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Sample records for birrea stem-bark aqueous

  1. Effects Of Vitex doniana (Sweet) stem bark aqueous extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Vitex doniana (sweet), black plum, stem bark aqueous extract alone on vital parameters (temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate), and sleeping time as well as the effects of the extract on the same parameters before and after ketamine anaesthesia in rabbits were investigated. Twenty rabbits were randomly ...

  2. Potency of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess the potency of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis (KS) against liver diseases, serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assayed in rats treated with two (2) different doses of the extract after the induction of liver damage in the ...

  3. Protective activity of the stem bark aqueous extract of Musanga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoprotective activities and the mechanisms of actions of Musanga cecropioides stem bark aqueous extract (MCW) were investigated on acute hepatocellular injuries induced by intraperitoneal (IP) carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (20% CCl4/olive oil, 1.5 mL/kg) and 800 mg/kg/IP of acetaminophen (APAP) in normal ...

  4. Nephrocurative effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the curative effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia papyrifera on acetaminophen-induced kidney damage. Three different doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) of the extract were administered daily to the different groups of rats for two-and four-week periods after inducing kidney damage using ...

  5. Modulatory effect of Morinda lucida aqueous stem bark extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulatory effect of Morinda lucida aqueous stem bark extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ... 8th day of oral extract treatments while the blood samples for the lipid assays of were obtained directly from heart chambers through cardiac puncture on the 8th day after an overnight fasting.

  6. Antipsychotic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of antipsychotic efect of the aqueous stem bark extract of Amblygonocarpus andongensis was carried out on amphetamine induced psychosis in 42 Wister albino rats weighingbetween 105 and 3052g using two indices feeding and locomotor activity. Twelve out of the 42 rats were divided into two groups; six per ...

  7. Modulatory Effect of Morinda lucida Aqueous Stem Bark Extract on

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Modulatory Effect of Morinda lucida Aqueous Stem Bark. Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Alloxan-Induced. Diabetic Rats. *Adeneye A.A1, Olagunju J.A2,3, Olatunji B.H3, Balogun A.F3, Akinyele B.S3,. Ayodele M.O3. 1Department of Pharmacology and 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic ...

  8. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in medicinal plants has increased scientific scrutiny of their therapeutic potentials and safety thereby providing physicians with data to help patients make wise decision on their usage. The stem bark of Ximenia americana was evaluated for its phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity effect on thirty Swiss albino mice.

  9. In vivo activity of stem bark aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... Aqueous extract of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae) stem bark was used to treat trypanosomiasis in rats in vivo and changes in levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were studied. The treatment involved oral infusion of the crude extract at 60 mg/kg body weight ...

  10. Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark

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    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Both the cold aqueous extract (FRC) and the hot aqueous extract (FRH) exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. FRH showed significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.001) cholinesterase inhibitory activity compared to FRC; however, both the extracts did not show 50% inhibition of AChE at the doses tested (200...

  11. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.

  12. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

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    Uchendu Chukwuka Nwocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05 in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05 compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats

  13. Antidiarrheal Evaluation of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae in Albino Rats

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    Ishaku L. Elisha, Micah S. Makoshi, Sunday Makama*, Christiana J. Dawurung, Nkechi V. Offiah§, Jurbe G. Gotep, Olusola O. Oladipo and David Shamaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss (Meliaceae is used traditionally in the treatment of malaria, intestinal worms, diarrhea, dysentery and venereal diseases. Despite the claim as an effective antidiarrheal remedy in both humans and animals, there is scarcity of documented scientific information of specific in vivo antidiarrheal test using extracts of this plant. The number of wet feces and the distance travelled by activated charcoal meal in rats orally given 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of K. senegalensis were evaluated in the castor oil induced diarrhea and gastrointestinal motility studies. The phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity test of the extracts were also tested using standard methods. Both extracts dose-dependently (P0.05 distance travelled by charcoal in the gastrointestinal motility test. The extracts were apparently safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight per os. Cardiac glycosides and flavonoids were present in both extracts, while tannins were present only in the ethanolic extract. The aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of K. senegalensis inhibits diarrhea, at least in part, by a mechanism other than inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. The antidiarrheal activity of K. senegalensis may be attributed to the flavonoid and tannin constituents present in the extracts. The ability of K. senegalensis to significantly protect against castor oil induced diarrhea justifies its use in traditional management of human and animal diarrhea.

  14. In Vitro Effect of Aqueous Extract and Fraction IV Portion of Ximenia americana Stem Bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Maikai, Victor Ambrose; Maikai, Beatty Viv; Kobo, Patricia Ishyaku

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease affecting mainly livestock and humans in tropical Africa. Chemically synthesized drugs and medicinal plants have been used in the treatment and control of this disease. In this study, the in vitro effect of aqueous extracts and fraction IV extract of Ximenia americana stem bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA was investigated. The extracts were incubated with the parasites in vitro at 300 mg/mL aqueous extract and 25 mg/mL fraction IV portion for 30, 60,...

  15. The anti-diarrhoeal activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at evaluating the anti-diarrhoeal activity of the stem bark of the plant. The plant was extracted using distilled water (AEPF) and tested at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses on castor oil induced diarrhoea, castor oil induced enteropooling, small intestinal transit and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea in both rats ...

  16. Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, A; Saidu, Y; Ladan, M J; Bilbis, L S; Aliero, A A; Sahabi, S M

    2013-01-01

    The subchronic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical, haematological, and histopathological parameters of rats was investigated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Groups I to VI were administered graded doses of 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 mg/kg bw, respectively. The result of study revealed that administration of the Khaya senegalensis for twenty-eight days at the experimental dose resulted in significant (P < 0.05) increase in urea, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+)), and creatinine levels. The extract also significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum activity of ALT, AST, and ALP. The levels of protein, albumin, and bilirubin were significantly changed when compared to their control values, but they were not dose dependent. The hematological indices assayed in this study were not significantly affected at the experimental dose when compared to the control values. Histological studies of the liver showed cellular degeneration and necrosis and bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of the hepatocyte, providing supportive evidence for discussing the biochemical findings, indicative of functional derangement. The histological architecture of the kidney and that of the heart were however preserved. The result of this study indicates that the aqueous stem bark extract of K. senegalensis may affect the cellular integrity of vital organs of the body.

  17. In Vitro Effect of Aqueous Extract and Fraction IV Portion of Ximenia americana Stem Bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikai, Victor Ambrose; Maikai, Beatty Viv; Kobo, Patricia Ishyaku

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease affecting mainly livestock and humans in tropical Africa. Chemically synthesized drugs and medicinal plants have been used in the treatment and control of this disease. In this study, the in vitro effect of aqueous extracts and fraction IV extract of Ximenia americana stem bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA was investigated. The extracts were incubated with the parasites in vitro at 300 mg/mL aqueous extract and 25 mg/mL fraction IV portion for 30, 60, and 120 mins. The DNA of the trypanosomes was isolated and digested using ECOR1 enzyme and subsequently PCR was carried out. Results showed that aqueous extract and fraction IV portion immobilized 55% and 90% of the trypanosomes after 30-minute incubation. Subsequent isolation of the parasite DNA and agarose gel electrophoresis did not reveal that cell death was as a result of DNA fragmentation. This suggests that cell death was by another mechanism of action.

  18. In Vitro Effect of Aqueous Extract and Fraction IV Portion of Ximenia americana Stem Bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA

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    Victor Ambrose Maikai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease affecting mainly livestock and humans in tropical Africa. Chemically synthesized drugs and medicinal plants have been used in the treatment and control of this disease. In this study, the in vitro effect of aqueous extracts and fraction IV extract of Ximenia americana stem bark on Trypanosoma congolense DNA was investigated. The extracts were incubated with the parasites in vitro at 300 mg/mL aqueous extract and 25 mg/mL fraction IV portion for 30, 60, and 120 mins. The DNA of the trypanosomes was isolated and digested using ECOR1 enzyme and subsequently PCR was carried out. Results showed that aqueous extract and fraction IV portion immobilized 55% and 90% of the trypanosomes after 30-minute incubation. Subsequent isolation of the parasite DNA and agarose gel electrophoresis did not reveal that cell death was as a result of DNA fragmentation. This suggests that cell death was by another mechanism of action.

  19. Modulatory potentials of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Awodele, Olufunsho; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-01-01

    Among Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria), hot water infusion of Mangifera indica L. (芒果 Máng Guǒ) stem bark is reputedly used for the treatment of fever, jaundice and liver disorders. The present study, therefore, investigates the protective effects and mechanism(s) of chemopreventive and curative effects of 125–500 mg/kg/day of Mangifera indica aqueous stem bark extract (MIASE) in acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 20% CCl4, i.p.). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were estimated. In addition, hepatic tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in the rat liver sections were determined. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds in MIASE was also conducted. Results showed that oral treatment with 125–500 mg/kg/day of MIASE significantly attenuated the increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, FBG, TB, CB and LDL-c levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl4 treatment. Findings also revealed significant elevations in the serum TC, TG, HDL-c, TP and ALB levels. There was marked architectural remodeling in the hepatic lesions of hepatocyte vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis induced by CCl4 treatment, coupled with significant weight loss. MIASE also markedly enhanced SOD and CAT activities while reducing MAD formation; and increased GSH concentration in the hepatic homogenate compared with untreated CCl4-intoxicated

  20. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluations of aqueous extract from stem bark of Grewia mollis (Malvaceae in rats

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    Pongri Adarki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different parts of Grewia mollis Juss. (Malvaceae are commonly used in folk medicine to treat several ailments, including diarrhea, ulcers, rickets, cough and fever. Although several studies have proved its therapeutic effectiveness, there are very few toxicological studies on the plant. Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. mollis stem bark (GM in animals. Methods: In the acute study, rats were orally administrated with GM at doses of 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 and 9600 mg/kg to determine the oral medial lethal dose (LD50. In the chronic study, rats received three doses of GM (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 28 days. After the treatments, food intake, body weights, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were analyzed. Results: The LD50 was estimated to be >9600 mg/kg. No significant alterations in the animal’s body weight gain, relative organs weight, serum biochemical analysis, hematological or histopathological analyses of liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and spleen were observed. Conclusions: The results of this study provided evidence that oral administration of GM at dose of 600 mg/kg is relatively safe in rats and may not exert severe toxic effects.

  1. Gastro-protective potential of aqueous stem bark extract of Albyzia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione, malondialdehyde levels, pH, volume and total output of the gastric acid were not significantly altered. Addition of the extract to 0.1 N HCl elicited very little variation in pH suggesting a lack of neutralizing ability. The aqueous extract of Albizia zygia possesses anti-ulcer properties that may be due to cytoprotective ...

  2. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaebie, B O; Edeoga, H O; Afolayan, A J

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines.

  3. Safety evaluations of the aqueous extract of Acacia karroo stem bark in rats and mice

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    Adeolu A. Adedapo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract from the shoot of Acacia karroo was evaluated for its acute toxicity by the oral route in mice and for the sub acute effect on haematological, biochemical and histological parameters in rats. In the acute toxicity test, A. karroo extract caused death in animals that received 1600 and 3200 mg/kg doses. Oral treatments in rats with this extract at 800 mg/kg did not cause any significant change in the red blood cell count (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin concentration (HB, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, white blood cells and its differentials. It, however, caused a significance decrease in the levels of platelets. In the biochemical parameters, the extract caused a significant decrease in the levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, total and unconjugated bilirubin. Changes were also noted in the body weights but no significant changes were observed in the levels of some electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride. Clinico-pathologically, starry hair coat, respiratory distress and mortality were recorded. Lung with multiple abscess, kidney and liver with mild congestion were also observed histopathologically. The study concluded that caution must be exercised in the use of the plant for medicinal purposes .

  4. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous extracts of Margaritaria discoidea (Euphorbiaceae stem bark in experimental animal models

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    Adeolu A Adedapo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Margaritaria discoidea is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various body pains in Central, Eastern and Southern Africa. The aqueous extract of its stem bark was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The extract at 50, 100 and 200mg/kg body weight reduced significantly the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract had a good analgesic effect characterized by a reduction in the number of writhes when compared to the control. Similarly, the extract caused dose-dependent decrease of licking time and licking frequency in rats injected with 2.5% formalin. These results were also comparable to those of indomethacin, the reference drug used in this study. Acute toxicity test showed that the plant may be safe for pharmacological uses. This study has provided some justification for the folkloric use of the plant in several communities for conditions such as stomachache, pain and inflammations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1193-1200. Epub 2009 December 01.Margaritaria discoidea es una planta medicinal usada para el tratamiento de varios dolores corporales en la parte sur, central y oriental de África. Se investigaron las propiedades analgésicas y antiinflamatorias de la extracción acuosa de la corteza de su tallo en modelos animales. Los extractos de 50, 100 y 200mg/kg de peso corporal redujeron significativamente la formación del edema inducido por la carragenina y la histamina. En el modelo de contracción abdominal inducida por ácido acético, el extracto mostró un buen efecto analgésico caracterizado por la reducción en el número de contracciones en comparación con el grupo control. El extracto causó una disminución dependiente de la dosis del tiempo y la frecuencia de lamido en las ratas inyectadas con formalina al 2.5%, lo cual evidencia su efecto analgésico. Estos resultados fueron comparables con los de la

  5. Hepatoprotective Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Simarouba amara Aublet (Simaroubaceae Stem Bark against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

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    Hélida M. L. Maranhão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Simarouba amara stem bark decoction has been traditionally used in Brazil to treat malaria, inflammation, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, wounds and as a tonic. In this study, we investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of S. amara stem bark (SAAE on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. SAAE was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6/group. Groups I (vehicle—corn oil, II (control-CCl4, III, IV, V and VI were pretreated during 10 consecutive days, once a day p.o, with Legalon® 50 mg/kg b.w, SAAE at doses 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The hepatotoxicity was induced on 11th day with 2 mL/kg of 20% CCl4 solution. 24 h after injury, the blood samples were collected and their livers were removed to biochemical and immunohistochemical analyzes. The SAAE decreased the levels of liver markers and lipid peroxidation in all doses and increased the catalase levels at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg. Immunohistochemical results suggested hepatocyte proliferation in all doses. These results may be related to catechins present in SAAE. Thus, SAAE prevented the oxidative damage at the same time that increased regenerative and reparative capacities of the liver.

  6. Antinociceptive properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) in mice.

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    Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Wandji, Bibiane Aimee; Piegang, Basile Nganmegne; Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit

    2015-11-04

    Aqueous maceration from the stem barks of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) is taken orally in the central Africa for the management of various ailments, including pain. This work was carried out to evaluate in mice, the antinociceptive effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of P. macrocarpus. The chemical composition of the aqueous and methanol extracts prepared as cold macerations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LCMS). The antinociceptive effects of these extracts administered orally at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were evaluated using behavioral pain model induced by acetic acid, formalin, hot-plate, capsaicin and glutamate. The rotarod test was also performed at the same doses. The oral acute toxicity of both extracts was studied at the doses of 800, 1600, 3200 and 6400 mg/kg in mice. The LCMS analysis revealed the presence of ellagic acid as the major constituent in the methanol extract. Both extracts of P. macrocarpus significantly and dose dependently reduced the time and number of writhing induced by acetic acid. They also significantly inhibited the two phases of formalin-induced pain. These effects were significantly inhibited by a pretreatment with naloxone, except for the analgesic activity of the methanol extract at the earlier phase. In addition, nociception induced by hot plate, intraplantar injection of capsaicin or glutamate was significantly inhibited by both extracts. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity. These results demonstrate that aqueous and methanol extracts of P. macrocarpus are none toxic substances with good central and peripheral antinociceptive effects that are at least partially due to the presence of ellagic acid. These extracts may induce their antinociceptive effect by interfering with opioid, capsaicin and excitatory amino acid pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. stem bark in male Wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity effects of aqueous stem bark extract in male. Wistar rats. Methods: For the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extract was orally administered to the animals by oral gavage and the rats thereafter were observed for mortality and toxicity ...

  8. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Shivalingaiah, Sudharshan

    2016-03-01

    The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml), it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent.

  9. Antihyperalgesic effects of an aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.: role of mangiferin isolated from the extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B; Garrido, Gabino; García, Mary Elena; Delgado-Hernández, René

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of a Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) and mangiferin (MG) on pain-related acute behaviors in the formalin 5% test. Rats received repeated oral MSBE (125-500 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days before formalin injection. Other four groups with the same treatments were performed in order to study the effect of MSBE on the formalin-induced long-term secondary mechano-hyperalgesia at 7 days after the injury by means of the pin-prick method. Additional groups received a single oral MSBE dose (250 mg/kg) plus ascorbic acid (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, repeated oral MG doses (12.5-50 mg/kg) during 7 days were administered. MSBE decreased licking/biting and flinching behaviors only in phase II and reduced the long-term formalin injury-induced secondary chronic mechano-hyperalgesia. The combination of MSBE plus ascorbic acid produced a reinforcement of this effect for flinching behavior, advising that antioxidant mechanisms are involved, at least in part, in these actions. Chronic administration of MG reproduced the effects of MSBE. For the first time, the antihyperalgesic effects of MSBE and MG in formalin 5% test, a recommended concentration for studying the antinociceptive activity of nitric oxide-related and N-methyl-d-aspartate-related compounds, were reported. These results could represent an important contribution to explain the analgesic ethnobotanical effects recognized to M. indica and other species containing MG. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Optimizing dose of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L stem bark for treating anaemia and its effect on some disaccharidases activity in iron deficient weanling rats

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    Oluwasegun Modupe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency, the main cause of anaemia, has been linked with decreased disaccharidases activity. The highest prevalence of iron deficiency is recorded in Africa where plants, including Mangifera indica, with ethnobotanical claims of being used for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia are ‘housed’. Although some scientific findings have been reported on the anti-anaemic potential of M. indica, none is yet to give a clearer picture of this ethnobotanical claim. This work investigates the effects of aqueous extract of M. indica stem bark on iron deficiency anaemia and disaccharidases' activities in iron deficient rat. The aqueous extract formulated into three doses, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight were administered to weanling albino rats induced with iron deficiency through diet. After four weeks of feeding the rats, the Packed Cell Volume, Haemoglobin concentration and Red Blood Cell count of the iron deficient rats were significantly reduced (P < 0.05 compared to those of healthy rats fed with iron sufficient feed. These iron status indicators were significantly increased (P < 0.05 in rats treated with the extract when compared with untreated rats. The extract also revert decreased sucrase and lactase activity in treated iron deficient rats when compared with untreated rats. The efficacy of the extract may be due to its components including iron, saponin and cardiac glycosides. This work proposed 25 mg/kg body weight as the likely non-lethal effective dose of the extract for the treatment of anaemia, though, further toxicological studies are still required to ascertain this claim.

  11. α-Amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to control post-prandial hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In vitro inhibitory effects of crude Sclerocarya birrea stem bark (SBSB) extracts against human urinary α-amylase and Bacillus steatothermophilus α-glucosidase were ...

  12. Contribution of Secondary Metabolites to the Gastroprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae) Stem Bark in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Ticiana Parente; Prazeres, Lady Dayane Kalline Travassos Dos; Brito, Samara Alves; Neto, Pedro José Rolim; Rolim, Larissa Araújo; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Caldas, Germana Freire Rocha; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2018-01-09

    Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae) is used in ethnomedicine as cicatrizant and for the treatment of gastric disorders. This study identified the chemical constituents of the aqueous extract of X. americana (XaAE) and evaluated its antiulcerogenic activity. After lyophilization, XaAE was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and its antiulcerogenic effect was evaluated in acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acidified ethanol, and indomethacin. Antisecretory action, mucus production and the participation of sulfhydryl groups (-SH) and nitric oxide (NO) were also investigated. The chromatographic analysis identified procyanidins B and C and catechin/epicatechin as major compounds. Oral administration of XaAE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) inhibited the gastric lesions induced by ethanol (76.1%, 77.5% and 100%, respectively), acidified ethanol (44.9%, 80.6% and 94.9%, respectively) and indomethacin (56.4%, 52.7% and 64.9%, respectively). XaAE reduced gastric contents and acidity (51.4% and 67.7%, respectively) but did not alter the production of gastric mucus. The reduction of the -SH and NO groups promoted by N -ethylmaleimide (NEM) and N ω-nitro-l-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME) respectively, reduced the gastroprotective effect of XaAE. In conclusion, XaAE has gastroprotective activity mediated in part by -SH, NO and antisecretory activity. This antiulcer action was initially correlated to its major constituents, procyanidins B and C and catechin/epicatechin.

  13. Contribution of Secondary Metabolites to the Gastroprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae Stem Bark in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana Parente Aragão

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae is used in ethnomedicine as cicatrizant and for the treatment of gastric disorders. This study identified the chemical constituents of the aqueous extract of X. americana (XaAE and evaluated its antiulcerogenic activity. After lyophilization, XaAE was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS and its antiulcerogenic effect was evaluated in acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acidified ethanol, and indomethacin. Antisecretory action, mucus production and the participation of sulfhydryl groups (–SH and nitric oxide (NO were also investigated. The chromatographic analysis identified procyanidins B and C and catechin/epicatechin as major compounds. Oral administration of XaAE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg inhibited the gastric lesions induced by ethanol (76.1%, 77.5% and 100%, respectively, acidified ethanol (44.9%, 80.6% and 94.9%, respectively and indomethacin (56.4%, 52.7% and 64.9%, respectively. XaAE reduced gastric contents and acidity (51.4% and 67.7%, respectively but did not alter the production of gastric mucus. The reduction of the -SH and NO groups promoted by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM and Nω-nitro-l-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME respectively, reduced the gastroprotective effect of XaAE. In conclusion, XaAE has gastroprotective activity mediated in part by -SH, NO and antisecretory activity. This antiulcer action was initially correlated to its major constituents, procyanidins B and C and catechin/epicatechin.

  14. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of an Aqueous Fraction of the Stem Bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Barbatimão in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stryphnodendron adstringens has a high tannin content and is used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial and in the treatment of leucorrhea, gonorrhea, wound healing, and gastritis. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of the heptamer prodelphinidin (F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens in rodents. In the acute toxicity test, the mice that received oral doses exhibited reversible effects, with an LD50 of 3.015 mg·kg−1. In the chronic toxicity test at 90 days, Wistar rats were treated with different doses of F2 (10, 100, and 200 mg·kg−1. In the biochemical, hematological, and histopathological examinations and open-field test, the different dose groups did not exhibit significant differences compared with controls. The present results indicate that F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens caused no toxicity with acute and chronic oral treatment in rodents at the doses administered.

  15. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Khatoon, Sayyada; Singh, Shweta; Kumar, Vivek; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2010-07-01

    The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed according to microdilution methods by NCCLS. The plants Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans with MIC of 0.08mg/ml. Pithecellobium dulce bark also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. The bark of Pithecellobium dulce has more or less similar activity against the known antibiotic and may be considered as potent antimicrobial agent for various infectious diseases.

  16. Toxicological studies of the stem bark extract of Khaya grandifoliola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khaya grandifoliola (Welw) CDC (Meliaceae) is a tropical medicinal plant widely used in Africa for the management of malaria. In this study, toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of the plant has been evaluated with a view to ascertaining some of its possible toxic effects in the rats. Healthy rats of ...

  17. Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus exasperata protects the Liver against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ficus exasperata is an important medicinal plant with a wide geographical distribution in Africa particularly in Nigeria. In this study, aqueous stem bark extracts of Ficus exasperata were administered to investigate its hepatoprotective effects on Paracetamol induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats. A total of Twenty Five Wistar rats ...

  18. Genetic diversity of Sclerocarya birrea subspecies birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerocarya birrea, multipurpose plant is characteristic of the Sahel-Sudanian savanna and is widespread in West Africa. Although this species has a high socio-economic importance, its genetic organization was not well characterized in Burkina Faso. In this study, the intra and interpopulation genetic diversity of S. birrea ...

  19. Ex vivo trypanostatic effect of stem-bark extracts of Securidaca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is aimed at evaluating ex vivo anti-trypanosomal effect of stem-bark extracts of S. longipedunculata against T. brucei brucei. ... and tannins. However, aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions were devoid of flavonoids. The crude methanol immobilized the parasites within 75 min, while ethyl acetate and aqueous ...

  20. Inhibition of secretary PLA₂--VRV-PL-VIIIa of Russell's viper venom by standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, B L; Sudarshan, S

    2015-03-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  1. The standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. inhibits toxic PLA2 - NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Sudarshan, Shivalingaiah; Dongol, Yashad; More, Sunil S

    2016-05-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess diverse medicinal properties, which also includes anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic snake venom phospholipases A2s are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom. The in vitro sPLA2, in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema inhibition effect were carried out as described. Also the effect of substrate and calcium concentration was carried out. M. indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIb-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 7.6 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ∼40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of M. indica extract on the NN-XIb-PLA2. Further, the inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inhibiting activities of M. indica. As the inhibition is independent of substrate and calcium and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extract mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with the PLA2 enzyme. The aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate their anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies on the role and mechanism of the principal constituents present in the extract, responsible for the anti-PLA2 activity will be interesting to develop them into potent antisnake component and also as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  2. SYNERGISTIC ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF STEM BARK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. The study was aimed at screening the stem bark extracts of Faidherbia albida and Psidium guajava for synergistic antibacterial effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The powdered plant materials were extracted with methanol using cold maceration technique and the extracts were ...

  3. Immunologic and haematologic effects of methanolic stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the weight, haematologic and immunologic effects of crude methanolic stem bark extract of Azadihiracta indica stem bark on vaccinated chickens experimentally challenged with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus. One hundred day old cockerels were randomly divided into four equal ...

  4. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves and stem-bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study establishes some important pharmacognostic profile of Commiphora africana leaf and stem-bark with the hope of assisting in its proper identification as well as ... The microscopy of stem bark revealed some prominent features like the cork, prism types and microcrystal of calcium oxalate crystals, fibres, phloem ...

  5. Behavioural effects of methanol stem bark extract of Boswellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparations of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark are used traditionally in Nigeria in the treatment of fever, rheumatism, gastrointestinal discomforts and mental ... This study was aimed at evaluating the behavioural effects of the methanol stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii using diazepam-induced sleep, hole-board, open ...

  6. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluations of the Stem Bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were used as standard controls. The time-kill kinetics of the methanol stem bark extract and ciprofloxacin were determined using isolates of Staphyloccocus aureus. Results: Phytochemical screening of the stem bark revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and alkaloids with no ...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of the root, stem bark and seed extracts of moringa oleifera lam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoti Ondicho, J.; Mutai, C.; Rukunga, G.; Oketch, P.; Bii, C.

    2009-01-01

    Organic extracts (Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol) and the aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam or horseradish (root, stem bark and seed) were tested against five bacterial strains using the disc diffusion method and against three fungal strains. The water extracts of the seed was active against a wide range of organisms tested. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark exhibited moderate activity. Of the fifteen extracts screened, five (33.3 percent) showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and against Trichophyton mentagrophytes while two were active against Microsporum gypseum. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the water extracts ranged from 6.25 to 50 mg/ml. The good activity observed on the water extract explains the success in traditional use of Moringa oleifera for the treatment of infectious diseases.(author)

  8. Prenylated flavonoids from Commiphora opobalsamum stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Ali A; Al-Massarani, Shaza M; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; El-Shaibany, Amina; Al-Mahbashi, Hassan M; Basudan, Omer A; Badria, Farid A; Al-Said, Mansour S; Abdel-Kader, Maged S

    2017-09-01

    A phytochemical study on the stem bark of Commiphora opobalsamum looking for cytotoxic compounds afforded eleven flavonoids, including six previously undescribed prenylated congeners, comophorin A-E, and comophoroside A. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and correlated with known compounds. Isolated compounds were biologically evaluated using in vitro cytotoxicity MTT-based assay against two cancer cell lines; namely human hepato-cellular carcinoma (HepG-2) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Comophoroside A revealed to retain the strongest cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and HepG-2 cell lines with IC 50 values of 8 and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dimethoxyflavone isolated from the stem bark of Stereospermum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trihydroxy-3/-(8//-acetoxy-7//-methyloctyl)-5, 6-dimethoxyflavone, a flavonoid isolated from the stem bark of Stereospermum kunthianum. The antidiarrhoeal activity was evaluated using rodent models with diarrhoea. The normal intestinal transit, ...

  10. Laboratory evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of Anacardium occidentale Linn (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark extracts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O

    2003-04-01

    This study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of stem-bark extracts of Anacardium occidentale Linn., of the Anacardiaceae family, in normal (normoglycemic) and in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Young adult, male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the test rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 90 mg/kg). In one set of experiments, graded doses of the aqueous and methanolic stem-bark extracts of A. occidentale (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) were separately administered to groups of fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. In another set of experiments, 800 mg/kg p.o. of the aqueous or methanolic extract of the plant, a dose which produced maximal hypoglycemic effects in both fasted normal and diabetic rats in the previous set of experiments, were used. The hypoglycemic effects of single doses (i.e., 800 mg/kg p.o.) of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous and methanolic extracts were compared with those of insulin (5 microU/kg s.c.) and glibenclamide (0.2 mg/kg p.o.) in both fasted normal and fasted diabetic rats. Following acute treatment, relatively moderate-to-high doses of A. occidentale stem-bark extracts (100-800 mg/kg p.o.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (poccidentale stem-bark aqueous and methanolic extracts significantly reduced (poccidentale contains a diverse group of chemical compounds. Since methanol extractives of plants usually contain many chemical compounds, each of which is capable of producing definite biological activities via different mechanisms, it is difficult to draw any logical conclusion on the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of such a diverse mixture of chemical compounds contained in the plant extracts used in this study. While it is possible that the hypoglycemic effects of the plant extracts may be due, at least in part, to their terpenoid and/or coumarin contents, the mechanism of their hypoglycemic action remains largely speculative. However, this is unlikely to

  11. Stem-bark of Terminalia arjuna attenuates human monocytic (THP-1) and aortic endothelial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkiripati, Praveen K; Kamsala, Ratnam V; Bashyam, Leena; Manthapuram, Nalini; Bitla, Prasanth; Peddada, Vidyadhari; Raghavendra, Agepati S; Tetali, Sarada D

    2013-03-27

    Terminalia arjuna - stem bark extract is traditionally used as cardiotonic in Ayurvedic medicine. The present study was aimed to evaluate the molecular basis for cardioprotective potential of Terminalia arjuna (TA) stem bark, using cell cultures of human monocytic (THP-1) and human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Inhibitory effect of alcoholic (TAAE) and aqueous (TAWE) extracts of TA-stem bark was assessed on human 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, lipoprotein lipase (LpL) and lipid peroxidation in rat (wistar) liver and heart homogenates. The patterns of H2O2 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were observed by confocal microscopy. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing power of the cells were measured in a microplate reader. Gene transcripts of proinflammatory markers in THP-1 and HAECs were assayed by real time PCR and levels of inflammatory protein markers by ELISA or flow cytometry. Phytochemical analyses of TAAE and TAWE were done using liquid chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS). TAAE and TAWE inhibited the lipid peroxidation and HMG-CoA reductase but had no effect on LpL. Both the extracts attenuated H2O2 mediated ROS generation in THP-1 cells by promoting catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and by sustaining cellular reducing power. TAAE was highly effective in attenuating proinflammatory gene transcripts in THP-1 cells and HAECs, whereas the response to TAWE depended on the type of transcript and cell type. Both extracts decreased the levels of typical inflammatory marker proteins, viz. LPS induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secreted by THP-1 cells and TNF-α induced cell surface adhesion molecules on HAECs, namely vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Phytochemical analyses indicated the richness in phenolic compounds and terpenes of TAAE and TAWE, while revealing variability in their metabolite profile. Our study scientifically validates the

  12. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial evaluation of stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... Mallotus philippinensis var. Tomentosus is a medicinal plant, which was tested against Escherichia coli,. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. Phytochemi- cal screening of the stem bark of M. philippinensis indicates the presence of secondary ...

  13. Effects of bioactive principles from stem bark extract of Quassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Effects of bioactive principles from stem bark extract of Quassia amara, Quassin and 2-methoxycanthine-6-one, on haematological parameters in albino rats. Raji Yinusa. Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan. Nigeria. Summary:The effect of Quassia amara extract and two isolated compounds ...

  14. Evaluation of anticonvulsant properties of ethanol stem bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conversely, a significant (p.0.05) delay in the mean onset of seizures was recorded with standard drugs, sodium valproate (200 mg/kg) and phenytoin (40 mg/kg) in PTZ and MEST respectively. The findings of this study revealed that the stem bark extract of Lophira lanceolata at the doses tested do not contain any bioactive ...

  15. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of the Stem Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    food is not reported but the fruit of the closely related P. santalinoids is said to be edible if cooked and intoxicating if not. Similarly the seeds are reported to induce intoxication (Hutchinson et. al., 1958;. Sandrine, 2006). This paper reports on the preliminary screening of the stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus against some ...

  16. Relative potency of ethanol extracts of stem bark of Sacoglottis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larvae in the controls were agile throughout the duration of experiment. Thus stem bark of S. gabonensis and seed of P.nitida are potential agents for the control of An. gambiae which is one of the vectors of malaria and filariasis. Key Words: Relative potency, Sacoglottis gabonensis, Picralima nitida, Anopheles gambiae ...

  17. Synergistic antibacterial effect of stem bark extracts of Faidherbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at screening the stem bark extracts of Faidherbia albida and Psidium guajava for synergistic antibacterial effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The powdered plant materials were extracted with methanol using cold maceration technique and the extracts were screened for ...

  18. Pharmacognostic Studies of the Stem Bark of Enantia chlorantha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enantia chlorantha Oliver (Annonaceae) is commonly known as African yellow wood used as hepatoprotective, antiviral, antimalarial, antibacterial and antiulcer agents. The study was aimed to investigate the pharmacognostic and physiochemical parameters of E. chlorantha stem bark. The macroscopy, microscopy and ...

  19. Wound healing properties of stem bark extract of Tabebuia rosea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wound healing properties of the methanol stem bark extract of Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae) were evaluated in rats using the excision wound model. Extraction of the powdered plant material by continuous extraction in a soxhlet afforded 5.73% w/w of the Tabebuia methanol extract (TME). Phytochemical analysis and ...

  20. Hyperglycemic effect and hypertotoxicity studies of stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, bilirubin (total and direct) showed significant increase (P<0.05) in groups B and C rats but were lower than those of group A. The results indicate that the extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark and highland (green) tea leaves caused increased activity of the liver enzymes studied which is ...

  1. Flavanol derivatives with antioxidant activity from the stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    A new flavanol derivative dihydrocaffeic acid-(3→8)-epicatechin together with two known derivatives, (+)-catechin and catechin-( )-catechin were isolated from the stem bark of a mangrove plant Xylocarpus granatum. Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HRMS-FAB, EIMS, IR and ...

  2. Meiocarpin: A novel lignan from the stem bark of Meiocarpidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new lignan, meiocarpin, and the known compounds, sitosterol and polycarpol, have been isolated from the stem bark of Meiocarpidium lepidotum, Annonaceae. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectroscopic data. KEY WORDS: Meiocarpidium lepidotum, Annonaceae, lignan. Bull.

  3. Gossweilone: A new podocarpane derivative from the stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new podocarpane diterpenoid, named gossweilone (1), has been isolated from the stem bark of Drypetes gossweileri, along with two known friedelane triterpenoids. The structure of the new compound was elucidated using spectroscopic methods. KEY WORDS: Gossweilone, Podocarpane diterpenoid, Drypetes ...

  4. Chevalierinoside A: A new isoflavonoid glycoside from the stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chevalierinoside A (1), a new isoflavonoid glycoside determined as biochanin A 7-O-[a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-1→6-β-D-apiofuranosyl-1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside], together with the known friedelin (2), friedelan-3b-ol (3) and betulinic acid (4), were isolated from the stem bark of Antidesma chevalieri Beille. Their structures ...

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial properties of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei, a plant used for the treatment of wounds and urinary tract infections in Nigeria. Phytochemical screening was done using standard methods while the agar well diffusion method ...

  6. Effect of stem - bark of Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    The study investigated the activity of saponin from ethanolic extract of Erythrophleum suaveolens stem bark against freshwater snail, Lanistes lybicus. The crude saponin (4 g) was separated by silica gel using gradient elution with dichloromethane in methanol (100:0 to 0:100) followed by thin layer chromatography using ...

  7. Phytochemicals and hypoglycaemic effect of methanol stem-bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the hypoglycaemic effect of methanol extract of stem-bark of Ficus sycomorus which was investigated in alloxan induced type-2 diabetic albino Wistar rats. The animals were separated into three groups and each was treated with 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg (body weight) of the extract intraperitoneally.

  8. Effects of the ethanolic stem bark extract of pterocarpus erinaceus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This finding might lend credence to the use of the stem bark of the plant in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery traditionally. From the results of this work and information from literature, flavonoids and tannins identified during phytochemical screening of the extract may be the biologically active components responsible ...

  9. Antibacterial assessment of whole stem bark of Vitex doniana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration. The stem bark extracts were able to inhibit the growth pattern of the tested microorganisms. In all cases Shigella dysentariae showed the highest sensitivity. The results suggest that V. doniana may be valuable in the management of dysentery and gastroenteritis ...

  10. Ethanol stem bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria ameliorates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The Parkinson's disease was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of MPTP. After 72h of induction, the young adult male rats were treated with oral administration of stem bark ethanol extract of the plant daily for 2 weeks. The blood chemistry, antioxidant markers and brain dopamine levels were ...

  11. Heavy metals content in the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehianeta Teddy

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... One of the main concerns with these plant products is the level of heavy metals. The heavy metal analysis was carried out on the stem bark of D. microcarpum using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). .... Phytoremediation of Uranium-Contaminated Soils: role of organic acids in triggering ...

  12. Heavy metals content in the stem bark of Detarium microcarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heavy metal analysis was carried out on the stem bark of D. microcarpum using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metals screened for include: lead, chromium, manganese, zinc and iron. The levels of manganese, zinc and iron were 13.91, 4.89 and 21.89 mg/L respectively. These heavy metals ...

  13. Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of the Methanolic Stem Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Method: Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) of ...

  14. Comparative analgesic activity of the root bark, stem bark, leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic activity of the water extracts (50,100 and150 mg/Kg body weight) of the root bark, stem bark, leaves, fruits and seeds of Carissa edulis were evaluated in mice using the mechanical method (tail-chip method) and chemical method (acetic acid induced writhing). The plant was found to have analgesic activity, ...

  15. Toxicity of Erythrophleum guineense stem-bark: role of alkaloidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical assays revealed that the chemical composition of E. guineense include alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides and tannins. The toxicity of the stem-bark of E. guineense could be attributed to the combined toxicity of other constituents such as tannins, saponins and glycosides with the alkaloids as earlier ...

  16. Hypoglycemic activity of the stem bark extract of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phenols, oxalate and phytate. These study suggest that the stem bark of extract/fractions of Anacardium occidentale possesses antidiabetic property on alloxan-induced rats.This justifies its use in ethnomedicine and ...

  17. Haematinic properties of methanolic stem bark and fruit extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calculated Rf value following the thin layer chromatography test of the methanolic stem bark and fruit extracts of Ficus sur was 0.8375 cm. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of tannin, flavonoid, terpenoid and saponin, while alkaloid, glycoside and anthraquinone were absent in both.

  18. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cytotoxicity of stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cytotoxicity of stem bark extracts of Anaxagorea dolichocarpa and Duguetia chrysocarpa (Annonaceae). Reísa da Silva Pinheiro, Suzana Vieira Rabelo, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Amanda Leite Guimarães, Manoel Odorico de Moraes-Filho, Marcília Pinheiro da Costa, Cláudia do Ó ...

  19. The Acetone Extract of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) Possesses Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanih, Nicoline Fri; Ndip, Roland Ndip

    2013-01-01

    Interesting antimicrobial data from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea, which support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, have been delineated. The current study was aimed to further study some pharmacological and toxicological properties of the plant to scientifically justify its use. Anticancer activity of water and acetone extracts of S. birrea was evaluated on three different cell lines, HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 using the cell titre blue viability assay in 96-well plates. Apoptosis was evaluated using the acridine orange and propidium iodide staining method, while morphological structure of treated cells was examined using SEM. The acetone extract exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activities on MCF-7 cell lines at dose- and time-dependent manners (24 h and 48 h of incubation). The extract also exerted apoptotic programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells with significant effect on the DNA. Morphological examination also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping, condensation, and culminating to budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound fragmentation, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. The acetone extract of S. birrea possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against MCF-7-treated cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in anticancer therapy. PMID:23576913

  20. Effect of repeated administration of aqueous extract of Enantia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of repeated administration of aqueous extract of Enantia chloranta stem bark on selected enzyme activities of rat liver. ... The aqueous extract of Enantia chloranta stem bark has brought about alterations in the concentration of the enzymes and this may affect the functions of these enzymes. Key words: Aqueous ...

  1. Gastric antiulcer and antiinflammatory activities of Calotropis procera stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh S. Tour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a widespread search has been launched to identify new antiinflammatory and antiulcer-drugs from natural sources. The study was aimed at evaluating the antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity of chloroform extract (CH and hydroalcoholic extract (HE of the stem bark of Calotropis procera (Aiton W.T. Aiton, Apocynaceae, obtained successively by cold maceration. The antiinflammatory effect of the CH and HE extracts of the stem bark of the C. procera against carrageenan-induced paw oedema and also its antiulcer activity by using two acute models: Aspirin (100 mg/kg, p.o. and ethanol (96%, 1 mL/200 g in albino rats have been studied and found to be significant at 200 and 400 mg/kg when compared to the standard drugs. As a part of investigations to obtain compounds with antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity in this work, a bioassay was carried out with fractions obtained from chloroform extract with n-hexane (NF1, 1-butanol (BF1, ethyl acetate (EF1 and chloroform (CF1. The hydroalcoholic extract (HE of the stem bark was fractionated with n-hexane (NF2, 1-butanol (BF2, ethyl acetate (EF2, chloroform (CF2 and water (WF2. The fractions were freeze-dried and evaluated for its antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity. Fractions NF1, CF1, BF2 and EF2 (20 mg/kg showed significant antiinflammatory and antiulcer activity. The results obtained for antiulcer activity were also supported well by the histopathological examination of the open excised rat stomach. Further experiments are underway to determine which phytoconstituents are involved in antiinflammatory and antiulcer activities as well as mechanisms involved in gastroprotection.

  2. Chemical Constituents from Stem Bark and Roots of Clausena anisata

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    Etienne Dongo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on the stem bark and roots of the tropical shrub Clausena anisata led to the isolation and characterization three carbazole alkaloids: girinimbine, murrayamine-A and ekeberginine; two peptide derivatives: aurantiamide acetate and N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninyl-N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninate; and a mixture of two phytosterols: sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were established by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS.

  3. Triterpenoid saponins from the stem bark of Caryocar villosum

    OpenAIRE

    Magid, A. A.; Voutquenne Nazabadioko, L.; Renimel, I.; Harakat, D.; Moretti, Christian; Lavaud, C.

