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Sample records for birostris ducht aristolochiaceae

  1. Estudo fitoquímico das partes aéreas de Aristolochia birostris Ducht. (Aristolochiaceae

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    Vanusia C. França

    Full Text Available A família Aristolochiaceae apresenta entre seus constituintes terpenóides, alcalóides e lignóides. Papo-de-peru, jarrinha, mil-homens e capivara são nomes populares da espécie Aristolochia birostris, a qual é utilizada na medicina popular como antiofídica, sudorífica, anticatarral e abortiva. Um estudo fitoquímico anterior com as partes aéreas desta espécie reportou o isolamento de quatro terpenóides, um lignóide e uma antraquinona. Dando continuidade a esse estudo, este trabalho relata a identificação de 4 lignóides, sendo dois do tipo ariloxiarilpropânico (4-metilenodioxi-5,3',5' -trimetoxi-1'-alil-8.O.4'-neolignana e 3,4,5,3',5'-pentametoxi-1'-alil-8.O.4'-neolignana, um do tipo tetraidrofurano (grandisina e uma lignana dibenzilbutirolactônica [(--hinoquinina], além de vanilina. As estruturas foram estabelecidas através de métodos espectroscópicos de infravermelho e ressonância magnética nuclear uni e bidimensionais. Os lignóides foram avaliados quanto a atividade antimicrobiana frente a algumas cepas de bactérias, fungos e leveduras, entretanto foram inativos.

  2. Genotoxicity test of Maytenus rigida and Aristolochia birostris in the radicular meristem of the onion, Allium cepa

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    Sandra S. Mendes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are an important source of treatment for many ailments, although little is known of the potential genotoxic effects of most species. In the present study, two species from diverse and medicinally important genera - Maytenus rigida Mart., Celastraceae, and Aristolochia birostris Ducht, Aristolochiaceae - were analyzed to identify potentially significant secondary metabolites and the possible effects of their aqueous and alcoholic extracts on cell division in the onion root stem (genotoxicity test. The phytochemical testing revealed the presence of a number of potentially important secondary compounds in both species, including phenols, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, and saponins. In the genotoxicity tests, no chromosomal abnormalities of any kind were observed in either species. In the case of M. rigida, a significant increase in mitotic activity was observed at the highest concentration. No significant tendency was recorded in A. birostris, although a considerable increase in the prophase was observed at all concentrations of the alcoholic extract. The triterpenoid content of both species may be especially important from a medicinal viewpoint, although recent findings on the carcinogenic potential of Aristolochia extracts demands caution in the interpretation of the results, and the need for further research.

  3. Genotoxicity test of Maytenus rigida and Aristolochia birostris in the radicular meristem of the onion, Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. Mendes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are an important source of treatment for many ailments, although little is known of the potential genotoxic effects of most species. In the present study, two species from diverse and medicinally important genera - Maytenus rigida Mart., Celastraceae, and Aristolochia birostris Ducht, Aristolochiaceae - were analyzed to identify potentially significant secondary metabolites and the possible effects of their aqueous and alcoholic extracts on cell division in the onion root stem (genotoxicity test. The phytochemical testing revealed the presence of a number of potentially important secondary compounds in both species, including phenols, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, and saponins. In the genotoxicity tests, no chromosomal abnormalities of any kind were observed in either species. In the case of M. rigida, a significant increase in mitotic activity was observed at the highest concentration. No significant tendency was recorded in A. birostris, although a considerable increase in the prophase was observed at all concentrations of the alcoholic extract. The triterpenoid content of both species may be especially important from a medicinal viewpoint, although recent findings on the carcinogenic potential of Aristolochia extracts demands caution in the interpretation of the results, and the need for further research.

  4. Southernmost record of the Giant Manta Ray Mobula birostris (Walbaum, 1792) in the Eastern Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabé Moreno; Adriana Gonzalez-Pestana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Manta rays (Mobulidae), Mobula birostris and Mobula alfredi, are widely distributed in tropical and temperate waters. Still, little is known about their movements and their ecological interactions (e.g. behavior and diet). In Peru, M. birostris has only been reported along the northern shore within the Tropical East Pacific Marine Province. No official reports exist from central or south Peru within the Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific Marine Province. Methods On Decemb...

  5. Occurrence and use of an estuarine habitat by giant manta ray Manta birostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A M; Luiz, O J; Domit, C

    2015-06-01

    Based on the knowledge of local artisanal fishermen and on direct observations, this study presents evidence that the giant manta ray Manta birostris uses the Paranaguá estuarine complex in south Brazil, south-western Atlantic Ocean, in a predictable seasonal pattern. Behavioural observations suggest that the estuary can act as a nursery ground for M. birostris during the summer. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. First photographic records of the giant manta ray Manta birostris off eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lydie I.E. Couturier; Fabrice R.A. Jaine; Tom Kashiwagi

    2015-01-01

    We present the first photographic evidence of the presence of the giant manta ray Manta birostris in east Australian waters. Two individuals were photographed off Montague Island in New South Wales and off the north east coast of Tasmania, during summer 2012 and 2014, respectively. These sightings confirm previous unverified reports on the species occurrence and extend the known distribution range of M. birostris to 40?S. We discuss these findings in the context of the species? migratory beha...

  7. First photographic records of the giant manta ray Manta birostris off eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Lydie I E; Jaine, Fabrice R A; Kashiwagi, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We present the first photographic evidence of the presence of the giant manta ray Manta birostris in east Australian waters. Two individuals were photographed off Montague Island in New South Wales and off the north east coast of Tasmania, during summer 2012 and 2014, respectively. These sightings confirm previous unverified reports on the species occurrence and extend the known distribution range of M. birostris to 40°S. We discuss these findings in the context of the species' migratory behaviour, the regional oceanography along the south east Australian coastline and local productivity events.

  8. First photographic records of the giant manta ray Manta birostris off eastern Australia

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    Lydie I.E. Couturier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first photographic evidence of the presence of the giant manta ray Manta birostris in east Australian waters. Two individuals were photographed off Montague Island in New South Wales and off the north east coast of Tasmania, during summer 2012 and 2014, respectively. These sightings confirm previous unverified reports on the species occurrence and extend the known distribution range of M. birostris to 40°S. We discuss these findings in the context of the species’ migratory behaviour, the regional oceanography along the south east Australian coastline and local productivity events.

  9. Southernmost record of the Giant Manta Ray Mobula birostris (Walbaum, 1792 in the Eastern Pacific

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    Bernabé Moreno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manta rays (Mobulidae, Mobula birostris and Mobula alfredi, are widely distributed in tropical and temperate waters. Still, little is known about their movements and their ecological interactions (e.g. behavior and diet. In Peru, M. birostris has only been reported along the northern shore within the Tropical East Pacific Marine Province. No official reports exist from central or south Peru within the Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific Marine Province. Methods On December 22nd 2015, a rare sighting of a ~4 m disc width mobulid ray was recorded as video footage near the Palomino Islets, Lima, Peru. Results In situ observations and subsequent analysis of the footage confirmed that this single mobulid was a M. birostris with a melanistic color morph. Conclusions This sighting could be explained by the warm El Niño, primary (chl-a, and secondary (zooplankton productivity events during that same period. This represents the southernmost record of M. birostris in the southeastern Pacific (12°S and the first report of this species in the Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific Marine Province and in the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Giant Manta ray, Manta birostris.

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    Hinojosa-Alvarez, Silvia; Díaz-Jaimes, Pindaro; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gabaldón, Toni

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the giant manta ray (Manta birostris), consists of 18,075 bp with rich A + T and low G content. Gene organization and length is similar to other species of ray. It comprises of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs genes, 23 tRNAs genes and 1 non-coding sequence, and the control region. We identified an AT tandem repeat region, similar to that reported in Mobula japanica.

  11. Interactions between Manta birostris and Sotalia guianensis in a World Heritage listed Brazilian estuary.

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    Domit, C; Broadhurst, M K; Bornatowski, H

    2017-10-01

    During 1442 h of visual observations over 7 years throughout the World Heritage listed Paranaguá estuarine complex, Brazil, seven occurrences of interactions were observed at a single location involving breaching Manta birostris displacing schools of teleosts, which were subsequently preyed upon by Sotalia guianensis. Although the interactions were not definitively categorized as being amensal, commensal or mutual, their restriction to isolated space (adjacent to a protected area) and time (summer) supports previous assertions the area is important to regional productivity and the continuation of protected-area status. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. New records of whale shark (Rhincodon typus), giant manta ray (Manta birostris) and Chilean devil ray (Mobula tarapacana) for Suriname

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    Boer, De M.N.; Saulino, J.T.; Lewis, T.P.; Notarbartolo-Di-Sciara, G.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about elasmobranchs along the northern coast of South America. During five boat surveys in Suriname offshore waters we visually documented the presence and behaviour of the free-ranging whale shark Rhincodon typus and two mobulid rays: the giant manta ray Manta birostris and the

  13. Manta birostris, predator of the deep? Insight into the diet of the giant manta ray through stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Katherine B; Couturier, Lydie I E; Marshall, Andrea D; Richardson, Anthony J; Weeks, Scarla J; Bennett, Michael B

    2016-11-01

    The characterization of diet for the giant manta ray Manta birostris has been problematic given their large-scale movement patterns and the difficulty in obtaining stomach contents from this species. The large majority of existing information is based on observational data limited to feeding events at the sea surface during daylight. Recently discovered aggregation sites for the giant manta ray off mainland Ecuador are some of the most accessible to date and provide a unique opportunity for researchers to gather much needed information on this elusive species. To assess how important surface zooplankton is to giant manta ray diet, we conducted stable isotope analysis ( 15 N and 13 C) on M. birostris muscle and surface zooplankton. Trophic position estimates placed M. birostris overall at a secondary consumer level of approximately 3.4 but there was large variation in δ 15 N and δ 13 C values among individuals. Manta birostris muscle tissue δ 13 C values were also not consistent with this species feeding predominantly on surface zooplankton and suggest that the majority of dietary intake is of mesopelagic origin. Given the conservative life history and fisheries pressure on large planktivores, knowledge of their trophic role and foraging strategies is essential to better understand their ecology and develop effective conservation measures.

