WorldWideScience

Sample records for birefringence

  1. Birefringence imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Geday, M A

    2001-01-01

    in tendons. Many transparent materials are optically anisotropic i.e. the refractive index varies with the polarisation orientation of the light. The variation, birefringence, can reveal the underlying anisotropy of the material, whether this anisotropy is caused by the structure of the material or by applied stress. Several methods have been developed to measure the birefringence, although only two imaging microscope techniques, the 'rotating polariser technique' and the 'Polscope', capable of separating the magnitude of the anisotropy (delta or vertical bar sin delta vertical bar), its orientation (phi) and its transmission (l sub 0) are in common use today. In this thesis the rotating polariser technique has been completely revised, with a new and easily accessible user interface as a result. Calibration routines and several analytical tools have been developed. The technique is now capable of measuring the change in birefringence during phase transitions to very high a degree of precision. Examples of the...

  2. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  3. Controlling birefringence in dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Aaron J.; Tyc, Tomáš; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Birefringence, from the very essence of the word itself, refers to the splitting of light rays into two parts. In natural birefringent materials, this splitting is a beautiful phenomenon, resulting in the perception of a double image. In optical metamaterials, birefringence is often an unwanted side effect of forcing a device designed through transformation optics to operate in dielectrics. One polarization is usually implemented in dielectrics, and the other is sacrificed. Here we show, with techniques beyond transformation optics, that this need not be the case, that both polarizations can be controlled to perform useful tasks in dielectrics, and that rays, at all incident angles, can even follow different trajectories through a device and emerge together as if the birefringence did not exist at all. A number of examples are shown, including a combination Maxwell fisheye/Luneburg lens that performs a useful task and is achievable with current fabrication materials.

  4. High Birefringence Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Herman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals, compounds and mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropies are reviewed. The mesogenic properties and physical chemical properties (viscosity, birefringence, refractive indices, dielectric anisotropy and elastic constants of compounds being cyano, fluoro, isothiocyanato derivatives of biphenyl, terphenyl, quaterphenyl, tolane, phenyl tolane, phenyl ethynyl tolane, and biphenyl tolane are compared. The question of how to obtain liquid crystal with a broad range of nematic phases is discussed in detail. Influence of lateral substituent of different kinds of mesogenic and physicochemical properties is presented (demonstrated. Examples of mixtures with birefringence ∆n in the range of 0.2–0.5 are given.

  5. Birefringent Electroweak Textures

    CERN Document Server

    Thatcher, M J; Thatcher, Marcus J.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The behaviour of electromagnetic waves propagating through an electroweak homilia string network is examined. This string network is topologically stable as a cosmic texture, and is characterized by the spatial variation of the isospin rotation of the Higgs field. As a consequence the photon field couples to the intermediate vector bosons, producing a finite range electromagnetic field. It is found that the propagation speed of the photon depends on its polarization vector, whence an homilia string network acts as a birefringent medium. We estimate the birefringent scale for this texture and show that it depends on the frequency of the electromagnetic wave and the length scale of the homilia string network.

  6. Nonlinear electrodynamics with birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Kruglov, S I

    2015-01-01

    A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with three parameters is suggested. The phenomena of vacuum birefringence takes place when there is the external constant magnetic field. We calculate the indices of refraction for two polarizations of electromagnetic waves, parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic induction field. From the Bir\\'{e}fringence Magn\\'{e}tique du Vide (BMV) experiment one of the coefficients, $\\gamma\\approx 10^{-20}$ T$^{-2}$, was estimated. The canonical, symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensors and dilatation current were obtained. The dilatation symmetry and the dual symmetry are broken in the model considered.

  7. Quantum vacuum magnetic birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berceau, Paul; Battesti, Remy; Fouche, Mathilde; Frings, Paul; Nardone, Marc; Portugall, Oliver; Rikken, Geert L. J. A.; Rizzo, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.rizzo@lncmi.cnrs.fr [UPR 3228, CNRS-UPS-UJF-INSA, Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses (France)

    2012-05-15

    In this contribution to EXA2011 congress, we present the status of the BMV (Birefringence Magnetique du Vide) experiment which is based on the use of a state-of-the-art optical resonant cavity and high pulsed magnetic fields, and it is hosted by the Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses in Toulouse, France.

  8. Birefringent phononic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Psarobas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of elastic anisotropy, caused in a phononic crystal due to low crystallographic symmetry, we adopt a model structure, already introduced in the case of photonic metamaterials, and by analogy, we study the effect of birefringence and acoustical activity in a phononic crystal. In particular, we investigate its low-frequency behavior and comment on the factors which determine chirality by reference to this model.

  9. Birefringence phenomena revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Dante D; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves is investigated in the context of the isotropic and nonlinear dielectric media at rest in the eikonal limit of the geometrical optics. Taking into account the functional dependence $\\varepsilon=\\varepsilon(E,B)$ and $\\mu=\\mu(E,B)$ for the dielectric coefficients, a set of phenomena related to the birefringence of the electromagnetic waves induced by external fields are derived and discussed. Our results contemplate the known cases already reported in the literature: Kerr, Cotton-Mouton, Jones and magnetoelectric effects. Moreover, new effects are presented here as well as the perspectives of its experimental confirmations.

  10. Birefringent coherent diffraction imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Dmitry; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Rich, Hannah; Kryuchkov, Yuriy; Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, E.

    2016-10-01

    Directional dependence of the index of refraction contains a wealth of information about anisotropic optical properties in semiconducting and insulating materials. Here we present a novel high-resolution lens-less technique that uses birefringence as a contrast mechanism to map the index of refraction and dielectric permittivity in optically anisotropic materials. We applied this approach successfully to a liquid crystal polymer film using polarized light from helium neon laser. This approach is scalable to imaging with diffraction-limited resolution, a prospect rapidly becoming a reality in view of emergent brilliant X-ray sources. Applications of this novel imaging technique are in disruptive technologies, including novel electronic devices, in which both charge and spin carry information as in multiferroic materials and photonic materials such as light modulators and optical storage.

  11. Birefringence Measurements on Crystalline Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Christoph; Khalaidovski, Alexander; Steinlechner, Jessica; Nawrodt, Ronny; Schnabel, Roman; Lück, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Crystalline silicon has been proposed as a new test mass material in third generation gravitational wave detectors such as the Einstein Telescope (ET). Birefringence can reduce the interferometric contrast and can produce dynamical disturbances in interferometers. In this work we use the method of polarisation-dependent resonance frequency analysis of Fabry-Perot-cavities containing silicon as a birefringent medium. Our measurements show a birefringence of silicon along the (111) axis of the order of $\\Delta\\, n \\approx 10^{-7}$ at a laser wavelength of 1550nm and room temperature. A model is presented that explains the results of different settings of our measurements as a superposition of elastic strains caused by external stresses in the sample and plastic strains possibly generated during the production process. An application of our theory on the proposed ET test mass geometry suggests no critical effect on birefringence due to elastic strains.

  12. High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Broeng, Jes; Knudsen, Erik

    2001-01-01

    A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber.......A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber....

  13. Birefringence analysis of segmented cladding fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajeet; Rastogi, Vipul; Agrawal, Arti; Rahman, B M A

    2012-05-20

    We present a full-vectorial modal analysis of a segmented cladding fiber (SCF). The analysis is based on the H-field vectorial finite element method (VFEM) employing polar mesh geometry. Using this method, we have analyzed the circular SCF and the elliptical SCF. We have found that the birefringence of the circular SCF is very small (1.0×10(-8)). Birefringence of a highly elliptical SCF can be altered to some extent by the number of segments and duty cycle of segmentation in the segmented cladding. However, the change is not profound. The analysis shows that the circular SCF possesses low birefringence and that the segmented cladding does not add any significant birefringence in an elliptical fiber. This result strongly indicates that small deviations in the segmented cladding parameters arising from fabrication process do not significantly affect the birefringence of the fiber.

  14. Stress effects in twisted highly birefringent fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Tomasz R.

    1994-03-01

    Hydrostatic pressure and uniaxial longitudinal strain effects in twisted highly birefringent optical fibers have been investigated from the point of the Marcuse mode-coupling theory. The problem is analyzed in terms of local normal modes of the ideal fiber and in the limit of weak twist, where large linear birefringence dominates over twist effect, and therefore twist coupling between local modes is not effective. The authors present the results of birefringence measurements in highly birefringent bow-tie fibers influenced simultaneously by hydrostatic pressure up to 100 MPa and twisting the result for highly birefringent elliptical-core fibers influenced by uniaxial longitudinal strain up to 4000 (mu) (epsilon) and twisting effect. The birefringence measurement method is based on twist-induced effects and has been successfully applied in a stress environment. The experiment was conducted with a specially designed stress generating device that makes it possible to simultaneously generate various mechanical perturbations such as hydrostatic and radial pressure, axial strain and twist, allowing study of their influence on mode propagation in optical fibers. A comparison with theoretical results as well as with pervious experimental data on stress influence on the beat length parameter in highly birefringent fibers is also provided.

  15. New constraints on gravity-induced birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Sami K.; Haugan, Mark P.

    1996-01-01

    A wide class of gravitation theories predicts gravity-induced birefringence. For Moffat's NGT, the prototypical theory of this type, Gabriel, Haugan, Mann, and Palmer used the predicted gravitational birefringence and observations of solar polarization to constrain the Sun's nonsymmetric charge lsolar. We improve on this constraint by making use of improved knowledge of the solar source of polarization and of a refined analysis procedure. We obtain l2solar< (305 km)2.

  16. Magnetic birefringence of natural and synthetic ferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koralewski, M., E-mail: koral@amu.edu.pl [Optics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Pochylski, M. [Optics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Mitroova, Z.; Timko, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Melnikova, L. [Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2011-10-15

    Magnetically induced optical birefringence ({Delta}n) was measured for magnetoferritin (MFer), horse spleen ferritin (HSF) and nanoscale magnetite aqueous suspensions. The anisotropy of optical polarizability was calculated. The average magnetic dipole moment calculated assuming the Langevin model was about 20,000 and 8500 {mu}{sub B} per particle, for magnetite nanoparticle and magnetoferritin, respectively. Poor fitting results and the unphysical value of average magnetic moment per Fe ion for MFer excluded the use of the simple Langevin model for description of {Delta}n for this compound. It was deduced that for MFer the estimated average magnetic moment should be about 1125 {mu}{sub B} per molecule. A magnetic contribution from the protein shell was found to be negligible. Results from the low-field region permit the calculation of the Cotton-Mouton (C-M) constants and their comparison for the substances studied. It was shown that magnetic birefringence and C-M constant can be powerful parameters in identification of the magnetic core structure of ferritins, especially useful in biomedicine. - Highlights: > Magnetic birefringence of ferritins were studied and compared with nanoscale magnetite. > Magnetoferritin shows non-Langevin behaviour of magnetic birefringence in contrast to magnetite. > Cotton-Mouton constant of synthetic ferritin is four orders higher than that of the natural one. > Magnetic birefringence can be useful for identification of magnetic core of biogenic ferritins. > The described magnetooptical method can be of interest in biomedicine.

  17. Novel imaging technique for birefringent materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, J G

    1998-01-01

    less than 40 seconds. Retardation and orientation changes of less than 1nm and 1 deg, respectively, can be resolved with a spatial resolution close to that of a conventional polarizing microscope image. A wide variety of optically anisotropic materials have been examined to demonstrate both the quantitative and qualitative nature of this new sensitive polarization microscopy technique. Preliminary measurements have shown that when the system is extended to use two or more wavelengths it is also capable of directly extracting information about the order of the phase difference. Many transparent materials including crystals, polymers, biological tissues and textile fibres are birefringent or optically anisotropic, i.e. the refractive index varies with the direction of vibration of light. Birefringent measurements are important as they provide information about the underlying structure of a material. In general, the most sensitive techniques for measuring birefringence are those that modulate the polarization st...

  18. OSQAR Status Report: Progress in Ultra-fine Birefringence Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pugnat, P

    2009-01-01

    Progress achieved in birefringence measurements within the OSQAR collaboration is reported. This constitutes an important and encouraging step toward the first measurement at CERN of the Vacuum Magnetic Birefringence predicted by the QED.

  19. Modeling and minimizing interference from corneal birefringence in retinal birefringence scanning for foveal fixation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David

    2011-07-01

    Utilizing the measured corneal birefringence from a data set of 150 eyes of 75 human subjects, an algorithm and related computer program, based on Müller-Stokes matrix calculus, were developed in MATLAB for assessing the influence of corneal birefringence on retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) and for converging upon an optical/mechanical design using wave plates ("wave-plate-enhanced RBS") that allows foveal fixation detection essentially independently of corneal birefringence. The RBS computer model, and in particular the optimization algorithm, were verified with experimental human data using an available monocular RBS-based eye fixation monitor. Fixation detection using wave-plate-enhanced RBS is adaptable to less cooperative subjects, including young children at risk for developing amblyopia.

  20. Modeling and minimizing interference from corneal birefringence in retinal birefringence scanning for foveal fixation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the measured corneal birefringence from a data set of 150 eyes of 75 human subjects, an algorithm and related computer program, based on Müller-Stokes matrix calculus, were developed in MATLAB for assessing the influence of corneal birefringence on retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) and for converging upon an optical/mechanical design using wave plates (“wave-plate-enhanced RBS”) that allows foveal fixation detection essentially independently of corneal birefringence. The RBS computer model, and in particular the optimization algorithm, were verified with experimental human data using an available monocular RBS-based eye fixation monitor. Fixation detection using wave-plate-enhanced RBS is adaptable to less cooperative subjects, including young children at risk for developing amblyopia. PMID:21750772

  1. Astrophysical limits on quantum gravity motivated birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, R J; Gleiser, Reinaldo J.; Kozameh, Carlos N.

    2001-01-01

    We obtain observational upper bounds on a class of quantum gravity related birefringence effects, by analyzing the presence of linear polarization in the optical and ultraviolet spectrum of some distant sources. In the notation of Gambini and Pullin we find $\\chi < 10^{-3}$.

  2. Temperature Dependence of Photoinduced Birefringence in an Azobenzene Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-Tao; WANG Chang-Shun; PAN Xu; ZHANG Xiao-Qiang; WANG Chuan-Yu; SUN Cun-Ying

    2007-01-01

    The photoinduced birefringence in an azobenzene polymer is investigated at different temperatures between -20℃ to 50℃. It is found that there is a peak value of photoinduced birefringence in the temperature dependence of the photoinduced birefringence under a certain pumping intensity. With the pump light in 90 mW/cm2,the peak value of the photoinduced birefringence appeared at about 0℃. The effect of temperature on the photoinduced birefringence is discussed using the competition mechanism between the photoinduced reorientation and the thermal random motion.