    2006-01-01

    Five triterpenoid saponins, caryocarosides II-22 (3), III-22 (4), II-23 (5), III-23 (6), and II-24 (7), have been isolated from the methanol extract of the stem bark of Caryocar villosum, along with two known saponins (1-2). The seven saponins are glucuronides of hederagenin (II) or bayogenin (III). Caryocaroside II-24 (7) is an unusual galloyl ester saponin acylated on the sugar chain attached to C-28, the 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-glueurono...

  4. the effect of aqueous stem bark extract of erythrinamildbraedii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... profound hepatic damage as indicated by elevation in serum levels of liver transaminases, alkaline phosphatase ... al., 2011). High incidence of cancer, inflammation, and .... Table 2: Effects of oral administration ASBEEM on serum biochemical indices of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats after four weeks.

  5. the effect of aqueous stem bark extract of erythrina mildbraedii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... the seeds of Erythina species revealed the presence of many physiologically active alkaloids. ... and bacteria (Karthishwaran et al., 2010). Ethnobotanical discovery process of sub- ..... renal tubules and collapsed of Bowman's capsule due to damage caused by acetaminophen administered to the rats ...

  6. Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... treatment of fever, stiffness, onchocerciasis, sore throat, ... Liver. None. None. None. Lungs. Congestion. Congestion. Congestion. Spleen. None. None. None. Plant extraction. Two hundred (200) grams of the powdered bark was soaked in ... liver, and heart were obtained for histopathological studies.

  7. Pharmaceutical Characterization of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are standardized herbal preparations that contain, as active ingredients, complex mixtures of plant materials in the crude or processed state. Phytopharmaceuticals are always mixtures of many constituents and are therefore very variable and difficult to characterize. Standardization of the preparation of herbal medicines still ...

  8. Pharmaceutical Characterization of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of this preformulation study indicates that the powdered extract of Bridelia ferruginea possesses properties that make it suitable for its formulation into standard solid dosage forms. Keywords: Herbal medicines, Bridelia ferruginea, Preformulation studies, Micromeritic properties, Wet granulation.

  9. Detrimental Effects of Mango Stem Bark on the Histology of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... exposed to the extract during the 2nd trimester. The use of concoction of Mango stem bark should be discouraged, and more importantly during pregnancy, in view of its toxic effects on the developing brain, and as a potential predisposing factor to neurological dysfunctions. Keywords: mango stem bark, detrimental effect, ...

  10. Study of the antibacterial activity of the stem bark and leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of the stem bark and the leaves of Parkia biglobosa have been tested on four strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients in the ... The phytochemical screening showed that the extracts of the stem bark were rich in sterols, a triterpenes, tannins, saponosides, anthocyanidins, coumarins, ...

  11. Studies on the biocidal and cell membrane disruption potentials of stem bark extracts of Afzelia africana (Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID A AKINPELU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We had recently reported antibacterial activity in the crude extract of the stem bark of Afzelia africana (Akinpelu et al., 2008. In this study, we assessed the biocidal and cell membrane disruption potentials of fractions obtained from the crude extract of the plant. The aqueous (AQ and butanol (BL fractions exhibited appreciable antibacterial activities against the test bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the AQ and BL fractions ranged between 0.313 and 2.5 mg/ml, while their minimum bactericidal concentrations varied between 0.625 and 5.0 mg/ml. Also, the AQ fraction killed about 95.8% of E. coli cells within 105 min at a concentration of 5 mg/ml, while about 99.1% of Bacillus pumilus cells were killed by this fraction at the same concentration and exposure time. A similar trend was observed for the BL fraction. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml, the butanol fraction leaked 9.8 μg/ml of proteins from E. coli cells within 3 h, while the aqueous fraction leaked 6.5 μg/ml of proteins from the same organisms at the same concentration and exposure time. We propose that the stem bark of Afzelia africana is a potential source of bioactive compounds of importance to the pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Evaluation of the diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction of Zanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntchapda, Fidèle; Kakesse, Maguirgue; Fokam, Michel Archange Tagne; Pancha, Olivier Mbouemboue; Abakar, Djedouboum; Dimo, Théophile

    2015-09-01

    Zanthoxylum heitzii is a medicinal plant widely used in central Africa for the treatment of many diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction were determined and its safety in rats was evaluated. The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction of Z. heitzii 250 g ± 10 g) of both sexes. The crude stem bark extraction of Z. heitzii at the doses of 225, 300 and 375 mg/kg was administered to rats at 5 mL/kg body weight. Urine volume was determined 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24 h after administration of the extract. Kinetics of electrolyte elimination in response to a single oral administration dose of acute treatment was measured. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as reference (furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide). Urinary and plasma concentrations of sodium and potassium ions were determined using flame photometry. Concentrations of creatinine, urea, glucose, albumin and electrolytes in the plasma and urine samples were evaluated using a two-way digital bidirectional spectrophotometer. The osmolarity of plasma and urine samples was measured by cytometry using an osmometer. Aldosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. The plant extract accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid and increased urine volume and the excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- 24 h after administration (P0.05) changes were observed in the body temperature of the animals. The significant increase in urine volume 24 h after treatment followed a dose-response pattern. The excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl- caused a decrease in urine osmolarity. The stability of aldosterone, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and increased clearance of free water in animals treated with aqueous extract suggest that increased diuresis and moderate natriuresis elevation were of tubular origin.

  13. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandita; Islam, Md Ekramul; Jahan, Nusrat; Islam, Mohammad Saiful; Khan, Alam; Islam, Md Rafikul; Parvin, Mst Shahnaj

    2014-02-04

    Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly correlated with the antioxidant

  14. Antibacterial and antispasmodic activities of a dichloromethane fraction of an ethanol extract of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Banga N′Guessan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study presents the antispasmodic and antibacterial properties of an ethanol extract and fractions the of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum. Materials and Methods: The antispasmodic effects of the extract and its fractions were performed on isolated rabbit duodenum. The antibacterial properties were determined as minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the extract and fractions of P. reticulatum on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella tiphymurium. Results: The ethanol extract of P. reticulatum and fractions (except for heptane produced concentration-dependent relaxant effects on isolated duodenum preparations. The IC 50 of the extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions are 0.88452, 0.2453, 0.2909, 0.3946 and 0.3231 mg/ml respectively. The extract was found to significantly antagonize acetylcholine-induced contraction. The susceptible strains E. coli and V. cholerae were the most inhibited by the dichloromethane fraction at 60 mg/mL, as shown by their diameter of inhibition of 13.2 ± 0.76 and 13.3 ± 0.67 mm respectively. Conversely, the dichloromethane fraction, the most active antibacterial fraction, did not inhibit the resistant strains S. dysenteriae and S. tiphymurium. Conclusion: The results showed that P. reticulatum stem bark possesses spasmolytic and antibacterial properties and this may contribute to its traditional medicinal use for the treatment of diarrhea.

  15. Green Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Callicarpa maingayi Stem Bark Extraction

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    Mohammed Zidan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Different biological methods are gaining recognition for the production of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs due to their multiple applications. The use of plants in the green synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as a cost effective and eco-friendly approach. In this study the green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Callicarpa maingayi stem bark extract has been reported. Characterizations of nanoparticles were done using different methods, which include; ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXF spectrometry, zeta potential measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed absorption peak at around 456 nm. The TEM study showed that mean diameter and standard deviation for the formation of silver nanoparticles were 12.40 ± 3.27 nm. The XRD study showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face centered cubic (fcc structure. The most needed outcome of this work will be the development of value added products from Callicarpa maingayi for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries.

  16. Phytochemical analysis and toxicity investigation of stem bark of Scutia buxifolia Reissek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Robson Borba; da Costa Araldi, Isabel Cristina; Boligon, Aline Augusti; de Brum, Thiele Faccin; Rovani, Bruno Tomazele; Piana, Mariana; Zadra, Marina; Athayde, Margareth Linde; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of lyophilised aqueous extract of the stem bark of Scutia buxifolia (SBSB) was carried out by determining total phenolics (0.280 ± 0.02 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract), flavonoids (17.42 ± 2.95 mg of quercetin equivalents/g of extract) and tannins (1.28 ± 0.15 mg of catechin equivalents/g of extract) contents followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (HPLC/DAD) analysis. The HPLC profile showed caffeic acid, being the major constituent of SBSB (247.21 ± 2.17 mg g⁻¹ of extract). The antioxidant scavenging capacity of SBSB was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antioxidant power of SBSB was comparable with that of the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Acute toxicity was assayed in rats whereas catalase activity and malondialdehyde production were determined in rats' liver. The SBSB showed safety in the dose tested. This report is the first realised in animals for S. buxifolia.

  17. Antigenotoxic prenylated flavonoids from stem bark of Erythrina latissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarev, Yancho; Foubert, Kenn; Lucia de Almeida, Vera; Anthonissen, Roel; Elgorashi, Esameldin; Apers, Sandra; Ionkova, Iliana; Verschaeve, Luc; Pieters, Luc

    2017-09-01

    A series of prenylated flavonoids was obtained from antigenotoxic extracts and fractions of stem bark of Erythrina latissima E. Mey (Leguminosae). In addition to five constituents never reported before, i.e. (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)chroman-4-one (erylatissin D), (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxy-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)chroman-4-one (erylatissin E), 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methoxy-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one (erylatissin F), (2S)-5,7,8'-trihydroxy-2',2'-dimethyl-[2,6'-bichroman]-4-one (erylatissin G) and (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-8'-methoxy-2',2'-dimethyl-[2,6'-bichroman]-4-one (dihydroabyssinin I), 18 known flavonoids were identified. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic properties (against genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1, metabolically activated) in the Vitotox assay revealed that most flavonoids were active. Sigmoidin A and B showed the highest activity, with an IC 50 value of 18.7 μg/mL, equivalent to that of curcumin (IC 50 18.4 μg/mL), used as a reference antigenotoxic compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Triterpenoid saponins from the stem bark of Caryocar villosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Renimel, Isabelle; Harakat, Dominique; Moretti, Christian; Lavaud, Catherine

    2006-10-01

    Five triterpenoid saponins, caryocarosides II-22 (3), III-22 (4), II-23 (5), III-23 (6), and II-24 (7), have been isolated from the methanol extract of the stem bark of Caryocar villosum, along with two known saponins (1-2). The seven saponins are glucuronides of hederagenin (II) or bayogenin (III). Caryocaroside II-24 (7) is an unusual galloyl ester saponin acylated on the sugar chain attached to C-28, the 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl hederagenin-28-O-[2-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester. The structures of the saponins were established on the basis of extensive NMR ((13)C, (1)H, COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and ROESY) and ESI-MS studies. The cytotoxic activity of saponins 2 and 3 was evaluated in vitro against human keratinocytes. The DOPA-oxidase inhibition and the lipolytic activities were evaluated ex vivo using an explant of human adipose tissue.

  19. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Bauhinia racemosa L. stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of a methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR (Caesalpiniaceae stem bark in various systems. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract increased in a concentration-dependent manner. About 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg MEBR inhibited the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion by 62.43, 67.21, 71.04, and 76.83%, respectively. Similarly, the effect of MEBR on reducing power increased in a concentration-dependent manner. In DPPH radical scavenging assays the IC50 value of the extract was 152.29 µg/ml. MEBR inhibited the nitric oxide radicals generated from sodium nitroprusside with an IC50 of 78.34 µg/ml, as opposed to 20.4 µg/ml for curcumin. Moreover, MEBR scavenged the superoxide generated by the PMS/NADH-NBT system. MEBR also inhibited the hydroxyl radical generated by Fenton's reaction, with an IC50 value of more than 1000 µg/ml, as compared to 5 µg/ml for catechin. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were also determined and 64.7 µg pyrocatechol phenol equivalents were detected in MEBR (1 mg. The antimicrobial activities of MEBR were determined by disc diffusion with five Gram-positive, four Gram-negative and four fungal species. MEBR showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The results obtained in the present study indicate that MEBR can be a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  20. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabueze, Celestina Ifeoma; Adesegun, Sunday Adeleke; Coker, Herbert Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid-induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results: The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P > 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P < 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P < 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains. SUMMARY Analgesic and antioxidant activities of extract and solvent fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus investigated indicated that extract has analgesic and antioxidant properties that reside mainly in the polar fractions. Abbreviations Used: DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, ANOVA: analysis of variance, EDTA: ethylene diamne tetraacetic acid, SDM: standard deviation of mean

  1. Therapeutic effects of various solvent fractions of Alstonia boonei (apocynaceae) stem bark on Plasmodium berghei-induced malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanlokun, J O; Bolaji, O M; Agbedahunsi, J M; Olorunsogo, O O

    2012-12-01

    Malaria, the most important parasitic disease afflicting man is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Chemotherapy remains the mainstay for the treatment and prevention of the disease in the absence of an effective vaccine. The incidence of resistance of malaria parasites to chemotherapy is increasing and complicated. This study was therefore undertaken in order to evaluate the therapeutic effects of fractions of the stem bark of A. boonei on P. berghei-induced malaria using chloroquine as control. Different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) of methanolic extract (ME), n-hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethylacetate(EF) and aqueous (AF) fractions of the stem bark of A. boonei were administered orally to albino mice. Five milligrammes chloroquine base per kilogramme body weight (5 mg/kg bw) was used as positive control while the negative control mice received only the vehicle (5% v/v tween 80). The results obtained showed that the 400 mg/kg bw dose was more effective with respect to the parasite clearance than the 200 mg/kg bw dose. The 400 mg/kg bw dose of ME gave 68.1% percent parasite clearance. The CF gave the highest clearance of 98.4% at 400 mg/kg bw after 7 days treatment while chloroquine at 5 mg/kg bw gave 100% parasite clearance. The order of increasing potency of the fractions (parasite clearance) was (EF 50.0% < AF 60.3% < HF 63.1%, < CF 98.4%) indicating that the active principle in the stem bark was highest in the CF. Percentage parasitemia following exposure to these fractions also decreased in all groups in the same order and was only significant (p < 0.05) in CF (0.11%) compared to the untreated control group. The ME of A. boonei also caused increase in PCV by 15.5%. Purification enhanced PCV value as the HF and CF fractions gave 19.0% and 24.5% increases, respectively. However, 31.5% increase in PCV was obtained in the albino mice treated with chloroquine. The EF and AF gave increase of 10.0% and 11.0% increase relative

  2. Antioxidant tannins from stem bark and fine root of Casuarina equisetifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shang-Ju; Lin, Yi-Ming; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Wei, Shu-Dong; Lin, Guang-Hui; Ye, Gong-Fu

    2010-08-16

    Structures of condensed tannins from the stem bark and fine root of Casuarina equisetifolia were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and HPLC analyses. The condensed tannins from stem bark and fine root consist predominantly of procyanidin combined with prodelphinidin and propelargonidin, and epicatechin is the main extension unit. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to tridecamer for stem bark and to pentadecamer for fine root. The antioxidant activities were measured by two models: 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/ antioxidant power (FRAP). The condensed tannins extracted from C. equisetifolia showed very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/ antioxidant power, suggesting that these extracts may be considered as new sources of natural antioxidants for food and nutraceutical products.

  3. Pharmacognostic specifications and quantification of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in Pentace burmanica stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangyod, Thidarat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2014-07-01

    According to Thai traditional medicine, Pentace burmanica Kurz. stem bark has been used as crude drug for treating diarrhea. However, the crude drug is also found susceptible to adulteration. To develop specific standardization parameters of P. burmanica stem bark in Thailand and to determine the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin contents of P. burmanica stem bark by HPLC analysis. P. burmanica stem barks from various sources throughout Thailand were investigated according to WHO guideline of the pharmacognostic specification. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed for (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin quantification. Macroscopic evaluation was demonstrated as whole plant drawing. Microscopic evaluation of stem bark powdered drug showed fragment of fibers, resin masses, tannin masses, starch grain, calcium oxalate, and fragment of parenchyma. Physico-chemical parameters revealed that total ash, acid insoluble ash, loss on drying, and water content should be not more than 3.58, 0.50, 8.40, and 9.70% of dry weight respectively; while ethanol and water soluble extractive values should not be less than 21.90 and 19.06% of dry weight respectively. Both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were existed in P. burmanica ethanolic extract. Owing to the small amount of (+)-catechin, quantitation of its content was omitted. However, (-)-epicatechin contents was found as 59.74 ± 1.69μg/mg of crude extract. The pharmacognostic investigations can be used to set the standard parameters of P. burmanica stem bark in Thailand. HPLC method can be applied to determine (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin content in plant materials.

  4. Studies on the antibacterial activity of Khaya senegalensis [(Desr.) A. Juss)] stem bark extract on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi [(ex Kauffmann and Edwards) Le Minor and Popoff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugoh, Sylvanus Chukwudi; Agarry, Oluwabunmi Olaitan; Garba, Samuel Alimi

    2014-05-01

    To study the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the stem bark extracts of Khaya senegalensis (K. senegalensis) against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi. The plant components were extracted using methanol, ethanol and water. The phytochemical screening of the stem bark extracts were carried out using a standard method. The antibacterial assay of the stem bark extracts against Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) using the agar well diffusion method with different concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg/mL and the corresponding concentrations of the control was carried out and the result compared with a standard antibiotic, amoxicillin as the control. The results obtained from the phytochemical screening of the three plant bark extracts of K. senegalensis showed 10 plant secondary metabolites including saponins, tannins, reducing sugars, aldehyde, phlobatannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside and anthroquinones. The ethanol and aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activities against S. Typhi at concentration of 50 mg/mL with the zone diameter of inhibition (ZDI) of 14 mm and 15 mm respectively. The ethanol and aqueous extracts also showed zone diameter of inhibition of 23 mm and 25 mm respectively at 250 mg/mL and 27 mm each at 500 mg/mL. The ethanol and aqueous stem bark extracts gave the highest ZDI at 500 mg/mL while 100 mg/mL gave the least ZDI for ethanol extract and 50 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. This was followed by 400 mg/mL that gave 24 mm ZDI of the aqueous extract and 27 mm of the ethanol extract. The methanol extract showed intermediate susceptibility evidenced by ZDI of 10 mm at 100 mg/mL concentration. The methanol extract also showed antibacterial activity of 24 mm ZDI against the test organism at a higher concentration of 250 mg/mL and 26 mm at 500 mg/mL concentration. The methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts displayed antibacterial activities against S. Typhi with a statistical significant

  5. HOPEAPHENOL-O-GLYCOSIDE, A COMPOUND ISOLATED FROM STEM BARK Anisoptera marginata (Dipterocarpaceae

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    Sri Atun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and structure elucidation of some compounds from stem bark of Anisoptera marginata had been done. The isolation of those compounds was carried out by chromatographyc method and structure elucidation was performed by interpretation of spectroscopic data, including UV, IR,  1H and 13C NMR 1D and 2D, and FABMS. From acetone extract stem bark A. marginata we isolated five known compounds namely bergenin (1, (--ε-vinipherin (2, (--ampelopsin A (3, vaticanol B (4, (--hopeaphenol (5, and a glycoside compound namely hopeaphenol-O- glycoside (6.   Keywords: Dipterocarpaceae; Anisoptera marginata; hopeaphenol-O-glucoside

  6. Formulation of the extract of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    a Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, and bDepartment of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of. Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Abstract. Purpose: To formulate the extracts of the stem bark of Alstonia boonei, an important antimalarial herb, into tablet dosage form. Methods: Tablets were ...

  7. Bactericidal studies of saponins from the stem-bark of Adenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phtyochemical screening of methanolic Stem-bark extracts of Adenium obesum indicated the presence of saponins. Consequently, the saponins were extracted using standard procedures. The saponin extract was examined for in vitro antibacterial activity using disc diffusion technique. Activity against five bacterial strains ...

  8. Bactericidal studies of saponins from the stem-bark of Adenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    deep tissue infections, pneumonia, endocarditis and septicaemia diseases (Eili et al., 2007; Lisa, 2013). These findings support the traditional uses of the plant stem-bark for the treatment of skin diseases and wound infections; and also suggested the ability of the saponins to cure diseases associated with the bacteria ...

  9. Antinociceptive effect of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musanga cecropioides R. Apud Tedlie (Cecropiaceae), also known as umbrella tree is one of the medicinal plants used in Nigeria for pain and inflammation. The stem bark was extracted with absolute ethanol and screened for analgesic activities. The screening for analgesic properties was done using: acetic acid induced ...

  10. Comparative Botanical and Phytochemical Evaluation of Medicinally Important Stem Bark of Ficus species

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    Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pharmacognostical comparison (Botanical study, physicochemical parameters, HPTLC analysis in stem barks of four Ficus species (family-Moraceae viz. F. religiosa L, F. glomerata Roxb, F. retusa auct. & F. carica. Methods: Estimation of Phytochemical markers viz: 毬 -sitosterol and lupeol was quantified by HPTLC method and antioxidant studies by carried by DPPH method. Results: HPTLC method showed considerable amount of variation with two reference standard viz: 毬 -sitosterol and lupeol content in stem bark of F. religiosa, F. glomerata, F. retusa & F. carica and it were found 0.084, 0.041, 0.059 & 0.131 and 0.020, 0.043, 0.069 & 0.049 respectively. The antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of stem bark of F. religiosa, F. retusa, F. glomerata & F. carica were found 46.86%, 42.56%, 31.25% & 25.63% at 0.1mg/ mL concentration. Conclusion: The present work was taken up with a view to lay down standards which will contribute significantly to quality control of these medicinally useful Ficus species. It also provides suitable criteria to differentiate the stem barks of four Ficus species.

  11. In vivo antitrypanosomal effects of stem-bark extracts of Securidaca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of stem-bark extracts of Securidaca longipedunculata against Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats was investigated. For curative study, forty adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly divided into 8 groups of 5 rats each. Each rat was infected with 106 cells of trypanosomes per ml of blood ...

  12. Bioactive compounds in the stem bark of Albizia coriaria (Welw. ex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albizia coriaria was investigated for the bioactive compounds present in its stem bark. The plant was selected on the basis of its widespread use in traditional herbal medicine. Extraction of the plant material was done with ethyl acetate, methanol and water and the bioactivity of each extract was tested against Pseudomonas ...

  13. BRIONONIC ACID FROM THE HEXANE EXTRACT OF Sandoricum koetjape MERR STEM BARK (meliaceae

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    Tukiran Tukiran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An oleane-type triterpenoid, briononic acid was isolated from hexane extract of the stem bark of Sandoricum koetjape Merr. (Meliaceae. This structure had been established based on spectroscopic data (UV, IR, and NMR and by comparison with spectroscopic data of related compound that had been reported.   Keywords: Meliaceae, Oleane, Sandoricum koetjape Merr., Triterpenoid

  14. Effect of fraction iv portion of Ximenia americana stem bark on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study investigates the effect of fraction IV portion of Ximenia americana stem bark on Trypanosoma congolense induced serum enzymes changes in rats. Following infection with trypanosomes, the rats were monitored for levels of some serum enzymes. The results revealed that there was significant (P<0.05) ...

  15. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory evaluation of essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Carvalho, Larissa A.C.; Silva, Flavia S. da; Romoff, Paulete; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Favero, Oriana A.

    2010-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) were individually obtained by hydrodistillation and their compounds characterized by use of GC/FID and GC/MS. The main identified derivatives were monoterpenes (leaves 4.31% and stem barks 90.02%) and sesquiterpenes (leaves 52.31% and stem barks 6.35%). Additionally, the sesquiterpene polygodial was isolated from hexane extract from stem barks of D. brasiliensis after chromatographic steps and characterized by spectroscopic means, mainly NMR. Aiming the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential, the crude essential oils and the sesquiterpene polygodial were subjected to bioassays to evaluate the acute toxicity of these compounds as well as the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities induced by carrageenan and formalin in mice. Ours results showed that essential oil obtained from the stem barks significantly reduced the oedema induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by stem barks oil (at 200 mg kg -1 ) was similar to observed for indomethacin (at 10 mg kg -1 ) and superior for polygodial (at 200 mg kg -1 ) in 30 and 60 min after the administration of essential oils. The inflammatory response induced by formalin was effective to the stem barks oil (62.5%) in comparison to polygodial (50.0%). (author)

  16. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory evaluation of essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G., E-mail: joao.lago@unifesp.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Carvalho, Larissa A.C.; Silva, Flavia S. da; Romoff, Paulete [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude

    2010-07-01

    The essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) were individually obtained by hydrodistillation and their compounds characterized by use of GC/FID and GC/MS. The main identified derivatives were monoterpenes (leaves 4.31% and stem barks 90.02%) and sesquiterpenes (leaves 52.31% and stem barks 6.35%). Additionally, the sesquiterpene polygodial was isolated from hexane extract from stem barks of D. brasiliensis after chromatographic steps and characterized by spectroscopic means, mainly NMR. Aiming the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential, the crude essential oils and the sesquiterpene polygodial were subjected to bioassays to evaluate the acute toxicity of these compounds as well as the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities induced by carrageenan and formalin in mice. Ours results showed that essential oil obtained from the stem barks significantly reduced the oedema induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by stem barks oil (at 200 mg kg{sup -1}) was similar to observed for indomethacin (at 10 mg kg{sup -1}) and superior for polygodial (at 200 mg kg{sup -1}) in 30 and 60 min after the administration of essential oils. The inflammatory response induced by formalin was effective to the stem barks oil (62.5%) in comparison to polygodial (50.0%). (author)

  17. Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and southern Africa: a summary: Part 1: Taxonomy, ecology and role in rural livelihoods: review paper.

  18. Doxorubicin induced neuro- and cardiotoxicities in experimental rats: Protection against oxidative damage by Theobroma cacao Stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kosoko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 80 rats, randomly selected, were divided into 3 treatment groups: pre-, co- and post-treatment; consisting of 6 sub-groups each (5 rats per sub-group: baseline, normal saline (2 mL, α-lipoic acid (20 mg/kg body weight, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg body weight Theobroma cacao stem bark aqueous extract (TCAE. All rats except for baseline group were intoxicated with 20 mg/kg body weight doxorubicin (DOX intraperitoneally. The animals in pre- or post-treatment group received a single dose of DOX (20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally 24 h before or after 7 days’ oral administration with TCAE respectively while those in co-treatment group were co-administered 2.86 mg/kg body weight of DOX with either normal saline, α- lipoic acid or TCAE orally for 7 days. Animals were sacrificed (pre- and post- treatment groups were sacrificed on the ninth day while the co-treatment group sacrificed on the 8th day. Brain and heart tissue samples were harvested for enzyme markers of toxicity, oxidative stress and histopathological examinations. DOX intoxication caused significant decrease in activities of LDH and ACP, and increase in γGT and ALP activities in brain tissues while causing a significant increase in LDH, ACP, γGT activities and decrease in ALP activity in the cardiac tissues. DOX intoxication caused a significant increase in concentrations of H2O2 generated, MDA and PC, XO, MPx and NOX activities with concomitant decrease in CAT, SOD, GPx and GST activities, and in concentrations of GSH, AsA and α-Toc in brain and cardiac tissues. Pre-, co- and post-treatment with TCAE at either 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg body weight significantly reversed the oxidative damage to the organs induced by DOX-intoxication. The result affirmed that T. cacao stem bark aqueous extract protected against DOX induced oxidative damage in brain and cardiac tissues of experimental rats.

  19. Doxorubicin induced neuro- and cardiotoxicities in experimental rats: Protection against oxidative damage byTheobroma cacaoStem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoko, A M; Olurinde, O J; Akinloye, O A

    2017-07-01

    80 rats, randomly selected, were divided into 3 treatment groups: pre-, co- and post-treatment; consisting of 6 sub-groups each (5 rats per sub-group): baseline, normal saline (2 mL), α-lipoic acid (20 mg/kg body weight), 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg body weight Theobroma cacao stem bark aqueous extract (TCAE). All rats except for baseline group were intoxicated with 20 mg/kg body weight doxorubicin (DOX) intraperitoneally. The animals in pre- or post-treatment group received a single dose of DOX (20 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally 24 h before or after 7 days' oral administration with TCAE respectively while those in co-treatment group were co-administered 2.86 mg/kg body weight of DOX with either normal saline, α- lipoic acid or TCAE orally for 7 days. Animals were sacrificed (pre- and post- treatment groups were sacrificed on the ninth day while the co-treatment group sacrificed on the 8th day). Brain and heart tissue samples were harvested for enzyme markers of toxicity, oxidative stress and histopathological examinations. DOX intoxication caused significant decrease in activities of LDH and ACP, and increase in γGT and ALP activities in brain tissues while causing a significant increase in LDH, ACP, γGT activities and decrease in ALP activity in the cardiac tissues. DOX intoxication caused a significant increase in concentrations of H 2 O 2 generated, MDA and PC, XO, MPx and NOX activities with concomitant decrease in CAT, SOD, GPx and GST activities, and in concentrations of GSH, AsA and α-Toc in brain and cardiac tissues. Pre-, co- and post-treatment with TCAE at either 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg body weight significantly reversed the oxidative damage to the organs induced by DOX-intoxication. The result affirmed that T. cacao stem bark aqueous extract protected against DOX induced oxidative damage in brain and cardiac tissues of experimental rats.

  20. Phytochemical screening and studies of analgesic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark extract on experimental animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Shumaia Parvin; Md. Abu Shuaib Rafshanjani; Md. Abdul Kader; Most. Afia Akhtar; Tahmida Sharmin

    2014-01-01

    The work has been done for the phytochemical investigation and study of analgesic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. ethanolic stem bark extract using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing method. The effect of extract was tested for qualitative chemical analysis which reveals the presence of alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, carbohydrate etc. For peripheral analgesic effect acetic acid induced writhing test was used and for this stem bark extract was administered intraperitoneally at...

  1. Phytochemical Study on The Stem Bark of Mallotus Leucodermis Hook F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiza Syuhada Mohd Yusoff; Norizan Ahmat

    2016-01-01

    The stem barks of Mallotus leucodermis Hook F. (Euphorbiaceae) was studied for its chemical constituents. The air dried and pulverized of stem bark of M. leucodermis (1.3 kg) was extracted successively with acetone for three days at room temperature yielding 66.0 g of crude extract. The crude extract was fractionated using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) to afford six fractions. Fraction 6 was further washed and recrystallized to afford bergenin (1). Fraction 3 was subjected to multiple purification using radial chromatography (CHCl3: acetone) with different ratio 9:1, 8:2, 6:4 and 5:5 to yield a flavonoid compound, epicatechin (2). These compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis (Ultra Violate, Infra-Red, Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) as well as comparison with literatures. (author)

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie K. Obey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1±0.6 mm and 16.0±1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6±1.0 mm. The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4±0.7–22.1±0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125–250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens.

  3. Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of the Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Dialium Guineense (Wild)

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeja, MI; Omeh, YS; Ezeigbo, II; Ekechukwu, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dialium guineense is a medicinal plant used by some communities of Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State, Nigeria for treatment of fever, headache and other diverse ailments. Objectives: The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Method: Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight)...

  4. Antimicrobial potential of Dialium guineense (Wild.) stem bark on some clinical isolates in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajubu, Fa; Akpan, I; Ojo, DA; Oluwalana, Sa

    2012-01-01

    The persistent increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms has led to the development of more potent but also more expensive antibiotics. In most developing countries of the world these antibiotics are not readily affordable, thus making compliance difficult. This calls for research into alternative sources of antimicrobials. Dialium guineense is a shrub of the family Leguminosae. Its stem bark is used for the treatment of cough, toothache, and bronchitis. Despite the acclaimed efficacy of D guineense, there is no scientific evidence in its support. This work was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of D guineense in vitro against some clinical isolates. D guineense stem bark was collected and 50 gm of air-dried and powdered stem bark of the plant was soaked for 72 hours in 1 l of each of the six solvents used in this study. Each mixture was refluxed, agitated at 200 rpm for 1 hour, filtered using Whatman No. 1 filter paper and, finally, freeze dried. The extracts were then tested for antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. The highest percentage yield of 23.2% was obtained with ethanol. Phytochemical screening showed that D guineense contains anthraquinone, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts revealed a broad spectrum of activity, with Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureusa showing the greatest zones of inhibition (18.0 mm). Only Candida albicans among the fungi tested was inhibited by the extract. The greatest zone of inhibition among the fractions was 16.0 mm. D guineense exhibited bactericidal activity at the 7th and 9th hours against Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. aureus 25923 while the 10th hour against S. typhi and C. albicans. The greatest activity was noted against S pneumoniae, where there was reduced viable cell count after 6 hours of exposure. Stem bark extract of D guineense (Wild.) has the potential to be developed into an antimicrobial

  5. Mass of Prunus africana stem barks on Tchabal mbabo and Tchabal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-05-10

    May 10, 2013 ... The best equation which links the volume (Vb) of fresh barks to the diameter .... range State prior to export, certifying that export is not .... the following equation: Vb = (πh/2)*(e x (Da + Du) – 2e²). Relation linking the volume of the stem bark and its mass = cubic mass. The cubic mass of an entity is the ratio of ...

  6. Complement Fixing Polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera Root Bark, Stem Bark and Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-Feng Zou; Bing-Zhao Zhang; Hilde Barsett; Kari Tvete Inngjerdingen; Drissa Diallo; Terje Einar Michaelsen; Berit Smestad Paulsen

    2014-01-01

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The ch...

  7. Two New Chemical Constituents from the Stem Bark of Garcinia mangostana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene See

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed chemical study on the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana resulted in the successful isolation of one new prenylated xanthone, mangaxanthone B (1, one new benzophenone, mangaphenone (2, and two known xanthones, mangostanin (3 and mangostenol (4. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques.

  8. Phenolic glycosides from the stem bark of Caryocar villosum and C. glabrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Harakat, Dominique; Moretti, Christian; Lavaud, Catherine

    2008-05-01

    Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity of methanol extracts and polar fractions of the stem bark of Caryocar villosum and C. glabrum has been assessed. Seven new phenolic glycosides (1-7) were isolated from the most active fractions, along with 15 known compounds (8-22). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR analysis, HRESIMS, and comparison with literature experimental data for known compounds.

  9. Triterpenoids from n-hexane extract of Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq. stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiek Soemiati

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of n-hexane extract of dried Garcinia picrorrhiza Miq. stem bark (Cluciaceae furnished two triterpenoids, identified as 3oxo-7,24-euphadien-26oic acid (1, 3β-hydroxy-7,24-euphadien-26 oic acid (2. The structure of compounds were determined by using UV-vis, FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  10. Anticonvulsant effects of ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri (Anacardiaceae) in mice and chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, K; Yaro, A H; Ya'u, J

    2015-08-22

    Preparation of Lannea barteri is used in the treatment of epilepsy, gastritis, childhood convulsions among other uses in northern Nigeria for many years. The popularity of its efficacy is well established among the Traditional Medical Practitioners. The present study aimed at screening the ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri for possible anticonvulsant action. Anticonvulsant screening was carried out using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), strychnine (STN) and picrotoxin (PTC) induced seizures in mice while Maximal electroshock (MES) test was carried out in day old chicks. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract was performed on the extract. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) was carried out in mice. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) LD50 of the extract was estimated to be 567.70 mg/kg in mice. Lannea barteri (160 mg/kg) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) delayed the mean onset of seizures induced by PTZ when compared with normal saline treated group. Similarly, the extract at 160 mg/kg significantly (p ≤ 0.05) prolonged the latency of convulsion induced by STN. Lannea barteri (40 mg/kg) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) delayed the mean onset of seizures induced by picrotoxin in mice. The extracts at all the doses tested showed no observable effect in decreasing the mean recovery time of convulsed chicks in MEST. Flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and glycosides were found present in the stem bark extract. Our findings revealed that the ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri contained bioactive constituents that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and supports the ethnomedical claim for the use of its stem bark in the management of epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark methanol extract in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyadjeu Paulin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous study showed that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum possesses antihypertensive and vasodilatory properties. The present work investigates the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of the methanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark (MECZ in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods The acute antihypertensive effects of MECZ (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg administered intravenously were evaluated in rats in which acute arterial hypertension has been induced by intravenous administration of L-NAME (20 mg/kg. For chronic antihypertensive effects, animals were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day plus the vehicle or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day in combination with captopril (20 mg/kg/day or MECZ (300 mg/kg/day and compared with control group receiving only distilled water. All drugs were administered per os and at the end of the experiment that lasted for four consecutive weeks, blood pressure was measured by invasive method and blood samples were collected for the determination of the lipid profile. The heart and aorta were collected, weighed and used for both histological analysis and determination of NO tissue content. Results Acute intravenous administration of C. zeylanicum extract (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg to L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats provoked a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased by 12.5%, 26.6% and 30.6% at the doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In chronic administration, MECZ and captopril significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure and organs’ weights, as well as tissue histological damages and were able to reverse the depletion in NO tissue’s concentration. The MECZ also significantly lower the plasma level of triglycerides (38.1%, total cholesterol (32.1% and LDL-cholesterol (75.3% while increasing that of HDL-cholesterol (58.4% with a significant low atherogenic index (1.4 versus 5.3 for L-NAME group. Conclusion MECZ

  12. Plant-derived juvenile hormone III analogues and other sesquiterpenes from the stem bark of Cananga latifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hye Seong; Jeong, Eun Ju; Khiev, Piseth; Chin, Young-Won; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH III) is a larval metamorphosis-regulating hormone present in most insect species. JH III was first isolated from the plant, Cyperus iria L., but the presence of JH III has not been reported in other plant species. In the present study, proof of the existence of JH III and its analogues from Cananga latifolia was established. From an aqueous MeOH extract of C. latifolia stem bark, six compounds were isolated along with nine known compounds. These were identified by using spectroscopic analyses as: (2E,6E,10R)-11-butoxy-10-hydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoic acid methyl ester, (2E,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-10-oxododeca-2,6-dienoic acid methyl ester, (2E)-3-methyl-5-[(1S,2R,6R)-1,2,6-trimethyl-3-oxocyclohexyl]-pent-2-enoic acid methyl ester, 1β-hydroxy-3-oxo-4β, 5α,7α-H-eudesmane 11-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, 4-epi-aubergenone 11-O-2',3'-di-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside and 4-epi-aubergenone 11-O-2',4'-di-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside. Three of the previously known compounds, (2E,6E,10R)-10-hydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6,11-trienoaic acid methyl ester, (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-dihydroxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoic acid and (2E,6S)-3-methyl-6-hydroxy-6-[(2R,5R)-5-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2-methyltetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-hex-2-enoaic acid methyl ester have now been found in a plant species. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (UPLC-QTOF/MS) analysis of the chemical constituents of C. latifolia showed that several were predominant in the sub-fractions of a C. latifolia stem bark extract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antidiarrhoeal activity of an ethanol extract of the stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum (Caesalpiniaceae) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosso, K; N'guessan, B B; Bidie, A P; Gnangoran, B N; Méité, S; N'guessan, D; Yapo, A P; Ehilé, E E

    2012-01-01

    Piliostigma reticulatum (Caesalpiniaceae) is used in Africa as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis and diarrhoea. We investigated the antidiarrhoeal properties of a crude ethanol extract from the stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum (EEPR) in Wistar albino rats to substantiate its traditional use and to determine its phytochemical constituents. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the plant extract was evaluated in a castor oil-induced diarrhoea model in rats and compared with loperamide. The effect of the extract on gastrointestinal motility was also determined by the oral administration of charcoal meal and castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling). EEPR showed remarkable dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity evidenced by a reduction of defecation frequency and change in consistency. Extracts at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced diarrhoeal faeces. EEPR also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility and castor oil-induced enteropooling at 500 and 1000 mg/kg, similar to the inhibition obtained in control rats treated by atropine. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, polyphenols and reducing sugars in the stem bark of P. reticulatum. No mortality or visible signs of general weakness were observed in the rats following administration of the crude extract in doses up to 6000 mg/kg body weight in an acute toxicity study. Our results show that the stem bark of P. reticulatum possesses antidiarrhoeal activity and strongly suggest that its use in traditional medicine practice could be justified.

  14. Therapeutic Effects of Annona senegalensis Pers Stem Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood and cerebrospinal fluid infectivity (CSF) tests were done to confirm cure of infection. Results: Hexane extract, at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight and aqueous extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight, cured the experimental infection in mice. Blood and CSF infectivity tests confirmed cure of infected animals.

  15. Antifungal effect of Calotropis procera stem bark on Epidermophyton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifugal activities of aqueous extract of Calotropics procera was determined against Epidermophyton flocosum and Tricophyton gypseum using agar diffusion techniques. The crude extract of C. procera showed activity on E. flocosum and T. gypseum at 4.0 mg/ml. The result of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ...

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Boswellia ovalifoliolata stem bark-extract-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supraja, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Krishna, T. Giridhara; David, E.

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles using biological systems is an expanding research area in nanotechnology. Moreover, search for new nanoscale antimicrobials is been always attractive as they find numerous avenues for application in medicine. Biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is cost effective and eco-friendly compared to those of conventional methods of nanoparticles synthesis. Herein, we present the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using the stem bark extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata, and evaluation of their antimicrobial efficacy. Stable ZnO nanoparticles were formed by treating 90 ml of 1 mM zinc nitrate aqueous solution with 10 ml of 10 % bark extract. The formation of B. ovalifoliolata bark-extract-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles (BZnNPs) was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic analysis and recorded the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) at 230 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis revealed that primary and secondary amine groups in combination with the proteins present in the bark extract are responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the BZnNPs. The morphology and crystalline phase of the nanocrystals were determined by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrodynamic diameter (20.3 nm) and a positive zeta potential (4.8 mV) were measured using the dynamic light scattering technique. The antimicrobial activity of BZnNPs was evaluated (in vitro) against fungi, Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacteria using disk diffusion method which were isolated from the scales formed in drinking water PVC pipelines.

  17. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from stem bark of Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston: an important medicinal plant and evaluation of their antimicrobial efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, A.; Linga Rao, M.; Savithramma, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.

    2015-10-01

    The use of different parts of plants for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered as a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. Herein, we report on rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from aqueous stem bark extract of Cochlospermum religiosum a medicinal plant. The reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The UV-Visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 445 nm, XRD showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure and the SEM images showed that the spherical-shaped silver nanoparticles were observed and the size range was found to be 20-35 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrate, polyphenols, and protein molecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of silver nanoparticles. These phytosynthesized SNPs were tested for their antimicrobial activity and it analyzed by measuring the inhibitory zone. Cochlospermum religiosum aqueous stem bark extract of SNPs showed highest toxicity to Staphylococcus followed by Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli and Bacillus and lowest toxicity towards Proteus. Whereas in fungal species highest inhibition zone against Aspergillus flavus followed by Rhizopus, Fusarium, and Curvularia, and minimum inhibition zone was observed against Aspergillus niger species. The outcome of this study could be useful for the development of value added products from indigenous medicinal plants of India for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from stem bark of Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston: an important medicinal plant and evaluation of their antimicrobial efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, A.; Linga Rao, M.; Savithramma, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.