  14. Manta birostris, predator of the deep? Insight into the diet of the giant manta ray through stable isotope analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Katherine B.; Couturier, Lydie I. E.; Marshall, Andrea D.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Bennett, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The characterization of diet for the giant manta ray Manta birostris has been problematic given their large-scale movement patterns and the difficulty in obtaining stomach contents from this species. The large majority of existing information is based on observational data limited to feeding events at the sea surface during daylight. Recently discovered aggregation sites for the giant manta ray off mainland Ecuador are some of the most accessible to date and provide a unique opportunity for r...

  15. Role of sensory cues on food searching behavior of a captive Manta birostris (Chondrichtyes, Mobulidae).

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    Ari, Csilla; Correia, João P

    2008-07-01

    This study reports on the first experimental research designed specifically for Manta birostris behavior. The authors attempted to learn about the feeding behavior and environmental cues influencing this behavior, as well as general cognitive ability. The preconditioned Manta's ability to identify food, on the basis of a fraction of the ordinary food signal complex, was tested. The opening of cephalic fins was considered a good indicator of feeding motivation level. The study subject animal used its biological clock to predict time and also associated a specific location with food, suggesting an ability to build up a cognitive map of its environment. Both underwater visual stimuli and olfactory stimuli had a very intense effect on food searching behavior over a 30 m distance, in contrast to visual signs from above the water surface. In addition, although an underwater visual signal resulted in a more intense response than from an olfactory signal, the specimen did not discriminate between different objects tested on the basis of visual sensation. It could therefore be suggested that food searching behavior of Mantas are governed by triggering stimuli, including smell or visual recognition, and modulated by the cognitive spatial map stored in their long-term memory. These findings will hopefully prove useful while devising protecting policies in the natural environment and/or while keeping these animals in captivity. Zoo Biol 27:294-304, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The genetic signature of recent speciation in manta rays (Manta alfredi and M. birostris).

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    Kashiwagi, Tom; Marshall, Andrea D; Bennett, Michael B; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2012-07-01

    Manta rays have been taxonomically revised as two species, Manta alfredi and M. birostris, on the basis of morphological and meristic data, yet the two species occur in extensive mosaic sympatry. We analysed the genetic signatures of the species boundary using a portion of the nuclear RAG1 (681 base pairs), mitochondrial CO1 (574 bp) and ND5 genes (1188 bp). The assay with CO1 sequences, widely used in DNA barcoding, failed to distinguish the two species. The two species were clearly distinguishable, however, with no shared RAG1 or ND5 haplotypes. The species were reciprocally monophyletic for RAG1, but paraphyletic for ND5 sequences. Qualitative evidence and statistical inferences using the 'Isolation-with-Migration models' indicated that these results were better explained with post-divergence gene flow in the recent past rather than incomplete lineage sorting with zero gene flow since speciation. An estimate of divergence time was less than 0.5 Ma with an upper confidence limit of within 1 Ma. Recent speciation of highly mobile species in the marine environment is of great interest, as it suggests that speciation may have occurred in the absence of long-term physical barriers to gene flow. We propose that the ecologically driven forces such as habitat choice played a significant role in speciation in manta rays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. First determination of the levels of platinum group metals in Manta birostris (manta ray) caught along the Ghanaian coastline.

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    Essumang, D K

    2010-06-01

    Tissues from Manta birostris caught by fishermen from Dixcove in the western part of Ghana were analyzed for their Platinum, palladium and rhodium concentrations (PGM). The use of chondrichthyan fish has permitted the study of trace levels of Platinum group metals (PGMs) which have travelled very far into the sea. The analysis showed that Ghana's coastline is fairly polluted with these platinum group metals (PGMs). PGM concentration in manta ray recorded a range of (0.15-0.85) microg/g for Pt, (0.033-0.67) microg/g for Pd and (0.007-0.145) microg/g for Rh. Comparing these values to the UK dietary intake of 0.2 microg/day for Pt and Rh and 1.0 microg/day for Pd, its indicates that the values obtained from the analysis for Pt was above the required level. This is the first study to show the accumulation of PGM in chondrichthyan fish, although the sources of this pollution are not clear as manta birostris is migratory and therefore need to be investigated further. The presence of the PGM is very significant, since manta ray meat is consumed in Ghana. This may presents a health risk, due to a possible accumulation of PGMs in humans.

  18. Deep-water feeding and behavioral plasticity in Manta birostris revealed by archival tags and submersible observations.

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    Stewart, Joshua D; Hoyos-Padilla, Edgar Mauricio; Kumli, Katherine R; Rubin, Robert D

    2016-10-01

    Foraging drives many fundamental aspects of ecology, and an understanding of foraging behavior aids in the conservation of threatened species by identifying critical habitats and spatial patterns relevant to management. The world's largest ray, the oceanic manta (Manta birostris) is poorly studied and threatened globally by targeted fisheries and incidental capture. Very little information is available on the natural history, ecology and behavior of the species, complicating management efforts. This study provides the first data on the diving behavior of the species based on data returned from six tagged individuals, and an opportunistic observation from a submersible of a manta foraging at depth. Pop-off archival satellite tags deployed on mantas at the Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico recorded seasonal shifts in diving behavior, likely related to changes in the location and availability of zooplankton prey. Across seasons, mantas spent a large proportion of their time centered around the upper limit of the thermocline, where zooplankton often aggregate. Tag data reveal a gradual activity shift from surface waters to 100-150m across the tagging period, possibly indicating a change in foraging behavior from targeting surface-associated zooplankton to vertical migrators. The depth ranges accessed by mantas in this study carry variable bycatch risks from different fishing gear types. Consequently, region-specific data on diving behavior can help inform local management strategies that reduce or mitigate bycatch of this vulnerable species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Buoyancy and similarity of the swimming of Manta birostris(Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae) with the flying cycle of Columba livia(Aves: Columbidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Meza Vélez, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Se analizó la física de la flotación en la mantarraya Manta birostrisy se comparó el nado con el ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica Columba livia, con la finalidad de encontrar similitudes y diferencias en las locomociones y las leyes físicas que intervienen. Se demostró que uno de los dos ciclos de nado estudiados de esta especie posee tres de las cuatro fases principales del ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica. También se demostró un “efecto paracaídas” en M. birostris, el cual le ...

  20. Flotabilidad y similitud del nado de Manta birostris(Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae con el ciclo de vuelo de Columba livia(Aves: Columbidae

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    Iván Meza Vélez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la física de la flotación en la mantarraya Manta birostrisy se comparó el nado con el ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica Columba livia, con la finalidad de encontrar similitudes y diferencias en las locomociones y las leyes físicas que intervienen. Se demostró que uno de los dos ciclos de nado estudiados de esta especie posee tres de las cuatro fases principales del ciclo de vuelo de la paloma doméstica. También se demostró un “efecto paracaídas” en M. birostris, el cual le ofrece una ventaja en su locomoción. Adicionalmente, se describió cómo el concepto físico de torque se aplica al giro de esta especie.

  1. Manta rays in the Marquesas Islands: first records of Manta birostris in French Polynesia and most easterly location of Manta alfredi in the Pacific Ocean, with notes on their distribution.

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    Mourier, J

    2012-11-01

    Based on direct observations of free-ranging specimens, the giant manta ray Manta birostris is reported from the Marquesas Islands, the first sighting in French Polynesia. Sightings of its sister species, the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, are also reported at the most easterly location in the Pacific Ocean. Preliminary individual identification as well as notes on their distribution are also reported. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Uso de hábitat de Triaenodon obesus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae, Rhincodon typus (Orectolobiformes: Rhincodontidae y Manta birostris (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae en el Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona, Pacífico colombiano

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    Paola Andrea Mejía-Falla

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el uso de hábitat del aletiblanco Triaenodon obesus, la mantaraya Manta birostris y el tiburón ballena Rhincodon typus en la Isla Gorgona, a partir de 427 inmersiones de buceo y del análisis de 866 fotografías y videos. T. obesus se observó a lo largo del año, y su presencia se correlacionó con profundidades entre 20 y 30m (66.9%, fondos areno-rocosos (79.8% y las zonas occidental (61.2% y sur (52.9%, con mayores congregaciones en esta última zona. R. typus y M. birostris se avistaron entre 28 y 33oC y su presencia se correlacionó con la zona norte de la isla, área de mayor abundancia de zoo e ictioplancton. Se identificaron 5 tiburones ballena, 15 mantarrayas y 38 aletiblancos, 9 de los cuales fueron recapturados en años diferentes. La mayoría de los aletiblancos recapturados fueron observados solos, en reposo y sobre el fondo y en la misma zona, sugiriendo alta filopatría; sin embargo, la recaptura de tres individuos en zonas diferentes, indican conectividad de la especie en la isla. Gorgona es un área importante para la reproducción y crecimiento del aletiblanco, y un área de paso para el tiburón ballena y la mantarraya, los cuales se observan con mayor frecuencia entre marzo y septiembre, pero no forman agregaciones.