  3. Vacuum Birefringence as a Vacuum Emission Process

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the phenomenon of vacuum birefringence in strong inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields can be most efficiently analyzed in terms of a vacuum emission process. In this contribution, we exemplarily stick to the case of vacuum birefringence in a stationary perpendicularly directed, purely magnetic background field extending over a finite spatial extent. Similar field configurations are realized in the BMV and PVLAS experiments. We demonstrate that we can reproduce the conventional constant field result. Our focus is on effects which arise when the probe photons originate in the field free region, are directed towards the magnetic field region, and detected well after the interaction with the magnetic field has taken place, again at zero field.

  4. Vacuum birefringence in strong inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix; Reuter, Maria; Zepf, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Birefringence is one of the fascinating properties of the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in strong electromagnetic fields. The scattering of linearly polarized incident probe photons into a perpendicularly polarized mode provides a distinct signature of the optical activity of the quantum vacuum and thus offers an excellent opportunity for a precision test of non-linear QED. Precision tests require accurate predictions and thus a theoretical framework that is capable of taking the detailed experimental geometry into account. We derive analytical solutions for vacuum birefringence which include the spatio-temporal field structure of a strong optical pump laser field and an x-ray probe. We show that the angular distribution of the scattered photons depends strongly on the interaction geometry and find that scattering of the perpendicularly polarized scattered photons out of the cone of the incident probe x-ray beam is the key to making the phenomenon experimentally accessible with the current generatio...

  5. Magnetic Linear Birefringence Measurements Using Pulsed Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Berceau, Paul; Battesti, Remy; Rizzo, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the accomplishment of the further step towards the vacuum magnetic birefringence measurement based on pulsed fields. After describing our BMV experiment, we report the calibration of our apparatus with nitrogen gas and we discuss the precision of our measurement giving a detailed error budget. Our best present vacuum sensitivity is 2.1x 10^-19 T^-2 per 5 ms magnetic pulse. We finally discuss the perspectives to reach our final goal.

  6. Reconsidering the origins of Forsbergh birefringence patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, A.; Kumar, A.; McQuaid, R. G. P.; Glazer, A. M.; Thomas, P. A.; Gregg, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    In 1949, Forsbergh, Jr. reported spontaneous spatial ordering in the birefringence patterns seen in flux-grown BaTi O3 crystals under the transmission polarized light microscope [Phys. Rev. 76, 1187 (1949), 10.1103/PhysRev.76.1187]. Stunningly regular square-net arrays were often only found within a finite temperature window and could be induced on both heating and cooling, suggesting genuine thermodynamic stability. At the time, Forsbergh rationalized the patterns to have resulted from the impingement of ferroelastic domains, creating a complex tessellation of variously shaped domain packets. However, no direct evidence for the intricate microstructural arrangement proposed by Forsbergh has subsequently been found. Moreover, there are no robust thermodynamic arguments to explain the finite region of thermal stability, its occurrence just below the Curie temperature, and the apparent increase in entropy associated with the loss of the Forsbergh pattern on cooling. Despite decades of research on ferroelectrics, this ordering phenomenon and its thermodynamic origin have hence remained a mystery. In this paper, we reexamine the microstructure of flux-grown BaTi O3 crystals, which show Forsbergh birefringence patterns. Given an absence of any obvious arrays of domain polyhedra or even regular shapes of domain packets, we suggest an alternative origin for the Forsbergh pattern in which sheets of orthogonally oriented ferroelastic stripe domains simply overlay one another. We show explicitly that the Forsbergh birefringence pattern occurs if the periodicity of the stripe domains is above a critical value. Moreover, by considering well-established semiempirical models, we show that the significant domain coarsening needed to generate the Forsbergh birefringence is fully expected in a finite window below the Curie temperature. We hence present a much more straightforward rationalization of the Forsbergh pattern than that originally proposed in which exotic thermodynamic

  7. Transient birefringence effects in electromagnetically induced transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parshkov, O M [Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    We report the results of numerical modelling of transient birefringence that arises as a result of electromagnetically induced transparency on degenerate quantum transitions between the states with J = 0, 1 and 2 in the presence of the Doppler broadening of spectral lines. It is shown that in the case of a linearly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence leads to a decay of the input circularly polarised probe pulse into separate linearly polarised pulses inside a medium. In the case of a circularly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence manifests itself in a decay of the input linearly polarised probe pulse into separate circularly polarised pulses. It is shown that the distance that a probe pulse has to pass in a medium before decaying into subpulses is considerably greater in the first case than in the second. The influence of the input probe pulse power and duration on the process of spatial separation into individual pulses inside a medium is studied. A qualitative analysis of the obtained results is presented. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  8. The PVLAS experiment: measuring vacuum magnetic birefringence and dichroism with a birefringent Fabry-Perot cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Valle, Federico; Milotti, Edoardo [INFN, Trieste (Italy); Universita di Trieste, Dipt. di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Ejlli, Aldo; Messineo, Giuseppe; Zavattini, Guido [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Universita di Ferrara, Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); Gastaldi, Ugo [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Pengo, Ruggero; Ruoso, Giuseppe [INFN, Lab. Nazionale di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Vacuum magnetic birefringence was predicted long time ago and is still lacking a direct experimental confirmation. Several experimental efforts are striving to reach this goal, and the sequence of results promises a success in the next few years. This measurement generally is accompanied by the search for hypothetical light particles that couple to two photons. The PVLAS experiment employs a sensitive polarimeter based on a high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. In this paper we report on the latest experimental results of this experiment. The data are analysed taking into account the intrinsic birefringence of the dielectric mirrors of the cavity. Besides a new limit on the vacuum magnetic birefringence, the measurements also allow the model-independent exclusion of new regions in the parameter space of axion-like and milli-charged particles. In particular, these last limits hold also for all types of neutrinos, resulting in a laboratory limit on their charge. (orig.)

  9. The PVLAS experiment: measuring vacuum magnetic birefringence and dichroism with a birefringent Fabry-Perot cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Della Valle, F; Ejlli, A; Gastaldi, U; Messineo, G; Zavattini, G; Pengo, R; Ruoso, G

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum magnetic birefringence was predicted long time ago and is still lacking a direct experimental confirmation. Several experimental efforts are striving to reach this goal, and the sequence of results promises a success in the next few years. This measurement generally is accompanied by the search for hypothetical light particles that couple to two photons. The PVLAS experiment employs a sensitive polarimeter based on a high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. In this paper we report on the latest experimental results of this experiment. The data are analysed taking into account the intrinsic birefringence of the dielectric mirrors of the cavity. Besides the limit on the vacuum magnetic birefringence, the measurements also allow the model-independent exclusion of new regions in the parameter space of axion-like and milli-charged particles. In particular, these last limits hold also for all types of neutrinos, resulting in a laboratory limit on their charge.

  10. Influence of Photon Mass on Vacuum Birefringence Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Min; SHAO Cheng-Gang

    2007-01-01

    Influence of photon mass on vacuum birefringence experiment is analysed according to the nonlinearities of vacuum quantum electrodynamics for the light propagation through an intense electromagnetic field.It is shown that although the photon mass will cause a change of the refractive indices n⊥ and n(‖) of vacuum birefringence,the difference n(‖)-n⊥is unchanged,which means that the effect of photon mass cannot be observed in vacuum birefringence experiment.

  11. Detecting strain in birefringent materials using spectral polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Huebschman, Michael L. (Inventor); Garner, Harold R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method, computer program product and system for analyzing multispectral images from a plurality of regions of birefringent material, such as a polymer film, using polarized light and a corresponding polar analyzer to identify differential strain in the birefringent material. For example, the birefringement material may be low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyester, nylon, or cellophane film. Optionally, the method includes generating a real-time quantitative strain map.

  12. Birefringence control for ion-exchanged channel glass waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayräs, P; Conti, G N; Honkanen, S; Peyghambarian, N

    1998-12-20

    We show that at 1.55-mum wavelength the waveguide birefringence of ion-exchanged channel waveguides in glass can be broadly tuned by a potassium and silver double-ion exchange. Two different potassium and silver double-ion-exchange processes are used to make surface waveguides with negligible waveguide birefringence. This process is crucially important in the manufacture of devices for dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems. The dependence of the waveguide birefringence on the channel width is also reported.

  13. Nonlinear pulse propagation in birefringent fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S; Sipe, J

    1998-11-23

    We present two sets of equations to describe nonlinear pulse propagation in a birefringent fiber Bragg grating. The first set uses a coupled-mode formalism to describe light in or near the photonic band gap of the grating. The second set is a pair of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. We use these equations to examine viable switching experiments in the presence of birefringence. We show how the birefringence can both aid and hinder device applications.

  14. Transfer matrix for treating stratified media including birefringent crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas

    2013-01-10

    Birefringent crystals are extensively used to manipulate polarized light. The generalized transfer matrix developed allows efficient calculation of the full polarization state of light transmitted through and reflected by a stack of arbitrarily many discrete layers of isotropic and birefringent materials at any frequency and angle of incidence. The matrix of a uniaxial birefringent crystal with arbitrary rotation is calculated, along with its reduction to the matrix of an isotropic medium. This method is of great practical importance where tight control of systematic effects is needed in optical systems employing birefringent crystals, one example being wave plates used by cosmic microwave background polarimetry with wide field-of-view telescopes.

  15. Transfer matrix for treating stratified media including birefringent crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Birefringent crystals are extensively used to manipulate polarized light. The generalized transfer matrix developed allows efficient calculation of the full polarization state of light transmitted through and reflected by a stack of arbitrarily-many discrete layers of isotropic and birefringent materials at any frequency and angle of incidence. The matrix of a uniaxial birefringent crystal with arbitrary rotation is calculated, along with its reduction to the matrix of an isotropic medium. This method is of great practical importance where tight control of systematic effects is needed in optical systems employing birefringent crystals, one example being wave plates used by cosmic microwave background polarimetry with wide field-of-view telescopes.

  16. Birefringent thin films and polarizing elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgkinson, Ian J

    1997-01-01

    This book describes the propagation of light in biaxial media, the properties of biaxial thin films, and applications such as birefringent filters for tuning the wavelength of dye lasers.A novel feature of the first part is the parallel treatment of Stokes, Jones, and Berreman matrix formalisms in a chapter-by-chapter development of wave equations, basis vectors, transfer matrices, reflection and transmission equations, and guided waves. Computational tools for MATLAB are included.The second part focuses on an emerging planar technology in which anisotropic microstructures are formed by obliqu

  17. Birefringent non-polarizing thin film design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hongji; HONG Ruijin; HE Hongbo; SHAO Jianda; FAN Zhengxiu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, 2×2 characteristic matrices of uniaxially anisotropic thin film for extraordinary and ordinary wave are deduced at oblique incidence. Furthermore, the reflectance and transmittance of thin films are calculated separately for two polarizations, which provide a new concept for designing non-polarizing thin films at oblique incidence. Besides, using the multilayer birefringent thin films, non-polarizing designs, such as beam splitter thin film at single wavelength, edge filter and antireflection thin film over visible spectral region are obtained at oblique incidence.

  18. Synthesis and Applications of Birefringent Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Achouri, Karim; Caloz, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Birefringent metasurfaces are two-dimensional structures capable of independently controlling the amplitude, phase and polarization of orthogonally polarized incident waves. In this work, we propose a in-depth discussion on the mathematical synthesis of such metasurfaces. We compare two methods, one that is rigorous and based on the exact electromagnetic fields involved in the transformation and one that is based on approximate reflection and transmission coefficients. We next validate the synthesis technique in metasurfaces performing the operations of half- and quarter-wave plates, polarization beam splitting and orbital angular momentum multiplexing.

  19. Sensing characteristics of birefringent microstructured polymer optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczurowski, Marcin K.; Frazao, Orlando; Baptista, J. M.;

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally studied several sensing characteristics of a birefringent microstructured polymer optical fiber. The fiber exhibits a birefringence of the order 2×10-5 at 1.3 μm because of two small holes adjacent to the core. In this fiber, we measured spectral dependence of phase and group mo...

  20. Note: Ultra-low birefringence dodecagonal vacuum glass cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakhane, Stefan, E-mail: brakhane@iap.uni-bonn.de; Alt, Wolfgang; Meschede, Dieter; Robens, Carsten; Moon, Geol; Alberti, Andrea [Institut für Angewandte Physik, Universität Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We report on an ultra-low birefringence dodecagonal glass cell for ultra-high vacuum applications. The epoxy-bonded trapezoidal windows of the cell are made of SF57 glass, which exhibits a very low stress-induced birefringence. We characterize the birefringence Δn of each window with the cell under vacuum conditions, obtaining values around 10{sup −8}. After baking the cell at 150 °C, we reach a pressure below 10{sup −10} mbar. In addition, each window is antireflection coated on both sides, which is highly desirable for quantum optics experiments and precision measurements.

  1. Birefringent Microlens Array for Ultra High Resolution HMDs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will be used to analyze, design, model, and test a birefringent microlens array for use in a new type of...

  2. Propagation stability of a chirped soliton in birefringent fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Hongjun; Wu Chongqing [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Liu Shanliang; Li Xin, E-mail: zhj@lcu.edu.cn, E-mail: hjzheng@yahoo.com [Institute of Optical Communication, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng Shandong, 252059 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The propagation stability of a chirped soliton at anomalous dispersion region in birefringent fibers is numerically studied by using the split-step Fourier-method. It is found that initial linear chirp can change obviously the threshold value A{sub th} above which soliton stably propagates in birefringent fibers, the A{sub th} increases with the decrease of the polarization angle | /4- |. The positive chirp makes obviously the A{sub th} smaller for group velocity mismatch parameter >0.5, the negative one makes the A{sub th} larger for <0.5. The effect of initial positive chirp on the A{sub th} is greater than that of negative chirp for high birefringent fibers, is less than that of negative chirp for low birefringent fibers.

  3. Angular tuning of the magnetic birefringence in rippled cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, Miguel A., E-mail: MiguelAngel.Arranz@uclm.es [Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologías Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo J. Cela 10, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Colino, José M. [Instituto de Nanociencia, Nanotecnología y Materiales Moleculares, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fábrica de Armas, 45071 Toledo (Spain)

    2015-06-22

    We report the measurement of magnetically induced birefringence in rippled Co films. For this purpose, the magneto-optical properties of ion beam eroded ferromagnetic films were studied using Kerr magnetometry and magnetic birefringence in the transmitted light intensity. Upon sufficient ion sculpting, these ripple surface nanostructures developed a defined uniaxial anisotropy in the in-plane magnetization, finely tuning the magnetic birefringence effect. We have studied its dependence on the relative orientation between the ripple direction and the magnetic field, and found this effect to be dramatically correlated with the capability to neatly distinguish the mechanisms for the in-plane magnetization reversal, i.e., rotation and nucleation. This double refraction corresponds univocally to the two magnetization axes, parallel and perpendicular to the ripples direction. We have also observed that tuned birefringence in stack assemblies of rippled Co films, which enables us to technically manipulate the number and direction of refraction axes.