    2014-11-01

    The use of different parts of plants for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered as a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. Herein, we report on rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from aqueous stem bark extract of Cochlospermum religiosum a medicinal plant. The reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The UV-Visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 445 nm, XRD showed that the particles are crystalline in nature, with a face-centered cubic structure and the SEM images showed that the spherical-shaped silver nanoparticles were observed and the size range was found to be 20-35 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrate, polyphenols, and protein molecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of silver nanoparticles. These phytosynthesized SNPs were tested for their antimicrobial activity and it analyzed by measuring the inhibitory zone. Cochlospermum religiosum aqueous stem bark extract of SNPs showed highest toxicity to Staphylococcus followed by Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli and Bacillus and lowest toxicity towards Proteus. Whereas in fungal species highest inhibition zone against Aspergillus flavus followed by Rhizopus, Fusarium, and Curvularia, and minimum inhibition zone was observed against Aspergillus niger species. The outcome of this study could be useful for the development of value added products from indigenous medicinal plants of India for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.

  19. The effect of intercropping Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. (marula) is native to Africa occurring in the semi-arid, deciduous savannas of much of sub-Saharan Africa. It has multiple uses, including the fruits, kernels, oil, bark, wood and leaves which make it a key species to support the development of rural enterprises. Enhancing positive ...

  20. Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge on Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra with emphasis on its importance as a non-timber forest product in South and southern Africa: a summary: part 2: commercial use, tenure and policy, domestication, intellectual property rights and benefit-sharing: review paper.

  1. Two new ar-bisabol sesquiterpenes from the stem bark of Fraxinus sielboldiana

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    Sheng Lin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new ar-bisabol sequiterpenes, (+-(7S,10S-10-epi-7,10-epoxy-3-hydroxy-ar-bisabol-11-ol (1 and (+-(7R,8R,10S-10-epi-7,10-epoxy-8-hydroxy-ar-bisabol-11-ol (2, have been isolated by a combination of various column chromatographic techniques including reversed-phase semipreparative HPLC from an ethanol extract of the stem bark of Fraxinus sielboldiana. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including IR, MS, and 1D and 2D NMR experiments. This is the first report of sequiterpenes in the genus Fraxinus.

  2. New Aliphatic Esters and Pyran Derivatives isolated from stem bark of Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trag, A. R.; Siddiqui, T. O.; Mahmooduzzafar; Iqbal, M.; Ali, M.

    2005-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Dalbergia Sissoo led to the isolation of two new aliphatic esters and two new pyran derivatives and their structures have been elucidated as n-hexacosan-5-ol-1-yl propionate, n-tetracosan-5-ol-yl propionate, 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-4-(2'-hydroxyphenyl1)-[4H]-benzopyran (dalbergyl pyran) and 10, 12, 13-trihydroxy-11-methoxyanthracenyl-15-18[2H]pyran(anthracenyl pyran) on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions. (author)

  3. PHENOLIC COMPOUND FROM THE STEM BARK OF MANGGIS HUTAN (Garcinia bancana Miq. AND THEIR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

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    Muharni Muharni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic compoud, (--epicatechin, was isolated from  the stem bark of Garcinia bancana. The structure of this compound was determined base on spectroscopic  data such as including UV, IR, 1-D, 2-D NMR, and comparison with the reported data. Biological activity of this compound at free radical scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and inhibitory xanthine oxidase(XO activity showed that (-- epicathechin active at two methods with IC50 value 8.1 and 8.6 mg/mL respectively.   Keywords: phenolic, (--epicatechin, Garcinia  bancana, DPPH, XO

  4. Morphoanatomical characterization and chemical study of the internal portion of the stem bark of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl

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    G.C. ALERICO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The internal part of the stem bark of this species is used to produce a homemade ointment in some regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The purpose of this study is to characterize the morphoanatomy and identify the compounds present in the internal part of the stem bark of S. australis through chemical and histochemical methods. In addition, the best extraction conditions for the sample were determined. It was possible to quantify the rutin and total phenolic compounds, as well as define the Soxhlet method with an 80% hydroethanolic solution as the best method for extracting these compounds from the bark of the species. The portion of the stem bark that is popularly used could also be determined. Based on the results, new studies will be performed in order to identify other characteristics of the species and the possible reasons that sustain its traditional use.

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol extract, fractions and compounds from the stem bark of Entada abyssinica Stend ex A. Satabie

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    Giacinti Geraldine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, fractions and isolated compounds from Entada abyssinica stem bark, plant used traditionally against gastrointestinal infections. Methods The methanol extract of E. abyssinica stem bark was pre-dissolved in a mixture of methanol and water, and then partitioned between n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ethyl acetate portion was fractionated by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. Antimicrobial activity was assayed by broth microdilution techniques on bacteria and yeasts. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging method. Results Four known compounds [(5S,6R,8aR-5-(carboxymethyl-3,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-5,6,8a-trimethylnaphthalenecarboxylic acid (1, methyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (2, benzene-1,2,3-triol (3 and 2,3-dihydroxypropyltriacontanoate (4] were isolated. Compared to the methanol extract, fractionation increased the antibacterial activities of the n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions, while the antifungal activities increased in ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous residue fractions. The isolated compounds were generally more active on bacteria (9.7 to 156.2 μg/ml than yeasts (78.1 to 312.5 μg/ml. Apart from compound 1, the three others displayed DPPH· scavenging activity (RSa, with RSa50 values of 1.45 and 1.60 μg/ml. Conclusion The results obtained from this study support the ethnomedicinal use of E. abyssinica in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections and the isolated compounds could be useful in the standardisation of antimicrobial phytomedicine from this plant.

  6. The Curative Activity of Isolated Fraction from Spathodea campanulata Beauv Stem Bark on Rat’s Exposed to Benzopyrene

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    Masruri Masruri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a screening results of the secondary metabolites composed in Spathodea campanulata Beauv stem bark, evaluate inhibiting activity of malondialdehyde (MDA on rat’s cancer model exposed with benzopyrene, and the histology of its lung. The secondary metabolite of the stem bark fraction consisted of alkaloids, flavonoids-phenolic, terpenoid and steroid compounds. The isolated fraction contained of these metabolites significantly indicate bioactivity by reducting of malondialdehyde (MDA level, and also histology appearance of the lung tissue prepared from the benzopyrene-exposed rat indicated a curative activity.

  7. Evaluation of mutagenic activity in an extract of pepper tree stem bark (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Maria Cleide Ribeiro Dantas; Barca, Francisco Napoleão Túlio Varela; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2003-01-01

    An extract (decoction) from pepper tree stem bark (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) is widely used in Brazil as a topical antiinflammatory agent and to cicatrize wounds. The extract contains catechin, tannins, terpenes, flavonoids, and saponins; of these components, both mutagenic potential and antioxidant properties have been ascribed to flavonoids. The mutagenicity of some flavonoids is believed to be associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species and seems to depend on the number and position of hydroxyl groups. In the present study, we evaluated an extract of S. terebinthifolius in a series of cell-free and bacterial assays in order to determine its genotoxic potential. The extract was negative in a cell-free plasmid DNA test, indicating that it did not directly break DNA. Positive results, however, were obtained in the SOS chromotest, in a forward mutagenesis assay employing CC104 and CC104mutMmutY strains of Escherichia coli, and in the Salmonella reversion assay, using strains TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102. All the bacterial tests were performed without exogenous metabolic activation due to the topical use of this preparation. The results indicate that pepper tree stem bark extract produces DNA damage and mutation in bacteria, and that oxidative damage may be responsible for the genotoxicity. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Complement fixing polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera root bark, stem bark and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Barsett, Hilde; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-06-06

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides.

  9. Complement Fixing Polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera Root Bark, Stem Bark and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Feng Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides.

  10. Low antiplasmodial activity of alkaloids and amides from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum rubescens (Rutaceae

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    Penali L.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Zanthoxylum rubescens (syn. Fagara rubescens is used for treating fevers associated with malaria in the Ivory Coast. Three alkaloids: N-nornitidine, 7,9-dimethoxy-2,3- methylenedioxybenzophenanthridine, and bis[6-(5,6- dihydrochelerythrinyl] ether; and two amides: zanthomamide and lemairamide, were isolated from the stem bark of this plant. These compounds were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain and the chloroquine-resistant FCM29 strain of P. falciparum. N-nornitidine was found to be inactive. 7,9- dimethoxy-2,3-methylenedioxybenzophenanthridine, lemairamide and zanthomamide showed weak activity with average IC50 values ranging from 45.6 μM to 149.9 μM. Bis[6-(5,6- dihydrochelerythrinyl] ether was the most active of the tested compounds with mean IC50s of 14.9 ± 1.4 μM in FCM29 strain and 15.3 ± 3.4 μM in 3D7 strain (~ 58 to ~ 1130 times less active than chloroquine respectively. The anti-Plasmodium activities of the tested alkaloids of Z. rubescens were low; and do not encourage the use of this plant as antimalarial.

  11. Effects of Del. Stem Bark Extract on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Wistar Rats

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    Moses Z. Zaruwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Africa is rich in a wide range of flora that are exploited as herbal medicines and remedies. Several diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery and jaundice have been successfully managed using herbal medicines. Herbal decoctions or concoctions have been used as pain killers, antibiotics, and hematinics. This study evaluated the hematopoietic and biochemical properties of the stem bark of Sterculia setigera Del. in Wistar rats. Results showed that S. setigera decoction has copiously high tannin and cardiac glycoside levels. Ingestion of the decoction by rats over a 16-day period significantly ( P < 0.05 increased the body weights of rats by 22.4% in the S. setigera -treated group. Hematological profiles showed raised levels of red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and platelets, while biochemical parameters showed lower levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and slight increase in albumin and TP levels. We posit that the results justify the use of the stem bark of S. setigera as a hematinic by traditional medical practitioners and show its relative safety. Further experiments are needed to evaluate its safety.

  12. stem bark

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... Omonkhelin J. Owolabi1*, Eric K. I. Omogbai1 and Osahon Obasuyi2. 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria. 2Department of Pharmaceutical microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin. Edo State, Nigeria. Accepted 24 May ...

  13. A LONG CHAIN ALCOHOL AND TWO STEROL COMPOUNDS FROM THE HEXANE EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF Aglaia odorata Lour. (Meliaceae

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    Tukiran Tukiran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A long chain alcohol, 1-eicosanol together with two sterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol had been isolated from hexane extract of stem bark of pacar cina (Aglaia odorata Lour (Meliaceae. These structures had been established based on spectroscopic data (IR and NMR and by comparison to those of standard compounds.   Keywords: Aglaia odorata Lour, Alcohol, Meliaceae, Sterol

  14. The biomedical significance of the phytochemical, proximate and mineral compositions of the leaf, stem bark and root of Jatropha curcas

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    Atamgba Agbor Asuk

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The outcome of this study suggests that the leaf, stem bark and root of J. curcas have very good medicinal potentials, meet the standard requirements for drug formulation and serve as good sources of energy and nutrients except for the presence of some anti-nutritional elements predominant in the leaf.

  15. Effects of Anacardium occidentale stem bark extract on in vivo inflammatory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, Olumayokun A; Aderogba, Mutallib A; Adedapo, Aduragbenro D A; Makinde, Janet M

    2004-12-01

    The methanol extract of Anacardium occidentale stem bark was evaluated for activities against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock, as well as LPS-induced microvascular permeability in mice. Pre-treatment with Anacardium occidentale extract (25-200 mg/kg) caused a dose-dependent and significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the elevated levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases in the sera of D-galactosamine-primed mice injected with LPS. The highest dose of the extract studied (200 mg/kg) produced a 100% protection against death from sepsis. Pentoxifylline (100 mg/kg) and L-NAME (5 mg/kg) offered 100% protection against LPS-induced septic shock, and produced marked reduction in elevated levels of transferases. A dose-related inhibition of LPS-induced microvascular permability in mice was also produced by pentoxifylline, L-NAME and the extract.

  16. Cytotoxic flavonoids and other constituents from the stem bark of Ochna schweinfurthiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndongo, Joseph T; Issa, Mark E; Messi, Angelique N; Mbing, Joséphine Ngo; Cuendet, Muriel; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné E; Bochet, Christian G

    2015-01-01

    Seven flavonoids, hemerocallone (1), 6,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavone (2), amentoflavone (4), agathisflavone (6), cupressuflavone (8), robustaflavone (9) and epicatechin (10), together with three other compounds, lithospermoside (3), β-D-fructofuranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (5) and 3β-O-D-glucopyranosyl-β-stigmasterol (7), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Ochna schweinfurthiana F. Hoffm. All the compounds were characterised by spectroscopic and mass spectrometric methods, and by comparison with literature data. Cytotoxicity of the extracts and compounds against cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Compounds 4 and 6 exhibited good cytotoxic activity, with IC50 values of 20.7 and 10.0 μM, respectively.

  17. Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Compoundsfrom the Stem Bark of Goniothalamus tapisoides Mat Salleh

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    Siti Nadiah Abdul Halim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven compounds:goniomicin A (1, goniomicin B (2, goniomicin C (3, goniomicin D (4, tapisoidin (5, goniothalamin (6, 9-deoxygoniopypyrone (7, pterodondiol (8, liriodenine (9, benzamide (10 and cinnamic acid (11, were isolated from the stem bark of Goniothalamus tapisoides. All compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis and, for known compounds, by comparison with published data. Goniothalamin (6 exhibited mild cytotoxic activity towards a colon cancer cell line (HT-29, with an IC50value of 64.17 ± 5.60 µM. Goniomicin B (2 give the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay among all compounds tested, with an IC50 of 0.207 µM.

  18. SECONDARY METABOLITE FROM ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI Aspergillus niger OF THE STEM BARK OF KANDIS GAJAH (Garcinia griffithii

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    Elfita Elfita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia griffithii are known as kandis gajah including the Garcinia genus. This plant has been traditionally used by local communities Sarasah Bonta, Lembah Arau, West Sumatra, to treat various diseases including gout. Aspergillus niger was isolated from the tissues of the stem bark of Garcinia griffithii. The fungi strain was identified base on colony and cell morphology characteristic. Aspergillus niger cultured in media 5L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB for 8 weeks and filtered. Media that already contains secondary metabolites are partitioned using ethyl acetate solvent in 5 L (twice, followed by evaporation. Furthermore, the extract is separated by chromatographic techniques to obtain a pure compound of white crystal. The molecular structures of isolated compounds are determined by spectroscopic methods including IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC, and COSY. The compound was determined as phenolic (1.

  19. Anti-tuberculosis lupane-type isoprenoids from Syzygium guineense Wild DC. (Myrtaceae stem bark

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    I.A. Oladosu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant derived isoprenoids commonly called terpenoids, are not only useful as chemosytemic markers but are increasingly attracting attention in the development of newer drugs for the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculosis activity guided solvent fractionation and chromatographic separation of the chloroform extract of S. guineense stem bark resulted in the isolation of two bioactive 3-β-hydroxylupane-type isoprenoids: betulinic acid methylenediol ester (1 (MIC; 0.15 mg/mL and betulinic acid (2 (MIC; 0.60 mg/mL. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques. The antituberculosis assay was done using the Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT method. This is the first report of the isolation of the anti-tuberculosis constituents of S. guineense and its potentials for the development of drug leads for the treatment of tuberculosis thus validating its ethno-medicinal uses.

  20. Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, T J N; Okorie, O; Okonta, J M; Okonkwo, C J

    2010-05-01

    The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD(50)of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (pAnacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats.

  1. Pharmacological properties and related constituents of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufou, Ouédraogo; Wamtinga, Sawadogo Richard; André, Tibiri; Christine, Bayet; Marius, Lompo; Emmanuelle, Hay A; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Geneviève, Dijoux; Pierre, Guissou Innocent

    2012-01-01

    To screen methanol and dichloromethane extracts of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, in vitro antioxidant activities and phytochemical analysis. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced-edema of mice paw and croton oil-induced edema of mice ear; analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing. Phytochemical screening of extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography. The chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of main active components as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin. The structures were established by TLC and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Both methanol and dichloromethane extracts, friedelin, lupeol and epicatechin showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect using croton oil induced-ear edema. Furthermore, the action of dichloromethane extract was more important. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the methanol extract was able to reduce the carrageenan induced-hind paw edema, while at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, it showed an important analgesic effect against writhing induced by acetic acid injection of 38.8%, 68.0% and 74.3%, respectively. Antioxidative properties of methanol extract and its dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were assessed by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The methanol extract showed the stronger radical scavenging activity than dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, with an antiradical power of 5, 3.5 and 2 respectively. The main components isolated from these extracts as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin were responsible of these activities. The results suggest that the stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed important anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities and strong antioxidant properties, therefore, they could be used as potential natural ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-protozoan activities of Harungana madagascariensis stem bark extract on trichomonads and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwalewa, E O; Omisore, N O; Adewunmi, C O; Gbolade, A A; Ademowo, O G; Nneji, C; Agboola, O I; Daniyan, O M

    2008-05-22

    The ethanolic stem bark extract of Harungana madagascariensis (Hypericaceae), (Choisy) Poir were evaluated for their activities on Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta) Stabler isolated from the pigeon (Columba livia). It was also tested for their anti-malarial activity on N67 Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (in vivo) in mice and on Plasmodium falciparum isolates in vitro. The anti-trichomonal screening was performed in vitro using Trichomonas gallinae culture. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) is the lowest concentration of the test extract in which no motile organisms were observed. The anti-malarial effects were determined in-vivo for suppressive, curative and prophylactic activities in mice receiving a standard inoculum size of 1 x 10(7) (0.2 ml) infected erythrocytes of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis intraperitoneally, and the in vitro was performed against 3 isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in a candle jar procedures. The IC(50) of the extract and metronidazole (MDZ) (Flagyl) on Trichomonas gallinae at 48 h are 187 and 1.56 microg/ml. The IC(50) of the extract, chloroquine (CQ) and artemether (ART) on Plasmodium falciparum are between 0.052 and 0.517 microg/ml for the extract and 0.021 and 0.0412 microg/ml for ART and CQ, respectively. The actions of the extract in in vivo study on Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis showed that in both suppressive and prophylactic tests the percentages chemo-suppressive were between 28.6-44.8% and 30.2-78.2% respectively, while only 80 mg/kg of the extract reduced the parasitaemia level when compared to the control and the standard drugs in curative test. Harungana madagascariensis stem bark extract therefore exhibited significant anti-protozoan effects against Trichomonas and Plasmodium both in vivo and in vitro.

  3. Antifungal Screening of Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae Stem Bark Extract in Mouthwash Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremu Olusola Isaac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae has been known for its use in the management of oral thrush ethnomedicinally in various parts of Africa, a practice which has been justified by results of certain scientific studies. The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate dosage formulation, a mouthwash and evaluate the antifungal potential of this dosage formulation against a major causative organism of oral thrush, Candida albicans. Extraction of the stem bark was carried out with boiled distilled water, the extract was formulated into mouthwashes at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%w/v. All formulations contained viscosity imparting agent, a sweetener and a preservative. Physical characterisation, viscosity, pH and palatability of the mouthwash formulations were determined. Agar-well diffusion method was used to assess antifungal activity of the formulations against Candida albicans and Nystatin oral suspension was used as reference compound. The results showed that Bridelia ferruginea stem bark extract mouthwash solutions were brown in colour, had agreeable odour and sweet astringent taste. The pH for all concentrations was in the range 5.41-5.63. The viscosity at spindle no 2, 60rpm range between 0.226-0.238 Pa.S for all concentrations studied. The formulations had antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The highest concentration (2.5%w/v gave mean zone of inhibition of 25.50±0.71mm that was comparable with Nystatin oral suspension 28.00±1.41mm, a reference compound. The foregoing suggests that with little modification in the formulation especially the adjustment of the pH, Bridellia ferruginea mouthwash solutions may be developed into commercially useful preparations.

  4. Sub-Acute toxicological evaluation of the aqueous stem bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This evidence again indicates a tendency by the extract to activate the immune system thus lending further credence to earlier evidences in this regard. In the light of this evidence, the need for future research to screen B. eurycoma extracts for both chronic toxicity and immuno-toxicity has become imperative. This is more so ...

  5. Evaluation of the aqueous extract of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    Kellert, SR, eds Ecology, Economic and Ethics, The Broken circle. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. Farnsworth NR (1989). Screening Plants for new medicines, pp. 83-97. In: Wilson EO (ed), Biodiversity, part II. National Academy Press,. Washington. Gupta SS (1994). Prospect and perspectives of Natural Plants ...

  6. Long term effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Cissus populnea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... traditional medicine are integral parts of the health deli- very system in developing societies like Nigeria where there is a heavy reliance on such, the developed coun- tries too have in recent times turned to the use of traditional medicinal systems that involve the use of herbal drugs and remedies. Many of ...

  7. Antidiarrheal Activity of Aqueous Extract of the Stem Bark of Sapium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AESE, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced the tone and amplitude of spontaneous contractions of the ileal smooth muscle with EC50 of 33.29 and 45.43 μg/ml, respectively. None of the doses used in acute toxicity test induced any significant behavioral changes or mortality. Conclusion: These results suggest ...

  8. Evaluation of the aqueous extract of Boswellia dalzielii stem bark for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained compared favourably with cimetidine (100 mg/kg i.p.). The extract (25-100 mg/kg p.o.) dose also dependently reduced intestinal propulsion of charcoal-treated mice. However, the extract (25-100 mg/kg i.p) did not produce significant (P >O.O5) protection against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats.

  9. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of condensed tannins with potent antioxidant activity from the leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming; Liao, Meng-Meng; Chai, Wei-Ming

    2010-06-15

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  10. Utilization of Tahongai stem bark (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) extract as corrosion inhibitor on API 5L steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizky, Yoel; Novita, Eli; Rinda, Shaimah; Sulistijono, Triana, Yunita

    2018-04-01

    Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is one of herbal plant cultivated in Kalimantan. Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is known containing antioxidant to prevent cancer cell growing, therefore it is expected to become a good organic corrosion inhibitor. Tests conducted in this study were: DPPH to prove the content of antioxidant compounds in Tahongai woods (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) from which IC50 number is found to be 153.78 µg/mL, indicating intermediate power, Fourier Transform Infrared Specroscopy (FTIR) to determine the functional groups and compounds in Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) and suspected that flavonoid compound contained in extract, Open Circuit Potential (OCP) to obtain corrosion rate data and found that the slowest corrosion occurred on 400 ppm (30 days) with corrosion rate 8,74 × 10-4 mm/year. The most efficient inhibitor found in 400 ppm (30 days) with 92,063%.

  11. Vochysia rufa Stem Bark Extract Protects Endothelial Cells against High Glucose Damage

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    Neire Moura de Gouveia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased oxidative stress by persistent hyperglycemia is a widely accepted factor in vascular damage responsible for type 2 diabetes complications. The plant Vochysia rufa (Vr has been used in folk medicine in Brazil for the treatment of diabetes. Thus; the protective effect of a Vr stem bark extract against a challenge by a high glucose concentration on EA.hy926 (EA endothelial cells is evaluated. Methods: Vegetal material is extracted with distilled water by maceration and evaporated until dryness under vacuum. Then; it is isolated by capillary electrophoresis–tandem mass spectrometry. Cell viability is evaluated on EA cells treated with 0.5–100 µg/mL of the Vr extract for 24 h. The extract is diluted at concentrations of 5, 10 and 25 µg/mL and maintained for 24 h along with 30 mM of glucose to evaluate its protective effect on reduced glutathione (GSH; glutathione peroxidase (GPx and reductase (GR and protein carbonyl groups. Results: V. rufa stem bark is composed mainly of sugars; such as inositol; galactose; glucose; mannose; sacarose; arabinose and ribose. Treatment with Vr up to 100 µg/mL for 24 h did not affect cell viability. Treatment of EA cells with 30 mM of glucose for 24 h significantly increased the cell damage. EA cells treated with 30 mM of glucose showed a decrease of GSH concentration and increased Radical Oxygen Species (ROS and activity of antioxidant enzymes and protein carbonyl levels; compared to control. Co-treatment of EA with 30 mM glucose plus 1–10 μg/mL Vr significantly reduced cell damage while 5–25 μg/mL Vr evoked a significant protection against the glucose insult; recovering ROS; GSH; antioxidant enzymes and carbonyls to baseline levels. Conclusion: V. rufa extract protects endothelial cells against oxidative damage by modulating ROS; GSH concentration; antioxidant enzyme activity and protein carbonyl levels.

  12. Effects of a Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and mangiferin on radiation-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, I; Delgado, R; Garrido, G

    2014-02-01

    Mangifera indica L. (mango) stem bark aqueous extract (MSBE) that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, can be obtained in Cuba. It is rich in polyphenols, where mangiferin is the main component. In this study, we have tested DNA damage and protection effects of MSBE and mangiferin on primary human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells. Cell suspensions were incubated with the products (50-1000 μg/ml) for experiments on damage induction, and evaluation of any potential protective effects (5-100 μg/ml) for 60 min at 37 °C. Irradiation was performed using a γ-ray source, absorbed dose 5 Gy. At the end of exposure, DNA damage, protection and repair processes were evaluated using the comet assay. MSBE (100-1000 μg/ml) induced DNA damage in a concentration dependent manner in both cell types tested, primary cells being more sensitive. Mangiferin (200 μg/ml) only induced light DNA damage at higher concentrations. DNA repair capacity was not affected after MSBE or mangiferin exposure. On the other hand, MSBE (25 and 50 μg/ml) and mangiferin (5-25 ug/ml) protected against gamma radiation-induced DNA damage. These results show MSBE has protector or harmful effects on DNA in vitro depending on the experimental conditions, which suggest that the extract could be acting as an antioxidant or pro-oxidant product. Mangiferin was involved in protective effects of the extract. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Protolimonoids and norlimonoids from the stem bark of Toona ciliata var. pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Liu, Hai-Li; Kurtán, Tibor; Mándi, Attila; Antus, Sándor; Li, Jia; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2011-10-26

    Six new tirucallane protolimonoids, toonapubesins A-F (1-6), one new rearranged tirucallane protolimonoid, toonapubesin G (7), and two new 21,22,23-trinorapotirucallane limonoids, toonapubesic acids A (8) and B (9), possessing an unprecedented carbon skeleton, along with five known tirucallane protolimonoids (10-14) and one known apotirucallane limonoid (15), were isolated from the stem bark of Toona ciliata var. pubescens. Their structures and relative configurations were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis and by chemical methods. The proposed structures of 8 and 11 were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis of their respective derivatives (8a and 11a). The absolute configuration of 8 was determined by a novel solid-state TDDFT ECD approach on its derivative 8a while the absolute configuration of 10 was determined by the modified Mosher's method. In addition, the structures of dyvariabilin H (10c) proposed by Sticher et al. and cneorin-NP(36) (11b) by Mondon et al. were corrected as 10 and 11, respectively. Toonapubesin G (7) showed promising inhibitory activity against CDC25B with an IC(50) value of 2.1 μM, while compound 8a showed significant cell protecting activity against H(2)O(2)-induced SH-SY5Y cell damage with 11.5% increase in cell viability.

  14. A new benzophenanthridine alkaloid and other bioactive constituents from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum heitzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Tadesse, Margey; Miles, Christopher O; Moussavi, Nastaran; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl Egil

    2016-03-01

    Heitziquinone (7), a new benzophenanthridine alkaloid, together with five known compounds; isoarnottianamide (5), rhoifoline B (6), isobauerenol (8), 6-hydroxypellitorine (9) and sylvamide (10), were isolated as minor compounds from the hexane extract of stem bark from Zanthoxylum heitzii. Four previously reported compounds (1-4) were found, as well. Compounds 5 and 7 were both found to exist as 4:1 mixtures of two atropisomers. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. Compounds 5-10 were identified for the first time in this species, and they are all rare natural compounds. Pellitorine (4), one of the main compounds from the hexane bark extract, was found to be responsible for the brine shrimp larvae toxicity (LC50 37 μM, 8 μg/ml) of the crude extract (LC50 24 μg/ml). Low cytotoxicity against a macrophage cell line was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol stem bark extract of Prosopis africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Abodunde, Olajumoke M

    2010-03-01

    Prosopis africana (Guill. & Perr.) Taub. (Mimosoideae) is a shrub used for menstrual and general body pain in Nupe land in north central Nigeria. In this study, the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (at doses of 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid-induced writhing assay and carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. The extract significantly (P acetic acid-induced writhing with the highest activity observed at the highest dose, 250 mg/kg (76.89%) comparable to that of piroxicam (83.16%) the standard agent used. In the carrageenan-induced inflammation assay, the extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (P screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and alkaloids. The oral median lethal dose was found to be 3807.9 mg/kg in mice and > 5000 mg/kg in rats. This study supports the folkloric claim of the use of Prosopis africana in the management of pain.

  16. Investigation of antioxidant activity of some fruit stem barks in the Eastern Black Sea Region

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    Aytaç Güder

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant compounds in food play an important role as a health protecting factor. Scientific evidence suggests that antioxidants reduce the risk for chronic diseases including cancer and heart disease. Primary sources of naturally occurring antioxidants are whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Antioxidant activity can be investigated by using different methods such as total antioxidant activity, hydrogen peroxide and DPPH free radical scavenging activities, metal-chelating activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents and others. In this study, antioxidant activity of the ethanol-water extracts of three stem barks, Kiwi (Actinidia chinensis Planch. (AC, lemon (Citrus limon (L. Burm. f. (CL and chery laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. (LO has been designated. According to FTC method, the total antioxidant activities (% of AC, CL and LO have been determined as 73.35, 67.59 and 61.62, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of AC, CL, LO, BHA, RUT and TRO in terms of SC50 values (µg/mL were found as 50.52, 56.56, 98.18, 8.58, 17.01, 26.84, respectively. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in AC, CL and LO ranged from 850.71 to 457.79 µg gallic acid equivalent/g and 58.77 to 22.91 µg of catechin equivalents/g, respectively. In conclusion, the extracts of AC showed higher antioxidant activity than the other samples so needs further exploration for its effective use in pharmaceutical and medicine sectors.

  17. Chemical constituents of the underground stem bark of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Denise B. da; Tulli, Elaine C.O.; Siqueira, Joao M. de [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br; Garcez, Walmir S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nascimento, Evandro A. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    In the present investigation the underground parts of Duguetia furfuracea (Annonaceae) were used to conduct a phytochemical study that included the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. The substances (-)-duguetine {beta}-N-oxide, (-)-duguetine, dicentrinone, (-)-Nmethyltetrahydropalmatine, and (+)-N-methylglaucine were isolated from the alkaloid extract of the bark of the underground stem, and the ureide allantoin was also isolated by precipitation from the ethanol extract of the wood of the underground stem. A fresh volatile oil and a nonpolar extract were also obtained from the underground stem bark. The substances 2,4,5- trimethoxystyrene, {alpha}-gurjunene, aromadendrene, bicyclogermacrene, (E)-methylisoeugenol, and {alpha}-asarone were isolated from the fresh volatile oil and polycarpol, {beta}-caryophyllene oxide, 2,4,5- trimethoxystyrene, {alpha}-asarone, and asaraldehyde were obtained from the petroleum ether extract. The present study describes for the first time the alkaloid (-)-duguetine {beta}-N-oxide and the occurrence of (-)-N-methyltetrahydropalmatine and (+)-N-methylglaucine in the family Annonaceae. All extracts were active in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. (author)

  18. Antioxidant Activities of Fractions of Polymeric Procyanidins from Stem Bark of Acacia confusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Lin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The polymeric procyanidins extracted from Acacia confusa stem bark were fractionated with a step gradient of water, methanol and acetone on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The antioxidant activity of the collected fractions was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP assays. All fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity with the highest activity observed for fraction F9. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC analyses suggested that the collected fractions consisted primarily of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins, with different polymer ranges and most abundant polymer size. For each fraction, catechin and epicatechin were present as both terminal and extension units, and epicatechin was the major component in the extended chain. The mean degree of polymerization (mDP of each fraction differed, ranging from 1.68 (fraction F2 to 17.31 (fraction F11. There was a relationship between antioxidant activity (IC50/DPPH and FRAP and mDP (R2DPPH = 0.861, P = 0.006 and R2FRAP = 0.608, P = 0.038, respectively. However, the highest antioxidant activity of fraction (F9 was not coincident with the maximum mDP of fraction (F11.

  19. Identification of new phytoconstituents and antimicrobial activity in stem bark of Mangifera indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchi; Singh, S K; Maharia, R S; Garg, A N

    2015-02-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly called mango or amra belonging to a family of Anacardiaceae, is an important medicinal plant widely used in a variety of Ayurvedic preparations. Extract of its bark, leaves, flowers and kernels are being extensively used for curing various chronic diseases. Mango wood is used in yagya as base fire through which medicated smoke is generated. Three new compounds have been isolated from methanolic and hexane extracts of stem bark: 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl)ester and 9,12-tetradecadiene-1-ol-acetate from the hexane extract and 3-chloro-N-(2-phenylethyl) propanamide from the methanolic extract. These were first separated by thin layer chromatography and later in a silica gel column and identified by characteristic infrared bands corresponding to respective functional groups. The compounds were further confirmed on the basis of GC-MS fragmentation pattern after comparing the data with NIST mass spectral database. All three compounds exhibited antimicrobial activity due to triterpenoids and flavonoids. Elemental analyses by INAA show it to be enriched in essential nutrient elements such as Ca, Fe, K, Mn and Zn which all play an important role in enzymatic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of the Methanolic Extract of the Stem Bark of Pteleopsis hylodendron (Combretaceae

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    Aristide Laurel Mokale Kognou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pteleopsis hylodendron (Combretaceae is used in Cameroon and West Africa folk medicine for the treatment of various microbial infections (measles, chickenpox, and sexually transmitted diseases. The antibacterial properties of the methanolic extract and fractions from stem bark of Pteleopsis hylodendron were tested against three Gram-positive bacteria and eight Gram-negative bacteria using Agar-well diffusion and Broth microdilution methods. Antioxidant activities of the crude extract and fractions were investigated by DPPH radical scavenging activity and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The methanolic extract and some fractions exhibited antibacterial activities that varied between the bacterial species (ID = 0.00–25.00 mm; MIC = 781–12500 μg/mL and 0.24–1000 μg/mL. The activity of the crude extract is, however, very weak compared to the reference antibiotics (MIC = 0.125–128 μg/mL. Two fractions (FE and FF showed significant activity (MIC = 0.97 μg/mL while S. aureus ATCC 25922 was almost resistant to all the tested fractions. In addition, the crude extract and some fractions showed good antioxidant potential with inhibition values ranging from 17.53 to 98.79%. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as some of the fractions in the treatment of infectious diseases and oxidative stress.

  1. A New Amide from the Stem Bark of Illiciumdifengpi and Its Anti-inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuntong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new amide, named ( 2E, 4E-5-phenyl-N-(2-phenylethyl-2,4-pentadienamide (1 , together with one known amide, N -2-phenylet hylcinnamide (2 and two known ceramides, 2-​hydroxy-​N-​[(1S,​2R,​3E​-​2-​hydroxy-​1-​(hydroxymethyl​-​3-​heptadecenyl]​-pentadecanamide (3, 1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3R,4E,8E-2-[(2R-2-hydroxypentadecanoylamino]-4,8-octadecadiene-1,3-diol (4 were isolated from the stem bark of Illicium difengpi. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by analyses of their 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, H S QC, HMBC spectr a and HR-ESI/MS mass spectrometric data. Anti-inflammatory assays with compounds 1‒4 were carried out, compounds 1 and 2 showed significant inhibitory effect on TNF- α release in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages .

  2. Crystal structure of obscurine: a natural product isolated from the stem bark of B. obscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenta, Bruno N; Chouna, Rodolphe J; Neumann, Beate; Stammler, Hans-Georg; Sewald, Norbert

    2015-07-01

    The title compound, C24H31NO3 {systematic name: (E)-3-[(1R*,2S*,4aS*,8aR*)-2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octa-hydro-naphthalen-1-yl]-N-iso-butyl-acryl-amide}, is a natural product isolated from the stem bark of B. obscura. It is composed of an octa-hydro-naphthalene ring system substituted with an essentially planar benzodioxole ring system [r.m.s. deviation = 0.012 Å] and an extended iso-butyl-acryl-amide group. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [100]. The chains are linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving inversion-related benzodioxole ring systems, forming ribbons lying parallel to (010). There are also C-H⋯π inter-actions present within the ribbons.

  3. Biological screening of extracts from leaf and stem bark of Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Barth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work describes the preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic, antimicrobial, molluscicidal, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities from leaf (LECF and stem bark alcoholic extracts (BECF of the species Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae, popularly known as capixingui or tapixingui. BECF presented significant toxicity (LC50 = 89.6 μg/ml in the Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda bioassay, whereas LECF did not show activity (LC50 > 1000 μg/ml. From DPPH method, the values of IC50 for the LECF and BECF were 61.2 μg/ml and 62.2 μg/ml, respectively, showing that C. floribundus has an expressive antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by microdilution technique and only BECF was active against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39.6 μg/ml. The extracts did not present molluscicidal activity against snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae. Both extracts revealed the presence of several components with an inhibiting capacity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme on the bioautographic assay. C. floribundus showed to be a promising species considering that it exhibited good biological activity in the most assays performed.

  4. Zoosporicidal activity of polyflavonoid tannin identified in Lannea coromandelica stem bark against phytopathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces cochlioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Tofazzal; Ito, Toshiaki; Sakasai, Mitsuyoshi; Tahara, Satoshi

    2002-11-06

    In a survey of nonhost plant secondary metabolites regulating motility and viability of zoospores of the Aphanomyces cochlioides, we found that stem bark extracts of Lannea coromandelica remarkably inhibited motility of zoospores followed by lysis. Bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical characterization of Lannea extracts by MALDI-TOF-MS revealed that the active constituents were angular type polyflavonoid tannins. Commercial polyflavonoid tannins, Quebracho and Mimosa, also showed identical zoosporicidal activity. Against zoospores, the motility-inhibiting and lytic activities were more pronounced in Lannea extracts (MIC 0.1 microg/mL) than in Quebracho (MIC 0.5 microg/mL) and Mimosa (MIC 0.5 microg/mL). Scanning electron microscopic observation visualized that both Lannea and commercial tannins caused lysis of cell membrane followed by fragmentation of cellular materials. Naturally occurring polyflavonoid tannin merits further study as potential zoospore regulating agent or as lead compound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of zoosporicidal activity of natural polyflavonoid tannins against an oomycete phytopathogen.

  5. Pharmacobotanic characterization of young stems and stem barks of Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg., Apocynaceae

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    Leopoldo Clemente Baratto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, a Brazilian native tree rich in indole alkaloids, is known as "pau-pra-tudo" and popularly used as hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic and antihypertensive. The aim of this work was to study the anatomy of the young stems and stem barks of this medicinal plant, in order to contribute to the identification of the species as a drug. The plant material was fixed and prepared according to standard microtechniques. The young stems have remaining epidermis, but a suberified peridermis is evident. The phellogen is located in the cortical region, forming suber externally. Underneath the phellogen, lies the phelloderm and collenchymatic region. In the cortex, there are numerous laticifers and some fibers. There is an incomplete sclerenchymatic sheath, consisting of several groups of fibers and stone cells. The stem has internal phloem ordered as isolated groups side by side. Numerous laticifers, calcium oxalate crystals, idioblasts and amyloplasts are found in the cortex, phloem, xylem and pith. The stem bark has many layers of suber and cortical parenchyma, a sheath composed of fibers and stone cells totally lignified, and external phloem. These anatomical characteristic, taken together, can be used as quality control parameters for this species.Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae, uma árvore nativa brasileira rica em alcaloides indólicos, é conhecida como "pau-pra-tudo" e utilizada popularmente como hipocolesterolêmica, hipoglicêmica e anti-hipertensiva. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar anatomicamente o caule jovem e a casca caulinar dessa planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para a identificação e autenticidade da droga. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às microtécnicas usuais. O caule jovem possui epiderme remanescente, porém uma periderme suberificada é observada. O felogênio instala-se na região cortical, formando súber externamente. Subjacentes ao felog

  6. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of ethanol extract of stem barks from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Filho, Edson Santos; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Moura, Lucas Henrique Porfírio; da Silva-Filho, José Couras; Paulino, Emanuel Tenório; Ribeiro, Eurica Adélia Nogueira; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; de Oliveira, Aldeídia Pereira

    2013-08-01

    Administration of ethanol extract of stem bark from Z. rhoifolium (EEtOH-ZR) induced hypotension associated with a dual effect in heart rate in normotensive rats. This response was highlighted in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In rat superior mesenteric artery rings, the cumulative addition of EEtOH-ZR (0.1-750 microg/mL) on a phenylephrine-induced pre-contraction (10(-5) M) promoted a vasorelaxant effect by a concentration-dependent manner and independent of vascular endothelium. A similar effect was obtained on KCl-induced pre-contractions (80 mM). EEtOH-ZR attenuated contractions induced by cumulative addition of CaCl2 (10(-6)-3 x 10(-2) M) in depolarizing medium without Ca2+ only at 500 or 750 microg/mL. Likewise, on S-(-)-Bay K 8644-induced pre-contractions (10(-7) M), the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxant effect was attenuated. EEtOH-ZR (27, 81, 243 or 500 microg/mL) inhibited contractions induced by cumulative addition of phenylephrine (10(-9) - 10(-5) M) in endothelium-denuded preparations or by a single concentration (10(-5) M) in a Ca(2+)-free medium. The involvement of K+ channels was evaluated by tetraethylammonium (3 mM); the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxation was not attenuated. Thus, calcium influx blockade through voltage-operated calcium channels (CavL) and inhibition of calcium release from intracellular stores are probably underlying EEtOH-ZR-induced cardiovascular effects.

  7. Antifungal Activity of Tamarix aphylla (L. Karst. Stem-bark Extract Against Some Pathogenic Fungi

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    Sadaf bibi bibi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The largest identified, Tamarix aphylla (L. Karst. belonging to family Tamaricaceae is traditionally an important plant used to cure various ailments. Three concentrations of crude ethanolic extracts 2000 ppm, 1000 ppm and 500 ppm were tested against six pathogenic fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium notatum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using five different solvents: acetone, chloroform, distilled water (DW, ethanol and methanol. Percent inhibition in growth of fungi was found to be dose dependent. The standard antifungal synthetic drug, Terbinafine, was used in different concentrations mixed with distilled water against different test fungi. Terbinafine completely controlled the growth of A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. oxysporum, P. notatum and S. cerevisiae with the concentrations of 65±0.58, 72±1.00, 70±1.15, 59±1.00, 60±0.58 and 80±0.58 (µg/ml of PDA medium, respectively. Chloroform was considered to be the most effective solvent preventing 97.68±0.58% growth of F. oxysporum, 9.37±0.33% in A. niger, 92.68±3.33% in S. cerevisiae, 91.46±2.08% in A. fumigatus, 88.48±0.88% in A. flavus and 87.95±1.15% in P. notatum. Statistically, the results were compared with negative control and most of the results were found to be highly significant (p≤0.000. Overall, our results suggest that T. aphylla stem-bark extract illustrated maximum percent inhibition with chloroform followed by ethanol, acetone, methanol and distilled water.

