiang

    2017-09-15

    Non-forest ecosystems (predominant in semi-arid and arid regions) contribute significantly to the increasing trend and interannual variation of land carbon uptake over the last three decades, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. By analysing the flux measurements from 23 ecosystems in Australia, we found the the correlation between gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (R e ) was significant for non-forest ecosystems, but was not for forests. In non-forest ecosystems, both GPP and R e increased with rainfall, and, consequently net ecosystem production (NEP) increased with rainfall. In forest ecosystems, GPP and R e were insensitive to rainfall. Furthermore sensitivity of GPP to rainfall was dominated by the rainfall-driven variation of LAI rather GPP per unit LAI in non-forest ecosystems, which was not correctly reproduced by current land models, indicating that the mechanisms underlying the response of LAI to rainfall should be targeted for future model development.

  16. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ryan Rico

    2015-01-01

    On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while t...

  17. Highlights of the Erice conference of November 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchti, R.

    1982-01-01

    The central theme of the recent Europhysics Study Conference organized by G. Bellini and held at Erice was ''The Search for Charm, Beauty, and Truth at High Energies.'' A list of specific topics covered at the conference includes: photoproduction of heavy flavors, hadroproduction of heavy flavors, latest e + e - results, lifetime measurements, theory of production and decay of heavy states, vertex detectors - visual and electronic; and trigger schemes for spectrometers. Each of these subjects are briefly reported

  18. Comparison of Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM+ for estimating grassland LAI using model inversion and spectral indices: case study of Mpumalanga, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masemola, Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available -to-noise ratio of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor for the estimation of LAI. The Landsat 8 LAI estimates were compared to that of its predecessors, namely Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) (8 bits). Furthermore, we compared...

  19. Leaf Area Index (LAI) in different type of agroforestry systems based on hemispherical photographs in Cidanau Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Khairiah, Rahmi; Setiawan, Yudi; Budi Prasetyo, Lilik; Ayu Permatasari, Prita

    2017-01-01

    Ecological functions of agroforestry systems have perceived benefit to people around Cidanau Watershed, especially in the protection of water quality. The main causes of the problems encountered in the Cidanau Watershed are associated with the human factors, especially encroachment and conversion of forest into farmland. The encroachment has made most forest in Cidanau Watershed become bare land. To preserve the ecological function of agroforestry systems in Cidanau Watershed, monitoring of the condition of the vegetation canopy in agroforestry systems is really needed. High intensity thinning of crown density due to deforestation can change stand leaf area index dramatically. By knowing LAI, we can assess the condition of the vegetation canopy in agroforestry systems. LAI in this research was obtained from Hemispherical Photographs analysis using the threshold method in HemiView Canopy Analysis Software. Our research results indicate that there are six types of agroforestry in Cidanau Watershed i.e. Sengon Agroforestry, Clove Agroforestry, Melinjo Agroforestry, Chocolate Agroforestry, Coffee Agroforestry, and Complex Agroforestry. Several factors potentially contribute to variations in the value of LAI in different types of agroforestry. The simple assumptions about differences ranges of LAI values on six types of agroforestry is closely related to leaf area and plant population density.

  20. Architecture of the Black Moshannon forest canopy measured by hemispherical photographs and a LI-COR LAI-2000 sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. S. Wang; J. Welles; D. R. Miller; D. E. Anderson; G. Heisler; M. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Non-destructive measurements of light penetration were made at 10 heights in the canopy on twelve different sites in the PA oak forest where the Blackmo 88 spray-micrometeorological experiment was conducted. Vertical profiles of Leaf Area Index, LAI, were calculated from these measurements, and the data were used to define the spatial variability of the forest canopy...

  1. Mapping mangrove leaf area index at the species level using IKONOS and LAI-2000 sensors for the Agua Brava Lagoon, Mexican Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, John M.; Wang, Jinfei; Flores-Verdugo, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Using both IKONOS and in situ LAI-2000 sensor data, a map of estimated LAI, based on NDVI, was created for the Agua Brava Lagoon, Mexican Pacific. The LAI values were then aggregated according to four classes; red mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle), healthy white mangrove ( Laguncularia racemosa), poor condition white mangrove and dead mangrove. Of the live mangrove, calculated at approximately 85% of the forest, mean LAI values of 2.49, 1.74 and 0.85 were determined for the red, healthy white and poor condition white mangrove, respectively. Excluding the dead areas, an overall estimated mangrove LAI value of 1.81 was ascertained for the 71 km 2 of mapped mangrove forest. Although the results do suggest the technique as a very rapid and effective method for monitoring the condition of mangroves at the species level, potential limitations are also discussed.

  2. Leaf area index estimation in a pine plantation with LAI-2000 under direct sunlight conditions: relationship with inventory and hydrologic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, A.; Campo, A. D. del

    2011-01-01

    LAI is a key factor in light and rainfall interception processes in forest stands and, for this reason, is called to play an important role in global change adaptive silviculture. Therefore, it is necessary to develop practical and operative methodologies to measure this parameter as well as simple relationships with other silviculture variables. This work has studied 1) the feasibility of LAI-2000 sensor in estimating LAI-stand when readings are taken under direct sunlight conditions; and 2) the ability of LAI in studying rainfall partitioned into throughfall (T) in an Aleppo pine stand after different thinning intensities, as well as its relationships to basal area, (G), cover (FCC), and tree density (D). Results showed that the angular correction scheme applied to LAI-2000 direct-sunlight readings stabilized them for different solar angles, allowing a better operational use of LAI-2000 in Mediterranean areas, where uniform overcast conditions are difficult to meet and predict. Forest cover showed the highest predictive ability of LAI (R 2 = 0.98; S = 0.28), then G (R 2 = 0.96; S = 0.43) and D (R 2 = 0.50; S = 0.28). In the hydrological plane, T increased with thinning intensity, being G the most explanatory variable (R 2 = 0.81; S = 3.07) and LAI the one that showed the poorest relation with it (R 2 = 0.69; S = 3.95). These results open a way for forest hydrologic modeling taking LAI as an input variable either estimated form LAI-2000 or deducted from inventory data. (Author) 36 refs.

  3. La Base de Donnees ERIC: Evaluation de Son Utilisation et Discussion des Choix du Systeme (The ERIC Database: An Evaluation of Its Use and a Discussion of the System Model).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malrieu, Denise

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the ERIC system begins with a brief history of the system; a description of the types and numbers of materials contained in the database; sources of types of information for educators that are not processed by ERIC; and the various publications and reference materials produced by and for the system. The analysis of ERIC usage in…

  4. Women's Issues in an Era of Inclusion. ERIC/ChESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief annotated bibliography of sources addressing women's issues within the ERIC database. The sources include journal articles, monographs, ERIC Digests, and folksong collections. They cover aspects of women and education, including women in the curriculum, women's suffrage, and women's history. (MJP)

  5. The Drug Problem and the Schools. ERIC Abstracts Series, Number Sixteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    ERIC abstracts on the drug problem and the schools, announced in RIE through December 1970, are presented. The key terms used in compiling this collection are "drug abuse" and "drug addiction." The following information is presented for each document: Author, title, place of publication, publisher, publication date, number of pages, ERIC document…

  6. Chu Lai MCAF, Vietnam. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-03-01

    99,6 99, 0 00. 10000 00,0t00.0|00,0 00,0 L 909:95 ,6 9W02 .996 99,6 9!඙ 99,0 99. L.O9OO, td ’’l0±e 000 10 TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS 450 USAFETAC...41014 (,,H, LAI V1ET AM"AF a uALF STATION STATION NAME YEARS ,ULF ChGKE4I FAHkENkEIT ( iYr ONT I I ALL MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR ’Ay JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV...27 76 / 7 ’ #61 - .. .. . .. 179 74/ 73’ 44 1 6 9,, ~~~~ ~ ~ 6 4 . 2 - 70/ 69’ 6 TD "WL-t 5 I sI 2 s, R6 111 733 111 ’ f6 4 Ei- I( I x Z ’ No Ob Mea

  7. Evaluation of Land Surface Models in Reproducing Satellite-Derived LAI over the High-Latitude Northern Hemisphere. Part I: Uncoupled DGVMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zeng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI represents the total surface area of leaves above a unit area of ground and is a key variable in any vegetation model, as well as in climate models. New high resolution LAI satellite data is now available covering a period of several decades. This provides a unique opportunity to validate LAI estimates from multiple vegetation models. The objective of this paper is to compare new, satellite-derived LAI measurements with modeled output for the Northern Hemisphere. We compare monthly LAI output from eight land surface models from the TRENDY compendium with satellite data from an Artificial Neural Network (ANN from the latest version (third generation of GIMMS AVHRR NDVI data over the period 1986–2005. Our results show that all the models overestimate the mean LAI, particularly over the boreal forest. We also find that seven out of the eight models overestimate the length of the active vegetation-growing season, mostly due to a late dormancy as a result of a late summer phenology. Finally, we find that the models report a much larger positive trend in LAI over this period than the satellite observations suggest, which translates into a higher trend in the growing season length. These results highlight the need to incorporate a larger number of more accurate plant functional types in all models and, in particular, to improve the phenology of deciduous trees.

  8. Eric Woods - A lone radiographer at the Normandy landings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Jean; Ferris, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Although much of the activity around D-day is recorded many of the support services such as radiography do not feature. This account of a radiographer at the Normandy landings gives an insight into the everyday work of a lone radiographer in the Armed Forces in the 1940s. This work is the product of an oral history taken by Jean Barrett in accordance with the acknowledged ethical requirements of oral history. Eric Wood has given his permission for the publication of his stories. The work was presented at the conference for the British Society for the History of Radiology 2008 (Sheffield).

  9. Inter-kingdom Signaling by the Legionella Quorum Sensing Molecule LAI-1 Modulates Cell Migration through an IQGAP1-Cdc42-ARHGEF9-Dependent Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Simon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Small molecule signaling promotes the communication between bacteria as well as between bacteria and eukaryotes. The opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila employs LAI-1 (3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one for bacterial cell-cell communication. LAI-1 is produced and detected by the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing system, which regulates a variety of processes including natural competence for DNA uptake and pathogen-host cell interactions. In this study, we analyze the role of LAI-1 in inter-kingdom signaling. L. pneumophila lacking the autoinducer synthase LqsA no longer impeded the migration of infected cells, and the defect was complemented by plasmid-borne lqsA. Synthetic LAI-1 dose-dependently inhibited cell migration, without affecting bacterial uptake or cytotoxicity. The forward migration index but not the velocity of LAI-1-treated cells was reduced, and the cell cytoskeleton appeared destabilized. LAI-1-dependent inhibition of cell migration involved the scaffold protein IQGAP1, the small GTPase Cdc42 as well as the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF9, but not other modulators of Cdc42, or RhoA, Rac1 or Ran GTPase. Upon treatment with LAI-1, Cdc42 was inactivated and IQGAP1 redistributed to the cell cortex regardless of whether Cdc42 was present or not. Furthermore, LAI-1 reversed the inhibition of cell migration by L. pneumophila, suggesting that the compound and the bacteria antagonistically target host signaling pathway(s. Collectively, the results indicate that the L. pneumophila quorum sensing compound LAI-1 modulates migration of eukaryotic cells through a signaling pathway involving IQGAP1, Cdc42 and ARHGEF9.

  10. Remote sensing of LAI, chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen pools of crop- and grasslands in five European landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Eva; Houborg, R; Bienkowski, J

    2013-01-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and the green Chlorophyll Index) together with the image-based inverse canopy radiative transfer modelling system, REGFLEC (REGularized canopy reFLECtance). While the SVIs require field data for empirical model building, REGFLEC can be applied without calibration......Leaf nitrogen and leaf surface area influence the exchange of gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and they play a significant role in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and water. Remote sensing data from satellites can be used to estimate leaf area index (LAI), leaf...... sensing images acquired from the HRG and HRVIR sensors aboard the SPOT satellites were used to assess the predictability of LAI, CHLl and Nl. Five spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) were used (the Normalized Difference Vegetation index, the Simple Ratio, the Enhanced Vegetation Index-2, the Green...

  11. Crop specific LAI retrieval using optical and radar satellite data for regional crop growth monitoring and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissard, Vincent; Lucau-Danila, Cozmin; Defourny, Pierre

    2005-10-01

    After a review of the current state of the art in LAI retrieval with optical and radar remote sensing data, this study investigates the capabilities of satellite remote sensing imagery in operational crop growth monitoring. This study demonstrated that the availability of an extensive crop field delineation database (like existing for the entire Belgian country) is of crucial in interest in order to retrieve crop specific information. LAI remote sensing retrieval was achieved during the year 2003 on a large Belgian agricultural area (4500 km2) for Sugar beet, Winter wheat and Maize crops. In order to increase the monitoring temporal frequency, an integration of SPOT-HRV, ENVISAT-MERIS and ERS2-SAR sensors was carried out, with a good level of accordance. The retrieval results were compatible with the concurrent field measurements as well as with the outputs given by the WOFOST crop growth model.

  12. Crop Classification and LAI Estimation Using Original and Resolution-Reduced Images from Two Consumer-Grade Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumer-grade cameras are being increasingly used for remote sensing applications in recent years. However, the performance of this type of cameras has not been systematically tested and well documented in the literature. The objective of this research was to evaluate the performance of original and resolution-reduced images taken from two consumer-grade cameras, a RGB camera and a modified near-infrared (NIR camera, for crop identification and leaf area index (LAI estimation. Airborne RGB and NIR images taken over a 6.5-square-km cropping area were mosaicked and aligned to create a four-band mosaic with a spatial resolution of 0.4 m. The spatial resolution of the mosaic was then reduced to 1, 2, 4, 10, 15 and 30 m for comparison. Six supervised classifiers were applied to the RGB images and the four-band images for crop identification, and 10 vegetation indices (VIs derived from the images were related to ground-measured LAI. Accuracy assessment showed that maximum likelihood applied to the 0.4-m images achieved an overall accuracy of 83.3% for the RGB image and 90.4% for the four-band image. Regression analysis showed that the 10 VIs explained 58.7% to 83.1% of the variability in LAI. Moreover, spatial resolutions at 0.4, 1, 2 and 4 m achieved better classification results for both crop identification and LAI prediction than the coarser spatial resolutions at 10, 15 and 30 m. The results from this study indicate that imagery from consumer-grade cameras can be a useful data source for crop identification and canopy cover estimation.

  13. Eric Hobsbawm y su lectura marxista de la historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilatowsky, Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief survey of the contributions made by the historian Eric Hobsbawm to the field of History and his Marxist stance, both in his academic work and political practice. According to the author, the circumstances in which the researchers live are determinant to their study; hence this analysis includes a review of his biography. This perspective discusses his interpretation of Marx and Marxism, his understanding of History, his militancy in the Communist Party, his Jewish identity, and how he addresses nationalism in relation to the study of capitalism.En este ensayo se presenta un breve estudio de las aportaciones del historiador Eric Hobsbawm en el campo de la historia y de sus posturas marxistas; tanto en su trabajo académico como en su práctica política. El análisis incluye una revisión de su biografía ya que según el autor los investigadores y su manera de investigar responden a las circunstancias que les toca vivir. Desde esta perspectiva se aborda su interpretación de Marx y del marxismo, su forma de entender la historia, su militancia en el Partido Comunista, su identidad judía y el tratamiento del nacionalismo en su relación con el estudio del capitalismo.

  14. Factors influencing biosafety level and lai among the staff of medical laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kozajda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the biological risks of medical laboratory employees with particular focus on laboratory acquired infection (LAI, activities having the greatest risk, accidents with biological material, post exposure procedure, preventive measures and workers' knowledge about biological exposure. Materials and Methods: The study involved 9 laboratories. A questionnaire survey was attended by 123 employees and 9 heads of these units with the use of two questionnaires for laboratory workers and the managers. Results: 32.5% of the respondents (40 persons had an accident at least once. Needlestick or a broken glass injury covered 18.7% respondents (23 persons, while splashing the skin, mucous membranes or conjunctivae related to 22.8% (28 persons. Among the employees who had an accident, only 45% of the respondents (18 persons reported this to the manager. Microbes dominant in the biological material were known only to 57 respondents (46.3%, less than half could correctly give an example of a disease (57 persons, 46.3%. More than half of the respondents admitted that they do not know all of the possible routes of infection while working in the laboratory (68 persons, 55.3%. Conclusions: In the study population, a high incidence of accidents was observed, usually during blood sampling and transfer of biological material. Condition of the workers' equipment with personal protective measures and laboratory facilities in devices to reduce the risk of infection and procedures for handling the potentially infectious material should be considered as insufficient. Lack of basic knowledge of the employees about biohazards at workplaces was shown. Med Pr 2013;64(4:473–486

  15. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    of the problems society is facing today. To facilitate the creation and operation of such RIs, the EU adopted legal frameworks for European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC). On August 31, 2015, the European Spallation Source (ESS) was established as an ERIC. Under the ERIC Regulations and ESS Statutes......, the European Spallation Source ERIC is required to adopt various policy documents relating to the operation and management of the facility. These cover a wide variety of issues such as user access, public procurement, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management, and dissemination. One of the main goals...... international research collaborations? The complex relationship between scientific excellence, innovation, and IPRs must be carefully considered. Taking the European Spallation Source ERIC as an example, this article investigates ERIC Regulations and EU policies and discusses what issues and perspectives ERICs...

  16. Leaf area index estimation in a pine plantation with LAI-2000 under direct sunlight conditions: relationship with inventory and hydrologic variables; Estimacion del indice de area foliar en pinares de repolacion con LAI-2000 bajo radiacion solar directa: relacion con variables de inventario e hidrologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, A.; Campo, A. D. del

    2011-07-01

    LAI is a key factor in light and rainfall interception processes in forest stands and, for this reason, is called to play an important role in global change adaptive silviculture. Therefore, it is necessary to develop practical and operative methodologies to measure this parameter as well as simple relationships with other silviculture variables. This work has studied 1) the feasibility of LAI-2000 sensor in estimating LAI-stand when readings are taken under direct sunlight conditions; and 2) the ability of LAI in studying rainfall partitioned into throughfall (T) in an Aleppo pine stand after different thinning intensities, as well as its relationships to basal area, (G), cover (FCC), and tree density (D). Results showed that the angular correction scheme applied to LAI-2000 direct-sunlight readings stabilized them for different solar angles, allowing a better operational use of LAI-2000 in Mediterranean areas, where uniform overcast conditions are difficult to meet and predict. Forest cover showed the highest predictive ability of LAI (R{sup 2} = 0.98; S = 0.28), then G (R{sup 2} = 0.96; S = 0.43) and D (R{sup 2} = 0.50; S = 0.28). In the hydrological plane, T increased with thinning intensity, being G the most explanatory variable (R{sup 2} = 0.81; S = 3.07) and LAI the one that showed the poorest relation with it (R{sup 2} = 0.69; S = 3.95). These results open a way for forest hydrologic modeling taking LAI as an input variable either estimated form LAI-2000 or deducted from inventory data. (Author) 36 refs.

  17. Calibration of a Species-Specific Spectral Vegetation Index for Leaf Area Index (LAI Monitoring: Example with MODIS Reflectance Time-Series on Eucalyptus Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerric le Maire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI is a key characteristic of forest ecosystems. Estimations of LAI from satellite images generally rely on spectral vegetation indices (SVIs or radiative transfer model (RTM inversions. We have developed a new and precise method suitable for practical application, consisting of building a species-specific SVI that is best-suited to both sensor and vegetation characteristics. Such an SVI requires calibration on a large number of representative vegetation conditions. We developed a two-step approach: (1 estimation of LAI on a subset of satellite data through RTM inversion; and (2 the calibration of a vegetation index on these estimated LAI. We applied this methodology to Eucalyptus plantations which have highly variable LAI in time and space. Previous results showed that an RTM inversion of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS near-infrared and red reflectance allowed good retrieval performance (R2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.41, but was computationally difficult. Here, the RTM results were used to calibrate a dedicated vegetation index (called “EucVI” which gave similar LAI retrieval results but in a simpler way. The R2 of the regression between measured and EucVI-simulated LAI values on a validation dataset was 0.68, and the RMSE was 0.49. The additional use of stand age and day of year in the SVI equation slightly increased the performance of the index (R2 = 0.77 and RMSE = 0.41. This simple index opens the way to an easily applicable retrieval of Eucalyptus LAI from MODIS data, which could be used in an operational way.

  18. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation in Boreal Mixedwood Forest of Ontario, Canada Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and WorldView-2 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Treitz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important input variable for forest ecosystem modeling as it is a factor in predicting productivity and biomass, two key aspects of forest health. Current in situ methods of determining LAI are sometimes destructive and generally very time consuming. Other LAI derivation methods, mainly satellite-based in nature, do not provide sufficient spatial resolution or the precision required by forest managers for tactical planning. This paper focuses on estimating LAI from: (i height and density metrics derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR; (ii spectral vegetation indices (SVIs, in particular the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; and (iii a combination of these methods. For the Hearst Forest of Northern Ontario, in situ measurements of LAI were derived from digital hemispherical photographs (DHPs while remote sensing variables were derived from low density LiDAR (i.e., 1 m−2 and high spatial resolution WorldView-2 data (2 m. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR models were generated using these variables. Results from these analyses demonstrate: (i moderate explanatory power (i.e., R2 = 0.53 for LiDAR height and density metrics that have proven to be related to canopy structure; (ii no relationship when using SVIs; and (iii no significant improvement of LiDAR models when combining them with SVI variables. The results suggest that LiDAR models in boreal forest environments provide satisfactory estimations of LAI, even with narrow ranges of LAI for model calibration. Models derived from low point density LiDAR in a mixedwood boreal environment seem to offer a reliable method of estimating LAI at high spatial resolution for decision makers in the forestry community. This method can be easily incorporated into simultaneous modeling efforts for forest inventory variables using LiDAR.

  19. A Comparison of Simulated and Field-Derived Leaf Area Index (LAI and Canopy Height Values from Four Forest Complexes in the Southeastern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Iiames

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative leaf area is a critical input to models that simulate human and ecosystem exposure to atmospheric pollutants. Leaf area index (LAI can be measured in the field or numerically simulated, but all contain some inherent uncertainty that is passed to the exposure assessments that use them. LAI estimates for minimally managed or natural forest stands can be particularly difficult to develop as a result of interspecies competition, age and spatial distribution. Satellite-based LAI estimates hold promise for retrospective analyses, but we must continue to rely on numerical models for alternative management analysis. Our objective for this study is to calculate and validate LAI estimates generated from the USDA Environmental Policy Impact Climate (EPIC model (a widely used, field-scale, biogeochemical model on four forest complexes spanning three physiographic provinces in Virginia and North Carolina. Measurements of forest composition (species and number, LAI, tree diameter, basal area, and canopy height were recorded at each site during the 2002 field season. Calibrated EPIC results show stand-level temporally resolved LAI estimates with R2 values ranging from 0.69 to 0.96, and stand maximum height estimates within 20% of observation. This relatively high level of performance is attributable to EPIC’s approach to the characterization of forest stand biogeochemical budgets, stand history, interspecies competition and species-specific response to local weather conditions. We close by illustrating the extension of this site-level approach to scales that could support regional air quality model simulations.

  20. Experimental Sentinel-2 LAI estimation using parametric, non-parametric and physical retrieval methods - A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Veroustraete, Frank; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Clevers, Jan G. P. W.; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Moreno, José

    2015-10-01

    Given the forthcoming availability of Sentinel-2 (S2) images, this paper provides a systematic comparison of retrieval accuracy and processing speed of a multitude of parametric, non-parametric and physically-based retrieval methods using simulated S2 data. An experimental field dataset (SPARC), collected at the agricultural site of Barrax (Spain), was used to evaluate different retrieval methods on their ability to estimate leaf area index (LAI). With regard to parametric methods, all possible band combinations for several two-band and three-band index formulations and a linear regression fitting function have been evaluated. From a set of over ten thousand indices evaluated, the best performing one was an optimized three-band combination according to (ρ560 -ρ1610 -ρ2190) / (ρ560 +ρ1610 +ρ2190) with a 10-fold cross-validation RCV2 of 0.82 (RMSECV : 0.62). This family of methods excel for their fast processing speed, e.g., 0.05 s to calibrate and validate the regression function, and 3.8 s to map a simulated S2 image. With regard to non-parametric methods, 11 machine learning regression algorithms (MLRAs) have been evaluated. This methodological family has the advantage of making use of the full optical spectrum as well as flexible, nonlinear fitting. Particularly kernel-based MLRAs lead to excellent results, with variational heteroscedastic (VH) Gaussian Processes regression (GPR) as the best performing method, with a RCV2 of 0.90 (RMSECV : 0.44). Additionally, the model is trained and validated relatively fast (1.70 s) and the processed image (taking 73.88 s) includes associated uncertainty estimates. More challenging is the inversion of a PROSAIL based radiative transfer model (RTM). After the generation of a look-up table (LUT), a multitude of cost functions and regularization options were evaluated. The best performing cost function is Pearson's χ -square. It led to a R2 of 0.74 (RMSE: 0.80) against the validation dataset. While its validation went fast

  1. Remote sensing of LAI, chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen pools of crop- and grasslands in five European landscapes

    KAUST Repository

    Boegh, E.

    2013-10-07

    Leaf nitrogen and leaf surface area influence the exchange of gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and play a significant role in the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen and water. The purpose of this study is to use field-based and satellite remote-sensing-based methods to assess leaf nitrogen pools in five diverse European agricultural landscapes located in Denmark, Scotland (United Kingdom), Poland, the Netherlands and Italy. REGFLEC (REGularized canopy reFLECtance) is an advanced image-based inverse canopy radiative transfer modelling system which has shown proficiency for regional mapping of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf chlorophyll (CHLl) using remote sensing data. In this study, high spatial resolution (10-20 m) remote sensing images acquired from the multispectral sensors aboard the SPOT (Satellite For Observation of Earth) satellites were used to assess the capability of REGFLEC for mapping spatial variations in LAI, CHLland the relation to leaf nitrogen (Nl) data in five diverse European agricultural landscapes. REGFLEC is based on physical laws and includes an automatic model parameterization scheme which makes the tool independent of field data for model calibration. In this study, REGFLEC performance was evaluated using LAI measurements and non-destructive measurements (using a SPAD meter) of leaf-scale CHLl and Nl concentrations in 93 fields representing crop- and grasslands of the five landscapes. Furthermore, empirical relationships between field measurements (LAI, CHLl and Nl and five spectral vegetation indices (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, the Simple Ratio, the Enhanced Vegetation Index-2, the Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and the green chlorophyll index) were used to assess field data coherence and to serve as a comparison basis for assessing REGFLEC model performance. The field measurements showed strong vertical CHLl gradient profiles in 26% of fields which affected REGFLEC performance as well

  2. Physics and medicine: at Erice the new perspectives of an ancient cooperation

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From April the 15th to the 17th, at Ettore Majorana Foundation in Erice, in the context of the International School on Physics and Industry, there will be a congress entitled "Particle accelerators and detectors: from physics to medicine".

  3. An Extended Fourier Approach to Improve the Retrieved Leaf Area Index (LAI in a Time Series from an Alpine Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwen Quan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An extended Fourier approach was presented to improve the retrieved leaf area index (LAIr of herbaceous vegetation in a time series from an alpine wetland. The retrieval was performed from the Aqua MODIS 8-day composite surface reflectance product (MYD09Q1 from day of year (DOY 97 to 297 using a look-up table (LUT based inversion of a two-layer canopy reflectance model (ACRM. To reduce the uncertainty (the ACRM inversion is ill-posed, we used NDVI and NIR images to reduce the influence of the soil background and the priori information to constrain the range of sensitive ACRM parameters determined using the Sobol’s method. Even so the uncertainty caused the LAIr versus time curve to oscillate. To further reduce the uncertainty, a Fourier model was fitted using the periodically LAIr results, obtaining LAIF. We note that the level of precision of the LAIF potentially may increase through removing singular points or decrease if the LAIr data were too noisy. To further improve the precision level of the LAIr, the Fourier model was extended by considering the LAIr uncertainty. The LAIr, the LAI simulated using the Fourier model, and the LAI simulated using the extended Fourier approach (LAIeF were validated through comparisons with the field measured LAI. The R2 values were 0.68, 0.67 and 0.72, the residual sums of squares (RSS were 3.47, 3.42 and 3.15, and the root-mean-square errors (RMSE were 0.31, 0.30 and 0.29, respectively, on DOY 177 (early July 2011. In late August (DOY 233, the R2 values were 0.73, 0.77 and 0.79, the RSS values were 38.96, 29.25 and 27.48, and the RMSE values were 0.94, 0.81 and 0.78, respectively. The results demonstrate that the extended Fourier approach has the potential to increase the level of precision of estimates of the time varying LAI.

  4. The effects of switching from oral to LAI antipsychotic treatment on subjective experience of schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrini, Francesco; Spadafora, Mattia; Talamba, Gabriela Alina; Godini, Lucia; Lelli, Lorenzo; Arcabasso, Susanna; Manetti, Mara; Ballerini, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    To present real-world preliminary evidence on the specific effects of switching from oral to long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic treatment on patient's subjective experience and quality of life (QoL) in a sample of clinically stable psychotic subjects. Twenty-six clinically stable adult schizophrenic and schizoaffective outpatients were recruited. All patients were under a stabilized therapy with a single oral second-generation antipsychotic and were switched to the equivalent maintenance regimen with the long-acting formulation of the same antipsychotic. Two subgroups of patients were created on the basis of the presence/absence of a complete clinical remission at enrollment. Anthropometric (body mass index), psychometric (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale), and patient's reported outcome (Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics scale short form, Drug Attitude Inventory short version, and Short Form-36 health survey) data were collected at enrollment (T0) and after 6 months from the treatment switch (T1). Significant improvements in psychometric indexes, and patients' subjective experience of treatment and attitudes toward drug (reflecting in an enrichment of patients' health-related QoL) were found both in initial remitters and non-remitters. Our preliminary results suggest that the switch from oral to LAI antipsychotic treatment may help to address the subjective core of an optimal and satisfying recovery of psychotic patients. Size and duration of this study need to be expanded in order to produce more solid and generalizable results.