  4. On the existence of Jones birefringence and Jones dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Oriol

    2010-05-01

    We claim that the so-called Jones birefringence and Jones dichroism effects, understood as new optical phenomena of difficult experimental observation, cannot be deduced from Jones publications and were proposed due to a misinterpretation of his original work.

  5. Singular optical manipulation of birefringent elastic media using nonsingular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasselet, Etienne

    2009-10-15

    It is shown that nonsingular light beams can generate singular birefringent patterns in homogeneous birefringent elastic media. These orientational defects of the optical-axis spatial distribution originate from an optical torque driven by a nonzero longitudinal field component. Singular radial and spin-dependent azimuthal light-induced elastic distortion patterns are described and experimentally observed in a uniform liquid-crystal film in the course of a focused circularly polarized Gaussian beam.

  6. Form Birefringence in Thin Films with Oblique Columnar Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-Guo; SHAO Jian-Da; WANG Su-Mei; HE Hong-Bo; FAN Zheng-Xiu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Effective medium theory is useful for designing optical elements with form birefringent subwavelength structures. Thinfilms fabricated by oblique deposition are similar to the two-dimensional surface relief subwavelength gratings. We use the effective medium theory to calculate the anisotropic optical properties of the thin films with oblique columnar structures. The effective refractive indices and the directions are calculated from effective medium theory. It is shown that optical thin films with predetermined refractive indices and birefringence may be engineered.

  7. Quantifying strain birefringence halos around inclusions in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.; Jones, A. P.; Nasdala, L.; Harris, J. W.

    2010-11-01

    The pressure and temperature conditions of formation of natural diamond can be estimated by measuring the residual stress that an inclusion remains under within a diamond. Raman spectroscopy has been the most commonly used technique for determining this stress by utilising pressure-sensitive peak shifts in the Raman spectrum of both the inclusion and the diamond host. Here, we present a new approach to measure the residual stress using quantitative analysis of the birefringence induced in the diamond. As the analysis of stress-induced birefringence is very different from that of normal birefringence, an analytical model is developed that relates the spherical inclusion size, R i, host diamond thickness, L, and measured value of birefringence at the edge of the inclusion, Updelta n(R_{text{i}} )_{text{av}} , to the peak value of birefringence that has been encountered; to first order Updelta n_{text{pk}} = (3/4)(L/R_{text{i}} ) Updelta n(R_{text{i}} )_{text{av}} . From this birefringence, the remnant pressure ( P i) can be calculated using the photoelastic relationship Updelta n_{text{pk}} = - (3/4)n3 q_{text{iso}} P_{text{i}} , where q iso is a piezo-optical coefficient, which can be assumed to be independent of crystallographic orientation, and n is the refractive index of the diamond. This model has been used in combination with quantitative birefringence analysis with a MetriPol system and compared to the results from both Raman point and 2D mapping analysis for a garnet inclusion in a diamond from the Udachnaya mine (Russia) and coesite inclusions in a diamond from the Finsch mine (South Africa). The birefringence model and analysis gave a remnant pressure of 0.53 ± 0.01 GPa for the garnet inclusion, from which a source pressure was calculated as 5.7 GPa at 1,175°C (temperature obtained from IR analysis of the diamond host). The Raman techniques could not be applied quantitatively to this sample to support the birefringence model; they were, however, applied

  8. Improved eye-fixation detection using polarization-modulated retinal birefringence scanning, immune to corneal birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L

    2014-04-07

    We present an improved method for remote eye-fixation detection, using a polarization-modulated approach to retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), without the need for individual calibration or separate background measurements and essentially independent of corneal birefringence. Polarization-modulated RBS detects polarization changes generated in modulated polarized light passing through a unique pattern of nerve fibers identifying and defining the retinal region where fixation occurs (the fovea). A proof-of-concept demonstration in human eyes suggests that polarization-modulated RBS has the potential to reliably detect true foveal fixation on a specified point with an accuracy of at least ± 0.75°, and that it can be applied to the general population, including individuals with sub-optimal eyes and young children, where early diagnosis of visual problems can be critical. As could be employed in an eye-controlled display or in other devices, polarization-modulated RBS also enables and paves the way for new and reliable eye-fixation-evoked human-machine interfaces.

  9. Gauge-origin independent calculations of Jones birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbin, Dmitry; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Jonsson, Dan; Ruud, Kenneth

    2011-10-01

    We present the first gauge-origin independent formulation of Jones birefringence at the Hartree-Fock level of theory. Gauge-origin independence is achieved through the use of London atomic orbitals. The implementation is based on a recently proposed atomic orbital-based response theory formulation that allows for the use of both time- and perturbation-dependent basis sets [Thorvaldsen, Ruud, Kristensen, Jørgensen, and Coriani, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 214108 (2008)]. We present the detailed expressions for the response functions entering the Jones birefringence when London atomic orbitals are used. The implementation is tested on a set of polar and dipolar molecules at the Hartree-Fock level of theory. It is demonstrated that London orbitals lead to much improved basis-set convergence, and that the use of small, conventional basis sets may lead to the wrong sign for the calculated birefringence. For large basis sets, London orbitals and conventional basis sets converge to the same results.

  10. Highly Nonlinear and Birefringent Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Revathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and design a spiral photonic crystal fiber with elliptical air holes for achieving high birefringence, large nonlinearity, and negative dispersion. The structure is designed using chalcogenide glass (As2S3 for different ellipticity ratios of air holes in the cladding and the effect on various properties is observed. The proposed structure has birefringence of the order 10−2, nonlinearity of 26739.42 W−1 m−1, and dispersion of −1136.69 at 0.85 μm. An accurate numerical approach based on finite element method is used for the design and simulation of the structure. Due to high birefringence and negative dispersion, the proposed structure can be used for polarization control and dispersion compensation, respectively.

  11. Vacuum magnetic linear birefringence using pulsed fields: the BMV experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cadène, A; Fouché, M; Battesti, R; Rizzo, C

    2013-01-01

    In this letter we present the measurement of the vacuum magnetic birefringence obtained using the first generation setup of the BMV experiment. In particular, we detail our procedure of data acquisition and our analysis which takes into account the symmetry properties of raw data with respect to the orientation of the magnetic field and the sign of the cavity birefringence. Our current value of vacuum magnetic linear birefringence k_CM was obtained with about 100 magnetic pulses and a maximum field of 6.5 T. We get k_CM = (-7.4 \\pm 8.7).10^{-21} T^{-2} at 3 sigma confidence level. Our result is a clear validation of our innovative experimental method.

  12. Estimation of the Birefringence Change in Crystals Induced by Gravitation Field

    OpenAIRE

    Vlokh R.; Kostyrko M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the birefringent properties of crystals has been analysed. It has been shown that the gravitation field with spherical symmetry can lead to a change of birefringence in anisotropic media.

  13. Electric birefringence anomaly of solutions of ionically charged anisometric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H; Gräbner, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    The term "electric birefringence anomaly" is known as the electric birefringence (EB) signal that occurs in solutions of ionically charged anisometric particles in a narrow concentration region. The signal is of opposite sign to the normal birefringence that occurs below and above this narrow concentration region. The normal electric birefringence signals in the dilute and more concentrated regions are due to the orientation of the particles in the direction of the applied electric field. The origin for the anomalous signal was not completely understood until now. The article summarises previous results in which the anomalous results had been observed but not well understood. It shows that the birefringence anomaly occurs in systems as diverse as micellar solutions, polyelectrolytes, solutions of clays, viruses and fibres. In all these systems the anomaly signals are present at the concentration when the length of the colloidal particles including the thickness of the electric double layer are about the same as the mean distance between the colloidal particles. Under these conditions the electric double layers of the particles overlap along the main axis of the particles but not in the direction across the particles. As a consequence of this situation a dipole is built up across the particles by the migration of the counter-ions of the particles in the electric field and this dipole leads to an orientation of the particles perpendicular to the electric field. The anomalous signal can usually be observed simultaneously with the normal signal. The amplitude of the anomalous signal can be larger than the amplitude of the normal signal. As a consequence the total birefringence changes its sign in the anomalous concentration region. The anomaly signal of the clays can also be explained by a fluctuating dipole around the particles, which is due to the fact that the centre of the ionic charges of the particles does not fall on the centre of the ionic charge of the counter

  14. Birefringence induced polarization-independent and nearly all-angle transparency through a metallic film

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Dong-Liang; Gao, Lei; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We propose an birefringence route to perfect electromagnetic (EM) wave tunneling through a metallic film which relies on homogeneous birefringent coatings with moderate and positive parameters only. EM transparency is achieved in such an birefringent-metal-birefringent (BMB) structure for both polarizations and over nearly all incident angles. The stringent restrictions in conventional dielectric-metal-dielectric media, i.e., dielectrics with extremely negative permittivity, high magnetic fie...

  15. Tightly Focusing of Circularly Polarized Vortex Beams through a Uniaxial Birefringent Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Lian-Zhou; WANG Zong-Chi; ZHENG Xiao-Xia

    2008-01-01

    Under the approximation of small birefringence, the properties of circalarly polarized vortex beams tightly focused through a uniaxial birefringent crystal are studied. With the proper combination of the topological charge and the birefringence, the small focus, the small bottle beam and the inverse c-shaped intensity profile can be obtained.The effects of the focal shift and the Strehl ratio on the birefringence are analysed. A relation between angular momentum (included spin and orbital) and topological Pancharatnam charge is also presented.

  16. A Simple Birefringent Terahertz Waveguide Based on Polymer Elliptical Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-Li; YAO Jian-Quan; CHEN He-Ming; LI Zhong-Yang

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple birefringent terahertz (THz) waveguide which is a polymer elliptical tube with a cross section of elliptical ring structure. It can be achieved by stretching a normal circular-tube in one direction. Simulations based on the full-vector finite element method (FEM) show that this kind of waveguides exhibits high birefringence on a level of 10-2 over a wide THz frequency range. Moreover, as a majority of modal power is trapped in the air core inside the polymer elliptical tube, the THz waveguide guiding loss caused by material absorption can be reduced effectively.

  17. A birefringent cavity He-Ne laser and optical feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gang; Zhang Shu-Lian; Li Yan; Zhu Jun

    2004-01-01

    Strong modes competition makes only one of o-light and e-light oscillate in a birefringent dual-frequency laser when the angle between the crystalline axis and the laser beam is nearly zero. When the oscillated mode is in a different part of the gain curve, the detected intensity curves of o-light and e-light are quite different in the existence of optical feedback. The curves are divided into five cases. Three cases of the experimental results can be used for direction discrimination. The polarization characteristics of the birefringent cavity He-Ne laser are also discussed without optical feedback.

  18. Ultraviolet-induced birefringence in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Deyerl, Hans-Jürgen; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær

    2005-01-01

    for the role of hydrogen and deuterium in the UV-induced process. Previous arguments for the origins are systematically ruled out by reviewing existing literature. We note that the birefringence is made up of at least two components with different thermal stabilities, one consistent simply with molecular...... hydrogen being present in the system. Overall the birefringence, by deduction, is associated with anisotropy in hydrogen reactions within the fiber. As a result they lead, through known mechanisms of dilation in glass, to anisotropic stress relaxation that can be annealed out, with or without hydrogen...

  19. Zero-field birefringence of biocompatible magnetic fluids: A concentration dependence investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloi, Marcos T.A. [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, 70919-970, Brasilia - DF (Brazil); Azevedo, Ricardo B. [Departamento de Genetica e Morfologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, 70910-900, Brasilia - DF (Brazil); Lima, Emilia C.D. [Universidade Federal de Goias, Instituto de Quimica, 74001-970, Goiania - GO (Brazil); Pimenta, Angela C.M. [Universidade Federal de Goias, Instituto de Quimica, 74001-970, Goiania - GO (Brazil); Morais, Paulo C. [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, 70919-970, Brasilia - DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: pcmor@unb.br

    2005-05-15

    Zero-field birefringence was used to investigate maghemite-based biocompatible magnetic fluids surface-coated with citrate. The model used to analyze the birefringence signal considers the dipolar magnetic interaction among dimers and the onset of a nematic phase near the sample holder surface. The data show that zero-field birefringence grows with sample dilution.

  20. Birefringence and noncommutative structure of space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maceda, Marco, E-mail: mmac@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, C.P. 09340, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Macias, Alfredo, E-mail: amac@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, C.P. 09340, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-11-03

    We analyze the phenomenon of birefringence of the electromagnetic field in the context of noncommutative geometry, using as background a deformed pp-wave solution to noncommutative Einstein's equations. The light-cone structure is determined using a generalized Fresnel equation characterizing the propagation of light in premetric vacuum electrodynamics.

  1. Chirped Optical Solitons in Single-mode Birefringent Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, M F

    1996-12-01

    The trapping behavior of two chirped solitons forming a bound state in a single-mode birefringent fiber is investigated on the basis of a model of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The positive initial chirp plays an important role in controlling the threshold amplitude for soliton trapping without causing excessive pulse broadening.

  2. Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fibers BUsing Asymmetric Core Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Chun-Liu; Lu Chao; Yan Min; Wang Xiaoyan; Lou Junjun; Li Qin; Zhou Xiaoqun; Cai Qing; P.R.Chaudhuri

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber by utilizing the asymmetric core design. Based on spectral measurements of the polarization mode interfering, we estimate that the fiber has a beat length of about 0.33 mm at 1545 nm.

  3. Giant Birefringence of Lithium Niobate Crystals in the Terahertz Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yi-Min; MAO Zong-Liang; HOU Bi-Hui; LIU Guo-Qing; WANG Li

    2007-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used to study the spectral response of lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO3) in the far infrared region. The optical constants are derived from the measured complex refractive index.A giant birefringence is observed in this material, and the average refractive-index difference between the ordinary wave and the extraordinary wave, no - ne, can reach up to about 1.6. Such a large birefringence is attributed to the different phonon modes of A1 (z) and E(x, y). This unusual property makes LiNbO3 a promising material to be used as a functional material in the terahertz region, e.g. Employed as wave-plates and polarization separators.