  3. Antioxidant properties of some medicinal Aristolochiaceae species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Department of Botany, Plant Tissue Culture Division, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil nadu, India. Accepted 15 August, 2007. Antioxidant properties of ... raising interest among scientists and food manufacturers as consumers move toward functional foods with specific health effects (Lo liger, 1991).

  4. Una nueva especie amazónica de Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae Una nueva especie amazónica de Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae

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    González Favio

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el estudio de colecciones provenientes de la Amazonia ecuatoriana (Napo y peruana (Huánuco y Loreto, es descrita Aristolochia schunkeana como especie nueva de Aristolochia ser. Thyrsicae; adicionalmente, se presenta una clave ilustrada para diferenciar las especies de la Amazonia noroccidental afines al nuevo taxon. Aristolochia schunkeana, from Ecuador (Napa and Peru (Huánuco and Loreto, is described as a new species of Aristolochia ser. Thyrsicae; in addition, a key and some drawings of the new taxon and their relatives from northwest Amazonia are provided.

  5. Chemical study and antibacterial activity of stem of Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae); Estudo quimico e atividade antibacteriana do caule de Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Alison G.; Silva, Thiago M.; Manfrini, Rozangela M.; Sallum, William S.T.; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila; Alcantara, Antonio F. de C., E-mail: aalcantara@zeus.qui.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Knupp, Vagner F. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From the ethanolic extract of the stem of A. esperanzae ethyl and methyl fatty acid esters, fatty acids, aristolochic I and II acids, and {beta}-cubebin were isolated. In addiction asarinin, populifolic and 2-oxo-populifolic acids, aristolactams AIa and AII, and sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated and firstly described in the species. Asarinin and {beta}-cubebin showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and aristolochic acid I against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocitogenes. (author)

  6. Recalcitrant deep and shallow nodes in Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) illuminated using anchored hybrid enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Stefan; Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Müller, Sebastian; Paizanni Guillén, Anna; Neinhuis, Christoph; Lemmon, Alan R; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2017-12-01

    Recalcitrant relationships are characterized by very short internodes that can be found among shallow and deep phylogenetic scales all over the tree of life. Adding large amounts of presumably informative sequences, while decreasing systematic error, has been suggested as a possible approach to increase phylogenetic resolution. The development of enrichment strategies, coupled with next generation sequencing, resulted in a cost-effective way to facilitate the reconstruction of recalcitrant relationships. By applying the anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) genome partitioning strategy to Aristolochia using an universal angiosperm probe set, we obtained 231-233 out of 517 single or low copy nuclear loci originally contained in the enrichment kit, resulting in a total alignment length of 154,756bp to 160,150bp. Since Aristolochia (Piperales; magnoliids) is distantly related to any angiosperm species whose genome has been used for the plant AHE probe design (Amborella trichopoda being the closest), it serves as a proof of universality for this probe set. Aristolochia comprises approximately 500 species grouped in several clades (OTUs), whose relationships to each other are partially unknown. Previous phylogenetic studies have shown that these lineages branched deep in time and in quick succession, seen as short-deep internodes. Short-shallow internodes are also characteristic of some Aristolochia lineages such as Aristolochia subsection Pentandrae, a clade of presumably recent diversification. This subsection is here included to test the performance of AHE at species level. Filtering and subsampling loci using the phylogenetic informativeness method resolves several recalcitrant phylogenetic relationships within Aristolochia. By assuming different ploidy levels during bioinformatics processing of raw data, first hints are obtained that polyploidization contributed to the evolution of Aristolochia. Phylogenetic results are discussed in the light of current systematics and morphology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In-vitro propagation and antimycotic potential of extracts and essential oil of roots of Aristolochia bracteolata Linn. (Aristolochiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, I T; Egunyomi, A

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the therapeutic importance of Aristolochia bracteolata Linn. in Nigerian ethnomedicine, it is largely collected from the wild. Owing to the acclaimed potency of the plant and the difficulty in treating candidiasis, the anticandidal activity and in vitro propagation of the plant were investigated. Phytochemical screening and preparation of extracts of the roots were done using standard procedures. Clinical isolates of Candida albicans were screened against extracts and essential oil of Aristolochia bracteolata root using agar-well diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the ethanol extract was determined using broth dilution method. The nodal cuttings of A. bracteolata were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media. A. bracteolata contained alkaloids, saponins and cardenolides. The water extract was inactive on all isolates. The ethanol extract (500 mg/ml) and essential oil (undiluted) exhibited anticandidal activity on 9 out of 10 isolates at 10(1) - 10(6) cfu/ml inoculums concentration. Green growth and callus formation were observed in explants cultured on MS basal media after 30 days. A. bracteolata could be a source of anticandidal phytomedicine and the in vitro propagation confirmed its sustainability as anticandidal agent.

  8. Drug: D06728 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic category: 5100 ... Aristolochiaceae (birthwort family) Asiasarum root O...thers: Aristolochiaceae (birthwort family) Asiasarum herb Major component: Eugenol methyl ether [CPD:C10454] ... PubChem: 47208379 ...

  9. Environ: E00100 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available um heterotropoides [TAX:366663], Asarum sieboldii [TAX:76098] Same as: D06728 Aristolochiaceae (birthwort fa...mily) Asiasarum root Others: Aristolochiaceae (birthwort family) Asiasarum herb Major component: Eugenol methyl ether [CPD:C10454] ...

  10. Relative contributions of neutral and non-neutral processes to clinal variation in calyx lobe length in the series Sakawanum (Asarum: Aristolochiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daiki; Teramine, Tsutomu; Sakaguchi, Shota; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2018-01-25

    Clines, the gradual variation in measurable traits along a geographical axis, play a major role in evolution and can contribute to our understanding of the relative roles of selective and neutral process in trait variation. Using genetic and morphological analyses, the relative contributions of neutral and non-neutral processes were explored to infer the evolutionary history of species of the series Sakawanum (genus Asarum), which shows significant clinal variation in calyx lobe length. A total of 27 populations covering the natural geographical distribution of the series Sakawanum were sampled. Six nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate genetic structure and genetic diversity. The lengths of calyx lobes of multiple populations were measured to quantify their geographical and taxonomic differentiation. To detect the potential impact of selective pressure, morphological differentiation was compared with genetic differentiation (QCT-FST comparison). Average calyx lobe length of A. minamitanianum was 124.11 mm, while that of A. costatum was 13.80 mm. Though gradually changing along the geographical axis within series, calyx lobe lengths were significantly differentiated among the taxa. Genetic differentiation between taxa was low (FST = 0.099), but a significant geographical structure along the morphological cline was detected. Except for one taxon pair, pairwise QCT values were significantly higher than the neutral genetic measures of FST and G'ST. Divergent selection may have driven the calyx lobe length variation in series Sakawanum taxa, although the underlying mechanism is still not clear. The low genetic differentiation indicates recent divergence and/or gene flows between geographically close taxa. These neutral processes would also affect the clinal variation in calyx lobe lengths. Overall, this study implies the roles of population history and divergent selection in shaping the current cline of a flower trait in the series Sakawanum. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Nine new species of Thottea (Aristolochiaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, with two taxa in Peninsular Malaysia redefined and a taxon lectotypified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    Nine new species of the genus Thottea, namely T. anthonysamyi, T. kamarudiniana, T. longipedunculata, T. papilionis, T. piscodora, T. reflexa, T. ruthiae and T. terengganuensis from Peninsular Malaysia (eight species) and T. praetermissa from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (one species) are

  12. A potential third Manta Ray species near the Yucatán Peninsula? Evidence for a recently diverged and novel genetic Manta group from the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hinojosa-Alvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present genetic and morphometric support for a third, distinct, and recently diverged group of Manta ray that appears resident to the Yucatán coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Individuals of the genus Manta from Isla Holbox are markedly different from the other described manta rays in their morphology, habitat preference, and genetic makeup. Herein referred to as the Yucatán Manta Ray, these individuals form two genetically distinct groups: (1 a group of mtDNA haplotypes divergent (0.78% from the currently recognized Manta birostris and M. alfredi species, and (2 a group possessing mtDNA haplotypes of M. birostris and highly similar haplotypes. The latter suggests the potential for either introgressive hybridization between Yucatán Manta Rays and M. birostris, or the retention of ancestral M. birostris signatures among Yucatán Manta Rays. Divergence of the genetically distinct Yucatán Manta Ray from M. birostris appears quite recent (<100,000 YBP following fit to an Isolation-with-Migration model, with additional support for asymmetrical gene flow from M. birostris into the Yucatán Manta Ray. Formal naming of the Yucatán Manta Ray cannot yet be assigned until an in-depth taxonomic study and further confirmation of the genetic identity of existing type specimens has been performed.