  5. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ryan Rico

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while the fans are also frequently denigrated as unstable and violent outcasts. Such dark online fandoms are yet to permeate mainstream culture or to challenge the preexisting perception of these communities as breeding grounds for the next wave of school shooters. While studies have covered the types of fans and their myriad interests, the field remains focused on more conventional examples of fan communities. In an effort to challenge and expand the object of focus when we study fandom, this qualitative study examines Columbine fans and their activity in order to understand the dominant motives they appear to have for engaging with and around such controversial figures and then concludes by exploring how this community might help us reflect more broadly on our concept of fandom. Redeeming these fans as part of diverse and complex communities of social relevance can demonstrate how even a dark fandom such as that of these Columbine shooters provides valuable cultural insights and benefits the field of fan studies.

  6. Eric Hermelin and mystical hermeneutics: interpretation beyond itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hamrin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Eric Hermelin (1860-1944 translated more than 10.000 pages Persian Sufi poetry, German texts by Jakob Böhme and Latin texts by Emmanuel Swedenborg. In the translation process Hermelin shaped his strategies and perceptions in ways which served their patterns of desire, and what they constructed reflected and served their own unique identity. Added up, the devices which constitute strategies of reading set in motion by the selfs defense of its identity are: Defenses, Expectations, Fantasies, and Transformations. Hermelin's mystical hermeneutics produced not only understanding of texts, but often no less produced an increased awareness, with appropriate hermeneutical sensitivity, of self-perception and self-identity. A self-awareness and a strengthening of an individual and corporate identity as one who has a stake in the texts and that to which they bear witness constitutes an important reader-effect in this case of Sufi poetry. But without any principle of suspicion, in Gadamer's terminology a premature fusion of horizons will take place before Hermelin has listened in openness with respect for the tension between the horizons of the text and the horizon of Hermelin. The textual horizon has col-lapsed into that of Hermelin's narrative biography, and is unable to do more than to speak back his own valnes and desires. Something socio-pragmatical was after all woven into the controversial bon vivant, when he used literary works to replicate himself. At the same time, the texts spoke from beyond the self.

  7. A dense camera network for cropland (CropInsight) - developing high spatiotemporal resolution crop Leaf Area Index (LAI) maps through network images and novel satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, H.; Guan, K.; Luo, Y.; Peng, J.; Mascaro, J.; Peng, B.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring crop growth conditions is of primary interest to crop yield forecasting, food production assessment, and risk management of individual farmers and agribusiness. Despite its importance, there are limited access to field level crop growth/condition information in the public domain. This scarcity of ground truth data also hampers the use of satellite remote sensing for crop monitoring due to the lack of validation. Here, we introduce a new camera network (CropInsight) to monitor crop phenology, growth, and conditions that are designed for the US Corn Belt landscape. Specifically, this network currently includes 40 sites (20 corn and 20 soybean fields) across southern half of the Champaign County, IL ( 800 km2). Its wide distribution and automatic operation enable the network to capture spatiotemporal variations of crop growth condition continuously at the regional scale. At each site, low-maintenance, and high-resolution RGB digital cameras are set up having a downward view from 4.5 m height to take continuous images. In this study, we will use these images and novel satellite data to construct daily LAI map of the Champaign County at 30 m spatial resolution. First, we will estimate LAI from the camera images and evaluate it using the LAI data collected from LAI-2200 (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE). Second, we will develop relationships between the camera-based LAI estimation and vegetation indices derived from a newly developed MODIS-Landsat fusion product (daily, 30 m resolution, RGB + NIR + SWIR bands) and the Planet Lab's high-resolution satellite data (daily, 5 meter, RGB). Finally, we will scale up the above relationships to generate high spatiotemporal resolution crop LAI map for the whole Champaign County. The proposed work has potentials to expand to other agro-ecosystems and to the broader US Corn Belt.

  8. Laisvė nelaisvės metu Leonardo Gutausko romanuose "Laiškai iš Viešvilės" ir "Plunksnos"

    OpenAIRE

    Bernotienė, Gintarė

    2011-01-01

    In the novels "Laiškai iš Viešvilės" ("Letters from Viešvilė") and "Plunksnos" ("The feathers") Leonardas Gutauskas considers themes of freedom and artistic creation, which in certain political situation are closely related to the problem of individual freedom and restriction of liberty in the annexed country as well. According to the metaphor of the novel "Laiškai iš Viešvilės", in the time of oppression characters live their lives as bounded by wire mesh, and despite of that freedom in this...

  9. Akadēmiskā prokrastinācija, emocionālais intelekts un kontroles lokuss studentiem.

    OpenAIRE

    Grandāne, Madara

    2016-01-01

    Šī maģistra darba mērķis bija noskaidrot, cik lielā mērā emocionālais inteleks un kontroles lokuss paredz prokrastināciju un noteikt saistības starp prokrastināciju, emocionālo intelektu un kontroles lokusu. Pētījumā piedalījās 109 studējoši respondenti vecumā no 19 līdz 42 gadiem (M = 25,5; SD = 5,43). Pētījumā tika pielietotas trīs aptaujas: Akadēmiskās prokrastinācijas aptauja (Academic Procrastination Scale, Lay,1986), Emocionālā intelekta aptauja (The Self-Report Emotional Intelligence ...

  10. Effects of field high temperature on grain yield and quality of a subtropical type japonica rice—Pon-Lai rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chien Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical japonica type rice is sensitive to high temperature. Pon-Lai rice is a special japonica type with adaptation to the subtropical climate in Taiwan. Facing climate change, rising temperatures would damage the yield and quality of rice production. This research was conducted using Pon-Lai rice in the field of a subtropical climate. We conducted 2 experiments, including a year-round experiment and collection of samples from different districts for building different temperature conditions. We analyzed the correlation between rising temperature and rice yield or quality. In our results, the critical period of temperature effect is 0–15 days after heading (H15. The threshold of high temperature damage in yield and appearance quality was 25–27 °C. Grain weight decreased about 2–6%, while the temperature of H15 was raised 1 °C above the thresholds. Perfect grain ratio and chalky grain ratio decreased and increased, respectively, while the temperature of H15 was raised above the thresholds. However, the high temperature in H15 affected the physicochemical characteristics. In addition, we found positive correlation between grain length to width ratio and perfect grain ratio. Grain length to width ratio could be an index of temperature effects for grain quality. In our study, when the temperature was below 30 °C, a rising temperature of H15 could damage rice yield and appearance quality, and change grain shape. Our results could provide reference for dealing with the warming future in other temperate rice-cultivated countries.

  11. The new pLAI (lux regulon based auto-inducible expression system for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocadello Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After many years of intensive research, it is generally assumed that no universal expression system can exist for high-level production of a given recombinant protein. Among the different expression systems, the inducible systems are the most popular for their tight regulation. However, induction is in many cases less favorable due to the high cost and/or toxicity of inducers, incompatibilities with industrial scale-up or detrimental growth conditions. Expression systems using autoinduction (or self-induction prove to be extremely versatile allowing growth and induction of recombinant proteins without the need to monitor cell density or add inducer. Unfortunately, almost all the actual auto inducible expression systems need endogenous or induced metabolic changes during the growth to trigger induction, both frequently linked to detrimental condition to cell growth. In this context, we use a simple modular approach for a cell density-based genetic regulation in order to assemble an autoinducible recombinant protein expression system in E. coli. Result The newly designed pLAI expression system places the expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli under control of the regulatory genes of the lux regulon of Vibrio fischeri's Quorum Sensing (QS system. The pLAI system allows a tight regulation of the recombinant gene allowing a negligible basal expression and expression only at high cell density. Sequence optimization of regulative genes of QS of V. fischeri for expression in E. coli upgraded the system to high level expression. Moreover, partition of regulative genes between the plasmid and the host genome and introduction of a molecular safety lock permitted tighter control of gene expression. Conclusion Coupling gene expression to cell density using cell-to-cell communication provides a promising approach for recombinant protein production. The system allows the control of expression of the target recombinant gene

  12. Meeting Ontario's Need for Educational Information: An Evaluation of the SDC/ERIC On-Line Bibliographic Search Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, Ethel; Lawton, Stephen B.

    Using an opportunity to test the latest developments of computerized retrieval of Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) data, various aspects of the ERIC system that had previously gone unexamined were explored. The test of the system, which involved the use of an on-line computer terminal, is documented. Investigators were concerned…

  13. A Comparison of Simulated and Field-Derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Canopy Height Values from Four Forest Complexes in the Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative leaf area is a critical input to models that simulate human and ecosystem exposure to atmospheric pollutants. Leaf area index (LAI) can be measured in the field or numerically simulated, but all contain some inherent uncertainty that is passed to the exposure assessmen...

  14. Saladusi mäletavad pildid : järelvaade Eric Soovere fotograafilisele dokumentalistikale / Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnap, Peeter, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    Ameerikas elanud eesti fotograafi Eric Soovere (sünd. Erich Soeson, 1916-2008) eluloolisi andmeid. Tema loomingust, mis jaguneb kolme perioodi: etnograafiline fotokooslus Lõuna-Eesti külaelanikest (1930ndate lõpp), Sooverede perekonna põgenemisteekond Eestist USA-sse (ca 1944-1949), perekonna elu Cincinnatis USA-s (1950ndad). Fotod eestlaste põgenemisteekonnast on avaldatud raamatus Eric Soovere. Käru ja kaameraga : pilte ja päevikulehti põgenemisteelt 1944-1949. Tallinn : Olion, 1999

  15. Investigating the Utility of Wavelet Transforms for Inverting a 3-D Radiative Transfer Model Using Hyperspectral Data to Retrieve Forest LAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean P. Gastellu-Etchegorry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for an efficient and standard technique for optimal spectral sampling of hyperspectral data during the inversion of canopy reflectance models has been the subject of many studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT for extracting useful features from hyperspectral data with which forest LAI can be estimated through inversion of a three dimensional radiative transfer model, the Discrete Anisotropy Radiative Transfer (DART model. DART, coupled with the leaf optical properties model PROSPECT, was inverted with AVIRIS data using a look-up-table (LUT-based inversion approach. We used AVIRIS data and in situ LAI measurements from two different hardwood forested sites in Wisconsin, USA. Prior to inversion, model-simulated and AVIRIS hyperspectral data were transformed into discrete wavelet coefficients using Haar wavelets. The LUT inversion was performed with three different datasets, the original reflectance bands, the full set of wavelet extracted features, and two wavelet subsets containing 99.99% and 99.0% of the cumulative energy of the original signal. The energy subset containing 99.99% of the cumulative signal energy provided better estimates of LAI (RMSE = 0.46, R2 = 0.77 than the original spectral bands (RMSE = 0.60, R2 = 0.47. The results indicate that the discrete wavelet transform can increase the accuracy of LAI estimates by improving the LUT-based inversion of DART (and, potentially, by implication, other terrestrial radiative transfer models using hyperspectral data. The improvement in accuracy of LAI estimates is potentially due to different properties of wavelet analysis such as multi-scale representation, dimensionality reduction, and noise removal.

  16. The perception of volcanic risk in Kona communities from Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Swanson, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Volcanic hazards in Kona (i.e. the western side of the island of Hawai'i) stem primarily from Mauna Loa and Huala??lai volcanoes. The former has erupted 39 times since 1832. Lava flows were emplaced in Kona during seven of these eruptions and last impacted Kona in 1950. Huala??lai last erupted in ca. 1800. Society's proximity to potential eruptive sources and the potential for relatively fast-moving lava flows, coupled with relatively long time intervals since the last eruptions in Kona, are the underlying stimuli for this study of risk perception. Target populations were high-school students and adults ( n =462). Using these data, we discuss threat knowledge as an influence on risk perception, and perception as a driving mechanism for preparedness. Threat knowledge and perception of risk were found to be low to moderate. On average, fewer than two-thirds of the residents were aware of the most recent eruptions that impacted Kona, and a minority felt that Mauna Loa and Huala??lai could ever erupt again. Furthermore, only about one-third were aware that lava flows could reach the coast in Kona in less than 3 h. Lava flows and ash fall were perceived to be among the least likely hazards to affect the respondent's community within the next 10 years, whereas vog (volcanic smog) was ranked the most likely. Less than 18% identified volcanic hazards as amongst the most likely hazards to affect them at home, school, or work. Not surprisingly, individual preparedness measures were found on average to be limited to simple tasks of value in frequently occurring domestic emergencies, whereas measures specific to infrequent hazard events such as volcanic eruptions were seldom adopted. Furthermore, our data show that respondents exhibit an 'unrealistic optimism bias' and infer that responsibility for community preparedness for future eruptions primarily rests with officials. We infer that these respondents may be less likely to attend to hazard information, react to warnings as

  17. Freedom of Speech: A Clear and Present Need to Teach. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Don M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents annotations of 21 documents in the ERIC system on the following subjects: (1) theory of freedom of speech; (2) theorists; (3) research on freedom of speech; (4) broadcasting and freedom of speech; and (5) international questions of freedom of speech. (PD)

  18. The World War II Homefront: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)

  19. Safety Hazards in Science Classrooms. ERIC/SMEAC Science Education Digest No. 1, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Patricia E.

    Safety hazards that are frequently found in science classrooms are addressed in this digest which updates and supplements the 1980 ERIC/SMEAC information bulletin "Safety in the Science Classroom." Information obtained from journal articles and safety guides is presented in the categories of: (1) risks involved in science activities; (2)…

  20. Guia Para Ver La Television En Familia (Guidelines for Family Television Viewing). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

  1. Use of the Spanish Language in the United States: Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiestevan, Stina

    This ERIC digest examines the Spanish-speaking group in the United States, its growth through net immigration and natural increase, and its eventual decline as speakers shift to English. The Hispanic population is growing rapidly, but data suggest that U.S. Hispanics do learn and speak English. Research predicts that by the year 2001 the…

  2. Automating the School Library Media Center. A Select ERIC Bibliography. Mini-Bib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Nancy R., Comp.

    This 13-item annotated bibliography was compiled through a search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database using the following descriptors: Library Automation, Bibliographic Databases, Bibliographic Utilities, Online Catalogs, Machine Readable Cataloging, and Integrated Library Systems. Among the issues addressed are the…

  3. Teaching about World War II: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents nine documents from the ERIC database dealing with teaching about World War II. Includes articles addressing the lessons of Pearl Harbor, the Holocaust, the wartime internment of Japanese Americans, industry's response to the war, and the moral lessons of Nazism. (SG)

  4. Small-Group Cooperative Learning. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management Number 76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    Annotations from 12 entries in the ERIC database were selected as significant and useful sources of information about small-group cooperative learning. Five of the citations are literature reviews. Among these is a meta-analysis, drawn from 217 studies, about the effects of cooperative learning on student achievement and interpersonal attraction;…

  5. Cooperative Learning in Social Studies Education: What Does the Research Say? ERIC Digest No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education, Boulder, CO.

    This ERIC Digest describes research findings, mainly in elementary social studies classrooms, on the effects of cooperative learning on multicultural awareness and cross-ethnic friendships, interpersonal relationships, and prosocial behavior. Research findings on cooperative techniques in the classroom are summarized as follows: compared with…

  6. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 2: Resources for Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haury, David L.

    This ERIC Digest identifies how the human genome project fits into the "National Science Education Standards" and lists Human Genome Project Web sites found on the World Wide Web. It is a resource companion to "Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators" (Haury 2001). The Web resources and…

  7. A Generic Algorithm to Estimate LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER Variables from SPOT4_HRVIR and Landsat Sensors: Evaluation of the Consistency and Comparison with Ground Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR are essential climatic variables in surface process models. FCOVER is also important to separate vegetation and soil for energy balance processes. Currently, several LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER satellite products are derived moderate to coarse spatial resolution. The launch of Sentinel-2 in 2015 will provide data at decametric resolution with a high revisit frequency to allow quantifying the canopy functioning at the local to regional scales. The aim of this study is thus to evaluate the performances of a neural network based algorithm to derive LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products at decametric spatial resolution and high temporal sampling. The algorithm is generic, i.e., it is applied without any knowledge of the landcover. A time series of high spatial resolution SPOT4_HRVIR (16 scenes and Landsat 8 (18 scenes images acquired in 2013 over the France southwestern site were used to generate the LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products. For each sensor and each biophysical variable, a neural network was first trained over PROSPECT+SAIL radiative transfer model simulations of top of canopy reflectance data for green, red, near-infra red and short wave infra-red bands. Our results show a good spatial and temporal consistency between the variables derived from both sensors: almost half the pixels show an absolute difference between SPOT and LANDSAT estimates of lower that 0.5 unit for LAI, and 0.05 unit for FAPAR and FCOVER. Finally, downward-looking digital hemispherical cameras were completed over the main land cover types to validate the accuracy of the products. Results show that the derived products are strongly correlated with the field measurements (R2 > 0.79, corresponding to a RMSE = 0.49 for LAI, RMSE = 0.10 (RMSE = 0.12 for black-sky (white sky FAPAR and RMSE = 0.15 for FCOVER. It is concluded that the proposed generic algorithm provides a good

  8. Regional Equivalent Water Thickness Modeling from Remote Sensing across a Tree Cover/LAI Gradient in Mediterranean Forests of Northern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedia Chakroun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of vegetation indexes derived from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS sensors is explored for drought monitoring in the forests of Northern Tunisia; representing a transition zone between the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. We investigated the suitability of biomass and moisture vegetation indexes for vegetation water content expressed by the equivalent water thickness (EWT in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem with contrasted water budgets and desiccation rates. We proposed a revised EWT at canopy level (EWTCAN based on weekly field measurements of fuel moisture in seven species during the 2010 dry period; considering the mixture of plant functional types for water use (trees; shrubs and herbaceous layers and a varying vegetation cover. MODIS vegetation indexes computed and smoothed over the dry season were highly correlated with the EWTCAN. The performances of moisture indexes (Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII6 and NDII7; and Global Moisture Vegetation Index (GVMI6 and GVMI7 were comparable; whereas; for biomass vegetation indexes; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI and Adjusted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ANDVI performed better than Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI. We also identified the effect of Leaf Area Index (LAI on EWTCAN monitoring at the regional scale under the tree cover/LAI gradient of the region from relatively dense to open forest. Statistical analysis revealed a significant decreasing linear relationship; indicating that for LAI less than two; the greater the LAI; the less responsive are the vegetation indexes to changes in EWTCAN; whereas for higher LAI; its influence becomes less significant and was not considered in the inversion models based on vegetation indexes. The EWTCAN time-course from LAI-adapted inversion models; based on significantly-related vegetation

  9. Evaluation of the ERIC-PCR as a probable method to differentiate Avibacterium paragallinarum serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Julius Eduard; Hitzeroth, Arina Corli; Bragg, Robert Richard; Boucher, Charlotte Enastacia

    2017-06-01

    Infectious coryza, an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens, caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum, leads to huge economic losses. The disease is controlled through vaccination; but vaccination efficacy is dependent on correct identification of the infecting serovar, as limited cross-protection is reported amongst some serovars. Current identification methods include the heamagglutination inhibition test, which is demanding and could be subjective. To overcome this, molecular typing methods proposed are the Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-PCR, but low reproducibility is reported. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR has been suggested for molecular groupings of various bacterial species. This study focuses on evaluating the ERIC-PCR as a probable method to differentiate between different Av. paragallinarum serovars by grouping with reference isolates, based on clonal relations. The ERIC-PCR was performed on 12 reference isolates and 41 field isolates originating from South Africa and South America. The data indicate that the ERIC-PCR is not ideal for the differentiation or for molecular typing of Av. paragallinarum serovars, as no correlation is drawn upon comparison of banding patterns of field isolates and reference strains. However, the results do indicate isolates from the same origin sharing unique banding patterns, indicating potential clonal relationship; but when compared to the reference isolates dominant in the specific area, no correlation could be drawn. Furthermore, although the ERIC-PCR serves a purpose in epidemiological studies, it has proved to have little application in differentiating amongst serovars of Av. paragallinarum and to group untyped field strains with known reference strains.

  10. Biogeochemical characteristics of Kuan-Tzu-Ling, Chung-Lun and Bao-Lai hot springs in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Nath, Bibhash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Jiann-Hong; Atla, Shashi B; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2011-01-01

    Hot springs are the important natural sources of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust. Kuan-Tzu-Ling (KTL), Chung-Lun (CL) and Bao-Lai (BL) are well-known hot springs in southern Taiwan. Fluid and mud (sediments) samples were collected from the eruption points of three hot springs for detailed biogeochemical characterization. The fluid sample displays relatively high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO(2) (-), and SO(4) (2-), suggesting a possible marine origin. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, V and Zn were significantly higher in the mud sediments compared with fluids, whereas high concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Se, Sr and Rb were observed in the fluids. This suggests that electronegative elements were released during sediment-water interactions. High As concentration in the fluids was observed to be associated with low redox (Eh) conditions. The FTIR spectra of the humic acid fractions of the sediments showed the presence of possible functional groups of secondary amines, ureas, urethanesm (amide), and silicon. The sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacterium 99% similar to Desulfovibrio psychrotolerans (GU329907) were rich in the CL hot spring while mesophilic, proteolytic, thiosulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacterium that 99% similar to Clostridium sulfidigenes (GU329908) were rich in the BL hot spring.

  11. A new species of the Cyrtodactylus irregularis complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Gia Lai Province, Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Dung, Tran VAN; Nguyen, Truong Quang; LE, Minh Duc; Ziegler, Thomas

    2017-12-05

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus from Gia Lai Province, Central Highlands of Vietnam based on morphological and molecular differences. Cyrtodactylus gialaiensis sp. nov. is differentiated from other congeners by a unique combination of the following characters: Size small, maximum known SVL reaching 62.8 mm; dorsal pattern consisting of six or seven dark transverse bands between limb insertions; intersupranasals two or three; dorsal tubercles at midbody in 16-21 irregular rows, strongly developed on flanks; lateral folds poorly defined with interspersed tubercles; ventral scales between ventrolateral folds 38-45; precloacal pores nine or 10 in males, eight pitted scales in the adult female, in a continuous row; femoral pores absent; enlarged femoral scales present; postcloacal tubercles two or three; dorsal tubercles present to half of tail; subcaudal scales not enlarged. In molecular analyses, the new species is weakly supported as a member of the Cyrtodactylus irregularis species group with a minimum pairwise genetic distance of 13.7% from others within the group.

  12. Characteristics of Dutch and Swiss primary care COPD patients - baseline data of the ICE COLD ERIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebeling, Lara; Puhan, Milo A.; Muggensturm, Patrick; Zoller, Marco; ter Riet, Gerben

    2011-01-01

    INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIVE EFFORT ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts (ICE COLD ERIC) is a prospective cohort study with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from Switzerland and The Netherlands designed to develop and validate practical COPD risk

  13. Friginal, Eric & Hardy, Jack A. (2014. Corpus-based sociolinguistics: A guide for students. New York and London: Routledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfranca Forchini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the content of Corpus-Based Sociolinguistics: A Guide for Students by Eric Friginal and Jack A. Hardy, which maps out a clear and systematic path for corpus applications in sociolinguistics.

  14. The Performances of MODIS-GPP and -ET Products in China and Their Sensitivity to Input Data (FPAR/LAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjia Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims are to validate and assess the performances of MODIS gross primary production (MODIS-GPP and evapotranspiration (MODIS-ET products in China’s different land cover types and their sensitivity to remote sensing input data. In this study, MODIS-GPP and -ET are evaluated using flux derived/measured data from eight sites of ChinaFLUX. Results show that MODIS-GPP generally underestimates GPP (R2 is 0.58, bias is −6.7 gC/m2/8-day and RMSE is 19.4 gC/m2/8-day at all sites and MODIS-ET overestimates ET (R2 is 0.36, bias is 6 mm/8-day and RMSE is 11 mm/8-day when comparing with derived GPP and measured ET, respectively. For evergreen forests, MODIS-GPP gives a poor performance with R2 varying from 0.03 to 0.44; in contrast, MODIS-ET provides more reliable results. In croplands, MODIS-GPP can explain 80% of GPP variance, but it overestimates flux derived GPP in non-growing season and underestimates flux derived GPP in growing season; similar overestimations also presented in MODIS-ET. For grasslands and mixed forests, MODIS-GPP and -ET perform good estimating accuracy. By designing four experimental groups and taking GPP simulation as an example, we suggest that the maximum light use efficiency of croplands should be optimized, and the differences of meteorological data have little impact on GPP estimation, whereas remote sensing leaf area index/fraction of photo-synthetically active radiation (LAI/FPAR can greatly affect GPP/ET estimations for all land cover types. Thus, accurate remote sensing parameters are important for achieving reliable estimations.

  15. On measurements of Effective Residual Ink Concentration (ERIC) of deinked papers using Kubelka-Munk theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Vahey; J.Y. Zhu; C.J. Houtman

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of effective residual ink concentration (ERIC) in recycled papers depends on their opacity. For opacity less than 97.0%, the method is based on application of the Kubelka-Munk theory to diffuse reflection from papers measured once with a black backing and again with a thick backing of the same papers. At opacities above 97.0%, the two reflection values...

  16. Eric Kandel'sReductionism in Art and Brain Science - Bridging the Two Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsky, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Reductive art is a term to describe an artistic style or an aesthetic, rather than an art movement. It is stripping down as a new way of seeing. Movements and other terms that are sometimes associated with reductive art include abstract art, minimalism, ABC art, anti-illusionism, cool art, and rejective art. Eric Kandel's fifth book focuses on reductionism as the principle guiding an ongoing dialogue between the worlds of science and art .

  17. Escaping institutionality: rebellion and gendered space in Eric, or Little by Little and A Little Princess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Soyoun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By the convention of nineteenth-century school narratives, students are supposed to grow up in the school while their characters are being molded by the standardized educational system. Eric, or Little by Little and A Little Princess both resist the very idea of linear growth that is a trope of the Bildungsroman through endowing their protagonists with the rebelliousness and outsider status of the unruly child. This essay examines how Eric Williams and Sara Crewe, disobedient students who leave their schools after deriving no benefit from the institutional education, illuminate the ways in which institutionality is incorporated with the gendered agendas of nineteenth-century England. Eric and Sara both challenge the authority of the central adult in each tale by exploiting and changing the interior space of the schools; not only the inner structures of each school but also the connection/disconnection between school and home differ in the two stories. My proposition is that in the nineteenth-century school narratives discipline and character-building in the institution are not viewed as inevitable in reaching adulthood for girls, while for boys there is neither exit from the institutionality nor way to recover their lost home and childhood.