  8. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Evaluation of the Methanolic Extract of Alstonia scholaris Stem Bark

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    Idris Bello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alstonia scholaris has been used by traditional medicine practitioners since the medieval ages for the treatment of diseases. The aim of this research was to evaluate the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of its methanolic extract. The acute toxicity test was conducted using Sprague Dawley (SD rats. The methanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris stem bark (ASME was administrated in a single dose of 2000 mg/kg via oral gavage; and the animals were observed for any behavioral changes or mortality. In the sub-acute toxicity study, SD rats received three doses of ASME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 28 days via oral gavage. During these 28 days of treatment, the rats were observed weekly for toxicity symptoms. Following the 28-day treatment, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology studies. In the acute toxicity study, Alstonia scholaris was found to be non-toxic at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. In the sub-acute toxicity study, significant variations in body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters were observed in the experimental groups at the dose of 500 and 1000 mg/kg with the death of two female rats being recorded at the highest dose (1000 mg/kg b.w.. Histopathological studies revealed slight degeneration (lesion and centrilobular necrosis in the liver, which was most expressed in the highest-dose group. These results demonstrate that, while a single dose and short term oral intake of Alstonia scholaris bark extract caused no toxicity up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w., toxic effects manifested in the long term treatment at the highest dose (500 and 1000 mg/kg. The long-term toxic effect was found to be associated with alterations in hematological compositions and end-organ damage to the liver. Thus, prolonged use of high doses of ASME orally should be discouraged and lower doses encouraged.

  9. Ethanol extract and chromatographic fractions of Tamarindus indica stem bark inhibits Newcastle disease virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Omobola O; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-12-01

    The plethora of ethnomedicinal applications of Tamarindus indica Linn. (Leguminosae), tamarind, includes treatment of human and livestock ailments; preparations are recognized antipyretics in fevers, laxatives and carminatives. African folklore has various applications of tamarind. However, in Nyasaland, domestic fowl are fed with preparations for prophylactic properties. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antiviral properties of T. indica extract. Tamarindus indica stem bark was extracted through ethanol maceration over 24 h, and the crude extract was fractionated by gravity-propelled column chromatography. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inhibitory activity of extract and fractions were evaluated in vivo using 10-d-old embryonated chicken egg (ECE) as the medium for virus cultivation and antivirus assay. About 240 ECE were grouped into eight (three controls and five experimental) and, 200 μL of the extract and fractions respectively inoculated into NDV pre-infected eggs and incubated at 37 °C. Allantoic fluid was harvested 5 d post-virus infection and assayed for haemagglutination (HA). Anti-NDV assessment showed 62.5 mg/mL of crude extract and fractions: TiA, TiC and TiD to yield a HA titre of 1:128 each, while TiB showed 1:64 HA titre. At 125 mg/mL, a titre of 1:16 was recorded against TiB and TiD and, 1:8 against TiA. Similarly, crude extract and TiC, each recorded 1:4 HA titre. However, the minimum concentrations of extract and fraction for virus inactivation were 0.24 mg/mL and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively. The antiviral activity shown by T. indica portends novel antiviral drugs and, perhaps, as scaffold for new drugs.

  10. Evaluation of the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of dialium guineense (wild).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeja, Mi; Omeh, Ys; Ezeigbo, Ii; Ekechukwu, A

    2011-01-01

    Dialium guineense is a medicinal plant used by some communities of Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State, Nigeria for treatment of fever, headache and other diverse ailments. The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) of the extract were administered orally by gastric gavage. The activity was compared with a standard reference drug, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) (400 mg/kg) and negative control. The results were analysed by SPSS version 17 using ANOVA and Post Hoc Duncan. In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex model, D. guineense extract and the reference drug significantly (P =0.014 - 0.002) decreased the mean total number of abdominal constriction in the mice in a dose dependent fashion. The percentage inhibition of the abdominal constriction reflex was increased dose dependently from 0% in the negative control group to 71% at the highest dose of the extract (1000mg/kg). In the tail immersion model the extract at the dose of 1000 mg/kg significantly (P = 0. 048) increased the pain reaction time (PRT) while in hot plate model the extract and drug also significantly (P = 0.048 - 0.05) increased the mean PRT at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The dose of 250 mg/kg showed no analgesic activity in tail immersion and hot plate models. Dialium guineense demonstrated significant analgesic activity that may be mediated through peripheral pain mechanism.

  11. Bioactive Lignans from Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. stem bark with cytotoxic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhija, Minky; Lal Dhar, Kanaya; Nath Kalia, Ajudhia

    2014-02-27

    Zanthoxylum alatum is used in traditional medicinal systems for number of disorders like cholera, diabetes, cough, diarrhea, fever, headache, microbial infections, toothache, inflammation and cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Zanthoxylum alatum stem bark for its cytotoxic potential and to isolate the bioactive constituents. Cytotoxicity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was studied on lung carcinoma cell line (A549) and pancreatic carcinoma cell line (MIA-PaCa) using MTT assay. Isolation of compounds from most active extract (petroleum ether) was done on silica gel column. Structure elucidation was done by using various spectrophotometric techniques like UV, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectroscopy. The type of cell death caused by most active compound C was explored by fluorescence microscopy using the acridine orange/ethidium bromide method. Petroleum ether extract of plant has shown significant cytotoxic potential. Three lignans sesamin (A), kobusin (B), and 4'O demethyl magnolin (C) has been isolated. All lignans showed cytotoxic activities in different ranges. Compound C was the novel bioactive compound from a plant source and found to be most active. In apoptosis study, treatment caused typical apoptotic morphological changes. It enhances the apoptosis at IC50 dose (21.72 µg/mL) however showing necrotic cell death at higher dose after 24h on MIA-PaCa cell lines. Petroleum ether extract (60-80 °C) of Zanthoxylum alatum has cytotoxic potential. The lignans isolated from the petroleum ether extract were responsible for the cytotoxic potential of the extract. 4'O demethyl magnolin was novel compound from Zanthoxylum alatum. Hence the Zanthoxylum alatum can be further explored for the development of anticancer drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Murillo Masis, Renato; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Zamora Ramirez, William; Monagas, Maria J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-12-18

    The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225-494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40-167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  13. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat’s Claw: Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts

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    Mirtha Navarro Hoyos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and 13C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22 were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225–494 gallic acid equivalents/g than for wood extracts (40–167 gallic acid equivalents/g. A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers [(+-catechin and (−-epicatechin], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure, flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa. Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  14. Translocation of 14C-sucrose from mesophyll to vein and stem bark in mulberry plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tadaaki

    1982-01-01

    One-year-old seedlings of mulberry, the variety of Shinichinose, were used to fix 14 CO 2 for 10 minutes under light of 18,000 lux at 28 deg C. Photosynthesis was continued after that in the air not containing 14 CO 2 . The specimens were collected immediately after and 10 and 30 minutes after the 14 CO 2 fixation, divided into mesophyll, vein and stem bark, frozen in liquid N 2 , and the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose and their radioactivity were measured. The ratio of the radioactivity incorporated into sucrose to the total radioactivity incorporated into each tissue was very large, and the incorporation into glucose or fructose was very little. The content of sucrose was also larger than that of the other sugars in all the tissues. These findings showed that the photosynthates were translocated mainly in the form of sucrose. The ratio of specific radioactivity (dpm/mg sugar) in the mesophyll to that in the vein was 0.28, 0.58 and 0.42, respectively, immediately after, 10 minutes after and 30 minutes after the 14 CO 2 fixation for sucrose, 0.16, 0.39 and 0.29, respectively, for glucose, and 0.17, 0.25 and 0.46, respectively, for fructose. The specific radioactivity of sucrose in the vein 10 minutes after the fixation was as high as 58 % of that in the mesophyll, suggesting that the sucrose produced in the mesophyll was rapidly transported into the vein. (Kaihara, S.)

  15. Furoquinoline Alkaloids and Methoxyflavones from the Stem Bark of Melicope madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley

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    Vincent E. Rasamison

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Melicope madagascariensis (Rutaceae is an endemic plant species of Madagascar that was first classified as a member of the genus Euodia J. R. & G. Forst (Rutaceae under the scientific name Euodia madagascariensis Baker. Based on morphological characteristics, Thomas Gordon Hartley taxonomically revised E. madagascariensis Baker to be M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley. Chemotaxonomical studies have long been used to help the identification and confirmation of taxonomical classification of plant species and botanicals. Aiming to find more evidences to support the taxonomical revision performed on E. madagascariensis, we carried out phytochemical investigation of two samples of the plant. Fractionation of the ethanol extracts prepared from two stem bark samples of M. madagascariensis (Baker T.G. Hartley led to the isolation of seven known furoquinoline alkaloids 1–7 and two known methoxyflavones 8 and 9. The presence of furoquinoline alkaloids and methoxyflavones in the title species is in agreement with its taxonomic transfer from Euodia to Melicope. Antiprotozoal evaluation of the isolated compounds showed that 6-methoxy-7-hydroxydictamnine (heliparvifoline, 3 showed weak antimalarial activity (IC50 = 35 µM against the chloroquine-resistant strain Dd2 of Plasmodium falciparum. Skimmianine (4 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 1.5 µM against HT-29 colon cancer cell line whereas 3,5-dihydroxy-3′,4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (9 was weakly active in the same assay (IC50 = 13.9 µM. Graphical Abstract

  16. Effects of sub acute oral administration of aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates the effects of sub acute oral administration (28 days) of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum stem bark on the body weight and haematological indices of rats. Treatments were administered by oral gavage once daily for a total of 28 days. The first group (control) received distilled water (5 ...

  17. Hepatotoxicity studies of sub-chronic administration of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result obtained indicated significant (p<0.05) increase in ALT, AST, ALP, and total bilirubin level in comparison with control. However, significant (p<0.05) decrease was observed in the level of total protein in comparison to control. The result indicated that the aqueous stem bark extract of Khaya senegalensis may ...

  18. Phytochemical constituents and effects of aqueous root-bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extract of the leaves, stem-bark and root-bark of Ficus sycomorus were screened for chemical constituents and effects on muscle relaxation, local anaesthetic and sleeping time on 20 wister rats (138.7 - 143.9g ± 22.4 ) and one rabbit (1300 g ± 0.00). The extract contained tannins, alkaloids, reducing compounds, ...

  19. Antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... The antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha stem bark at varying concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/ml was investigated by measuring the zones of inhibition produced after incubation on nutrient agar. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella ...

  20. Antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial potentials of aqueous extract of Enantia chlorantha stem bark at varying concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/ml was investigated by measuring the zones of inhibition produced after incubation on nutrient agar. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhymurium and ...

  1. Acute and subchronic toxicity evaluation of methanol stem-bark extract of Ximenia americana Linn (Olacaceae in Wistar rats

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    Isaac A. Agyigra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ximenia americana is used in African ethno-medicine for spasmodic bowel diseases with stem bark particularly used for ulcers. This study evaluated the toxicity-profile of methanol stem-bark extract. Extract doses were selected from estimated oral median lethal dose (LD50 of acute toxicity test. Ten male Wistar rats in 4-groups, weekly weighed and daily treated orally per body-weight for 28 days with normal-saline and extract-doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg respectively were euthanized. Blood for biochemical and haematological analyses were collected into plain and anticoagulated (EDTA sample-bottles respectively from each group. Vital-organs were isolated, weighed and fixed in buffered-formalin fixatives for histo-analyses. Mean ± standard-error of mean and statistical-significance at (p ≤ 0.05 of obtained-data were evaluated. The extract at up to 5000 mg/kg caused no mortality or behavioural toxic-signs and thus, oral LD50 was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. No changes in organ-sizes, body-weights or anatomy of brain, heart, liver and stomach occurred, but at 1000 mg/kg, kidney showed vascular-congestion with polymorphonuclear cells, lungs had consolidated areas of polymorphs infiltration, while spleen had distorted germinal-centres. Liver enzymes and urea levels were not altered significantly, but a dose dependent significant increase in total-protein only at 1000 mg/kg; and significant reduction in albumin level at 500 and 1000 mg/kg were observed. The observed dose-dependent reduction in creatinine was not significant. Total-calcium and chloride ion concentrations increased significantly only at 250 mg/kg. In conclusion, acute oral administration of methanol stem-bark extract of Ximenia americana was relatively non-toxic in mice, but minimal anatomical changes in kidney, lungs and spleen occurred when used for few weeks in rats. Keywords: Ximenia americana, Stem-bark, Methanol extract

  2. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  3. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I. [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaacob, W. A. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  4. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division

  5. Studies on the antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica stem-barks and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica Linn, locally known as mango tree has been claimed to possess antidiabetic properties by many investigators. The present study was undertaken to screen the hypo- and antihyperglycemic activity of both ethanol and water extracts of leaves and stem-barks of M. indica in nondiabetic and diabetic model rats in different prandial states. The results showed that all of the extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 model rats when fed simultaneously with glucose load (p< 0.05-0.01; p< 0.005-0.001. Moreover, the ethanol extract of stem-barks showed significant antihyperglycemic effect when the extract was fed 30 min prior to the glucose load (p< 0.01. Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of M. indica on glucose absorption using a rat intestinal preparation in situ. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 rats.

  6. Central activities of hydroalcoholic extract from Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablinny Moreira Galdino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. can be found from Amapá to Rio Grande do Sul states, and also in Paraguay and Bolivia. It is popularly known as pacari or mangava-brava and is used to promote weight loss, as an anti-thermal or tonic, to treat gastritis, ulcers, scarring, itching, discouragement, and cancer. In the open field tests, the hydroalcoholic extract from L. pacari stem bark (HEP decreased the number of rearings, number of invaded squares, and increased immobility time compared to control animals. In the pentobarbital-induced sleep time test, HEP decreased latency time to sleep and increased sleeping time. In the rota-rod test, no changes in the studied parameters were observed. In the elevated plus maze, HEP increased the percentage time and percentage entries in the open arms, indicating that this extract exerts an anxiolytic-like activity.Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., uma espécie vegetal presente no Brasil, do Amapá ao Rio Grande do Sul, no Paraguai e na Bolívia, é popularmente conhecida como pacari ou mangava-brava e é utilizada como emagrecedor, cicatrizante, antitérmico, tônico e para tratar gastrite, úlcera, coceira, desânimo e câncer. No teste do campo aberto, o tratamento com o extrato hidro-alcoólico de pacari (HEP reduziu o número de rearings e o número de quadrados invadidos além de aumentar o tempo de imobilidade dos animais em relação ao controle. No sono induzido por pentobarbital sódico o tratamento com HEP causou redução na latência e aumento na duração do sono. No rota-rod, o tratamento com HEP não alterou os parâmetros observados. No teste de labirinto em cruz elevado, com o tratamento com HEP foi observado aumento do percentual do tempo de permanência e de entradas nos braços abertos, caracterizando uma atividade tipo ansiolítica.

  7. Isolation and identification of an antiparasitic triterpenoid estersaponin from the stem bark of Pittosporum mannii (Pittosporaceae

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    Kennedy D Nyongbela

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for antiparasitic properties of Pittosporum mannii Hook (Pittosporaceae through in vitro bioassay tests and to identify the bioactive compound(s. Methods: The stem bark of Pittosporum mannii was harvested in Bali Nyonga in January 2007. The CH 2Cl2 and MeOH extracts were tested in vitro for antiparasitic activity. NF54 (an airport strain of unknown origin and sensitive to all known drugs and K1 (a clone originating from Thailand and resistant to chloroquine/pyrimethamine strains were used for the antiplasmodial screening while Leishmania donovani MHOM-ET-67/L82 was used for antileishmanial testing. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker AMX-500 spectrometer using CDCl3 as solvent. EIMS were recorded on a double-focusing mass spectrometer (Varian MAT 311A while HREIMS were recorded on a JEOL HX 110 mass spectrometer. Results: The MeOH extract was active on both the chloroquine-resistant (K1 strain (IC50=4.3 μg/ mL and on the macrophages of Leishmania donovani (IC50=8.6 μg/mL. The CH2Cl2 extract was considered inactive on both parasites (IC50>5.0 μg/mL and 21.7 μg/mL respectively. Compound 1, a constituent that precipitated from the MeOH extract, showed pronounced activity on both Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani parasites (IC 50=1.02 and 1.80 μg/mL respectively with artemisinin and miltefosine included as reference drugs. Its structure was identified as 1-O-[apha-L-(Rhamnopyranosyl]-23-acetoxyimberbic acid 29-methyl ester, a pentacyclic triterpenoid estersaponin. Conclusions: The present study constitutes the first report on the antiparasitic activity of this plant and provides some support for the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of malaria. The plant has therefore been identified as a potential source for the discovery of antiparasitic lead compounds.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of the Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Juglans regia L. Stem Bark on Human Bacterial Infection

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    Moori Bakhtiari N.* PhD,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Bovine mastitis continues to be the most costly disease to the dairy farmers. It dominates in Iran as one of the most prevalent diseases in dairy cattle among the dairy farms. Mastitis treatment with antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant strains and consumer health problem.This study was performed for the first time to analyze in vitro effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark on 6 mastitis pathogens. Materials & Methods the susceptibility of 6 strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica were analyzed against hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC methods. Findings Hydro-alcoholic extract did not have antibacterial effects on E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentration for S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus spp. was 62.5mg/ml of hydro-alcoholic extract. There was not any significant response with concentrations below 100mg/disc on S. aureus, Streptococcus species, P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Minimum bactericidal concentration of this extract was 100mg/ml in all isolates. Conclusion Juglans regia L. have some antibacterial effects on S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus species.

  9. Antimalarial activity of extract and norbergenin derivatives from the stem bark of Diospyros sanza-minika A. Chevalier (Ebenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmouo, Jean Gustave; Ho, Raimana; Matheeussen, An; Lannang, Alain Meli; Komguem, Justin; Messi, Bernadette Biloa; Maes, Louis; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2010-11-01

    The methanol extract from the stem bark of Diospyros sanza-minika as well as five norbergenin derivatives isolated from this crude extract were evaluated for their in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum K1 and cytotoxicity on MRC-5 cells. 4-O-(3'-methylgalloyl)norbergenin was found to be the most potent compound (IC(50) 0.6 μg/mL; CC(50) 24.7 μg/mL), followed by 4-O-galloylnorbergenin (IC(50) 3.9 μg/mL; CC(50) > 64 μg/mL) and 11-O-p-hydroxy-benzoyl-norbergenin (IC(50) 4.9 μg/mL; CC(50) > 64 μg/mL). Norbergenin and 4-O-syringoylnorbergenin were inactive (IC(50) > 32 μg/mL; CC(50) > 64 μg/mL). The antimalarial activity of the pure constituents and of the methanol extract from the stem bark of Diospyros sanza-minika is reported for the first time. The results provide interesting baseline information for the potential use of the crude extract well as some of the isolated compounds in the search for novel antimalarial compounds. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Immunomodulating pectins from root bark, stem bark, and leaves of the Malian medicinal tree Terminalia macroptera, structure activity relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Barsett, Hilde; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2015-02-11

    The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50°C water using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). Six bioactive purified pectic polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the 50°C crude water extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The root bark, stem bark, and leaves of T. macroptera were all good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides. The high molecular weight fraction 50WTRBH-I-I, being the most active fraction in the complement fixation test, has a highly ramified rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG-I) region with arabinogalactan type II (AG-II) side chains. The most abundant fractions from each plant part, 50WTRBH-II-I, 50WTSBH-II-I, and 50WTLH-II-I, were chosen for pectinase degradation. The degradation with pectinase revealed that the main features of these fractions are that of pectic polysaccharides, with hairy regions (RG-I regions) and homogalacturonan regions. The activity of the fractions obtained after pectinase degradation and separation by gel filtration showed that the highest molecular weight fractions, 50WTRBH-II-Ia, 50WTSBH-II-Ia, and 50WTLH-II-Ia, had higher complement fixation activity than their respective native fractions. These results suggest that the complement fixation activities of these pectins are expressed mainly by their ramified regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, Juarana; Zermiani, Tailyn; Thiesen, Liliani C; Silveira, Joana LM; da Silva, Kathryn ABS; de Souza, Márcia M; Malheiros, Angela; Bresolin, Tania MB; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was −34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 μg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27660442

  12. Validation of use of a traditional remedy from Bridelia grandis (Pierre ex Hutch) stem bark against oral Streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueyem, T A; Brusotti, G; Marrubini, G; Grisoli, P; Dacarro, C; Vidari, G; Finzi, P Vita; Caccialanza, G

    2008-10-30

    Bridelia grandis (Pierre ex Hutch) (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Cameroon by pygmies Baka as a remedy for oral cavity affection. Bioassay-guided stem bark extracts were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial properties as well as their phytochemical constituents. The first extraction was carried out according to the traditional use. Further extractions were carried out with solvents of different polarity such as methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and mixtures of MeOH-H2O. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts against oral Streptococci was evaluated on the basis of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by the macrodilution method; the bacterial surface hydrophobicity was also evaluated. Water, methanol and mixtures methanol-water extracts, exhibited antibacterial activity with MIC between 0.5 and 2mg/ml justifying the traditional use of Bridelia grandis stem bark for oral cavity affection. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed on the most active extract (methanol) using appropriate tests and well established analytical screening methods, such as TLC and RP-HPLC/DAD. The data obtained indicate that tannins constitute the chemical family responsible for the biological activity.

  13. The Ethanolic Stem-Bark Extract ofAntrocaryon micrasterInhibits Carrageenan-Induced Pleurisy and Pedal Oedema in Murine Models of Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Leslie B; Obiri, David D; Osafo, Newman; Antwi, Aaron O; Duduyemi, Babatunde M

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a 70% v/v ethanol extract of the stem bark of Antrocaryon micraster on murine models of carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw oedema. Rat pleural fluid was analysed for volume, protein content, and leucocytes, while lung histology was assessed for damage. Lung tissue homogenates were assayed for glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Phytochemical analysis was carried out on the stem bark. Acute toxicity studies were conducted in rats. In the pleurisy model the extract (30-300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the volume and amount of proteins and leucocytes in the exudate and also protected against lung injury. Tissue level of GSH and SOD and CAT expression were increased while MDA level and MPO activity were reduced. The peak and total oedema responses were significantly suppressed when given both preemptively and curatively in the mice paw oedema test. Saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, and tannins were present in the stem bark. A. micraster extract exhibited no apparent acute toxicity. We conclude that the ethanolic stem-bark extract of A. micraster has antioxidant action and exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity through suppression of pleurisy and paw oedema induced with carrageenan.

  14. Phytochemical and antibacterial investigations of the extracts and fractions from the stem bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and effect on ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus induced by hydroalcoholic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimech, Gustavo Santiago; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Ferreira, Magda Assunção; de Oliveira, Anne Gabrielle Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Maria da Conceição; Ximenes, Eulália Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE), hydroalcoholic (HE), and aqueous fraction (AF) showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity.

  15. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Investigations of the Extracts and Fractions from the Stem Bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and Effect on Ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus Induced by Hydroalcoholic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Santiago Dimech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE, hydroalcoholic (HE, and aqueous fraction (AF showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity.

  16. Isolated flavonoids from Ficus racemosa stem bark possess antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and protective effects in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshari, Amit K; Kumar, Ghanendra; Kushwaha, Priya S; Bhardwaj, Monika; Kumar, Pranesh; Rawat, Atul; Kumar, Dinesh; Prakash, Anand; Ghosh, Balaram; Saha, Sudipta

    2016-04-02

    Ficus racemosa (FR) has been used for thousands of years in Ayurvedic system of medicine in India and is closely associated with prevention, treatment and cure of various human ailments like obesity and diabetes. It is popularly known as gular. A vast and wide range of chemical compounds like polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane type triterpene, eudesmane-type sesquiterpene including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. However, no detail studies related to isolation of flavonoids has been reported previously with their antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and toxicological consequences. The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and toxicological assessments of flavonoids isolated from Ficus racemosa (FR) stem bark. We isolated four flavonoids from stem bark of FR and structures were confirmed by Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) (both 1D and 2D), mass spectroscopy (MS). Later, these flavonoids were administered to streptozotocin (STZ) rats once in a day for a period of seven days at 100mg/kg dose. We measured blood glucose level and body weight changes at different days (1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th days). Serum lipid profiles were also estimated to investigate the hypolipidemic potential of flavonoids in the similar experiment. Various oxidative stress parameters in pancreas and liver and hepatic biomarker enzymes in plasma were also determined to investigate the toxicity potential of isolated flavonoids. Finally, we performed docking studies to find out the mechanism of action. Our results collectively suggested that four flavonoids reduced blood glucose level and restored body weight, signifying antidiabetic action. There were reduction of other lipid profile parameters and increase of high density lipoprotein (HDL) during administration of flavonoids, also signifying hypolipidemic action. Various oxidative stress biomarkers and hepatic enzymes levels were also normalized with respect

  17. Potential nutritional and antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from leaves and stem bark of Anisophyllea laurina R. Br ex Sabine used in folk medicine

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    Gbago Onivogui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anisophyllea laurina is a plant that has been used in folk medicine to treat malaria, dysentery, diabetes, toothache and various skin diseases. Leaves extract had protein content of 9.68% and a high calcium content of 25084.317 mg/100 g while stem bark extract was found to contain greater amounts of calcium (8560.96 mg/100 g, potassium (7649.47 mg/100 g, magnesium (1462.49 mg/100 g and iron (973.33 mg/100 g. Palmitic acid, linolenic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid were the most abundant fatty acids in leaves and stem bark extracts. Furthermore, total phenolic (2382.39 mg GAE /100 g and total flavonoid (385.79 mg QE/100 g contents were abundant in stem bark while leaves extract was rich in total tannin content (3466.63 mg CE/100 g. However, both leaves and stem bark contained great amounts of vitamins and amino acids were a good source of antioxidant activities. For the individual polyphenol, stenophyllanin A (45.87 mg/g, casuarinin (24.55 mg/g and digalloyl-HHDP-glucopyranose isomer (15.63 mg/g were found to be the major compounds from the leaves whereas procyanidin tetramer (14.89 mg/g, (--Epicatechin (12.18 mg/g and procyanidin trimer (11.25 mg/g were the most predominant compounds from the stem bark. Additionally, the results revealed a significant and strong correlation between phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities.

  18. Structural and stereochemical studies of five new pregnane steroids from the stem bark of Toona ciliata var. pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Shen, Qiang; Fang, Li; Peng, Shu-Ying; Yang, Yi-Ming; Li, Jia; Liu, Hai-Li; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2011-05-01

    Five new pregnane steroids, toonasterones A (1), B (2), (Z)-aglawone (3), (Z)-toonasterone C (4), and (E)-toonasterone C (5), were isolated from the stem bark of Toona ciliata var. pubescens. Their structures were elucidated by means of detailed spectroscopic (IR, MS, and 2D NMR) analysis, and the stereochemistry of 1 was secured by X-ray diffraction analysis. (Z)-aglawone (3) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a potential drug target for treatment of type-II diabetes and obesity, with an IC(50) value of 1.12 μg/mL. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New Coumarin Derivatives and Other Constituents from the Stem Bark of Zanthoxylum avicennae: Effects on Neutrophil Pro-Inflammatory Responses

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    Jih-Jung Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new coumarin derivatives, 8-formylalloxanthoxyletin (1, avicennone (2, and (Z-avicennone (3, have been isolated from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum avicennae (Z. avicennae, together with 15 known compounds (4–18. The structures of these new compounds were determined through spectroscopic and MS analyses. Compounds 1, 4, 9, 12, and 15 exhibited inhibition (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values ≤7.65 µg/mL of superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils in response to formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 8 and 9 inhibited fMLP/CB-induced elastase release with IC50 values ≤8.17 µg/mL. This investigation reveals bioactive isolates (especially 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 12 and 15 could be further developed as potential candidates for the treatment or prevention of various inflammatory diseases.

  20. New Coumarin Derivatives and Other Constituents from the Stem Bark of Zanthoxylum avicennae: Effects on Neutrophil Pro-Inflammatory Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jih-Jung; Yang, Chieh-Kai; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Kuo, Wen-Lung; Lim, Yun-Ping; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Cheng, Ming-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Three new coumarin derivatives, 8-formylalloxanthoxyletin (1), avicennone (2), and (Z)-avicennone (3), have been isolated from the stem bark of Zanthoxylum avicennae (Z. avicennae), together with 15 known compounds (4–18). The structures of these new compounds were determined through spectroscopic and MS analyses. Compounds 1, 4, 9, 12, and 15 exhibited inhibition (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ≤7.65 µg/mL) of superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils in response to formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLP/CB). Compounds 1, 2, 4, 8 and 9 inhibited fMLP/CB-induced elastase release with IC50 values ≤8.17 µg/mL. This investigation reveals bioactive isolates (especially 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 12 and 15) could be further developed as potential candidates for the treatment or prevention of various inflammatory diseases. PMID:25938967

  1. Effects ofSterculia setigeraDel. Stem Bark Extract on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaruwa, Moses Z; Ibok, Nne I; Ibok, Ibokabasi U; Onyenonachi, Emmanuel C; Danchal, C; Ahmed, Aisha G; Ahmed, Maryam U; Sudi, Ismaila Y

    2016-01-01

    Africa is rich in a wide range of flora that are exploited as herbal medicines and remedies. Several diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery and jaundice have been successfully managed using herbal medicines. Herbal decoctions or concoctions have been used as pain killers, antibiotics, and hematinics. This study evaluated the hematopoietic and biochemical properties of the stem bark of Sterculia setigera Del. in Wistar rats. Results showed that S. setigera decoction has copiously high tannin and cardiac glycoside levels. Ingestion of the decoction by rats over a 16-day period significantly ( P bark of S. setigera as a hematinic by traditional medical practitioners and show its relative safety. Further experiments are needed to evaluate its safety.

  2. Toxic Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Vernonia bipontini Vatke on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    2006). Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of stem-bark, root and leaves of V. amygdalina are ... cell volume (Pcv), red blood cell and hemoglobin concentration. ... Mice of the same sex were grouped into 9 experimental and 1 control groups for LD50 determination, and 20 experimental and 10 control groups for long term ...

  3. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albizia zygia is used in folk medicine for treatment of a wide variety of ailments including wounds, toothache and inflammation. Its acclaimed local use in the treatment of inflammation prompted the investigation into its antiinflammatory activity. The effect of the aqueous stem bark extract of Albizia zygia on inflammation was ...

  4. Chemical composition, toxicity and antioxidant activities of essential oils of stem bark of Nigerian species of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasola, Taiye R.; Oloyede, Ganiyat Kehinde; Aponjolosun, Babalola S.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil from the stem bark of Nigerian species of Psidium guajava of the family Myrtaceae was obtained by hydro-distillation using an all-glass Clavenger apparatus. GC and GC/MS analysis were carried out on the essential oil and was found to contain 62 compounds constituting 99.98 % of the total oil composition. The principal constituents are hydrocarbons, amines, amides and esters with 3,6-dioxa-2,4,5,7-tetraoctane,2,2,4,4,5,5,7,7-octamethyl (11.67 %) and cyclononane (10.66 %) dominating the total essential oil. Brine shrimp lethality test was carried out to determine the toxicity of the oils to living organisms (shrimps). LC50 value (µg/ml) of 1.0009 obtained showed that the essential oil of P. guajava stem bark was toxic. The antioxidant property of essential oil was investigated by measuring the decrease in absorption at 517 nm of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in a UV/visible spectrophotometer. The oil showed better activity as a radical scavenger than α-tocopherol. The oil activity was 71.83 % at 0.2 mg/ml and the absorption is stoichiometric with respect to the number of electron taken up. Thus, the results of this study showed that the essential oil from P. guajava was not only toxic; it possessed antioxidant activity, which could exert beneficial actions against pathological alterations caused by the presence of highly reactive free radicals. The toxicity of the oil can be taken advantage of in the therapy of diseases involving cell or tumor growth. PMID:27857663

  5. Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Illicium difengpi Stem Bark and Its Constituent Compounds Towards Two Grain Storage Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha Chu, Sha; Fang Wang, Cheng; Shan Du, Shu; Liang Liu, Shao; Long Liu, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the essential oil of Illicium difengpi stem bark was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). A total of 37 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The main components of the essential oil were safrole (23.61%), linalool (12.93%), and germacrene D (5.35%). Bioactivities-directed chromatographic separation on repeated silica gel columns led to the isolation of two compounds: safrole and linalool. Safrole showed pronounced contact toxicity against both insect species and (LD50 = 8.54 for S. zeamais; 4.67 µg/adult for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than linalool (LD50 = 24.88 for S. zeamais; 8.12 µg/adult for T. castaneum). The essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LD50 values of 13.83 and 6.33 µg/adult, respectively. Linalool also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against both insect species (LC50 = 10.02 for S. zeamais; 9.34 mg/L for T. castaneum) and was more toxic than safrole (LD50 = 32.96 and 38.25 mg/L), while the crude essential oil acting against the two species of insects showed LC50 values of 14.62 and 16.22 mg/L, respectively. These results suggest that the essential oil of I. difengpi stem bark and the two compounds may be used in grain storage to combat insect pests. PMID:22236213

  6. Anti-diabetic effects of the acetone fraction of Senna singueana stem bark in a type 2 diabetes rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, M Shahidul

    2014-04-28

    Senna singueana is currently used in the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. The present study examined the anti-diabetic activity of the Senna singueana acetone fraction (SSAF) of stem bark in a type 2 diabetes (T2D) rat model. Crude ethyl acetate extract of the Senna singueana stem bark was fractionated with various solvents and the acetone fraction was selected for in vivo studies based on the high α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. In the in vivo study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with T2D and treated with the SSAF at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Several T2D-related parameters were measured in the study. After 4 weeks of intervention, non-fasting blood glucose concentrations were significantly decreased and the glucose tolerance ability was significantly improved in the SSAF treated groups compared to the diabetic control group. Serum insulin concentrations, pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-β) and liver glycogen were significantly (Pdiabetic rats compared to the diabetic control group. Though insignificantly (P>0.05), other T2D-induced abnormalities such as food and fluid intake, body weight, serum lipids, serum fructosamine level and peripheral insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were also partially ameliorated by the SSAF treatment. Data of this study suggest that orally administered SSAF could ameliorate most of the T2D-induced abnormalities in a T2D model of rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity, antioxidant property and phytochemical constituents of aqueous extracts of nine Nigerian medicinal plants

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    Umar Ismaila Alhaji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the in vitro antitrypanosomal activity, antioxidant property and phytochemical constituents of aqueous extracts of nine Nigerian medicinal plants. Methods: In vitro antitrypanosomal activity test was carried out on aqueous extracts of dried leaves of Acacia albida (A. albida, Artemisia absinthium, Bryophyllum pinnatum, Gongronema latifolium, Holarrhena floribunda, Leptadenia hastata, Pericopsis laxiflora (P. laxiflora and dried stem barks of A. albida and P. laxiflora. The phytochemical constituents and composition of the extracts and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were subsequently measured using the α,α-diphenyl-β-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, thiobarbituric acid (TBA activity assay and H2O2 radical scavenging activity assay. Results: From the study, it was discovered that the stem bark extracts of A. albida and P. laxiflora were most active against both Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma congolense. There was complete cessation of motility in both trypanosomes within 5 min at 40 mg/mL of the stem bark extract of A. albida and complete cessation of motility within 25 min and 40 min at 40 mg/ mL with P. laxiflora stem bark extract for Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma evansi, respectively. Quantitative analysis of the phytochemical constituents of the aqueous extracts of the plant parts such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols revealed that the stem barks of A. albida, P. laxiflora and leaves of Leptadenia hastata contained relatively high amount of all the phytochemicals quantified. The stem bark extracts of A. albida, P. laxiflora and leaves of Gongronema latifolium possess more scavenging capacity when compared to other extracts in relation to vitamin C, the reference antioxidant. Conclusions: This study provides scientific evidence for the use of A. albida, and P. laxiflora for the treatment of trypanosomosis and

  8. Growth and phenology of a three- to four-year-old Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous wild fruits of Sclerocarya birrea have been used to supplement diets in time of critical food shortage, generate income when sold and as a source of raw materials for natural food-based industries in many developing countries. However, the widespread clearing of woodlands for agricultural production and ...

  9. α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity from Ethyl Acetate Extract of Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng Stem Bark Containing Triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldina, Marista Gilang; Sauriasari, Rani; Elya, Berna

    2017-01-01

    Buni ( Antidesma bunius [L.] Spreng) has been used as a traditional antidiabetic agent in Asia. The mechanism of antidiabetic properties was studied in this study by determine its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Inhibition of α-glucosidase was performed in all fraction of Buni stem bark with acarbose and miglitol as standards. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value of acarbose and miglitol was 5.75 and 59.76 μg/mL respectively while ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction was the most active fraction with IC 50 of 19.33 μg/mL. Three isolates (B1, B2, and B3) were found in the EtOAc fraction and elucidated by infrared, 1 hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13 carbon-nuclear magnetic resonance, and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. The chemical structures of the isolates were identified by the spectrum then compared with literature which concluded that B1 is friedelin, B2 is β-sitosterol, and B3 is betulinic acid. Inhibition of the α-glucosidase assay showed IC 50 values of B1, B2, and B3 were 19.51, 49.85, and 18.49 μg/mL, respectively. α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity assay was performed in n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol fraction of Buni ( Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng) stem bark and miglitolEtOAc fraction from the liquid chromatography has the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidaseThe chemical structures of the isolates were identified by the spectrums infrared, 1 hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13 carbon-nuclear magnetic resonance, and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, then compared with literature which concluded that B1 is friedelin, B2 is β-sitosterol, and B3 is betulinic acidBetulinic acid and friedelin showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Abbreviations used: IC 50 : Half maximal inhibitory concentration; H-NMR: Hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance; C-NMR: Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance; 2D-NMR: Two dimensional-nuclear magnetic resonance; EtOH: Ethanol; EtOAc: Ethyl

  10. Nanoemulsion as a carrier to improve the topical anti-inflammatory activity of stem bark extract of Rapanea ferruginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Mas J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Juarana Dal Mas,1 Tailyn Zermiani,1 Liliani C Thiesen,1 Joana LM Silveira,2 Kathryn ABS da Silva,1 Márcia M de Souza,1 Angela Malheiros,1 Tania MB Bresolin,1 Ruth M Lucinda-Silva1 1NIQFAR, Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsion containing soft extract of stem bark of Rapanea ferruginea to improve the topical delivery and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract of R. ferruginea stem bark was incorporated into the oily phase of the nanoemulsion by the method of phase inversion at low energy. The developed nanoemulsion had an average droplet size of 47.88±8.20 nm and a polydispersibility index of 0.228. Uniformity of size, spherical shape of droplet, and absence of clusters were confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy. The zeta potential was -34.7±1.15 mV. The nanoemulsion showed a moderate degree of skin irritation in the agarose overlay assay in vitro. The content of the extract markers, myrsinoic acids A and B, was 54.10±0.08 and 53.03 µg/g in the formulation, respectively. The formulation demonstrated pseudoplastic and thixotropic rheological behavior. In vitro release of chemical markers was controlled by diffusion mechanism. An extract-loaded nanoemulsion showed a topical anti-inflammatory activity in a croton oil-induced edema ear model, with a decrease in tumor necrosis factor release and myeloperoxidase activity. The nanoemulsion was 160% more efficient than the conventional cream containing 0.13% of the extract. The nanoemulsion showed suitable properties as a carrier for topical use of R. ferruginea extract and the approach for improving the topical anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanoemulsion, Rapanea ferruginea, anti-inflammatory, phytomedicine

  11. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  12. Studies on the antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica stem-barks and leaves on nondiabetic, type 1 and type 2 diabetic model rats

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    Amrita Bhowmik, Liakot Ali Khan, Masfida Akhter and Begum Rokeya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica Linn, locally known as mango tree has been claimed to possess antidiabetic properties by many investigators. The present study was undertaken to screen the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of both ethanol and water extracts of leaves and stem-barks of M. indica in nondiabetic and diabetic model rats in different prandial state. The results showed that all of the extracts had significant antihyperglycemic effect in type 2 diabetic model rats when fed simultaneously with glucose load (p<0.05-0.01; p<0.005-0.001. Moreover, the ethanol extract of stem-barks showed significant antihyperglycemic effect when the extract was fed 30 min prior to the glucose load (p<0.01. Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effect of M. indica on glucose absorption using a rat intestinal preparation in situ. The ethanol extracts of stem-barks reduced glucose absorption gradually during the whole perfusion period in type 2 diabetic rats.

  13. Characterization and quantification of the compounds of the ethanolic extract from Caesalpinia ferrea stem bark and evaluation of their mutagenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrepkowski, Carlos César; Costa, Daryne Lu Maldonado Gomes da; Sinhorin, Adilson Paulo; Vilegas, Wagner; De Grandis, Rone Aparecido; Resende, Flavia Aparecida; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner

    2014-10-08

    Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn) in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  14. Assessing Chemical Constituents of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Stem Bark: Possible Bioactive Components Accountable for the Cytotoxic Effect of M. caesalpiniifolia on Human Tumour Cell Lines

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    Nayana Bruna Nery Monção

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa caesalpiniifolia is a native plant of the Brazilian northeast, and few studies have investigated its chemical composition and biological significance. This work describes the identification of the first chemical constituents in the ethanolic extract and fractions of M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark based on NMR, GC-qMS and HRMS analyses, as well as an assessment of their cytotoxic activity. GC-qMS analysis showed fatty acid derivatives, triterpenes and steroid substances and confirmed the identity of the chemical compounds isolated from the hexane fraction. Metabolite biodiversity in M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark revealed the differentiated accumulation of pentacyclic triterpenic acids, with a high content of betulinic acid and minor amounts of 3-oxo and 3β-acetoxy derivatives. Bioactive analysis based on total phenolic and flavonoid content showed a high amount of these compounds in the ethanolic extract, and ESI-(−-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS identified caffeoyl hexose at high intensity, as well as the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Furthermore, the evaluation of the ethanolic extract and fractions, including betulinic acid, against colon (HCT-116, ovarian (OVCAR-8 and glioblastoma (SF-295 tumour cell lines showed that the crude extract, hexane and dichloromethane fractions possessed moderate to high inhibitory activity, which may be related to the abundance of betulinic acid. The phytochemical and biological study of M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark thus revealed a new alternative source of antitumour compounds, possibly made effective by the presence of betulinic acid and by chemical co-synergism with other compounds.