  13. A potential third Manta Ray species near the Yucatán Peninsula? Evidence for a recently diverged and novel genetic Manta group from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Alvarez, Silvia; Walter, Ryan P; Diaz-Jaimes, Pindaro; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Paig-Tran, E Misty

    2016-01-01

    We present genetic and morphometric support for a third, distinct, and recently diverged group of Manta ray that appears resident to the Yucatán coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Individuals of the genus Manta from Isla Holbox are markedly different from the other described manta rays in their morphology, habitat preference, and genetic makeup. Herein referred to as the Yucatán Manta Ray, these individuals form two genetically distinct groups: (1) a group of mtDNA haplotypes divergent (0.78%) from the currently recognized Manta birostris and M. alfredi species, and (2) a group possessing mtDNA haplotypes of M. birostris and highly similar haplotypes. The latter suggests the potential for either introgressive hybridization between Yucatán Manta Rays and M. birostris , or the retention of ancestral M. birostris signatures among Yucatán Manta Rays. Divergence of the genetically distinct Yucatán Manta Ray from M. birostris appears quite recent (birostris into the Yucatán Manta Ray. Formal naming of the Yucatán Manta Ray cannot yet be assigned until an in-depth taxonomic study and further confirmation of the genetic identity of existing type specimens has been performed.

  14. Novel signature fatty acid profile of the giant manta ray suggests reliance on an uncharacterised mesopelagic food source low in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Katherine B; Guerrero, Michel; Marshall, Andrea D; Richardson, Anthony J; Bennett, Mike B; Couturier, Lydie I E

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, large planktivorous elasmobranchs have been thought to predominantly feed on surface zooplankton during daytime hours. However, the recent application of molecular methods to examine long-term assimilated diets, has revealed that these species likely gain the majority from deeper or demersal sources. Signature fatty acid analysis (FA) of muscle tissue was used to examine the assimilated diet of the giant manta ray Mobula birostris, and then compared with surface zooplankton that was collected during feeding and non-feeding events at two aggregation sites off mainland Ecuador. The FA profiles of M. birostris and surface zooplankton were markedly different apart from similar proportions of arachidonic acid, which suggests daytime surface zooplankton may comprise a small amount of dietary intake for M. birostris. The FA profile of M. birostris muscle was found to be depleted in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and instead comprised high proportions of 18:1ω9 isomers. While 18:1ω9 isomers are not explicitly considered dietary FAs, they are commonly found in high proportions in deep-sea organisms, including elasmobranch species. Overall, the FA profile of M. birostris suggests a diet that is mesopelagic in origin, but many mesopelagic zooplankton species also vertically migrate, staying deep during the day and moving to shallower waters at night. Here, signature FA analysis is unable to resolve the depth at which these putative dietary items were consumed and how availability of this prey may drive distribution and movements of this large filter-feeder.

  15. Novel signature fatty acid profile of the giant manta ray suggests reliance on an uncharacterised mesopelagic food source low in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine B Burgess

    Full Text Available Traditionally, large planktivorous elasmobranchs have been thought to predominantly feed on surface zooplankton during daytime hours. However, the recent application of molecular methods to examine long-term assimilated diets, has revealed that these species likely gain the majority from deeper or demersal sources. Signature fatty acid analysis (FA of muscle tissue was used to examine the assimilated diet of the giant manta ray Mobula birostris, and then compared with surface zooplankton that was collected during feeding and non-feeding events at two aggregation sites off mainland Ecuador. The FA profiles of M. birostris and surface zooplankton were markedly different apart from similar proportions of arachidonic acid, which suggests daytime surface zooplankton may comprise a small amount of dietary intake for M. birostris. The FA profile of M. birostris muscle was found to be depleted in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and instead comprised high proportions of 18:1ω9 isomers. While 18:1ω9 isomers are not explicitly considered dietary FAs, they are commonly found in high proportions in deep-sea organisms, including elasmobranch species. Overall, the FA profile of M. birostris suggests a diet that is mesopelagic in origin, but many mesopelagic zooplankton species also vertically migrate, staying deep during the day and moving to shallower waters at night. Here, signature FA analysis is unable to resolve the depth at which these putative dietary items were consumed and how availability of this prey may drive distribution and movements of this large filter-feeder.

  16. Approach to the Interaction Studies of Aristolochia maxima and the Caterpillars of Butterflies Battus polydamas polydamas and Parides panares erythrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Claro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Most butterflies of the tribe Troidini (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae sequester aristolochic acids (AA for their protection. These acids are derived from their host plants -family Aristolochiaceae- upon which they feed on during their larval stages. Using analytical High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC methods we were able to detect the presence of aristolochic acids I and II both in the young leaves of Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae and in the caterpillars of the butterflies Battus polydamas polydamas and Parides panares erythrus (Papilionidae, Papilioninae. Aristolochic acid I was the major constituent found, followed by lesser amounts of Aristoloquic acid II. These results confirm that the host-animal interaction among butterflies of the studied species and A. maxima plants is mediated, by aristolochic acids.

  17. Nitro derivatives and other constituents of Aristolochia melastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio R.; Lopes, Lucia M.X., E-mail: lopesxl@iq.unesp.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara - SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    A phytochemical study of Aristolochia melastoma Manso has led to the isolation and identification of 20 known compounds, including aristolochic acids, sodium aristolochates, lignan, flavonoids, and nitro phenylethyl derivatives. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis. The presence of thalictricoside and secoisolariciresinol dimethyl ether diacetate is reported for the first time in the Aristolochiaceae family. In addition, the presence of nitro compounds in this species is significant. (author)

  18. Nitro derivatives and other constituents of Aristolochia melastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Claudio R.; Lopes, Lucia M.X.

    2012-01-01

    A phytochemical study of Aristolochia melastoma Manso has led to the isolation and identification of 20 known compounds, including aristolochic acids, sodium aristolochates, lignan, flavonoids, and nitro phenylethyl derivatives. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis. The presence of thalictricoside and secoisolariciresinol dimethyl ether diacetate is reported for the first time in the Aristolochiaceae family. In addition, the presence of nitro compounds in this species is significant. (author)

  19. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  20. An integrated system for identifying the hidden assassins in traditional medicines containing aristolochic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Haiyu; Li, Yaoli; Cai, Shaoqing; Xiang, Li; Zhu, Yingjie; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chen, Shilin

    2015-08-01

    Traditional herbal medicines adulterated and contaminated with plant materials from the Aristolochiaceae family, which contain aristolochic acids (AAs), cause aristolochic acid nephropathy. Approximately 256 traditional Chinese patent medicines, containing Aristolochiaceous materials, are still being sold in Chinese markets today. In order to protect consumers from health risks due to AAs, the hidden assassins, efficient methods to differentiate Aristolochiaceous herbs from their putative substitutes need to be established. In this study, 158 Aristolochiaceous samples representing 46 species and four genera as well as 131 non-Aristolochiaceous samples representing 33 species, 20 genera and 12 families were analyzed using DNA barcodes based on the ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences. Aristolochiaceous materials and their non-Aristolochiaceous substitutes were successfully identified using BLAST1, the nearest distance method and the neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. In addition, based on sequence information of ITS2, we developed a Real-Time PCR assay which successfully identified herbal material from the Aristolochiaceae family. Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (UHPLC-HR-MS), we demonstrated that most representatives from the Aristolochiaceae family contain toxic AAs. Therefore, integrated DNA barcodes, Real-Time PCR assays using TaqMan probes and UHPLC-HR-MS system provides an efficient and reliable authentication system to protect consumers from health risks due to the hidden assassins (AAs).

  1. [Comparison among families of Mutong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-mei; Zhang, Bo-li

    2002-06-01

    To distinguish families of Mutong correctly and direct effective and safe clinical administration. Comparison among families of Mutong on Herbs, Taxology, Clinic, Pharmacology and Toxicology. 1. There are mainly three families of Mutong: Lardizabalaceae, Ranunculaceae, Aristolochiaceae, which were all included in China Pharmacopeia in 1963. However only Mutong of Ranunculaceae and Aristolochiaceae family have been included in China Pharmacopeia since 1977, but Mutong of Lardizabalaceae family has not been included in China Pharmacopeia ever since. 2. It was Mutong of Lardizabalaceae family that was used mainly through the ages without toxic records, and Mutong of Aristolochiaceae e.g. Caulis Aristolochia manshuriensis (CAM) was not put down in writing of past ages but is mainly used today with toxicity repeatedly. 3. CAM contain aristolochic acid and aristololactam with high toxicity, which plays an uncertain role in diuresis with poor bactericidal power. Mutong of Lardizabalaceae family e.g. Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz. var. australis (Diels) Rehd (ATKV) don't contain aristolochic acid and aristololactam, which has low toxicity and plays a certain role in diuresis with high bactericidal power. It may be quite safe to use ATKV instead of CAM in clinics. So we suggest that ATKV should be reused as first Mutong in China Pharmacopeia revised edition in order to ensure a correct understanding of the facts and reveal Mutong in its true colors, and CAM should be used as second Mutong strictly according to the rules in China Pharmacopeia revised edition.