  18. [Comparison of Bacteria ERIC-PCR Fingerprints of Index Fingers and Contactants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y T; Sun, D M; Shi, S P; Yang, X

    2018-02-01

    To explore the bacteria relevance between index fingers and contactant' surfaces (mobile phone touch screen and desktop of personal office table). Bacteria were collected from the index fingers, mobile phone touch screen and desktop of personal office table of 10 volunteers. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprint was established by PCR amplification technique of metagenome. There were 7 volunteers' ERIC-PCR fingerprints of index fingers matched that took from the mobile phone touch screens, and different from each other. There were 3 volunteers' ERIC-PCR fingerprints of index fingers matched that took from desk top of personal office table, and other 7 volunteers' ERIC-PCR fingerprints did not match perfectly with that took from desk top of personal office table, but had at least one similar band for both. The bacteria on index finger shows individual specificity, which on mobile phone touching screen and personal desktop may be a new biological sample of forensic identification. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  19. Niveles de LAI/fPAR en superficies afectadas por incendios forestales en Aragón. Análisis mediante el producto MCD15A2 DE MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Ruano, Adrián

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Leaf area index (LAI and the Fractional Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR are variables related to the structure of the plant canopy that can provide new keys for the understanding of post-fire vegetation processes. In this context, the objective of this work is to characterize different burned areas in Aragon using the MDC15A2 (LAI/fPAR product from MODIS. There are two different types of analysis: (1 static analysis of LAI/ fPAR values from the compound of 2010; (2 multi-year follow-up in 6 large fires occurred in the 2000s, representa difetive of different environmental conditions. The methodological process is based on the selection of 18 forest fires (> 500 ha, occurred between 1975-2010 with digital cartography available; and the download of the product MCD13A2 MODIS (seasonal compounds of 8 days, first week of May and September. A temporal pattern of recovery in the values of LAI has been identified. Fires occurred more than 35 years ago have average LAI values > 1 (1.13/1.40, in September and May respectively, and low values of fPAR (~ 0.5. Meanwhile, a year after the fire LAI/fPAR average values do not exceed 0.20/0.40, respectively. On the other hand, a few months after the fire average LAI values El índice de área foliar (LAI y la fracción de radiación activa fotosintética absorbida por la vegetación (fPAR son variables relacionadas con la estructura del dosel vegetal que pueden aportar nuevas claves en la comprensión del proceso de regeneración vegetal en zonas quemadas. En este contexto, el objetivo del trabajo es caracterizar diferentes superficies quemadas en Aragón en función del producto MDC15A2 (LAI/fPAR de MODIS. Se realizan dos tipos diferentes de análisis: (1 análisis estático de los valores de LAI/fPAR a partir del compuesto de 2010; (2 seguimiento multianual en 6 grandes incendios ocurridos en la década de los 2000, representativos de condiciones ambientales diferentes. El proceso metodológico se

  20. Investigating the Relationship between X-Band SAR Data from COSMO-SkyMed Satellite and NDVI for LAI Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Maltese

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring spatial and temporal variability of vegetation is important to manage land and water resources, with significant impact on the sustainability of modern agriculture. Cloud cover noticeably reduces the temporal resolution of retrievals based on optical data. COSMO-SkyMed (the new Italian Synthetic Aperture RADAR-SAR opened new opportunities to develop agro-hydrological applications. Indeed, it represents a valuable source of data for operational use, due to the high spatial and temporal resolutions. Although X-band is not the most suitable to model agricultural and hydrological processes, an assessment of vegetation development can be achieved combing optical vegetation indices (VIs and SAR backscattering data. In this paper, a correlation analysis has been performed between the crossed horizontal-vertical (HV backscattering (s°HV and optical VIs (VIopt on several plots. The correlation analysis was based on incidence angle, spatial resolution and polarization mode. Results have shown that temporal changes of s°HV (Δs°HV acquired with high angles (off nadir angle; θ > 40° best correlates with variations of VIopt (ΔVI. The correlation between ΔVI and Δs°HV has been shown to be temporally robust. Based on this experimental evidence, a model to infer a VI from s° (VISAR at the time, ti + 1, once known, the VIopt at a reference time, ti, and Δs°HV between times, ti + 1 and ti, was implemented and verified. This approach has led to the development and validation of an algorithm for coupling a VIopt derived from DEIMOS-1 images and s°HV. The study was carried out over the Sele plain (Campania, Italy, which is mainly characterized by herbaceous crops. In situ measurements included leaf area index (LAI, which were collected weekly between August and September 2011 in 25 sites, simultaneously to COSMO-SkyMed (CSK and DEIMOS-1 imaging. Results confirm that VISAR obtained using the combined model is able to increase the feasibility

  1. Setting the stage for the EPOS ERIC: Integration of the legal, governance and financial framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Bozzoli, Sabrina; Freda, Carmela; Giardini, Domenico; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kohler, Elisabeth; Kontkanen, Pirjo; Lauterjung, Jörn; Pedersen, Helle; Saleh, Kauzar; Sangianantoni, Agata

    2017-04-01

    EPOS - the European Plate Observing System - is the ESFRI infrastructure serving the need of the solid Earth science community at large. The EPOS mission is to create a single sustainable, and distributed infrastructure that integrates the diverse European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science under a common framework. Thematic Core Services (TCS) and Integrated Core Services (Central Hub, ICS-C and Distributed, ICS-D) are key elements, together with NRIs (National Research Infrastructures), in the EPOS architecture. Following the preparatory phase, EPOS has initiated formal steps to adopt an ERIC legal framework (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). The statutory seat of EPOS will be in Rome, Italy, while the ICS-C will be jointly operated by France, UK and Denmark. The TCS planned so far cover: seismology, near-fault observatories, GNSS data and products, volcano observations, satellite data, geomagnetic observations, anthropogenic hazards, geological information modelling, multiscale laboratories and geo-energy test beds for low carbon energy. In the ERIC process, EPOS and all its services must achieve sustainability from a legal, governance, financial, and technical point of view, as well as full harmonization with national infrastructure roadmaps. As EPOS is a distributed infrastructure, the TCSs have to be linked to the future EPOS ERIC from legal and governance perspectives. For this purpose the TCSs have started to organize themselves as consortia and negotiate agreements to define the roles of the different actors in the consortium as well as their commitment to contribute to the EPOS activities. The link to the EPOS ERIC shall be made by service agreements of dedicated Service Providers. A common EPOS data policy has also been developed, based on the general principles of Open Access and paying careful attention to licensing issues, quality control, and intellectual property rights, which shall apply to the data, data products

  2. Model of Management (Mo.Ma) for the patient with schizophrenia: crisis control, maintenance, relapse prevention, and recovery with long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disease that affects approximately 1% of the population with a relevant chronic impact on social and occupational functioning and daily activities. People with schizophrenia are 2-2.5 times more likely to die early than the general population. Non-adherence to antipsychotic medications, both in chronic and first episode schizophrenia, is one of the most important risk factors for relapse and hospitalization, that consequently contributes to increased costs due to psychiatric hospitalization. Atypical long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics can improve treatment adherence and decrease re-hospitalization rates in patients with schizophrenia since its onset. The primary goals in the management of schizophrenia are directed not only at symptom reduction in the short and long term, but also at maintaining physical and mental functioning, improving quality of life, and promoting patient recovery. To propose a scientific evidence-based integrated model that provides an algorithm for recovery of patients with schizophrenia and to investigate the effectiveness and safety of antipsychotics LAI in the treatment, maintenance, relapse prevention, and recovery of schizophrenia. After an accurate literature review we identified, collected and analyzed the crucial points in taking care schizophrenia patients, through which we defined the steps described in the model of management and the choice of the better treatment option. Results. In the management model we propose, the choice of a second generation long acting antipsychotic, could allow from the earliest stages of illness better patient management, especially for young individuals with schizophrenia onset, a better recovery and significant reductions of relapse and health care costs. LAI formulations of antipsychotics are valuable, because they help patients to remain adherent to their medication through regular contact with healthcare professionals and to prevent covert non-adherence. The

  3. Covert radar and signals interception the secret career of Eric Ackermann

    CERN Document Server

    Hayson, David

    2014-01-01

    Of German stock dating back to 1530 in Saxony, Eric George Ackermann GM was born on the Isle of Wight in 1919 and became a leading figure in the world of signals and electronic intelligence. As a Junior Scientific Officer at the Telecommunication Research Establishment, Boscombe Down, with an honorary commission in the Royal Air Force, he made numerous flights over occupied territory searching for, monitoring and destroying Germany's Wuerzburg, Knickebein and X Band radar systems. Much of his research was passed to the highest levels of wartime government, and was highly prized, ensuring that

  4. Isotopic separation through ion cyclotron-resonance: results from the ERIC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compant la Fontaine, A.; Louvet, P.

    1994-01-01

    Stable isotope separation by the means of ion cyclotron-resonance is studied at CEA since 1981. Results from the ERIC experiments are of two types: parameter measurements which help characterizing the plasma and optimizing the process, and isotopic separation results. For example, the selective feature of isotope heating was verified in the cases of zinc and calcium using an electrostatic analyzer. The separation factors of various elements (calcium, zinc, barium, chromium...) are depending on the mass relative difference of the isotopes to be separated, difference which must be large compared to the magnetic field inhomogeneities and the Doppler broadening. 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  5. Genetic diversity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Brazil analyzed using an ERIC-PCR marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, G F; Paixão, R D V; Queiroz, C B; Santana, M F; Souza, A; Sousa, N R; Hanada, R E; Gasparotto, L

    2014-09-26

    The Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) marker was used to analyze the genetic variability of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease in banana plants. A total of 123 isolates were used, which were divided into populations based on their original hosts and collection sites in Brazil. A total of 9 loci were amplified, 77.8% of which were found to be polymorphic. The genetic diversity found in the population was 0.20. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated that the highest level of genetic variation is within populations. Cluster analysis revealed three main groups in Brazil, with no correlation between geographic and genetic distance.

  6. Balancing Biography and Institutional History: Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Cushing

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available When a young naturalist opened his new wildlife park at Wyoming on the NSW Central Coast in the late 1950s, he gave it his own name: Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park. Through the park, Worrell made a significant contribution to environmental education, the development of knowledge of captive animal care and display and the provision of antivenoms for the bites of a range of dangerous creatures. More than this, it was the geographic and emotional centre of Worrell’s world: the fulfilment of a childhood dream, a home for his family and a site for forming new personal and professional relationships. In preparation for the jubilee of the park, its history is being written by two academics from the University of Newcastle. An attractive means of creating the necessary narrative structure and human interest to ensure the wide appeal of this history is to follow Worrell’s lead and place his life at the centre of this institutional history. This is the direction suggested by the written sources on the park and it is accentuated by many of our oral informants who organise their memories of the park around Worrell. To what extent can an institutional history be a biography of the person at the heart of that institution? Is it possible to disentangle the life from the institution? This article offers some preliminary answers to these questions through a case study of the writing of a history of Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park.

  7. Introduction: Eric Davidson and the molecular biology of evolution and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel; Deichmann, Ute

    2017-10-13

    Between November 30th and December 2nd, 2015, the Jacques Loeb Centre for the History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Beer Sheva (Israel) held its Eighth International Workshop under the title "From Genome to Gene: Causality, Synthesis and Evolution". Eric Davidson, the founder of the concept of developmental Gene Regulatory Networks, had regularly attended the previous meetings, and his participation in this one was expected, but he suddenly passed away 3 months before. In this paper, we provide an introduction and overview on five papers that were presented at the workshop and examine the importance of genomes and gene regulatory networks in extant biology, developmental biology, evolutionary biology and medicine, as well as a collection of remembrances of Eric Davidson, of his personality as well as of his scientific contributions. Historical perspectives are provided, and the ethical issues raised by the new tools developed to modify the genome are also discussed.

  8. Molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains by the ERIC-PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardakani, Maryam Afkhami; Ranjbar, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common cause of urinary infections in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ERIC-PCR method for molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated from hospitalized patients. In a cross sectional study, 98 E. coli samples were collected from urine samples taken from patients admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital from June 2014 to January 2015. The disk agar diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic sensitivity. DNA proliferation based on repetitive intergenic consensus was used to classify the E. coli strains. The products of proliferation were electrophoresed on 1.5% agarose gel, and their dendrograms were drawn. The data were analyzed by online Insillico software. The method used in this research proliferated numerous bands (4-17 bands), ranging from 100 to 3000 base pairs. The detected strains were classified into six clusters (E1-E6) with 70% similarity between them. In this study, uropathogenic E. coli strains belonged to different genotypic clusters. It was found that ERIC-PCR had good differentiation power for molecular typing of uropathogenic E. coli strains isolated from the patients in the study.

  9. lais de prise en charge des syndromes coronariens aigus avec sus-décalage du segment ST à Ouagadougou et facteurs associés à un allongement de ces délais: étude transversale à propos de 43 cas colligés au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Samadoulougou, André; Millogo, Georges; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Kombassere, Karim; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    La prise en charge de l'infarctus du myocarde est une course contre la montre et les trois premières heures constituent les « golden hours ». Les objectifs de ce travail étaient de déterminer le délai de prise en charge des infarctus du myocarde du myocarde au Burkina Faso, les facteurs liés à un allongement du délai et le pronostic des patients. Il s'agit d'une étude transversale descriptive menée de Septembre 2010 à Août 2011. Le critère d'inclusion était l'infarctus du myocarde dont le diagnostic était basé sur des critères clinique (douleur angineuse), électrocardiographique (sus-décalage persistant du segment ST dans au moins deux dérivations contiguës du même territoire coronaire, onde Q de nécrose) et biologique (élévation de la troponine). Les informations relatives au délai de prise en charge ont été recueillies: début du premier symptôme, contact avec le premier agent de santé et le cardiologue, nombre de centre de santé consulté avant le transfert en cardiologie, situation géographique des patients, moyen de transport utilisé. Les données ont été analysées grâce au logiciel SPSS version 17. Durant la période d’étude, 43 patients d’âge moyen de 56,51 ± 12,91 ans ont été admis pour infarctus du myocarde. Plus de la moitié des patients (72,0%) habitait Ouagadougou et sa banlieue. Le délai moyen entre le début de la douleur et la consultation dans la première structure sanitaire était de 48 ± 20,8 heures; celui entre le début de la douleur et la réalisation du premier ECG était en moyenne de 8,6 ±4,5 jours. Le délai entre la réalisation de l'ECG et l'admission dans le service de cardiologie était de 4,35 ±4,0 jours [00 heure et 13 jours]. Le délai entre l'admission dans le service de cardiologie et la thrombolyse était de 34 minutes. Enfin le délai entre le début de la douleur et le contact avec le cardiologue était de 9,6±3,5 jours. Il n'y avait pas de différence statiquement

  10. Insight into the genomic diversity and relationship of Astragalus glycyphyllos symbionts by RAPD, ERIC-PCR, and AFLP fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnat, Sebastian; Małek, Wanda; Oleńska, Ewa; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Kalita, Michał; Wójcik, Magdalena

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the genomic diversity and genomic relationship of 28 Astragalus glycyphyllos symbionts by three methodologies based on PCR reaction, i.e., RAPD, ERIC-PCR, and AFLP. The AFLP method with one PstI restriction enzyme and selective PstI-GC primer pair had a comparable discriminatory power as ERIC-PCR one and these fingerprinting techniques distinguished among the studied 28 A. glycyphyllos symbionts 18 and 17 genomotypes, respectively. RAPD method was less discriminatory in the genomotyping of rhizobia analyzed and it efficiently resolved nine genomotypes. The cluster analysis of RAPD, ERIC-PCR, and AFLP profiles resulted in a generally similar grouping of the test strains on generated dendrograms supporting a great potential of these DNA fingerprinting techniques for study of genomic polymorphism and evolutionary relationship of A. glycyphyllos nodulators. The RAPD, ERIC-PCR, and AFLP pattern similarity coefficients between A. glycyphyllos symbionts studied was in the ranges 8-100, 18-100, and 23-100%, respectively.

  11. Adamson-Eric 100 : XX sajandi kunsti- ja kultuurilugu ühe inimsaatuse kaudu / Ülle Kruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruus, Ülle

    2002-01-01

    Näitus "Adamson-Eric 100" Eesti Kunstimuuseumi Rüütelkonna hoones ja Adamson-Ericu muuseumis. Koostajad Ülle Kruus, Kersti Koll, Hanno Soans, kujundajad Leonhard Lapin (EKM), Jaak Soans (Adamson-Ericu muuseum). Adamson-Ericu teosed väljaspool Eestit ja Eestisse tagasi jõudnud tööd

  12. After Eric Garner: Invoking the Black Radical Tradition in Practice and in Theory #BlackLivesMatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I document a series of pedagogical responses in my high school instrumental music classroom following the events of Eric Garner's murder in New York City. Foregrounding traditions of black radical politics and aesthetics originating with the Black Power Movement in the 1960s, I explore their implications for classroom practice in…

  13. Carl Eric Stalberg : me ei investeerinud 1,5 miljardit eurot, et Hansa hävitada! / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Intervjuust Swedbanki juhi Carl Eric Stalbergiga, milles käsitletakse Hansapanga ülevõtmisega seotud teemasid. Hansapangas toimuvast nn. integratsiooniprotsessist, panga tulevikust. Indrek Neivelti, Erkki Raasukese kommentaare. Lisad: Hansapanga ülevõtmine; Miks Hansapank üldse osteti?

  14. 78 FR 39057 - In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant To... aforementioned individual as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to section 1(b) of the Order. This...

  15. Molecular typing among beef isolates of Escherichia coli using consensus repetitive intergenic enterobacteria-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoolkifli, Nurliyana Wan; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd

    2013-11-01

    Genomic DNA of Escherichia coli were characterized by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-Polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and the presence of Shiga toxin gene-I (Stx1) and Shiga toxin gene-2 (Stx2). These isolates were originated from imported raw beef which are come from two countries namely Australia and India. The isolation of E. coli was conducted by using Eosin Methylene Blue Agar (EMBA). A total of 94 strains had been isolated from 30 samples of imported raw beefand 42 strains had been detected positively E. coli by doing biochemical tests. All strains had been tested and the results of biochemical tests showed that 3 strains were from Australia samples while the other 39 strains were from India samples. The biochemical tests used are Indole test, Methyl Red test, Voges-Proskauer test and Citrate test. All the 42 strains were examined for Shiga toxin (stx1 and stx2) gene detection by two pair primers which are stx2F (5'-TTCTTCGGTATCCTATTCCC-3'), stx2R (5'-ATGCATCTCTGGTCATTGTA-3'), stx1F (5'-CAGTTAATGTGGTGGCGAAG-3'), and stx1R (5'-CTGTCACAGTAACAACCGT-3'). The results showed that none of the strains are positive for Shiga toxin gene. Application of ERIC-PCR method towards E. coli had successfully shown the high diversity polymorphism in 21 different genome types of DNA with primers ERIC1R (5'- CACTTAGGGGTCCTCGAATGTA- 3') and ERIC2R (5'- AAGTAAGTGACTGGGGTGACGC- 3').

  16. A RVI/LAI-reference curve to detect N stress and guide N fertigation using combined information from spectral reflectance and leaf area measurements in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Plauborg, Finn; Thomsen, Anton Gårde

    2017-01-01

    strip in the field. The reference curve method was derived from the integrated information of ratio vegetation index (RVI) and leaf area index (LAI), which were obtained from field experimental potato crops. Different N treatments received 42 kg N ha−1 at planting and, subsequently, the rest of N......More user-friendly methods are needed to detect crop N status/stress and guide the timing of in-season N application. In the current study, a reference curve method of detecting N stress was proposed to remedy practical problems of methods that require leaf sampling or maintaining a N sufficient...... function, which was independent of season. The treatments where N fertigation was stopped before reaching 180 kg N ha−1 started to deviate from the 95% confidence interval of the reference curve about 10 days after N-fertigation was stopped. This corresponded to 10–20 kg ha−1 difference in total plant N...

  17. Multiple Cost Functions and Regularization Options for Improved Retrieval of Leaf Chlorophyll Content and LAI through Inversion of the PROSAIL Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moreno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Lookup-table (LUT-based radiative transfer model inversion is considered a physically-sound and robust method to retrieve biophysical parameters from Earth observation data but regularization strategies are needed to mitigate the drawback of ill-posedness. We systematically evaluated various regularization options to improve leaf chlorophyll content (LCC and leaf area index (LAI retrievals over agricultural lands, including the role of (1 cost functions (CFs; (2 added noise; and (3 multiple solutions in LUT-based inversion. Three families of CFs were compared: information measures, M-estimates and minimum contrast methods. We have only selected CFs without additional parameters to be tuned, and thus they can be immediately implemented in processing chains. The coupled leaf/canopy model PROSAIL was inverted against simulated Sentinel-2 imagery at 20 m spatial resolution (8 bands and validated against field data from the ESA-led SPARC (Barrax, Spain campaign. For all 18 considered CFs with noise introduction and opting for the mean of multiple best solutions considerably improved retrievals; relative errors can be twice reduced as opposed to those without these regularization options. M-estimates were found most successful, but also data normalization influences the accuracy of the retrievals. Here, best LCC retrievals were obtained using a normalized “L1 -estimate” function with a relative error of 17.6% (r2 : 0.73, while best LAI retrievals were obtained through non-normalized “least-squares estimator” (LSE with a relative error of 15.3% (r2 : 0.74.

  18. 'Call Eric'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Fremtidens telefoner kan forklædes som øreringe og brillestel, og er styret af brugernes stemme.......Fremtidens telefoner kan forklædes som øreringe og brillestel, og er styret af brugernes stemme....

  19. Nobel Prize Recipient Eric Betzig Presents Lecture on Efforts to Improve High-Resolution Microscopy | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Betzig, Ph.D., a 2014 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and a scientist at Janelia Research Campus (JRC), Howard Hughes Medical Institute, in Ashburn, Va., visited NCI at Frederick on Sept. 10 to present a Distinguished Scientist lecture and discuss the latest high-resolution microscopy techniques. Betzig co-invented photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) in collaboration with scientists at NIH. PALM achieves 10-fold improvement in spatial resolution of cells, going from the resolution limit of approximately 250 nm in standard optical microscopy down to approximately 20 nm, thus producing a so-called “super-resolution” image. Spatial resolution refers to the clarity of an image or, in other words, the smallest details that can be observed from an image.

  20. Integration of MODIS LAI products into the hydrological model WGHM indicate the sensitivity of total water storage simulations to vegetation cover dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenbach, M.; Gunter, A.; Liang, W.; Schmidt, M. G.; Seitz, F.

    2012-12-01

    The vegetation cover has a profound effect on the long term and seasonal dynamics of all components of the water cycle in river catchments globally. In order to understand the effect Global Change has on the Earth system, it is essential to entangle the effects of changes in land cover and land use, biogeochemical cycles, climate and weather driven shifts in phenology and human water consumption. The WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) is one of the few global hydrological models, which integrates total water storage simulation with an estimation of anthropogenic water consumption from streams, surface water bodies as well as groundwater. The vegetation part in the actual version of the model is, however, a rather simplified parameterization. This simplification leads to a limited temperature and climatic water balance driven representation of phenology with a static land cover mask and no land use. These model assumptions limit its ability to reflect the above mentioned dynamic in time and space. In order to understand and quantify the effect of the current implementation, we substituted it with the MODIS LAI product. Running the model with daily European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) temperature and Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation data from 1997 to 2010, we analysed the effect on all components of the water cycle. The results show a clear effect on the long term and seasonal dynamics of the water balance with a pronounced spatial and temporal pattern. The primary effect is a change in evapotranspiration driven by the change in the simulated canopy storage which propagates through the water cycle affecting all subsequent fluxes like runoff, soil water storage and groundwater dynamics. The simplified phenology in the model leads to phase mismatch in the LAI development, which results in a periodicity in the divergence between model and MODIS observations. We conclude that a more realistic implementation of

  1. Daylighting for energy conservation in an existing building under tropical climate conditions: a case study of Lai Sue Thai building Ramkhamhaeng University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerdlekha Tanachaikhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daylighting using skylight has been shown to have a high potential in reducing electrical lighting energy, and could provide a more pleasant atmosphere of a daylit space. However, in hot climates, the main constraint of daylighting is the solar heat gain that contributes to major heat load for an air-conditioning system. If the balance between the beneficial light gain used to offset lighting energy requirement and heat gain from daylight is well considered, significant energy savings can be obtained. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of daylighting for energy conservation in the tropics through theoretical analysis (simulation study and experimental observation. Lai Sue Thai Building (an existing and educational building located at Ramkhamkaeng University was selected as a case study. From analysis, use of daylight could reduce electrical energy in this building by up to 76% compared to the initial condition where fully lighting was supplied. Window orientation would also play an important role. Moreover, heat gain through windows due to daylighting can be controlled by overhangs and the appropriate Window-to-Wall ratio that would be about 30% for this building. An experimental study was also carried out to validate the results in a selected room. About 49% and 37% of Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE were observed in light and heat measurements, respectively

  2. [Construction of eukaryotic recombinant vector and expression in COS7 cell of LipL32-HlyX fusion gene from Leptospira serovar Lai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bi; Bao, Lang; Zhong, Qi; Zhang, Huidong; Zhang, Ying

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to construct eukaryotic recombinant vector of LipL32-HlyX fusion gene from Leptospira serovar Lai and express it in mammalian cell. Both of LipL32 gene and HlyX gene were amplified from Leptospira strain O17 genomic DNA by PCR. Then with the two genes as template, LipL32-HlyX fusion gene was obtained by SOE PCR (gene splicing by overlap extension PCR). The fusion gene was then cloned into pcDNA3.1 by restriction nuclease digestion. Having been transformed into E. coli DH5alpha, the recombiant plasmid was identified by restriction nuclease digestion, PCR analysis and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was then transfected into COS7 cell whose expression was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. RT-PCR amplified a fragment about 2000 bp and Western blotting analysis found a specific band about 75 KD which was consistent with the expected fusion protein size. In conclusion, the successful construction of eukaryotic recombinant vector containing LipL32-HlyX fusion gene and the effective expression in mammalian have laid a foundation for the application of Leptospira DNA vaccine.

  3. Sapņi un sapņošana Homēra eposos: funkcionālais aspekts

    OpenAIRE

    Skrauča, Zane

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir Sapņi un sapņošana Homēra eposos: funkcionālais aspekts. Darba mērķis ir pētīt sapņu un sapņošanas funkcionālo aspektu Homēra eposos Īliada un Odiseja. Mērķa sasniegšanai tika izpētīta zinātniskā literatūra par Homēra eposiem, antīko episko stilu un sapņu un sapņošanas nozīmi antīkajā literatūrā. Tika atlasīti sapņi Homēra eposos un sadalīti pa funkcijām – nākotnes paredzējuma funkcija, mudināšanas funkcija un maldināšanas funkcija. Tika izpētīti tēli sapņos un to noz...

  4. Demistifikasi Tokoh Don Juan dalam La Nuit De Valognes Karya Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Bachmid

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Don Juan is a myth about a seducer, a man with many love adventures, a women’s heat conqueror, and many other predicates. Don Juan as a myth is well-known world wide over, appearing in about 50 writings such as novels, plays, operas. But a French writer Eric-Emannuel Schmitt proposes a new figure of Don Juan in his play La Nuit de Valognes (Night in Valognes: the seducer is judged by five victims and convicted to marry one of his victims in order to stop his adventures. Surprisingly, Don Juan accepts this verdict without conditions. This sudden change becomes the theme of the play: the demythification of Don Juan. A flash back scene shows the beginning of this change and the interpretations that might arise from here. One possible interpretation is proposed and discussed in this paper: Don Juan found the way to a purer love, which is the union with God, and decides to begin his journey. This play can thus be categorised as a sufi text.

  5. Embracing complexity: the post-secular pilgrimage of Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Illman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the phenomenon of pilgrimage as a personal transformative process; an exploration of spiritual space rather than a journey undertaken to a physical place. The analysis focuses on the life story and authorship of the novelist and playwright Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt (b. 1960. Schmitt began his career as an academic philosopher specialised in enlightenment rationality. A mystical experience in the deserts of Sahara, however, opened his eyes to the spiritual dimensions of reality and encouraged him to redirect his professional strivings from academic writing to fiction. Today, Schmitt has reached a world-wide audience with his plays and novels on interreligious dialogue, especially the series of five short novellas called Le cycle d’Invisible. These narratives all deal with inter-religious encounters in a complex and compassionate way as Schmitt is particularly concerned with preserving the mystery of the situations he describes. The atheist conviction of his previous life has thus given way to an agnostic and mystically inspired world view focusing on diversity, divinity and inexplicability: “I am obsessed with complexity”, as he puts it himself. The presentation is based on ethnographic material, and key themes to be addressed include pilgrimage as a spiritual journey, interreligious encounters and mystical experiences.

  6. Método para estimativa do IAF de árvores isoladas ou de plantações com dossel fechado Method to estimate the LAI for isolated trees and continuous canopy crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício A. Coelho Filho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, descrever e testar um método simplificado de baixo custo (IAF-LUX para estimativa do índice de área foliar (IAF em comparação com um equipamento comercial (LAI-2000, Li-Cor®. Ambos foram avaliados em um seringal e em árvores de lima ácida "Tahiti"; posteriormente, os dois métodos foram comparados com medidas destrutivas de área foliar realizadas em uma árvore adulta de lima ácida 'Tahiti'; notou-se, então, que os desvios dos resultados pelo IAF-LUX em relação aos do LAI-2000 foram no máximo de 7,4% na seringueira e de 3,6% em lima ácida "Tahiti". A estimativa da área foliar total utilizando-se o LAI 2000, mostrou boa concordância com as medidas diretas; resultados semelhantes foram obtidos com o IAF-LUX (5% de erro. Para as condições em que foi desenvolvido o trabalho os métodos com base em medida de radiação apresentaram boa precisão na estimativa da área foliar total das árvores de lima ácida, ficando patente que este método pode substituir vantajosamente as outras técnicas usadas, em comparação pelo baixo custo do equipamento, pela facilidade de operação no campo e análise dos dados.ABSTRACT This paper aimed to describe and evaluate a low-cost simplified method (IAF-LUX method for leaf area index (LAI estimation, in comparison with well-tested commercial equipment (LAI-2000, Li-Cor®, being both applied for a rubber tree plantation and for a 'Tahiti' acid lime orchard. Later, the results of the both methods were also compared with destructive measurements of leaf area carried out in other 'Tahiti' acid lime adult tree. Considering LAI-2000 as reference, the proposed IAF-LUX method showed deviations of 7.4% for rubber tree and 3.6% for acid lime 'Tahiti'. Comparing the IAF-LUX with destructive measurements, a deviation of 5.0% was observed in acid lime, while LAI-2000 showed deviation of 7.0%. Based on these results, it is concluded that the IAF-LUX method may be

  7. ERic Acute StrokE Recanalization: A study using predictive analytics to assess a new device for mechanical thrombectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemonsen, Susanne; Forkert, Nils D; Bernhardt, Martina; Thomalla, Götz; Bendszus, Martin; Fiehler, Jens

    2017-08-01

    Aim and hypothesis Using a new study design, we investigate whether next-generation mechanical thrombectomy devices improve clinical outcomes in ischemic stroke patients. We hypothesize that this new methodology is superior to intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy alone. Methods and design ERic Acute StrokE Recanalization is an investigator-initiated prospective single-arm, multicenter, controlled, open label study to compare the safety and effectiveness of a new recanalization device and distal access catheter in acute ischemic stroke patients with symptoms attributable to acute ischemic stroke and vessel occlusion of the internal cerebral artery or middle cerebral artery. Study outcome The primary effectiveness endpoint is the volume of saved tissue. Volume of saved tissue is defined as difference of the actual infarct volume and the brain volume that is predicted to develop infarction by using an optimized high-level machine learning model that is trained on data from a historical cohort treated with IV tissue plasminogen activator. Sample size estimates Based on own preliminary data, 45 patients fulfilling all inclusion criteria need to complete the study to show an efficacy >38% with a power of 80% and a one-sided alpha error risk of 0.05 (based on a one sample t-test). Discussion ERic Acute StrokE Recanalization is the first prospective study in interventional stroke therapy to use predictive analytics as primary and secondary endpoint. Such trial design cannot replace randomized controlled trials with clinical endpoints. However, ERic Acute StrokE Recanalization could serve as an exemplary trial design for evaluating nonpivotal neurovascular interventions.