  4. POLARBEAR constraints on cosmic birefringence and primordial magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Peter A. R.; Arnold, Kam; Atlas, Matt; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Barron, Darcy; Boettger, David; Borrill, Julian; Chapman, Scott; Chinone, Yuji; Cukierman, Ari; Dobbs, Matt; Ducout, Anne; Dunner, Rolando; Elleflot, Tucker; Errard, Josquin; Fabbian, Giulio; Feeney, Stephen; Feng, Chang; Gilbert, Adam; Goeckner-Wald, Neil; Groh, John; Hall, Grantland; Halverson, Nils W.; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hattori, Kaori; Hazumi, Masashi; Hill, Charles; Holzapfel, William L.; Hori, Yasuto; Howe, Logan; Inoue, Yuki; Jaehnig, Gregory C.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Jeong, Oliver; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Kaufman, Jonathan P.; Keating, Brian; Kermish, Zigmund; Keskitalo, Reijo; Kisner, Theodore; Kusaka, Akito; Le Jeune, Maude; Lee, Adrian T.; Leitch, Erik M.; Leon, David; Li, Yun; Linder, Eric; Lowry, Lindsay; Matsuda, Frederick; Matsumura, Tomotake; Miller, Nathan; Montgomery, Josh; Myers, Michael J.; Navaroli, Martin; Nishino, Haruki; Okamura, Takahiro; Paar, Hans; Peloton, Julien; Pogosian, Levon; Poletti, Davide; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Raum, Christopher; Rebeiz, Gabriel; Reichardt, Christian L.; Richards, Paul L.; Ross, Colin; Rotermund, Kaja M.; Schenck, David E.; Sherwin, Blake D.; Shimon, Meir; Shirley, Ian; Siritanasak, Praween; Smecher, Graeme; Stebor, Nathan; Steinbach, Bryan; Suzuki, Aritoki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Tajima, Osamu; Takakura, Satoru; Tikhomirov, Alexei; Tomaru, Takayuki; Whitehorn, Nathan; Wilson, Brandon; Yadav, Amit; Zahn, Alex; Zahn, Oliver; Polarbear Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    We constrain anisotropic cosmic birefringence using four-point correlations of even-parity E -mode and odd-parity B -mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background measurements made by the POLARization of the Background Radiation (POLARBEAR) experiment in its first season of observations. We find that the anisotropic cosmic birefringence signal from any parity-violating processes is consistent with zero. The Faraday rotation from anisotropic cosmic birefringence can be compared with the equivalent quantity generated by primordial magnetic fields if they existed. The POLARBEAR nondetection translates into a 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limit of 93 nanogauss (nG) on the amplitude of an equivalent primordial magnetic field inclusive of systematic uncertainties. This four-point correlation constraint on Faraday rotation is about 15 times tighter than the upper limit of 1380 nG inferred from constraining the contribution of Faraday rotation to two-point correlations of B -modes measured by Planck in 2015. Metric perturbations sourced by primordial magnetic fields would also contribute to the B -mode power spectrum. Using the POLARBEAR measurements of the B -mode power spectrum (two-point correlation), we set a 95% C.L. upper limit of 3.9 nG on primordial magnetic fields assuming a flat prior on the field amplitude. This limit is comparable to what was found in the Planck 2015 two-point correlation analysis with both temperature and polarization. We perform a set of systematic error tests and find no evidence for contamination. This work marks the first time that anisotropic cosmic birefringence or primordial magnetic fields have been constrained from the ground at subdegree scales.

  5. Fourier polarimetry of the birefringence distribution of myocardium tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, O. G.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Ushenko, V. O.; Gorsky, M. P.; Soltys, I. V.; Olar, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of optical modeling of biological tissues polycrystalline multilayer networks have been presented. Algorithms of reconstruction of parameter distributions were determined that describe the linear and circular birefringence. For the separation of the manifestations of these mechanisms we propose a method of space-frequency filtering. Criteria for differentiation of causes of death due to coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute coronary insufficiency (ACI) were found.

  6. On the torque on birefringent plates induced by quantum fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Iannuzzi, D; Barash, Y; Capasso, F; Iannuzzi, Davide; Munday, Jeremy N.; Barash, Yuri; Capasso, Federico

    2004-01-01

    We present detailed numerical calculations of the mechanical torque induced by quantum fluctuations on two parallel birefringent plates with in plane optical anisotropy, separated by either vacuum or a liquid (ethanol). The torque is found to vary as $\\sin(2\\theta)$, where $\\theta$ represents the angle between the two optical axes, and its magnitude rapidly increases with decreasing plate separation $d$. For a 40 $\\mu$m diameter disk, made out of either quartz or calcite, kept parallel to a Barium Titanate plate at $d\\simeq 100$ nm, the maximum torque (at $\\theta={\\pi\\over 4}$) is of the order of $\\simeq 10^{-19}$ N$\\cdot$m. We propose an experiment to observe this torque when the Barium Titanate plate is immersed in ethanol and the other birefringent disk is placed on top of it. In this case the retarded van der Waals (or Casimir-Lifshitz) force between the two birefringent slabs is repulsive. The disk would float parallel to the plate at a distance where its net weight is counterbalanced by the retarded van...

  7. Modulation Instabilities in Birefringent Two-Core Optical Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Li, J H; Malomed, B A; Chow, K W

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of the modulation instability (MI) of continuous waves (CWs) in a two-core fiber (TCF) did not consider effects caused by co-propagation of the two polarized modes in a TCF that possesses birefringence, such as cross-phase modulation (XPM), polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), and polarization-dependent coupling (PDC) between the cores. This paper reports an analysis of these effects on the MI by considering a linear-birefringence TCF and a circular-birefringence TCF, which feature different XPM coefficients. The analysis focuses on the MI of the asymmetric CW states in the TCFs, which have no counterparts in single-core fibers. We find that, the asymmetric CW state exists when its total power exceeds a threshold (minimum) value, which is sensitive to the value of the XPM coefficient. We consider, in particular, a class of asymmetric CW states that admit analytical solutions. In the anomalous dispersion regime, without taking the PMD and PDC into account, the MI gain spectra of the birefringen...

  8. Anomalous birefringence of swollen lamellar phases : blue smectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallet, F.; Barois, Ph.

    1994-06-01

    The birefringence of a lyotropic lamellar phase is calculated as a function of dilution. It is found to vanish and change sign, provided the natural birefringence of surfactant bilayers is positive. Dispersion is calculated about the point of zero birefringence. These predictions are illustrated with experiments of spectrophotometry: the intensity of light transmitted between crossed polarizers through several lamellar samples vanishes as expected at some particular wavelength. The dependence of the transmitted light on wavelength and cell thickness is consistent with theory. La biréfringence d'une phase lamellaire lyotrope est calculée en fonction de la dilution. Nous montrons qu'elle peut s'annuler à condition que la biréfringence naturelle des bicouches de tensioactif soit positive. La dispersion au voisinage du point de biréfringence nulle est calculée. Ces résultats sont confirmés par des mesures de spectrophotométrie : la transmission des échantillons étudiés entre polariseurs croisés s'annule exactement pour une longueur d'onde particulière. La variation de l'intensité transmise en fonction de la longueur d'onde et de l'épaisseur des échantillons est conforme aux prévisions du modèle.

  9. A method to measure vacuum birefringence at FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Uggerhøj, Ulrik I

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that the Heisenberg-Euler-Schwinger effective Lagrangian predicts that a vacuum with a strong static electromagnetic field turns birefringent. We propose a scheme that can be implemented at the planned FCC-ee, to measure the nonlinear effect of vacuum birefringence in electrodynamics arising from QED corrections. Our scheme employs a pulsed laser to create Compton backscattered photons off a high energy electron beam, with the FCC-ee as a particularly interesting example. These photons will pass through a strong static magnetic field, which changes the state of polarization of the radiation - an effect proportional to the photon energy. This change will be measured by the use of an aligned single-crystal, where a large difference in the pair production cross-sections can be achieved. In the proposed experimental setup the birefringence effect gives rise to a difference in the number of pairs created in the analyzing crystal, stemming from the fact that the initial laser light has a varying st...

  10. Spinning wave plate design for retinal birefringence scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, K.; Gramatikov, B. I.; Wu, Y.-K.; Guyton, D. L.

    2009-02-01

    To enhance foveal fixation detection while bypassing the deleterious effects of corneal birefringence in retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), we developed a new RBS design introducing a double-pass spinning half wave plate (HWP) and a fixed double-pass retarder into the optical system. Utilizing the measured corneal birefringence from a data set of 300 human eyes, an algorithm and a related computer program, based on Mueller-Stokes matrix calculus, were developed in MATLAB for optimizing the properties of both wave plates. Foveal fixation detection was optimized with the HWP spun 9/16 as fast as the circular scan, with the fixed retarder having a retardance of 45° and fast axis at 90°. With this new RBS design, a significant statistical improvement of 7.3 times in signal strength, i.e. FFT power, was achieved for the available data set compared with the previous RBS design. The computer-model-optimized RBS design has the potential not only for eye alignment screening, but also for remote fixation sensing and eye tracking applications.

  11. POLARBEAR Constraints on Cosmic Birefringence and Primordial Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, Peter A R; Atlas, Matt; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Barron, Darcy; Boettger, David; Borrill, Julian; Chapman, Scott; Chinone, Yuji; Cukierman, Ari; Dobbs, Matt; Ducout, Anne; Dunner, Rolando; Elleflot, Tucker; Errard, Josquin; Fabbian, Giulio; Feeney, Stephen; Feng, Chang; Gilbert, Adam; Goeckner-Wald, Neil; Groh, John; Hall, Grantland; Halverson, Nils W; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hattori, Kaori; Hazumi, Masashi; Hill, Charles; Holzapfel, William L; Hori, Yasuto; Howe, Logan; Inoue, Yuki; Jaehnig, Gregory C; Jaffe, Andrew H; Jeong, Oliver; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Kaufman, Jonathan P; Keating, Brian; Kermish, Zigmund; Keskitalo, Reijo; Kisner, Theodore; Kusaka, Akito; Jeune, Maude Le; Lee, Adrian T; Leitch, Erik M; Leon, David; Li, Yun; Linder, Eric; Lowry, Lindsay; Matsuda, Frederick; Matsumura, Tomotake; Miller, Nathan; Montgomery, Josh; Myers, Michael J; Navaroli, Martin; Nishino, Haruki; Okamura, Takahiro; Paar, Hans; Peloton, Julien; Pogosian, Levon; Poletti, Davide; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Raum, Christopher; Rebeiz, Gabriel; Reichardt, Christian L; Richards, Paul L; Ross, Colin; Rotermund, Kaja M; Schenck, David E; Sherwin, Blake D; Shimon, Meir; Shirley, Ian; Siritanasak, Praween; Smecher, Graeme; Stebor, Nathan; Steinbach, Bryan; Suzuki, Aritoki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Tajima, Osamu; Takakura, Satoru; Tikhomirov, Alexei; Tomaru, Takayuki; Whitehorn, Nathan; Wilson, Brandon; Yadav, Amit; Zahn, Alex; Zahn, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We constrain anisotropic cosmic birefringence using four-point correlations of even-parity $E$-mode and odd-parity $B$-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background measurements made by the POLARBEAR experiment in its first season of observations. We find that the anisotropic cosmic birefringence signal from any parity violating processes is consistent with zero. The Faraday rotation from anisotropic cosmic birefringence can be compared with the equivalent quantity generated by primordial magnetic fields if they existed. The POLARBEAR non-detection translates into a 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper limit of 93 nano-Gauss (nG) on the amplitude of an equivalent primordial magnetic field inclusive of systematic uncertainties. This four-point correlation constraint on Faraday rotation is about 15 times tighter than the upper limit of 1380 nG inferred from constraining the contribution of Faraday rotation to two-point correlations of $B$-modes measured by Planck in 2015. Metric perturbations sourced by pri...

  12. Photoinduced Birefringence in Azo-Dye Doped Polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksejeva, J.; Gerbreders, A.; Reinfelde, M.; Teteris, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we describe a photoinduced birefringence in disperse red (DR1) azo-dye doped polyurethane films. DR1 dye molecules in these films are chemically bound with the polyurethane polymer's main chain. Under laser radiation the DR1 molecules experience the isomerization process; as a result, the dipole moment of such a molecule changes and they align in the presence of electric field. Photo-birefringence was induced by linearly polarized laser radiation (532 nm, 448 nm, 375 nm and 632.8 nm) in the films with various concentrations of DR1 dye. The photo-induced birefringence (PIBR) Δn was measured at 634 nm wavelength, and its dependences on the pumping beam wavelength and intensity were evaluated. The Δn relaxation was studied both in the dark and under light illumi-nation. In DR1-doped polyurethane films the holographic recording was performed using laser light radiation (532 nm). The profile of surface relief grating (SRG) was studied using AFM. The relationship between SRG formation and PIBR is discussed.

  13. Polarisation Control of DFB Fibre Laser Using UV-Induced Birefringent Phase-Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Jacob Lundgreen; Lauridsen, Vibeke Claudia; Berendt, Martin Ole;

    1998-01-01

    The polarisation properties of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are investigated experimentally. A birefringent phase-shift is induced by side illumination of the centre part of the lasing structure with ultraviolet (UV) light and it is experimentally shown that the birefringence of the p......The polarisation properties of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are investigated experimentally. A birefringent phase-shift is induced by side illumination of the centre part of the lasing structure with ultraviolet (UV) light and it is experimentally shown that the birefringence...

  14. Birefringence measurements in single crystal sapphire and calcite shocked along the a axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear, Gareth R.; Chapman, David J.; Eakins, Daniel E.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    Calcite and sapphire were shock compressed along the direction (a axis) in a plate impact configuration. Polarimetery and Photonic Doppler Velocimetery (PDV) were used to measure the change in birefringence with particle velocity in the shock direction. Results for sapphire agree well with linear photoelastic theory and current literature showing a linear relationship between birefringence and particle velocity up to 310 m s-1. A maximum change in birefringence of 5% was observed. Calcite however showed anomolous behaviour with no detectable change in birefringence (less than 0.1%) over the range of particle velocities studied (up to 75 m s-1).

  15. Birefringence properties of a polarization maintaining Panda fibre during Bragg grating regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polz, Leonhard; Jarsen, Andreas; Bartelt, Hartmut; Roths, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    Regeneration of fibre Bragg gratings under application of a high temperature annealing process in a high birefringent polarisation maintaining fibre of type Panda was investigated. During the annealing process, a distinct nonlinearity and hysteresis of the birefringence with temperature was observed. After the temperature process, the birefringence between slow and fast axis at room temperature was nearly doubled, which is in agreement with observations of other researchers. The hysteresis in birefringence might be explained by the crossing of the transition temperature of the stress applying parts and the relief of in-frozen mechanical and thermal stresses.