  2. Novel signature fatty acid profile of the giant manta ray suggests reliance on an uncharacterised mesopelagic food source low in polyunsaturated fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Katherine B.; Guerrero, Michel; Marshall, Andrea D.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Bennett, Mike B.; Couturier, Lydie I. E.

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally, large planktivorous elasmobranchs have been thought to predominantly feed on surface zooplankton during daytime hours. However, the recent application of molecular methods to examine long-term assimilated diets, has revealed that these species likely gain the majority from deeper or demersal sources. Signature fatty acid analysis (FA) of muscle tissue was used to examine the assimilated diet of the giant manta ray Mobula birostris, and then compared with surface zooplankton tha...

  3. Biología de la reproducción de dos especies mediterráneas de aristolocha

    OpenAIRE

    Berjano Pérez, Regina

    2006-01-01

    La familia Aristolochiaceae consta de unas 600 especies de plantas leñosas, generalmente trepadoras y hierbas perennes que se distribuye por las regiones tropicales y temperadas de Euraisa, América y África (Heywood, 1978). Hasta hace pocos años, la mayoría de los autores reconocían seis géneros distribuidos en dos subfamilias: Asaroideae, compuesta por Asarum (ca. 100 especies de zonas templadas) Saruma(una especie endémica del centro de Chinas) yThottea (ca. 30 especies de Asia tropical), y...

  4. Sertula Florae Colombiae, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1955-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo el autor registra como nuevas para Colombia varias especies pertenecientes a las Familias botánicas Aristolochiaceae, Passifloraceae y Solanaceae; provee de una diagnosis latina a Aristolochia argyroneura con el fin de revalidar ese binomio empleado irreglamentariamente desde hace medio siglo por carecer de la debida descripción; y discute brevemente el problema suscitado en torno al género Dilkea (de las Pasifloráceas, al cual se han atribuido varias especies por algunos botánicos, mientras otros sospechan que se trata de simples formas de una misma entidad específica por lo cual el genero debe ser considerado como monotípico.

  5. Field diet of the grasshopper Abracris dilecta Walker (Orthoptera, Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frankl Sperber

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Abracris dilecta Walker, 1870 (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Ommatolampinae ate leafs of at least 14 plant species, in the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Malvales (Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae or Malvaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataccae. Elephantopus mollis H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Hyptis suaveolens Poit. (Lamiaceae comprised 50% of the diet. The diet breadth of A. dilecta was compared to that of other 11 grasshopper species of the same sub-family, with rarefaction curves. The number of plant species eaten by A. dilecta was greater than that of nine other grasshopper species of the same sub-family (Rhachicreagra spp. but was lower then two others (Microptylopteryx hebardi Rehn, 1905 and Rhachicreagra astytophallus Jago & Rowell, 1981. This results are discussed in view of the broad geographical range and possession of developed wings by A. dilecta, which contrasts with most Ommatolampinae grasshoppers.

  6. Hacia una filogenia de Aristolochia y sus congeneres neotropicales

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    González Garavito Favio Antonio

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A cladistic approach to the Neotropical Aristolochiaceae, based on 41 morphological characters, was conducted to evaluate the phylogeny of Aristolochia sect. Gymnolobus Duchartre along with the other two genera of the subfamily Aristolochiodeae sensu Schmidt (1935, Euglypha Chodat & Hassler, and Holostylis Duchartre. A single cladogram was obtained, in which the genus Aristolochia is shown to be paraphyletic; the basal branch within the ingroup is Aristolochia ser. Thyrsicae F. González, followed by A. subsect. Pentandrae Duchartre. The two monospecific South American genera Euglypha and Holostylis resulted to be placed in crown clades, as the sister groups of Aristolochia subser. Hexandrae, and Aristolochia subser. Anthocaulicae F. González, respectively. Therefore, the inclusion of these two genera within Aristolochia is required if monophyly is to be maintained at a generic level. Finally, the required nomenclatural combinations are proposed.Un análisis cladístico de los taxa neotropicales de la familia Aristolochiaceae, basado en 41 caracteres morfológicos, permite evaluar la filogenia de Aristolochia sect. Gymnolobus Duchartre y su relación con los otros miembros de la subfamilia Aristolochioideae sensu Schmidt (1935, Euglypha Chodat & Hassler y Holostylis Duchartre. Se obtuvo un único cladograma, completamente resuelto, que muestra que el género Aristolochia resulta ser parafilético. Los dos clados basales dentro del grupo interno son Aristolochia ser. Thyrsicae F. González seguido por A. subsect. Pentandrae Duchartre. Los dos géneros monotípicos de Suramérica, Euglypha y Holostylis, resultan incluidos dentro de Aristolochia; éstos resultan ser los grupos hermanos de Aristolochia subser. Hexandrae y Aristolochia subser. Anthocaulicae F.González, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, se propone la subordinación de éstos dentro de Aristolochia, a fin de aplicar el concepto de monofilia a nivel genérico. En consecuencia, se

  7. Development of a morphing structure with the incorporation of central pattern generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Thomas K.; Bart-Smith, Hilary; Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    2006-03-01

    The Manta Ray, Manta birostris, is an amazing creature, propelling itself through the water with the elegant and complex flapping of its wings. Achieving outstanding efficiencies, engineers are looking for ways to mimic its flight through the water and harness its propulsive techniques. This study combines two biologically inspired aspects to achieve this goal: morphing structures actuated with a biomimetic neural network control system. It is believed that this combination will prove capable of producing the oscillatory motions necessary for locomotion. In this paper, a four-truss structure with three actuators is chosen and its performance capabilities are analyzed. A synthetic central pattern generator, which provides the fundamental control mechanisms for rhythmic motion in animals, is designed to realize an oscillatory control of the three actuators. The control system is simulated using Matlab, then combined with LabVIEW to control the four-truss structure. The system's performance is analyzed, with specific attention to both transient and steady-state behavior.

  8. Mobulid rays feed on euphausiids in the Bohol Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Christoph A; Burgess, Katherine B; Rambahiniarison, Joshua M; Stewart, Joshua D; Ponzo, Alessandro; Richardson, Anthony J

    2017-05-01

    Mobulid rays have a conservative life history and are caught in direct fisheries and as by-catch. Their subsequent vulnerability to overexploitation has recently been recognized, but fisheries management can be ineffective if it ignores habitat and prey preferences and other trophic interactions of the target species. Here, we assessed the feeding ecology of four mobulids ( Manta birostris , Mobula tarapacana , M. japanica , M. thurstoni ) in the Bohol Sea, Philippines, using stomach contents analysis of fisheries specimens landed between November and May in 2013-2015. We show that the mobulids feed heavily on euphausiid krill while they are in the area for approximately six months of the year. We found almost no trophic separation among the mobulid species, with Euphausia diomedeae as the major prey item for all species, recorded in 81 of 89 total stomachs (91%). Mobula japanica and M. thurstoni almost exclusively had this krill in their stomach, while M. tarapacana had a squid and fish, and Ma. birostris had myctophid fishes and copepods in their stomachs in addition to E. diomedeae . This krill was larger than prey for other planktivorous elasmobranchs elsewhere and contributed a mean of 61 364 kcal per stomach (±105 032 kcal s.e., range = 0-631 167 kcal). Our results show that vertically migrating mesopelagic species can be an important food resource for large filter feeders living in tropical seas with oligotrophic surface waters. Given the conservative life history of mobulid rays, the identification of common foraging grounds that overlap with fishing activity could be used to inform future fishing effort.

  9. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana D. Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco (Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco (Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla (Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote (Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común (Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha (Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare (Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.The plants with insecticide activities constitute a main compound of integrated pest management. Under this premise, the aim of the current research was to evaluate mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae larvae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin, employing ten plants with insecticide potential: Indian heliotrope (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Angel´s trumpets (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Wandering Jew (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Nettles-purge (Jathropa

  10. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana D. PÉREZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha ( Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio ( Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre ( Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco ( Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco ( Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla ( Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote ( Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común ( Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha ( Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare ( Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.

  11. ACEPTACIÓN DE UNA DIETA ARTIFICIAL POR LARVAS DE LA MARIPOSA BATTUS POLYDAMAS POLYDAMAS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Claro Carrascal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúo la aceptabilidad de una dieta artificial utilizada en la alimentación del estado larval de la mariposa Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, bajo condiciones de laboratorio.  A las larvas se les ofreció una dieta en diferentes presentaciones y composiciones, de acuerdo con ensayos previos y con los análisis nutricionales desarrollados a larvas maduras y a hojas de la  planta hospedera, Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae.  La longevidad, en estado larval, de B. polydamas criadas en laboratorio, se ve afectada significativamente por los diferentes tratamientos de alimentación. La curva de sobrevivencia no presento diferencias significativas entre las larvas alimentadas con solamente hojas jóvenes de la planta y aquellas que se alimentaron con dieta esparcida. En contraste, las tasas de crecimiento larval, fueron significativamente afectadas según el tratamiento.  Se sustenta la cría de mariposas de la especie B. polydamas bajo una dieta artificial con condiciones de temperatura, humedad y luminosidad controlada, con propósitos de investigación o futuros planes de manejo y conservación.