  8. Dos miradas sobre la historia del arte : Las vanguardias artísticas entre Eric Hobsbawn y Walter Benjamin

    OpenAIRE

    Koldobsky, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    En "A la zaga, decadencia y fracaso de las vanguardias del siglo XX" el historiador Eric Hobsbawm plantea el fracaso de las vanguardias artísticas especialmente en el campo de las artes visuales, entendiendo que "fue, primero, un fracaso de la 'modernidad', un término que empezó a usarse hacia mediados del siglo XIX y que sostenía en su programa que el arte contemporáneo debía ser, como Proudhon había dicho del de Courbet, 'una expresión de los tiempos". Sin embargo, considera que "Por supues...

  9. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Research and innovation are key pillars of the EU’s strategy to create sustainable growth and prosperity in Europe. Research infrastructures (RIs) are central instruments to implement this strategy. They bring together a wide diversity of expertise and interests to look for solutions to many of t...... need to consider in their IPR policies to balance the core-objectives of multiple stakeholders and achieve sustainability. In Part II, we will analyze and compare the different IPR policies of the various ERICs in a subsequent article....

  10. Characteristics of Dutch and Swiss primary care COPD patients - baseline data of the ICE COLD ERIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeling, Lara; Puhan, Milo A; Muggensturm, Patrick; Zoller, Marco; Ter Riet, Gerben

    2011-01-01

    INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIVE EFFORT ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts (ICE COLD ERIC) is a prospective cohort study with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from Switzerland and The Netherlands designed to develop and validate practical COPD risk indices that predict the clinical course of COPD patients in primary care. This paper describes the characteristics of the cohorts at baseline. Standardized assessments included lung function, patient history, self-administered questionnaires, exercise capacity, and a venous blood sample for analysis of biomarkers and genetics. A total of 260 Dutch and 151 Swiss patients were included. Median age was 66 years, 57% were male, 38% were current smokers, 55% were former smokers, and 76% had at least one and 40% had two or more comorbidities with cardiovascular disease being the most prevalent one. The use of any pulmonary and cardiovascular drugs was 84% and 66%, respectively. Although lung function results (median forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)] was 59% of predicted) were similar across the two cohorts, Swiss patients reported better COPD-specific health-related quality of life (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire) and had higher exercise capacity. COPD patients in the ICE COLD ERIC study represent a wide range of disease severities and the prevalence of multimorbidity is high. The rich variation in these primary care cohorts offers good opportunities to learn more about the clinical course of COPD.

  11. Characteristics of Dutch and Swiss primary care COPD patients – baseline data of the ICE COLD ERIC study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeling, Lara; Puhan, Milo A; Muggensturm, Patrick; Zoller, Marco; ter Riet, Gerben

    2011-01-01

    Introduction International Collaborative Effort on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts (ICE COLD ERIC) is a prospective cohort study with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from Switzerland and The Netherlands designed to develop and validate practical COPD risk indices that predict the clinical course of COPD patients in primary care. This paper describes the characteristics of the cohorts at baseline. Material and methods Standardized assessments included lung function, patient history, self-administered questionnaires, exercise capacity, and a venous blood sample for analysis of biomarkers and genetics. Results A total of 260 Dutch and 151 Swiss patients were included. Median age was 66 years, 57% were male, 38% were current smokers, 55% were former smokers, and 76% had at least one and 40% had two or more comorbidities with cardiovascular disease being the most prevalent one. The use of any pulmonary and cardiovascular drugs was 84% and 66%, respectively. Although lung function results (median forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] was 59% of predicted) were similar across the two cohorts, Swiss patients reported better COPD-specific health-related quality of life (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire) and had higher exercise capacity. Discussion COPD patients in the ICE COLD ERIC study represent a wide range of disease severities and the prevalence of multimorbidity is high. The rich variation in these primary care cohorts offers good opportunities to learn more about the clinical course of COPD. PMID:22135502

  12. Genetic diversity study of various β-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary care hospital using ERIC-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanti Jena

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: At 60 per cent similarity cut-off value, the dendrogram analysis showed that there were a total of 14 unique clusters of ERIC (CL-1 - CL-14 within the 41 E. coli isolates, which revealed the genetic diversity existing between them.

  13. Conference report : 'The status of muon catalysed fusion and fusion with polarized nuclei', Ettore Majorana workshop and school on fusion reactor technology (1987) Erice, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    A report is given of the Workshop and School on Fusion Reactor Technology held at Erice, Italy, 1987, at which the 44 participants discussed progress towards scientific breakeven in muon catalyzed fusion, and clarified its problems and possibilities. There is a need for continuing theoretical work and a technological study of reactor problems. (U.K.)

  14. 75 FR 26316 - In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger, Also Known as Abdul-Gaffar, Also Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... the Order who might have a constitutional presence in the United States would render ineffectual the... determination who might have a constitutional presence in the United States, because to do so would render... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6996] In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger, Also...

  15. The effect of bi-directional reflectance distribution function on the estimation of vegetation indices and leaf area index (LAI): A case study of the vegetation in succession stages after forest fire in northwestern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, K.; Matsuyama, H.; Tsuzuki, H.; Sweda, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dependence of the satellite data on sun/sensor geometry must be considered in the case of monitoring vegetation from satellites. Vegetation structure causes uneven scattering of sunlight, which is expressed by bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of BRDF of monitoring vegetation using the reflectance of visible and near-infrared bands. We investigated the vegetation in succession stages after forest fire (main species: spruce) in the northwestern Canada. BRF (Bidirectional Reflectance Factor) was measured in the seven sites of some succession stages, along with the measurements of leaf area index (LAI) and biomass. The main results obtained in this study are summarized as follows. (1) In each site, the difference of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) value around 0.1-0.2 was caused by BRDF when the sensor angle was changed from -15deg to 15 deg, being equivalent to the standard image of IKONOS. Also, LAI estimated by NDVI varied from 22% to 65% of the average. (2) The robustness of other vegetation indices to BRDF was compared. The reflectance of the near-infrared band normalized by the sum of other bands (nNIR), and Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI) were investigated along with NDVI. It is clarified that nNIR was most robust in the site where vegetation existed. GEMI was most robust in the sites of scarce vegetation, while NDVI was strongly affected by BRDF in such sites

  16. Chinese Circulations. Capital, Commodities, and Networks in Southeast Asia, Eric Tagliacozzo & Wen-Chin Chang (éds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baffie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage est une contribution majeure à l’étude des activités commerciales des Chinois d’Asie du Sud-Est, particulièrement du commerce entre les Chinois installés en Asie du Sud-Est et la Chine. Il est publié sous la direction d’un historien de l’université de Cornell aux États-Unis, Eric Tagliacozzo, spécialiste de l’Asie du Sud-Est musulmane, de l’Insulinde, principalement, et de Wen-Chin Chang, anthropologue au CAPAS de l’Academia Sinica et spécialiste des Chinois yunnanais de la Thaïla...

  17. La investigación en Educación Musical en la base de datos ERIC

    OpenAIRE

    Galera, María; Pérez, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se describe un análisis bibliométrico de los artículos de investigación en Educación Musical indexados en la base ERIC y publicados durante el período de 1995 a 2007. Estos artículos constituyen el 54% del total de artículos censados en la base relacionados con la Educación Musical. Como resultado se ofrece un listado con las 10 revistas que contienen más de 20 artículos sobre Educación Musical del total censado; La suma de los artículos publicados por las cuatro ...

  18. DNA fingerprinting by ERIC-PCR for comparing Listeria spp. strains isolated from different sources in San Luis: Argentina Caracterización molecular por ERIC-PCR de cepas de Listeria spp. aisladas de diversos orígenes en San Luis: Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laciar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a total of 24 Listeria spp. strains were analyzed. Twenty-two isolates were obtained in San Luis (Argentina from human, animal, and food samples. Two types of strains, Listeria monocytogenes CLIP 22762 and Listeria innocua CLIP 74915, were included as reference strains. All isolates were biochemically identified and characterized by serotyping, phage typing, and amplification of the flaA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC sequence-based PCR was used to generate DNA fingerprints. On the basis of ERIC-PCR fingerprints, Listeria spp. strains were divided into three major clusters matching origin of isolation. ERIC-PCR fingerprints of human and animal isolates were different from those of food isolates. In addition, groups I and II included ten L. monocytogenes strains, and only one Listeria seeligeri strain. Group III included nine L. innocua strains and four L. monocytogenes strains. Computer evaluation of ERIC-PCR fingerprints allowed discrimination between the tested serotypes 1/2b, 4b, 6a, and 6b within each major cluster. The index of discrimination calculated was 0.94. This study suggests that the ERIC-PCR technique provides an alternative method for the identification of Listeria species and the discrimination of strains within one species.En este estudio se analizaron 24 cepas de Listeria spp. De ellas, 22 fueron obtenidas en San Luis (Argentina, a partir de muestras humanas, de animales y alimentos. Se incluyeron 2 cepas de referencia Listeria monocytogenes CLIP 22762 y Listeria innocua CLIP 74915. Todos los aislamientos fueron identificados bioquímicamente y caracterizados por serotipificación, fagotipificación y detección del gen flaA por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Se generaron perfiles de bandas de ADN mediante la amplificación de secuencias repetitivas de consenso intergénico de enterobacterias (ERIC-PCR. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos por ERIC

  19. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from food and human samples by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiling, (GTG5-PCR and ERIC-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fardsanei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been a primary cause of human salmonellosis in many countries. The major objective of this study was to investigate genetic diversity among Salmonella Enteritidis strains from different origins (food and human by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC -PCR, as well as to assess their plasmid profiling and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 30 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 15 from food samples (chicken, lamb, beef and duck meats and 15 from clinical samples were collected in Tehran. Identification of isolates as Salmonella was confirmed by using conventional standard biochemical and serological tests. Multiplex-PCR was used for serotyping of isolates to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 agents founds drug resistance patterns among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates. No resistance was observed to cephalexin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem or meropenem, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The highest resistance (96.7% was observed to nitrofurantoin. Seven plasmid profiles (P1–P7 were detected, and a 68-kb plasmid was found in all isolates. Two different primers; ERIC and (GTG5 were used for genotyping, which each produced four profiles. The majority of clinical and food isolates fell into two separate common types (CTs with a similar percentage of 95% by ERIC-PCR. Using primer (GTG5, 29 isolates incorporated in three CTs with 70% of isolates showing a single banding pattern. Limited genetic diversity among human and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis may indicate that contaminated foods were possibly the source of human salmonellosis. These results confirmed that ERIC-PCR genotyping has limited discriminatory power for Salmonella Enteritidis of different origin.

  20. ERIC-PCR fingerprinting-based community DNA hybridization to pinpoint genome-specific fragments as molecular markers to identify and track populations common to healthy human guts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guifang; Pan, Li; Du, Huimin; Chen, Junyi; Zhao, Liping

    2004-10-01

    Bacterial populations common to healthy human guts may play important roles in human health. A new strategy for discovering genomic sequences as markers for these bacteria was developed using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR fingerprinting. Structural features within microbial communities are compared with ERIC-PCR followed by DNA hybridization to identify genomic fragments shared by samples from healthy human individuals. ERIC-PCR profiles of fecal samples from 12 diseased or healthy human and piglet subjects demonstrated stable, unique banding patterns for each individual tested. Sequence homology of DNA fragments in bands of identical size was examined between samples by hybridization under high stringency conditions with DIG-labeled ERIC-PCR products derived from the fecal sample of one healthy child. Comparative analysis of the hybridization profiles with the original agarose fingerprints identified three predominant bands as signatures for populations associated with healthy human guts with sizes of 500, 800 and 1000 bp. Clone library profiling of the three bands produced 17 genome fragments, three of which showed high similarity only with regions of the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome, while the remainder were orphan sequences. Association of these sequences with healthy guts was validated by sequence-selective PCR experiments, which showed that a single fragment was present in all 32 healthy humans and 13 healthy piglets tested. Two fragments were present in the healthy human group and in 18 children with non-infectious diarrhea but not in eight children with infectious diarrhea. Genome fragments identified with this novel strategy may be used as genome-specific markers for dynamic monitoring and sequence-guided isolation of functionally important bacterial populations in complex communities such as human gut microflora.

  1. Use of concept mapping to characterize relationships among implementation strategies and assess their feasibility and importance: results from the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Thomas J; Powell, Byron J; Matthieu, Monica M; Damschroder, Laura J; Chinman, Matthew J; Smith, Jeffrey L; Proctor, Enola K; Kirchner, JoAnn E

    2015-08-07

    Poor terminological consistency for core concepts in implementation science has been widely noted as an obstacle to effective meta-analyses. This inconsistency is also a barrier for those seeking guidance from the research literature when developing and planning implementation initiatives. The Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) study aims to address one area of terminological inconsistency: discrete implementation strategies involving one process or action used to support a practice change. The present report is on the second stage of the ERIC project that focuses on providing initial validation of the compilation of 73 implementation strategies that were identified in the first phase. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a panel of experts in implementation science and clinical practice (N = 35). These key stakeholders used concept mapping sorting and rating activities to place the 73 implementation strategies into similar groups and to rate each strategy's relative importance and feasibility. Multidimensional scaling analysis provided a quantitative representation of the relationships among the strategies, all but one of which were found to be conceptually distinct from the others. Hierarchical cluster analysis supported organizing the 73 strategies into 9 categories. The ratings data reflect those strategies identified as the most important and feasible. This study provides initial validation of the implementation strategies within the ERIC compilation as being conceptually distinct. The categorization and strategy ratings of importance and feasibility may facilitate the search for, and selection of, strategies that are best suited for implementation efforts in a particular setting.

  2. Genotypic Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica Biotype 4/O:3 Isolates from Pigs and Slaughterhouses Using SE-AFLP, ERIC-PCR, and PFGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Paixão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica is a foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans and animals. The biotype 4/O:3 has been commonly associated with yersiniosis and is characterized by the presence of chromosomal and extra-chromosomal virulence genes. Molecular typing methods have been successfully used to characterize Y. enterocolitica genetic heterogeneity and to study the epidemiology of the bacteria from different origins. In this study, 320 Y. enterocolitica biotype 4/O:3 isolates originating in pigs and slaughterhouses were characterized according to the virulence profile, and 61 isolates were typified through SE-AFLP, ERIC-PCR, and PFGE techniques. The majority of the isolates originated from pigs, and the predominant virulence profile was ail+ virF+ rfbC+ ystA+, representing 83.4% of the tested isolates. All of the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were positive for at least ystA gene. The SE-AFLP and ERIC-PCR patterns were highly homogeneous. The SE-AFLP was more discriminative than the ERIC-PCR and tended to cluster isolates according to the slaughterhouse. Despite the limited genetic diversity of Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3, PFGE was shown to be the most discriminative technique considering one band of difference. Fattening pigs proved to be an important reservoir of Y. enterocolitica biotype 4/O:3 carrying virulence genes.

  3. Genotipificación de aislamientos de Bartonella bacilliformis por amplificación de elementos repetitivos mediante el uso de REP-PCR y ERIC-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Padilla R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Genotipificar los aislamientos de Bartonella bacilliformis a través de la amplificación de elementos repetitivos mediante el uso de ERIC-PCR y REP-PCR, y determinar si existe variabilidad genética entre aislamientos de varias zonas endémicas. Materiales y Métodos: Se evaluaron mediante el uso del ERIC-PCR y REP-PCR 17 aislamientos de B. bacilliformis de Lima, Cusco y Ancash. Los aislamientos fueron realizados durante los años 1998 y 1999. Para el análisis de los patrones de bandas se usó el software GelCompar 4,0. Resultados: Fueron identificados en los 17 aislamientos 10 genotipos. Los genotipos D, E y H fueron detectados en Cusco; mientras que los genotipos B, C, G, J e I en Lima; y el genotipo F en Ancash. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren que REP-PCR y ERIC-PCR son métodos útiles para genotipificar aislamientos de B. bacilliformis. La variabilidad genética debe ser tomada en cuenta en estudios epidemiológicos y clínicos de Bartonelosis; así como el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas diagnósticas y de vacunas.

  4. Characteristics of Dutch and Swiss primary care COPD patients - baseline data of the ICE COLD ERIC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebeling L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lara Siebeling1, Milo A Puhan2,3, Patrick Muggensturm4, Marco Zoller5, Gerben ter Riet11Department of General Practice, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Horten Center for Patient-oriented Research, University of Zurich, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 5Department of General Practice, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandIntroduction: International Collaborative Effort on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts (ICE COLD ERIC is a prospective cohort study with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients from Switzerland and The Netherlands designed to develop and validate practical COPD risk indices that predict the clinical course of COPD patients in primary care. This paper describes the characteristics of the cohorts at baseline.Material and methods: Standardized assessments included lung function, patient history, self-administered questionnaires, exercise capacity, and a venous blood sample for analysis of biomarkers and genetics.Results: A total of 260 Dutch and 151 Swiss patients were included. Median age was 66 years, 57% were male, 38% were current smokers, 55% were former smokers, and 76% had at least one and 40% had two or more comorbidities with cardiovascular disease being the most prevalent one. The use of any pulmonary and cardiovascular drugs was 84% and 66%, respectively. Although lung function results (median forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] was 59% of predicted were similar across the two cohorts, Swiss patients reported better COPD-specific health-related quality of life (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire and had higher exercise capacity.Discussion: COPD patients in the ICE COLD ERIC study represent a wide range of disease severities and the prevalence of multimorbidity is high

  5. Identification of a Proton-Chloride Antiporter (EriC) by Himar1 Transposon Mutagenesis in Lactobacillus reuteri and Its Role in Histamine Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemarajata, P; Spinler, JK; Balderas, MA; Versalovic, J

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiome may modulate intestinal immunity by luminal conversion of dietary amino acids to biologically active signals. The model probiotic organism Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 is indigenous to the human microbiome, and converts the amino acid L-histidine to the biogenic amine, histamine. Histamine suppresses TNF production by human myeloid cells and is a product of L-histidine decarboxylation, which is a proton-facilitated reaction. A transposon mutagenesis strategy was developed based on a single-plasmid nisin-inducible Himar1 transposase/transposon delivery system for L. reuteri. A highly conserved proton-chloride antiporter gene (eriC), a gene widely present in the gut microbiome was discovered by Himar1 transposon (Tn)-mutagenesis presented in this study. Genetic inactivation of eriC by transposon insertion and genetic recombineering resulted in reduced ability of L. reuteri to inhibit TNF production by activated human myeloid cells, diminished histamine production by the bacteria and downregulated expression of histidine decarboxylase (hdc) cluster genes compared to those of WT 6475. EriC belongs to a large family of ion transporters that includes chloride channels and proton-chloride antiporters and may facilitate the availability of protons for the decarboxylation reaction, resulting in histamine production by L. reuteri. This report leverages the tools of bacterial genetics for probiotic gene discovery. The findings highlight the widely conserved nature of ion transporters in bacteria and how ion transporters are coupled with amino acid decarboxylation and contributed to microbiome-mediated immunomodulation. PMID:24488273

  6. Sociālais tīkls “Instagram” kā mārketinga komunikācijas instruments: "Nike", "airBaltic" un "Qoo Qoo fashion" piemēru analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Bāre, Madara

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Sociālais tīkls „Instagram” kā mārketinga komunikācija instruments: „Nike”, „airBaltic” un „QooQoo fashion” piemēru analīze” mērķis ir noskaidrot, kā uzņēmumi izmanto Instagram mārketinga komunikācijas mērķu sasniegšanai. Darbs sastāv no teorētiskās daļas par mārketingu, mārketinga komunikāciju, sociālo mediju mārketingu un foto dalīšanās vietnēm. Metodoloģijas daļas, kurā iekļauta aptauja, kontentanalīze, daļēji strukturētā intervija un no empīriskās daļas, kurā tiek anal...

  7. [Virulence-associated gene detection and ERIC-PCR typing of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from foods in four Southern Chinese provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yangyun; Wu, Qingping; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Jumei; Guo, Weipeng; Wu, Kegang

    2014-01-04

    To know food contamination and genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in four provinces of South China, and to provide data for C. jejuni-associated foodborne disease prevention and control. According to the national standard and the most probable number (MPN) method, we detected the contamination of C. jejuni from 558 food samples including vegetables, meat product, cooked food, seafood, frozen food, dairy product and edible fungi during 2011 and 2012. The isolates were used to detect 12 virulence-associated genes with PCR methods and construct ERIC-PCR fingerprints. Fourteen positive samples were determined from 558 samples, and all positive samples come from meat product samples. The average value of MPN of positive samples was 8.77 MPN/g. Virulence-associated gene analysis reveals that more than 50% of the C. jejuni isolates had at least 9 virulence genes. Interestingly, virB11 gene was not found and the genes of pldA and wlaN were 14.30% in all isolates. Total of 15 C. jejuni isolates could be divided into 10 genotypes belonging to 3 clusters by ERIC-PCR fingerprints. Meat product was the main source of C. jejuni food contamination in four provinces of South China. More control measures must be taken to avoid C. jejuni contamination.

  8. CAPACIDAD DE LOS DATOS FENOLÓGICOS DERIVADOS DE CYCLOPES- LAI DEL A Ñ O 2000 PARA DISTINGUIR LOS TIPOS DE COBERTURA EN EL ESTADO DE MICHOACÁN, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valderrama-Landeros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available S e exploró la capacidad de los datos fenológicos de la serie LAI del proyecto CYCLOPES del año 2000, para distinguir tipos de vegetación generales (bosque de hoja perenne, de hoja caduca, cultivos y pastizal-matorral en Michoacán, México. Con el programa TIMESAT se extrajeron 11 variables fenológicas de cada píxel de 1 km de dicha serie. El comportamiento de cada variable se analizó tomando como referencia el mapa INF2000. Las principales diferencias corresponden al carácter caducifolio o perennifolio de la vegetación. Las 11 variables se redujeron a cinco componentes principa - les (98 % de la varianza, para hacer una clasificación no supervisada de 250 clases o grupos fenológicos. Cada clase se asoció a uno de los tipos de cobertura, según el criterio de máxima coincidencia de área con el mapa de referencia INF2000, para construir el mapa de cobertura CYCL2000. La comparación de ambos mapas mostró exactitud total de 63 %. Los bosques de hoja caduca fueron los mejor identificados (80.1 % de píxeles identificados correctamente y 62.1 % bien clasificados, seguidos de los de hoja pe - renne (74.1 %, 69.9 %, cultivos (62.9 %, 61.1 % y pastizal-matorral (16.9 %, 52.3 %. La identificación relativamente buena de los bosques permitirá utilizar este enfoque para estimar la deforestación.

  9. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  10. Clinical History of the Theranostic Radionuclide Approach to Neuroendocrine Tumors and Other Types of Cancer: Historical Review Based on an Interview of Eric P. Krenning by Rachel Levine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rachel; Krenning, Eric P

    2017-09-01

    In nuclear medicine, the term theranostics describes the combination of therapy and diagnostic imaging. In practice, this concept dates back more than 50 years; however, among the most successful examples of theranostics are peptide receptor scintigraphy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. The development of these modalities through the radiolabeling of somatostatin analogs with various radionuclides has led to a revolution in patient management and established a foundation for expansion of the theranostic principle into other oncology indications. This article provides a review of the evolution and development of the theranostic radionuclide approach to the management of neuroendocrine tumors, as described by the inventor of this technique, Eric P. Krenning, in an interview with Rachel Levine. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  11. Filosofía y violencia. Del absoluto a la acción en la Lógica de la filosofía de Eric Weil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Saldías Barrer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tensiones y los vínculos posibles entre razón y violencia son un problema mayor para la filosofía. La obra de Eric Weil se consagra precisamente al análisis de las figuras históricas de dicha tensión, y su obra mayor, Logique de la Philosophie, desarrolla lo fundamental de dicho propósito. Se analiza la manera como Weil, desde la categoría de la acción –última categoría concreta de la filosofía–, en vínculo con las categorías precedentes (absoluto, obra, finito y con las categorías formales (sentido y sabiduría, enfrenta este desafío siempre nuevo para la filosofía.

  12. Discriminação de sorovares de Salmonella spp. isolados de carcaças de frango por REP e ERIC-PCR e fagotipagem do sorovar Enteriditis Discrimination of Salmonella serovars isolated from chicken meat by REP and ERIC-PCR and phagotyping of Enteriditis sorovar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Alcocer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonelose é a infecção bacteriana de origem alimentar mais freqüente no Paraná, Brasil, e os surtos estão associados, principalmente, ao consumo de ovos, carne de aves e derivados. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar os sorovares de Salmonella isolados de carcaças de frango e caracterizá-los molecularmente por REP e ERIC-PCR, assim como identificar os fagotipos de Salmonella Enteriditis. Dos 25 isolados de Salmonella spp. analisados, 18 foram identificados como Enteriditis, 4 como Braenderup, 2 como Worthington e 1 como infantis. Dos 18 isolados de Enteriditis, 14 foram PT4, 2 PT4a, 1 PT7 e 1 RDNC, por se tratar de colônia rugosa. REP-PCR forneceu padrão eletroforético distinto de 10 a 13 bandas distribuídas entre 120 e 2072 pb para cada sorovar diferente testado. A ERIC-PCR mostrou um padrão de 4 a 5 bandas entre 180 e 1000 pb e foi menos discriminativa quando comparada à REP-PCR. Os resultados encontrados confirmaram que a fagotipagem é uma ferramenta útil e discriminativa para o sorovar Enteriditis. Apesar do pequeno número de sorovares testados, os resultados sugerem que a REP-PCR parece ser um método atrativo a ser utilizado no futuro para a discriminação preliminar de sorovares de Salmonella.Salmonellosis is the most prevalent bacterial food-borne disease in the State of Paraná, Brazil, and the outbreaks are often associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this study was to serotype Salmonella strains isolated from chicken carcasses and characterize them molecularly using REP and ERIC-PCR. The phage types of Salmonella Enteriditis were also identified. Of the 25 Salmonella strains analysed, 18 were identified as Enteriditis, 4 as Braenderup, 2 as Worthington and 1 as infantis. Of the 18 Enteriditis isolates, 14 were PT4, 2 PT4a, 1 PT7 and 1 "reacted, but did not conform" - RDNC. Distinct REP-PCR profiles with 10 to 13 fragments distributed between 120 and 2072 pb were easily obtained for

  13. [Strategies for biobank networks. Classification of different approaches for locating samples and an outlook on the future within the BBMRI-ERIC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lablans, Martin; Kadioglu, Dennis; Mate, Sebastian; Leb, Ines; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Ückert, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Medical research projects often require more biological material than can be supplied by a single biobank. For this reason, a multitude of strategies support locating potential research partners with matching material without requiring centralization of sample storage. Classification of different strategies for biobank networks, in particular for locating suitable samples. Description of an IT infrastructure combining these strategies. Existing strategies can be classified according to three criteria: (a) granularity of sample data: coarse bank-level data (catalogue) vs. fine-granular sample-level data, (b) location of sample data: central (central search service) vs. decentral storage (federated search services), and (c) level of automation: automatic (query-based, federated search service) vs. semi-automatic (inquiry-based, decentral search). All mentioned search services require data integration. Metadata help to overcome semantic heterogeneity. The "Common Service IT" in BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanking and BioMolecular Resources Research Infrastructure) unites a catalogue, the decentral search and metadata in an integrated platform. As a result, researchers receive versatile tools to search suitable biomaterial, while biobanks retain a high degree of data sovereignty. Despite their differences, the presented strategies for biobank networks do not rule each other out but can complement and even benefit from each other.

  14. Reflexiones y Experiencias desde las entrañas del Islamismo Militante. Análisis de la biografía de Eric Breininguer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Cano Paños

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del siguiente trabajo es analizar el proceso de radicalización yihadista de un joven converso nacido y crecido en Occidente. Se trata del caso de Eric Breininger, un individuo alemán que en abril de 2010 encontró la muerte en la región de Waziristán en el transcurso de un combate contra soldados pakistaníes. La base del siguiente trabajo está constituida por las memorias del joven alemán, las cuales fueron publicadas en Internet días después del anuncio de su muerte. Dichas memorias suponen sin duda un documento de trascendental importancia que permiten acercarse al proceso de radicalización de un individuo de origen occidental. Asimismo, ofrecen una visión muy cercana de la vida cotidiana de aquellos individuos radicalizados que en la primera línea del frente libran su particular batalla –en algunos casos sacrificando incluso su propia vida– en defensa de su particular visión del Islam.

  15. Optimization and head-to-head comparison of MISSR-PCR, ERIC-PCR, RAPD and 16S rRNA evolutionary clock for the genotyping of Vibrio cholerae isolated in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Q H; Wang, H B; Tan, H; An, S L; Feng, Z L; Wang, Q; Lin, J C; Yang, Z

    2015-01-01

    To establish a new genotyping method for Vibrio cholerae and compare it with other methods. In the current study, a modified inter simple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (MISSR-PCR) system was developed via several rounds of optimisation. Comparison study was then conducted between MISSR-PCR and three other methods, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences-based PCR (ERIC-PCR), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rRNA evolutionary clock, for the detection and genetic tracing of Vibrio cholerae isolated from seafood in China. The results indicated that the MISSR-PCR system could generate the highest polymorphic fingerprinting map in a single round PCR and showed the best discriminatory ability for Vibrio cholerae genotyping by clearly separating toxigenic/nontoxigenic strains, local/foreign strains, and O1/O139/non-O1/non-O139 serogroup strains, comparing to ERIC-PCR, RAPD and 16S rRNA evolutionary clock. Moreover, the MISSR-PCR is superior to previously described traditional simple sequence repeat based PCR method on genotyping by more clearly separating different clusters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first head-to-head comparison of four detection and genotyping methods for Vibrio cholerae The MISSR-PCR system established here could serve as a simple, quick, reliable and cost-effective tool for the genotyping and epidemiological study.