  15. Chemical composition and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionatto, Euclesio; Bonani, Vanderlea F.L.; Peruzzo, Gisele M.; Peres, Marize T.L.P.; Hess, Sania C. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Hidraulica e Transportes]. E-mail: eusimionatto@yahoo.com.br; Morel, Ademir Farias Morel; Stuker, Caroline Z. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Poppi, Nilva Re; Raposo Junior, Jorge Luiz [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFMS), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    The essential oil obtained from the stem bark of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) was analysed by GC and GC-MS. 83 compounds were identified and borneol (14.7%), bornyl acetate (5.2%), 1-isopropyl-7-methyl-4-methylene-1,3,4,5,6,8-hexahydro-2H-naphthalane-4a-ol (14.7%), sesquicineole (10.5%) and {gamma}-gurjunene epoxide (5.4%) were the main components. The EC{sub 50} value of the crude essential oil in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay was 3.21 mg mL{sup -1}. The fraction of the crude essential oil that presented antioxidant activity was purified by prep-TLC on silica gel. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that a-bisabolol (38.3%), a-eudesmol (9.3%) and guaiol (8.2%) were the main components of the antioxidant fraction. The EC{sub 50} value measured for the bioactive oil fraction in the DPPH assay was 1.05 mg mL{sup -1}. The antimicrobial activity of the crude essential oil was assayed against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three yeasts. Measured MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 10.00 mg mL{sup -1}. (author)

  16. Antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract and fractions of anacardium occidentale L. Stem bark in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramnik

    2009-12-01

    The numbers of adults with diabetes in the world is estimated to rise 300 millions in the year 2025 and this leads to increasing search for better anti-diabetic drug. The effects of the ethanol extract (1.25 g/kg) and fractions (Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol in the dose of 1 g/kg) of Anacardium occidentale stem bark on the blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced types 1 and 2 diabetic rats at different prandial states were studied. The ethanol extract of A. occidentale had no hypoglycemic effect in type 1 diabetic rats in fasting and postprandial glucose load conditions and, in type 2 diabetic rats in fasting condition. However, the extract, significantly lowered blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic rats when fed simultaneously with glucose. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant opposing effect in serum glucose rise after administration of glucose. Additionally, its dichloromethane extract also exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose level compared to control after glucose administration while its butanol fraction was devoid of this activity. These findings conclude that the active principles responsible for the antihyperglycaemic effect might be concentrated in the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions of the extract.

  17. Qualitative phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial effects of methanol stem bark extract of Ficus thonningii (Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, H; Abdulrahman, Fi; Usman, A

    2009-05-07

    The methanolic stem bark extract of Ficus thonningii (Moraceae) was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antimicrobial tests. The phytochemical tests was carried out using standard methods of analysis and these investigations revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was assayed using the agar plate disc diffusion and nutrient broth dilution techniques. Test micro organisms were: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi (gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. (gram-positive). The extracts inhibited the growth of all the test organisms at different concentrations especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus spp. which had mean inhibition zone of 33.33+/-7.33 mm and 32.33+/-2.51 mm respectively. The results showed the MIC of 10 mg ml(-1) against pseudomonas and 1.25 against remaining organisms tested. The MBC against Staphylococcus aureus was 2.5 mg ml(-1) and that of Streptococcus spp. was found to be 0.625 mg ml(-1). The extracts showed varied inhibitory activity against the organisms studied.

  18. Antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic activities of an ethanolic extract of Lafoensia pacari (Lythraceae) stem bark in bacteria and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, D C S; Silva, C R; Sampaio, B L; de Paula, J R; Chen-Chen, L

    2013-09-23

    Lafoensia pacari (Lythraceae), popularly known in Brazil as "pacari", is a small tree native to the Cerrado that is used in folk medicine to treat cancer and as an anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing agent. We evaluated the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic activities of an ethanol extract of L. pacari stem bark (EESB) using the Ames test and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. In the Ames test, EESB did not significantly increase the number of His(+) revertants in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 at all doses, demonstrating lack of mutagenicity. Only the highest dose of EESB significantly increased the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte frequency in the micronucleus test, indicating mild genotoxicity. EESB produced a mutagenic index lower than the negative control in the Ames test. In the micronucleus test, at all doses, EESB caused a significant decrease in the polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE) at 24 h compared with the negative control. EESB co-administered together with the respective positive control caused a significant decrease in the number of His(+) revertant colonies in the Ames test and in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the micronucleus test, demonstrating a DNA protector effect. EESB co-administered with mitomycin C significantly increased the PCE/NCE ratio at all doses, showing an anticytotoxic effect. We conclude that EESB has antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic properties.

  19. Anxiolytic effects of Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, stem-bark in elevated plus maze and marble burying test on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal B Badgujar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, is a deciduous tree commonly known as Medshingi in local areas of Toranmal region of Maharashtra, India. Its bark paste is applied on fractured or dislocated bones, used as a fish poison; bark juice is used in cases of menorragia and leucorrhoea. The leaves of the plant have afforded chrysin-7-rutinoside. The present study was carried out to investigate the anxiolytic effects of methanol extract (DFBM, ethyl acetate extract (DFBEA and isolated compound DFB (V+VI of D. falcata stem-bark using animal models. Anxiolytic effects were studied by elevated plus maze (EPM and marble burying test (MBT assay. The crude dried DFBM and DFBEA extract was prepared in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg whereas DFB (V+VI compound was prepared in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and were administered orally to mice for evaluation of anxiolytic activity. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produced highly significant (p <0.01 anxiolytic effects in dose dependent manner by increasing the time spent on and the number of entries into the open arms of the EPM and by decreasing the number of marbles buried by mice in MBT test. This study showed that the DFBM, DFBEA extracts and DFB (V+VI isolated compound possesses potential pharmacological active constituents flavonoids (like chrysin which may be responsible for the anxiolytic activity.

  20. Plant stem bark extractivism in the northeast semiarid region of Brazil: a new aport to utilitarian redundancy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Júnior, Washington Soares; Siqueira, Clarissa Fernanda Queiroz; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    We use the model of utilitarian redundancy as a basis for research. This model provides predictions that have not been tested by other research. In this sense, we sought to investigate the stem bark extraction between preferred and less-preferred species by a rural community in Caatinga environment. In addition, we sought to explain local preferences to observe if preferred plants have a higher content of tannins than less-preferred species. For this, we selected seven preferred species and seven less-preferred species from information obtained from semistructured interviews applied to 49 informants. Three areas of vegetation around the community were also selected, in which individuals were tagged, and were measured the diameter at ground level (DGL) diameter at breast height (DBH), and measurements of available and extracted bark areas. Samples of bark of the species were also collected for the evaluation of tannin content, obtained by the method of radial diffusion. From the results, the preferred species showed a greater area of bark removed. However, the tannin content showed no significant differences between preferred and less-preferred plants. These results show there is a relationship between preference and use, but this preference is not related to the total tannins content.

  1. Plant Stem Bark Extractivism in the Northeast Semiarid Region of Brazil: A New Aport to Utilitarian Redundancy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the model of utilitarian redundancy as a basis for research. This model provides predictions that have not been tested by other research. In this sense, we sought to investigate the stem bark extraction between preferred and less-preferred species by a rural community in Caatinga environment. In addition, we sought to explain local preferences to observe if preferred plants have a higher content of tannins than less-preferred species. For this, we selected seven preferred species and seven less-preferred species from information obtained from semistructured interviews applied to 49 informants. Three areas of vegetation around the community were also selected, in which individuals were tagged, and were measured the diameter at ground level (DGL diameter at breast height (DBH, and measurements of available and extracted bark areas. Samples of bark of the species were also collected for the evaluation of tannin content, obtained by the method of radial diffusion. From the results, the preferred species showed a greater area of bark removed. However, the tannin content showed no significant differences between preferred and less-preferred plants. These results show there is a relationship between preference and use, but this preference is not related to the total tannins content.

  2. Antimutagenic properties of Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and evaluation of its effects on hepatic CYP1A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morffi, Janet; Rodeiro, Idania; Hernández, Sandra Luz; González, Leonora; Herrera, Jose; Espinosa-Aguirre, J Javier

    2012-09-01

    Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) is a Cuban natural product which has shown strong antioxidant properties. In this work, the antimutagenic effect of MSBE was tested against 10 well-known mutagens/carcinogens in the Ames test in the absence or presence of metabolic fraction (S9). The chemical mutagens tested included: cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C, bleomycin, cisplatin, dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA), benzo[a]pyrene (BP), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), sodium azide, 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and picrolonic acid. Protective effects of the extract were also evaluated by comparing the efficiency of S9 fraction obtained from rats treated during 28 days with oral doses of MSBE (50-500 mg/kg) with that obtained from rats treated with vehicle (control) to activate bleomycin and cyclophosphamide in the Ames test. MSBE concentrations between 50 and 500 μg/plate significantly reduced the mutagenicity mediated by all the chemicals tested with the exception of sodium azide. Higher mutagenicity was found when bleomycin and cyclophosphamide (CP) were activated by control S9 than by MSBE S9. In addition, inhibition of CYP1A1 microsomal activity was observed in the presence of MSBE (10-20 μg/ml). We can conclude that besides its potent antioxidant activity previously reported, MSBE may also exert a chemoprotective effect due to its capacity to inhibit CYP activity.

  3. Plant Stem Bark Extractivism in the Northeast Semiarid Region of Brazil: A New Aport to Utilitarian Redundancy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Júnior, Washington Soares; Siqueira, Clarissa Fernanda Queiroz; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    We use the model of utilitarian redundancy as a basis for research. This model provides predictions that have not been tested by other research. In this sense, we sought to investigate the stem bark extraction between preferred and less-preferred species by a rural community in Caatinga environment. In addition, we sought to explain local preferences to observe if preferred plants have a higher content of tannins than less-preferred species. For this, we selected seven preferred species and seven less-preferred species from information obtained from semistructured interviews applied to 49 informants. Three areas of vegetation around the community were also selected, in which individuals were tagged, and were measured the diameter at ground level (DGL) diameter at breast height (DBH), and measurements of available and extracted bark areas. Samples of bark of the species were also collected for the evaluation of tannin content, obtained by the method of radial diffusion. From the results, the preferred species showed a greater area of bark removed. However, the tannin content showed no significant differences between preferred and less-preferred plants. These results show there is a relationship between preference and use, but this preference is not related to the total tannins content. PMID:22319546

  4. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Sclerocarya birrea kernel oil cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein, Ismail H.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from Sclerocarya birrea kernel oil meal, extracted using two different methods was evaluated. The extraction was carried out using magnetic stirring of the material in methanol/water (80:20 v/v overnight followed by two ultra-sonic treatments for 45 min. (Overnight extract, ONEXT and three ultra-sonic treatments for 45 min. only (Ultra-sonic extract, USEXT, respectively. Three fractions were obtained from each extract and the contents of total phenolic compounds were determined in each fraction according to the Folin-Ciocalteau method as 34.6, 54.8, and 58.6 mg/g of dry product in ONEXT and 29.6, 84.8, 143.9 mg/g in USEXT, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated according to the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, where the extracts and their fractions showed significant effect (p<0.05. The antioxidative properties of the extracts obtained from the two extraction methods described were similar. The AAC (antioxidant activity coefficient of these extracts and their fractions increased with an increasing concentration of the extract. The effect of ONEXT and USEXT at the 0.2 and 0.8 % levels on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil at 70°C was tested in the dark and compared with the commonly used synthetic antioxidant BHA. The oil peroxide values (PVs were significantly (p<0.05 lower with the addition of extract in comparison to a control. In comparison to BHA (0.02% the increase of PVs after the addition of ONEXT (0.2% and 0.8% and USEXT (0.8%, respectively, was reduced. The oxidation of sunflower oil, treated with 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1.0% of ONEXT and USEXT, respectively, was tested using the Rancimat test at 120 °C. Both extracts increased the induction time compared to a control and BHA, and the stabilization factor F increased with the concentration.Se ha evaluado la actividad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos de torta de aceite de semilla de Sclerocarya birrea

  5. Identification of chemical constituents of Zanthoxylum heitzii stem bark and their insecticidal activity against the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussavi, Nastaran; Malterud, Karl Egil; Mikolo, Bertin; Dawes, Dag; Chandre, Fabrice; Corbel, Vincent; Massamba, Daniel; Overgaard, Hans J; Wangensteen, Helle

    2015-10-01

    Zanthoxylum heitzii bark extracts have insecticidal properties and have been reported to be used against malaria in Western Africa. Previously, it has been shown that a hexane extract of the bark is toxic to adult females of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, a malaria vector. As part of our project on the control of malaria vectors using plant extracts, the phytochemistry of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract has been investigated with the aim to identify the major components with adulticidal and larvicidal effects on An. gambiae. Z. heitzii stem bark was extracted with hexane, and the extract was fractionated to isolate major components from the bark, identified by NMR spectroscopy. Isolated compounds were tested for toxicity towards adult female An. gambiae mosquitoes and for larvicidal effects towards An. gambiae. The alkaloid dihydronitidine, the sesquiterpenoid caryophyllene oxide, the amide pellitorine and the lignan sesamin were identified as the major constituents in Z. heitzii bark. Pellitorine was toxic to both adult insects (LD50 50 ng/mg insect) and larvae (LD50 13 μg/ml). None of the other compounds were toxic to adults, but caryophyllene oxide and sesamin exhibited moderate larvicidal effects (LD50 > 150 μg/ml). A mixture of the four compounds in the same ratio as in the hexane extract showed higher toxicity (LD50 34 ng/mg insect) towards adult insects than the pure compounds. The toxicity of Z. heitzii bark hexane extract to An. gambiae is mostly due to pellitorine, although interactions between pellitorine and other, inactive constituents may enhance the activity of the extract.

  6. Antibacterial activity of the stem bark of Tieghemella Heckelii Pierre ex. A Chev against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipre, B G; Guessennd, N K; Koné, M W; Gbonon, V; Coulibaly, J K; Dosso, M

    2017-03-27

    Tieghemella heckelii (Sapotaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Africa, particularly in Côte d'Ivoire for treating various diseases including infections. Identification of prospective antibacterial compounds from stem bark of this plant as a result of its medicinal virtue, led to screening activity against methicillin resistant bacteria. Six extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and sterile distilled water) were prepared and tested on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using broth microdilution method for activity assessment. From this experiment, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the plant extracts were determined in sterile 96-well microplates in order to search for both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects. Afterwards, data analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism5 software (One-way ANOVA and Turkey Multiple Comparison test). The results were then presented as Mean ± SD for experiment repeated three times. Four extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and sterile distilled water) showed credible potency, with strong, significant, and moderate growth inhibition of the MRSA tested. The MIC values which varied from 45 μg/mL to 97 μg/mL according to microbial phenotype, resolutely established the activity of the plant extracts. Additionally, the MBC values which varied, depending on the type of bacteria strain, revealed the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of the active extracts against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The present study is a confirmation of the therapeutic potential of Tieghemella heckelii and its promising contribution to the discovery of a novel antibacterial drug pertaining to these resistant strains.

  7. Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae) Stem Bark Extracts Exert Antitumor Activities In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silihe, Kevine Kamga; Zingue, Stéphane; Winter, Evelyn; Awounfack, Charline Florence; Bishayee, Anupam; Desai, Nishil N; João Mello, Leônidas; Michel, Thomas; Tankeu, Francine Nzufo; Ndinteh, Derek Tantoh; Honorine Riwom, Sara; Njamen, Dieudonné; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia Beatriz

    2017-05-23

    A Ficus umbellata is used to treat cancer. The present work was therefore designed to assess antitumor potentials of F. umbellata extracts in nine different cell lines. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspases activities as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein content were assessed in MDA-MB-231 cells. The 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in rats were also used to investigate antitumor potential of F. umbellata extracts. The F. umbellata methanol extract exhibited a CC 50 of 180 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 h. It induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while it did not alter their cell cycle phases. Further, it induced a decrease in MMP, an increase in ROS levels and caspases activities as well as a downregulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein contents in MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, F. umbellata aqueous (200 mg/kg) and methanol (50 mg/kg) extracts significantly ( p < 0.001) reduced ovarian tumor incidence (10%), total tumor burden (58% and 46%, respectively), average tumor weight (57.8% and 45.6%, respectively) as compared to DMBA control group. These results suggest antitumor potential of F. umbellata constituents possibly due to apoptosis induction mediated through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  8. Ficus umbellata Vahl. (Moraceae Stem Bark Extracts Exert Antitumor Activities In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Kevine Kamga Silihe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A Ficus umbellata is used to treat cancer. The present work was therefore designed to assess antitumor potentials of F. umbellata extracts in nine different cell lines. Cell cycle, apoptosis, cell migration/invasion, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, caspases activities as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein content were assessed in MDA-MB-231 cells. The 7,12-dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in rats were also used to investigate antitumor potential of F. umbellata extracts. The F. umbellata methanol extract exhibited a CC50 of 180 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cells after 24 h. It induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while it did not alter their cell cycle phases. Further, it induced a decrease in MMP, an increase in ROS levels and caspases activities as well as a downregulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein contents in MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, F. umbellata aqueous (200 mg/kg and methanol (50 mg/kg extracts significantly (p < 0.001 reduced ovarian tumor incidence (10%, total tumor burden (58% and 46%, respectively, average tumor weight (57.8% and 45.6%, respectively as compared to DMBA control group. These results suggest antitumor potential of F. umbellata constituents possibly due to apoptosis induction mediated through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway.

  9. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Danish; Kumar, Vikas; Verma, Amita; Gupta, Pushpraj S; Kumar, Hemant; Dhingra, Vishal; Mishra, Vatsala; Sharma, Manju

    2014-07-16

    Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p ALEx.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the stem bark of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Lidiane; Vilela, Fabiana C; Santa-Cecília, Flávia V; Dias, Danielle F; Alves-da-Silva, Geraldo; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2011-10-11

    Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. is popularly known as "murici pequeno" and is native to the Brazilian Cerrado. This species has been used as an antimicrobial, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-diarrheal and anti-inflammatory. Nevertheless, scientific information regarding Byrsonima intermedia is limited; there are no reports related to its possible anti inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. This study employed in vivo inflammatory and nociceptive models to evaluate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Byrsonima intermedia. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by s.c. cotton pellet implantation tests were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Byrsonima intermedia aqueous extract (BiAE) in rats. Mechanical nociceptive paw, formalin and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity in mice. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), phytochemistry screening and determination of total phenolics and flavonoids were used to determine the chemical profile of the BiAE. BiAE at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema, by inhibited leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity and, in the model of chronic inflammation, by using the cotton pellet-induced fibrovascular tissue growth in rats. The extracts at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated antinociceptive activity in all tests. Administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone completely inhibited the antinociceptive effect induced by BiAE (100 mg/kg). BiAE markedly exhibits anti-inflammatory action in rats and antinociceptive activity in mice. Thus, it may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory hyperalgesic disorders, which supports previous claims of its traditional use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enzyme inhibition, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities, and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts from the root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Ho, Giang Thanh Thi; Malterud, Karl Egil; Le, Nhat Hao Tran; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-09-11

    The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera have been traditionally used against a variety of ailments such as wounds, hepatitis, malaria, fever, cough, and diarrhea as well as tuberculosis and skin diseases in African folk medicine. Boiling water extracts of Terminalia macroptera, administered orally, are the most common preparations of this plant used by the traditional healers in Mali. This study aimed to investigate the inhibition of the activities of α-glucosidase, 15-lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase, DPPH scavenging activity, complement fixation activity and brine shrimp toxicity of different extracts obtained by boiling water extraction (BWE) and by ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) with ethanol, ethanol-water and water as extractants from different plant parts of Terminalia macroptera. 27 different crude extracts were obtained by BWE and ASE from root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera. The total phenolic and carbohydrate contents, enzyme inhibition activities (α-glucosidase, 15-lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase), DPPH scavenging activity, complement fixation activity and brine shrimp toxicity of these extracts were evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for total biological activities evaluation. Several of the extracts from root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera obtained by BWE and ASE showed potent enzyme inhibition activities, radical-scavenging properties and complement fixation activities. None of the extracts are toxic against brine shrimp larvae in the test concentration. Based on the results from PCA, the ASE ethanol extracts of root bark and stem bark and the low molecular weight fraction of the 50% ethanol-water extract of leaves showed the highest total biological activities. The boiling water extracts were less active, but the bark extracts showed activity as α-glucosidase inhibitors and radical scavengers, the leaf extract being less active. The observed enzyme

  12. Nephroprotective Effects of Ficus religiosa Linn (Peepal Plant Stem Bark against Isoniazid and Rifampicin Induced nephrotoxicity in Albino Rabbits

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    Nadia Hashmi1, Faqir Muhammad1*, Ijaz Javed1, Junaid Ali Khan1, Muhammad Zargham Khan2, Tanweer Khaliq1 and Bilal Aslam1

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an airborne infection that requires at least six to nine months treatment. Long term treatment of TB may produce severe toxic effects to organs such as kidney, liver, gastrointestinal and blood vascular systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effects of Ficus religiosa (peepal plant stem bark against the toxic effects induced by anti TB drugs rifampicin (RIF and isoniazid (INH. For this purpose, 40 rabbits were divided into five groups (n=8. Group 1 was kept as control without drugs. Group 2 was given anti TB drugs orally for 28 days while groups 3, 4 and 5 were given silymarin, ethanolic ficus extract, and water ficus extract along with anti TB drugs orally for 28 days respectively. Blood samples were taken before drug administration and at 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days post treatment for biochemical and drug analysis. Kidney tissues were taken for histopathological studies. Results have indicated that Mean±SEM blood urea nitrogen (BUN was increased significantly (P<0.05 in RIF + INH-treated rabbits (45.94±2.15 as compared to control group (27.86±0.22. The administration of silymarin reduced BUN (33.17±1.87 towards normal. The administration of alcohol extract of F. religiosa further reduced this BUN level (32.15±1.67, almost close to normal value while its hydro extract also reduced the BUN level (34.85±2.85 significantly but less than alcoholic extract of F. religiosa and silymarin. Similar findings were found with creatinine. Kidney of RIF + INH-treated rabbits showed severe degree of infiltration in the glomerulas without renal tubular space between the glomerulas when compared to normal group. Drug analysis with HPLC revealed that drug concentration in plasma coincides with the toxicity of RIF and INH. In conclusion, the alcoholic as well as water extracts of F. religiosa have shown potent nephroprotective effects when administered along with the RIF+INH and have shown results

  13. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Properties, and Phytochemical Characterization of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Anthocleista nobilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwoke, Kenneth Gerald; Akwagbulam, Amaka Godsaveus; Erhirhie, Ernest Oghenesuvwe; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2018-01-01

    Background: Anthocleista nobilis (Loganiaceae) is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A. nobilis. Materials and Methods: The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the components were identified by dereplication. Antioxidant potential of the extracts and fractions was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging method. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract and fractions were also investigated using xylene-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. Results: A total of five compounds isovitexin (Rt = 18.77 min), isovitexin-2''-O-xyl (Rt = 19.68 min), p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (Rt = 11.88 min), Sarasinoside L (Rt = 19.64 min), isovitexin (Rt = 18.77), and apigenin monoglycoside (Rt = 19.64 min) were identified by HPLC analysis and dereplication. The ethyl acetate fraction and subfraction elicited the best anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate subfraction also inhibited acetic acid-induced pain by 79% and 85.0% at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively, which was better than 71.1% and 81.3% observed for diclofenac at similar doses. Conclusion: A. nobilis could be a potential source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic lead compounds. SUMMARY The extract, fractions and subfractions of Anthocleista nobilis were screened or antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties in vitro and in mice models. Some of the components were identified by dereplication after HPLC analysis. The results demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extracts and

  14. Antioxidant and Prophylactic Effects of Delonix elata L., Stem Bark Extracts, and Flavonoid Isolated Quercetin against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

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    Pradeepa Krishnappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delonix elata L. (Ceasalpinaceae, is widely used by the traditional medical practitioners of Karnataka, India, to cure jaundice, and bronchial and rheumatic problems. The objective of this study was to screen the in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the stem bark extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Among different stem bark extracts tested, the ethanol extract (DSE has shown significant in vitro antioxidant property in radicals scavenging, metal chelating, and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. HPLC analysis of the DSE revealed the presence of known antioxidant molecules, namely, gallic acid, ellagic acid, coumaric acid, quercetin, and rutin. Bioassay-guided fractionation of DSE has resulted in the isolation and characterization of quercetin. DSE and quercetin have shown significant prophylactic effects by restoring the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, serum bilirubin, and total protein and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST. These results were proved to be hepatoprotective at par with silymarin and well supported by the histological observations of liver sections with distinct hepatic cells, and mild degree of fatty change and necrosis. The results indicated that the DSE and quercetin were significant for prophylactic activity against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. This activity could be attributed to the antioxidant constituents in the DSE and hence justified the ethnomedicinal claims.

  15. Evaluation of in vivo anti-inflmmatory and analgesic activity of Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq. Miq. and Shorea robusta stem bark extracts

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    Preet Amol Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of stem bark extract of Dillenia indica f. elongata (Miq. Miq. (D. indica f. elongata and its comparison with Shorea robusta Gaertn. (S. robusta and respective standard drugs in experimental animals. Methods: Analgesic models (hot plate, tail flick and formalin induced paw licking along with acute (carrageenan-induced and chronic (formalin-induced models of inflammation were evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of the plant extracts. Results: The results of the study showed that the ethyl acetate extracts of D. indica f. elongata (100 and 300 mg/kg and S. robusta (100 and 300 mg/kg possessed good central as well as peripheral analgesic activity as compared with pentazocine and indomethacin (10 mg/kg respectively. The extracts showed significant (P < 0.01 activity in carrageenan- and formalininduced chronic inflammation models by using indomethacin (8 mg/kg and diclofenac (13.5 mg/kg as standard drugs respectively. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the presence of major constituents like flavonoids, tannins and phenols in the ethyl acetate extracts of stem bark of D. indica f. elongata (100 and 300 mg/kg and S. robusta (100 and 300 mg/kg may be responsible for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activity.

  16. Identification and quantification of furanocoumarins in stem bark and wood of eight Algerian varieties of Ficus carica by RP-HPLC-DAD and RP-HPLC-DAD-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouaiguia-Bouakkaz, Samia; Amira-Guebailia, Habiba; Rivière, Céline; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2013-04-01

    Furanocoumarins are the major phytoalexins of Ficus carica and are effective natural drug candidates for treatment of several types of cancer and skin disease. The objectives of this study were to analyze and quantify linear furanocoumarins, mainly psoralen and bergapten, in wood and bark of stems from eight Algerian varieties of fig and to establish the differences in the content of these metabolites in the eight local samples. Psoralen and bergapten contents in the stem bark and wood (in microg/g DW) varied respectively from 146.6 to 1110.3 and from 395.7 to 1671.8 for psoralen, and from 114.3 to 524.0 and from 144.2 to 718.6 for bergapten. This study fills a gap in our knowledge of furanocoumarin distribution in different parts of the fig tree. Psoralen and bergapten concentrations were higher in the wood than in the stem bark. Most of the dark fruited fig trees produce these two coumarins more than the green ones.

  17. Effects of α-tocopherol on the in vivo antitrypanosomal effects of phenolics-rich fraction of Khaya senegalensis stem bark

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    Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of combined administration of a low dose of a phenolicsrich fraction of Khaya senegalensis (PFKS stem bark with α-tocopherol on Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. brucei brucei infection. Methods: Rats were divided into five groups of six animals, namely, normal control, uninfected but treated with PFKS and α-tocopherol, infected control, infected and treated with PFKS and α-tocopherol (ITTF and infected treated with diminazine aceturate. Rats in infected control, ITTF and infected treated with diminazine aceturate were infected with T. brucei brucei while the animals in uninfected but treated with PFKS and α-tocopherol and ITTF were treated with a combination of PFKS (100 mg/kg body weight and α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg body weight for 8 days. At the end of the experiment, indices of anemia as well as hepatic and renal functions were analysed. Results: The combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05 retarded the proliferation of T. brucei brucei in the infected animals compared to the infected group but could not completely eliminate the parasites from the bloodstream of infected animals. Furthermore, the trypanosome-associated pathological changes such as anemia, hepatic and renal damages were significantly (P < 0.05 alleviated by the combination of PFKS and α-tocopherol. Conclusions: Combination of a low dose of PFKS stem bark and α-tocopherol could be a therapeutically active regimen against animal trypanosomiasis.

  18. Methanol Extract from Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae) Stem Bark Quenches the Quorum Sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Vincent; Kiendrebeogo, Martin

    2016-10-06

    Background: Due to its extensive arsenal of virulence factors and inherent resistance to antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threat particularly in immunocompromised patients. Considering the central role of quorum sensing in the production of virulence factors, inhibition of bacterial communication mechanism constitute an opportunity to attenuate pathogenicity of bacteria resistant to available antibiotics. Our study aimed to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus , traditionally used in Burkina Faso, for the treatment of infected burn wounds. Methods: Investigations were carried out on methanol extract from A. leiocarpus stem bark. The reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 derivatives were used to evidence any interference with the bacterial quorum sensing and expression of related genes. P. aeruginosa PAO1 was used to measure the impact on pyocyanin production. Results: At a sub-inhibitory concentration (100 µg/mL), A. leiocarpus methanol extract quenched the quorum sensing mechanism of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by down-streaming the rhlR gene, with a subsequent reduction of pyocyanin production. Moreover, the antioxidant polyphenols evidenced are able to reduce the oxidative stress induced by pyocyanin. Conclusion: The antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of A. leiocarpus stem bark could justify its traditional use in the treatment of infected burn wounds.

  19. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill. Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

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    David A. Akinpelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL–12.5 mg/mL and 1.25–10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract’s butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  20. stem bark in rodents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... No previous scientific literature was found on its antidiarrhoeal activity. The ... Swiss mice of either sex obtained from the Animal House unit of the. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, ... Adult Swiss mice (5 per group) were administered with distilled water (10 ml/kg, p.o), extract (100, 200 or 400 ...

  1. Chemical constituents of the stem bark of Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl. (Vochysiaceae) and evaluation of their cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against cathepsins B and K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Lorena Ramos Freitas de; Silva, Jame's A. da; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Costa, Maisa Borges; Santos, Mirley Luciene dos; Menezes, Antonio Carlos Severo; Sbardelotto, Aline Borba; Pessoa, Claudia do O; Moraes, Manoel Odorico de

    2014-01-01

    A new flavonoid, catechin-3-O-(3 - O-trans-cinnamoyl)-α-rhamnopyranoside, along with known compounds, catechin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, 3-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzoic acid, 2-butyl-D-fructofuranoside and 1-butyl-D-fructofuranoside, has been isolated from the stem bark of V. thyrsoidea. These compounds were assayed for inhibition of protease activity (cathepsins B and K) and against cancer cell lines. Catechin-3-O-(3 - O-trans-cinnamoyl)-α-rhamnopyranoside showed moderate inhibitory activity (IC 50 = 62.02 µM) against cathepsin B while 2-butyl-D-fructofuranoside was the most potent against a strain of CNS (SF-295) and human leukemia (HL-60) with IC 50 = 36.80 μM and IC 50 = 25.37 μM, respectively (author)

  2. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Cariniana rubra stem bark in animal models

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    Edson N. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularly known as "jequitibá-vermelho'', is a large Brazilian tree whose bark is used in infusion and decoction for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of Cariniana rubra methanolic stem bark extract (EM Cr using experimental animals. Anti-inflammatory activity of EM Cr was tested on carrageenan and dextran-induced rat paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and acetic acid-increase vascular permeability in mice. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, as well as brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract inhibitied carrageenan and dextran-induced edema, reduced exudate volume and leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy and on the vascular permeability increase induced by acetic acid. The EM Cr inhibited nociception on the acetic acid-induced writhing and in the second phase of formalin test, and decreased rectal temperature. It was, however, inactive against thermal nociception.Phytochemical analysis with EM Cr showed the occurrence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, pentacyclic triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin as a mixture, arjunolic acid, a phytosterol glycoside (sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and triterpenoid saponins (28-β-glucopyranosyl-23-O-acetyl arjunolic acid; 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl arjunolic acid and 28-O-[α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-glucopyranosyl]-23- O-acetyl arjunolic acid were the main identified compounds. It can be presumed that EM Cr caused their effects by inhibiting the liberation and/or action of different inflammatory mediators. These findings support the traditional use of Cariniana rubra preparations to treat inflammation.Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularmente conhecido como

  3. Phytochemical study guided by the myorelaxant activity of the crude extract, fractions and constituent from stem bark of Hymenaea courbaril L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Gabrieli Penha; Góis, Roberto Wagner da Silva; de Brito, Teresinha Silva; de Lima, Francisco José Batista; Bandeira, Mary Anne Medeiros; Romero, Nirla Rodrigues; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro

    2013-08-26

    Hymenaea courbaril L. (Caesalpinoideae) is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat anemia, kidney problems, sore throat and other dysfunctions of the respiratory system, such as bronchitis and asthma, although such properties are yet to be scientifically validated. In order to give a scientific basis to support the traditional use of Hymenaea courbaril, this study was designed to evaluate antioxidant, myorelaxant and anti-inflammatory properties of the ethanol extract from stem bark and its fractions. The myorelaxant effect of astilbin, a flavonoid isolated from the bioactive ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), has also been evaluated. In the present study ethanol extract from stem bark (EEHC) and fractions were analyzed using bioassay-guided fractionation. The following activities were investigated: antioxidant by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, myorelaxant on rat tracheal smooth muscle, and anti-inflammatory using ovalbumin-induced leukocytosis and airway hyperresponsiveness in rats. The results of the present investigation show that the whole extract of Hymenaea courbaril and some of its fractions strongly scavenged DPPH radical. The extract showed myorelaxant activity on rat trachea, being EAF its highest efficient fraction. Bio-guided study allowed the isolation of astilbin, a well-known flavonoid. The activity induced by this compound indicates that it may be partly responsible for the myorelaxant effect of EAF. EAF reduced contractions that depended on divalent cation inflow through voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCCs) or receptor-operated Ca(2+) channels (ROCCs), but it was more potent to inhibit VOCC- than ROCC-dependent contraction induced by Ca(2+) addition in ACh-enriched Ca(2+)-free medium. Oral pretreatment of antigen-challenged animals with EAF prevented airway hyperresponsiveness on KCl-induced contraction and reduced the number of total white cells, particularly eosinophils and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage. This study provided

  4. Evaluation of the antifungal activity and mode of action of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, stem-bark extracts, fractions and ellagic acid

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    Iberê F. Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Stem-bark extracts, fractions and the isolated constituent, ellagic acid of Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (Lythraceae were in vitro assayed for antifungal activity against a panel of yeasts, hialohyphomycetes as well as dermatophytes with the microbroth dilution method. The EtOH extract and its fractions and ellagic acid exhibited activity against Candida spp and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with MIC values between 250-1000 µg/mL, but they showed no action against filamentous fungi and dermatophytes (MIC>1000 µg/mL. Active extracts were evaluated in Neurospora crassa hyphal growth inhibition and sorbitol assays and then the effect of ergosterol on the MIC of ellagic acid was studied. The active extracts and its fractions and ellagic acid showed a blotchy zone around the paper disk and induced malformations of the hypha. Besides, MIC of the ellagic acid against the Saccharomyces cerevisiae was raised from 62 to 250 µg/mL in the presence of sorbitol 0.8 M, suggesting that the ellagic acid would probably exert its action on fungal cell wall. These results indicate that ellagic acid might be the main active antifungal compound of Lafoensia pacari and further suggest that the mode of antifungal action of these extracts and ellagic acid could be associated with the inhibition of fungal cell wall.

  5. Inhibition of nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by stem bark of Ulmus pumila L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Taewoo; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Hong, Sunghyun; Lee, Jaehak; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Songmun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to isolate and identify a potent inhibitory compound against nitric oxide (NO) production from the stem bark of Ulmus pumila L. Ethyl acetate fraction of hot water extract registered a higher level of total phenolics (756.93 mg GAE/g) and also showed strong DPPH (IC50 at 5.6 μg/mL) and ABTS (TEAC value 0.9703) radical scavenging activities than other fractions. Crude extract and its fractions significantly decreased nitrite accumulation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells indicating that they potentially inhibited the NO production in a concentration dependent manner. Based on higher inhibitory activity, the ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and yielded seven fractions and all these fractions registered appreciable levels of inhibitory activity on NO production. The most effective fraction F1 was further purified and subjected to 1H, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry analysis and the compound was identified as icariside E4. The results suggest that the U. pumila extract and the isolated compound icariside E4 effectively inhibited the NO production and may be useful in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO. PMID:25313277

  6. Base excision repair pathway is involved in the repair of lesions generated by flavonoid-enriched fractions of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius, Raddi) stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Barca, Francisco Napoleão Túlio; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2007-10-01

    Cell-free and bacterial assays indicate that flavonoid-enriched fractions and the flavonoids of pepper tree stem bark from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi have genotoxic rather than antigenotoxic properties. In the present report, we have examined the ability of flavonoid-enriched fractions to damage plasmid DNA and the repair pathways involved in the recognition of these DNA lesions. High concentrations of two flavonoid-enriched fractions were able to break phosphodiester bonds in DNA. In addition, studies using bacterial strains deficient in nucleotide excision repair and base excision repair (BER) enzymes indicated that the flavonoid-enriched fractions generated lesions that were substrates for enzymes belonging to the BER pathway. In addition, in vitro studies indicated that the DNA damage produced by the flavonoid-enriched fractions was also a substrate for exonuclease III and that the phosphodiester breakage was amplified by copper ions. These results indicate that flavonoids from the pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius, Raddi) generate lesions on DNA that are potential targets of FPG and MutY glycosylase from the BER pathway. Chromatographic and spectral analyses helped to support the hypothesis that the flavonoids of the Brazilian pepper tree bark are the main factors involved in the fraction's damage potential. The isolated flavonoids from Fraction II were also tested in vitro and support the oxidative damage potential of these flavonoids. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Anti-Tumour Promoting Activity and Antioxidant Properties of Girinimbine Isolated from the Stem Bark of Murraya koenigii S.

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    Yih Yih Kok

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark of Murraya koenigii was tested for the in vitro anti-tumour promoting and antioxidant activities. Anti-tumour promoting activity was determined by assaying the capability of this compound to inhibit the expression of early antigen of Epstein-Barr virus (EA-EBV in Raji cells that was induced by the tumour promoter, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The concentration of this compound that gave an inhibition rate at fifty percent was 6.0 µg/mL and was not cytotoxic to the cells. Immunoblotting analysis of the expression of EA-EBV showed that girinimbine was able to suppress restricted early antigen (EA-R. However, diffused early antigen (EA-D was partially suppressed when used at 32.0 µg/mL. Girinimbine exhibited a very strong antioxidant activity as compared to a-tocopherol and was able to inhibit superoxide generation in the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced differentiated premyelocytic HL-60 cells more than 95%, when treated with the compound at 5.3 and 26.3 µg/mL, respectively. However girinimbine failed to scavenge the stable diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH-free radical.

  8. Safety assessment of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Amphimas pterocarpoides Harms: Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in Wistar rats

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    Job Tchoumtchoua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphimas pterocarpoides Harms (Leguminosae is widely used traditionally in Central and West Africa for the treatment of various ailments. However, no data regarding its safety have been published until now. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the potential toxicity of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Amphimas pterocarpoides (AP in Wistar rats following the OECD guidelines. In acute oral toxicity, female rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of AP and were observed for 14 days. In subchronic toxicity, doses of 150, 300, 600 mg/kg/day of AP were given per os to rats (males and females for 28 days. No death and abnormal behaviors were observed in acute toxicity and the LD50 was estimated higher than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic study, AP induced no significant variation in body weight and relative weight of organs, whereas a delayed decrease of white blood cell count and granulocytes was observed. Inconsistent increase of the total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein was observed at 600 mg/kg in males. Such variation (not dose dependent and without biological relevance indicate a wide margin of safety for the traditional use of AP.

  9. Modulation of liver function, antioxidant responses, insulin resistance and glucose transport by Oroxylum indicum stem bark in STZ induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyotsna; Kakkar, Poonam

    2013-12-01

    A decoction of stem bark of Oroxylum indicum Vent. (OI) is taken (2-3 times/day) by the tribal people of Sikkim, India to treat diabetes but scientific validation of its overall potential is lacking. Present study was aimed to assess in vitro antihyperglycemic activity of standardized OI extract using inhibition of α-glucosidase, BSA glycation and enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Antidiabetic and antioxidant modulatory effects of OI extract along with the blood biomarkers of toxic response were studied in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In vitro analysis showed strong antioxidant capacity of OI -and potential to inhibit BSA glycation and α-glucosidase activity which was comparable to standard counterparts. Extract also improved insulin sensitivity in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In vivo effects of OI extract (oral 250 mg/kg b.wt.) on STZ induced type II diabetic rats normalized the antioxidant status (p≤0.01). Analysis of blood biomarkers of toxic response indicated its safety. Lowering of total cholesterol and HDL levels (p≤0.05) and restoration of glycated Hb (p≤0.01) were also found in OI treated diabetic rats. HOMA-IR, QUICKI analysis along with area under the curve analysis showed the capacity of OI extract to enhance the insulin sensitivity significantly (p≤0.01) which was confirmed by increased GLUT-4 translocation in skeletal muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Constituents of essential oils from the leaves, stem barks and resins of Canarium parvum Leen., and Canarium tramdenanum Dai et Yakovl. (Burseracea) grown in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Tran D; Dai, Do N; Luong, Ngo X; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaf, stem bark and resins of Canarium parvum Leen., and Canarium tramdenanum Dai et Yakovl. (Burseracea) grown in Vietnam are being reported. The hydrodistilled oils were analysed for their chemical constituents by means of gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The main compounds of C. parvum were β-caryophyllene (18.7%), (E)-β-ocimene (12.9%), (Z)-β-ocimene (11.9%), germacrene D (8.8%) and α-humulene (8.4%) in the leaf; β-caryophyllene (30.4%), α-copaene (20.5%) and (E)-β-ocimene (7.7%) in the stem. However, germacrene D (23.2%), α-amorphene (14.9%), α-copaene (9.8%) and β-elemene (8.6%) were present in the resin. The leaf of C. tramdenanum comprises β-caryophyllene (16.8%), α-phellandrene (15.9%), γ-elemene (13.1%) and limonene (11.8%), while limonene (25.7%), α-phellandrene (21.7%), α-pinene (12.3%) and β-caryophyllene (10.9%) were present in the stem. However, δ-elemene (14.6%) and bulnesol (16.0%) are the main constituents in the resin.

  11. Effect of PUFAs from Pteleopsis suberosa stem bark on androgenic enzymes, cellular ATP and prostatic acid phosphatase in mercury chloride – Exposed rat

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    J.K. Akintunde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Occupational and environmental exposure to mercury causes varieties of adverse reproductive disorders in mammals. The present study was designed to investigate the unsaturated fatty acids of Pteleopsis suberosa stem bark extract (PTSSBE, evaluate its antioxidant properties and examine its biochemical targets on sub-acute mercury-induced testicular dysfunctions. Rats were divided into five groups of 10 animals each. Group I was given distilled water; group II, III, IV and V was orally administered with mercury at a dose of 3.75 mg/kg body weight. Group III, IV and V were co-treated with PTSSBE of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 10 days. Rats exposed to mercury significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, while the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA was increased. There was also a marked significant decrease (p < 0.05 in testicular activities of Δ5-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and Δ5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Moreover, the activities of prostatic acid phosphatase, total acid phosphatase and prostatic alkaline phosphatase, were significantly (p < 0.05 elevated in mercury treated rats. These effects were prevented by co-treatment with PTSSBE in mercury-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Aphrosidiac effects of Pteleopsis suberosa, may find clinical application in reproductive abnormalities. Isolation and translation of individual active ingredient would help to find new drugs to cure and/or prevent male infertility among mercury exposed workers.