  16. Coupled-mode equation of polarization modes of twisted birefringent fibers in a unified coordinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zujie; Yang, Fei; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui

    2013-01-20

    A coupled-mode equation (CME) of twisted birefringent fiber is presented in this paper, which uses the degenerate polarization modes of single-mode fibers as eigenmodes in a unified coordinate. The inconsistency between the coordinate and the rotating principal axis, existing in the previous CME, is solved by conversion to the lab coordinate. The CME gives self-consistent results for fibers with high birefringence or low birefringence and for single-mode fibers as well. Analyses and simulations show the CME gives characteristics of twisted birefringent fiber coincident with the property of polarization-maintaining fibers.

  17. Automated Detection of Ocular Alignment with Binocular Retinal Birefringence Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David G.; Shah, Ankoor S.; Sau, Soma; Nassif, Deborah; Guyton, David L.

    2003-06-01

    We previously developed a retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) device to detect eye fixation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new binocular RBS (BRBS) instrument can detect simultaneous fixation of both eyes. Control (nonmyopic and myopic) and strabismic subjects were studied by use of BRBS at a fixation distance of 45 cm. Binocularity (the percentage of measurements with bilateral fixation) was determined from the BRBS output. All nonstrabismic subjects with good quality signals had binocularity >75%. Binocularity averaged 5% in four subjects with strabismus (range of 0 -20%). BRBS may potentially be used to screen individuals for abnormal eye alignment.

  18. Design of anisotropic reflector with birefringent thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Wang; Kui Yi; Jianda Shao; Zhengxiu Fan

    2005-01-01

    A novel design for dielectric anisotropic mirrors with birefringent thin films for normal incidence is presented. This mirror consists of a stack of quarter-wave biaxial layers. The biaxial anisotropic layers can be fabricated by oblique deposition. The reflectance is different for two linear polarizations of light incidence on the mirrors. As a numerical example, the design is carried out on glass with TiO2 and ZrO2. These thin films could be applied to anisotropic reflective devices for lasers.

  19. X-ray natural birefringence in reflection from graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansing, C.; Mertins, H.-Ch.; Gilbert, M.; Wahab, H.; Timmers, H.; Choi, S.-H.; Gaupp, A.; Krivenkov, M.; Varykhalov, A.; Rader, O.; Legut, D.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The existence of natural birefringence in x-ray reflection on graphene is demonstrated at energies spanning the carbon 1 s absorption edge. This new x-ray effect has been discovered with precision measurements of the polarization-plane rotation and the polarization-ellipticity changes that occur upon reflection of linearly polarized synchrotron radiation on monolayer graphene. Extraordinarily large polarization-plane rotations of up to 30∘, accompanied by a change from linearly to circularly polarized radiation have been measured for graphene on copper. Graphene on single crystalline cobalt, grown on tungsten, exhibits rotation values of up to 17∘. Both graphene systems show resonantly enhanced effects at the π* and σ* energies. The results are referenced against those obtained for polycrystalline carbon and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), respectively. As expected, polycrystalline carbon shows negligible rotation, whereas a huge maximum rotation of 140∘ has been observed for HOPG that may be considered a graphene multilayer system. HOPG is found to exhibit such large rotation values over a broad energy range, even well beyond the π* resonance energy due to the contributions of numerous graphene layers. To explain the origin of the observed natural birefringence of graphene, the Stokes parameters as well as the x-ray natural linear dichroism in reflection have been determined. It is shown that the birefringence directly results from the optical anisotropy related to the orthogonal alignment of π* and σ* bonds in the graphene layer. Our polarization analysis reveals a strong bonding of graphene on Co with a reduced σ* excitation energy and a strong tilt of 50 % of the pz orbitals towards diagonal orientation. In contrast, graphene on Cu is weakly bound with an orthogonal orientation of the pz orbitals. Exhibiting such a large natural birefringence that can be controlled through substrate choice, and because of excellent heat conductivity

  20. Comparison of two synthesis methods for birefringent metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouri, Karim; Lavigne, Guillaume; Caloz, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Birefringent metasurfaces are two-dimensional structures capable of independently controlling the amplitude, phase, and polarization of orthogonally polarized incident waves. In this work, we propose an in-depth discussion on the mathematical synthesis of such metasurfaces. We compare the two methods, one that is rigorous and based on the exact electromagnetic fields involved in the transformation and one that is based on approximate reflection and transmission coefficients. We next validate the synthesis technique in metasurfaces performing the operations of a half- and quarter-wave plates, polarization beam splitting, and orbital angular momentum multiplexing and present the corresponding microwave experimental demonstrations.

  1. Tuning the birefringence of the nematic phase in suspensions of colloidal gibbsite platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A.A.; Brand, R.P.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the birefringence patterns of nematic liquid crystals of gibbsite platelets at interfaces and in an aligning magnetic field. In solvents with a refractive index close to the particle refractive index, the intrinsic birefringence of the platelets dominates, resulting in positive birefring

  2. A Novel Low Loss, Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fiber in THz Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanuzzaman, G. K. M.; Rana, Sohel; Habib, Selim

    2016-01-01

    We present a new kind of dual-hole unit-based porous-core hexagonal photonic crystal fiber (H-PCF) with low loss and high birefringence in terahertz regime. The proposed fiber offers simultaneously high birefringence and low effective material loss (EML) in the frequency range of 0.5-0.85 THz wit...

  3. Measuring the Length Distribution of a Fibril System: a Flow Birefringence Technique applied to Amyloid Fibrils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, S.S.; Venema, P.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.; Donald, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Relaxation of flow birefringence can give a direct measure of the rotational diffusion of rodlike objects in solution. With a suitable model of the rotational diffusivity, a length distribution can be sought by fitting the decay curve. We have measured the flow birefringence decay from solutions of

  4. Process-induced birefringence variations in fiber optic embedded in composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, M.; Chazelas, J.; Stoppiglia, H.

    The use of embedded fiber optic sensors for the impact detection on woven-composite panels has been developed using interfero-polarimetric measurements. Preliminary results on the study of the process-induced birefringence properties modifications of two different types of specific optical fibers: Hi-Bi 'Bow-Tie' fibers and Side-hole birefringent 'FASE' fibers are discussed.

  5. Modeling optical behavior of birefringent biological tissues for evaluation of quantitative polarized light microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.; Kranenbarg, S.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative polarized light microscopy (qPLM) is a popular tool for the investigation of birefringent architectures in biological tissues. Collagen, the most abundant protein in mammals, is such a birefringent material. Interpretation of results of qPLM in terms of collagen network architecture and

  6. Effects of M Ⅱ stage oocytes zona pellucida birefringence on pregnancy outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Luo; Yan-Wen Xu; Ming-Fang Zhang; Ling Gao; Cong Fang; Can-Quan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of different MⅡ stage oocytes zona pellucida birefringence on pregnancy outcome. Methods: A total of 46 couples with infertile which induced by single cause received in-vitro fertilization treatment were analyzed retrospectively, and randomly divided into the high zona birefringence (HZB)/HZB group, HZB/low zona birefringence (LZB) group and LZB/LZB group according to different oocytes zona pellucida birefringence. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome was analyzed and compared. Results: The proportion of HZB oocytes, implantation rate and the pregnancy rate were decreased in three groups (HZB/HZB group>HZB/LZB group>LZB/LZB group) (P0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that factors affect M Ⅱ stage oocytes zona pellucida birefringence were age, basal FSH level and the LH level on the day of HCG injection. Age and FSH levels were negatively correlated with the single oocyte zona pellucida birefringence; While the LH level on the day of hCG injection was positively correlated with the single oocyte zona pellucida birefringence. Conclusions: The primary influence factors on M Ⅱ stage oocytes zona pellucida are age, basal FSH level and the LH level on the day of hCG injection. The birefringence value of zona pellucida can affect the pregnancy outcome.

  7. Birefringence-induced splitting of the Zero-dispersion wavelength in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per; Petersson, A.; Folkenberg, Jakob Riis

    2004-01-01

    for transverse structural uniformity by adopting a simple effective-index approach in which the birefringence is calculated in a step-index fiber with an elliptical core. We find that to reduce the splitting to less than 1nm the birefringence should be less than 210 -5 , resulting in a transverse uniformity...

  8. Birefringence-Directed Raman Selection Rules in 2D Black Phosphorus Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Nannan; Wu, Juanxia; Han, Bowen; Lin, Jingjing; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    The incident and scattered light engaged in the Raman scattering process of low symmetry crystals always suffer from the birefringence-induced depolarization. Therefore, for anisotropic crystals, the classical Raman selection rules should be corrected by taking the birefringence effect into consideration. The appearance of the 2D anisotropic materials provides an excellent platform to explore the birefringence-directed Raman selection rules, due to its controllable thickness at the nanoscale that greatly simplifies the situation comparing with bulk materials. Herein, a theoretical and experimental investigation on the birefringence-directed Raman selection rules in the anisotropic black phosphorus (BP) crystals is presented. The abnormal angle-dependent polarized Raman scattering of the Ag modes in thin BP crystal, which deviates from the normal Raman selection rules, is successfully interpreted by the theoretical model based on birefringence. It is further confirmed by the examination of different Raman modes using different laser lines and BP samples of different thicknesses.

  9. Integrated quantitative phase and birefringence microscopy for imaging malaria-infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengshuai; Chen, Shichao; Klemba, Michael; Zhu, Yizheng

    2016-09-01

    A dual-modality birefringence/phase imaging system is presented. The system features a crystal retarder that provides polarization mixing and generates two interferometric carrier waves in a single signal spectrum. The retardation and orientation of sample birefringence can then be measured simultaneously based on spectral multiplexing interferometry. Further, with the addition of a Nomarski prism, the same setup can be used for quantitative differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging. Sample phase can then be obtained with two-dimensional integration. In addition, birefringence-induced phase error can be corrected using the birefringence data. This dual-modality approach is analyzed theoretically with Jones calculus and validated experimentally with malaria-infected red blood cells. The system generates not only corrected DIC and phase images, but a birefringence map that highlights the distribution of hemozoin crystals.

  10. Origin of birefringence in common silicate garnet: intergrowth of different cubic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, S.; Klincker, A.; Round, S.

    2013-05-01

    Birefringence is unexpected in ideal high symmetry cubic minerals, such as common silicate garnets. Birefringence in cubic garnet was reported over a century ago, but the origin still remains questionable. Some grossular, spessartine, andradite, and uvarovite samples may show birefringence under cross-polarized light, which may indicate that they are not optically cubic. Several reasons were given as the cause of the birefringence, but the main one appears to be cation order that may cause symmetry reduction. The crystal structure of several birefringent garnet samples (grossular, spessartine, andradite, and uvarovite) were refined by the Rietveld method, space group Ia-3d, and monochromatic synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data. Electron-microprobe results indicate the samples are homogeneous or non-homogenous with two or three distinct compositions. Each birefringent sample contains an assemblage of cubic phases that have slightly different unit-cell parameters. The intergrowth of different phases causes strain-induced birefringence that arises from mismatch of different cubic unit-cell parameters. These results have many implications, including garnet phase transitions from cubic to lower symmetry in the mantle, which has important geophysical consequences.

  11. Temperature dependence of birefringence in olarization-maintaining photonic crystal fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Hong; Chen Meng; Li Gang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the temperature dependence of birefringence in polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibres (PMPCFs) is investigated theoretically and experimentally.Utilizing the structural parameters of the PM-PCF samples in the experiment,two effects leading to the birefringence variation under different temperatures are analysed,which are the thermal expansion of silica material and the refractive index variation due to the temperature variation.The actual birefringence variation of the PM-PCF is the combination of the two effects,which is in the order of 10-9 K-1 for both fibre samples.Calculation results also show that the influence of refractive index variation is the dominant contribution,which determines the tendency of the fibre birefringence variation with varying temperature.Then,the birefringence beat lengths of the two fibre samples are measured under the temperature,which varies from -40 ℃ to 80 ℃.A traditional PANDA-type polarization maintaining fibre (PMF) is also measured in the same way for comparison.The experimental results indicate that the birefringence variation of the PM-PCF due to temperature variation is far smaller than that of the traditional PMF,which agrees with the theoretical analysis.The ultra-low temperature dependence of the birefringence in the PM-PCF has great potential applications in temperature-insensitive fibre interferometers,fibre sensors,and fibre gyroscopes.

  12. Thermal characterization of Bragg gratings in polarization-maintaining optical fibres: analysis of birefringence and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, I.; de Oliveira, V.; Fiorin, R.; Kalinowski, H. J.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of birefringence and regeneration of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) in two types of polarization-maintaining (PM) optical fibres, bow tie and internal elliptical cladding (IEC), with different diameters. The thermal regeneration of FBGs in PM fibres with different degrees of saturation (weakly, slightly, and strongly saturated) is presented and the influence of the gratings’ saturation degree on the birefringence of PM fibres is shown. The birefringence values obtained for IEC fibres with 80 µm of diameter were for a strongly saturated seed grating of 5.3  ×  10‑4 and 6.2  ×  10‑4 refractive index units after the regeneration. The evolution of the fibre birefringence as a function of the temperature is presented and the results show hysteresis and nonlinear dependence of the birefringence on temperature. The thermal stability of regenerated gratings in PM fibres is demonstrated, and a sensitivity coefficient value of 0.0035 dBm min‑1 at 900 °C was obtained. The results obtained show the feasibility of optimization of fibre birefringence; this could allow such fibers to be used as temperature sensors and even improve the birefringence after the grating regeneration.

  13. Birefringence effects of short probe pulses of electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshkov, Oleg M.; Kochetkova, Anastasia E.; Budyak, Victoria V.

    2016-04-01

    The numerical simulation results of radiations evolution in the presence of electromagnetically induced transparency for J=0-->J=1-->J=2 scheme of degenerate quantum transitions are presented. The pulse regime of wave interaction with Doppler broadening spectral lines was investigated. It was indicated that when the control field is linear polarized, the input circular polarized probe pulse breaks up in the medium into pulses with mutually perpendicular linear polarizations. Polarization direction of one of these pulses coincides with the polarization direction of control fields. The distance, which probe pulse passes in the medium to its full separation, decreases, when input probe pulse duration or control field intensity decreases. The input probe pulse intensity variation almost does not influence separation distance and speed of the linear polarized probe pulses in the medium. The effects, described above, may be interpreted as the birefringence effects of electromagnetically induced transparency in the case of short probe pulse.