  16. Teaching about China. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.

    In spring 1989, the United States watched intently as televised reports relayed the events unfolding in Beijing's (China) Tiananmen Square. This concern for a people whose culture and political institutions are significantly different reflects a continuing and compelling interest in China. Although historians and journalists in the United States…

  17. Understanding Sensory Integration. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMatties, Marie E.; Sammons, Jennifer H.

    This brief paper summarizes what is known about sensory integration and sensory integration dysfunction (DSI). It outlines evaluation of DSI, treatment approaches, and implications for parents and teachers, including compensatory strategies for minimizing the impact of DSI on a child's life. Review of origins of sensory integration theory in the…

  18. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  19. Children and Grief. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as…

  20. Bullying. ERIC/CASS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Doris Rhea

    Nearly 160,000 students skip school each day because of intimidation by their peers. Bullying has been a persistent problem that, with the heightened attention to school violence, has been recently recognized as a pervasive issue needing attention. Bullying can take many forms; racial discrimination and sexual harassment are examples of abuse…

  1. In Situ Immobilization of Uranium in Structured Porous Media via Biomineralization at the Fracture/Matrix Interface - Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roden, Eric E.

    2007-01-01

    Although the biogeochemical processes underlying in situ bioremediation technologies are increasingly well understood, field-scale heterogeneity (both physical and biogeochemical) remains a major obstacle to successful field-scale implementation. In particular, slow release of contamination from low-permeability regions (primarily by diffusive/dispersive mass transfer) can hinder the effectiveness of remediation. The research described in this report was conducted in conjunction with a project entitled ''In Situ Immobilization of Uranium in Structured Porous Media via Biomineralization at the Fracture/Matrix Interface'', which was funded through the Field Research element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. Timothy Scheibe (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Scott Brooks (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The overall goal of the project was to evaluate strategies that target bioremediation at interfaces between high- and low-permeability regions of an aquifer in order to minimize the rate of contaminant transfer into high-permeability/high fluid flow zones. The research was conducted at the Area 2 site of the Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Area 2 is a shallow pathway for migration of contaminated groundwater to seeps in the upper reach of Bear Creek at ORNL, mainly through a ca. 1 m thick layer of gravel located 4-5 m below the ground surface. Hydrological tracer studies indicate that the gravel layer receives input of uranium from both upstream sources and from diffusive mass transfer out of highly contaminated fill and saprolite materials above and below the gravel layer. We sought to test the hypothesis that injection of electron donor into this

  2. In Situ Immobilization of Uranium in Structured Porous Media via Biomineralization at the Fracture/Matrix Interface – Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric E. Roden

    2007-11-02

    Although the biogeochemical processes underlying in situ bioremediation technologies are increasingly well understood, field-scale heterogeneity (both physical and biogeochemical) remains a major obstacle to successful field-scale implementation. In particular, slow release of contamination from low-permeability regions (primarily by diffusive/dispersive mass transfer) can hinder the effectiveness of remediation. The research described in this report was conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “In Situ Immobilization of Uranium in Structured Porous Media via Biomineralization at the Fracture/Matrix Interface”, which was funded through the Field Research element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. Timothy Scheibe (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Scott Brooks (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The overall goal of the project was to evaluate strategies that target bioremediation at interfaces between high- and low-permeability regions of an aquifer in order to minimize the rate of contaminant transfer into high-permeability/high fluid flow zones. The research was conducted at the Area 2 site of the Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Area 2 is a shallow pathway for migration of contaminated groundwater to seeps in the upper reach of Bear Creek at ORNL, mainly through a ca. 1 m thick layer of gravel located 4-5 m below the ground surface. Hydrological tracer studies indicate that the gravel layer receives input of uranium from both upstream sources and from diffusive mass transfer out of highly contaminated fill and saprolite materials above and below the gravel layer. We sought to test the hypothesis that injection of electron donor into

  3. Chou En-Lai and the Opening to the West

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boesel, Kaye

    1995-01-01

    The announcement on July 15, 1971, that President Nixon had accepted an invitation to travel to Beijing to meet with Chinese leaders must have surprised the people of China, and of the world, in view...

  4. 75 FR 8081 - Patrick J. Lais: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... was convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct relating to the regulation of a drug product... convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct relating to the regulation of a drug product under the... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0585...

  5. Lai-like leptospira from the Andaman Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sehgal, S. C.; Vijayachari, P.; Smythe, L. D.; Norris, M.; Symonds, M.; Dohnt, M.; Korver, H.; v d Kemp, H.; Hartskeerl, R. A.; Terpstra, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    Leptospirosis has been an important public health problem in the Andaman Islands since 1988. As information about the exact etiological agent is not available, the present study was undertaken to isolate and identify Leptospira from human patients. An isolate coded AF61 was recovered from the blood

  6. Interelasi Ni lai Jawa dan Islam dalam Berbagai Aspek Kehidupan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Mustofa Kamal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini mengkaji proses akulturasi budaya Jawa dan Islam dengan mengeksplorasi berbagai aspek interelasi nilai dari berbagai segi kehidupan melalui pendekatan antropologi budaya. Keadaan masyarakat Jawa, sebelum munculnya berbagai asimilasi agama dan budaya asli, telah memiliki peradaban Jawa yang khas yang tercermin dalam sistem sosial dan norma kemasyarakatan. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa keberhasilan proses akulturasi antara budaya Jawa dengan Islam tak terlepas dari proses penyebaran Islam yang masuk ke tanah Jawa secara damai. Akulturasi antara Islam dengan budaya Jawa terbukti dapat melahirkan kedewasaan masyarakat dalam beragama, baik dalam karya sastranya, system ekonomi, mistisme, pola kepercayaan budaya dan ritual. Penyatuan antara budaya Jawa dengan Islam nampak jelas dalam kecenderungan masyarakat Muslim Jawa yang taat agama namun tetap tidak bisa meninggalkan tradisi ke-Jawanya.

  7. Knyga - laiškas žmonijai

    OpenAIRE

    Pakalniškytė, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    The master’s thesis titled “Book – Letter to Mankind” may be characterised as having an unexpected solution of depicting a letter. The collection comprises various art techniques of leather work including the author’s technique. The works are distinguished by their novelty, the delicate thematic solution and the application of aesthetic qualities of used materials. The principal object of the collection is the book as a letter bearing its own history, the interrelation between a man and a let...

  8. LINKING IN SITU TIME SERIES FOREST CANOPY LAI AND PHENOLOGY METRICS WITH MODIS AND LANDSAT NDVI AND LAI PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The subject of this presentation is forest vegetation dynamics as observed by the TERRA spacecraft's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat Thematic Mapper, and complimentary in situ time series measurements of forest canopy metrics related to Leaf Area...

  9. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center, Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roden, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled 'Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center', which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  10. Iodometric and Molecular Detection of ESBL Production Among Clinical Isolates of E. coli Fingerprinted by ERIC-PCR: The First Egyptian Report Declares the Emergence of E. coli O25b-ST131clone Harboring blaGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Badawy, Mohamed F; Tawakol, Wael M; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A; Mansy, Moselhy S; Shohayeb, Mohamed M; Ashour, Mohammed S

    2017-09-01

    The extensive use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of 7 different ESBL genes (bla TEM , bla SHV , bla CTX-M , bla VEB , bla PER , bla GES , and bla OXA-10 ) and O25b-ST131 high-risk clone among 61 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Also, one broad-spectrum β-lactamase (bla OXA-1 ) was investigated. This study was also constructed to evaluate iodometric overlay method in detection of ESBL production. Phenotypic identification of E. coli isolates using API 20E revealed 18 distinct biotypes. DNA fingerprinting using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) differentiated all isolates into 2 main phylogenetic groups with 60 distinct genetic profiles. Elevated values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 and MIC 90 for third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins were observed. Phenotypic tests revealed that 85.24% of isolates were ESBL producers. The incidence rates of bla TEM , bla SHV , bla CTX-M , bla GES , bla OXA-1 , and bla OXA-10 among E. coli ESBL producer phenotype were 69.23%, 25%, 96.15%, 3.85%, 11.54%, and 48%, respectively. On the other hand, bla VEB and bla PER were not detected. Sequencing of bla TEM and bla SHV revealed that bla TEM-214 and bla SHV-11 were the most prevalent variants. Group characterization of bla CTX-M revealed that bla CTX-M-1 was the most prevalent group of bla CTX-M family. It was found that 30.77% of E. coli ESBL producers belonged to O25b-ST131 clone harboring bla CTX-M-15 . This study concluded that iodometric overlay method was 100% sensitive in detection of ESBL production. To our knowledge, this is the first Egyptian study that declares the emergence of E. coli O25b-ST131 harboring bla GES .

  11. Organizational Communication: Research and Practice. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    In colleges and universities business students learn about organizational communication in order to function well in the business environment of which they will become a part. Although the organizational environment or culture is inextricably interwoven with the academic discipline of speech communication, the field of organizational communication…

  12. Visual Impairments. ERIC Digest #E511.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest provides basic information and resources on visual impairments. Legal and educational definitions are given for "legally blind,""partially sighted,""visually handicapped,""blind," and "low vision". Typical characteristics of individuals with visual impairments in the areas of cognitive…

  13. Multiple Intelligences: Gardner's Theory. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brualdi, Amy C.

    This digest discusses the origins of Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, his definition of intelligence, the incorporation of the theory into the classroom, and its role in alternative assessment practices. Gardner defines intelligence as the "capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more…

  14. Motivating Low Performing Adolescent Readers. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Norma Decker

    This Digest focuses on motivating the low performing adolescent in a remedial reading or subject area classroom--the idea is that students who are disengaged from their own learning processes are not likely to perform well in school. The Digest points out that such adolescents are often caught in a cycle of failure and that secondary teachers must…

  15. An ERIC Update on Global Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cheryl B.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews eight curriculum units, published between 1983 and 1986, for teaching global studies to K through 12 students. The units focus on global economics, problem solving, cultural awareness, hunger in developing nations, the influence of mass media, and ecological/political issues. (JDH)

  16. Liderazgo visionario (Visionary Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    "Vision" is one of the most frequently used buzzwords in the education literature of the 1990s. This digest in Spanish presents an overview of visionary leadership, which many education experts consider to be a make-or-break task for the school leader. It discusses various definitions of vision, the significance of vision for…

  17. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  18. Video Games and Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This digest examines data on video game use by children, explains ratings of video game violence, and reviews research on the effects of video games on children and adolescents. A recent study of seventh and eighth graders found that 65% of males and 57% of females played 1 to 6 hours of video games at home per week, and 38% of males and 16% of…

  19. Addressing Sexual Harassment on Campus. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Jonathan

    Although data on sexual harassment in the community college is limited, it is clear that it does exist and that it runs counter to the colleges' educational mission. Sexual harassment has been defined as verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature, imposed on the basis of sex, that denies, limits, or provides different treatment. Recent legal…

  20. Advertising in the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reviews the recent history of advertising to children, spotlights controversial marketing efforts, and examines the nature of commercial messages directed toward children in public schools. Because of the increase in children's spending power in recent decades, advertisers have closely targeted children as consumers. Advertising…

  1. Politically Correct on Campus. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    This digest reviews materials which discuss political correctness and its manifestations on college campuses. First presenting opposing definitions of the term (liberal and conservative), the digest then reports on the topic as seen in the research, and offers several suggestions about incorporating the conflicts themselves into the curriculum.…

  2. Emerging Challenges for Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Pam

    This digest is drawn from the spring 2002 issue of New Directions for Community Colleges, titled "Next Steps for the Community College." It summarizes three overlapping challenges facing colleges in the coming decade: educating a more diverse student body, assessing student outcomes, and maintaining the educated workforce needed to meet…

  3. Stress and Young Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Jan; Peterson, Karen

    Traditionally, stress has been defined in terms of its sourceinternal, such as hunger, pain, sensitivity to noise; and externalseparation from family, change in family composition, exposure to conflict or violence. Although the research literature tends to focus on the impact of single-variable stressors on children's development, in real-life…

  4. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  5. Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

  6. Fluxus, Eric Andersen and the Communist East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meijden, Peter Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver forskellige turnéer, foretaget af Fluxusmedlemmer i kommunistisk Østeuropa og Sovjetunionen i løbet af 1960erne, og diskuterer dem i lystet af Fluxus-generalsekretær George Maciunas' holdning over for kommunismen....

  7. Teaching about Democratic Constitutionalism. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    There are more than 100 democracies in the world today. All but three of them--Great Britain, Israel, and New Zealand --have written constitutions. This digest examines the importance of constitutions and constitutionalism and the teaching of these concepts through the use of comparisons. The primary objectives of civic education for democratic…

  8. Authorship Ethics. ERIC/AE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, Kristen L.; Rudner, Lawrence M.

    The key ethical standards for authorship of educational research are summarized, drawing on "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Adopted by more than 500 scientific and biomedical journals, these standards are effective guidelines for…

  9. Teaching about Western Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Philip

    Recent historical events have made it increasingly important to strengthen the study of Western Europe in U.S. schools. With full integration of the European Community after 1992, with the unification of the two Germanys, and with the newly democratic states of the old Soviet bloc seeking some form of association with the European Economic…

  10. Estonia beyond the edge / Eric Kluitenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kluitenberg, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Festivali "Interstanding" üks initsiaatoreid arutleb 1990. aastate meedia festivalidel käsitletud teemade tähendusest eesti kultuurile ja selle identiteedile. 1999. aastal toimunud kolmanda festivali teemaks oli "Ülalpool piire - põgenemine marginaalsuse eest". Eestist saanud uute poliitilis-majanduslike ja globaalkultuuriliste võrgustike osa, olles olnud omamoodi vahetsooniks

  11. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  12. Biotechnology Education and the Internet. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas

    The world of modern biotechnology is based on recent developments in molecular biology, especially those in genetic engineering. Since this is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of study, there are few traditional sources of information and activities. This digest highlights biotechnology resources including those that can be found on…

  13. Estonia President, Obama Discuss Cybersecurity / Eric Chabrow

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Chabrow, Eric

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 15. juunil 2009 Washingtonis USA presidendi Barack Obamaga. Riigipead arutasid küberkaitse küsimusi. Eesti president avaldas Ühendriikidele tänu abi eest küberkaitsekeskuse loomisel Tallinnasse. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 9.-16.06.2009

  14. Eric Ambler and the Trick of Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Priotti

    2018-02-01

    Using suggestions of popular literature studies, we have tried to show Ambler's successful attempt at breaking the barriers between formulaic and mimetic fiction, through novels that possess escapist features and yet reveal a great deal of the real context of the 1930s, of which the author showed deep awareness.

  15. Creativity in Adulthood. ERIC Digest No. 204.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    Popular misconceptions about creativity include the following: it is limited to a few unique individuals, it declines seriously with age, and it is associated with uniqueness or innovation. As the focus of creativity research has shifted from examination of the personality traits of creative individuals to examination of the social and…

  16. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  17. Retraso Mental. Traduccion de ERIC EC Digest #528. (Mental Retardation. Translation of ERIC EC Digest #528).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins-Shepard, Charlotte

    This fact sheet presents basic information on mental retardation for Spanish-speaking educators and others. First, definitions from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) are presented. The fact sheet then analyzes how the new AAMR definitions differ from earlier ones,…

  18. Page 1 108 M C Chaturvedi, Peter Rogers and Shyang-Lai Kung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . = 17-152, AA = 39,615 and energy = 36,461, where A1+A2 = 56,167 is the maximum irrigated acreage that can be achieved irrigation is nearly 74% of the total surface water irrigation. This is because of the monsoon water availability in the ...

  19. Daily mapping of 30m LAI and NDVI for grape yield prediction in California vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine grape quality and quantity are affected by vine growing conditions during critical phenological stages. Field observations of vine growth stages are normally very sparse and cannot capture the spatial variability of vine conditions. Remote sensing data acquired from visible and near infrared ba...

  20. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports measurements of the canopy and structure of secondary forests regenerating from abandoned pastures. These secondary forests are located in the...

  1. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports measurements of the canopy and structure of secondary forests regenerating from abandoned pastures. These secondary forests are...

  2. SAFARI 2000 LAI and FPAR Measurements at Sua Pan, Botswana, Dry Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Validation team was deployed to the Sua Pan salt playa in the Magkadigkadi region of Botswana during the SAFARI 2000...

  3. Tallinna Linnateater : Aida 2; Lai tn. 19; 21; 23 / Kalle Rõõmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rõõmus, Kalle, 1955-

    2000-01-01

    Eesmärgiks oli luua teater läbi kogu hoonestuse. Peaprojekteerija RUPI EE, AS Arhitektuuribüroo Kalle Rõõmus (alates 1993). Arhitekt Kalle Rõõmus, kaasa töötas Kaja Kõiv, sisekujundajad Jüri Kermik, Argo ja Katrin Vaikla (viimasel etapil). Teatritehnoloogia: Mikko Hausman Soomest. Ehitajad: Remet, Restor, Estconde-E. Projekteerimine algas 1986, tööd lõppesid 1999. 7 ill.: I korruse plaan, makett, välisvaade, 4 sisevaadet

  4. SAFARI 2000 LAI and FPAR Measurements at Sua Pan, Botswana, Dry Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Validation team was deployed to the Sua Pan salt playa in the Magkadigkadi region of Botswana during the...

  5. SAFARI 2000 LAI Measurements at Kalahari Transect Sites, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Boston University team collected several data sets along the Kalahari Transect during the SAFARI 2000 wet season field campaign from March 3rd to March 18th,...

  6. SAFARI 2000 LAI Measurements at Kalahari Transect Sites, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Boston University team collected several data sets along the Kalahari Transect during the SAFARI 2000 wet season field campaign from March 3rd to March...

  7. Perlindungan dan Tanggung Jawab Perusahaan Penerbangan Domestik PT LAI Kepada Konsumen Selaku Penumpangnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukmanul Hakim

    2017-12-01

    Legal protection for consumers who are passengers of domestic airlines in Indonesia is governed by Law No. 1/2009 on Flight jo. Law No. 8/1999 on Consumer Protection. Legislation explains the responsibility of airlines, legal protection and the amount of compensation for injured passengers. In practice, not all domestic commercial airlines have fully implemented the rules regarding passenger liability. Passenger as a consumer who suffers a loss may file a accusation or claim to the airline. Settlement of disputes can be pursued through in court and out of court. It is advisable to the Ministry of Transport to take firm action against airlines in violation of legislation, and review of the amount of compensation value for injured passengers.

  8. National Security Strategy: Examining Chou En Lai's Rapprochement with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartwick, Douglas A

    1993-01-01

    .... Relying on his diplomatic skill, pragmatism, and understanding of American and Soviet objectives, Chou engineered President Nixon's visit to China in February 1972 that was capped by the Shanghai Communique...

  9. Kulikov : Vene kinnisvaraäris toob edu enesekindlus ning lai silmaring / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2004-01-01

    Vene kinnisvaraärimehest Jevgeni Kulikovist, kes on Eestis toimuval rahvusvahelisel konverentsil "Kinnisvara 2004" peaesineja. Lisad: Kompanii MIEL; Vene kinnisvaraturg; Grigori Kulikov - Vene hinnatuim

  10. National Security Strategy: Examining Chou En Lai’s Rapprochement with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-20

    1979. 1981, Crown Helm. Ltd. London and Yahuda , Michael B. China’s Role In World Affairs. 1978, St. Martin’s Press : New York for a more detailed...account of some of the competing political and ideological crosscurrents that challenged China’s leadership at this time. 5. See Yahuda pp. 212-213...6. Yahuda , pp. 225-6. 7. Yahuda , pp. 221. 8. For a more complete description of the perceived challenges facing China’s leadership at this time

  11. Archaeological investigations at Lai street in Tartu / Rünno Vissak, Eero Heinloo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vissak, Rünno, 1962-

    2006-01-01

    Leitud ehituskehanditest on huvipakkuvamad Vene värava eesvärava müürid Laia tänava jõepoolses osas ja massiivsete müüride jäänused Jakobi ja Laia tänava ristumiskohal, mis ilmselt kuuluvad keskaegse Katariina kloostri hoonetekompleksi

  12. Experimental Sentinel-2 LAI estimation using parametric, non-parametric and physical retrieval methods - A comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Veroustraete, Frank; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Moreno, José

    2015-01-01

    Given the forthcoming availability of Sentinel-2 (S2) images, this paper provides a systematic comparison of retrieval accuracy and processing speed of a multitude of parametric, non-parametric and physically-based retrieval methods using simulated S2 data. An experimental field dataset (SPARC),

  13. Meeting Youth Needs with Community Programs. ERIC Digest, Number 86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    Rather than viewing youth as an isolated and alienated subculture, it is more useful to view the needs of youth as largely determined by where and how they live, and to recognize that they differ from one another just as adults do. Professionals and volunteers in community youth programs need to understand how the youth they work with experience…

  14. ADHD and Children Who Are Gifted. ERIC Digest #522.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, James T.; Latimer, Diane

    This fact sheet summarizes information on children who have an attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), are gifted, or are both ADHD and gifted. Fourteen diagnostic criteria for ADHD from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III are listed. A comparison of behaviors associated with ADHD and with giftedness is…

  15. Teen Courts and Law-Related Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Teen courts have gained in popularity in the 1990s. These courts include youth courts, peer juries, peer courts, student courts, and other courts using juveniles to determine the sentences of juvenile offenders. The courts issue sentences that are carried out in a school or community setting and generally involve community service, jury duty,…

  16. Performance Assessment Links in Science (PALS). ERIC/AE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellmalz, Edys; Schank, Patricia; Hinojosa, Thomas; Padilla, Christine

    To meet the need for innovative approaches for sharing exemplary assessment resources, to facilitate new assessments, and to increase understanding of how the use of standards-based performance assessment can advance educational reform, SRI International is developing Performance Assessment Links in Science (PALS), an on-line, standards-based,…

  17. Politicas de tolerancia cero (Zero Tolerance Policies). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Tobin

    State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. They have arisen in part as a response to the threat of the withdrawal of federal funds under the 1994 Gun-Free Schools Act, and…

  18. Mimesis, en la encrucijada del exilio de Eric Auerbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barck, Karlheinz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a study of the masterpiece of Erich Auerbach, Mimesis, as an exile’s book. It also examines how Auerbach confronts his text with the Jewish question. And then discusses which was the impact of Mimesis in Hispanic Letters, paying special attention to the valuable work done by the spanish republican exiles, like Eugenio Imaz, in translating and editing this book for Fondo de Cultura Económica.El presente artículo es un estudio de la obra maestra de Erich Auerbach, Mimesis, como libro del exilio. Se analiza también el modo como Auerbach confronta en él la cuestión judía y, posteriormente, se discute cuál fue la repercusión de Mimesis en las letras hispánicas, con especial atención a la valiosa labor realizada por los exiliados españoles, como Eugenio Ímaz, en su traducción y edición para FCE.

  19. Learning from a Sea Snail: Eric Kandel -86 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as early as the 18908 but was further devel- oped by two psychologists, Jerry Konorski and Donald Hebb, in ... early years of his work, he used two ap- proaches to develop Aplysia into a model system for the study of ... amount released on successive stimulation. This would result in a decreased excitation of the following ...

  20. Preventing Student Sexual Harassment. ERIC Digest Number 160.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews effective strategies currently used by schools to combat sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is considered any unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature that interferes with the life of the target individual. Experts agree that sexual harassment is about power, not sex. A serious effort to keep a school free of sexual harassment…

  1. Promoting Physical Activity and Exercise among Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    This Digest discusses the importance of and ways to foster activity and exercise in children. Following an introduction, the Digest is organized into four sections. The first section deals with the significant health benefits of physical activity, including: reduction in chronic disease risk; lowered risk of colon cancer; increase in bone density;…

  2. The School Librarian's Role in the Electronic Age. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol

    The dawn of the electronic age has altered the role of the school librarian: the position is less of a warehouse manager and more of a reference consultant, the emphasis is access to information rather than collection development, and the librarian is an information center manager, specialist, and teacher of information technology. School…

  3. The Value of a College Degree. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathleen

    The escalating cost of higher education is causing many to question the value of continuing education beyond high school. To determine whether higher education is worth the investment, it is useful to examine what is known about the value of higher education and the rates of return on investment to both the individual and society. There is…

  4. National Board for Professional Teaching Standards--Update. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratz-Snowden, Joan

    The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) was established in 1987 and charged with the mission of improving the quality of teaching and public education. The National Board certification system involves three critical elements: (1) standards setting; (2) assessment instruments; and (3) professional development. This Digest…

  5. Substance Abuse and Counseling: A Perspective. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Amos

    Substance abuse is a major social problem and concern for counselors. It is the most prevalent mind disorder encompassing some 40% of the diagnoses in the DSM-IV, the number one continuing health problem, and the number one prison problem in the United States. Yet, school, rehabilitation, and mental health counselor education programs do not…

  6. El Metodo Llamado Proyecto (The Project Approach). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.

    A project is an in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about, usually undertaken by a group of children within a class. The goal of a project is to learn more about a topic rather than to find answers to questions posed by a teacher. Project work is complementary to the systematic parts of a curriculum. Whereas systematic…

  7. Critical Literacy for Adult Literacy in Language Learners. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Carol; Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    This digest examines critical literacy and discusses why it is important to include it in instruction for adults learning English as a Second Language (ESL). Critical literacy takes learners beyond the development of basic literacy skills such as decoding, predicting, and summarizing and asks them to become critical consumers of the information…

  8. Needs Assessment for Adult ESL Learners. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddel, Kathleen Santopietro; Van Duzer, Carol

    A needs assessment for use with adult learners of English is a tool that examines, from the learner's perspective, what kinds of English, native language, and literacy skills the learner believes he has, literacy contexts in which the learner lives and works, what he wants and needs to know to function in those contexts, what he expects to gain…

  9. Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, Sandra; Farber, Naomi

    This digest reviews trends in adolescent sexual activity and discusses conceptual and programmatic approaches to pregnancy prevention. It discusses a pregnant adolescent's choices for resolving an unplanned pregnancy (i.e. abortion, adoption, keeping the baby, and marriage), and the challenges faced by teenage parents. The final section touches on…

  10. Social Studies and the Disabled Reader. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M. Gail; Braun, Patty

    As a result of federal legislation, the effects of mainstreaming of special needs students are being felt now more than ever. Regular classroom teachers are responsible for much of the instruction for special needs students, even though they may lack necessary training in effective teaching techniques. Teachers of social studies may feel…

  11. Adolescent Literacy and Content Area Reading. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Karen

    Noting a renewed interest in and dedication to the rights and needs of adolescent readers, this digest addresses the development of content area reading, discusses recent reconceptualizations of the field, and offers a new model for classroom practice. It begins with a brief description of the historical context of literacy development in the…

  12. Counseling Abused Children. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    This digest familiarizes counselors with the four major types of child maltreatment: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect. A definition is provided for each, along with relevant symptoms and statistics. The subsequent discussion focuses on identifying maltreatment and on counseling abused children.…

  13. Computadoras y ninos pequenos (Computers and Young Children). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Susan W.

    Whether we use technology with young children--and if so, how--are critical issues facing early childhood educators and parents. This Spanish-language digest points out that many researchers do not recommend that children under 3 years old use computers. The digest also notes that many educators use computers with young children in ways that are…

  14. Work Teams in Schools. ERIC Digest, Number 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Lori Jo

    Quality work teams that are based on W. Edwards Deming's business-management theories have proliferated at the school and district levels to handle problem solving and decision making. Teams are said to build stronger relationships among those involved in education and, ultimately, to benefit students because more people with broader perspectives…

  15. Ausencia estudiantil sin permiso (Student Truancy). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKalb, Jay

    This Digest in Spanish examines some of the ways that truancy affects both individuals and society. It identifies factors that may place students at greater risk of becoming truant and lists some consequences of nonattendance, including delayed promotion and graduation, lowered self-esteem, and lessened employment potential. The causes of truancy…

  16. Developing Curriculum for Democracy through International Partnerships. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    The fall of communism in eastern and central Europe inspired the call for curriculum development in citizenship education throughout the growing democratic world. Many programs between U.S. institutions and newly developing democracies continue to produce curricula for democratic citizenship suited to local needs. This digest discusses: (1)…

  17. Understanding and Facilitating Preschool Children's Peer Acceptance. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen M.

    This digest discusses factors associated with the acceptance and rejection of preschool children by their peers and offers a number of strategies that teachers and other adults can use in their attempts to help children achieve social acceptance. Behaviors and characteristics associated with peer rejection include aggression and misinterpretation…

  18. Student Stress: Effects and Solutions. ERIC Digest 85-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Neal A.; And Others

    Stress is experienced by college students at different educational levels, but colleges can help reduce its destructive forms. There are explanations of why students perform badly under stress, such as "hypervigilance" (i.e., overstudying for an exam) and "premature closure" (i.e., rushing through an exam). Situations that are…

  19. Newer Technologies for School Security. ERIC Digest Number 145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    This digest describes several technologies that can be used to control access to, and improve surveillance of, school grounds. Access can be controlled by using "smart" cards to control keyed entries. Many schools have problems with multiple copies of keys, and these card systems are integrated with computer software that allows for…

  20. Dropout Intervention and Language Minority Youth. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaznaugh, Adriana

    This digest describes three programs for middle and high school language minority students at risk of dropping out of school. Two of the programs are geared toward limited-English-proficient Hispanic youth, and the third, a vocational program, involves African-American students as well. The first program described is the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…

  1. Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring. ERIC Digest, Number 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, Joan

    One-to-one tutoring programs, such as peer and cross-age tutoring, can result in emotional and learning benefits for the tutor and the tutee. Peer tutoring involves two students of the same age. In cross-age tutoring, the tutor is older than the tutee. The Willamette High School Peer Tutoring Program in Eugene, Oregon; the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…

  2. The Media's Role in Political Campaigns. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    This digest examines the relationship between the political process and the media. The digest discusses the ramifications of advertising in politics; the role of the televised debate in elections; individual voter characteristics and the media; and media coverage and campaign awareness. Fifteen references are attached. (RS)

  3. Tipp-pankur, kelle aastapalk on 1 dollar / Eric Dash

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dash, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Citigroupi juhi Vikram Panditi aastapalk on 1 dollar, seda seni, kuni pank on taas kindlalt kasumis. Tükk tüki haaval nülib ta maha ettevõtte liigseid harusid, tugevdab panga bilanssi, stabiliseerides finantse

  4. Can Music Instruction Affect Children's Cognitive Development? ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.

    Several studies have examined the effects of music instruction on children's abilities in other disciplines. Other studies have explored the effects of listening to music on adults' spatial abilities. Noting that these two sets of findings have been confused, leading to claims that listening to music can improve children's academic abilities, this…

  5. Writing Activities: A Primer for Outdoor Educators. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Alan

    In outdoor education, reflection transforms experience into knowledge. Writing activities facilitate reflection. In designing writing activities, instructors should ask themselves why they are asking their students to write, what type of writing is appropriate for their purpose, when and in what context the activity should take place, how they…

  6. Finding Funding for Environmental Education Efforts. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Puglisi, Dawn D.