  12. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract induces hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté

    2011-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models.

  13. Mechanisms of anti-inflammatory property of Anacardium occidentale stem bark: inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signalling in the microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, Olumayokun A; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Fiebich, Bernd L

    2013-01-09

    Anacardium occidentale is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of arthritis, fever, aches, pains, and inflammation of the extremities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for anti-inflammatory effects of a stem bark extract of A. occidentale (ANE) in LPS-stimulated microglia. Nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) and cytokine (TNFα and IL-6) production were evaluated in supernatants from LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES-1) protein expressions in rat primary microglia were measured using western blot. The effects of ANE on NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation were evaluated in the luciferase reporter gene assay and ELISA, while ability of ANE to influence IκB phosphorylation was determined using ELISA specific for phospho-IκB. The involvement of MAPK phosphorylation in the anti-inflammatory actions of ANE was evaluated using specific ELISA for phospho-p38, phospho-p42/44 and phospho-JNK. The MTT assay was used to determine the effect of ANE on BV-2 microglia viability. ANE (25-100 μg/ml) produced significant (p<0.05) reduction in the production of NO, PGE(2), TNFα and IL-6 in BV-2 microglia stimulated with LPS for 24h. Pre-treatment with ANE caused a significant (p<0.05) inhibition of COX-2, iNOS and mPGES-1 protein expressions in the rat primary microglia. Further experiments showed that ANE inhibited COX-2 and iNOS protein expression via IκB-mediated nuclear translocation and transactivation of NF-κB. Our studies also revealed that ANE produced significant (p<0.05) and dose-dependent inhibition of p38, p42/44 and JNK MAPK phosphorylation in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia. We conclude that ANE has an anti-inflammatory property related to inhibition of inflammation-associated cytokine production as well as iNOS and COX-2 gene expression by blocking NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the microglia. It is

  14. Evaluation of antiulcer activity and mechanism of action of methanol stem bark extract of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. (Lytraceae) in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashiro Filho, Paulo; Sikiru Olaitan, Balogun; Tavares de Almeida, Danielle Ayr; Lima, Joaquim Corsino da Silva; Marson-Ascêncio, Poliana Guerino; Donizeti Ascêncio, Sérgio; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira

    2012-12-18

    Lafoensia pacari St.-Hil. is a tree native to the Brazilian Cerrado. Its bark macerate is popularly used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of peptic ulcer, wound healing and inflammation. To evaluate the antiulcer activities of the methanol extract of Lafoensia pacari (MELP) and possible mechanisms of actions involved. The stem bark of Lafoensia pacari was macerated in methanol to obtain the crude methanol extract of Lafoensia pacari (MELP). The gastroprotective and ulcer healing of MELP were evaluated using ethanol, indomethacin, cold-restraint stress-induced (acute) and acetic acid (chronic) ulcer models. The probable mode of action of MELP was also evaluated by determining intestinal transit, involvement of non-protein sulfhyhydryls (NP-SH), gastric mucus secretion, gastric secretory parameters and pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17). Phytochemical analysis was carried out using classical methods and ellagic acid, one of the most important pharmacological active compounds was confirmed by HPLC. The results of the pharmacological studies on MELP demonstrated potent and effective gastroprotection against ethanol, indomethacin and cold stress-induced acute ulcers and ulcer healing in acetic acid induced chronic ulcer. MELP had no significant effect on the intestinal motility and it is also independent of mucus production but rather have a mucolytic effect. In pylorus-ligated rats the extract showed anti-secretory activity by decreasing total gastric juice volume and gastric acidity while increasing the gastric pH. The gastroprotection against ethanol is partially attributed to effective attenuation in the decrease in NP-SH levels, inhibition of the increases in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-17. Phytochemical analysis of MELP revealed the presence of pyrrogalic tannins, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids and simple phenols, with ellagic acid being the major components. The results of this

  15. Antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory activity of an ethanolic extract from the stem bark of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae): In vitro and in vivo evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Oyindamola O; Rodríguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; Gomez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Utrilla, M Pilar; Rodriguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Galvez, Julio

    2016-11-04

    Terminalia catappa Linn (Combretaceae) is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhoeal and antioxidant properties, frequently found in tropical regions. Considering its characteristics, it could be useful for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, which is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and an immune dysfunction. Thus this study evaluates the immunomodulatory properties and the intestinal anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanolic extract of the stem bark of T. catappa (ETCB) both in vitro (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) and in vivo, in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. The phenolic compounds in ETCB were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD-qTOF-MS. The immunomodulatory activity ETCB was tested in vitro by determining the macrophage production of IL-1β and nitrites. In vivo studies were performed in the TNBS model of rat colitis. ETCB was given (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) orally for two days prior to colitis induction and thereafter for 7 days. Response to treatment was assessed by scoring the gross appearance of the colon, and determining myeloperoxidase activity, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-23 and IL-6, chemokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase and proteins crucial in the maintenance of the intestinal mucosal barrier integrity like mucins (MUC-2, MUC-3) and villin. ETCB was able to inhibit IL-1β and nitrite production in vitro in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, treatment of TNBS colitic rats with ETCB resulted in a decreased colonic damage score and weight/length ratio. It also reduced the colonic neutrophil infiltration indicated by a lower myeloperoxidase activity and prevented the depletion of colonic glutathione levels in colitic rats. In addition, treatment with ETCB down-regulated the gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-23, IL-6 and CINC-1) and iNOS in colitic rats. Moreover, the gene expression of mucosal barrier proteins like MUC-2, MUC

  16. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus-host interaction was conducted by the same assay. CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes with viral entry process in the host cell and acts directly on the viral

  17. Dyeing Performance of Aqueous Extract and Flavanone Glycosides from the Flowers of Butea monosperma (Lam. Kuntze

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    Ruchi Badoni Semwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract and two flavanone glycosides named 5,7-dihydroxy-4’-methoxy flavanone-5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and 5,5’-dihydroxy-4’,7-dimethoxyflavanone-5,5’-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 obtained from the flowers of Butea monosperma were studied for evaluate their dyeing properties on cotton fibers. The stem bark of Myrica esculenta was used as natural mordant whereas SnCl 2 and FeCl 3 as synthetic mordants. The combination of dye with mordants showed interesting shades with excellent washing and light fastness properties.

  18. Clinical efficacy of water extract of stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. in patients of chronic heart failure: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Subir K; Wilson, Vinu; Seth, Sandeep; Bhargava, Balram; Dua, Pamila; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Katiyar, Chandra K

    2016-10-15

    The stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight and Arn. (Arjuna) is used in Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) for treatment of various cardiac diseases, including heart failure. However, well designed clinical trials exploring its efficacy and safety in chronic heart failure (CHF) are lacking. To ascertain the add-on efficacy and safety of a standardized water extract of stem bark of Arjuna (Arjuna extract) in CHF patients on standard pharmacotherapy. Double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled add-on clinical trial. After approval of institutional ethics committee, 100 patients of CHF of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II on standard pharmacotherapy having an echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% were consecutively recruited with informed consent and randomized 1:1 to Arjuna extract 750 mg or matching placebo twice daily. The primary outcome measure was change in LVEF at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included changes in (i) NYHA functional class, (ii) distance covered in 6 min walk test (6MWT), (iii) quality of life (QoL), as determined by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), (iv) plasma brain natriuretic peptide, (v) plasma cytokines (interleukin-6, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α) and (vi) oxidative stress markers [serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), red blood cell (RBC) superoxide dismutase (SOD), RBC catalase and RBC glutathione (GSH)] at 6 and 12 weeks. Safety assessment was done by adverse event monitoring and laboratory investigations. Results were expressed as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) and analysed with intention-to- treat principle using appropriate two-sided statistical tests. A p-value symptom severity and stability domains of KCCQ in patients on Arjuna extract versus those on placebo, on a post-hoc analysis, between subgroups of patients who improved in these outcomes. Arjuna extract did

  19. The use of Neem biomass for the biosorption of zinc from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Mamoona [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Bioprocess Technology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box 577, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: MNadeem.Zafar@analykem.lu.se; Younis, Sadaf; Nadeem, Raziya [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2008-09-15

    An adsorbent was developed from mature leaves and stem bark of the Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree for removing zinc from water. Adsorption was carried out in a batch process with several different concentrations of zinc by varying pH. The uptake of metal was very fast initially, but gradually slowed down indicating penetration into the interior of the adsorbent particles. The data showed that optimum pH for efficient biosorption of zinc by Neem leaves and stem bark was 4 and 5, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity showed that the Neem biomass had a mass capacity for zinc (147.08 mg Zn/g for Neem leaves and 137.67 mg Zn/g Neem bark). The experimental results were analyzed in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic assessment of the metal ion-Neem tree biomass system indicated the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the process and {delta}G{sup o} values were evaluated as ranging from -26.84 to -32.75 (Neem leaves) kJ/mol and -26.04 to -29.50 (Neem bark) kJ/mol for zinc biosorption. Due to its outstanding zinc uptake capacity, the Neem tree was proved to be an excellent biomaterial for accumulating zinc from aqueous solutions.

  20. A Comparative Study on Phytochemical Profiles and Biological Activities of Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich. Hochst Leaf and Bark Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Russo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich. Hochst (Anacardiaceae is a savannah tree that has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa as a medicinal remedy for numerous ailments. The purpose of this study was to increase the scientific knowledge about this plant by evaluating the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the methanol extracts of the leaves and bark (MLE and MBE, respectively, as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity and biological activities of these extracts. Reported results show that MLE is rich in flavonoids (132.7 ± 10.4 mg of quercetin equivalents/g, whereas MBE has the highest content of tannins (949.5 ± 29.7 mg of tannic acid equivalents/g. The antioxidant activity was measured using four different in vitro tests: β-carotene bleaching (BCB, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, O2−•, and nitric oxide (NO• assays. In all cases, MBE was the most active compared to MLE and the standards used (Trolox and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, MBE and MLE were tested to evaluate their activity in HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines. A higher cytotoxic activity of MBE was evidenced and confirmed by more pronounced alterations in cell morphology. MBE induced cell death, triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, which led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Moreover, MBE showed lower cytotoxicity in normal human dermal fibroblasts, suggesting its potential as a selective anticancer agent.

  1. A Comparative Study on Phytochemical Profiles and Biological Activities of Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst Leaf and Bark Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Daniela; Miglionico, Rocchina; Carmosino, Monica; Bisaccia, Faustino; Armentano, Maria Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) is a savannah tree that has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa as a medicinal remedy for numerous ailments. The purpose of this study was to increase the scientific knowledge about this plant by evaluating the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the methanol extracts of the leaves and bark (MLE and MBE, respectively), as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity and biological activities of these extracts. Reported results show that MLE is rich in flavonoids (132.7 ± 10.4 mg of quercetin equivalents/g), whereas MBE has the highest content of tannins (949.5 ± 29.7 mg of tannic acid equivalents/g). The antioxidant activity was measured using four different in vitro tests: β-carotene bleaching (BCB), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), O2−•, and nitric oxide (NO•) assays. In all cases, MBE was the most active compared to MLE and the standards used (Trolox and ascorbic acid). Furthermore, MBE and MLE were tested to evaluate their activity in HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines. A higher cytotoxic activity of MBE was evidenced and confirmed by more pronounced alterations in cell morphology. MBE induced cell death, triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Moreover, MBE showed lower cytotoxicity in normal human dermal fibroblasts, suggesting its potential as a selective anticancer agent. PMID:29316691

  2. Genetic diversity of Sclerocarya birrea subspecies birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    1985). L'échantillonnage dans la récolte de semences forestières. Amélioration génétique des arbres forestiers. Cours de. Formation FAO/DANIDA. Merida, Vénézuala. Jav. Fev. 1980. Etude. FAO Forêts 20. Rome 1985. pp.44-48.

  3. Genetic diversity of Sclerocarya birrea subspecies birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... population. Shannon's index was also estimated for the whole sample considered as a single population. To analyse genetic structure, genetic distances were constructed using the Nei's original measures of genetic identity and genetic distance (Nei, 1972). The degree of differentiation among popu-.

  4. Hydrolyzable tannins from hydroalcoholic extract from Poincianella pluviosa stem bark and its wound-healing properties: phytochemical investigations and influence on in vitro cell physiology of human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Fernanda Giacomini; Panizzon, Gean Pier; Mello, Eneri Vieira Souza de Leite; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Petereit, Frank; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Extracts from Poincianella pluviosa stem bark are used in traditional medicine of South America for its wound healing properties. For validation of this traditional use and for rationalizing a potential pharmaceutical development towards standardized preparations bioassay-guided fractionation of EtOH-water (1:1v/v) extract (crude extract, CE) of P. pluviosa bark was performed. HaCaT keratinocytes cell line and human primary dermal fibroblasts (pNHDF) were used as in vitro systems. Significant stimulation of mitochondrial activity was found for CE on both cell types, which caused a strong increase of cell proliferation of keratinocytes. Fractionation of CE over Sephadex LH20 revealed two inactive fractions (FA and FB) and an active fraction FC, which was further fractionated by MPLC into 4 subfractions. Subfraction FC1 increased mitochondrial activity and proliferation of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in a dose dependent manner (10 to 100 μg/mL) and did not show necrotic cytotoxicity on keratinocytes (LDH release assay). FC1 was investigated by ESI-MS/MS and solid-state (13)C NMR which confirmed the presence of various polyphenols and hydrolyzable tannins. MS studies suggest the presence of pyrogallol (1), gallic acid (2), gallic acid methyl ester (3), ellagic acid (4), corilagin (5), 1,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-glucose (6), tellimagrandin I (7), 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-glucose (8), mallotinic acid (9), tellimagrandin II (10), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-glucose (11), geraniin (12), and mallotusinic acid (13). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem bark extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and ...

  6. subsp. Birrea in Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... 2Department of Molecular Biology, Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Centre for. Research, P. O. Box: ...... of Acacia tree species using RAPD marker. Biologia, Bratislava. 59(1): 115-120. Shackleton CM, Dzerefos CM, Shackleton SE, Mathabela FR(2000). The use and trade ...

  7. Chemical constituents of the stem bark of Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl. (Vochysiaceae) and evaluation of their cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against cathepsins B and K; Constituintes quimicos das cascas do caule de Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl. (Vochysiaceae) e avaliacao das atividades citotoxica e inibitoria frente as catepsinas B e K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Lorena Ramos Freitas de; Silva, Jame' s A. da; Vieira, Paulo Cezar [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Costa, Maisa Borges; Santos, Mirley Luciene dos; Menezes, Antonio Carlos Severo, E-mail: amenezes@ueg.br [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UEG), Anapolis, GO (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Sbardelotto, Aline Borba; Pessoa, Claudia do O; Moraes, Manoel Odorico de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia

    2014-04-15

    A new flavonoid, catechin-3-O-(3{sup -}O-trans-cinnamoyl)-α-rhamnopyranoside, along with known compounds, catechin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, 3-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzoic acid, 2-butyl-D-fructofuranoside and 1-butyl-D-fructofuranoside, has been isolated from the stem bark of V. thyrsoidea. These compounds were assayed for inhibition of protease activity (cathepsins B and K) and against cancer cell lines. Catechin-3-O-(3{sup -}O-trans-cinnamoyl)-α-rhamnopyranoside showed moderate inhibitory activity (IC{sub 50} = 62.02 µM) against cathepsin B while 2-butyl-D-fructofuranoside was the most potent against a strain of CNS (SF-295) and human leukemia (HL-60) with IC{sub 50} = 36.80 μM and IC{sub 50} = 25.37 μM, respectively (author)

  8. Optimization of Variables for Aqueous Extraction of Gum from Grewia mollis Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Panyoo Akdowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grewia gum is a polysaccharide derived from the inner stem bark of the edible plant Grewia mollis. Juss (family Tiliaceae. It is a savanna shrub that grows wildly but is usually cultivated in Nigeria and Northern part of Cameroon. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extraction conditions on the extraction yield and physicochemical properties of the Grewia mollis. The studied aqueous extraction variables were water/powder (W/P ratio (10 : 1–80 : 1 w/p, temperature (25.0–85.0∘C, time (1–3 h, and pH (4.0–10.0. The results indicated that the aqueous extraction variables exhibited the least significant (P<0.05 effect on the yield and the viscosity of the gum. The result shows that the ratio of extraction is the main factor affecting the extraction of gum. The optimized extraction condition for higher viscosity was at the powder/water ratio of 1 : 55.4, pH of 7, time of 1 h, and temperature of 50∘C. However, the optimized extraction condition for higher yield was at the powder/water ratio of 1 : 80, pH of 4, time of 3 h, and temperature of 73∘C.

  9. Evidence of hydraulic lift for pre-rainy season leaf out and dry-season stem water enrichment in Sclerocarya birrea, a tropical agroforestry tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Rinaldo, Andrea; Parlange, Marc B.

    2014-05-01

    We use stable isotopes of water as tracers to follow water use by five Sclerocarya birrea trees in a catchment in South Eastern Burkina Faso interspersed with millet fields, gallery forest, Sudanian savanna, and fallow fields. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems of the trees and sub-canopy soil of two of them, while nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water was sampled weekly. A unique configuration of sensors connected with a wireless sensor network of meteorological stations measured sub-canopy shading, the temperature and humidity in the canopy, through-fall, and soil moisture under two of the trees. Both water extracted from sap and water extracted from soil is extremely enriched in the dry season, but drop to levels close to the ground water in February or March, which coincides with the growth of leaves. Dates of leaf out were confirmed by changes in δDH and δO18 concentrations of water, photographic documentation & pixel analysis, and analysis of sub-canopy radiation and proceeded the rise in humidity and flow that was later detected in the sub-canopy soil, the trunk of the tree (sap-flow), and atmosphere (canopy VPD). Examination of the isotopic signature suggests that size of tree plays an important role in duration and timing of this leaf-out as well as the degree of enrichment during the peak of the dry season. Further examination of the isotopic signatures of the roots suggested that the trees are performing hydraulic redistribution, or lifting the ground water and "sharing it" with the soil in the rooting zone in the dry season. The enriched level of xylem in this case is a product of water loss, and enrichment, along the travel path of the water from the roots to the tip of the stem, as evidenced by the variation according to size of tree. Vapor pressure deficit, soil water, and soil moisture interactions support this picture of interacting controls, separate from hydrologic triggers on the water movement in

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Esume, Celestine

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies in standard laboratories have indicated that a typical mango stem bark aqueous extract (Magnifera indica Linn) possess anti-malaria and anti-fever properties. Recent information also exists in the literature, suggesting its potency as a very effective anti-inflammatory plant extract. This study will therefore contribute immensely to the systemic search for a useful, less toxic and natural bioactive medicinal compound. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Mangifera indica (MI) in a carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema model of acute inflammation. Rats (n=5) were treated orally with MI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) or distilled water (3 mL). Thirty minutes later, acute inflammation was induced with a sub-plantar injection of 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenin solution into the right hind paw of the rats. The paw oedema sizes were measured with the aid of a Vernier calliper over a period of 3 hours. The aqueous extract of MI (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent and significant inhibition of the acute inflammation induced by the carrageenin in rats when compared with controls. The percentage inhibition of oedema formation produced by MI (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was similar to that elicited by acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The results of this preliminary investigation suggest that MI contains active compounds with an anti-inflammatory activity. However, more detailed studies using additional models are necessary to further characterise the effects of MI in inflammatory disorders.

  11. Evaluation of Anti-trypanosomal Properties of Four Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark and leaves of the plant contained alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Anthraquinone was present in the stem bark methanolic extract and in the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the root as well as the aqueous extract of the leaves. Resins was present in the ...

  12. Sub-Chronic Administration of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stem bark of Ficus sycomorus is used traditionally for cure of fungal infection, jaundice and dysentery in some parts of northern Nigeria. The leaves of Ficus sycomorus were collected, dried and extracted to screen for some phytochemicals and study its effect on liver and kidney functions in experimental rats.

  13. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the ethanolic and aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... psoriasis and eczema, through to the more serious disease like leprosy, syphilis and skin cancer (Burkill,. 1985). Previous studies of the fruits of K. africana showed some antibacterial activity (Grace et al., 2002). However there is no report on the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the stem bark of this ...

  14. antibacterial properties of calyx, stem bark and root of hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HS) were tested for their antibacterial activities. The root of the plant exhibited marked antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative organisms of Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aureginosa, ...

  15. Antimicrobial effects of the stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes, polyphenolic compounds including tanins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanidins. Other components are saponosides and reducing sugars. Keywords: Shigellae – Hydroalcoholic extract – bark – Parkia biglobosa. African Journal of ...

  16. Effects of Sterculia tomentosa stem bark extract on haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Except for group D rats which maintained PCV close to control group from days 3 to 9 post-infection (pi). In group D the PCV continued to decline from 38±0.84% to minimum value of 30.0±0.11% on day 24 pi. Rats in group B and C all died of severe trypanosome infection on days 9 and 11 pi respectively. The maximum ...

  17. a new isoflavonoid glycoside from the stem bark of antidesma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    microprograms (Xwin-NMR version 2.1 software). Chemical shifts (δ) are reported in parts per. Page 2. Marie Geneviève Djouossi et al. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2014, 28(2). 310 million (ppm) with the solvent signals as reference relative to TMS (δ = 0) as internal standard, while the coupling constants (J values) are given in ...

  18. Possible antimicrobial activity of Morinda lucida stem bark, leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR FAKOYA AKINDELE

    2014-01-15

    Jan 15, 2014 ... are used in the treatment of different types of diseases. Roots, barks or leaves of Newbolbea leavis are used in the treatment of dysentery, syphilis, ear ache, ringworm and scrotal elephantiasis (Azoro, 2002.) Morinda lucida known as Oruwo in the South-Western part of Nigeria is a medium sized tree with a ...

  19. A new isoflavone from stem bark of Millettia dura

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed a molecular ion peak at m/z 326 (C18H14O6). The UV ( max 232, 256, 312 nm), 1H (. 8.28, s, for H-2) and 13C ( 154.8 for C-2, 125.8 for C-3 and 176.1 for C-4) NMR spectra are consistent with an isoflavone skeleton for this compound. In addition the NMR spectra (Table 1) showed the presence of two methoxyl and ...

  20. Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of the Methanolic Stem Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Method: Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino. Wistar mice were used ... Result: In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex model, D. guineense extract and the reference drug significantly (P =0.014 ..... visceral pain which is highly useful for screening.

  1. ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK OF DANIELLIA OLIVERI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MeOH extract of Daniellia oliveri showed a dose related activity on the induced ulcers. The 500mg/kg extract had an activity (P<0.05) compared with vehicle. The reference drug, cimedtidine, used in the test at 100mg/kg did not show any activity in the ASA-induced ulcers. The effect of the extract on acetylcholine (Ach) ...

  2. inflammatory investigations of stem bark of Daniellia oliveri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... starch in isodiametric parenchyma cells, prisms of calcium oxalate crystals, cork cells and cortex parenchyma. The extract showed a significant anti-nociceptive activity at the tested doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg i.p.). The extract at the same doses showed a non-dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity.

  3. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Stem Bark of Cussonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study justifies to some extent the use of C. bancoensis in the treatment of microbial infections and supports the ethnomedical evidence that the plant could be a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Keywords: Antimicrobial, antioxidant, phytochemical constituents, Cussonia ...

  4. Possible antimicrobial activity of Morinda lucida stem bark, leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro experiment was carried out using the agar well diffusion and disc diffusion methods with Gram-negative enterobacteria. M. lucida extracts were more active against all the tested bacteria than the standard antibiotics, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin even at the same concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/ml.

  5. Nephroprotective activity of stem bark extracts of Canarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological examination shows that the extracts preserved the renal histoarchitecture while the acetaminophen and negative control groups showed varying degrees of inflammatory cells infiltration, necrosis,tubular casts, tubular erosion and increased urinary pole. Conclusion: The fall in plasma levels of urea and ...

  6. Antimicrobial diterpenoids and triterpenoids from the stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Betulin (2) and 12-oxo-hardwickic acid (5) were the most active compounds (MIC = 7.81-500 μg/ml). The most sensitive microorganisms were Staphylococcus ... in traditional medicine for the treatment of microbial infections. Keywords: Croton macrostachys; Euphorbiaceae; triterpenes; diterpenes; antibacterial; antifungal.

  7. Behavioural Effects of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Boswellia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    respectively and observed for signs of toxicity and death within. 24 hours. The LD50 was determined by calculating the geometric mean of the lowest dose that caused death and the highest dose for which the animal survived. Behavioural studies. Diazepam-induced sleep test in mice: The method described by Rakotonirina ...

  8. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activity of the stem bark of Cylicodiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-02

    Jun 2, 2006 ... in intestinal transit (10.26-30.75%), and unlike atropine, it significantly inhibited castor oil induced enteropooling. However, it did not alter the electrolyte concentration in intestinal fluid as compared to castor oil-treated rats. Key words: Cylicodiscus gabunensis, antidiarrhoeal activity, castor oil.

  9. Haematological studies on the ethanolic stem bark extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pterocarpus erinaceus (fabaceae) is used in the Nigerian folk medicine as well as in other African savanna countries to treat diarrhea, dysentery, urethral discharges, fever, and as an ingredient in abortifacient prescriptions. It is also used in arresting bleeding and as a dressing on ring worm of the scalp. The acute toxicity ...

  10. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cytotoxicity of stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paraíba, 58.051-970, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. *For correspondence: Email: jackson.guedes@univasf.edu.br; ... In Brazil, there are 26 genera with about 260 species [2]. Previous chemical and pharmacological ..... leukocyte migration activities of resveratrol and sitosterol present in the hydroalcoholic extract of Cissus.

  11. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Cylicodiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater and remarkable antimicrobial activity of the (EA) extract of CG was recorded with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus cereus T. These results provide a rationalization for the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of infections diseases. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; Cylicodiscus ...

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Lannea welwitschii Stem Bark Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant extracts inhibited Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and some Escherichia coli that are resistant to more than four antibiotics including pefloxacin. The inhibitory activity was more against S. aureus compared with other bacteria.

  13. NEW ACYCLIC TRITERPENOIDS FROM THE STEM BARK OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    proton appears at 3.43 and the vinyl proton together at δ 5.05 (5H). Comparison of the 13C NMR ... chloride showed an immediate evolution of the optical rotation in the (-) sense, thus including the preferential esterification .... The air-dried and finely material (10 kg) was extracted with n-hexane. (15 L) at room temperature.

  14. Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaves and stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epidermal walls are straight with distinctively shaped calcium oxalate crystals clustered in the row of parenchymatous cells. The starch grains are of varying sizes and contains eccentric helium. The trichomes are uniserrate and the fibre is spindle – shaped. Chemomicroscopy revealed the presence of cellulose, lignin, ...

  15. Pharmacognostic and hypotensive evaluations of the stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated blood pressure is one of the non-communicable ailments whose control is attempted by the use of medicinal plants in ethnomedicine. In furtherance of our previous work on Ficus exasperata as a plant used in controlling elevated blood pressure, evaluations of the microscopy and other pharmacognostic ...

  16. Haematological studies on the ethanolic stem bark extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... Plants with high tannin concentration like Rhus semialata,. Punica granatum and Cedrel sinensis have also been used to arrest functional bleeding by the Chinese. (Subhuti, 2003). Inhibition of local synthesis and produc- tion of the vasodilating prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin) produced by the extract and ...

  17. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluations of the Stem Bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    editors. Textbook of Therapeutics: Drug and. Disease Management, 6th edition, Williams and. Wilkins, USA, 1996; p 937. 12. Al-Bayati FA, Al-Mola HF. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of different parts of. Tribulus terrestris L. growing in Iraq. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B 2008; 9(2): 154–159. 13. Evans WC. Pharmacognosy.

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yesufu, HB. Vol 7, No 1 (2010) - Articles Comparative acute toxicity study of the pulp, seed and stem bark (aqueous) extracts of Zizyphus spina-christi L.(Kurna) Abstract · Vol 9, No 1 (2012) - Articles Effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of the stem bark of Zizyphus spina-christi L. on isolated rabbit jejunum. Abstract.

  19. Anxiolytic effects of Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, stem-bark in elevated plus maze and marble burying test on mice Efeitos ansiolíticos das cascas de Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, em teste do labirinto em cruz elevada e teste de esconder esferas, em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal B Badgujar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, is a deciduous tree commonly known as Medshingi in local areas of Toranmal region of Maharashtra, India. Its bark paste is applied on fractured or dislocated bones, used as a fish poison; bark juice is used in cases of menorragia and leucorrhoea. The leaves of the plant have afforded chrysin-7-rutinoside. The present study was carried out to investigate the anxiolytic effects of methanol extract (DFBM, ethyl acetate extract (DFBEA and isolated compound DFB (V+VI of D. falcata stem-bark using animal models. Anxiolytic effects were studied by elevated plus maze (EPM and marble burying test (MBT assay. The crude dried DFBM and DFBEA extract was prepared in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg whereas DFB (V+VI compound was prepared in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and were administered orally to mice for evaluation of anxiolytic activity. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produced highly significant (p Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, é uma árvore do tipo decidua, comumente conhecida como "Medshingi" na da região Toranmal de Maharashtra, na Índia. Uma pasta da casca é aplicada em fraturas ou luxação dos ossos e usada como veneno de peixe; o suco da casca é usada em casos de menorragia e leucorréia. Das folhas da planta foi isolado crisina-7-rutinoside. O presente estudo foi realizado para investigar os efeitos ansiolíticos do extrato metanólico (DFBM, acetato de etila (DFBEA e compostos isolados DFB (V + VI de D. falcata utilizando a casca do tronco em modelos animais. Os efeitos ansiolíticos foram estudados por labirinto em cruz elevada (EPM e o ensaio de esconder esferas de mármore (MBT. Os extratos bruto e seco DFBM DFBEA foram preparados em doses de 100, 200 e 400 mg/kg, enquanto que o composto DFB (V + VI foi preparado em doses de 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg e foram administrados em camundongos para avaliação da atividade ansiolítica. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produziram efeitos

  20. In vitro anti-oxidative activities of the various parts of Parkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from the aqueous extracts of the stem bark and leaves, all other extracts exhibited hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS) activity but the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of the stem bark and EtOH extracts of the root and leaves possessed more powerful HRS activity than other corresponding extracts in the parts. Further, nitric ...

  1. [Senegalese pharmacopoeia: study of acute toxicity and antitussive activity of Calotropis procera AIT (Asclepiadaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieye, A M; Tidjani, M A; Diouf, A; Bassene, E; Faye, B

    1993-01-01

    We confirmed the innocuity of different extracts (leaves and stem bark) of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae), a plant widely used in Asian and West African traditional therapy in dermatological and bronchal affections. We proved the against cough activity of the aqueous stem bark extract after administration, per os, upon bronchal irritation by ammoniac on Guinea Pig.

  2. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  3. Hyperglycaemic effect of Artocarpus communis Forst (Moraceae) root bark aqueous extract in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, S O; Ojewole, J O

    2007-01-01

    Decoctions and infusions of Artocarpus communis (Forst) (family: Moraceae) root bark are traditionally used among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria as folk remedies for the management, control and treatment of an array of human diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although numerous bioactive prenylflavonoids have been isolated from the roots, stem bark and leaves of A communis, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of the plant's root bark extract on animal models of diabetes mellitus have hitherto not been reported in the biomedical literature. In our pilot study, we observed that A communis root bark aqueous extract (ACE) raised blood glucose concentrations in rats. In view of this finding, the present study was undertaken to investigate the glycaemic effect of ACE in comparison with that of streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats. Four groups (A, B, C and D) of Wistar rats, each group consisting of 10 rats, were used in this study. Group A rats received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the volume of ACE administered. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the animals in groups B and C by intraperitoneal (ip) injections of STZ (75 mg/kg body weight). The rats in group C were additionally treated with ACE (50 mg/kg body weight ip) from the third to the tenth day following STZ treatment. Group D rats received ACE (12.5-100 mg/kg body weight ip) only. The effects of ACE were compared with those of STZ on blood glucose concentrations, serum and pancreatic insulin levels, hepatic hexokinase (HXK) and glucokinase (GCK) activities, and hepatic glycogen contents in the experimental animal paradigm used. The rats in treated groups B, C and D exhibited pronounced polyuria, hypo-insulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Group D rats developed significant hyperglycaemia (p < 0.05) immediately after ACE administration, whereas groups B and C rats became hyperglycaemic 24 to 72 hours post STZ and STZ + ACE treatments, when compared with the control group A

  4. Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Concentrations of hydrocyanic acid, nitrate, oxalate, and phytate are lower than the reference toxic standard level. The juice of the plant could have ... product obtained from the edible part of one or more sound fruits and preserved exclusively .... the presence of organic acids in the juice. (Grivetti, 1981). Table 3: PH , pectin, ...

  5. Micropropagation of marula, Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mollel, Huruma

    containing sterile vermiculite supplemented with half-strength MS. The caps were gradually opened to reduce relative humidity in the jars. After 2 weeks, plantlets were potted in garden soil and covered with beakers that were gradually lifted over a period of 4 weeks. Acclimatized plantlets were transferred to potting bags in ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyperlipidaemic effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Irvingia gabonensis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0795-8080. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  7. The contribution of the anticholinesterase activity of Pedialanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the molluscicidal and anticholinesterase activity of aqueous leaf and stem-bark extract of Pedialanthus tithymaloide (Family- Euphorbiaceae) Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata (Lamarack) and Indoplanorbis exustus (Deshyas) – intermediate hosts of endemic schistosomiasis and ...

  8. Aqueous Peroxyoxalate Chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Mannich reaction of the appropriate chlorophenols with morpholine and formaldehyde as outlined in Scheme 31. T "i Page 95 Scheme 3]1 H + + CH 2 0 f-NCR 2 -V...solution has been obtained from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with bis-[N-2-(N’-methyl-2’-pyridinium)ethyl-N-trifluoro- methylsulfonyljjoxamide in the...SYSTEMS 4 A. RESULTS 4 I. AQUEOUS REACTIONS 4 2. NON-AQUEOUS REACTIONS 38 B. DISCUSSION 52 1. AQUEOUS REACTIONS 52 2. NON-AQUEOUS REACTIONS 56 IV. SYNTHESES

  9. Aqueous solubility of zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; Wren, S.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconia (zirconium dioxide) is being considered as a host matrix for the disposal of actinides in a geologic disposal vault, for the 'burning of actinides' in nuclear reactors and for the use of lanthanides as burnable-neutron absorbers to control the neutron flux in the reactors. These applications require knowledge of the stability of the zirconia in aqueous environment. Therefore, a literature review of the aqueous solubility of zirconia was carried out. The literature review was complemented by experiments on the dissolution of zirconia in aqueous solutions. The paper presents the results of the literature review and our experiments on the dissolution of zirconia in solutions of pH between 5.7 and 10.3. The low solubility of zirconia in the solutions investigated here supports the selection of zirconia for the above applications. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the anti-fertility activity of stem bark of Crataeva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... animals were laporotomised under mild ether anesthesia on day 15. The 2 horns of the uterus were examined for .... Drury CH (1978). In: The Useful Plants of Indian. International Book. Distributors Dehradun. p. 353. Gangandeep, Meera, and Kalidhar SB (2006). Chemical constituents of. Crataeva nurvala ...

  11. A new antioxidant stilbene and other constituents from the stem bark of Morus nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghada M; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; Baraka, Hany N; Gohar, Ahmed A; Lahloub, Mohammed-Farid

    2014-01-01

    A new stilbene, 2',3,4',5,5'-pentahydroxy-cis-stilbene (1), along with 13 known compounds, resveratrol (2), oxyresveratrol (3), norartocarpetin (4), kuwanon C (5), morusin (6), cudraflavone A (7), kuwanon G (8), albafurane C (9), mulberrofuran G (10), 3-O-acetyl-α-amyrin (11), 3-O-acetyl-β-amyrin (12) ursolic acid-3-O-acetate (13) and uvaol (14), were isolated from the barks of Morus nigra. Compounds 2, 8, 10, 12 and 14 are reported for the first time from this plant. The isolated compounds were elucidated by means of 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR and MS, as well as by comparison with the literature data. The isolated compounds and the different extracts were evaluated for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)(+) radical-scavenging capacity assay and compared with ascorbic acid. The new stilbene (1) exhibited remarkable antioxidant capacity with IC50 of 4.69 μM.

  12. effects of the ethanolic stem bark extract of pterocarpus erinaceus poir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    use as herbal remedies, including opium, aspirin, digitalis, and quinine. The World Health Organization. (WHO) estimates that 80 percent of the population in some Asian and African countries depends on traditional medicine for primary health care (WHO,. 2008). Plants represent the principal means of therapy in traditional ...

  13. Ficus racemosa Stem Bark Extract: A Potent Antioxidant and a Probable Natural Radioprotector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Veerapur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract (FRE and water extract (FRW of Ficus racemosa (family: Moraceae were subjected to free radical scavenging both by steady state and time resolved methods such as nanosecond pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometric analyses. FRE exhibited significantly higher steady state antioxidant activity than FRW. FRE exhibited concentration dependent DPPH, ABTS•-, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation with IC50 comparable with tested standard compounds. In vitro radioprotective potential of FRE was studied using micronucleus assay in irradiated Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79. Pretreatment with different doses of FRE 1h prior to 2 Gy γ-radiation resulted in a significant (P < 0.001 decrease in the percentage of micronucleated binuclear V79 cells. Maximum radioprotection was observed at 20 μg/ml of FRE. The radioprotection was found to be significant (P < 0.01 when cells were treated with optimum dose of FRE (20 μg/ml 1 h prior to 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy γ-irradiation compared to the respective radiation controls. The cytokinesis-block proliferative index indicated that FRE does not alter radiation induced cell cycle delay. Based on all these results we conclude that the ethanol extract of F. racemosa acts as a potent antioxidant and a probable radioprotector.

  14. Radical scavenging and gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of Gmelina arborea stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincy Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that the gastroprotective effect of GA is probably related to its antioxidant activities that protect gastric mucosa against oxidative damage and antilipid peroxidative activity that maintain membrane integrity.

  15. A-21 Day Safety Evaluation Of Methanol Extract Of Stem Bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plants have been used as therapeutic agents since prehistoric era. Artocarpus altilis (Breadfruit) is used in African traditional medicine to treat hypertension with scanty information on its safety profile in animals. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral ...

  16. A New Aromatic Compound from the Stem Bark of Terminalia catappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuit, David; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Delemasure, Stéphanie; Dutartre, Patrick; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2015-06-01

    A new aromatic compound 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-(4-sulfo)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), in addition to two triterpenoid saponins (chebuloside II, arjunoglucoside II), two triterpenes (arjunolic acid and 3-betulinic acid) and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside have been isolated from the barks of Terminalia catappa. Their structures have been established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques (1D/2D NMR) and MS. Their cytotoxicity and antiinflammatory activity, together with the antioxidant capacity of compound 1 were also evaluated.

  17. Antiplasmodial studies on the ethyl acetate fraction of the stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of the ethyl acetate fraction in mice study showed that the ethyl acetate fra activity. Key words: Acute toxicity, Antiplasmodial,. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is an infectious disease that has contin cause mortality and morbidity in the tropics an tropics (Igweet al., 2012).Malaria is transmit people through the bites of infected female ...

  18. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Careya arborea stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanol extract of Careya arborea (MECA). The effects of MECA on the acute and chronic phases of inflammation were studied in carrageenan, dextran and mediators (histamine and serotonin) induced paw oedema and cotton ...

  19. Comparative study of leaf and stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested against clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Enterococcus faecalis, and corresponding collection strains E. coli CIP 105 182, Salmonella enterica CIP 105 150, ...

  20. Mass of Prunus africana stem barks on Tchabal mbabo and Tchabal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of bark were collected in order to establish the relationship between the volume of the bark and its mass (measure mass per cubic metre). A total of 105 pygeum trees were sampled, including 50 trees in Gang Daba considered as an un-exploited production site and 55 trees in Mbabo referred to an exploited ...

  1. Phytotoxic Activity of Stem Bark and Leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Myrtaceae on Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo HABERMANN

    2015-01-01

    En este estudio se evaluó la fitotoxicidad de los extractos y fracciones de las cortezas del tallo (suber y de las hojas maduras de Blepharocalyx salicifolius Kuth O. Berg sobre el crecimiento inicial de Echinochloa crus- galli L. P. Beauv. (capim-arroz y Euphorbia heterophylla L. (amendoim-bravo. Estos extractos fueron obtenidos por extracción exhaustiva y fraccionamiento por coeficiente de partición con disolventes o

  2. Effect of T. arjuna stem bark extract on histopathology of liver, kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of oral administration of T. arjuna at a dose of 500 mg / kg body weight was more efficacy than the 250 mg/kg body weight. The results indicate the extract exhibit the protective effect on tissues, and proves its potentials as an antidiabetic agent. (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 9: 189 – 197). Keywords: Teminalia arjuna ...

  3. alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory pentacyclic triterpenes from the stem bark of Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaze, Luc Meva'a; Poumale, Herve Martial P; Wansi, Jean Duplex; Lado, Jean Alexandre; Khan, Shamsun Nahar; Iqbal, Muhammad Choudhary; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2007-03-01

    In addition to fatty acids, a mixture of sterols (beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and stigmastanol), lupeol, arctigenin methylether, sesamin, vanillic acid (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2), betulinic acid and two pentacyclic triterpene acetates were isolated from Fagara tessmannii Engl. They were identified as 3beta-acetoxy-16beta-hydroxybetulinic acid (3a) and 3beta,16beta-diacetoxybetulinic acid (3b), and their structures were established using 1 and 2D NMR spectra and by comparison with published data. Two derivatives of the compounds were prepared. Some isolated compounds were evaluated for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. Compounds 1 and 3a showed significant inhibition of alpha-glucosidase.

  4. Phytosterols from the stem bark of Combretum fragrans F. Hoffm AO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    A.O. MAIMA*1,2, G.N. THOITHI1, S.N. NDWIGAH1, F.N. KAMAU1 AND I.O. KIBWAGE1. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-. 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. 2University Health Services, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Two sterols ...

  5. Antiproliferative and Pro-apoptotic activities of the stem bark of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persea americana (Lauraceae) have been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of illness and some of these uses have been proven scientifically. The aim of this present study is to screen for the phytochemical content, determine the proximate parameter and determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of ...

  6. Anti-secretory effects of a dichloromethane fraction of the stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of ions in the supernatant of the small intestine content, obtained after centrifugation of the intraluminal fluid, were measured by flame photometry. The fraction showed a dose-dependent decrease of electrolytes concentration of [Na+], [K+], [Cl-] and [Ca2+], compared to the vehicle control. The ion ...