  14. Detection of vacuum birefringence using intense laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiten, Andre N. [School of Physics M013, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)]. E-mail: andre@physics.uwa.edu.au; Petersen, Jesse C. [School of Physics M013, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2004-10-04

    We propose a novel technique that promises hope of being the first to directly detect a polarization of the quantum electrodynamic (QED) vacuum. The technique exploits the high fields associated with ultra-short pulses of light stored in low dispersion optical resonators. We show that the technique circumvents the need for large-scale liquid helium cooled magnets, and more importantly avoids the experimental pitfalls that plague existing experimental approaches that use these magnets. The new technique has a predicted birefringence measurement sensitivity of {delta}n{approx}10-20 in a 1 s measurement. Currently available optics and lasers will enable observation of vacuum polarization in an experiment of only a few days in duration.

  15. Detection of vacuum birefringence using intense laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiten, Andre N.; Petersen, Jesse C.

    2004-10-01

    We propose a novel technique that promises hope of being the first to directly detect a polarization of the quantum electrodynamic (QED) vacuum. The technique exploits the high fields associated with ultra-short pulses of light stored in low dispersion optical resonators. We show that the technique circumvents the need for large-scale liquid helium cooled magnets, and more importantly avoids the experimental pitfalls that plague existing experimental approaches that use these magnets. The new technique has a predicted birefringence measurement sensitivity of Δn∼10 in a 1 s measurement. Currently available optics and lasers will enable observation of vacuum polarization in an experiment of only a few days in duration.

  16. Directional eye fixation sensor using birefringence-based foveal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I.; Zalloum, Othman H. Y.; Wu, Yi Kai; Hunter, David G.; Guyton, David L.

    2007-04-01

    We recently developed and reported an eye fixation monitor that detects the fovea by its radial orientation of birefringent nerve fibers. The instrument used a four-quadrant photodetector and a normalized difference function to check for a best match between the detector quadrants and the arms of the bow-tie pattern of polarization states surrounding the fovea. This function had a maximum during central fixation but could not tell where the subject was looking relative to the center. We propose a linear transformation to obtain horizontal and vertical eye position coordinates from the four photodetector signals, followed by correction based on a priori calibration information. The method was verified on both a computer model and on human eyes. The major advantage of this new eye-tracking method is that it uses true information coming from the fovea, rather than reflections from other structures, to identify the direction of foveal gaze.

  17. Strong optical feedback in birefringent dual frequency laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Wei; Zhang Shu-Lian

    2006-01-01

    Strong optical feedback in a birefringent dual frequency He-Ne laser with a high reflectivity feedback mirror has been investigated for the first time. The output characteristics of two orthogonally polarized modes are demonstrated in two different optical feedback cases: one is for both modes being fed back and the other is for only one of the modes being fed back. Strong mode competition can be observed between the two modes with strong optical feedback. And when one mode's intensity is near its maximum, the other mode is nearly extinguished. When both modes are fed back into the laser cavity, the mode competition is stronger than when only one mode is fed back. The difference in initial intensity between the two orthogonally polarized modes plays an important role in the mode competition, which has been experimentally and theoretically demonstrated.

  18. Propagation of Optical Pulses in Polarization Maintaining Highly Birefringent Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Ariel; Olivares, Ricardo

    2008-04-01

    The propagation of Gaussian optical pulses through optical PM-HiBi (Polarization Maintaining Highly Birefringent) fibers is analyzed and simulated. Based upon a model of propagation as described by Marcuse, et al., [1] and Sunnerud, et al., [2], and the use of PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion) compensators and emulators used by Kogelnik, et al. [2], [3] and Lima, et al. [4], we construct a simple model that allows graphical representation of the distortion experienced by optical pulses when propagating in a PM-HiBi fiber for different initial polarizations. The results of our analysis have the benefit of being identical to the more elaborate models of [1], [2], while also providing the additional advantage of simple graphical representation.

  19. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  20. Numerical study on pulse trapping in birefringent photonic crystal fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yan-yan; LI Shu-guang; FU Bo; ZHANG Lei; ZHANG Mei-yan

    2011-01-01

    Using an adaptive split-step Fourier method, the coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations have been numerically solved in this paper. The nonlinear propagation of an ultrashort optical pulse in the birefringent photonic crystal fibers is investigated numerically. It is found that the phenomenon of pulse trapping occurs when the incident pulse is deviating from the principal axis of the fiber with some angle. Owing to the bireffingence effect, the incident pulse can be regarded as twoorthogonal polarized pulses. The phenomenon of pulse trapping occurs because of the cross phase modulation (XPM) between the two components. As a result, the bandwidth of the supercontinuum (SC) decreases compared with the case that the incident pulse is input along the principal axis. When the polarization direction of the incident pulse is parallel to the fast axis, the bandwidth of the supercontinuum is maximaL

  1. Polarized X-ray Scattering and Birefringence in Magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchas, Joseph; Baring, Matthew G.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in radiative processes in the super-strong magnetic regime germane to magnetars has grown over the last two decades. These processes have an inherently anisotropic and polarization-dependent character. Of particular interest is the resonant cyclotron scattering domain, where the Compton cross section is enhanced by orders of magnitude very near the cyclotron frequency -- for electrons in magnetar atmospheres, this is above 10 MeV in energy, and for protons this can be at 1-10 keV. The Compton process is dominant in the highly optically thick environs of magnetar atmospheres, and also in the magnetospheric locales for the production of the hard X-ray bursts. The detailed forms of X-ray spectra will depend intimately on the character of the Compton cross section and the emission zone geometry. The practical determination of the rate of Compton scattering depends on the polarization configuration of incoming photons. This in turn is sensitive to the details of radiation dispersion and transport in hot plasmaspheres near neutron stars. This birefringent dispersion present in strongly-magnetized plasmas can profoundly influence the determination of scattering probabilities. Such polarization transfer is usually addressed by simplifying to the transfer two normal mode intensities. The assumptions involved in this simplification such as orthonormality and "large Faraday depolarization" are valid for a wide range of parameter space, but are known to break down in important cases, such as near a cyclotron resonance. We explore the polarization transfer problem for Compton scattering including the regime where Faraday depolarization is not large. Accordingly, plasma birefringence and the generalized Faraday effect are considered explicitly as part of the transfer problem. Spectra generated from two Monte Carlo models of the transfer problem are presented, one treating isothermal atmospheres in the normal X-ray band, and the other addressing hard X-ray flares in

  2. Modulation instabilities in randomly birefringent two-mode optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Hua; Ren, Hai-Dong; Pei, Shi-Xin; Cao, Zhao-Lou; Xian, Feng-Lin

    2016-12-01

    Modulation instabilities in the randomly birefringent two-mode optical fibers (RB-TMFs) are analyzed in detail by accounting the effects of the differential mode group delay (DMGD) and group velocity dispersion (GVD) ratio between the two modes, both of which are absent in the randomly birefringent single-mode optical fibers (RB-SMFs). New MI characteristics are found in both normal and anomalous dispersion regimes. For the normal dispersion, without DMGD, no MI exists. With DMGD, a completely new MI band is generated as long as the total power is smaller than a critical total power value, named by Pcr, which increases significantly with the increment of DMGD, and reduces dramatically as GVD ratio and power ratio between the two modes increases. For the anomalous dispersion, there is one MI band without DMGD. In the presence of DMGD, the MI gain is reduced generally. On the other hand, there also exists a critical total power (Pcr), which increases (decreases) distinctly with the increment of DMGD (GVD ratio of the two modes) but varies complicatedly with the power ratio between the two modes. Two MI bands are present for total power smaller than Pcr, and the dominant band can be switched between the low and high frequency bands by adjusting the power ratio between the two modes. The MI analysis in this paper is verified by numerical simulation. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Provincial Universities (Grant No. 14KJB140009), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447113), and the Startup Foundation for Introducing Talent of NUIST (Grant No. 2241131301064).

  3. Measurement of Birefringence of Low-Loss, High-Reflectance Coating of M-Axis Sapphire

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The birefringence of a low-loss, high-reflectance coating applied to an 8-cm-diameter sapphire crystal grown in the m-axis direction has been mapped. By monitoring the transmission of a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity as a function of the polarization of the input light, we find an upper limit for the magnitude of the birefringence of 2.5 x 10^-4 rad and an upper limit in the variation in direction of the birefringence of 10 deg. These values are sufficiently small to allow consideration of m...

  4. Effects of Laser-Induced Heating on the Photoinduced Birefringence in Azobenzene-Side-Chain Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 明海; 章江英; 王沛; 郎建英; 鲁拥华; 刘剑; 张其锦

    2003-01-01

    The photoinduced birefringence was observed in the polymer poly[2-(4-(4-cyanophenyl) diazenyl phenyloxy) ethoxyl methacrylatel with a cw 532nm laser. The azobenzene polymer character has been studied under the conditions of various illuminating time and light intensities. By analysing the processes of reorientation, the effect of laser-induced heating has been introduced to the buildup of photoinduced birefringence in azobenzene-side-chain copolymer. The curves for the buildup of birefringence were fitted with a modified function, i.e., biexponential curves and Gaussian curves. The relationship among all the parameters has also been presented. With the modified fitting function, we obtain a better fitting result.

  5. Dielectric relaxation and birefringence study of 7.O5O.7 dimeric liquid crystal compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Debanjan; Paul-Choudhury, Sandip; Alapati, Parameswara Rao; Bhattacharjee, Ayon

    2016-05-01

    Measurement of dielectric relaxation and birefringence phenomenon of dimeric liquid crystal compound with the dependence of temperature was reported in this paper. Homogeneous (HG) and homeotropic (HT) alignment of the cell are introduced to investigate the dielectric relaxation, activation energy and birefringence. Cole-Cole plots analyzed the dielectric relaxation of the dimeric compound. The observed Cole-Cole plots were semi-circular, and the relaxation mechanism obeys the non-Debye type of relaxation behaviour. Slater's perturbation equations have been used to analysis the activation energy of the compound. The birefringence of the compound has positively anisotropy and thin prism mechanism was used to study the anisotropy of the compound.

  6. Quantitative Assessment of Birefringent Skin Structures in Scattered Light Confocal Imaging Using Radially Polarized Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natallia Eduarda Uzunbajakava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The polarization characteristics of birefringent tissues could be only partially obtained using linearly polarized light in polarization sensitive optical imaging. Here we analyze the change in polarization of backscattered light from birefringent structures versus the orientations of the incident polarizations using linearly, circularly and radially polarized light in a cross-polarized confocal microscope. A spatially variable retardation plate composed of eight sectors of λ/2 wave plates was used to transform linearly polarized light into a radially polarized light. Based on the experimental data obtained from ex-vivo measurements on human scalp hairs and in-vivo measurements on hair and skin, we exemplify that the underestimation of the birefringence content resulting from the orientation related effects associated with the use of linearly polarized light for imaging tissues containing wavy birefringent structures could be minimized by using radially polarized light.

  7. Sensitivity of Bragg gratings in birefringent optical fiber to transverse compression between conforming materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Christopher R; Wild, Peter M

    2010-04-20

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the transverse load sensitivity of Bragg gratings in birefringent fibers to conforming contact is presented. A plane elasticity model is used to predict the contact dimensions between a conforming material and optical fiber and the principal stresses, indicating birefringence, created as a result of this contact. The transverse load sensitivity of commercially available birefringent fiber is experimentally measured for two cases of conforming contact. Theoretical and experimental results show that birefringent optical fiber can be used to make modulus-independent measurements of contact load. Therefore, Bragg gratings could be applied to conforming contact load measurements while avoiding some of the complications associated with existing contact sensors: specifically, the necessity to precalibrate by using materials with mechanical properties identical to those found in situ.

  8. A strain-induced birefringent double-clad fiber Bragg grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Li; Lei Sun; Wande Fan; Zhi Wang; Jianhua Luo; Shenggui Fu; Shuzhong Yuan; Xiaoyi Dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ A strain-induced birefringence double-clad (DC) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed and demonstrated.The grating is fabricated in the core of rectangular inner cladding double clad fiber by using phase mask method. By applying lateral strain on the grating, the birefringence is induced. In order to detect the birefringent effect of the grating, we use it as the output mirror of a laser. When lateral strain is applied,the grating becomes birefringent. Therefore, one reflection peak of double-clad fiber Bragg grating becomes two peaks and the laser also lases in two wavelengths. The wavelength spacing of the laser can be tuned from 0 to 0.8 nm. The absolute wavelengths for the two polarizations can be tuned 1.2 and 2.0 nm,respectively.

  9. A polarisation modulation scheme for measuring vacuum magnetic birefringence with static fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavattini, G.; Ejlli, A. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Della Valle, F. [Universita di Trieste, Dipt. di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, TS (Italy); Ruoso, G. [INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    A novel polarisation modulation scheme for polarimeters based on Fabry-Perot cavities is presented. The application to the measurement of the magnetic birefringence of vacuum with the HERA superconducting magnets in the ALPS-II configuration is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Birefringence measurement of glass ion-exchanged waveguides: burying depth or cover layer influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamon, D.; Garayt, J. P.; Jordan, E.; Parsy, F.; Ghibaudo, E.; Neveu, S.; Broquin, J.-E.; Royer, F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with an experimental non-destructive technique for the measurement of polarization behavior of integrated optical waveguides. It is based on a high resolution polarimeter associated to an ellipsometric-type calibration which allows determining the full state of polarization of the output light. A magneto-optic perturbation is also added to generate TE/TM mode beating, whose spatial period is directly linked to the modal TE/TM birefringence. This equipment is first qualified by the measurement of modal birefringence in totally or partially buried ion exchanged waveguides. The results show that the value of the birefringence varies as a function of the diffusion aperture width or with the burying depth. By adding a magneto-optical cover layer, consisting in magnetic nanoparticles doped silica matrix obtained by a sol gel process 1, we evidence a huge increase of the beating magnitude and a decrease of the modal birefringence.

  11. A polarisation modulation scheme for measuring vacuum magnetic birefringence with static fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zavattini, G; Ejlli, A; Ruoso, G

    2016-01-01

    A novel polarisation modulation scheme for polarimeters based on Fabry-Perot cavities is presented. The application to the proposed HERA-X experiment aiming to measuring the magnetic birefringence of vacuum with the HERA superconducting magnets is discussed.

  12. On the birefringence of healthy and malaria-infected red blood cells

    CERN Document Server

    Dharmadhikari, Aditya K; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A; Sharma, Shobhona; Mathur, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    We have probed how the birefringence of a healthy red blood cell (RBC) changes as it becomes infected by a malarial parasite. By analyzing the polarization properties of light transmitted through a single, optically-trapped cell we demarcate two types of birefringence: form birefringence which depends on the shape of the cell and intrinsic birefringence which is brought about by the presence of the parasite. We quantitatively measure changes in the refractive index as normal RBS become infected by a malarial parasite. Malarial infections are found to induce changes in the cell's refractive index whose magnitude depends on the stage of malarial infection; such changes were quantitatively explored and found to be large, in the range 1.2 to 3$\\times10^{-2}$. Our results have implications for the development and use of non-invasive techniques that seek to quantify changes in cell properties induced by pathological states accompanying diseases like malaria. From a broader prespective, information forthcoming from ...