    Funds are not always available to finance environmental education efforts in communities and schools. This digest highlights steps for identifying potential sources for funding and how to apply for those funds. Two sources of monetary awards to groups and individuals are grants and gifts. Four steps to identify potential donors and apply for…

  7. Teaching Geography at School and Home. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    Geography is a key to understanding and acting effectively in our world. It is the subject that, more than any other, enables people to comprehend the earth and its environment, and to appreciate the delicate balances between the human and physical elements that bind people to this planet. However, more than half the children of the United States…

  8. Television Violence and Behavior: A Research Summary. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn E.

    This digest describes the overall pattern of the results of research on television violence and behavior. Several variables in the relationship between television violence and aggression related to characteristics of the viewers and to the portrayal of violence are identified. Viewer characteristics included: age, amount of television watched,…

  9. The Evolving Status of Photojournalism Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookman, Claude

    Noting that new technologies are resulting in extensive changes in the field of photojournalism, both as it is practiced and taught, this Digest reviews this rapidly evolving field of education and professional practice. It discusses what digital photography is; the history of digital photography; how digital photography has changed…

  10. Homeless Children: Addressing the Challenge in Rural Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, Yvonne M.

    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, homelessness is as prevalent in rural as urban areas. This digest examines the implications of homelessness for rural children and youth and discusses possible actions by rural educators. An estimated half of the rural homeless are families with children. Compared to urban counterparts, rural homeless families…

  11. Homeless Children: Meeting the Educational Challenges. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, Brad; Cesarone, Bernard

    Difficulties faced by homeless children include depression, low self-esteem, lack of sleep and nutrition, and feelings of shame and embarrassment. Challenges faced by schools in providing education to homeless children include: (1) keeping children in one school despite frequent family moves; (2) ensuring that children's health records are…

  12. Promoting Reading among Mexican American Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Yvonne I.; Velazquez, Jose

    Good books can help children develop pride in their ethnic identity, knowledge about cultural history and positive role models, and improved self-esteem. However, Mexican American students often do not experience literature in this way. This digest briefly reviews Mexican American children's literature, recommends classroom strategies, provides…

  13. Worker-Centered Learning: Labor's Role. ERIC Digest No. 211.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet G.

    Globalization of the economy and rapid technological innovation challenge today's work force to prepare for continuous change. In response to a strong mandate from their membership, labor unions have formed partnerships to deliver the necessary worker education. Because they are in daily contact with workers and have a holistic knowledge of…

  14. Energy Conservation. The Best of ERIC, Number 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    The 13 articles in this annotated bibliography cover a wide range of concerns from the finances of energy conservation to solar energy applications, to building design, to building maintenance, and to the role of the science teacher as an energy analyst and activist. (IRT)

  15. Violence in Sports. ERIC Digest 1-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdal-Haqq, Ismat

    This Digest examines violence in team sports and how manifestations of violence reflect the attitudes and behavior of players, coaches, and fans. Three theoretical explanations of sports violence are discussed--the biological theory, the psychological theory, and the social learning theory. The pressures of competitive sports on children are…

  16. Arab American Students in Public Schools. ERIC Digest, Number 142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews ways to provide Arab Americans with a supportive school environment and all students with an accurate and unbiased education about the Middle East. The school climate will make Arab American students feel more welcome if Arab culture is included in multicultural courses and activities, and if the staff works to eliminate…

  17. Futures. The Best of ERIC Series, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    Included in the articles and documents in this annotated bibliography are definitions of futurism, discussions of the background and applications of futurism, and examinations of some futurist writings. Some articles and documents are based in the present and discuss relatively conventional approaches to determining what is to be done to meet the…

  18. Eric Besson: the financial advantage of nuclear energy is confirmed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The French minister of energy, E. Besson said that the study of the Court of Auditors on the real costs of nuclear energy confirmed the competitiveness of nuclear power. The Court of Auditors confirmed also that public expenditures in favor of nuclear energy are balanced by the gain through the tax on nuclear facilities. The Court of Auditors confirms also that dismantlement charges and charges for the management of radioactive wastes are included in the present costs of nuclear energy at an adequate level with today's knowledge. The total cost of nuclear energy is very competitive, it ranges form 32.5 euros/MWh to 49.5 euros/MWh according to the cost accounting method used. One of major parameters for cost elaboration is the knowledge of the lengths of the operating life of the power plant. The longer the extension is, the lower is the investment cost. (A.C.)

  19. Evaluating and Selecting Online Magazines for Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mei-Yu

    This Digest provides an overview of children's online magazines, also known as e-zines. It begins with a brief review of factors that contribute to the popularity of these publications, followed by a list of criteria for selecting high-quality online magazines for children. Samples of high-quality children's e-zines are also included in this…

  20. Teaching History for Citizenship in the Elementary School. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, John D.

    A substantial amount of research and curriculum development completed over the past 2 decades can be used to improve the teaching of U.S. history to young children. This digest discusses: (1) insights from recent research; (2) insights from recent curriculum development; and (3) connections of research to curriculum development. The digest…

  1. Eric Cantona: Fußball-Ikone der modernen Medienwelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wassermair

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Unterhaltungsindustrie und Massenmedien nimmt der Sport eine im wahrsten Sinne des Wortes bewegende Rolle ein. Er ist zugleich Wettkampf-Arena und Wunschmaschine, Werbefläche und Starproduktion. Dass die Erscheinungsformen des Sports in der modernen Medienwelt einer rasanten Dynamik und Wechselbeziehung unterliegen, ist am Beispiel des Massenphänomens Fußballs vielleicht am deutlichsten abzulesen.

  2. Preventing and Resolving Parent-Teacher Differences. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Parents and teachers share responsibility for creating a working relationship that fosters children's learning. This digest examines the cultural context for parent-teacher relationships, suggests some general strategies for creating a climate in which misunderstandings and disagreements between parents and teachers can be minimized through…

  3. Learning from a Sea Snail: Eric Kandel -86 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nisms of learning and memory. If learning may be defined as the acquisition of information during ... the goal: Visual flight control and odometry,. The Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 199, pp. 237-244, 1996. ... modify future behaviour, then memory is the form in which this information is stored. Together, they represent ...

  4. Teenage Pregnancy. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Laurie L.

    This fact sheet addresses the issue of teenage pregnancy. Six factors contributing to the current attention focused on teenage pregnancy and parenthood are listed and teenage pregnancy and birth rates are discussed. Other areas covered include teenage nonuse of contraception, sex education by schools and parents, family planning services, and the…

  5. Science Instruction for Students with Visual Impairments. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David D.; Ramasamy, Rangasamy; Stefanich, Greg P.

    This digest presents instructional strategies to accommodate visually impaired students in science classrooms and provides classroom examples for physical science, chemistry, and biology courses. The article concludes that prospective science teachers must become skilled in using resource materials and adaptive technologies that facilitate the…

  6. Cultural Diversity and Teamwork. ERIC Digest No. 152.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    In today's society, when increasing numbers of employees are being expected to work in teams and when cultural diversity is becoming commonplace in schools and workplaces, it is imperative that vocational and career educators prepare students for future interactions in a culturally diverse workplace. Communication differences between generations,…

  7. Trauma and the Adult English Language Learner. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isserlis, Janet

    English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) practitioners are familiar with adult learners' stories of disruption, political trauma, and mental upheaval. Until recently, however, little attention has been paid to personal trauma and domestic abuse. Acknowledgement of the prevalence of violence generally, and of that experienced by those in the adult ESL…

  8. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  9. Using Stories about Heroes To Teach Values. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tony R.

    This digest discusses a method of teaching values by using the lives of heroes as examples. The trend for teaching values is to offer methods of analysis and judgment that lead to answers about right and wrong, better and worse concerning personal behavior and common good. Stories about heroes have been identified as the means of teaching and…

  10. Drug Testing. ERIC Digest Series Number EA35 (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy; Hadderman, Margaret

    Despite privacy concerns, school administrators are feeling pressure to adopt urgent measures to keep drugs and alcohol from further endangering our youth's well-being and undermining staff performance. This urgency is reinforced by a national anti-drug campaign and Congressional passage of the Drug-Free Workplace Act (1988) and the Drug-Free…

  11. Eesti saab veel ühe monumendi / Eric A. Johnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johnson, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Vabadussõjas (1918-1920) osalesid peale soomlaste, rootslaste, taanlaste ja inglaste ka ameeriklased, kes olid enamuses Ameerika Punase Risti vabatahtlikud. Monument, mis plaanitakse valmis saada aasta lõpuks, hakkab seisma Tallinna kaitseväe kalmistul. Ilmunud ka: Linnaleht : na russkom jazõke, 23. mai 2008, lk 9 (V Estonii pojavitsja eshtshjo odin monument)

  12. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-FG02-06ER64172 – Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center – Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric E. Roden

    2009-03-17

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2. Area 2 is a shallow pathway for migration of contaminated groundwater to seeps in the upper reach of Bear Creek at ORNL, mainly through a ca. 1 m thick layer of gravel located 4-5 m below the ground surface. The gravel layer is sandwiched between an overlying layer of disturbed fill material, and 2-3 m of undisturbed shale saprolite derived from the underlying Nolichucky Shale bedrock. The fill was put in place when contaminated soils were excavated and replaced by native saprolite from an uncontaminated area within Bear Creek Valley; the gravel layer was presumably installed prior to addition of the fill in order to provide a stable surface for the operation of heavy machinery. The undisturbed saprolite is highly weathered bedrock that has unconsolidated character but retains much of the bedding and fracture structure of the parent rock (shale with interbedded limestone). Hydrological tracer studies conducted during the Scheibe et al. field

  13. Final Scientific/Technical Report - DE-FG02-06ER64172 - Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center - Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roden, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled 'Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center', which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2. Area 2 is a shallow pathway for migration of contaminated groundwater to seeps in the upper reach of Bear Creek at ORNL, mainly through a ca. 1 m thick layer of gravel located 4-5 m below the ground surface. The gravel layer is sandwiched between an overlying layer of disturbed fill material, and 2-3 m of undisturbed shale saprolite derived from the underlying Nolichucky Shale bedrock. The fill was put in place when contaminated soils were excavated and replaced by native saprolite from an uncontaminated area within Bear Creek Valley; the gravel layer was presumably installed prior to addition of the fill in order to provide a stable surface for the operation of heavy machinery. The undisturbed saprolite is highly weathered bedrock that has unconsolidated character but retains much of the bedding and fracture structure of the parent rock (shale with interbedded limestone). Hydrological tracer studies conducted during the Scheibe et al. field

  14. Vietnes “Twitch.tv” lietotāju sociālais tīkls

    OpenAIRE

    Zērvēns, Matīss

    2014-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darba mērķis ir turpināt izstrādāt un uzlabot esošo tīmekļa lietotni. Izstrādājamās sistēmas mērķis ir paplašināt vietnes twitch.tv funkcionalitāti, funkcionalitātes paplašinājums fokusējas uz lietotāju savstarpēju mijiedarbību un straumētāju apguvi. Šī sistēma ļaus lietotājam grupēt vietnes twitch.tv straumētājus saturiskās grupās, vieglāk atrast un orientēties straumētājos, vadoties pēc citu sistēmas lietotāju darbībām, vērtējumiem un viedokļiem....

  15. Challenges in Diagnosis and Management of Serotonin Syndrome in A Patient with Schizophrenia Treated with A LAI Antipsychotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-20

    inventory of depressive symptomatology (QIDS) of 2 1 and th roughout treat ment , her sco~ improved on the QIDS to 11 lowest score of 3. Self...throughout treat ment was 3.5. Self-reported score of ECT helping the patient’s depressive symptoms was also scored on a scale of 1· 10, with I being minimal...she received 4 ECT t rc1tmt nt5 with mldlln ’ placement nod 3 mo~ treat ments post· disehargc. We achieved excellent EEG readings based on rhythm s

  16. A Comparative Analysis into U.S. Military Abuses at the My Lai Massacre and Abu Ghraib Prison Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    volunteer’s participation ultimately benefits this ideology.121 116 This is known as the Lucifer Effect ...i.e., the metamorphosis of God’s favorite angel, Lucifer , into Satan, captured by psychologist Zimbardo in his book The Lucifer Effect ...Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. Zimbardo’s reference to the Lucifer Effect , which is analogous to his model of how ordinary people do “evil” things, is

  17. Humoral leukocyte adherence inhibition (H-LAI) test in screening of high risk group for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubasova, T.; Koeteles, G.J.; Horvath, M.; Bank, J.

    1990-01-01

    In screening 150 ore miners a positive humoral immune response to the lung tumor antigen was found in 30 serum samples. Repeated testing of the positive sera (after 1-3 years) was only possible in 15 cases. The reaction of 12 serum samples again was positive, while 2 persons died of lung cancer. The results obtained in these follow-up investigations are discussed. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 11 refs

  18. HIV/AIDSi temaatikaga seotud teadmised ja hoiakud Eestis täiskasvanute hulgas / Karmen Lai, Kristi Tarik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lai, Karmen

    2007-01-01

    Artiklis on analüüsitud Eestis elavate täiskasvanute teadmisi ja hoiakuid seoses HIV/AIDSiga, et selgitada välja, kas ühiskonna liikmed on valmis toetama ja aitama HIV-positiivset inimest. Ainestiku kogumiseks kasutati ankeetküsitlust

  19. Eric Alan Johnson : "Mne nravitsja tot duhh, kotorõi tõ oshtshushtshaejesh v Pitere" / Eric Alan Johnson ; interv. Liana Turpakova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johnson, Eric Alan

    2008-01-01

    USA saatkonna Eestis pressiatashee vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema elukäiku, vene keele õppimist, huvi Venemaa vastu, elu Leningradis, ülikoolis õppimist, tööd diplomaadina Moskvas ja Peterburis, muusika- ja kirjandushuvi

  20. Puede afectar la instruccion en musica el desarrollo cognitivo de los ninos? ERIC Digest. (Can Music Instruction Affect Children's Cognitive Development? ERIC Digest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.

    Several studies have examined the effects of music instruction on children's abilities in other disciplines. Other studies have explored the effects of listening to music on adults' spatial abilities. Noting that these two sets of findings have been confused, leading to claims that listening to music can improve children's academic abilities, this…

  1. Virus Genomes Reveal the Factors that Spread and Sustained the West African Ebola Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Magassouba47, Dhamari Naidoo39, Stuart T. Nichol35, Gustavo Palacios8, Oliver G Pybus6, Pardis Sabeti7,20, Amadou Sall32, Ute Stroeher35, Isatta Wury45, Marc A... Mary A. O’Connell, and Francis M. Jiggins. Evidence for ADAR-induced hypermutation of the Drosophila sigma virus (Rhabdoviridae). BMC Genetics, 10(1...Bochicchio, Lisa E. Hensley, Jens H. Kuhn, Chad Nusbaum, John S. Schieffelin, Bruce W. Birren, Marc Forget, Stuart T. Nichol, Gustavo F. Palacios, Daouda

  2. Estimation of effective dose rates caused by radon and thoron for inhabitants living in rare earth field in northwestern Vietnam (Lai Chau province)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Khanh Phon; Bui Dac Dung; Nguyen Dinh Chau; Tibor Kovacs; Nguyen Van Nam; Duong Van Hao; Nguyen Thai Son; Vu Thi Minh Luan

    2015-01-01

    Forty six houses at three typical inhabitant villages that are located in the rare earth field in northwestern Vietnam were surveyed for radon and thoron concentrations. The measurements were conducted by exposing alpha track detectors CR-39 inside and outside of dwellings for 4 months. The results showed that houses adjacent to the rare earth ore bodies have significantly elevated radon concentrations. Annual committed effective doses originated from the inhalation of radon and thoron were estimated. The results showed that people living in the ore bodies areas would be exposed to the dose that could be 10 times higher than the world average. (author)

  3. Varginimo įtakos audinių su fasoniniais siūlais mechaninėms savybėms tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Benaitienė, Monika

    2015-01-01

    One of the most widely used kinds of complex structure yarns are fancy yarns. Fancy yarns enable to obtain various, often distinctive, textile effects providing exclusivity to fabric. For these reasons, the majority of fancy yarns are used in the clothing industry and high fashion. However, these yarns are also used in the production of other textiles, in particular, in technical textiles. The aim of this work is to weave fabrics with fancy yarns in the weft, and to analyse the im...

  4. Identification de distributions dans des séries temporelles multivariées présentant des corrélations à délais

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cam, Steven

    2013-01-01

    National audience; Les modèles par chaînes de Markov cachées ont prouvé leur efficacité pour la segmentation et la restauration de signaux multivariées. En particulier, ces modèles et les extensions associées sont appréciés pour leur robustesse au bruit et pour les outils d'estimation non supervisée qui leurs sont associés. Parmi ces extensions, les Chaînes de Markov Triplet amènent une généralisation permettant de prendre en compte des distributions de bruit complexes ou encore l'introductio...

  5. Idiolekto požymiai elektroninių laiškų leksikoje. Manifestations of idiolect in the lexis of electronic mail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintarė Žalkauskaitė

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to establish features of idiolect in electronic mail and describe word forms that account for differences among individual writers of electronic letters. The data has been derived from a corpus of 65,000 words consisting of electronic letters written in Lithuanian by six subjects over 2008-2010 years. The WordSmith Tools software was used to generate frequency lists of six subcorpora, representing each subject. The analysis of the frequency data revealed certain peculiarities of the subcorpora. For example, the shortened form da (30 occurrences of the adverb dar (‘still, yet, even more’ has been established in only one subcorpus. A list of 139 word forms significantly overused in a particular subcorpus was compiled. It was established, that words attributed to idiolect belong to different word classes, which proves that the features of idiolect can not be limited to one word class. The analysis of these words shows that the main part of them express modality and stance, e. g. some authors more often use modal verb galėti (‘can’, others – reikėti (‘need, have to’, others are chosen from possible synonyms and variants (e. g. shortened vs. full word forms, also there are groups of nonstandard word forms, used by some authors, and time reference words (e. g. one of the authors uses more concrete time references than others and etc. Thus the study has established some lexical evidence of idiolect features in the electronic mail. The results of the study might be applied in forensic linguistics authorship attribution.

  6. The Politics of Deception and the French Lais in the Roman de Fauvel, Manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, R.C.I.

    2014-01-01

    The interpolated version of the French allegorical satire, the Roman de Fauvel, transmitted in manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146 (produced in Paris ca. 1317), targets the corruption within the French royal court in the last years of the rule of King Philip IV of

  7. Improving ESL Learners' Listening Skills: At the Workplace and Beyond. ERIC PAIE Q & A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Carol

    Listening is a critical element in the competent language performance of adult second language learners. Listening is a demanding process, because of both the process itself and factors that characterize the listener, speaker, message content, and any accompanying visual support. The speaker's use of colloquial language and reduced forms,…

  8. Home, School, and Community in Adolescent Education. ERIC/CUE Urban Diversity Series No. 84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    Current research on adolescence provides plenty of facts about delinquency, unemployment, and illegitimacy, yet tells us little or nothing about the inner life of adolescents. In an attempt to provide more information, the research reported on here describes the "periods" of adolescence as they are structured in the various…

  9. Developing Academic Programs: The Climate for Innovation. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 3, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Daniel T.; Fife, Jonathan D., Ed.

    The ongoing process of developing new academic programs is slow, and the process by which this gradual reshaping occurs involves all aspects of the institution of higher education. The overlap of innovation in organizations, strategic planning, and program evaluation is important in this development. Administrators, trustees, and faculty members…

  10. Highly Mobile Students: Educational Problems and Possible Solutions. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY.

    The following two types of student mobility stand out as causing educational problems: (1) inner-city mobility, which is prompted largely by fluctuations in the job market; and (2) intra-city mobility, which is caused by upward mobility or by poverty and homelessness. Most research indicates that high mobility negatively affects student…

  11. Las estrategias de un lider (The Strategies of a Leader). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    A decade ago, principals were asked to become instructional leaders who exercised firm control by setting goals, maintaining discipline, and evaluating results. Today, they are encouraged to act as facilitative leaders by building teams, creating networks, and "governing from the center." Rapid shifts in administrative philosophy can be…

  12. Estandares: El medio ambiente de las politicas (Standards: The Policy Environment). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This digest in Spanish offers a snapshot of the standards movement: its origins, the definitions of standards and which ones matter, its successes at the district and state levels, the backlash against the movement, and possible policy directions. While a broad coalition of constituencies has embraced standards-based reform as a means of improving…

  13. Politicas de uniformes y codigos de vestuario (Uniforms and Dress-Code Policies). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Linda

    This digest in Spanish examines schools' dress-code policies and discusses the legal considerations and research findings about the effects of such changes. Most revisions to dress codes involve the use of uniforms, typically as a way to curb school violence and create a positive learning environment. A recent survey of secondary school principals…

  14. Building Leadership Skills in Middle School Girls through Interscholastic Athletics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lawrence; Gary, Juneau Mahan; Duhamel, Christie Creney; Homefield, Kimberly

    For the middle school-aged female athlete, self-esteem, empowerment, and self-confidence are often bolstered through participation in interscholastic competitive sports. These traits are also traits of leadership. This digest discusses how many contributing factors and people mold the student athlete into a leader but the process must be…

  15. The Future of Family Life. Overview: ERIC Fact Sheet No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catherine

    This fact sheet presents an overview of current and projected changes in American family life, along with implications of those changes for home economics educators. Topics which are covered include: (1) changing family structures; (2) working women and homemakers; (3) family problems such as divorce, adolescent sexuality and pregnancy, violence…

  16. Computer Technology and Educational Equity. ERIC/CUE Urban Diversity Series, Number 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Edmund W.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor

    The impact of the technological revolution on education is examined in this monograph, which focuses primarily on computers. First, the history of the educational uses of a variety of media (film, radio, television, teaching machines, and videodisc systems) is traced and assessed. As instructional aids, it is said, the media economize teachers'…

  17. "what's the use of poetry..." : [luuletused] / Jürgen Rooste ; tlk. Eric Dickens

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooste, Jürgen, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    "what's the use of poetry..." ; "in danish town rivers are flowing..." ; "at work..." ; "WILL YOU LOVE ME UNTIL THE EDGE OF ETERNETY...". Orig.: "milleks on vaja luulet..." ; "töö juures..." ; "KASSA ARMASTAD MIND IGAVIKU ÄÄRENI..."

  18. Improving Schooling to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Carol

    This brief digest discusses teenage pregnancy and various educational strategies that appear to affect pregnancy rates. While pregnancy among white teenagers has increased since the 1970s, the birthrate among black teenagers is still five to eight times higher. Teenage mothers and fathers have lower educational attainment and income than their…

  19. Nasdaq loobub Londoni börsist OMX-i ostmiseks / Eric Katskowski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katskowski, Eric

    2007-01-01

    USA tehnoloogiabörs Nasdaq konkureerib Dubai börsiga Skandinaavia ja Balti väärtpaberiturge juhtiva OMX-i ostmise pärast. Enn Metsari hinnangul on Tallinna börsi jaoks head mõlemad OMX-ile tehtud pakkumised

  20. Towards new prospects for electromagnetic compatibility. In: Metamaterials and Wave Control, Eric Lheurette (Ed)

    OpenAIRE

    SEETHARAMDOO, Divitha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the potential of metamaterials in EMC applications. It is organized as follows. In section 4.2, a short overview of electromagnetic compatibility is given. To highlight the relevance of metamaterials in EMC problems, current trends in industrial applications as well as the consequent challenges arising in EMC are described. The cases of transport and telecommunications industries are considered. The two main applications foresighted are filtering and shielding. Section...

  1. Cancer Survivor Eric Dishman Is On a Precision Medicine Mission | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 19. That was the power of precision medicine.” PMI Cohort Program The PMI Cohort Program seeks to extend precision medicine to ... Thought Leader In naming Dishman director of the PMI Cohort Program, NIH Director Collins noted Dishman’s unique ...

  2. Seven Myths about Literacy in the United States. ERIC/AE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Jeff

    This digest investigates seven of the most prevalent and damaging myths about literacy in the United States. In response to various claims about American elementary and secondary students' test score declines in reading achievement, the author interprets data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the International…

  3. ERIC First Analysis: 1973-74 National High School Debate Resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, William M.; Sexton, John E.

    Background information on the underlying issues of the 1973-74 National High School Debate Resolutions, which were designed to explore the necessity for and the feasibility of developing new federal programs to curb poverty, is contained in this handbook. Part 1 examines the problem of poverty in the United States--definitions, dimensions, causes,…

  4. Foundations of Chemistry: Special Issue on the Periodic System (editor-in-chief Eric R. Scerri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Pedro J.

    2002-12-01

    Here the issues are of great practical importance. I’ll separate them into two areas. First, just a superficial exposure to foundational issues renders the naive view of the scientific method untenable. The initial article in this issue, by Giunta, clearly shows scientists engaged in coming up with the “best account” of the evidence available to them. They were, of course, trying to make argon “fit” into the periodic system and therefore inevitably reading the evidence within a series of presuppositions determined by their conception of the periodic system. The point is that one does not get a sense of the application of a “method” of any kind. This is always the lesson of the history of science. Second, there is no question that textbooks, what we teach, and the way we teach it are influenced by philosophical presuppositions. All general chemistry textbooks are heavily influenced by reductionist assumptions. A quantum mechanical model of the atom from which everything follows precedes the variation of atomic properties and the chemistry of the elements. I have to say here that the triumph of this model, in my view, results not only from its explanatory power (the fact that it is not as great as it is claimed is one of the central claims this journal tries to make), but because reduction entails simplification and simplification is always pedagogically attractive. I, for one, think that the reductive enterprise is untenable but I recognize the immense pedagogical advantage of the current model. The following question seems to me an important one: must science pedagogy be necessarily reductive? The answer may be yes even if reduction is impossible. These are important issues and thanks to journals such as Foundations we know that the conversation will continue.

  5. Recent Literature on Urban and Minority Education. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This report reviews six recently published books on the education of urban and minority youth, and the social and cultural environment in which they live. "The Homeless in Contemporary Society" (edited by R. D. Bingham, R. E. Green, and S. B. White), is a primer on homelessness in America. "Gender Influences in Classroom…

  6. Elderly Parents and Adult Children as Caregivers. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Anne Blanford

    This digest presents a contemporary description of the American elderly and adult children's caregiving to their parents. It includes a profile of the American elderly; a description of caregiving tasks performed by their adult children; and the impact of longer life expectancy, divorce rates, and employed daughters on caregiving. Caregiver strain…

  7. Project-Based Learning for Adult English Language Learners. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Donna; Van Duzer, Carol

    Project-based learning is an instructional approach that contextualizes learning by presenting learners with problems to solve or products to develop. For example, learners may research adult education resources in their community and create a handbook to share with other language learners in their program, or they might interview local employers…

  8. Valid, Reliable, and Appropriate Assessments for Adult English Language Learners. ERIC Q & A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Dorry; Van Duzer, Carol

    This document examines the concepts of validity, reliability, and appropriateness from a language testing perspective as they apply to the following four assessment issues raised by the National Reporting System (NRS): (1) What type of language assessment seems to be required by the NRS: proficiency or achievement?; (2) Knowing that the NRS…

  9. Issues in Accountability and Assessment for Adult ESL Instruction. ERIC Q & A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Carol

    This question and answer sheet describes the legislative background of current accountability requirements for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs, the issues involved in testing level gain, and critical questions whose answers can lead the field forward. It focuses on the following: what the legislation requires; how states are meeting…

  10. Reading with a Purpose: Communicative Reading Tasks for the Foreign Language Classroom. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Elizabeth M.

    In describing reading proficiency--the relative difficulty or ease that an individual reader experiences reading a particular text--researchers have recognized the importance of both text- and reader-based factors. This digest focuses on the factor of purpose, as determined by the reader or the instructional context. Having a purpose means having…

  11. Learning and Earning: The Value of Working for Urban Students. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 128.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    This digest briefly reviews the ways that working affects students, and describes ways that schools can partner with businesses to increase the educational benefits of working. The economic payoff for students who work in high school is well-established, including a positive association between the amount of high school work experience and…

  12. Liderazgo para la cultura escolar (Leadership for School Culture). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolp, Stephen

    The concept of school culture offers principals and other leaders a broader framework for understanding problems and relationships within the school. School culture can be defined as the historically transmitted patterns of meaning that include the norms, values, beliefs, and myths understood by members of the school community. Researchers have…

  13. La Violencia y el Desarrollo de los Ninos (Violence and Young Children's Development). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Lorraine B.