  7. New Pharmacophore from the Stem Bark Fractions of Acacia decurrens (Willd), an Invasive South Africa Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Okoli, Bamidele Joseph; Modise, Johannes Sekomeng

    2017-01-01

    The tolerance of Acacia decurrens, an invasive species, was exploited pharmacologically in this study. Phytochemical screening revealed important secondary metabolites. Importantly, the assay shows that ethyl acetate and methanol fractions are sources of phytochemicals compared to the hexane and chloroform fractions. A bioassay-guided in vitro assay of the extracts led to the eventual isolation of four bioactive compounds by column chromatography, identification, and characterisation with the...

  8. Aqueous shunts for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Victoria L; Coleman, Anne L; Chang, Melinda Y; Caprioli, Joseph

    2017-07-28

    Aqueous shunts are employed to control intraocular pressure (IOP) for people with primary or secondary glaucomas who fail or are not candidates for standard surgery. To assess the effectiveness and safety of aqueous shunts for reducing IOP in glaucoma compared with standard surgery, another type of aqueous shunt, or modification to the aqueous shunt procedure. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to August 2016), Embase.com (1947 to August 2016), PubMed (1948 to August 2016), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to August 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 15 August 2016, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 15 August 2016. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 August 2016. We also searched the reference lists of identified trial reports and the Science Citation Index to find additional trials. We included randomized controlled trials that compared various types of aqueous shunts with standard surgery or to each other in eyes with glaucoma. Two review authors independently screened search results for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data from included trials. We contacted trial investigators when data were unclear or not reported. We graded the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We followed standard methods as recommended by Cochrane. We included 27 trials with a total of 2099 participants with mixed diagnoses and comparisons of interventions. Seventeen studies reported adequate methods of randomization, and seven reported adequate allocation concealment. Data collection and follow-up times varied.Four trials compared an aqueous shunt (Ahmed or Baerveldt) with trabeculectomy, of which

  9. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  10. Aqueous electrolytes for redox flow battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-10-17

    An aqueous redox flow battery system includes an aqueous catholyte and an aqueous anolyte. The aqueous catholyte may comprise (i) an optionally substituted thiourea or a nitroxyl radical compound and (ii) a catholyte aqueous supporting solution. The aqueous anolyte may comprise (i) metal cations or a viologen compound and (ii) an anolyte aqueous supporting solution. The catholyte aqueous supporting solution and the anolyte aqueous supporting solution independently may comprise (i) a proton source, (ii) a halide source, or (iii) a proton source and a halide source.

  11. The aqueous chemistry of oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Bruce C

    2016-01-01

    The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides is a comprehensive reference volume and special topics textbook that explores all of the major chemical reactions that take place between oxides and aqueous solutions. The book highlights the enormous impact that oxide-water reactions have in advanced technologies, materials science, geochemistry, and environmental science.

  12. Mars Aqueous Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Mark; Wilson, Cherie; Carrera, Stacy; Rose, Heather; Muscatello, Anthony; Kilgore, James; Zubrin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is to establish a flexible process that generates multiple products that are useful for human habitation. Selectively extracting useful components into an aqueous solution, and then sequentially recovering individual constituents, can obtain a suite of refined or semi-refined products. Similarities in the bulk composition (although not necessarily of the mineralogy) of Martian and Lunar soils potentially make MAPS widely applicable. Similar process steps can be conducted on both Mars and Lunar soils while tailoring the reaction extents and recoveries to the specifics of each location. The MAPS closed-loop process selectively extracts, and then recovers, constituents from soils using acids and bases. The emphasis on Mars involves the production of useful materials such as iron, silica, alumina, magnesia, and concrete with recovery of oxygen as a byproduct. On the Moon, similar chemistry is applied with emphasis on oxygen production. This innovation has been demonstrated to produce high-grade materials, such as metallic iron, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, from lunar and Martian soil simulants. Most of the target products exhibited purities of 80 to 90 percent or more, allowing direct use for many potential applications. Up to one-fourth of the feed soil mass was converted to metal, metal oxide, and oxygen products. The soil residue contained elevated silica content, allowing for potential additional refining and extraction for recovery of materials needed for photovoltaic, semiconductor, and glass applications. A high-grade iron oxide concentrate derived from lunar soil simulant was used to produce a metallic iron component using a novel, combined hydrogen reduction/metal sintering technique. The part was subsequently machined and found to be structurally sound. The behavior of the lunar-simulant-derived iron product was very similar to that produced using the same methods on a Michigan iron

  13. Aqueous chlorination of resorcinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasley, V.L.; Burns, M.D.; Kemalyan, N.A.; Mckee, T.C.; Schroeter, H.; Teegarden, B.R.; Whitney, S.E.; Wershaw, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the aqueous chlorination (NaOCl) of resorcinol is reported. The following intermediates were detected in moderate to high yield at different pH values and varying percentages of chlorination: 2-chloro-, 4-chloro-, 2,4-dichloro-, 4,6-dichloro- and 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. Only trace amounts of the intermediates were detected when the chlorination was conducted in the presence of phosphate buffer. This result has significant implications since resorcinol in phosphate buffer has been used as a model compound in several recent studies on the formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons during chlorination of drinking water. Relative rates of chlorination were determined for resorcinol and several of the chlorinated resorcinols. Resorcinol was found to chlorinate only three times faster than 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol. The structure 2,4,6-trichlororesorcinol was established as a monohydrate even after sublimation. A tetrachloro or pentachloro intermediate was not detected, suggesting that the ring-opening step of such an intermediate must be rapid. ?? 1989.

  14. Aqueous chemistry of transactinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aqueous chemistry of the first three transactinide elements is briefly reviewed with special emphasis given to recent experimental results. Short introductory remarks are discussing the atom-at-a-time situation of transactinide chemistry as a result of low production cross-sections and short half-lives. In general, on-line experimental techniques and, more specifically, the automated rapid chemistry apparatus, ARCA, are presented. Present and future developments of experimental techniques and resulting perspectives are outlined at the end. The central part is mainly focussing on hydrolysis and complex formation aspects of the superheavy group 4, 5, and 6 transition metals with F - and Cl - anions. Experimental results are compared with the behaviour of lighter homologous elements and with relativistic calculations. It will be shown that the chemical behaviour of the first superheavy elements is already strongly influenced by relativistic effects. While it is justified to place rutherfordium, dubnium and seaborgium in the Periodic Table of the Elements into group 4, 5 and 6, respectively, it is no more possible to deduce from this position in detail the chemical properties of these transactinide or superheavy elements. (orig.)

  15. Photochemistry of aqueous pyruvic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Elizabeth C; Carpenter, Barry K; Shoemaker, Richard K; Vaida, Veronica

    2013-07-16

    The study of organic chemistry in atmospheric aerosols and cloud formation is of interest in predictions of air quality and climate change. It is now known that aqueous phase chemistry is important in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. Here, the photoreactivity of pyruvic acid (PA; CH3COCOOH) is investigated in aqueous environments characteristic of atmospheric aerosols. PA is currently used as a proxy for α-dicarbonyls in atmospheric models and is abundant in both the gas phase and the aqueous phase (atmospheric aerosols, fog, and clouds) in the atmosphere. The photoreactivity of PA in these phases, however, is very different, thus prompting the need for a mechanistic understanding of its reactivity in different environments. Although the decarboxylation of aqueous phase PA through UV excitation has been studied for many years, its mechanism and products remain controversial. In this work, photolysis of aqueous PA is shown to produce acetoin (CH3CHOHCOCH3), lactic acid (CH3CHOHCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), and oligomers, illustrating the progression from a three-carbon molecule to four-carbon and even six-carbon molecules through direct photolysis. These products are detected using vibrational and electronic spectroscopy, NMR, and MS, and a reaction mechanism is presented accounting for all products detected. The relevance of sunlight-initiated PA chemistry in aqueous environments is then discussed in the context of processes occurring on atmospheric aerosols.

  16. The effect of intercropping Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... Understanding the ecological and economic interaction between the various ... agro forestry systems but the interactions involved are ... among the plants. This network made by AM intercon- nections may bring benefits to the plant such as extension of root longevity (Tommerup and Abbott, 1981) and also ...

  17. In vitro trypanocidal effect of methanolic extract of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Four drugs (suramin, pentamidine, melarsoprol and eflornithine) are currently available to treat trypanoso- mosis (Kuzoe, 1993), with only melarsoprol and eflornithine being effective against the meningoence- phalitis that develops in the late stages of the disease. In addition to emergency cases of drug ...

  18. Potential germination and initial growth of Sclerocarya birrea (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of potential germination and initial growth of seedlings was conducted in Niamey. The objective of the study was to determine the parameters of seed germination and initial growth of seedlings of this species in order to assess how the findings could help in reforestation in some areas. Methodology: The parameters ...

  19. In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 20 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... treatment of skin diseases was evaluated against three yeasts; Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus albidus and Rhodoturula ... derived from plants or plant-derived synthetic analogs. According to the WHO, 80% of the ... chewing the mucilaginous flesh after removal of the skin. The ripe fruit has an average ...

  1. Potential germination and initial growth of Sclerocarya birrea (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... Pistacia vera L. Acta Botanica Malacitana 35: 107-114. Come D., Durand B., Jacques R., Penon P., Roland. J.C., 1982. Croissance et développement. Physiologie végétale II. Hermann, Paris, 465 p. Cuny P., Sanogo S., Sommer N., 1997. Arbres du domaine soudanien. Leurs usages et leur multiplication.

  2. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  3. aqueous root extract on spermatogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spermatogenic activity similar to that of the whole plant which was shown previously to inhibit spermatogenesis. Methods: T. officinale aqueous extract was prepared by soaking 100 g of dried materials in 1 L distilled water for two days at 45 oC. Fifty adult ...

  4. Aqueous systems and geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Significant unpublished results reported include: osmotic coefficients of KCl solutions vs. molality at 109 to 201 0 C; cadmium ion diffusivities in CaCl 2 hydrous melts; a x-ray diffraction study of the uranyl complex in water; solubility of amorphous silica in aqueous NaNO 3 solutions at 100 to 300 0 C; and corrosion of carbon steel by geothermal brine

  5. Amphoteric Aqueous Hafnium Cluster Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Park, Deok-Hie; Amador, Jenn M; Keszler, Douglas A; Nyman, May

    2016-05-17

    Selective dissolution of hafnium-peroxo-sulfate films in aqueous tetramethylammonium hydroxide enables extreme UV lithographic patterning of sub-10 nm HfO2 structures. Hafnium speciation under these basic conditions (pH>10), however, is unknown, as studies of hafnium aqueous chemistry have been limited to acid. Here, we report synthesis, crystal growth, and structural characterization of the first polynuclear hydroxo hafnium cluster isolated from base, [TMA]6 [Hf6 (μ-O2 )6 (μ-OH)6 (OH)12 ]⋅38 H2 O. The solution behavior of the cluster, including supramolecular assembly via hydrogen bonding is detailed via small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The study opens a new chapter in the aqueous chemistry of hafnium, exemplifying the concept of amphoteric clusters and informing a critical process in single-digit-nm lithography. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The antioxidant activity of wild medlar ( Mespilus germanica L.) fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The medlar is an edible fruit. Modern medicine has recognized its healing properties in the treatment of some diseases. There is no scientific data in the literature about the antioxidant activity of methanol or aqueous extract of medlar fruit, leaf or stem bark. Antioxidant activities of these parts were evaluated by employing six ...

  7. Animal Research International - Vol 5, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antipsychotic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Amblygonocarpus andongensis in Wistar albino rats · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AA Ebbo, AT Elsa, EU Etuk, MJ Ladan, SA Saganuwan. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ari.v5i2.48724 ...

  8. Assessment of the hepatic effects, heamatological effect and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extracts of the leaf, stem bark and root of Ximenia americana was evaluated for its phytochemical constituents. A study was also conducted with 20 albino rats (Wistar strain) weighing between 100-130 g to access for hepatic effect and haematological effect. The extracts were administered every day for a ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tom, GM. Vol 7, No 1 (2010) - Articles Comparative acute toxicity study of the pulp, seed and stem bark (aqueous) extracts of Zizyphus spina-christi L.(Kurna) Abstract. ISSN: 0189-8442. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  10. Lethality of the aqeous extracts of Acacia nilotica, Guiera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic activity indicated by lethal effects (that is mortality rate) of aqueous extracts of fruits of Acacia nilotica, stem bark of Kigelia africana, roots of Securidaca longepedunculata, and leaves of Guiera senegalensis on the culex mosquito larva was investigated by direct contact method. Larvicidal effects were observed with ...

  11. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... setback due to the multiple resistance developed by pathogenic micro-organisms against these drugs. Thus, ... properties of crude extract of the stem bark of A. africana as part of our exploration for new and ..... petroleum ether, Chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of some Nigeria savannah plants.

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Nigerian Suya meat sauce. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 3 (2014) - Articles Liver weight changes in wistar rats treated with crude aqueous extracts of Mangifera indica stem bark. Abstract PDF · Vol 4, No 1 (2015) - Articles Assessment of Dermatoglyphic Patterns and Sex Distribution in Esan Ethnic Group of Edo State, Nigeria

  13. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences - Vol 25, No 2 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of bioactive principles from stem bark extract of Quassia amara, Quassin and 2-methoxycanthine-6-one, on haematological parameters in albino rats · EMAIL FREE ... Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum on guinea pig tracheal ring contractility · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Vol 17, No 1 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulation of MicroRNA-378 expression in mature human adipose tissue cells by adiponectin, free fatty acids and dexamethasone · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Toxicity assessment of aqueous extract of Curtisia dentata (Burm.f) C.A. Sm: stem bark in male Wistar rats · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etuk, EU. Vol 5, No 2 (2008) - Articles Antipsychotic effect of aqueous stem bark extract of Amblygonocarpus andongensis in Wistar albino rats. Abstract. ISSN: 1597-3115. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  16. Biochemical effects on the liver and kidney of rats administered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous extract of ximenia Americana stem bark on liver and kidney of albino rats was investigated. Different doses of the crude extract were administered to rats for 30 consecutive days. The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of treated animals significantly ...

  17. The anti-viral effect of Acacia mellifera, Melia azedarach and Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts from the stem barks of Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkm, Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. and Melia azedarach L. were evaluated for in vivo antiviral activity in Balb/C mice following a cutaneous wild type strain 7401H herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. A significant therapeutic effect was observed ...

  18. Antifungal evaluation and phytochemical screening of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to further examine the medicinal value of Boswellia dalzielii plant by evaluating the antifungal activity and carrying out phytochemical screening of methanolic extract, hexane, ethyl acetate, aqueous fractions and the sub-fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Standard methods were used for ...

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onoagbe, IO. Vol 24, No 2 (2012) - Articles Long-term effects of three hypoglycaemic plants (Irvingia gabonensis, Urena lobata and Carica papaya) on the oxidative status of normal rabbits. Abstract PDF · Vol 26, No 1 (2014) - Articles Long-term anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects of aqueous stem bark extract of ...

  20. Interfacial forces in aqueous media

    CERN Document Server

    van Oss, Carel J

    2006-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and reorganized, the second edition of Interfacial Forces in Aqueous Media examines the role of polar interfacial and noncovalent interactions among biological and nonbiological macromolecules as well as biopolymers, particles, surfaces, cells, and both polar and apolar polymers. The book encompasses Lifshitz-van der Waals and electrical double layer interactions, as well as Lewis acid-base interactions between colloidal entities in polar liquids such as water. New in this Edition: Four previously unpublished chapters comprising a new section on interfacial propertie

  1. Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates Matrixmetalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases expressions in Dengue virus-infected cells: implications for prevention of vascular permeability.

  2. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compound from the stem-bark of the traditionally used medicinal plant Adenium obesum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sohail Akhtar

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that walnut chloroform fraction may contain effective compounds with a broad spectrum of curative applications. This is the first report on isolation and characterization of a compound from chloroform crude extract of A. obesum.

  3. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new linoleiyl glycoside and flavones from the stem bark of Morus alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuzer Ali

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The present work reports the isolation and characterization of new phytoconstituents which could be used as chromatographic fingerprinting markers for standardization and quality control parameters.

  4. Mechanisms of anticonvulsant and sedative actions of the ethanolic stem-bark extract of Ficus sur Forssk (Moraceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Olayemi, Sunday O; Yemitan, Omoniyi K; Ekpemandudiri, Ngozi K

    2013-11-01

    Ficus sur Forssk (Moraceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of epilepsy, pain and inflammations. Anticonvulsant activity was investigated using picrotoxin (PTX), strychnine (SCN), isoniazid (INZ), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid NMDA models of convulsion. The phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and anthraquinone. Oral administration of Ficus sur, 1 h before intraperitoneal injection of chemical convulsants significantly (p < 0.05) delayed the onset and prolonged the duration of convulsions in PTX, SCN, INZ, PTZ and NMDA-induced seizures. However, the anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract of Ficus sur was significantly reversed following intraperitoneal pre-treatment with flumazenil (GABA receptor antagonist), cyproheptadine (5-HT2 receptor antagonist) and L-NNA (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) in picrotoxin-induced convulsion. The data obtained suggest that ethanol extract of Ficus sur possessed significant anticonvulsant effect, thereby confirming the traditional uses of Ficus sur in the treatment of epilepsies; mechanisms of which could involve interaction with GABAergic, glycinergic, serotonergic and glutaminergic system barks.

  5. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  6. Isolation and characterization of aristolactam alkaloids from the stem bark of Goniothalamus velutinus (Airy Shaw and their biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Iqbal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation on a crude methanolic bark extract of Goniothalamus velutinus resulted in the isolation of four compounds, aristolactam I (1, aristolactam BII (2, aristolactam AII (3 and velutinam (4. Compounds (1 and (2 have previously been isolated from the bark of G. velutinus but this is the first report on isolation of compounds (3 and (4 from this specie. Antibacterial activities of these compounds were tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus spizizenii and Staphylococcus aureus but none of them showed any antibacterial activity under the tested concentrations. These compounds were also tested for anti-biofilm activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, S. aureus, Streptococcus mutans and Proteus mirabilis and among the four compounds only velutinam (4 (70 µg/mL inhibited biofilm formation of both S. mutans and P. mirabilis up to 41.3 and 78.9%, respectively. Whereas, the compounds aristolactam BII (2 (90 µg/mL and aristolactam AII (3 (140 µg/mL were active against S. mutans and inhibited their biofilm formation to 72.8% and 89.9%, correspondingly. In addition aristolactam I (1 did not show any inhibition of biofilm against the microorganism used in this study. The anticancer activity of velutinam (4 was evaluated against various cell lines including Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549, human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293 and epidermoid cervical carcinoma cells (CaSki. The MTT antiproliferative assay resulted in IC50 values of 21.57 µg/mL, 13.28 µg/mL and 10.97 µg/mL for A549, HEK 293 and CaSki, respectively. Although anticancer activity of velutinam (4 has been reported on HeLa and L1210 cell lines, it has never been reported for the cell lines under this study. To our knowledge, this is the first report on anticancer activity of velutinam (4 on these cell lines.

  7. Spondias pinnata stem bark extract lessens iron overloaded liver toxicity due to hemosiderosis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Bibhabasu; Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the ameliorating effect of 70% methanol extract of Spondias pinnata (SPME) on iron overload induced liver injury. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron-dextran into mice and resulting liver damage was manifested by significant rise in serum enzyme markers (ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin) and reduction in liver antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GST and GSH). Hepatic iron, serum ferritin, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl and hydroxyproline contents were measured in response to the oral administration of SPME of different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight). In order to determine the efficiency as iron chelating drug, the release of iron from ferritin by SPME was further studied. Enhanced levels of antioxidant enzymes were detected in SPME treated mice. SPME produced a dose dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, liver fibrosis; and levels of serum enzyme markers and ferritin were also reduced dose dependently. The liver iron content was also found to be less in SPME treated group compared to control group. The reductive release of ferritin iron was augmented significantly after dose dependent addition of SPME. The ameliorating effect of SPME on damaged liver was furthermore supported by the histopathological studies that showed improved histological appearances. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate the hepatoprotective efficiency of SPME in iron intoxicated mice, and hence possibly useful as iron chelating drug for iron overload diseases.

  8. Acute and 28-day subchronic toxicity studies of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalena Prado

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pharmacological properties of mangiferin have been reported, but few studies have investigated mangiferin toxicity. Aims: To study the acute and 28-day toxicity effects of mangiferin in rodents. Methods: Single doses of mangiferin were administered by oral or i.p. route or were applied dermally to Sprague-Dawley rats and Balb/C mice. Clinical symptoms of animals were observed during 14 days after treatment. Animals also received single oral doses daily for 28 consecutive days. Blood biochemistry, hematology and pathology findings were reported. Results: In the acute study, no toxic effects were observed after dermal exposure to mangiferin 2000 mg/kg but transient dyspnea, flank position and piloerection were observed after oral administration to this xanthone. I.p. administration induced similar toxicity signs, but at the highest dose (2000 mg/kg all mice, one female rat and one male rat died. Rats orally treated with mangiferin (250-1000 mg/kg for 28 days did not show any abnormal clinical signs or hematology alterations, when compared to control group animals. Histopathological alterations like vacuolar degeneration, necrosis and increment of apoptosis of the acinar cells were observed in the exocrine pancreas of rats at 1000 mg/kg. This suggesting that exocrine pancreas was the target organ for mangiferin’s toxicity. Conclusions: These studies indicated that acute and subchronic toxicities of mangiferin for oral exposure are low.

  9. Simultaneous quantitative determination of cinnamaldehyde and methyl eugenol from stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume using RP-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursale, Atish; Dighe, Vidya; Parekh, Guarang

    2010-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and precise reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed, validated and used for simultaneous quantitative determination of cinnamaldehyde and methyl eugenol from the methanolic extract of dried bark powder of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (family Lauraceae). The ultrasonic extraction method was used for the extraction of these compounds. The reversed-phase HPLC analysis was carried out using a Intersil ODS-3V-C(18) (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column and a mobile phase comprising of methanol-acetonitrile-water in the volume ratio of 35:20:45, delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 cm(3)/min. The detection and quantitation of both the compounds was carried out at 221 nm.

  10. Influence of gamma radiation on molluscicidal and antimicrobial action of leaf and stem bark of Ziziphus joazeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Fabricio O.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Lima, Maira V.; Melo, Larissa S.A.; Luna Filho, Ricardo L.C.; Morais, Vinicius H.T.; Oliveira, Maria L.M.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Silva, Edvane B.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a physical agent used in several areas of knowledge: in medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, in the industry, it is apply in the generation of energy, sterilization of equipment and food, for example. Studies show that radiation can modify the molecular structure of substances of natural origin, potentiating or inactivating their function. The compounds derived from plants have received special attention because they constitute a form of medicinal therapy that has been growing notably in recent years. In addition, products of natural origin may also aid in the control of microbiological or animal vectors of parasites. Of the various species of plants being studied, Ziziphus joazeiro, popularly known as jua, native to the Caatinga, is commercially exploited for the manufacture of cosmetics and as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti influenza, fever and gastritis, bruises and has molluscicidal activity. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on leaf and bark extracts of Z. joazeiro stem, evaluating possible changes in molluscicidal and antimicrobial action. For the experiments, the Z joazeiro extracts were irradiated with doses of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy (Gammacell-Cobalt-60, dose rate 7.222 kGy/h). Adult mollusks (n = 60) and embryos (n = 1800) of Biomphalaria glabrata were distributed in the following groups: negative control 1 (water only); negative control 2 (extract only); positive control (CuCO 3 ); and three groups submitted to irradiated extracts. The antibacterial assay was performed with Gram-positive microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) belonging to the collection of the Departamento de Antibioticos of the UFPE by disc diffusion method. Statistical analysis was perform by Student's t-test and chi-square test, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed that the ionizing radiation was not able to potentiate the molluscicidal action of the extracts studied; however, antimicrobial activity was verify independently of the irradiation. (author)

  11. Antinociceptive effects of an extract, fraction and an isolated compound of the stem bark of Maytenus rigida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antinociceptive activity of the Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae ethanol extract and its ethyl acetate fraction as well as of (--4'-methylepigallocatechin (1, a previously isolated compound, was demonstrated in vivo. ED50 for 1 in the writhing test was 14.14 mg/kg. The acetic acid-induced writhing was inhibited by 98.4, 84.4, and 58.3%, respectively, when mice were treated with the ethanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and 1. In the hot plate test, mice pretreated with 1 showed significantly increased reaction times (60-89%. Oral administration of 1 significantly inhibited first and second phases of the formalin-induced pain (50 and 26.5%, respectively, whereas indomethacin inhibited only the second phase of the test (41.2%. Ethanol extract and its fraction showed effects on inflammatory pain, while neurogenic and inflammatory pain suppression by 1 is a strong indication of the presence of both central and peripheral effects and suggests its analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential.

  12. Antinociceptive effects of an extract, fraction and an isolated compound of the stem bark of Maytenus rigida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antinociceptive activity of the Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae ethanol extract and its ethyl acetate fraction as well as of (--4'-methylepigallocatechin (1, a previously isolated compound, was demonstrated in vivo. ED50 for 1 in the writhing test was 14.14 mg/kg. The acetic acid-induced writhing was inhibited by 98.4, 84.4, and 58.3%, respectively, when mice were treated with the ethanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and 1. In the hot plate test, mice pretreated with 1 showed significantly increased reaction times (60-89%. Oral administration of 1 significantly inhibited first and second phases of the formalin-induced pain (50 and 26.5%, respectively, whereas indomethacin inhibited only the second phase of the test (41.2%. Ethanol extract and its fraction showed effects on inflammatory pain, while neurogenic and inflammatory pain suppression by 1 is a strong indication of the presence of both central and peripheral effects and suggests its analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential.

  13. Hydrogen combustion in aqueous foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.R.; Griffiths, S.K.; Shepherd, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Water fogs are recognized as an effective means to mitigate the effects of large-scale hydrogen combustion that might accompany some reactor loss-of-coolant reactor accidents. Fogs of sufficiently high density to produce large beneficial effects may, however, be difficult to generate and maintain. An alternate method of suspending the desired mass of water is via high expansion-ratio aqueous foams. Because the foam would be generated using the combustible gaseous contents of the containment vessel, combustion occurs inside the foam cells. Although foams generated with inert gas have been well studied for use in fire fighting, little is known about combustion in foams generated with flammable mixtures. To help assess the usefulness of aqueous foams in a mitigation plan, the authors have conducted open tube tests and closed vessel tests of hydrogen/air combustion with and without foam. At low and intermediate hydrogen concentrations, the foam has little effect on the ultimate isochoric pressure rise. Above 15% hydrogen concentration, the foam causes a significant reduction in the pressure rise. The maximum effect occurs at about 28% hydrogen where the peak overpressure is reduced by two and one-half. Despite this overall pressure reduction, the flame speed is increased by up to an order of magnitude for combustion in the foam and strong pressure fluctuations are observed near a hydrogen concentration of 23%

  14. Hydrogen combustion in aqueous foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.R.; Griffiths, S.K.; Shepherd, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Water fogs are recognized as an effective means to mitigate the effects of large-scale hydrogen combustion that might accompany some loss of coolant nuclear reactor accidents. Fogs of sufficiently high density to produce large beneficial effects may, however, be difficult to generate and maintain. An alternate method of suspending the desired mass of water is via high expansion-ratio aqueous foams. Because, in practice, the foam would be generated using the combustible gaseous contents of the containment vessel, combustion occurs inside the foam cells. Although foams generated with inert gas have been well studied for use in fire fighting, little is known about combustion in foams generated with flammable mixtures. To help assess the usefulness of aqueous foams in a mitigation plan, several open-tube tests and more than 100 closed-vessel tests of hydrogen/air combustion, with and without foam were conducted. At low and intermediate hydrogen concentrations, the foam has little effect on the ultimate isochoric pressure rise. Above 15% hydrogen concentration, the foam causes a significant reduction in the pressure rise. The maximum effect occurs at about 28% hydrogen (the stoichiometric limit is 29.6% hydrogen) where the peak overpressure is reduced by 2 1/2. Despite this overall pressure reduction, the flame speed is increased by up to an order of magnitude for combustion in the foam, and strong pressure fluctuations are observed near a hydrogen concentration of 23%

  15. Hydrogen combustion in aqueous foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.R.; Griffiths, S.K.; Shepherd, J.E.

    1982-09-01

    Water fogs are recognized as an effective means to mitigate the effects of large-scale hydrogen combustion that might accompany some loss-of-coolant nuclear reactor accidents. Fogs of sufficiently high density to produce large beneficial effects may, however, be difficult to generate and maintain. An alternate method of suspending the desired mass of water is via high expansion-ratio aqueous foams. To help assess the usefulness of aqueous foams in a mitigation plan, several open tube tests and over one hundred closed vessel tests of hydrogen/air combustion with and without foam have been conducted. Above 15% hydrogen concentration, the foam causes a significant reduction in the pressure rise. The maximum effect occurs at about 28% hydrogen (the stoichiometric limit is 29.6% hydrogen) where the peak overpressure is reduced by two and one-half. Despite this overall pressure reduction, the flame speed is increased by up to an order of magnitude for combustion in the foam and strong pressure fluctuations are observed near a hydrogen concentration of 23%

  16. Hydrogen combustion in aqueous foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Griffiths, S.; Shepherd, J.

    1983-01-01

    Water fogs are recognized as an effective means to mitigate the effects of large-scale hydrogen combustion that might accompany some loss-of-coolant nuclear reactor accidents. Fogs of sufficiently high density to produce large beneficial effects may, however, be difficult to generate and maintain. An alternate method of suspending the desired mass of water is via high expansion-ratio aqueous foams. Because, in practice, the foam would be generated using the combustible gaseous contents of the containment vessel, combustion occurs inside the foam cells. Although foams generated with inert gas have been well studied for use in fire fighting, little is known about combustion in foams generated with flammable mixtures. To help assess the usefulness of aqueous foams in a mitigation plan, we have conducted several open tube tests and over one hundred closed vessel tests of hydrogen/air combustion with and without foam. At low and intermediate hydrogen concentrations, the foam has little effect on the ultimate isochoric pressure rise. Above 15% hydrogen concentration, the foam causes a significant reduction in the pressure rise. The maximum effect occurs at about 28% hydrogen (the stoichiometric limit is 29.6% hydrogen) where the peak overpressure is reduced by a factor of two and one-half. Despite this overall pressure reduction, the flame speed is increase by up to an order of magnitude for combustion in the foam and strong pressure fluctuations are observed near a hydrogen concentration of 23%

  17. Ion Movement in Polypyrrole/Dodecylbenzenesulphonate Films in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidanapathirana, K.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen

    2002-01-01

    . Investigations were carried out using aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes to study the effect of solvent on the ion movement during redox processes. When PPy films are cycled in aqueous electrolytes transport of both anion and cation occurs during oxidation and reduction. However, when cycled in the nonaqueous...... electrolyte propylene carbonate (PC) only anion movement takes place....

  18. Crystallisation of materials from aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkamp, G.J.; Vrijenhoef, J.P.; De Graauw, J.; Van der Ham, F.

    2001-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for recovering a crystalline material from an aqueous solution, which solution also contains organic contaminants, in which process the material is crystallised from the aqueous solution by freeze crystallising at a eutectic freezing point of the solution.

  19. 27 CFR 21.96 - Ammonia, aqueous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonia, aqueous. 21.96 Section 21.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Ammonia, aqueous. (a) Alkalinity. Strongly alkaline to litmus. (b) Ammonia content. 27 to 30 percent by...

  20. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Soft matter at aqueous interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the science of interfaces between an aqueous phase and a solid, another liquid or a gaseous phase, starting from the basic physical chemistry all the way to state-of-the-art research developments. Both experimental and theoretical methods are treated thanks to the contributions of a distinguished list of authors who are all active researchers in their respective fields. The properties of these interfaces are crucial for a wide variety of processes, products and biological systems and functions, such as the formulation of personal care and food products, paints and coatings, microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip applications, cell membranes, and lung surfactants. Accordingly, research and expertise on the subject are spread over a broad range of academic disciplines and industrial laboratories. This book brings together knowledge from these different places with the aim of fostering education, collaborations and research progress.

  2. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation

  4. Mercury separation from aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Klasson, K.T.; Corder, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    This project is providing an assessment of new sorbents for removing mercury from wastes at US Department of Energy sites. Four aqueous wastes were chosen for lab-scale testing; a high-salt, acidic waste currently stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); a high-salt, alkaline waste stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS); a dilute lithium hydroxide solution stored at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and a low-salt, neutral groundwater generated at the Y-12 Plant. Eight adsorbents have been identified for testing, covering a wide range of cost and capability. Screening tests have been completed, which identified the most promising adsorbents for each waste stream. Batch isotherm tests have been completed using the most promising adsorbents, and column tests are in progress. Because of the wide range of waste compositions tested, no one adsorbent is effective in all of these waste streams. Based on loading capacity and compatibility with the waste solutions. the most effective adsorbents identified to date are SuperLig 618 for the INEL tank waste stimulant; Mersorb followed by lonac SR-3 for the SRS tank waste stimulant; Durasil 70 and Ionac SR-3) for the LIOH solution; and lonac SR-3 followed by lonac SR-4 and Mersorb for the Y-12 groundwater

  5. Radiolysis of Aqueous Toluene Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.C.; Gustafson, R.

    1971-04-01

    Aqueous toluene solutions have been irradiated with Co γ-rays. In unbuffered solutions the various cresol isomers are formed in a total yield of 0.45, 0.87 and 0.94 molecules/100 eV absorbed energy in argon-, N 2 O- and air - saturated solutions, respectively. The yields are reduced in acid (pH 3) solutions (G 0.14, 0.14 and 0.52, respectively) but the reduction is compensated by the formation of 1,2-di-phenylethane in yields of 0.49 and 1.60 in argon- and N 2 O-saturated solutions, respectively. Benzyl radicals are formed through an acid catalysed water elimination reaction from the initially formed hydroxymethylcyclohexadienyl radical. Phenyltolylmethanes, dimethylbiphenyls and partly reduced dimers are also formed during the radiolysis. Hydrogen is formed in the same yield as the molecular yield, g(H 2 ). Xylene isomers and benzene are formed in trace quantities. The most remarkable effects of the addition of Fe(III) ions to deaerated acid toluene solutions are the formation of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde and an increase in the yield of 1,2-diphenylethane

  6. Inhibitory effects of Ledebouria ovaltifolia (hyacithaceae) aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibitory effects of Ledebouria ovaltifolia (hyacithaceae) aqueous root extract on contractile responses of Rat Vas deferens to K and adrenaline, pendular movement of isolated rabbit jejunum and acetic acid induced pain in Mice.

  7. Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of Clinopodium menthifolium aqueous extract and its influence on antioxidant system in black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) seedlings and mortality rate of whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) adults.

  8. Mars Aqueous Processing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is an innovative method to produce useful building materials from Martian regolith. Acids and bases produced from the regolith...

  9. Mars Aqueous Processing System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is a novel technology for recovering oxygen, iron, and other constituents from lunar and Mars soils. The closed-loop...

  10. Immunostimulating Effect of Aqueous Extract of Amphypterygium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunostimulating Effect of Aqueous Extract of Amphypterygium Adstringens on Immune Cellular Response in Immunosuppressed Mice. ... agent in lymphoma bearing mice and we demonstrated evidence to support the traditionally use of cuachalalate in conditions in which the immune system is depressed.

  11. Aqueous phase processing of secondary organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Tritscher, T.; Praplan, A. P.; Decarlo, P. F.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Quivet, E.; Marchand, N.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Monod, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) by photooxidation in the aqueous phase was experimentally investigated. To simulate multiphase processes, the following experiments were sequentially performed in a smog chamber and in an aqueous phase photoreactor: (1) Gas-phase photooxidation of three different volatile organic compounds (VOC): isoprene, α-pinene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) in the presence of NOx, leading to the formation of SOA which was subjected to on-line physical and chemical analysis; (2) particle-to-liquid transfer of water soluble species of SOA using filter sampling and aqueous extraction; (3) aqueous-phase photooxidation of the obtained water extracts; and (4) nebulization of the solutions for a repetition of the on-line characterization. SOA concentrations in the chamber measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were higher than 200 μg m-3, as the experiments were conducted under high initial concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and NOx. The aging of SOA through aqueous phase processing was investigated by measuring the physical and chemical properties of the particles online before and after processing using a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA). It was shown that, after aqueous phase processing, the particles were significantly more hygroscopic, and contained more fragmentation ions at m/z = 44 and less ions at m/z = 43, thus showing a significant impact on SOA aging for the three different precursors. Additionally, the particles were analyzed with a thermal desorption atmospheric pressure ionization aerosol mass spectrometer (TD-API-AMS). Comparing the smog chamber SOA composition and non processed nebulized aqueous extracts with this technique revealed that sampling, extraction and/or nebulization did not significantly impact the chemical composition of SOA formed from isoprene and α-pinene, whereas it

  12. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, total phenolic content in aqueous extract (0.66 ± 0.02 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than methanol extract (0.52 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalent/g). In addition, inhibition of lipid peroxidation by aqueous extract (80.60 ± 0.28%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than methanol ...

  13. Stabilized aqueous gels and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B.L.

    1978-08-29

    New improved aqueous gels, and methods of using same in contacting subterranean formations, are provided. The gels are prepared by gelling an aqueous brine having incorporated therein a water-soluble cellulose ether such as a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and are rendered more stable to decomposition by incorporating a sulfoalkylated tannin stabilizing agent, such as a sulfomethylated quebracho (SMQ), in the gel during the preparation thereof.

  14. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  15. Stabilization of aqueous alkali metal aluminate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenson, S.J.

    1988-03-29

    A method of stabilizing an aqueous solution of alkali metal aluminate is described comprising: admixing an aqueous solution of alkali metal aluminate having a pH of at least 10 with a sufficient amount of vinyl polymer having pendant carboxylate groups to form a solution containing from 0.1 to 2.0 weight percent of an anionic vinyl polymer based on alkali metal aluminate solids. The anionic vinyl polymer has an average molecular weight of at least 500,000.

  16. EXTRACTION OF URANYL NITRATE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, N.H.; Mundy, R.J.

    1957-12-10

    An improvement in the process is described for extracting aqueous uranyl nitrate solutions with an organic solvent such as ether. It has been found that the organic phase will extract a larger quantity of uranyl nitrate if the aqueous phase contains in addition to the uranyl nitrate, a quantity of some other soluble nitrate to act as a salting out agent. Mentioned as suitable are the nitrates of lithium, calcium, zinc, bivalent copper, and trivalent iron.

  17. Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions in Aqueous Media

    OpenAIRE

    Kitanosono, Taku; Kobayashi, Shū

    2013-01-01

    Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media have been surveyed. While the original Mukaiyama aldol reactions entailed stoichiometric use of Lewis acids in organic solvents under strictly anhydrous conditions, Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media are not only suitable for green sustainable chemistry but are found to produce singular phenomena. These findings led to the discovery of a series of water-compatible Lewis acids such as lanthanide triflates in 1991. Our understanding on these be...

  18. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  19. Aqueous electrodeposition of Ge monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuehai; Kim, Youn-Geun; Gebergziabiher, Daniel K; Stickney, John L

    2010-02-16

    The electrodeposition of germanium on Au(111) in aqueous solutions has been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry, Auger electron spectroscopy, and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The data yield a picture of germanium deposition, which starts with the formation of two well-ordered hydroxide phases, with 1/3 ML and 4/9 ML coverages upon initial reduction of the Ge(IV) species (probably H(2)GeO(3) at pH 4.7). Those structures appear to result from a three-electron reduction to form surface-limited structures with (square root(3) x square root(3))R30 degrees or (3 x 3) unit cells, respectively. Further reduction, probably in a two-electron process from the hydroxide structures, resulted in a germanium hydride structure, again surface-limited, with a coverage of close to 0.8 ML. The hydride structure is very flat, though with the periodic modulation characteristic of a Moiré pattern. Longer deposition times and lower potentials resulted in increased coverage of Ge in some cases, but with apparently limited coverage as a function of pH. The maximum Ge coverage, about 4 ML, was observed using a pH 9.32 deposition solution. At potentials negative of the Moiré pattern, about -850 mV versus Ag/AgCl, a "corruption" of the smooth Moiré pattern occurred. This roughening appears to mark the initial formation of a Au-Ge alloy, accounting for the observation of coverage in excess of that needed to form the Moiré pattern at some pH values.

  20. Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.

    1964-05-01

    Aerated and deaerated aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays. The products of radiolysis in deaerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were phenol, biphenyl, hydrogen and in acid solutions also hydrogen peroxide with the following yields: G(phenol) = 0. 37 (0. 37), G(biphenyl) = 1.3 (1.7), G(H 2 ) = 0.44 (0. 43) and G(H 2 O 2 ) = 0 (0.60), the figures in brackets giving the results for acid solutions. The results are shown to agree with the conclusion that k(e - aq + H 2 O 2 ) >> k(H + H 2 O 2 ). Furthermore, the results indicate that a competition takes place between the reactions: 2 C 6 H 6 OH · -> dimer -> biphenyl. C 6 H 7 · + C 6 H 6 OH · -> dimer -> biphenyl. The yields in aerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were: G(phenol) = 2.1 (2.3), G(biphenyl) = 0 (0), and G(H 2 O 2 ) = 2.2 (3.1), the figures in brackets being valid for acid solutions. The ratio k(H + C 6 H 6 )/k(H + O 2 ) was 1.4x10 -2 . The results indicate that peroxides, or more probably hydroperoxides, take part in the reactions. After the addition of Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ to aerated acid solutions G(phenol) was increased to 6.6 and 3.4 respectively. Oxygen was consumed more rapidly in the presence of Fe. Reaction mechanisms are discussed

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on the aphrodisiac activity of food plants Mondia whitei, Chenopodium album,Ccucurbita pepo and Sclerocarya birrea extracts in male wistar rats. Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 2 (2015) - Articles Investigation of hypogycemic and hypolipidemic effects of an aqueous extract of Llupinus albus legume seed in ...

  2. Thermometric titration of some monoprotic and diprotic acids in aqueous and non-aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, R J

    1968-12-01

    Some mono- and diprotic acids have been titrated thermometrically with strong alkalis in aqueous and non-aqueous media. Thermograms with sharp arrest points were obtained, from which heats of neutralization were measured. Heats of neutralization in the media used were compared and an effect attributable to hydrogen bonding was found.