  13. Spin-Hall effect and circular birefringence of a uniaxial crystal plate

    CERN Document Server

    Bliokh, K Y; Prajapati, C; Puentes, G; Viswanathan, N K; Nori, F

    2016-01-01

    The linear birefringence of uniaxial crystal plates is known since the 17th century. Here we demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, a fine lateral circular birefringence of such crystal plates. We show that this effect is a novel example of the spin-Hall effect of light, i.e., a transverse spin-dependent shift of the paraxial light beam transmitted through the plate. The well-known linear birefringence and the new circular birefringence form an interesting analogy with the Goos-Hanchen and Imbert-Fedorov beam shifts that appear in the light reflection at a dielectric interface. We report the experimental observation of the effect in a remarkably simple system of a tilted half-wave plate and polarizers using polarimetric and quantum-weak-measurement techniques for the beam-shift measurements.

  14. Approach for fast numerical propagation of uniformly polarized random electromagnetic fields in dispersive linearly birefringent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Piotr L; Domanski, Andrzej W

    2013-09-01

    An efficient simulation technique is proposed for computing propagation of uniformly polarized statistically stationary fields in linear nonimage-forming systems that includes dispersion of linear birefringence to all orders. The method is based on the discrete-time Fourier transformation of modified frequency profiles of the spectral Stokes parameters. It works under the condition that all (linearly) birefringent sections present in the system are described by the same phase birefringence dispersion curve, being a monotonic function of the optical frequency within the bandwidth of the light. We demonstrate the technique as a supplement for the Mueller-Stokes matrix formalism extended to any uniformly polarized polychromatic illumination. Accuracy of its numerical implementation has been verified by using parameters of a Lyot depolarizer made of a highly birefringent and dispersive monomode photonic crystal fiber.

  15. Birefringence signals in mammalian and frog myocardium. E-C coupling implications

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Birefringence signals from mammalian and frog hearts were studied. The period between excitation and the onset of contraction in which optical signals were free of movement artifact was determined by changes in scattered incandescent light and changes in laser diffraction patterns. The birefringence signal preceding contraction was found to behave as a change in retardation and was not contaminated measurably by linear dichroic or isotropic absorption changes. There were two components of the...

  16. Band structure and Bloch states in birefringent 1D magnetophotonic crystals: An analytical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lévy, M; Levy, Miguel; Jalali, Amir A

    2007-01-01

    An analytical formulation for the band structure and Bloch modes in elliptically birefringent magnetophotonic crystals is presented. The model incorporates both the effects of gyrotropy and linear birefringence generally present in magneto-optic thin film devices. Full analytical expressions are obtained for the dispersion relation and Bloch modes in a layered stack photonic crystal and their properties are analyzed. It is shown that other models recently discussed in the literature are contained as special limiting cases of the formulation presented herein.

  17. Tuning Characteristics of Frequency Difference for Zeeman-Birefringence He-Ne Dual Frequency Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖岩; 张书练; 李岩; 朱钧

    2003-01-01

    Characteristics of frequency difference tuning of Zeeman-birefringence He-Ne dual frequency lasers (ZBDFLs) are explored. We design an automatic system of tuning cavity and power detection, which can tune the laser cavity and record the tuning curves of light power and frequency difference simultaneously. A synthetic phenomenon by Zeeman effect, mode pulling effect and birefringence effect is verified to exist in ZBDFLs. By analysing the tuning behaviour, this synthetic phenomenon is discovered and qualitatively explained for the first time.

  18. Accurate and quantitative polarization-sensitive OCT by unbiased birefringence estimator with noise-stochastic correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaragod, Deepa; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Ikuno, Yasushi; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Yamanari, Masahiro; Fukuda, Shinichi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Hong, Young-Joo; Li, En; Makita, Shuichi; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of OCT that contrasts the polarization properties of tissues. It has been applied to ophthalmology, cardiology, etc. Proper quantitative imaging is required for a widespread clinical utility. However, the conventional method of averaging to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast of the phase retardation (or birefringence) images introduce a noise bias offset from the true value. This bias reduces the effectiveness of birefringence contrast for a quantitative study. Although coherent averaging of Jones matrix tomography has been widely utilized and has improved the image quality, the fundamental limitation of nonlinear dependency of phase retardation and birefringence to the SNR was not overcome. So the birefringence obtained by PS-OCT was still not accurate for a quantitative imaging. The nonlinear effect of SNR to phase retardation and birefringence measurement was previously formulated in detail for a Jones matrix OCT (JM-OCT) [1]. Based on this, we had developed a maximum a-posteriori (MAP) estimator and quantitative birefringence imaging was demonstrated [2]. However, this first version of estimator had a theoretical shortcoming. It did not take into account the stochastic nature of SNR of OCT signal. In this paper, we present an improved version of the MAP estimator which takes into account the stochastic property of SNR. This estimator uses a probability distribution function (PDF) of true local retardation, which is proportional to birefringence, under a specific set of measurements of the birefringence and SNR. The PDF was pre-computed by a Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation based on the mathematical model of JM-OCT before the measurement. A comparison between this new MAP estimator, our previous MAP estimator [2], and the standard mean estimator is presented. The comparisons are performed both by numerical simulation and in vivo measurements of anterior and

  19. Influence of Photosensitive Group Concentration on Birefringence Induced in Benzaldehyde Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahilny, U. V.; Stankevich, A. I.; Trofimova, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Induction of optical anisotropy in benzaldehyde polymer layers by linearly polarized UV radiation was investigated experimentally. Negative dichroism in absorption spectra and strong negative birefringence (-2 · 10-3) were related to the presence of an oriented ensemble of residual benzaldehyde groups. The thermal stability of photoinduced birefringence at high photosensitive group concentration was associated with a high density of photocross-links formed between macromolecules.

  20. Birefringence of the central cornea in children assessed with scanning laser polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Shah, Ashesh A

    2012-08-01

    Corneal birefringence is a well-known confounding factor with all polarization-sensitive technology used for retinal scanning and other intraocular assessment. It has been studied extensively in adults, but little is known regarding age-related differences. Specifically, no information is available concerning corneal birefringence in children. For applications that are geared towards children, such as retinal birefringence scanning for strabismus screening purposes, it is important to know the expected range of both corneal retardance and azimuth in pediatric populations. This study investigated central corneal birefringence in children (ages three and above), by means of scanning laser polarimetry (GDx-VCC™, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.). Children's measures of corneal retardance and azimuth were compared with those obtained in adults. As with previous studies in adults, corneal birefringence was found to vary widely in children, with corneal retardance ranging from 10 to 77 nm, and azimuth (slow axis) ranging from -11° to 71° (measured nasally downward). No significant differences in central corneal birefringence were found between children and adults, nor were significant age-related differences found in general. In conclusion, establishing knowledge of the polarization properties of the central cornea in children allows better understanding, exploitation, or bypassing of these effects in new polarization-sensitive pediatric ophthalmic applications.

  1. Quantification of birefringence readily measures the level of muscle damage in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.Berger@Monash.edu [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Sztal, Tamar; Currie, Peter D. [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Report of an unbiased quantification of the birefringence of muscle of fish larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification method readily identifies level of overall muscle damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compare zebrafish muscle mutants for level of phenotype severity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed tool to survey treatments that aim to ameliorate muscular dystrophy. -- Abstract: Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that progressively weaken and degenerate muscle. Many zebrafish models for human muscular dystrophies have been generated and analysed, including dystrophin-deficient zebrafish mutants dmd that model Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Under polarised light the zebrafish muscle can be detected as a bright area in an otherwise dark background. This light effect, called birefringence, results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres. Muscle damage, as seen in zebrafish models for muscular dystrophies, can readily be detected by a reduction in the birefringence. Therefore, birefringence is a very sensitive indicator of overall muscle integrity within larval zebrafish. Unbiased documentation of the birefringence followed by densitometric measurement enables the quantification of the birefringence of zebrafish larvae. Thereby, the overall level of muscle integrity can be detected, allowing the identification and categorisation of zebrafish muscle mutants. In addition, we propose that the establish protocol can be used to analyse treatments aimed at ameliorating dystrophic zebrafish models.

  2. Fluorescence spectroscopy and birefringence of molecular changes in maturing rat tail tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Renee M; Finlay, Helen M; Josseau, Melanie J; Lucas, Alexandra R; Canham, Peter B

    2007-01-01

    Tissue remodeling during maturation, wound healing, and response to vascular stress involves molecular changes of collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Two optical techniques are effective for investigating these changes--laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy and polarizing microscopy. LIF spectroscopy integrates the signal from both elastin and collagen cross-linked structure, whereas birefringence is a measure of only collagen. Our purpose is (1) to evaluate the rat tail tendon (RTT) spectroscopy against data from purified extracted protein standards and (2) to correlate the two optical techniques in the study of RTT and skin. Spectra from tissue samples from 27 male rats and from extracted elastin and collagen were obtained using LIF spectroscopy (357 nm). Birefringence was measured on 5-mum histological sections of the same tissue. Morphometric analysis reveals that elastin represents approximately 10% of tendon volume and contributes to RTT fluorescence. RTT maximum fluorescence emission intensity (FEI(max)), which includes collagen and elastin, increases with animal weight (R(2)=0.64). Birefringence, when plotted against weight, increases to a plateau (nonlinear correlation: R(2)=0.90), tendon having greater birefringence than skin. LIF spectroscopy and collagen fiber birefringence are shown to provide complementary measurements of molecular structure (tendon birefringence versus FEI(max) at R(2)=0.60).

  3. Imaging of skin birefringence for human scar assessment using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography aided by vascular masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peijun; Chin, Lixin; Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Liew, Yih Miin; Wood, Fiona M.; Sampson, David D.; McLaughlin, Robert A.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the in vivo assessment of human scars by parametric imaging of birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Such in vivo assessment is subject to artifacts in the detected birefringence caused by scattering from blood vessels. To reduce these artifacts, we preprocessed the PS-OCT data using a vascular masking technique. The birefringence of the remaining tissue regions was then automatically quantified. Results from the scars and contralateral or adjacent normal skin of 13 patients show a correspondence of birefringence with scar type: the ratio of birefringence of hypertrophic scars to corresponding normal skin is 2.2±0.2 (mean±standard deviation), while the ratio of birefringence of normotrophic scars to normal skin is 1.1±0.4. This method represents a new clinically applicable means for objective, quantitative human scar assessment.

  4. Properties of monomeric paramyosin using a transient electric birefringence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaney, D; Krause, S

    1976-01-01

    Paramyosin samples obtained from the chowder clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, by different extraction techniques were studied using transient electric birefringence techniques. The protein remain monomeric (unaggregated) in 1 mM buffer solution at pH 3.1 to 3.8 and near pH 10. At pH 3.2, the molecules obtained by different extraction techniques exhibit rotational diffusion constants that indicate a 5% difference in length between them, with the probable native form of paramyosin being the longer species. This difference in rotational diffusion constant disappears at higher pH, and, in addition, a large difference in dipole moment between the molecules observed at pH 3.2 also disappears at high pH. These results are used to hypothesize that the rodlike native paramyosin molecules have one or two partly flexible portions on their ends; at one end of each molecule this portion probably contains excess basic amino acids which are charged at low pH to account for the higher dipole moment of this form of paramyosin at these low pH values. At pH 3.2, these portions of the macromolecule are not flexible and act as stiff parts of the rodlike molecules, but they gradually become flexible at higher pH. Possible mechanisms for this change in flexibility are discussed.

  5. Validating Laser-Induced Birefringence Theory with Plasma Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-09-02

    Intense laser beams crossing paths in plasma is theorized to induce birefringence in the medium, resulting from density and refractive index modulations that affect the polarization of incoming light. The goal of the associated experiment, conducted on Janus at Lawrence Livermore’s Jupiter Laser Facility, was to create a tunable laser-plasma waveplate to verify the relationship between dephasing angle and beam intensity, plasma density, plasma temperature, and interaction length. Interferometry analysis of the plasma channel was performed to obtain a density map and to constrain temperature measured from Thomson scattering. Various analysis techniques, including Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and two variations of fringe-counting, were tried because interferograms captured in this experiment contained unusual features such as fringe discontinuity at channel edges, saddle points, and islands. The chosen method is flexible, semi-automated, and uses a fringe tracking algorithm on a reduced image of pre-traced synthetic fringes. Ultimately, a maximum dephasing angle of 49.6° was achieved using a 1200 μm interaction length, and the experimental results appear to agree with predictions.

  6. Time Circular Birefringence in Time-Dependent Magnetoelectric Media

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Lin, Shi-Rong; Zhao, Qing; Wen, Weijia; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Light traveling in time-dependent media has many extraordinary properties which can be utilized to convert frequency, achieve temporal cloaking, and simulate cosmological phenomena. In this paper, we focus on time-dependent axion-type magnetoelectric (ME) media, and prove that light in these media always has two degenerate modes with opposite circular polarizations corresponding to one wave vector $\\mathbf{k}$, and name this effect "time circular birefringence" (TCB). By interchanging the status of space and time, the pair of TCB modes can appear simultaneously via "time refraction" and "time reflection" of a linear polarized incident wave at a time interface of ME media. The superposition of the two TCB modes causes the "time Faraday effect", namely the globally unified polarization axes rotate with time. A circularly polarized Gaussian pulse traversing a time interface is also studied. If the wave-vector spectrum of a pulse mainly concentrates in the non-traveling-wave band, the pulse will be trapped with n...

  7. Exposure and compositional factors that influence polarization induced birefringence in silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Douglas C.; Mlejnek, Michal; Neukirch, Ulrich; Smith, Charlene M.; Smith, Frances M.

    2007-03-01

    Silica glass exhibits a permanent anisotropic response, referred to as polarization induced birefringence (PIB), when exposed to short wavelength, polarized light. The magnitude of the PIB has been empirically correlated with the OH content of the glass. Our recent studies pertaining to PIB have focused on careful characterization of PIB, with particular emphasis on understanding all of the contributions to the measured birefringence signal and finally extracting only that signal associated with birefringence arising from exposure to a polarized light beam. We will demonstrate that a critical contributor to the total birefringence signal is birefringence that comes from exposure beam inhomogeneities. After subtracting beam profile effects we are able to show that PIB is proportional to the OH content of the glass. Polarized infrared (IR) measurements were performed on glasses that developed PIB as a consequence of exposure to polarized 157-nm light. These studies reveal that there is preferential bleaching of a specific hydroxyl (OH) species in the glass with OH aligned parallel to the incident polarization undergoing more bleaching than those perpendicular. Further, we observe a very strong correlation between the measured PIB of these samples and the anisotropic bleaching. From these studies we propose a mechanism that can explain the role of hydroxyl in PIB.