    This digest examines the developmental consequences for children who are the victims of or witnesses to family and community violence. A baby's ability to trust depends upon the family's ability to provide consistent caregiving, which is compromised when the infant's family lives in a community wracked by violence. When they reach toddlerhood,…

  14. Perfilando a los estudiantes en relacion con la violencia (Profiling Students for Violence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Linda

    This digest in Spanish discusses student profiling and describes strategies for reducing the risk of violence in schools. "Student profiling" refers to a process in which checklists of behaviors and personal characteristics associated with youth who have perpetrated violence are used to determine a student's potential for future…

  15. Developing Effective Programs for Special Education Students Who Are Homeless. ERIC Digest #E504.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, L. Juane

    This digest, based on a larger document titled, "Homeless and in Need of Special Education," by L. Juane Heflin and Kathryn Rudy, focuses on educational aspects of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act. Briefly discussed are: the effects of homelessness on children (e.g., increased health problems); the educational implications…

  16. Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC): protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Thomas J; Powell, Byron J; Chinman, Matthew J; Smith, Jeffrey L; Matthieu, Monica M; Proctor, Enola K; Damschroder, Laura J; Kirchner, JoAnn E

    2014-03-26

    Identifying feasible and effective implementation strategies that are contextually appropriate is a challenge for researchers and implementers, exacerbated by the lack of conceptual clarity surrounding terms and definitions for implementation strategies, as well as a literature that provides imperfect guidance regarding how one might select strategies for a given healthcare quality improvement effort. In this study, we will engage an Expert Panel comprising implementation scientists and mental health clinical managers to: establish consensus on a common nomenclature for implementation strategy terms, definitions and categories; and develop recommendations to enhance the match between implementation strategies selected to facilitate the use of evidence-based programs and the context of certain service settings, in this case the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health services. This study will use purposive sampling to recruit an Expert Panel comprising implementation science experts and VA mental health clinical managers. A novel, four-stage sequential mixed methods design will be employed. During Stage 1, the Expert Panel will participate in a modified Delphi process in which a published taxonomy of implementation strategies will be used to establish consensus on terms and definitions for implementation strategies. In Stage 2, the panelists will complete a concept mapping task, which will yield conceptually distinct categories of implementation strategies as well as ratings of the feasibility and effectiveness of each strategy. Utilizing the common nomenclature developed in Stages 1 and 2, panelists will complete an innovative menu-based choice task in Stage 3 that involves matching implementation strategies to hypothetical implementation scenarios with varying contexts. This allows for quantitative characterizations of the relative necessity of each implementation strategy for a given scenario. In Stage 4, a live web-based facilitated expert recommendation process will be employed to establish expert recommendations about which implementations strategies are essential for each phase of implementation in each scenario. Using a novel method of selecting implementation strategies for use within specific contexts, this study contributes to our understanding of implementation science and practice by sharpening conceptual distinctions among a comprehensive collection of implementation strategies.

  17. Online Support Groups: Nuts and Bolts, Benefits, Limitations and Future Directions. ERIC/CASS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Juneau M.; Remolino, Linda

    Online support groups provide an alternative vehicle of support for people in distress by linking people who have similar problems. They have the potential to improve the access and delivery of support to a wide range of people, including some who would not seek face-to-face support at all. Online support groups reduce the sense of isolation…

  18. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  19. Motivacion y estudiantes de secundaria (Motivation and Middle School Students). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Lynley Hicks; Midgley, Carol

    Research has shown a decline in motivation and performance for many children as they move from elementary school into middle school; however, research has also shown that the nature of motivational change on entry to middle school depends on characteristics of the learning environment in which students find themselves. This Digest outlines some…

  20. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  1. Classroom Strategies for Teaching Migrant Children about Child Abuse. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Lorrie

    Child abuse education in the migrant classroom can accomplish five major goals: (1) provide support to the child who has suffered some form of maltreatment; (2) teach children abuse prevention strategies; (3) teach all children to accept those who have special problems; (4) improve children's self-concepts; and (5) encourage the abused child to…

  2. Taxation: Equity and Politics in Higher Education. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents, March 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt

    In the 1980 election year, Cngress is likely to provide taxpayers with some form of tax savings, and observers predict that legislators will begin efforts to modify the Internal Revenue Code to provide more equity, gather more revenues, and serve a number of other purposes that will affect the higher education community. Particularly, higher…

  3. Tecnologias mas nuevas para la seguridad escolar (Newer Technologies for School Security). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    This digest in Spanish describes several technologies that can be used to control access to, and improve surveillance of, school grounds. Access can be controlled by using "smart" cards to control keyed entries. Many schools have problems with multiple copies of keys, and these card systems are integrated with computer software that…

  4. El desarrollo psicosocial de Eric Erikson. El diagrama epigenético del adulto

    OpenAIRE

    Bordignon, Nelso Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This work shows a brief on the psychosocial development theory of Erik Erikson, and the epigenetic diagram of adults. It makes a brief of the content of each psychosocial stage and shows the diagram of adults, according to the VIII stages of the whole life cycle. El trabajo presenta una síntesis de la teoría del desarrollo psicosocial de Erik Erikson y el diagrama epigenético del adulto. Hace un resumen del contenido de cada estadío psicosocial y presenta el Diagram...

  5. Long term survivors of childhood cancer: cure and care. The Erice statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haupt, Riccardo; Spinetta, John J.; Ban, Irina; Barr, Ronald D.; Beck, Joern D.; Byrne, Julianne; Calaminus, Gabriele; Coenen, Eva; Chesler, Mark; D'Angio, Giulio J.; Eiser, Christine; Feldges, Andreas; Gibson, Faith; Lackner, Herwig; Masera, Giuseppe; Massimo, Luisa; Magyarosy, Edina; Otten, Jacques; Reaman, Gregory; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Veerman, Anjo J. P.; Penn, Anthony; Thorvildsen, Anne; van den Bos, Cor; Jankovic, Momcilo

    2007-01-01

    The number of subjects that have successfully completed treatment for a cancer diagnosed during childhood and are entering adulthood is increasing over time. Members of the International Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (I-BFM) Early and Late Toxicity Educational Committee (ELTEC) invited 45 paediatric

  6. Long-term survivors of childhood cancer: Cure and care. The Erice Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haupt, R.; Spinetta, J.J.; Ban, I.; Barr, R.G.; Beck, J.D.; Byrne, J.; Calaminus, G.; Coenen, E.; Chesler, M.; Angio, d' G.J.; Eiser, C.; Feldges, A.; Gibson, F.; Lackner, H.; Masera, G.; Massimo, L.; Magyarosy, E.; Otten, J.; Reaman, G.; Valsecchi, M.G.; Veerman, A.J.P.; Penn, A.; Thorvildsen, A.; Bos, C.; Jankovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    The number of individuals who have successfully completed treatment for a cancer diagnosed during childhood and are entering adulthood has been increasing. Members of the International Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Early and Late Toxicity Educational Committee (ELTEC) invited 45 paediatric cancer experts

  7. Juegos de videos: Investigacion, puntajes y recomendaciones (Video Games: Research, Ratings and Recommendations). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Spanish-language digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders…

  8. Efectos academicos de programas extracurriculares (Academic Effects of After-School Programs). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumow, Lee

    The current emphasis on performance standards and testing has led schools to look to the after-school hours as time that can be spent developing children's academic skills. This Spanish-language digest describes types of after-school programs and discusses recent research on who participates and the effects of participation on children's school…

  9. Colegios mas seguros a traves del diseno del medioambiente (Safer Schools through Environmental Design). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    This digest in Spanish describes the key elements of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). CPTED is based on the recognition that the physical environment influences human behavior. It is different from conventional security measures, which many times are based on prohibitions, in that it focuses on desired behaviors and attempts…

  10. Ethnic Studies and Audiovisual Media: A Listing and Discussion. An Occasional Paper from ERIC at Stanford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Harold A.

    Ethnic studies curricula may legitimately explore not only the historical, sociological, and cultural background of mixed ethnic groups, but may also examine alternative means of eliminating inequities and injustices--means by which the powerless can obtain power. This media list offers titles and sources of 16mm films, audiotapes, filmstrips,…

  11. Year-Round Education: A Strategy for Overcrowded Schools. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inger, Morton

    Confronted by overcrowded schools and tight budgets, school districts in about 30 states are keeping schools open year round. This is not extending the school year; year-round students attend the same number of days as those on the traditional calendar, but the year-round students have several short breaks. More students can fit into existing…

  12. El estres y los ninos pequenos (Stress and Young Children). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Jan; Peterson, Karen

    Traditionally, stress has been defined in terms of its source (internal, such as hunger, pain, sensitivity to noise and external, such as separation from family, change in family composition, exposure to conflict or violence). Although the research literature tends to focus on the impact of single-variable stressors on children's development, in…

  13. Credit Card Usage and Debt among College and University Students. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Tamara

    Since the late 1990s, lawmakers, college officials, consumer advocacy groups, and higher education practitioners have become increasingly concerned about the rising use of credit cards among college students. Some recent studies have provided information about credit card use among college students. These studies include: (1) a study conducted by…

  14. Educational MOO: Text-Based Virtual Reality for Learning in Community. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbee, Lonnie

    MOO stands for "Multi-user domain, Object-Oriented." Early multi-user domains, or "MUDs," began as net-based dungeons-and-dragons type games, but MOOs have evolved from these origins to become some of cyberspace's most fascinating and engaging online communities. MOOs are social environments in a text-based virtual reality…

  15. Tartu Jaani kirik = The St John's Church in Tartu / Kaur Alttoa ; tõlk. Eric Dickens

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alttoa, Kaur, 1947-

    2000-01-01

    Kiriku ehitusloost, ajaloost, arhitektuurist, interjööridest. 1991. a. alanud kiriku taastamisest. Restaureerimisprojektist (arhitekt Udo Tiirmaa, insener H. Uuetalu, kunstiajaloolane Kaur Alttoa), terrakotaskulptuuride konserveerimisest. Ehitab firma "Wunibald". 9 ill

  16. An Overview of Self-Concept Theory for Counselors. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, William W.

    This overview of the self-concept theory describes how people organize and interpret their personal existence. It discusses the beginnings and recent history of the self-concept theory, and presents three major qualities of self-concept: that it is learned, organized, and dynamic. It asserts that individuals have relatively boundless potential for…

  17. El Apoyo a las Ninas en la Temprana Adolescencia (Supporting Girls in Early Adolescence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    Results of national studies suggest that for girls, the middle grades can be a time of significant decline in self-esteem and academic achievement. Reasons for this decline are not clearly indicated by research, but it is likely that multiple factors are involved. One factor is the preferential treatment boys receive in the classroom.…

  18. The Supply and Demand of Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Said

    This Digest examines U.S. teacher supply and demand, including projections for the next 10 years. For the past 10 years, the supply of public elementary and secondary school teachers has grown. Currently, the number of teachers in the United States is 3.1 million, 2,666,034 of whom teach in public schools. The number is projected to increase by…

  19. Comprehensive Guidance Program Design. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Jeanne Bleuer

    This fact sheet presents an overview of problems in designing comprehensive guidance programs and a rationale for a new direction. Five guidelines for a new comprehensive program are discussed: (1) build on existing program; (2) use teamwork approach; (3) identify desired student outcomes; (4) plan program activities related to outcomes; and (5)…

  20. Children and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: What Classroom Teachers Should Know. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    Children may be exposed to trauma in their personal lives or at school. Teachers can prepare children to cope with trauma by understanding the nature of trauma, teaching skills for responding to emergencies, and learning how to mitigate the after-effects of trauma. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has specific characteristics and…

  1. A Closer Look at Children in Single-Parent Families. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Patricia Palker

    Schools are more and more called upon to accomodate students' differences in background and experiences; this picture of diversity includes the growing number of one-parent families. However, educators need to be cautioned against expecting "trouble" from the child from a one-parent family. The diversity among research findings suggests…

  2. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haury, David L.

    This digest explains how to inform high school students and their parents about the human genome project (HGP) and how the information from this milestone finding will affect future biological and medical research and challenge science educators. The sections include: (1) "The Emerging Legacy of the HGP"; (2) "Transforming How…

  3. Debating Modernity as Secular Religion: Hans Kelsen’s futile exchange with Eric Voegelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the mysterious and recently published last book by Hans Kelsen, “Secular Religion. A Polemic Against the Misinterpretation of Modern Social Philosophy, Science and Politics as ‘New Religions’”, contextualizing it with reference to the little known dialogue between Hans Kelsen...

  4. Nueva investigacion sobre kindergarten de dia completo (Recent Research on All-Day Kindergarten). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia

    Noting that much of the early research on the effects of all-day kindergarten had serious problems with internal and external validity due to inadequate methodological standards, this Spanish-language digest reviews research conducted in the 1990s. The digest discusses the academic, social, and behavioral effects of all-day kindergarten, as well…

  5. Animal-Assisted Therapy in Counseling and School Settings. ERIC/CASS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia

    The integration of animal-assisted therapy into clinical psychology is a growing phenomenon. These "co-therapists" may be of assistance to counselors when working with withdrawn and non-communicative counselees. The presence of an animal has been found to lower anxiety and motivate the counselee's participation in therapy.…

  6. Prevencion de la violencia en las escuelas (School Violence Prevention). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dean

    Tactics to deal with growing violence in schools have usually relied on removal of the offender by suspension or placement outside of the mainstream classroom. However, educators and psychologists are considering the prevention of violent behavior as both a more humane and cost-effective response to the problem. The relationship between school…

  7. Peer Tutoring in Adult Basic and Literacy Education. ERIC Digest No. 146.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    Peer tutoring refers to the process of having learners help each other on a one-to-one basis. Two types of peer tutoring are found in adult literacy and basic education: "near peer" tutoring in which one learner is more advanced than the other and "co-peer" tutoring in which the learners are fairly well matched in skill level.…

  8. Eating Disorders: Counseling Issues. In Brief: An Information Digest from ERIC/CAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Deborah, Comp.

    This digest describes the characteristics and extent of anorexia and bulimia, and provides psychosocial and family profiles of the victims. The role of counseling programs in treating these disorders is discussed. (BH)

  9. The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  10. Forging Partnerships between Mexican American Parents and the Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Gonzalez, Dora Lara

    This digest examines barriers to parent participation in the education of Mexican American students, and successful programs and strategies for overcoming those barriers. Research has found family participation in education to be twice as predictive of academic achievement as family socioeconomic status. Mexican American parents care about their…

  11. Improving the Science and Mathematic Achievement of Mexican American Students Through Culturally Relevant Science. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinez, Diana I.; Ortiz de Montellano, Bernardo R.

    There are many ways in which science can be made culturally relevant: archeoastronomy, mathematics, geology, ethnobotany, chemistry, and art can all be taught from a perspective celebrating the accomplishments of Mexican American and American Indian science and encouraging exploration. A culturally relevant curriculum provides teachers with…

  12. Ameerika jääb number üheks / Robert Kagan ; interv. Eric Follath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kagan, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuus ajakirjale Der Spiegel kõneleb Ameerika neokonservatiivist õpetlane ja John McCaini nõunik Bushi-Cheney aastate pärandist, Ameerika ja selle tulevase presidendi ees seisvatest ülesannetest ning Hiina ja Venemaa kasvavast agressiivsusest

  13. Communication Media, Memory, and Social-Political Change in Eric Havelock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronbeck, Bruce E.

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to rehearse E. Havelock's arguments about relationships among communication modes or media, memory, and social-political change to specify his primary contributions to the so-called orality-literacy theorems, or to what is now beginning to be called theories of media ecology. Describes Havelock's evolutionary journey from the late 1950s to…

  14. Herzberg's Theory of Motivation and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. ERIC/AE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Joseph E.

    Among the behavioral theories embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees, and Maslow developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of human needs and how people pursue those needs. This digest briefly outlines both theories and then…

  15. Motivating Students for Excellence. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management, Number 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    The first 2 of the 12 publications reviewed in this annotated bibliography use Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs to address problems, respectively, of teaching composition and of motivating students by teaching them how to set goals, formulate goal-achievement strategies, and successfully implement their plans. Subsequent reports suggest ways of…

  16. Contratos de rendimiento para administradores (Performance Contracts for Administrators). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    This digest in Spanish explores the strategy of paying school administrators based on performance contracts. A performance contract is an agreement between an administrator--typically a superintendent--and the school board that links the administrator's pay to indicators of job performance. Most commonly, performance contracts include bonuses for…

  17. Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Overview. ERIC Digest #E549.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, Susan

    This digest discusses hearing loss in children. Topics covered include: (1) the causes of hearing loss and the three major types of hearing losses, conductive loss, sensorineural loss, and central auditory processing disorder; (2) the federal definitions of "deaf" (hearing loss which adversely affects educational performance and which is…

  18. Olympic Casino trügib pokkeriga jõuliselt turismiturule / Eric Katskowski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katskowski, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Olympic Casino rahvusvahelisel pokkeriturniiril oli osalejate hulk varasemast märgatavalt suurem. Hasartmängude korraldajate liidu tegevdirektori Tõnis Rüütli hinnangul on tekkinud uus turisminishsh, mida võib nimetada pokkeriturismiks. Diagrammid

  19. USA dollari jätkuv nõrgenemine toob Kreenholmile tulu / Eric Katskowski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katskowski, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Kreenholm Holding Groupi finantsdirektori Aivar Meldersi sõnul on dollari nõrgenemine olnud ettevõttele kasulik. Kreenholm tarnib pool puuvillakogusest USA-st ning müüb 85% kaubast Lääne-Euroopasse. Graafik: Dollari kurss Eesti krooni suhtes

  20. 82 VERNACULARISM AS IDEOLOGY Eric Omazu* http://dx.doi.org ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Althuser accepts that he borrowed his phrase from Marx and. Engel who were the first to formulate the view that ideology has no history. However, while Marx and Engels view ideology as a non-existent phenomenon, an illusion, without a place in history, Althuser gives the formulation a new meaning and writes that the ...

  1. Evaluando la competencia social en los ninos (Assessing Young Children's Social Competence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Diane E.; Katz, Lilian G.

    During the past two decades, a convincing body of evidence has accumulated to indicate that unless children achieve minimal social competence by about the age of 6 years, they have a high probability of being at risk into adulthood in several ways. This digest presents a checklist of attributes of child social behavior that teachers are encouraged…

  2. Interactive Distance Learning Technologies for Rural and Small Schools: A Resource Guide. ERIC Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Bruce O.

    In remote and isolated schools where a certified teacher is not always available, or in small schools where limited student enrollments make hiring teachers for low incident courses cost-prohibitive, instruction via distance may be the "next best thing to being there." Several approaches are available: (1) satellite transmissions--the…

  3. Exploring the Function of Heroes and Heroines in Children's Literature from around the World. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjari; Lu, Mei-Yu

    The purpose of this Digest is to explore how heroes and heroines in children's literature from around the world help young learners understand and appreciate different cultures. It considers how protagonists can serve as role models for children; discusses how it is possible to obtain insights into universal and culturally specific values and…

  4. USA kongresmen Chandler - sõber, kes aitas Eestil tunnustust leida / Eric A. Johnson, Oliver Prits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johnson, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Advokaadi ja USA kongressi liikme Walter M. Chandleri (1867-1935) tegevusest Balti riikide de jure tunnustamiseks. Lisatud: USA valitsuse avaldus Balti riikide tunnustamisest ; väike elulugu : Jeesuse advokaat

  5. Ameeriklased, kes andsid elu Eesti eest / Eric A. Johnson, Pille Lodi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johnson, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika ühendriikide leitnandid, Punase Risti ohvitserid Clifford A. Blanton ja George W. Winfield surid Narvas 1920. aasta märtsis, kui osalesid vabatahtlikult missioonil, et tüüfuseepideemias linna ümber karantiinitsoon luua

  6. Reforzando a los Alumnos Diversos Culturalmente y Linguisticamente con Aprendizaje. Traduccion de ERIC EC Digest #E500. (Empowering Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Learning Problems). Translation of ERIC EC Digest #E500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim

    This digest describes ways in which professionals who work with students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds can create an educational climate that accepts and respects the language and culture of its students and empowers them to feel confident enough to risk getting involved in the learning process. Methods of creating such an…

  7. Faculty Research Performance: Lessons from the Sciences and the Social Sciences. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.

    The literature on faculty research performance is reviewed, with a focus on research by individual faculty members. The literature on the sociology of science and data-based results from sociological studies are emphasized. Attention is directed to measures of performance, the explanations and specific correlates likely to influence high research…

  8. Estrategias para mejorar los resultados academicos para las latinas (Strategies for Improving the Educational Outcomes of Latinas). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    The educational experiences of Latinas are affected by the interaction of many factors, including poverty, racism, sexual harassment, and lack of English language proficiency. This Spanish-language digest presents a range of strategies that schools can employ to promote the academic achievement of Latinas. Schools should communicate that Hispanic…

  9. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  10. Characteristics of Dutch and Swiss primary care COPD patients ? baseline data of the ICE COLD ERIC study

    OpenAIRE

    Siebeling, Lara; Puhan, Milo A; Muggensturm, Patrick; Zoller, Marco; ter Riet, Gerben

    2011-01-01

    Lara Siebeling1, Milo A Puhan2,3, Patrick Muggensturm4, Marco Zoller5, Gerben ter Riet11Department of General Practice, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Horten Center for Patient-oriented Research, University of Zurich, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 5Department of General Practice, University...

  11. Modelos de instruccion para la educacion en la ninez temprana (Instructional Models for Early Childhood Education). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbeck, Susan L.

    As teachers, researchers, and policy makers strive to ensure that all children enter school "ready to learn," no question is more pressing than: "What is the best approach for teaching young children?" This digest discusses the existing knowledge base on the differential effects of various approaches to early education. The…

  12. Academic Advising for Student Success: A System of Shared Responsibility. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 3, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan H.

    This monograph examines student advising in the higher education setting by focusing on shared responsibility strategies that enhance student motivation and persistence in a diverse student population. In the first two sections, a new concept of advising called developmental advising is described in which the relationship between advisor and…

  13. Country report: Germany. Preclinical evaluation of Y-90 labelled Rituximab and ERIC-1, two antibodies for tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomäcker, Klaus; Fischer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This project focuses on harnessing the great potential of radionuclide therapy, using various different vehicles to transport radionuclides into tumor tissues. A central aim of the project will be to manufacture specific vehicle molecules whose tumor affinity and suitability for radioactive coupling have already been proven through laboratory trials on animals and cell cultures at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Cologne and to label it with Y- 90. The vectors to be used to transport radionuclides into tumor tissue for treatment are antibodies against lymphomas and neuroblastomas. The technology applied for coupling Y-90 to various antibodies has been developed to a high level in Cologne and is now ready to be transferred and adapted to GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) conditions. The antibody against NHL can be acquired commercially and must then be modified for binding to the therapeutically active nuclide Y-90. Similarly, the antibody against neuroblastoma must also be modified to bind to Y-90 but is produced in Cologne. To improve the therapeutic value of antibodies we tried to introduce the pretargeting method

  14. Governance in the Twenty-First-Century University: Approaches to Effective Leadership and Strategic Management. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayle, Dennis John; Tewarie, Bhoendradatt; White, A. Quinton, Jr.

    University governance refers to the structure and process of authoritative decision making across issues that are significant for external and internal stakeholders within a university. A number of fundamental challenges to effective governance occur within the typical university environment, including too many constituencies, conflicting agendas,…

  15. The Masters of Teachers. School, Society, Critics in Interesting Times by Eric Hobsbawm and Out of Place by Edward Said.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pala

    2013-12-01

    Proprio su questo sfondo, non può sfuggire come i due lavori dedichino molto spazio alle esperienze scolastiche: la scuola- anzi le scuole, rigorosamente al plurale sia per Said che per Hobsbawm- corrispondono infatti a diverse forme di socialità, segnalano ambienti diversi in senso cronologico e geografico, contrassegnati da costumi e ordinamenti eterogenei; rappresentano inoltre l’incontro con l’autorità costituita al di fuori dalla famiglia, e marcano così il progresso verso una piena autocoscienza dell’individuo nel contesto materiale della sua collocazione storica e culturale. In altre parole, sono proprio le scuole a scandire in primo luogo il processo di maturazione dei due autori in questione. E poiché sia Said che Hobsbawm elaborano un proprio stile molto personale nei rispettivi campi d’azione, non siamo di fronte a una scrittura ingenua; c’è un’evidente struttura retorica che sostiene questa narrazione di sé.

  16. Radiation monitoring. Lecture 26, course on advances in radiation: International School of Radiation Damage and Protection, Erice, Italy, September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1979-09-01

    The practices and rationales of radiation monitoring as applied at high-energy accelerator laboratories are presented. Area, environmental, and personal techniques are discussed and examples given. (ACR)

  17. International School of Innovative Technology for Cleaning the Environment, Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture: Erice, Sicily, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1994-06-01

    The International School of Innovative Technology for Cleaning the Environment was founded at the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture (EMCSC), the seat of the World Laboratory Mediterranean Branch, in 1989. The School primarily organizes and hosts training courses and advanced study courses addressing state-of-the-art technologies to clean the environment, minimize waste generation, prevent pollution, and identify strategies to choose environmentally resilient sites and processes for new industrial installations. The School also participates in facilitating multi-national research projects for developing countries under the auspices of the World Laboratory and other sponsoring agencies.

  18. Jesus the Healer: A Sermon in Honor of the Memory of Donald Eric Capps (1939-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Donald R

    2018-04-01

    The article below is a sermon preached in 2008. It was inspired by Donald Capps's book, Jesus the Village Psychiatrist. I offer this sermon in honor of his memory as a creative contributor to the work of the Journal as well as his distinguished career as Professor of Pastoral Theology at Princeton Theological Seminary. Many of us have been blessed by his profound psychological and theological insights into the human psyche, his scholarly explorations of the relationship of psychology and religion, and his remarkable sense of humor. We are diminished by his absence.

  19. Como los colegios asignan y utilizan sus recursos? (How Schools Allocate and Use Their Resources). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picus, Lawrence O.

    School finance has traditionally concentrated on the distribution of resources to school districts, focusing primarily on the equitable distribution of funds within a state. In recent years, more attention has been paid to the issue of productivity--how effectively school districts use the funds they receive to provide education to students. This…

  20. El juego de aparentar y el desarrollo de los ninos pequenos (Pretend Play and Young Children's Development). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Doris

    Although pretend play has long been part of the early childhood curriculum, recent emphasis on accountability in education seems to have led to a decline in the general understanding of the contribution that high-quality play can make to children's cognitive development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest defines the cluster of…

  1. A Basic Reference Shelf on Audio-Visual Instruction. A Series One Paper from ERIC at Stanford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Edgar; Trzebiatowski, Gregory

    Topics in this annotated bibliography on audiovisual instruction include the history of instructional technology, teacher-training, equipment operation, administration of media programs, production of instructional materials, language laboratories, instructional television, programed instruction, communication theory, learning theory, and…

  2. Clayer Nathalie, Germain Eric (ed., Islam in Inter-War Europe, Londres, Hurst & Company, 2008, xi-409 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Dupont

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Envisageant l’islam en Europe autrement que comme une religion récemment transplantée, cet ouvrage fait le double choix d’associer les musulmans des Balkans aux communautés musulmanes issues de l’immigration et de les étudier dans une perspective historique. Il confirme l’intérêt de prendre l’entre-deux-guerres comme une clé de compréhension des mondes musulmans contemporains (cf. le dossier des numéros 95-98 de la REMMM : Débats intellectuels au Moyen-Orient dans l’entre-deux-guerres. Dans ...

  3. Igualdad y suficiencia en las finanzas de la educacion (Equity and Adequacy in Educational Finance). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadderman, Margaret

    This digest in Spanish discusses efforts to achieve financial equity in education. It describes the extent of financial disparity and how, after 3 decades of litigation, such disparities among districts and among states remain high. In New Jersey alone, the per-pupil expenditures ranged from $5,900 to $11,950. Even with such inequities, some…

  4. Can Education Play a Role in the Prevention of Youth Gangs in Indian Country? One Tribe's Approach. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo

    Traditionally an urban problem, gang involvement is growing on Native American reservations. This digest examines common factors in gang development and one tribe's response through a Native-centric education and juvenile justice system. The sum of handicaps associated with gang involvement has been termed "multiple marginality," and…

  5. Touching the Past, Enroute to the Future: Cultural Journalism in the Curriculum of Rural Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Kathryn

    This digest describes the development of cultural journalism and its place in the contemporary curriculum. In the field of cultural journalism, the traditional skills and values of many different groups are chronicled, defined, for example, by ethnic origin, origin, occupation, or environment. The term "cultural journalism" was first…

  6. Making a Community Interesting to Itself: Providing a Social Education through Urban History and Neighborhood Studies. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    Community studies and an urban focus are returning to the social studies. This digest reviews urban studies from a historical perspective. The first section discusses the value of studying cities, noting that city living is becoming fashionable again, and a movement called the New Urbanism has brought a new appreciation for the social, cultural,…

  7. Summer School, Extended School Year, and Year-Round Schooling for Disadvantaged Students. ERIC/CUE Digest Number 42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Carol

    Recent research shows no significant educational benefits from providing summer schools, extended school years, or year-round schooling to disadvantaged students. However, the severe educational difficulties faced by these students, combined with the many practical reasons for deviating from the traditional school year, are strong reasons why…

  8. Assessing the Impact of Faculty Collective Bargaining. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Report No. 8, 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, J. Victor; And Others

    The impact of the unionization of college and university faculty is examined, based on a 1979 survey of 240 nonunionized colleges and all other unionized institutions, and on a review of recent literature on collective bargaining. The survey is a followup of a 1974 survey pertaining to collective bargaining and a 1971 survey concerned with general…

  9. The Enrollment Crisis: Factors, Actors, and Impacts. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Report No. 3, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, J. Victor; And Others

    The impact of demographic shifts and enrollment declines for higher education are examined, and possible institutional responses to these problems are studied. After a review of the national statistics and projections of future enrollment trends, attention is directed to the campus level and the dimensions of current enrollment problems. Based on…

  10. Los estudiantes que se mudan de escuela y el logro academico (Student Mobility and Academic Achievement). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    Student mobility (students moving from one school to another for reasons other than being promoted to the next school level) is widespread in the United States. This Spanish-language Digest examines the research on the academic consequences of mobility for elementary school students and discusses what schools and parents can do to mitigate the…

  11. La calidad del cuidado infantil: Un resumen para padres (Child Care Quality: An Overview for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Peggy; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Many parents want to know how important the quality of care is to children's social, emotional, and academic development. This Digest synthesizes some major recent research on child care quality. First, the Digest explains what features contribute to quality of care. The Digest also explains the differences between studies of how quality is…

  12. Determination of Leaf Area Index, Total Foliar N, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Arctic Ecosystems Dominated by Cassiope tetragona

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, M; Street, LE; Michelsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    have not been accurately quantified. We address this knowledge gap by (i) direct measurements of LAI and TFN for C. tetragona, and (ii) determining TFN-LAI and LAI–normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) relationships for typical C. tetragona tundras in the subarctic (Sweden) and High Arctic...... leaf N and biomass. The LAI-NDVI and TFN-LAI relationships showed high correlation and can be used to estimate indirectly LAI and TFN. The LAI-NDVI relationship for C. tetragona vegetation differed from a generic LAI-NDVI relationship for arctic tundra, whereas the TFN-LAI relationship did not. Overall...