  12. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the edible aromatic plant Aristolochia delavayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Njateng, Guy S S; He, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Gu, Jian-Long; Chen, Shan-Na; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Aristolochia delavayi Franch. (Aristolochiaceae), a unique edible aromatic plant consumed by the Nakhi (Naxi) people in Yunnan, China, was investigated using GC/MS analysis. In total, 95 components, representing more than 95% of the oil composition, were identified, and the main constituents found were (E)-dec-2-enal (52.0%), (E)-dodec-2-enal (6.8%), dodecanal (3.35%), heptanal (2.88%), and decanal (2.63%). The essential oil showed strong inhibitory activity (96% reduction) of the production of bacterial volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an effect that was comparable with that of the reference compound citral (91% reduction). Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and the isolated major compound against eight bacterial and six fungal strains were evaluated. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against Providencia stuartii and Escherichia coli, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 3.9 to 62.5 μg/ml. The oil also showed strong inhibitory activity against the fungal strains Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 31.25 μg/ml, while (E)-dec-2-enal presented a lower antifungal activity than the essential oil. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Optimization of a tensegrity wing for biomimetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moored, Keith W., III; Taylor, Stuart A.; Bart-Smith, Hilary

    2006-03-01

    Current attempts to build fast, efficient, and maneuverable underwater vehicles have looked to nature for inspiration. However, they have all been based on traditional propulsive techniques, i.e. rotary motors. In the current study a promising and potentially revolutionary approach is taken that overcomes the limitations of these traditional methods-morphing structure concepts with integrated actuation and sensing. Inspiration for this work comes from the manta ray (Manta birostris) and other batoid fish. These creatures are highly maneuverable but are also able to cruise at high speeds over long distances. In this paper, the structural foundation for the biomimetic morphing wing is a tensegrity structure. A preliminary procedure is presented for developing morphing tensegrity structures that include actuating elements. A shape optimization method is used that determines actuator placement and actuation amount necessary to achieve the measured biological displacement field of a ray. Lastly, an experimental manta ray wing is presented that measures the static and dynamic pressure field acting on the ray's wings during a normal flapping cycle.

  14. Characteristics of a previously undescribed fishery and habitat for Manta alfredi in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Marie V. Acebes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seven species of mobulid rays occur in the Philippines, six of which, including the Giant Manta Ray (Manta birostris are caught directly or indirectly. In the Bohol Sea, mobulids have been fished since at least the nineteenth century yet the extent is not well-understood. A second species of manta, Manta alfredi was taxonomically resurrected in 2009 and also only recently been confirmed to occur in the Philippines. This study aimed to identify and describe the presence of and fishery for M. alfredi in a previously unknown area of occurrence in the Philippines. Key informant interviews, observation of catch landings, and tissue sample collection were conducted in a fishing village off Dinagat Island. Based on morphological examination and through DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial DNA CO1 gene of tissue samples it was verified that the species targeted in this area is the reef manta ray, Manta alfredi. Local ecological knowledge of the fishers provided important information on the extent and characteristics of the fishery. This relatively recent ray fishery in the Surigao Strait is the source of mobulids during the off-fishing season in Bohol with fishers from this area transporting and selling their processed catches to Bohol. The description of this fishery and habitat for the reef manta ray in the Surigao Strait is important in the understanding of the status of the species in the Philippines and in designing a management framework.

  15. Satellite tracking of manta rays highlights challenges to their conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel T Graham

    Full Text Available We describe the real-time movements of the last of the marine mega-vertebrate taxa to be satellite tracked - the giant manta ray (or devil fish, Manta birostris, the world's largest ray at over 6 m disc width. Almost nothing is known about manta ray movements and their environmental preferences, making them one of the least understood of the marine mega-vertebrates. Red listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature as 'Vulnerable' to extinction, manta rays are known to be subject to direct and incidental capture and some populations are declining. Satellite-tracked manta rays associated with seasonal upwelling events and thermal fronts off the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and made short-range shuttling movements, foraging along and between them. The majority of locations were received from waters shallower than 50 m deep, representing thermally dynamic and productive waters. Manta rays remained in the Mexican Exclusive Economic Zone for the duration of tracking but only 12% of tracking locations were received from within Marine Protected Areas (MPAs. Our results on the spatio-temporal distribution of these enigmatic rays highlight opportunities and challenges to management efforts.

  16. Kinematics of swimming of the manta ray: three-dimensional analysis of open-water maneuverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Frank E; Kolpas, Allison; Crossett, Andrew; Dudas, Michael A; Moored, Keith W; Bart-Smith, Hilary

    2018-03-22

    For aquatic animals, turning maneuvers represent a locomotor activity that may not be confined to a single coordinate plane, making analysis difficult, particularly in the field. To measure turning performance in a three-dimensional space for the manta ray ( Mobula birostris ), a large open-water swimmer, scaled stereo video recordings were collected. Movements of the cephalic lobes, eye and tail base were tracked to obtain three-dimensional coordinates. A mathematical analysis was performed on the coordinate data to calculate the turning rate and curvature (1/turning radius) as a function of time by numerically estimating the derivative of manta trajectories through three-dimensional space. Principal component analysis was used to project the three-dimensional trajectory onto the two-dimensional turn. Smoothing splines were applied to these turns. These are flexible models that minimize a cost function with a parameter controlling the balance between data fidelity and regularity of the derivative. Data for 30 sequences of rays performing slow, steady turns showed the highest 20% of values for the turning rate and smallest 20% of turn radii were 42.65±16.66 deg s -1 and 2.05±1.26 m, respectively. Such turning maneuvers fall within the range of performance exhibited by swimmers with rigid bodies. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Ionic polymer-metal composite enabled robotic manta ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Um, Tae I.; Bart-Smith, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    The manta ray, Manta birostris, demonstrates excellent swimming capabilities; generating highly efficient thrust via flapping of dorsally flattened pectoral fins. In this paper, we present an underwater robot that mimics the swimming behavior of the manta ray. An assembly-based fabrication method is developed to create the artificial pectoral fins, which are capable of generating oscillatory with a large twisting angle between leading and trailing edges. Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators are used as artificial muscles in the fin. Each fin consists of four IPMC beams bonded with a compliant poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane. By controlling each individual IPMC strips, we are able to generate complex flapping motions. The fin is characterized in terms of tip deflection, tip blocking force, twist angle, and power consumption. Based on the characteristics of the artificial pectoral fin, a small size and free-swimming robotic manta ray is developed. The robot consists of two artificial pectoral fins, a rigid body, and an on-board control unit with a lithium ion rechargeable battery. Experimental results show that the robot swam at a speed of up to 0.055 body length per second (BL/sec).

  18. Stiffening the stingray skeleton - an investigation of durophagy in myliobatid stingrays (Chondrichthyes, batoidea, myliobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A P

    2000-02-01

    The stingray family Myliobatidae contains five durophagous (hard prey specialist) genera and two planktivorous genera. A suite of morphological features makes it possible for the hard prey specialists to crush mollusks and crustaceans in their cartilaginous jaws. These include: 1) flat, pavement-like tooth plates set in an elastic dental ligament; 2) multiple layers of calcified cartilage on the surface of the jaws; 3) calcified struts running through the jaws; and 4) a lever system that amplifies the force of the jaw adductors. Examination of a range of taxa reveals that the presence of multiple layers of calcified cartilage, previously described from just a few species, is a plesiomorphy of Chondrichthyes. Calcified struts within the jaw, called "trabecular cartilage," are found only in the myliobatid genera, including the planktivorous Manta birostris. In the durophagous taxa, the struts are concentrated under the area where prey is crushed, thereby preventing local buckling of the jaws. Trabecular cartilage develops early in ontogeny, and does not appear to develop as a direct result of the stresses associated with feeding on hard prey. A "nutcracker" model of jaw function is proposed. In this model, the restricted gape, fused mandibular and palatoquadrate symphyses, and asynchronous contraction of the jaw adductors function to amplify the closing force by 2-4 times. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Illegal trade of regulated and protected aquatic species in the Philippines detected by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asis, Angelli Marie Jacynth M; Lacsamana, Joanne Krisha M; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-01-01

    Illegal trade has greatly affected marine fish stocks, decreasing fish populations worldwide. Despite having a number of aquatic species being regulated, illegal trade still persists through the transport of dried or processed products and juvenile species trafficking. In this regard, accurate species identification of illegally traded marine fish stocks by DNA barcoding is deemed to be a more efficient method in regulating and monitoring trade than by morphological means which is very difficult due to the absence of key morphological characters in juveniles and processed products. Here, live juvenile eels (elvers) and dried products of sharks and rays confiscated for illegal trade were identified. Twenty out of 23 (87%) randomly selected "elvers" were identified as Anguilla bicolor pacifica and 3 (13%) samples as Anguilla marmorata. On the other hand, 4 out of 11 (36%) of the randomly selected dried samples of sharks and rays were Manta birostris. The rest of the samples were identified as Alopias pelagicus, Taeniura meyeni, Carcharhinus falciformis, Himantura fai and Mobula japonica. These results confirm that wild juvenile eels and species of manta rays are still being caught in the country regardless of its protected status under Philippine and international laws. It is evident that the illegal trade of protected aquatic species is happening in the guise of dried or processed products thus the need to put emphasis on strengthening conservation measures. This study aims to underscore the importance of accurate species identification in such cases of illegal trade and the effectivity of DNA barcoding as a tool to do this.