  3. Aqueous Wetting Films on Fused Quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoco; Wayner

    1999-06-15

    Using an image analyzing interferometer, IAI, the interfacial characteristics of an isothermal constrained vapor bubble, CVB, in a quartz cuvette were studied as a precursor to heat transfer research. The effects of pH and electrolyte concentration on the meniscus properties (curvature and adsorbed film thickness) and the stability of the aqueous wetting films were evaluated. The surface potential in the electric double layer was a function of the cleaning and hydroxylation of the quartz surface. The disjoining pressure isotherm for pure water was very close to that predicted by the Langmuir equation. For aqueous solutions of moderate electrolyte concentration, the Gouy-Chapman theory provided a good representation of the electrostatic effects in the film. The effect of temperature on the film properties of aqueous solutions and pure water was also evaluated: The meniscus curvature decreased with increasing temperature, while Marangoni effects, intermolecular forces, and local evaporation and condensation enhanced waves on the adsorbed film layer. Pure water wetting films were mechanically metastable, breaking into droplets and very thin films (less than 10 nm) after a few hours. Aqueous wetting films with pH 12.4 proved to be stable during a test of several months, even when subjected to temperature and mechanical perturbations. The mechanical stability of wetting films can explain the reported differences between the critical heat fluxes of pure water and aqueous solutions. The IAI-CVB technique is a simple and versatile experimental technique for studying the characteristics of interfacial systems. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almon, Amy C.

    1994-01-01

    A process and apparatus for quantitatively and selectively separating metal ions from mixtures thereof in aqueous solution. The apparatus includes, in combination, a horizontal electrochemical flow cell containing flow bulk electrolyte solution and an aqueous, metal ion-containing solution, the cell containing a metal mesh working electrode, a counter electrode positioned downstream from the working electrode, an independent variable power supply/potentiostat positioned outside of the flow cell and connected to the electrodes, and optionally a detector such as a chromatographic detector, positioned outside the flow cell. This apparatus and its operation has significant application where trace amounts of metal ions are to be separated.

  5. Unconventional aqueous humor outflow: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; McLaren, Jay W; Overby, Darryl R

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous humor flows out of the eye primarily through the conventional outflow pathway that includes the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. However, a fraction of aqueous humor passes through an alternative or 'unconventional' route that includes the ciliary muscle, supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. From there, unconventional outflow may drain through two pathways: a uveoscleral pathway where aqueous drains across the sclera to be resorbed by orbital vessels, and a uveovortex pathway where aqueous humor enters the choroid to drain through the vortex veins. We review the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these pathways. We also discuss methods to determine unconventional outflow rate, including direct techniques that use radioactive or fluorescent tracers recovered from tissues in the unconventional pathway and indirect methods that estimate unconventional outflow based on total outflow over a range of pressures. Indirect methods are subject to a number of assumptions and generally give poor agreement with tracer measurements. We review the variety of animal models that have been used to study conventional and unconventional outflow. The mouse appears to be a promising model because it captures several aspects of conventional and unconventional outflow dynamics common to humans, although questions remain regarding the magnitude of unconventional outflow in mice. Finally, we review future directions. There is a clear need to develop improved methods for measuring unconventional outflow in both animals and humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  7. Photoelectrochemical studies on aqueous suspensions of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Photoelectrochemical; nanomaterial; suspensions; hydrogen; oxides; chalcogenides. Abstract. Photoproduction of hydrogen was achieved by photolysis of aqueous suspensions of mixed TiO2/V2O5 or CdS/ZnS semiconductor (SC) nanoparticle in phosphate buffers containing [Fe(CN)6]4−. Manipulations of the ...

  8. REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discharge of industrial effluents containing appreciably high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, lead, ... synthesized products for the removal of cadmium ion from aqueous solution. This involves investigation ... manganese, and the charge is not compensated by the presence of other cation. Table 1.

  9. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 0.05) than methanol extract (77.00 ± 0.84%). Nevertheless, methanol and aqueous extracts of C. afer possess anti-oxidative properties as well as bioactive metabolites. Thus, stem extracts of C. afer could serve as sources of antioxidants and bioactive compounds for nutrition and therapeutic purposes.

  10. Antidepressant properties of aqueous acerate from Gladiolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: We assessed the antidepressant properties of G. dalenii corm aqueous extract in mice, using the open field, forced swimming, and tail suspension tests. Spontaneous locomotor activity of mice given various doses of G. dalenii extract (per os) was determined in the open field, whereas immobility was ...

  11. Aqueous ethanolic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cochlospermum planchonii has numerous therapeutic benefits and is widely used in folklore medicine of many African countries. This study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous ethanolic extract of Cochlospermum planchonii root on sperm characteristics of albino rats. Animals were assigned into four groups ...

  12. Combined Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Tetracarpidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effect of combined treatment of aqueous extracts of Tetracarpidium conophorum (TCE) nuts and Vernonia ... The symptoms of diabetes include weight loss, polydisia (increased thirst), polyuria, ... from consuming as snacks, some studies on the plants have revealed that there is good ...

  13. Aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles in polyelectrolyte ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this report, we present the versatile and effective technique, using environmental friendly reductant glucose, to prepare stable silver nanodispersions by reduction of Ag+ ions. Alternant copolymers of maleic anhydride with vinyl acetate and styrene sulphonate sodium acid salt polyelectrolytes were synthesized in aqueous ...

  14. CONCENTRATION OF TIMOLOL IN AQUEOUS-HUMOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLANKSMA, LJ

    1991-01-01

    Two groups of twenty patients who were to undergo a routine e.c.c.e. applied eye-drops containing timolol 0.1% or 0.5% twice daily during the week preceding their operation. A third group of twenty patients, using placebo drops, served as control. During the cataract surgery a sample of aqueous was

  15. Aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles in polyelectrolyte ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    anhydride with vinyl acetate and styrene sulphonate sodium acid salt polyelectrolytes were synthesized in aqueous solution and used as stabilizers. The formation of nano silver particles was confirmed by UV-Vis spec- trophotometry and TEM measurements. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements were needed to ...

  16. Effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Family Euphorbiaceae) Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the oxidative and haematologic effects of aqueous extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) in high fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding the rats with HFD that consisted of 20% sucrose and 20% lard for 4 weeks, ...

  17. Aqueous colloidal processing of fluorapatite bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albano, Maria P.; Garrido, Liliana B., E-mail: palbano@cetmic.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Tecnologia de Recursos Minerales y Ceramica (CETMIC), Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    In order to produce stable aqueous fluorapatite (FA) suspensions, its surface reactivity in an aqueous solution having two initial pH values with a concentration of ammonium polyacrylate (NH{sub 4}PA) was investigated as a function of time. The influence of the slip viscosity on the casting rate and the microstructure of the resultant green slip cast compacts was determined. Upon the FA introduction in the aqueous solutions, an initial release of F anions located at the surface was found, which was not dependent of the pH and the presence of dispersant. The increase in the initial pH of the solution above 7 and/or the addition of NH{sub 4}PA markedly reduced the Ca{sup ++}/ H{sup +} exchange reaction rate. As a result, well-stabilized concentrated aqueous suspensions could be obtained at pH close to 9. The greater permeability of cakes produced from slips with high viscosity values (0.5 wt% PVA) increased the casting rate. (author)

  18. from aqueous solution by Azolla filiculoides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... tion, electroplating, ion exchange and membrane pro- cesses, are limited in practical application ... adequate dilution of the stock solution with deionised water. All the adsorption experiments were .... aqueous solutions by pre-treated biomass of Australian marine algae. Bioresour. Technol. 69: 223-229.

  19. Preliminary biochemical and haematological effects of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some biochemical and haematological parameters were assayed in rats fed aqueous pulp suspension of hyphaene thebaica (L) mart. Sixteen white albino rats of the wistar strain weighing between 90-110g were grouped into four groups of four rats each. Group 1 served as control while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given ...

  20. Aqueous solutions of ionic liquids: microscopic assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicent-Luna, J.M.; Dubbeldam, D.; Gómez-Álvarez, P.; Calero, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ionic liquids are of special interest, due to the distinctive properties of ionic liquids, in particular, their amphiphilic character. A better understanding of the structure-property relationships of such systems is hence desirable. One of the crucial molecular-level

  1. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  2. Pulse radiolysis of anthraquinone dye aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.; Gebicki, J.L.; Lubis, R.; Mayer, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis of argon flushed aqueous solutions of 10 -5 -10 -4 mol dm -3 anthraquinone dye (C.I. Acid Blue 62) gives rise to the transients originated from the reactions of e - aq , OH and H. The rate constants of these reactions are determined. (author)

  3. Chromium removal from aqueous media by superparamagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from aqueous waste. The characterization of the prepared nanoparticles was done by XRD, FTIR, TEM and. VSM techniques. Adsorption of Cr(VI) on the surface of ..... Kizil R, Irudayaraj J and Seetharaman K 2002 J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 3912. 29. Tuutijärvi T, Lu J, Sillanpää M and Chen G 2009 J. Hazard. Mater. 166 1415.

  4. Aqueous colloidal processing of fluorapatite bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, Maria P.; Garrido, Liliana B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce stable aqueous fluorapatite (FA) suspensions, its surface reactivity in an aqueous solution having two initial pH values with a concentration of ammonium polyacrylate (NH 4 PA) was investigated as a function of time. The influence of the slip viscosity on the casting rate and the microstructure of the resultant green slip cast compacts was determined. Upon the FA introduction in the aqueous solutions, an initial release of F anions located at the surface was found, which was not dependent of the pH and the presence of dispersant. The increase in the initial pH of the solution above 7 and/or the addition of NH 4 PA markedly reduced the Ca ++ / H + exchange reaction rate. As a result, well-stabilized concentrated aqueous suspensions could be obtained at pH close to 9. The greater permeability of cakes produced from slips with high viscosity values (0.5 wt% PVA) increased the casting rate. (author)

  5. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Screening of Aqueous and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Annona senegalensis possess phytochemicals with activities against Shigella flexineri a human intestinal pathogen which causes dysentery and Pseudomonas aeruginosa an opportunistic human pathogen which causes all kinds of infections including urinary tract, ...

  6. Phytochemistry and antiplasmodial properties of aqueous and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemistry and antiplasmodial properties of the aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropa curcas against the malaria parasite; Plasmodium falciparum. The need for new therapeutic compounds against malaria parasite is made more urgent by the continued spread of ...

  7. REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM AQUEOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    In this study, removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by Palmyra palm fruit seed carbon. (PPFSC) and commercial ... have studied the feasibility of less expensive materials such as alginate beads [15], wheat straw. [16], carbon develop from ... Arecaceae) is a largely populated tree in south India. EXPERIMENTAL.

  8. High-Voltage Aqueous Magnesium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Fan, Xiulin; Gao, Tao; Sun, Wei; Ma, Zhaohui; Yang, Chongyin; Han, Fudong; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-10-25

    Nonaqueous rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries suffer from the complicated and moisture-sensitive electrolyte chemistry. Besides electrolytes, the practicality of a Mg battery is also confined by the absence of high-performance electrode materials due to the intrinsically slow Mg 2+ diffusion in the solids. In this work, we demonstrated a rechargeable aqueous magnesium ion battery (AMIB) concept of high energy density, fast kinetics, and reversibility. Using a superconcentration approach we expanded the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte to 2.0 V. More importantly, two new Mg ion host materials, Li superconcentration approach we expanded the electrochemical stability window of the aqueous electrolyte to 2.0 V. More importantly, two new Mg ion host materials, Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and poly pyromellitic dianhydride, were developed and employed as cathode and anode electrodes, respectively. Based on comparisons of the aqueous and nonaqueous systems, the role of water is identified to be critical in the Mg ion mobility in the intercalation host but remaining little detrimental to its non-diffusion controlled process. Compared with the previously reported Mg ion cell delivers an unprecedented high power density of 6400 W kg ion cell delivers an unprecedented high power density of 6400 W kg while retaining 92% of the initial capacity after 6000 cycles, pushing the Mg ion cell to a brand new stage.

  9. Silver nanoparticles of variable morphology synthesized in aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    . MS received 25 February 2005. Abstract. In this paper, we describe the synthesis of silver nanocrystals within aqueous foams as a template. More specifically, we show that aqueous Ag+ ions may be electrostatically complexed with the ...

  10. Principles of interactions in non-aqueous electrolyte solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a review is presented on the molecular interactions in non-aqueous media of low dielectric permittivity. Qualitative and quantitative distinctions with aqueous solutions are emphasized. The reviewed themes include dispersion forces, dissociation and association equilibria,

  11. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an aqueous solution including suitable and harmless preservatives and buffer substances, contains 10 milligrams of...

  12. Evaluation of aqueous methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... aqueous and ethylacetate fractions were evaluated for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid- induced ... The aqueous methanolic extract and its aqueous fraction exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity ... The study revealed that S. bicolor leaf base contains analgesic components which ...

  13. RECOVERY OF ACTINIDES FROM AQUEOUS NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ader, M.

    1963-11-19

    A process of recovering actinides is presented. Tetravalent actinides are extracted from rare earths in an aqueous nitric acid solution with a ketone and back-extracted from the ketone into an aqueous medium. The aqueous actinide solution thus obtained, prior to concentration by boiling, is sparged with steam to reduce its ketone to a maximum content of 3 grams per liter. (AEC)

  14. In vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-09-23

    Sep 23, 2010 ... The total phenolic content for the aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts were 3112.1 ... explored. Key words: Dicranopteris linearis, in vitro anticancer activity, MTT assay, aqueous extract, chloroform extract, methanol extract. ... determine the in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activities of the aqueous ...

  15. Aqueous Electrolytes: Model Parameters and Process Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    This thesis deals with aqueous electrolyte mixtures. The Extended UNIQUAC model is being used to describe the excess Gibbs energy of such solutions. Extended UNIQUAC parameters for the twelve ions Na+, K+, NH4+, H+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, HSO4-, OH-, CO32-, HCO3-, and S2O82- are estimated. A computer ...... program including a steady state process simulator for the design, simulation, and optimization of fractional crystallization processes is presented.......This thesis deals with aqueous electrolyte mixtures. The Extended UNIQUAC model is being used to describe the excess Gibbs energy of such solutions. Extended UNIQUAC parameters for the twelve ions Na+, K+, NH4+, H+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, HSO4-, OH-, CO32-, HCO3-, and S2O82- are estimated. A computer...

  16. Zeolites as alcohol adsorbents from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekova Blagica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential usage of zeolites as adsorbents for the removal of organic molecules from water was investigated in a series of experiments with aqueous solutions of lower alcohols. This could represent a simple solution to the problem of cleaning up industrial wastewater as well as recovering valuable chemicals at relatively low costs. Adsorption isotherms of the Langmuir type were applied, and calculations showed that the amount of propanol adsorbed on silicalite corresponded to approximately 70% of the pore volume. The adsorption process is simple, and recovery of the more concentrated products is easily done by heat treatment and/or at lowered pressures. Adsorption experiments with aqueous acetone showed that silicalite had approximately the same adsorption capacity for acetone as for n-propanol. Heats of adsorption were determined calorimetrically.

  17. Reactor coolant system and containment aqueous chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.

    1986-01-01

    Fission products released from fuel during reactor accidents can be subject to a variety of environments that will affect their ultimate behavior. In the reactor coolant system (RCS), for example, neutral or reducing steam conditions, radiation, and surfaces could all have an effect on fission product retention and chemistry. Furthermore, if water is encountered in the RCS, the high temperature aqueous chemistry of fission products must be assessed to determine the quantity and chemical form of fission products released to the containment building. In the containment building, aqueous chemistry will determine the longer-term release of volatile fission products to the containment atmosphere. Over the past few years, the principles of physical chemistry have been rigorously applied to the various chemical conditions described above. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge and discusses the future directions of chemistry research relating to the behavior of fission products in the RCS and containment

  18. QFD analysis of RSRM aqueous cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Roy D.; Jones, Randy K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the final down-selected aqueous cleaners to be used on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program. The new cleaner will replace solvent vapor degreasing. The RSRM Ozone Depleting Compound Elimination program is discontinuing the methyl chloroform vapor degreasing process and replacing it with a spray-in-air aqueous cleaning process. Previously, 15 cleaners were down-selected to two candidates by passing screening tests involving toxicity, flammability, cleaning efficiency, contaminant solubility, corrosion potential, cost, and bond strength. The two down-selected cleaners were further evaluated with more intensive testing and evaluated using QFD techniques to assess suitability for cleaning RSRM case and nozzle surfaces in preparation for adhesive bonding.

  19. Uranyl fluoride luminescence in acidic aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Luminescence emission spectra and decay rates are reported for uranyl species in acidic aqueous solutions containing HF or added NaF. The longest luminescence lifetime, 0.269 ± 0.006 ms, was observed from uranyl in 1 M HF + 1 M HClO 4 at 296 K and decreased with increasing temperature. Based on a luminescence dynamics model that assumes equilibrium among electronically excited uranyl fluoride species and free fluoride ion, this long lived uranyl luminescence in aqueous solution is attributed primarily to UO 2 F 2 . Studies on the effect of added LiNO 3 or Na 2 WO 4 ·2H 2 O showed relatively weak quenching of uranyl fluoride luminescence which suggests that high sensitivity determination of the UF 6 content of WF 6 gas should be feasible via uranyl luminescence analysis of hydrolyzed gas samples of impure WF 6

  20. Monitoring dynamics of aqueous humor in glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyborny, P.; Hornova, J.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous humor dynamics was observed in patients treated for glaucoma. Aqueous flow was measured using the radionuclide method of contact application of 22 NaCl and the detection of gamma radiation with external detectors. The sample of 184 eyes was divided into three groups: open-angle glaucoma with therapy, open-angle glaucoma without therapy and angle-closure glaucoma 47 eyes were used as controls. Changes were observed in 22 Na outflow half-time in dependence on the duration of the disease, therapy, intraocular pressUre and changes in the perimeter. The new technique has been fully proven in practice, is a contribution to the diagnosis of glaucoma and an indicator of the compensation of the disease. (author)

  1. Aqueous Extract of Cnidnscntus ctcenitifolius [Chuyu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WI 34 in Id?-F19. Semen Chnructeristics unel H't2lEt"t'lt'.'t1'D|CtgiCfl| Parameters of West Fttrieu Dwuri Bucks Treeted with. Aqueous Extract of Cnidnscntus ctcenitifolius [Chuyu]. -'-'l'."'.|5.."L§."!"|.!t1"|.-.'-'!_'=;=1l!.*=t.*.“l.~J Edit. ... t12.fi'i' 11.02}. and seeund 'WPT {V1.85 :t: tt.3'J]. T09. It can he eunetuded that administration.

  2. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-03-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed in this work. One is the extension of the usable voltage range by the incorporation of lithium salts, and the other is the investigation of a useful negative electrode reactant, LiTi2(PO4)3. The electrochemical stability of aqueous lithium salt solutions containing two lithium salts, LiNO3 and Li2SO4, has been characterized using a constant current technique. In both cases, concentrated solutions had effective electrolyte stability windows substantially greater than that of pure water under standard conditions. At an electrolyte leakage current of 10 μA cm-2 between two platinum electrodes in 5 M LiNO3 the cell voltage can reach 2.0 V, whereas with a leakage current of 50 μA cm-2 it can reach 2.3 V. LiTi2(PO4)3 was synthesized using a Pechini method and cycled in pH-neutral Li2SO4. At a reaction potential near the lower limit of electrolyte stability, an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g-1 was measured at a C/5 rate, while about 90% of this discharge capacity was retained after 100 cycles. This work demonstrates that it is possible to have useful aqueous electrolyte lithium-ion batteries using the LiTi2(PO4)3 anode with cell voltages of 2 V and above.

  3. Production of Plutonium Metal from Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, D.A.

    2003-01-16

    The primary separation of plutonium from irradiated uranium by the Purex solvent extraction process at the Savannah River Plant produces a dilute plutonium solution containing residual fission products and uranium. A cation exchange process is used for concentration and further decontamination of the plutonium, as the first step in the final preparation of metal. This paper discusses the production of plutonium metal from the aqueous solutions.

  4. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-03-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed in this work. One is the extension of the usable voltage range by the incorporation of lithium salts, and the other is the investigation of a useful negative electrode reactant, LiTi 2(PO 4) 3. The electrochemical stability of aqueous lithium salt solutions containing two lithium salts, LiNO 3 and Li 2SO 4, has been characterized using a constant current technique. In both cases, concentrated solutions had effective electrolyte stability windows substantially greater than that of pure water under standard conditions. At an electrolyte leakage current of 10 μA cm -2 between two platinum electrodes in 5 M LiNO 3 the cell voltage can reach 2.0 V, whereas with a leakage current of 50 μA cm -2 it can reach 2.3 V. LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 was synthesized using a Pechini method and cycled in pH-neutral Li 2SO 4. At a reaction potential near the lower limit of electrolyte stability, an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g -1 was measured at a C/5 rate, while about 90% of this discharge capacity was retained after 100 cycles. This work demonstrates that it is possible to have useful aqueous electrolyte lithium-ion batteries using the LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 anode with cell voltages of 2 V and above. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiolysis of anthraquinone dyes in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskaya, N.A.; Bortun, L.N.; Ogurtsov, N.A.; Migdalovich, E.A.; Revina, A.A.; Volodko, V.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii)

    1986-01-01

    The commercial anthraquinone dyes (Dark Blue, Light Blue, Green) in aqueous solutions were shown to be decoloured and degrade under the action of ionizing radiation. The degree of decolouration and degradation of aromatic rings was found to increase in presence of oxygen. Hydroxyl radicals were shown to play the key role in the degradation of the dyes under irradiation. The radiolysis intermediate products were studied using the pulse radiolysis technique. (author)

  6. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  7. Optical constants of concentrated aqueous ammonium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Using experimental data obtained from applying spectroscopy to a 39-wt-% aqueous ammonium sulfate solution, it is shown that, even though specific aerosol optical constants appear quite accurate, spectral variations may exist as functions of material composition or concentration or both. Prudent users of optical constant data must then include liberal data error estimates when performing calculations or in interpreting spectroscopic surveys of collected aerosol material.

  8. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  9. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems

  10. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dexian; Chen, Baoling; Chen, P

    2015-01-01

    Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2) and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10) cells mL(-1) did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  11. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen in aqueous methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhasish K; Chakraborty, Savitri; Bhattacharyya, Anjan; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2013-01-01

    Photolysis of oxyfluorfen, an herbicide of the nitrodiphenyl ether class, was studied in aqueous methanol under UV and sunlight. UV irradiation was carried out in a borosilicate glass photoreactor (containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol) equipped with a quartz filter and 125 watt mercury lamp (maximum output 254 nm) at 25 ± 1°C. Sunlight irradiation was conducted at 28 ± 1°C in borosilicate Erlenmeyer flasks containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol. The samples from both the irradiated conditions were withdrawn at a definite time interval and extracted to measure oxyfluorfen content by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for rate study. The half-life values were 20 hours and 2.7 days under UV and sunlight exposure, respectively. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen yielded 13 photoproducts of which three were characterized by infrared spectrophotometer and (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The rest of the photoproducts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). An ionization potential 70 eV was used for electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) and methane was used as reagent gas for chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (CI-MS). Two of the photoproducts were also synthesized for comparison. The main phototransformation pathways of oxyfluorfen involved nitro reduction, dechlorination, and hydrolysis as well as nucleophiles displacement reaction.

  12. Density of aqueous solutions of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Julio E.

    2001-10-10

    In this report, we present a numerical representation for the partial molar volume of CO2 in water and the calculation of the corresponding aqueous solution density. The motivation behind this work is related to the importance of having accurate representations for aqueous phase properties in the numerical simulation of carbon dioxide disposal into aquifers as well as in geothermal applications. According to reported experimental data the density of aqueous solutions of CO2 can be as much as 2-3% higher than pure water density. This density variation might produce an influence on the groundwater flow regime. For instance, in geologic sequestration of CO2, convective transport mixing might occur when, several years after injection of carbon dioxide has stopped, the CO2-rich gas phase is concentrated at the top of the formation, just below an overlaying caprock. In this particular case the heavier CO2 saturated water will flow downward and will be replaced by water with a lesser CO2 content.

  13. Non-aqueous cleaning solvent substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Gerald J.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of environmental, safety, and health concerns exist over use of chlorinated and fluorinated cleaning solvents. Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, and the Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal have combined efforts to focus on finding alternative cleaning solvents and processes which are effective, environmentally safe, and compliant with local, state, and federal regulations. An alternative solvent has been identified, qualified, and implemented into production of complex electronic assemblies, where aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning processes are not allowed. Extensive compatibility studies were performed with components, piece-parts, and materials. Electrical testing and accelerated aging were used to screen for detrimental, long-term effects. A terpene, d-limonene, was selected as the solvent of choice, and it was found to be compatible with the components and materials tested. A brief history of the overall project will be presented, along with representative cleaning efficiency results, compatibility results, and residual solvent data. The electronics industry is constantly searching for proven methods and environmentally-safe materials to use in manufacturing processes. The information in this presentation will provide another option to consider on future projects for applications requiring high levels of quality, reliability, and cleanliness from non-aqueous cleaning processes.

  14. Voltammetry study of quinoxaline in aqueous electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Su, Liang; Liou, Catherine; Badel, Andres F.; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2015-01-01

    Organic compounds have recently received considerable attention as active materials in redox flow batteries (RFBs) due to their good electrochemical reversibility, high theoretical energy densities, and promise for low cost production. Until now, organic active material candidates for aqueous RFBs have been limited to the quinone family, a set of aromatic-derived organic molecules, distinguished by an even number of ketone (R−C(=O)−R′) groups. This work aims to elucidate and optimize the electrochemical behavior of quinoxaline, an organic molecule consisting of fused benzene and pyrazine rings, in aqueous electrolytes. More than 30 electrolytes are screened by cyclic voltammetry, and the five most promising electrolytes are investigated further using rotating disk voltammetry. Electrochemical behavior of quinoxaline shows pH dependent thermodynamics and reaction mechanisms, while chloride-containing supporting electrolytes greatly enhance solubility. This study sheds light on the promising characteristics of quinoxaline as a low potential compound for aqueous RFBs; quinoxaline has a redox potential of E° ≈ −0.02 V vs. RHE, is soluble up to ∼4.5 M in water, exhibits a two-electron transfer capability, and possesses a low molecular weight (130.15 g mol −1 ), resulting in a theoretical capacity of 410 mAh g −1 .

  15. Thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions with citrate ions. Compressibility studies in aqueous solutions of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli; Manzurola, Emanuel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures sound velocities were measured in aqueous solutions of citric acid. • Compressibility properties of citric acid solutions are thermodynamically characterized. • Changes in the structure of water when citric acid is dissolved are discussed. -- Abstract: Sound velocities in aqueous solutions of citric acid were measured from 15 °C to 50 °C in 5 °C intervals, within the 0.1 mol · kg −1 to 5.0 mol · kg −1 concentration range. These sound velocities served to evaluate the isentropic and isothermal compressibilities, the apparent molar compressibilities, the isochoric thermal pressure coefficients, changes of the cubic expansion coefficients with pressure at constant temperature, the changes of heat capacities with volume and hydration numbers of citric acid in aqueous solutions

  16. Histological changes in the liver of wistar rats treated with crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica stem bark on the histology of the liver in animal models. Twenty Wistar rats weighing between 170-185g were used for this study. They were sub-divided into four groups: A, B, C and D (n=5 each). Group A served as control, while B, C, ...

  17. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBAMIDE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Avramenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents the results of measurements of refractometric properties (refractive index n, its temperature factor dn/dt and the ultraviolet spectral absorption in carbonic acid diamide aqueous solutions (carbamide depending on solid residue mass fraction md = 0-50 % and on temperaturet = 10-70 °C.Method of Research. Laboratory methods ofliquid-phase medium refractometry and ultraviolet spectrophotometry were applied for the research. We carried out computational modeling of electronic states spectrum for the carbonic acid diamide molecule and theoretical calculation of the fundamental electronic absorption of the molecule in the ultraviolet wavelenght region.Main Results. We have established that the solution concentration md has a nonlinear character and may be represented by the quadratic polynomial with the error Δn= ± 0,0005. We have shown the refractive indexdependence on temperature n(t changes in linear fashion att = 10-70 °C.At that, the inclination of lines n(t increases at the increase of md; so, the temperature factor dn/dt may be approximated by the quadratic polynomial. Transmission spectra of solutions in the spectral region λ= 225-760 nm have no special features except for the sharp edge in the short-wavelength region; the fundamental electronic absorptionis responsible for it. We have established that dispersion dependences of the refraction index n(λ;md in aqueous solutions of carbamide at λ= 360-760 nm and at md = 0-50 % may be calculated with the satisfactory error without additional adjustable parameters from the ultraviolet absorption data in terms of the one-dimentional oscillator Lorentz model.PracticalRelevance. Representedmeasurements of carbonic acid diamide aqueous solutions optical properties may be applied for the adjustment and calibration of commercial refractometers at processing lines of the AdBlue reagent manufacture for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR of motor transport

  18. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  19. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  20. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Andrea Kaeslin

    Full Text Available To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group.Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS based on SWATH technology was performed.Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes.Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  1. Gamma irradiation of coumarin in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopakumar, K.; Kini, U.R.; Ashawa, S.C.; Bhandari, N.S.; Krishnan, G.U.; Krishnan, D.

    1977-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of coumarin become fluorescent on gamma irradiation. The main fluorescent product formed, 7-hydroxy coumarin, shows a dependence on oxygen. The yield in the presence of oxygen is three times that in the nitrogen saturated condition. The effect of cysteine, dimethyl sulfoxide, thymine and sodium nitrite on the gamma response of coumarin suggests the involvement of hydroxyl radicals in the formation of the fluorescent product. The hydroxyl rate constant for coumarin was determined using isopropanol as the co-competitor. The G (-coumarin) in the aerated and nitrogen saturated conditions was also determined. (author)

  2. NON-AQUEOUS DISSOLUTION OF MASSIVE PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

    1959-05-12

    A method is presented for obtaining non-aqueous solutions or plutonium from massive forms of the metal. In the present invention massive plutonium is added to a salt melt consisting of 10 to 40 weight per cent of sodium chloride and the balance zinc chloride. The plutonium reacts at about 800 deg C with the zinc chloride to form a salt bath of plutonium trichloride, sodium chloride, and metallic zinc. The zinc is separated from the salt melt by forcing the molten mixture through a Pyrex filter.

  3. Sound velocity in potassium hydroxide aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapuryan, Kh.D.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Kochetkov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of ultrasonic velocities in potassium hydroxide aqueous solutions are carried out within the frames of studies on improvement of water chemistry in NPP cooling systems. Method of echo pulses superposition with acoustic path length of 41.447 mm is used for measurements. The measurements are performed at 2.6 MHz frequency. Complex temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity is determined. Ultrasonic velocity dependence on pressure is close to linear one. The formula for calculation of thermodynamic properties of the studied solutions on the basis of experimental data obtained is proposed

  4. Sonolysis of chlorinated compounds in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Myung Hee; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Young Uk; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2007-02-01

    To examine the reaction rates of sonochemical degradation of aqueous phase carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and 1,2,3-trichloropropane at various temperatures, power intensities, and saturating gases, the batch tests were carried out. The degradations of chlorinated hydrocarbons were analyzed as pseudo first order reactions and their reaction rate constants were in the range of 10(-1)-10(-3)/min. The reaction was fast at the low temperature with higher power intensity. Also, the reaction went fast with the saturating gas with high specific heat ratio, high solubility and low thermal conductivity. The main mechanism of destruction of chemicals was believed the thermal combustion in the bubble.

  5. Non-aqueous titration of hydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamey, T W; Christian, R

    1966-01-01

    Benzohydroxamic acid is titrated with 0.1M tetrabutyl-anunonium hydroxide in nine non-aqueous solvents with three different indicating electrodes. The best results are obtained using dimethylformamide as solvent and platinum-platinum electrodes. Four monoprotic and three diprotic hydroxamie acids and iron(III) benzohydroxamate have been successfully titrated with this system. The effect of quantitative additions of carbon dioxide to the titrant on its apparent molarity are found to be dependent on the amount added, the strength and sample size of acid titrated and the solvent used.

  6. UV curable aqueous dispersions for wood coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, S.; Bleus, J.P.; Wang, Z.J.; Arceneaux, J. A.; Hall, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the characterisation of aqueous dispersions of UV curable resins is described. Two types of dispersions were used: dispersions that are tacky after water evaporation and tack - free before cure dispersions. The physical and rheological properties of these products have been determined and the performance of these dispersions in various formulations, especially for wood applications has been studied. With these dispersions, it is possible to produce coatings having a good cure speed, good surface hardness and good solvent -, chemical - and water resistance

  7. Radiosensitization of thymidine in deaerated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Maurice.

    1982-09-01

    This work investigates the mode of action of various radiosensitizing agents on the radio-induced degradation of thymidine in deaerated aqueous solution. A special effort was devoted to the separation of addition products formed by one of these substances (a stable nitroxide radical: TAN) with the radio-induced neutral radicals of thymidine. The complex mixture of different diastereoisomers resulting from the covalent addition of the TAN molecule on the thymidine carbons C (5) or C (6) was resolved by HPLC. The structural determination of these adducts (absolute configuration) was achieved by various spectroscopic techniques and specific chemical syntheses. A conformational study has been undertaken [fr

  8. Initial Electrospreading of Aqueous Electrolyte Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longquan; Li, Chunli; van der Vegt, Nico F. A.; Auernhammer, Günter K.; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    The early spreading of a liquid drop on a solid surface driven by inertial, capillary, and electrostatic forces is of fundamental interest, since most commonly used surfaces are (naturally) charged. We studied the effect of applying an electric potential between a drop and a surface on the early spreading of aqueous electrolyte drops. We found that spreading dynamics not only depended on the potential, but also on the electrolyte concentration. Based on molecular dynamics simulations of the ion distribution in spreading nanodrops under an applied potential, we propose a simple model to explain the relation between applied potential, electrolyte concentration, and early spreading dynamics.

  9. Aqueous solubility, dispersibility and toxicity of biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Lumley, T.C.; Landriault, M.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.

    2007-01-01

    The renewed interest in the use of biological fuels can be attributed to that fact that feedstocks for fatty-acid ester biodiesels are renewable and can be reclaimed from waste. Although there are significant benefits to using biodiesels, their increased use leaves potential for accidental release to the environment. Therefore, their environmental behaviours and impacts must be evaluated along with the risk associated with their use. Biodiesel fuels may be made from soy oil, canola oil, reclaimed restaurant grease, fish oil and animal fat. The toxicological fate of biofuel depends on the variability of its chemical composition. This study provided an initial assessment of the aqueous fate and effects of biodiesel from a broad range of commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesels. The study focused primarily on the fate and impact of these fuels in fresh-water. The use of chemical dispersion as a countermeasure for saltwater was also investigated. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems to biodiesels and petroleum diesel occurs via the transfer of material from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) into the aqueous phase, as both soluble and dispersed components. The aqueous solubilities of the fuels were determined from the equilibrium water-accommodated fraction concentrations. The acute toxicities of many biodiesels were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, namely rainbow trout, the water flea and a luminescent bacterium. This study also evaluated the natural potential for dispersion of the fuels in the water column in both low and high-energy wave conditions. Chemical dispersion as a potential countermeasure for biodiesel spills was also evaluated using solubility testing, acute toxicity testing, and dispersibility testing. It was shown that biodiesels have much different fates and impacts from petroleum diesels. The compounds partitioning into the water column are also very different for each

  10. Primary photochemistry of peroxynitrite in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen, Jan; Kissner, Reinhard; Nauser, Thomas; Koppenol, Willem H.; Richter, Bo; Jensen, Frank; Keiding, Søren Rud; Jensen, Svend J. Knak

    2015-11-01

    The photolysis of aqueous peroxynitrite, ONOO-(aq), by 266 nm UV radiation is explored by femtosecond UV-UV and UV-IR transient absorption spectroscopies. The experiments show that 90 ± 10% of the photolyzed ONOO- anions remain dissociated after 400 ps. We analyze the photolysis in terms of five potential reaction channels, using steady-state absorption spectra together with electron structure calculations on potential photoproducts in clusters of water molecules. In addition, calculations of all excited electronic states of ONOO-(g) below the excitation energy help to explore the reaction channels. The dominant reaction channel is hν + ONOO- → O2•- + NO•.

  11. Photochemical reactions of aqueous plutonium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, H.A.; Toth, L.M.; Bell, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    The photochemical shift of the Pu 4+ disproportionation equilibrium in aqueous perchloric acid solutions has been measured and shown to be reversible. Ratios of equilibrium quotients between light and dark conditions have been measured for 0.01 M Pu ion concentrations in 0.53 to 1.24 N acid solutions exposed to 0.5 Watt of UV light. The photodecomposition of time- and temperature-aged Pu(IV) polymers in perchloric and nitric acid solutions have been examined as a function of aging conditions. Effects similar to those seen previously for fresh polymers have been observed in the aged perchloric acid solutions. (author)

  12. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Moisy, P. [CEA, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Nuclear Energy Div.

    2012-07-01

    Radiolysis in aqueous nitrate and acetic acid solutions and nitrate/nitric acid and phenol was studied. The radiolysis of these solutes occurs with {sup circle} NO{sup 2} radical, which is the active nitrating agent. Accumulation of nitromethane and nitrite was determined during {gamma}-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing acetic and nitrate solutions. Irradiation of aqueous phenol-nitrate/nitric acid solutions results in the formation of 2- and 4-nitrophenols.

  13. Formation and disappearance of superoxide radicals in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.O.; Bielski, B.H.J.

    1980-01-01

    A literature review of superoxide radicals in aqueous solutions is presented covering the following: history; methods of formation of aqueous HO 2 /HO 2 - by radiolysis and photolysis, electrolysis, mixing nonaqueous solutions into water, chemical reactions, enzymatic generation of O 2 - , and photosensitization; and properties of HO 2 /O 2 - in aqueous solution, which cover spontaneous dismutation rates, pk and absorption spectra, catalyzed dismutation, thermodynamics and the so-called Haber-Weiss Reaction

  14. Preparing polymeric matrix composites using an aqueous slurry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Towell, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous process was developed to prepare a consolidated composite laminate from an aqueous slurry. An aqueous poly(amic acid) surfactant solution was prepared by dissolving a poly(amic acid) powder in an aqueous ammonia solution. A polymeric powder was added to this solution to form a slurry. The slurry was deposited on carbon fiber to form a prepreg which was dried and stacked to form a composite laminate. The composite laminate was consolidated using pressure and was heated to form the polymeric matrix. The resulting composite laminate exhibited high fracture toughness and excellent consolidation.

  15. Expression of cytokines in aqueous humor from fungal keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingnan; Liang, Qingfeng; Liu, Yang; Pan, Zhiqiang; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine; Lu, Qingxian

    2018-04-19

    Although a series of reports on corneal fungal infection have been published, studies on pathogenic mechanisms and inflammation-associated cytokines remain limited. In this study, aqueous humor samples from fungal keratitis patients were collected to examine cytokine patterns and cellular profile for the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis. The aqueous humor samples were collected from ten patients with advanced stage fungal keratitis. Eight aqueous humor samples from patients with keratoconus or corneal dystrophy were taken as control. Approximately 100 μl to 300 μl of aqueous humor in each case were obtained for examination. The aqueous humor samples were centrifuged and the cells were stained and examined under optical microscope. Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed on the aqueous humor and corneal buttons of all patients. Cytokines related to inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were examined using multiplex bead-based Luminex liquid protein array systems. Fungus infection was confirmed in these ten patients by smear stains and/or fungal cultures. Bacterial and fungal cultures revealed negative results in all aqueous humor specimens. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the predominant infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor of fungal keratitis. At the advanced stages of fungal keratitis, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the aqueous humor were significantly increased when compared with control (phumor was associated with fungal keratitis.

  16. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in effluents...

  17. Aqueous Angiography: Real-Time and Physiologic Aqueous Humor Outflow Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Saraswathy

    Full Text Available Trabecular meshwork (TM bypass surgeries attempt to enhance aqueous humor outflow (AHO to lower intraocular pressure (IOP. While TM bypass results are promising, inconsistent success is seen. One hypothesis for this variability rests upon segmental (non-360 degrees uniform AHO. We describe aqueous angiography as a real-time and physiologic AHO imaging technique in model eyes as a way to simulate live AHO imaging.Pig (n = 46 and human (n = 6 enucleated eyes were obtained, orientated based upon inferior oblique insertion, and pre-perfused with balanced salt solution via a Lewicky AC maintainer through a 1mm side-port. Fluorescein (2.5% was introduced intracamerally at 10 or 30 mm Hg. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent (486 nm images were acquired. Image processing allowed for collection of pixel information based on intensity or location for statistical analyses. Concurrent OCT was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histological analysis of angiographically active areas.Aqueous angiography yielded high quality images with segmental patterns (p<0.0001; Kruskal-Wallis test. No single quadrant was consistently identified as the primary quadrant of angiographic signal (p = 0.06-0.86; Kruskal-Wallis test. Regions of high proximal signal did not necessarily correlate with regions of high distal signal. Angiographically positive but not negative areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens on OCT images. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways.Aqueous angiography is a real-time and physiologic AHO imaging technique in model eyes.

  18. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  19. Kinetics of ptaquiloside hydrolysis in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala Luis, Karina Barbara; Hansen, Pernille B.; Rasmussen, Lars Holm

    2006-01-01

    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a well-known toxin produced by the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn). It is proposed that PTA from bracken stands can leach through soil and sediments into drinking-water reservoirs, thus representing a concern for human health. To predict the persistence of the t......Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a well-known toxin produced by the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn). It is proposed that PTA from bracken stands can leach through soil and sediments into drinking-water reservoirs, thus representing a concern for human health. To predict the persistence...... of the toxin, a full understanding of the PTA degradation in aqueous environments is important. The kinetics of PTA hydrolysis was examined at 22C in aqueous buffered solutions (pH 2.88–8.93). The reaction was found to follow first-order kinetics with respect to PTA at all pH and temperature conditions. At p......H lower than 4.43 (0.32), the reaction is acid-mediated, whereas the reaction is base-mediated at pH higher than 6.39 (0.28). The rate constants for the acidcatalyzed, base-catalyzed, and neutral hydrolysis are 25.70 (0.96), 4.83 (0.03) 104, and 9.49 (6.02) 104 h1, respectively. The PTA hydrolysis at pH 4...

  20. Dissolution of steel slags in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shashikant; Mehra, Anurag

    2017-07-01

    Steel slag is a major industrial waste in steel industries, and its dissolution behavior in water needs to be characterized in the larger context of its potential use as an agent for sequestering CO 2 . For this purpose, a small closed system batch reactor was used to conduct the dissolution of steel slags in an aqueous medium under various dissolution conditions. In this study, two different types of steel slags were procured from steel plants in India, having diverse structural features, mineralogical compositions, and particle sizes. The experiment was performed at different temperatures for 240 h of dissolution at atmospheric pressure. The dissolution rates of major and minor slag elements were quantified through liquid-phase elemental analysis using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy at different time intervals. Advanced analytical techniques such as field emission gun-scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray, BET, and XRD were also used to analyze mineralogical and structural changes in the slag particles. High dissolution of slags was observed irrespective of the particle size distribution, which suggests high carbonation potential. Concentrations of toxic heavy metals in the leachate were far below maximum acceptable limits. Thus, the present study investigates the dissolution behavior of different mineral ions of steel slag in aqueous media in light of its potential application in CO 2 sequestration.