  13. 專論/數位環境的著作權法制思考/賴文智;王文君 | Rethinking Copyright Law System in Digital Environment / Wen-chi Lai;Wen-chun Wang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    賴文智、王文君

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    本文研究議題為著作權法制面對數位環境衝擊之制度調整思考。本文首先說明數位與網路科技不僅為當代社會著作利用帶來相當多的變化,也使著作權制度面 臨諸多困難議題。藉由對著作權法制發展史與著作權法第1條規定的檢視,本文提出「促進著作流通利用」乃達致著作權法各項立法目的之共同且最主要之途徑(方 法),並嘗試在此脈絡下,檢視合理使用、公開傳輸權、權利管理電子資訊、防盜拷措施的保護及著作權仲介團體條例等制度設計。最終重申並闡釋「促進著作流通 利用」乃是用以檢視著作權制度是否合於當代社會需求之關鍵。

    At first, this paper raises the question on the impacts of Copyright System in digital environment. From reviewing history of Copyright System and Article 1 of Copyright Act, this paper holds that encouraging circulation and use of copyrighted work is main purpose of Copyright Act. This paper describes that facing digital and network technologies, the use of copyrighted work in our society has several changes. These changes, from the point of view that the main purpose of Copyright System is encouraging circulation and use of copyrighted work, make Copyright System facing several difficult issues. Finally, this paper examines several issues of Copyright System, such as, fair use, right of public transmission, electronic rights management information, protection of technological protection measures and Copyright Intermediary Organization Act. Encouraging circulation and use of copyrighted work is always the key of examining whether the Copyright System fit the need of current society.

    頁次:30-38

  14. Vanemate töötamine välismaal - kuidas see mõjutab lapse elu : laste ja spetsialistide tõlgendused / Helen Pärna, Karmen Lai, Taimi Tulva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärna, Helen, 1983-

    2008-01-01

    Artikkel tugineb Helen Pärna magistriuurimusele. Ülevaade uurimustulemustest, mis puudutavad välismaale tööle läinud lapsevanemate lapse toimetulekut argieluga ning arutletakse selle üle, kuidas lapse lahusolek vanematest võib mõjutada lapse ja vanema vahelisi suhteid

  15. Psiholoģiskā labklājība, sociālais atbalsts un depresija indivīdiem pēc pārciestā insulta.

    OpenAIRE

    Pušņakova, Anastasija

    2014-01-01

    Pētījuma mērķis bija noteikt saistības starp psiholoģisko labklājību, uztverto sociālo atbalstu un depresiju indivīdiem pēc pārciestā insulta. Kā arī bija paredzēts noteikt vai pastāv statistiski nozīmīgas dzimumatšķirības psiholoģiskajā labklājībā, uztvertā sociālā atbalstā un depresijā indivīdiem pēc pārciestā insulta. Un vai pastāv statistiski nozīmīgas atšķirības psiholoģiskajā labklājībā, uztvertā sociālā atbalstā un depresijā indivīdiem pēc pārciestā insulta atkarībā no ģimenes stāvokļa...

  16. Preliminary validation of leaf area index sensor in Huailai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Erli; Li, Xiuhong; Liu, Qiang; Dou, Baocheng; Chang, Chongyan; Niu, Hailin; Lin, Xingwen; Zhang, Jialin

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key variable in many land surface models that involve energy and mass exchange between vegetation and the environment. In recent years, extracting vegetation structure parameters from digital photography becomes a widely used indirect method to estimate LAI for its simplicity and ease of use. A Leaf Area Index Sensor (LAIS) system was developed to continuously monitor the growth of crops in several sampling points in Huailai, China. The system applies 3G/WIFI communication technology to remotely collect crop photos in real-time. Then the crop photos are automatically processed and LAI is estimated based on the improved leaf area index of Lang and Xiang (LAILX) algorithm in LAIS. The objective of this study is to primarily verify the LAI estimated from LAIS (Lphoto) through comparing them with the destructive green LAI (Ldest). Ldest was measured across the growing season ntil maximum canopy development while plants are still green. The preliminary verification shows that Lphoto corresponds well with the Ldest (R2=0.975). In general, LAI could be accurately estimated with LAIS and its LAI shows high consistency compared with the destructive green LAI. The continuous LAI measurement obtained from LAIS could be used for the validation of remote sensing LAI products.

  17. The Role of Colloquial French in Communication and Implications for Language Instruction. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Therese M.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the extent to which listening comprehension is impaired when students are confronted with the colloquial use of French, as opposed to its formal use. It was found that amoung 128 prospective French teachers who participated in the study, there existed a low comprehension level of colloquial French, a discrepancy…

  18. ICE COLD ERIC--International collaborative effort on chronic obstructive lung disease: exacerbation risk index cohorts--study protocol for an international COPD cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Siebeling, L; ter Riet, G; van der Wal, W M; Geskus, R B; Zoller, M; Muggensturm, P; Joleska, I; Puhan, M A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a systemic disease; morbidity and mortality due to COPD are on the increase, and it has great impact on patients' lives. Most COPD patients are managed by general practitioners (GP). Too often, GPs base their initial assessment of patient's disease severity mainly on lung function. However, lung function correlates poorly with COPD-specific health-related quality of life and exacerbation frequency. A validated COPD disease ri...

  19. ICE COLD ERIC – International collaborative effort on chronic obstructive lung disease: exacerbation risk index cohorts – Study protocol for an international COPD cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeling, Lara; ter Riet, Gerben; van der Wal, Willem M; Geskus, Ronald B; Zoller, Marco; Muggensturm, Patrick; Joleska, Irena; Puhan, Milo A

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a systemic disease; morbidity and mortality due to COPD are on the increase, and it has great impact on patients' lives. Most COPD patients are managed by general practitioners (GP). Too often, GPs base their initial assessment of patient's disease severity mainly on lung function. However, lung function correlates poorly with COPD-specific health-related quality of life and exacerbation frequency. A validated COPD disease risk index that better represents the clinical manifestations of COPD and is feasible in primary care seems to be useful. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a practical COPD disease risk index that predicts the clinical course of COPD in primary care patients with GOLD stages 2–4. Methods/Design We will conduct 2 linked prospective cohort studies with COPD patients from GPs in Switzerland and the Netherlands. We will perform a baseline assessment including detailed patient history, questionnaires, lung function, history of exacerbations, measurement of exercise capacity and blood sampling. During the follow-up of at least 2 years, we will update the patients' profile by registering exacerbations, health-related quality of life and any changes in the use of medication. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes will be exacerbation frequency and mortality. Using multivariable regression analysis, we will identify the best combination of variables predicting these outcomes over one and two years and, depending on funding, even more years. Discussion Despite the diversity of clinical manifestations and available treatments, assessment and management today do not reflect the multifaceted character of the disease. This is in contrast to preventive cardiology where, nowadays, the treatment in primary care is based on patient-specific and fairly refined cardiovascular risk profile corresponding to differences in prognosis. After completion of this study, we will have a practical COPD-disease risk index that predicts the clinical course of COPD in primary care patients with GOLD stages 2–4. In a second step we will incorporate evidence-based treatment effects into this model, such that the instrument may guide physicians in selecting treatment based on the individual patients' prognosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Archive NCT00706602 PMID:19419546

  20. ICE COLD ERIC – International collaborative effort on chronic obstructive lung disease: exacerbation risk index cohorts – Study protocol for an international COPD cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muggensturm Patrick

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a systemic disease; morbidity and mortality due to COPD are on the increase, and it has great impact on patients' lives. Most COPD patients are managed by general practitioners (GP. Too often, GPs base their initial assessment of patient's disease severity mainly on lung function. However, lung function correlates poorly with COPD-specific health-related quality of life and exacerbation frequency. A validated COPD disease risk index that better represents the clinical manifestations of COPD and is feasible in primary care seems to be useful. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a practical COPD disease risk index that predicts the clinical course of COPD in primary care patients with GOLD stages 2–4. Methods/Design We will conduct 2 linked prospective cohort studies with COPD patients from GPs in Switzerland and the Netherlands. We will perform a baseline assessment including detailed patient history, questionnaires, lung function, history of exacerbations, measurement of exercise capacity and blood sampling. During the follow-up of at least 2 years, we will update the patients' profile by registering exacerbations, health-related quality of life and any changes in the use of medication. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes will be exacerbation frequency and mortality. Using multivariable regression analysis, we will identify the best combination of variables predicting these outcomes over one and two years and, depending on funding, even more years. Discussion Despite the diversity of clinical manifestations and available treatments, assessment and management today do not reflect the multifaceted character of the disease. This is in contrast to preventive cardiology where, nowadays, the treatment in primary care is based on patient-specific and fairly refined cardiovascular risk profile corresponding to differences in prognosis. After completion of this study, we will have a practical COPD-disease risk index that predicts the clinical course of COPD in primary care patients with GOLD stages 2–4. In a second step we will incorporate evidence-based treatment effects into this model, such that the instrument may guide physicians in selecting treatment based on the individual patients' prognosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Archive NCT00706602

  1. ICE COLD ERIC - International Collaborative Effort on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts - Study protocol for an international COPD cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebeling, Lara; ter Riet, Gerben; van der Wal, Willem M.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Zoller, Marco; Muggensturm, Patrick; Joleska, Irena; Puhan, Milo A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a systemic disease; morbidity and mortality due to COPD are on the increase, and it has great impact on patients' lives. Most COPD patients are managed by general practitioners (GP). Too often, GPs base their initial assessment of

  2. ICE COLD ERIC--International collaborative effort on chronic obstructive lung disease: exacerbation risk index cohorts--study protocol for an international COPD cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeling, Lara; ter Riet, Gerben; van der Wal, Willem M; Geskus, Ronald B; Zoller, Marco; Muggensturm, Patrick; Joleska, Irena; Puhan, Milo A

    2009-05-06

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a systemic disease; morbidity and mortality due to COPD are on the increase, and it has great impact on patients' lives. Most COPD patients are managed by general practitioners (GP). Too often, GPs base their initial assessment of patient's disease severity mainly on lung function. However, lung function correlates poorly with COPD-specific health-related quality of life and exacerbation frequency. A validated COPD disease risk index that better represents the clinical manifestations of COPD and is feasible in primary care seems to be useful. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a practical COPD disease risk index that predicts the clinical course of COPD in primary care patients with GOLD stages 2-4. We will conduct 2 linked prospective cohort studies with COPD patients from GPs in Switzerland and the Netherlands. We will perform a baseline assessment including detailed patient history, questionnaires, lung function, history of exacerbations, measurement of exercise capacity and blood sampling. During the follow-up of at least 2 years, we will update the patients' profile by registering exacerbations, health-related quality of life and any changes in the use of medication. The primary outcome will be health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes will be exacerbation frequency and mortality. Using multivariable regression analysis, we will identify the best combination of variables predicting these outcomes over one and two years and, depending on funding, even more years. Despite the diversity of clinical manifestations and available treatments, assessment and management today do not reflect the multifaceted character of the disease. This is in contrast to preventive cardiology where, nowadays, the treatment in primary care is based on patient-specific and fairly refined cardiovascular risk profile corresponding to differences in prognosis. After completion of this study, we will have a practical COPD-disease risk index that predicts the clinical course of COPD in primary care patients with GOLD stages 2-4. In a second step we will incorporate evidence-based treatment effects into this model, such that the instrument may guide physicians in selecting treatment based on the individual patients' prognosis. ClinicalTrials.gov Archive NCT00706602.

  3. The Path to Excellence: Quality Assurance in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Research Reports, No. 1. FYI Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Lawrence R.; And Others

    There is an increasing interest by government in accountability for higher education. Efforts such as performance budgeting, performance auditing, and state review of academic programs are becoming more common. Opponents of government involvement assert that regional accreditation reviews are sufficient to maintain quality standards. However,…

  4. Introduction and fundamentals: Lecture No. 2. Course on advances in radiation, International School of Radiation Damage and Protection, Erice, Italy, September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1979-09-01

    This lecture discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie that science variously called health physics or radiation. Some of the underlying assumptions of radiation protection are discussed, and some developments in the radiological sciences since 1975 described

  5. Las normas de desempeno matematico desde el preescolar hasta el segundo grado (Mathematics Standards for Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 2). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kathy

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recently published "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics." For the first time, these new standards include pre-kindergarten standards, while outlining the mathematics that children should learn as they progress through school. The standards present a broad view of what…

  6. Introduction and fundamentals: Lecture No. 2. Course on advances in radiation, International School of Radiation Damage and Protection, Erice, Italy, September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1979-09-01

    This lecture discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie that science variously called health physics or radiation. Some of the underlying assumptions of radiation protection are discussed, and some developments in the radiological sciences since 1975 described. (ACR)

  7. A Comprehensive Bibliography of Periodical Literature, Dissertations and Theses, and ERIC Documents Directly Related to Student Teaching in Music, 1948-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumley, Fred K.

    The growth of an academic area can be measured by the growth of its literature. It is a natural corollary that the demand for excellence in education engenders a demand for literature. Due to the increased importance of student teaching as a final step in the preparation of future music teachers, it is timely to assemble as much bibliographic…

  8. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry. By Eric Johnson, Springer, 2012; 173 pages. Price CHF 133.50, ISBN 978-94-007-3834-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s the new rock and roll. It’s the new black. Sustainability is trendy, and not just among hipsters and pop stars. The uncool chemical sector helped pioneer it, and today, companies inside and outside the sector have embraced it. But what have they embraced? Surely not the Brundtland definition of meeting “the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

  9. Biokaristusõigus - uus distsipliin? : mõtteid inimbiotehnikast ja selle karistusõiguslikest piirjoontest ektogeneesi näitel / Eric Hilgendorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hilgendorf, Eric, 1960-

    2006-01-01

    Viljastatud munaraku väljaspool inimorganismi kasvatamise karistusõiguslikest aspektidest. Käesolev tekst on jätk artiklile "Ektogenees ja karistusõigus" (Hilgendorf 1994). Tõlkeallikas: Der Wandel des Staates vor den Herausforderungen der Gegenwart: Festschrift für Winfried Brohm zum 70. Geburtstag. Hrsg. von Carl-Eugen Eberle, Martin Ibler, Dieter Lorenz, München: Beck, 2002, S. 387-404

  10. Pregnant and Parenting Teens: Statistics, Characteristics, and School-Based Support Services. ERIC/CUE Trends and Issues Series, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Carol

    This review of research brings together a variety of data on pregnant and parenting teenagers and on the range and effectiveness of school-based programs. The report is divided into two main sections, the first of which describes the population at risk; motivations, choices, and consequences of teenage pregnancy and motherhood; adolescent fathers;…

  11. Seleccionando materiales adecuados cultural y linguisticamente: Sugerencias para los proveedores de servicios (Selecting Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Materials: Suggestions for Service Providers). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rosa Milagros; Reese, Debbie

    The population of the United States is growing more culturally diverse each year, and this diversity is clearly evident among families with young children; however, individuals who work in early childhood programs are not as diverse as those they serve. Moreover, many early childhood professionals have little preparation for working with families…

  12. A Selected Bibliography on Language Learners' Systems and Error Analysis. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdman, Albert, Comp.; Walz, Joel, Comp.

    This selected bibliography on language learners' systems and error analysis is divided into five section. Section 1 deals with the notion of approximative or intermediate systems and interlanguage, and with more classical studies on contrastive analysis. Section 2 focuses on the concept and definition of learner errors and includes items dealing…

  13. La intimidacion en el comienzo de la adolescencia: La funcion del grupo social (Bullying in Early Adolescence: The Role of the Peer Group). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.

    One notable gap in the evolving literature on bullying and victimization during early adolescence is the role that peers play in promoting such behavior by either reinforcing the aggressor, failing to intervene to stop the victimization, or affiliating with students who bully. This Spanish-language Digest looks at the limited research available on…

  14. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  15. El recreo en la escuela primaria: Que indica la investigacion? (Recess in Elementary School: What Does the Research Say?) ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga S.

    Compared to the rest of the school day, recess is a time when children have more freedom to choose what they want to do and with whom. In light of the current climate of school accountability, this Spanish-language Digest discusses research on recess and its relationship to learning, social development, and child health, as well as research on…

  16. Enfoque en las horas despues del dia en escuela para la prevencion de violencia (Focus on After-School Time for Violence Prevention). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Peggy; Robertson, Anne S.

    Perhaps 8 million children spend the after-school hours at home alone. In the absence of adult supervision, many of these youth are likely to engage in delinquent or other high-risk activities. This Spanish-language digest reveals research that suggests after-school programs can help to prevent youths from engaging in these activities in two ways:…

  17. El Papel de los Padres en el Desarrollo de la Competencia Social (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  18. Effective School Leaders. Q&A with Eric A. Hanushek, Ph.D. REL Mid-Atlantic Teacher Effectiveness Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This webinar on effective school leaders discussed the important relationship between a school's socio-economic status, school leadership, and teacher turnover rate. Participants explored the major role of school leaders in fostering teacher effectiveness and discussed strategies they can use at the local level to increase school leader…

  19. Human cDNA mapping using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Final progress report, April 1, 1994--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenberg, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The ultimate goal of this research is to generate and apply novel technologies to speed completion and integration of the human genome map and sequence with biomedical problems. To do this, techniques were developed and genome-wide resources generated. This includes a genome-wide Mapped and Integrated BAC/PAC Resource that has been used for gene finding, map completion and anchoring, breakpoint definition and sequencing. In the last period of the grant, the Human Mapped BAC/PAC Resource was also applied to determine regions of human variation and to develop a novel paradigm of primate evolution through to humans. Further, in order to more rapidly evaluate animal models of human disease, a BAC Map of the mouse was generated in collaboration with the MTI Genome Center, Dr. Bruce Birren.

  20. Forest Biophysical Parameters (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biophysical parameters (DBH, NPP, biomass, bark area index, LAI, subcanopy LAI) by study site for Aspen and Spruce in the Superior National Forest, MN (SNF)

  1. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Leaf Area Index/FPAR 4-Day L4 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leaf Area Index (LAI) is a dimensionless variable defined as the total one-sided area of green leaves in a vegetation canopy relative to a unit ground area. LAI...

  2. SAFARI 2000 Leaf Area Measurements at the Mongu Tower Site, Zambia, 2000-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from the LAI-2000 instrument were processed to determine the leaf area index (LAI) at the EOS Validation Core Site in Kataba Local Forest, approximately 20 km...

  3. SAFARI 2000 Leaf Area Measurements at the Mongu Tower Site, Zambia, 2000-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Data from the LAI-2000 instrument were processed to determine the leaf area index (LAI) at the EOS Validation Core Site in Kataba Local Forest,...

  4. Leaf Area Index Maps at 30-m Resolution, Selected Sites, Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides local LAI maps for the selected measured sites in Canada. These derived maps may also be useful for validating other LAI maps over these same...

  5. Leaf Area Index Maps at 30-m Resolution, Selected Sites, Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides local LAI maps for the selected measured sites in Canada. These derived maps may also be useful for validating other LAI maps over...

  6. Leaf Area Index Maps at 30-m Resolution, VALERI Site, Larose, Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provide local LAI maps for the Larose (Ontario) site in Canada. These derived maps may also be useful for validating other LAI maps over this same site...

  7. Validation of Leaf Area Index measurements based on the Wireless Sensor Network platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q.; Li, X.; Liu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) is one of the important parameters for estimating plant canopy function, which has significance for agricultural analysis such as crop yield estimation and disease evaluation. The quick and accurate access to acquire crop LAI is particularly vital. In the study, LAI measurement of corn crops is mainly through three kinds of methods: the leaf length and width method (LAILLW), the instruments indirect measurement method (LAII) and the leaf area index sensor method(LAIS). Among them, LAI value obtained from LAILLW can be regarded as approximate true value. LAI-2200,the current widespread LAI canopy analyzer,is used in LAII. LAIS based on wireless sensor network can realize the automatic acquisition of crop images,simplifying the data collection work,while the other two methods need person to carry out field measurements.Through the comparison of LAIS and other two methods, the validity and reliability of LAIS observation system is verified. It is found that LAI trend changes are similar in three methods, and the rate of change of LAI has an increase with time in the first two months of corn growth when LAIS costs less manpower, energy and time. LAI derived from LAIS is more accurate than LAII in the early growth stage,due to the small blade especially under the strong light. Besides, LAI processed from a false color image with near infrared information is much closer to the true value than true color picture after the corn growth period up to one and half months.

  8. The development of electron crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    By the materials of the lecture delivered in the School on Electron Crystallography, Erice, Sicily, 1997 and published in Proceedings of NATO Advanced Study Institute on Electron Crystallography, Erice, Sicily, 1997, Series E, vol. 347, p. 1

  9. 78 FR 76394 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... experience operating a CMV: Christina L. Anhock Thomas R. Anthony Brian Ashbaugh Eric Betsuie Eric P. Carr... Edward Rangel Jeffrey M. Thorpe The following 9 applicants were denied for miscellaneous/multiple reasons...

  10. Suri fetishismi isa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    New Yorgis suri kunstnik ja koomiksite joonistaja, pärastsõja-aegse Ameerika bondage-erootika illustraator Eric Stanton. Paar aastat tagasi avaldas Saksa kirjastus Taschen Stantoni elust ja loomingust raamatu, mille toimetas erootikafotograaf Eric Kroll

  11. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2006-12-01

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  12. LIGHT DIFFUSION IN THE TROPICAL DRY FOREST OF COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A

    2016-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky condi...

  13. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  14. Light Diffusion in the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  15. LIGHT DIFFUSION IN THE TROPICAL DRY FOREST OF COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Calvo-Rodriguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000 require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  16. Sequential Method with Incremental Analysis Update to Retrieve Leaf Area Index from Time Series MODIS Reflectance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyi Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High-quality leaf area index (LAI products retrieved from satellite observations are urgently needed for crop growth monitoring and yield estimation, land-surface process simulation and global change studies. In recent years, sequential assimilation methods have been increasingly used to retrieve LAI from time series remote-sensing data. However, the inherent characteristics of these sequential assimilation methods result in temporal discontinuities in the retrieved LAI profiles. In this study, a sequential assimilation method with incremental analysis update (IAU was developed to jointly update model states and parameters and to retrieve temporally continuous LAI profiles from time series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS reflectance data. Based on the existing multi-year Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS LAI product, a dynamic model was constructed to evolve LAI anomalies over time. The sequential assimilation method with an IAU technique takes advantage of the Kalman filter (KF technique to update model parameters, uses the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF technique to update LAI anomalies recursively from time series MODIS reflectance data and then calculates the temporally continuous LAI values by combining the LAI climatology data. The method was tested over eight Committee on Earth Observing Satellites-Benchmark Land Multisite Analysis and Intercomparison of Products (CEOS-BELMANIP sites with different vegetation types. The results indicate that the sequential method with IAU can precisely reconstruct the seasonal variation patterns of LAI and that the LAI profiles derived from the sequential method with IAU are smooth and continuous.

  17. Canadian Public Libraries Are Aware of Their Role as Information Literacy Training Providers, but Face Several Challenges. A Review of: Lai, H.-J. (2011. Information literacy training in public libraries: A case from Canada. Educational Technology & Society, 14(2, 81-88.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Newton Miller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective– To explore the current state of information literacy (IL training in Canadian public libraries, and to identify strategies used for improving IL training skills for staff and patrons.Design – Mixed-methods approach, including document analysis, observations, and focus group interviews.Setting – Two libraries of a large public library system in Canada: the central library and one branch library.Subjects – Six staff members (manager, administrator, training coordinator, instructor, and computer technician who have been involved in designing and teaching information literacy courses for library patrons and staff.Methods – The researcher analyzed internal and external library documents related to information literacy, including, but not limited to, reports, posters, lesson plans, newsletters, and training scripts. He also observed interactions and behaviours of patrons during IL training sessions. Finally, he conducted a focus group with people involved in IL training, asking questions about facilities and resources, programs, patron reaction, librarian knowledge of IL theory, and impediments and benefits of IL training programs in public libraries.Main Results – Staff were aware of the importance of IL training in the library. Attracting more library patrons (including building partnerships with other organizations, improving staff IL and training skills, employing effective strategies for running training programs, and dealing with financial issues were all concerns about running IL training that were highlighted.Conclusion – Canadian public libraries are well aware of their role as IL training providers, but they still face several challenges in order to improve their effectiveness.

  18. Putting Knowledge to Work: Collaborating, Influencing and Learning ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Eric Smith is Writer, Grants and Proposals, at Saint Francis Xavier University's Coady International Institute in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada. Before joining Coady, Eric worked with Genuine Progress Index Atlantic, supporting youth learning initiatives in India. From 2013 to 2015, Eric worked with IDRC's ...

  19. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of paliperidone palmitate for treating schizophrenia in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarson Thomas R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients having chronic schizophrenia with frequent relapses and hospitalizations represent a great challenge, both clinically and financially. Risperidone long-acting injection (RIS-LAI has been the main LAI atypical antipsychotic treatment in Greece. Paliperidone palmitate (PP-LAI has recently been approved. It is dosed monthly, as opposed to biweekly for RIS-LAI, but such advantages have not yet been analysed in terms of economic evaluation. Purpose To compare costs and outcomes of PP-LAI versus RIS-LAI in Greece. Methods A cost-utility analysis was performed using a previously validated decision tree to model clinical pathways and costs over 1 year for stable patients started on either medication. Rates were taken from the literature. A local expert panel provided feedback on treatment patterns. All direct costs incurred by the national healthcare system were obtained from the literature and standard price lists; all were inflated to 2011 costs. Patient outcomes analyzed included average days with stable disease, numbers of hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs. Results The total annual healthcare cost with PP-LAI was €3529; patients experienced 325 days in remission and 0.840 QALY; 28% were hospitalized and 15% received emergency room treatment. With RIS-LAI, the cost was €3695, patients experienced 318.6 days in remission and 0.815 QALY; 33% were hospitalized and 17% received emergency room treatment. Thus, PP-LAI dominated RIS-LAI. Results were generally robust in sensitivity analyses with PP-LAI dominating in 74.6% of simulations. Results were sensitive to the price of PP-LAI. Conclusions PP-LAI appears to be a cost-effective option for treating chronic schizophrenia in Greece compared with RIS-LAI since it results in savings to the health care system along with better patient outcomes.

  20. Modulation of long-latency afferent inhibition by the amplitude of sensory afferent volley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Claudia V; El-Sayes, Jenin; Fassett, Hunter J; Chen, Robert; Nelson, Aimee J

    2017-07-01

    Long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) is the inhibition of the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor-evoked potentials (MEP) by the sensory afferent volley following electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve. It is unknown how the activation of sensory afferent fibers relates to the magnitude of LAI. This study investigated the relationship between LAI and the sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the median nerve (MN) and the digital nerves (DN) of the second digit. LAI was obtained by delivering nerve stimulation 200 ms before a TMS pulse delivered over the motor cortex. Experiment 1 assessed the magnitude of LAI following stimulation of the contralateral MN or DN using nerve stimulus intensities relative to the maximum SNAP (SNAP max ) of that nerve and two TMS intensities (0.5- and 1-mV MEP). Results indicate that MN LAI is maximal at ~50% SNAP max , when presumably all sensory afferents are recruited for TMS of 0.5-mV MEP. For DN, LAI appears at ~50% SNAP max and does not increase with further recruitment of sensory afferents. Experiment 2 investigated the magnitude of LAI following ipsilateral nerve stimulation at intensities relative to SNAP max Results show minimal LAI evoked by ipsilateral MN and no LAI following ipsilateral DN stimulation. Implications for future studies investigating LAI include adjusting nerve stimulation to 50% SNAP max to obtain maximal LAI. Additionally, MN LAI can be used as a marker for neurological disease or injury by using a nerve stimulation intensity that can evoke a depth of LAI capable of increasing or decreasing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first investigation of the relationship between long-latency afferent inhibition (LAI) and the sensory afferent volley. Differences exist between median and digital nerve LAI. For the median nerve, LAI increases until all sensory fibers are presumably recruited. In contrast, digital nerve LAI does not increase with the recruitment of additional sensory fibers but