  20. Satellite tracking of manta rays highlights challenges to their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rachel T; Witt, Matthew J; Castellanos, Dan W; Remolina, Francisco; Maxwell, Sara; Godley, Brendan J; Hawkes, Lucy A

    2012-01-01

    We describe the real-time movements of the last of the marine mega-vertebrate taxa to be satellite tracked - the giant manta ray (or devil fish, Manta birostris), the world's largest ray at over 6 m disc width. Almost nothing is known about manta ray movements and their environmental preferences, making them one of the least understood of the marine mega-vertebrates. Red listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature as 'Vulnerable' to extinction, manta rays are known to be subject to direct and incidental capture and some populations are declining. Satellite-tracked manta rays associated with seasonal upwelling events and thermal fronts off the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and made short-range shuttling movements, foraging along and between them. The majority of locations were received from waters shallower than 50 m deep, representing thermally dynamic and productive waters. Manta rays remained in the Mexican Exclusive Economic Zone for the duration of tracking but only 12% of tracking locations were received from within Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Our results on the spatio-temporal distribution of these enigmatic rays highlight opportunities and challenges to management efforts.

  1. Shifting elasmobranch community assemblage at Cocos Island--an isolated marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Easton R; Myers, Mark C; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Baum, Julia K

    2015-08-01

    Fishing pressure has increased the extinction risk of many elasmobranch (shark and ray) species. Although many countries have established no-take marine reserves, a paucity of monitoring data means it is still unclear if reserves are effectively protecting these species. We examined data collected by a small group of divers over the past 21 years at one of the world's oldest marine protected areas (MPAs), Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica. We used mixed effects models to determine trends in relative abundance, or probability of occurrence, of 12 monitored elasmobranch species while accounting for variation among observers and from abiotic factors. Eight of 12 species declined significantly over the past 2 decades. We documented decreases in relative abundance for 6 species, including the iconic scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) (-45%), whitetip reef shark (Triaenodon obesus) (-77%), mobula ray (Mobula spp.) (-78%), and manta ray (Manta birostris) (-89%), and decreases in the probability of occurrence for 2 other species. Several of these species have small home ranges and should be better protected by an MPA, which underscores the notion that declines of marine megafauna will continue unabated in MPAs unless there is adequate enforcement effort to control fishing. In addition, probability of occurrence at Cocos Island of tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks increased significantly. The effectiveness of MPAs cannot be evaluated by examining single species because population responses can vary depending on life history traits and vulnerability to fishing pressure. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. DNA barcoding of Mobulid Ray Gill Rakers for Implementing CITES on Elasmobranch in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Wu, Zhongze; Zhang, Chunguang; Meng, Zhibin; Jiang, Zhigang; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-23

    The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) has been counted on for conserving threatened marine fish since it regulates the commercial international trade of these species. Implementation of the international treaty for Mantas included on CITES Appendix II is challenging due to insufficient information on species identification and markets management. To fill the gap in such aspects, we identified five species of Mobulid rays (Mobula spps. and Manta spp) by using COI and NADH2 mtDNA markers in dried ray gill rakers from Chinese markets, namely, Mobula japonica (representing 54.8% of the sample set), M. tarapacana (14.4%), M. kuhlii (13.3%), M. thurstoni (6.4%), along with Manta birostris (11.2%; CITES Appendix II). The utilization and conservation statuses of these species were discussed. Based on combination of DNA barcodes and key morphological characters, we developed a three-step process for identifying the gill rakers of Mobulid rays which has been adopted by frontline enforcement in China. We hope that our work can serve as a foundation and basis to reinforce objectives of international treaties, regulation of consumer-driven markets, regional cooperation, and national fishery management on endangered elasmobranchs in China as well as related countries.

  3. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  4. Phylogenetic relationships in Asarum: Effect of data partitioning and a revised classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Brandon T; Kelly, Lawrence M; Freudenstein, John V

    2015-05-01

    Generic boundaries and infrageneric relationships among the charismatic temperate magnoliid Asarum sensu lato (Aristolochiaceae) have long been uncertain. Previous molecular phylogenetic analyses used either plastid or nuclear loci alone and varied greatly in their taxonomic implications for the genus. We analyzed additional molecular markers from the nuclear and plastid genomes, reevaluated the possibility of a derived loss of autonomous self-pollination, and investigated the topological effects of matrix-partitioning-scheme choice. We sequenced seven plastid regions and the nuclear ITS1-ITS2 region of 58 individuals representing all previously recognized Asarum s.l. segregate genera and the monotypic genus Saruma. Matrices were partitioned using common a priori partitioning schemes and PartitionFinder. Topologies that were recovered using a priori partitioning of matrices differed from those recovered using a PartitionFinder-selected scheme, and by analysis method. We recovered six monophyletic groups that we circumscribed into three subgenera and six sections. Putative fungal mimic characters served as synapomorphies only for subgenus Heterotropa. Subgenus Geotaenium, a new subgenus, was recovered as sister to the remainder of Asarum by ML analyses of highly partitioned datasets. Section Longistylis, also newly named, is sister to section Hexastylis. Our analyses do not unambiguously support a single origin for all fungal-mimicry characters. Topologies recovered through the analysis of PartitionFinder-optimized matrices can differ drastically from those inferred from a priori partitioned matrices, and by analytical method. We recommend that investigators evaluate the topological effects of matrix partitioning using multiple methods of phylogenetic reconstruction. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  5. The History and Characteristics of the Mobulid Ray Fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acebes, Jo Marie V; Tull, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    The fishery for mobulid rays, also known as devil rays, has been practiced in the Bohol Sea for over a century yet very little is known about its history and characteristics. This study provides the first detailed description of the mobulid ray fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines. It describes the history and evolution of the fishery from the 19th century to 2013. It characterizes the fishery based on the species targeted, gears used, the organization, catch distribution, processing, monetary value, and the market of its by-products. This paper also analyses the changes that occurred through time, the management of the fishery and the drivers of the fishery. A multi-disciplinary approach was employed by combining ethno-historical research methods and catch landing monitoring in four primary sites within the Bohol Sea. This fishery began as an artisanal fishery using sail and row boats equipped with harpoons and gaff hooks practiced in at least four coastal villages in Bohol, Camiguin and Limasawa. The fishing fleet has decreased since the beginning of the 20th century however, with the motorization of the fishery and shift to the use of gillnets, the extent of the fishing grounds and market of the products have expanded. Four species of mobulid rays are caught in the Bohol Sea: Manta birostris, Mobula japanica, Mobula thurstoni and Mobula tarapacana. A fifth species, targeted by a fishing community off Dinagat as an off-shoot of the Bohol fishery is most likely the Manta alfredi. Currently, the fishery for mobulids is centered in Bohol Province where it has been practiced longest. The monetary value of mobulids in this region has increased and the dependence of fishing communities for their livelihood is significant. The unique characteristics of this fishery and the socio-cultural context within which it operates merits a thorough investigation in order to design the appropriate management strategy.

  6. A dated molecular phylogeny of manta and devil rays (Mobulidae) based on mitogenome and nuclear sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, Marloes; Olsen, Jeanine L; Croll, Donald A; Bernardi, Giacomo; Newton, Kelly; Kollias, Spyros; O'Sullivan, John; Fernando, Daniel; Stevens, Guy; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Seret, Bernard; Wintner, Sabine; Hoarau, Galice

    2015-02-01

    Manta and devil rays are an iconic group of globally distributed pelagic filter feeders, yet their evolutionary history remains enigmatic. We employed next generation sequencing of mitogenomes for nine of the 11 recognized species and two outgroups; as well as additional Sanger sequencing of two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in an extended taxon sampling set. Analysis of the mitogenome coding regions in a Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian framework provided a well-resolved phylogeny. The deepest divergences distinguished three clades with high support, one containing Manta birostris, Manta alfredi, Mobula tarapacana, Mobula japanica and Mobula mobular; one containing Mobula kuhlii, Mobula eregoodootenkee and Mobula thurstoni; and one containing Mobula munkiana, Mobula hypostoma and Mobula rochebrunei. Mobula remains paraphyletic with the inclusion of Manta, a result that is in agreement with previous studies based on molecular and morphological data. A fossil-calibrated Bayesian random local clock analysis suggests that mobulids diverged from Rhinoptera around 30 Mya. Subsequent divergences are characterized by long internodes followed by short bursts of speciation extending from an initial episode of divergence in the Early and Middle Miocene (19-17 Mya) to a second episode during the Pliocene and Pleistocene (3.6 Mya - recent). Estimates of divergence dates overlap significantly with periods of global warming, during which upwelling intensity - and related high primary productivity in upwelling regions - decreased markedly. These periods are hypothesized to have led to fragmentation and isolation of feeding regions leading to possible regional extinctions, as well as the promotion of allopatric speciation. The closely shared evolutionary history of mobulids in combination with ongoing threats from fisheries and climate change effects on upwelling and food supply, reinforces the case for greater protection of this charismatic family of pelagic filter feeders

  7. The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Malley, Mary P.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

  8. The History and Characteristics of the Mobulid Ray Fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Marie V Acebes

    Full Text Available The fishery for mobulid rays, also known as devil rays, has been practiced in the Bohol Sea for over a century yet very little is known about its history and characteristics. This study provides the first detailed description of the mobulid ray fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines. It describes the history and evolution of the fishery from the 19th century to 2013. It characterizes the fishery based on the species targeted, gears used, the organization, catch distribution, processing, monetary value, and the market of its by-products. This paper also analyses the changes that occurred through time, the management of the fishery and the drivers of the fishery. A multi-disciplinary approach was employed by combining ethno-historical research methods and catch landing monitoring in four primary sites within the Bohol Sea. This fishery began as an artisanal fishery using sail and row boats equipped with harpoons and gaff hooks practiced in at least four coastal villages in Bohol, Camiguin and Limasawa. The fishing fleet has decreased since the beginning of the 20th century however, with the motorization of the fishery and shift to the use of gillnets, the extent of the fishing grounds and market of the products have expanded. Four species of mobulid rays are caught in the Bohol Sea: Manta birostris, Mobula japanica, Mobula thurstoni and Mobula tarapacana. A fifth species, targeted by a fishing community off Dinagat as an off-shoot of the Bohol fishery is most likely the Manta alfredi. Currently, the fishery for mobulids is centered in Bohol Province where it has been practiced longest. The monetary value of mobulids in this region has increased and the dependence of fishing communities for their livelihood is significant. The unique characteristics of this fishery and the socio-cultural context within which it operates merits a thorough investigation in order to design the appropriate management strategy.

  9. Elasmobranchs observed in deepwaters (45-330m at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica (Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco is an oceanic island 500km off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. It is a National Park and its marine fauna has been relatively well protected. The island is famous for its elasmobranch (sharks, rays and skates sightings in shallow waters. Here we present a catalogue of the deepwater elasmobranchs observed with the DeepSee submersible. Five species of sharks, six species of skates and one ray have been observed between 45 and 330m depth. Triaenodon obesus, the white tip reef shark, was commonly observed between 80 and 301m, but only in the afternoons. Sphyrna lewini, the scalloped hammerhead shark, was observed as deep a 303m, but commonly between 45 and 90m, and close to the island. Odontaspis ferox, the smalltooth sand tiger shark, was observed between 82 and 316m. Echinorhinus cookei, the prickly shark, was observed between 91 and 320m. Rhincodon typus, the whale shark, was observed only close to the island, between 77 and 80m. Taeniura meyeni, the marbled ray, was observed only close to the island, between 45 and 90m. A Dasyatis sp., similar to the the diamond stingray, was observed only once close to the island at 60m; this is the first report of this genus at Isla del Coco National Park. Manta birostris, the giant manta, was only observed close to the island at 90m. Mobula tarapacana, the sicklefin devil ray, was observed between 60 and 326m, extending its maximum depth almost 10 times what has been reported. Aetobatus narinari, the spotted eagle ray, was observed only close to the island between 60 and 82m. Torpedo peruana, the Peruvian torpedo ray, was observed only once at 313m, and is the first record of this species from Isla del Coco National Park.

  10. The global economic impact of manta ray watching tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Mary P; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism.

  11. The global economic impact of manta ray watching tourism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary P O'Malley

    Full Text Available As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism.

  12. Conformational preferences of DNA following damage by aristolochic acids: Structural and energetic insights into the different mutagenic potential of the ALI and ALII-N(6)-dA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Abendong, Minette N; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2015-04-21

    Aristolochic acids (AAI and AAII), produced by the Aristolochiaceae family of plants, are classified as group I (human) carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. These acids are metabolized in cells to yield aristolactams (ALI and ALII, respectively), which further form bulky adducts with the purine nucleobases. Specifically, the adenine lesions are more persistent in cells and have been associated with chronic renal diseases and related carcinogenesis. To understand the structural basis of the nephrotoxicity induced by AAs, the ALI-N(6)-dA and ALII-N(6)-dA lesions are systematically studied using computational methods. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the aristolactam moiety intrinsically prefers a planar conformation with respect to adenine. Nucleoside and nucleotide models suggest that the anti and syn orientations about the glycosidic bond are isoenergetic for both adducts. Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations reveal that the anti base-displaced intercalated conformation is the most stable conformer for both types of AL-N(6)-dA adducted DNA, which agrees with previous experimental work on the ALII-N(6)-dA adduct and thereby validates our approach. Interestingly, this conformer differs from the dominant conformations adopted by other N6-linked adenine lesions, including those derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the second most stable syn base-displaced intercalated conformation lies closer in energy to the anti base-displaced intercalated conformation for ALI-N(6)-dA compared to ALII-N(6)-dA. This indicates that a mixture of conformations may be detectable for ALI-N(6)-dA in DNA. If this enhanced conformational flexibility of double-stranded DNA persists when bound to a lesion-bypass polymerase, this provides a possible structural explanation for the previously observed greater nephrotoxic potential for the ALI versus ALII-N(6)-dA adduct. In addition, the structural

  13. Manta Matcher: automated photographic identification of manta rays using keypoint features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Christopher; Marshall, Andrea; Sethasathien, Nutthaporn

    2013-07-01

    For species which bear unique markings, such as natural spot patterning, field work has become increasingly more reliant on visual identification to recognize and catalog particular specimens or to monitor individuals within populations. While many species of interest exhibit characteristic markings that in principle allow individuals to be identified from photographs, scientists are often faced with the task of matching observations against databases of hundreds or thousands of images. We present a novel technique for automated identification of manta rays (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) by means of a pattern-matching algorithm applied to images of their ventral surface area. Automated visual identification has recently been developed for several species. However, such methods are typically limited to animals that can be photographed above water, or whose markings exhibit high contrast and appear in regular constellations. While manta rays bear natural patterning across their ventral surface, these patterns vary greatly in their size, shape, contrast, and spatial distribution. Our method is the first to have proven successful at achieving high matching accuracies on a large corpus of manta ray images taken under challenging underwater conditions. Our method is based on automated extraction and matching of keypoint features using the Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. In order to cope with the considerable variation in quality of underwater photographs, we also incorporate preprocessing and image enhancement steps. Furthermore, we use a novel pattern-matching approach that results in better accuracy than the standard SIFT approach and other alternative methods. We present quantitative evaluation results on a data set of 720 images of manta rays taken under widely different conditions. We describe a novel automated pattern representation and matching method that can be used to identify individual manta rays from photographs. The method has been

  14. Elasmobranchs observed in deepwaters (45-330m at Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica (Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cortés

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Isla del Coco is an oceanic island 500km off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. It is a National Park and its marine fauna has been relatively well protected. The island is famous for its elasmobranch (sharks, rays and skates sightings in shallow waters. Here we present a catalogue of the deepwater elasmobranchs observed with the DeepSee submersible. Five species of sharks, six species of skates and one ray have been observed between 45 and 330m depth. Triaenodon obesus, the white tip reef shark, was commonly observed between 80 and 301m, but only in the afternoons. Sphyrna lewini, the scalloped hammerhead shark, was observed as deep a 303m, but commonly between 45 and 90m, and close to the island. Odontaspis ferox, the smalltooth sand tiger shark, was observed between 82 and 316m. Echinorhinus cookei, the prickly shark, was observed between 91 and 320m. Rhincodon typus, the whale shark, was observed only close to the island, between 77 and 80m. Taeniura meyeni, the marbled ray, was observed only close to the island, between 45 and 90m. A Dasyatis sp., similar to the the diamond stingray, was observed only once close to the island at 60m; this is the first report of this genus at Isla del Coco National Park. Manta birostris, the giant manta, was only observed close to the island at 90m. Mobula tarapacana, the sicklefin devil ray, was observed between 60 and 326m, extending its maximum depth almost 10 times what has been reported. Aetobatus narinari, the spotted eagle ray, was observed only close to the island between 60 and 82m. Torpedo peruana, the Peruvian torpedo ray, was observed only once at 313m, and is the first record of this species from Isla del Coco National Park.La Isla del Coco es una isla oceánica a 500km de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica. Es un Parque Nacional donde la fauna marina ha estado relativamente bien protegida. La isla es famosa por los elasmobranquios (tiburones y rayas en aguas poco profundas. Aquí presentamos un cat

  15. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC{sub 50} values {<=} 5 {mu} g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled ({sup 3}H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC{sub 50} values {<=} 50 {mu} g/ml against 3D7 strain using the radiolabelled hypoxanthine methods and only 5 extracts (16%) showed IC{sub 50} values {<=} 5 {mu} g/ml against 3D7. Most of the extracts screened had a low effect on lymphocyte proliferation (IC{sub 50} values >100 {mu} g/ml), where as Sonochous cornatus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus globulus and Cassia tora enhanced lymphocyte proliferation. liquid-liquid partition of methanolic preparation of Acacia nilotica seeds and husk showed that the ethylacetate phase

  16. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Ahmed El Tahir Mohamed

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC 50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled ( 3 H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC 50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml against 3D7 strain using the radiolabelled hypoxanthine methods and only 5 extracts (16%) showed IC 50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml against 3D7. Most of the extracts screened had a low effect on lymphocyte proliferation (IC 50 values >100 μ g/ml), where as Sonochous cornatus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus globulus and Cassia tora enhanced lymphocyte proliferation. liquid-liquid partition of methanolic preparation of Acacia nilotica seeds and husk showed that the ethylacetate phase possessed the highest activity against both 3D7 and Dd2