  8. Ion-exchanged glass waveguides with low birefringence for a broad range of waveguide widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yliniemi, Sanna; West, Brian R; Honkanen, Seppo

    2005-06-01

    Optical communications networks require integrated photonic components with negligible polarization dependence, which typically means that the waveguides must feature very low birefringence. Recent studies have shown that waveguides with low birefringence can be obtained, e.g., by use of silica-on-silicon waveguides or buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides. However, many integrated photonic circuits consist of waveguides with varying widths. Therefore low birefringence is consequently required for waveguides having different widths. This is a difficult task for most waveguide fabrication technologies. We present experimental results on waveguide birefringence for buried silver-sodium ion-exchanged glass waveguides. We show that the waveguide birefringence of the order of 10(-6) for waveguide mask opening widths ranging from 2 to 10 microm can be obtained by postprocessing the sample through annealing at an elevated temperature. The measured values are in agreement with the values calculated with our modeling software for ion-exchanged glass waveguides. This unique feature of ion-exchanged waveguides may be of significant importance in a wide variety of integrated photonic circuits requiring polarization-independent operation.

  9. A bifunctional amorphous polymer exhibiting equal linear and circular photoinduced birefringences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royes, Jorge; Provenzano, Clementina; Pagliusi, Pasquale; Tejedor, Rosa M; Piñol, Milagros; Oriol, Luis

    2014-11-01

    The large and reversible photoinduced linear and circular birefringences in azo-compounds are at the basis of the interest in these materials, which are potentially useful for several applications. Since the onset of the linear and circular anisotropies relies on orientational processes, which typically occur on the molecular and supramolecular length scale, respectively, a circular birefringence at least one order of magnitude lower than the linear one is usually observed. Here, the synthesis and characterization of an amorphous polymer with a dimeric repeating unit containing a cyanoazobenzene and a cyanobiphenyl moiety are reported, in which identical optical linear and circular birefringences are induced for proper light dose and ellipticity. A pump-probe technique and an analytical method based on the Stokes-Mueller formalism are used to investigate the photoinduced effects and to evaluate the anisotropies. The peculiar photoresponse of the polymer makes it a good candidate for applications in smart functional devices.

  10. Cosmic birefringence fluctuations and cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokcheon Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, BICEP2 measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB B-mode polarization has indicated the presence of primordial gravitational waves at degree angular scales, inferring the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r=0.2 and a running scalar spectral index, provided that dust contamination is low. In this Letter, we show that the existence of the fluctuations of cosmological birefringence can give rise to CMB B-mode polarization that fits BICEP2 data with r<0.11 and no running of the scalar spectral index. When dust contribution is taken into account, we derive an upper limit on the cosmological birefringence, Aβ2<0.0075, where A is the amplitude of birefringence fluctuations that couple to electromagnetism with a coupling strength β.

  11. Highly birefringent extruded elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers with single defect and double defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongjiao He

    2009-01-01

    Highly birefringent elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers(PCFs)with single defect and double defects are proposed,which are suppoosed to be achieved by extruding normal circular-hole PCFs based on a triangular lattice photonic crystal structure.Comparative research on the birefringence and the confinement loss of the proposed PCFs with single defect and double defects is presented.Simulation results show that the proposed PCFs with single defect and double defects can be with high birefringence(even up to the order of 10-2).The confinement loss increases when the ellipticity of the air hole of the PCFs increases,which nevertheless can be overconle by increasing the ring number or the area of the air holes in the fiber cladding.

  12. Probing vacuum birefringence using x-ray free electron and optical high-intensity lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum birefringence is one of the most striking predictions of strong field quantum electrodynamics: Probe photons traversing a strong field region can indirectly sense the applied "pump" electromagnetic field via quantum fluctuations of virtual charged particles which couple to both pump and probe fields. This coupling is sensitive to the field alignment and can effectively result in two different indices of refraction for the probe photon polarization modes giving rise to a birefringence phenomenon. In this article we perform a dedicated theoretical analysis of the proposed discovery experiment of vacuum birefringence at a x-ray free electron laser/optical high-intensity laser facility. Describing both pump and probe laser pulses realistically in terms of their macroscopic electromagnetic fields, we go beyond previous analyses by accounting for various effects not considered before in this context. Our study facilitates stringent quantitative predictions and optimizations of the signal in an actual experim...

  13. Probing vacuum birefringence using x-ray free electron and optical high-intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbstein, Felix; Sundqvist, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Vacuum birefringence is one of the most striking predictions of strong field quantum electrodynamics: Probe photons traversing a strong field region can indirectly sense the applied "pump" electromagnetic field via quantum fluctuations of virtual charged particles which couple to both pump and probe fields. This coupling is sensitive to the field alignment and can effectively result in two different indices of refraction for the probe photon polarization modes giving rise to a birefringence phenomenon. In this article, we perform a dedicated theoretical analysis of the proposed discovery experiment of vacuum birefringence at an x-ray free electron laser/optical high-intensity laser facility. Describing both pump and probe laser pulses realistically in terms of their macroscopic electromagnetic fields, we go beyond previous analyses by accounting for various effects not considered before in this context. Our study facilitates stringent quantitative predictions and optimizations of the signal in an actual experiment.

  14. Novel technique for distributed fibre sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering measurements of birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-05-01

    A novel distributed fibre sensing technique is described and experimentally validated, based on birefringence measurements using coherent Rayleigh scattering. It natively provides distributed measurements of temperature and strain with more than an order of magnitude higher sensitivity than Brillouin sensing, and requiring access to a single fibre-end. Unlike the traditional Rayleigh-based coherent optical time-domain reflectometry, this new method provides absolute measurements of the measurand and may lead to a robust discrimination between temperature and strain in combination with another technique. Since birefringence is purposely induced in the fibre by design, large degrees of freedom are offered to optimize and scale the sensitivity to a given quantity. The technique has been validated in 2 radically different types of birefringent fibres - elliptical-core and Panda polarization-maintaining fibres - with a good repeatability.

  15. Enhanced Transmission Stability of Polarization Solitons in Birefringent Fibres with an Optical Phase Conjugator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟成; 谢嘉宁; 路洪; 徐文成

    2003-01-01

    An optical phase conjugator is used to enhance transmission stability of polarization solitons in highly birefringent fibres. Two polarization solitons form a breather in fibres with low birefringence firstly and the optical phase conjugator is used to make the spectra of polarization solitons converse, which results in the fact that the polarization soliton along the fast axis is compressed due to the strengthened self-phase modulation effect. Two polarization solitons are compressed further due to the cross-phase modulation effect. The enhanced nonlinear effects make the central peak frequencies of two polarization solitons shift to the larger range in opposite directions so that they trap each other fully to suppress the effect of birefringence.

  16. Birefringence measurement in polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography using differential-envelope detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Lin, Shey-Chien; Chuang, Chung-Yu

    2010-05-01

    In this research, we integrated two demodulating logarithmic amplifiers with one differential amplifier for use in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer so as to obtain a two-channel polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system. Birefringence signals can be acquired using this system along with a differential-envelope detection method. Because the two orthogonal polarizations are common-path propagation, common noise originating from background fluctuations or multiple scattering in turbid media can be reduced to improve the detection sensitivity and accuracy of birefringence measurement. Besides, this simple and effective technique is an analog detection method and is capable of providing high temporal response; it can also help obtain a high time-bandwidth product as compared to the conventional method of using a numerical method with a limited sampling rate. The feasibility of the proposed system is supported by theory and is also shown by performing experiments involving a human vessel, which is a highly scattering medium with weak birefringence.

  17. EPOXY-BASED AZO POLYMERS WITH HIGH CHROMOPHORE DENSITY:SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PHOTOINDUCED BIREFRINGENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-lin Wang; Xiao-gong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Three epoxy-based azo polymers (PEP-AZ-C1,PEP-AZ-CN and PEP-AZ-NT) with high chromophore density were synthesized by using post-polymerization azo-coupling reactions between epoxy-bascd precursor polymer (PEP-AN)and diazonium salts of 4-chloroaniline,4-aminobenzonitrile and 4-nitroaniline,respectively.The structures and properties of the azo polymers were characterized by using 1H-NMR,FT-IR,UV-Vis and thermal analyses.The photoinduced birefringence of the azo polymers was studied by irradiating spin-coated films of the polymers with laser beam at three different wavelengths (488,532,and 589 nm).The results indicate that the photoinduced birefringence of the azo polymers is related with the electron-withdrawing group on azo chromophores and the excitation wavelength.The excitation wavelength that can cause the efficient responses is determined by the absorption band positions of the azo chromophores,which are mainly affected by the electron-withdrawing group on the chromophores.Therefore,the azo polymers containing chromophores with different electron-withdrawing groups show different responsive behavior to the irradiation light at different wavelengths.When irradiated with 488 nm light,PEP-AZ-Cl shows the shortest time to reach the saturated birefringence but with the lowest saturation birefringence level compared with the other two azo polymers.When irradiated with 532 nm light,PEP-AZ-CN shows the shortest time to reach the saturated birefringence.When irradiated with 532 and 589 nm light,PEP-AZ-NT shows the highest saturation birefringence level.

  18. Flow-induced birefringence: the hidden PSF killer in high performance injection-molded plastic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidley, Matthew D.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Kester, Robert; Descour, Michael R.

    2006-02-01

    A 7-mm OD, NA = 1 water immersion injection-molded plastic endoscope objective has been fabricated for a laser scanning fiber confocal reflectance microscope (FCRM) system specifically designed for in vivo detection of cervical and oral pre-cancers. Injection-molded optics was selected for the ability to incorporate aspheric surfaces into the optical design and its high volume capabilities. Our goal is high performance disposable endoscope probes. This objective has been built and tested as a stand-alone optical system, a Strehl ratio greater than 0.6 has been obtained. One of the limiting factors of optical performance is believed to be flow-induced birefringence. We have investigated different configurations for birefringence visualization and believe the circular polariscope is most useful for inspection of injection-molded plastic optics. In an effort to decrease birefringence effects, two experiments were conducted. They included: (1) annealing of the optics after fabrication and (2) modifying the injection molding prameters (packing pressures, injection rates, and hold time). While the second technique showed improvement, the annealing process could not improve quality without physically warping the lenses. Therefore, to effectively reduce flow-induced birefringence, molding conditions have to be carefully selected. These parameters are strongly connected to the physical part geometry. Both optical design and fabrication technology have to be considered together to deliver low birefringence while maintaining the required manufacturing tolerances. In this paper we present some of our current results that illustrate how flow-induced birefringence can degrade high performance injection-molded plastic optical systems.

  19. Highly birefringent suspended-core photonic microcells for refractive-index sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Jin, Wa; Ma, Jun; Jin, Wei, E-mail: eewjin@polyu.edu.hk; Yang, Fan; Ho, Hoi Lut [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Liao, Changrui; Wang, Yiping [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education/Guangdong Province, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2014-08-11

    An in-line photonic microcell with a highly birefringent suspended microfiber core is fabricated by locally heating and pressurizing selected air-holes of an endless single mode photonic crystal fiber. The microfiber core has rhombus-like cross-sectional geometry and could achieve a high birefringence of up to 10{sup −2}. The microfiber core is fixed at the center of the microcell by thin struts attached to an outer jacket tube, which protects and isolates the microfiber from environmental contaminations. Highly sensitive and robust refractive index sensors based on such microcells are experimentally demonstrated.

  20. ANALYSIS OF INDEXED-GUIDED HIGHLY BIREFRINGENT PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBER EMPLOYING DIFFERENT CLADDING GEOMETRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Jouri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available      In this paper, a comparative study of three geometries of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers (HB PCF is presented. The proposed geometries are: V type PCF, Pseudo-Panda PCF and selectively liquid-filled PCF. Based on the famous Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method with the perfectly matched layer (PML boundary condition, the simulations are carried out in the aim to find a tradeoff between the chromatic dispersion, the birefringence and the confinement loss.

  1. Femtosecond laser fabrication of birefringent directional couplers as polarization beam splitters in fused silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luís A; Grenier, Jason R; Herman, Peter R; Aitchison, J Stewart; Marques, Paulo V S

    2011-06-20

    Integrated polarization beam splitters based on birefringent directional couplers are demonstrated. The devices are fabricated in bulk fused silica glass by femtosecond laser writing (300 fs, 150 nJ at 500 kHz, 522 nm). The birefringence was measured from the spectral splitting of the Bragg grating resonances associated with the vertically and horizontally polarized modes. Polarization splitting directional couplers were designed and demonstrated with 0.5 dB/cm propagation losses and -19 dB and -24 dB extinction ratios for the polarization splitting.

  2. Influence of Optical Feedback from Birefringence External Cavity on Intensity Tuning and Polarization of Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Li-Gang; ZHANG Shu-Lian; WAN Xin-Jun

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of intensity tuning and polarization of He-Ne laser with optical feedback are studied. When the internal cavity length of the laser with birefringence optical feedback is tuned, not only does output intensity vary with laser frequency, but also the polarization periodically hops between two orthogonal directions. Ff the phase difference of birefringence is π/2, two polarization states alternately oscillate and have equal bandwidths within the longitudinal mode spacing. The times of polarization flipping in the longitudinal mode bandwidth is proportional to the ratio of external cavity length to internal cavity length. The experimental results are explained, and the potential uses are also discussed.

  3. A complex-polarization-propagator protocol for magneto-chiral axial dichroism and birefringence dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cukras, Janusz; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    A computational protocol for magneto-chiral dichroism and magneto-chiral birefringence dispersion is presented within the framework of damped response theory, also known as complex polarization propagator theory, at the level of time-dependent Hartree–Fock and time-dependent density functional...... theory. Magneto-chiral dichroism and magneto-chiral birefringence spectra in the (resonant) frequency region below the first ionization threshold of R-methyloxirane and L-alanine are presented and compared with the corresponding results obtained for both the electronic circular dichroism and the magnetic...

  4. Analysis of birefringence in magneto-optical waveguides based on nanoparticles doped sol–gel matrix with an optimized substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebbal, M.R., E-mail: Lebbalmohamedredha@yahoo.fr; Boumaza, T.; Bouchemat, M.

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of birefringence remains a key challenge in integrated optical systems. In this work, we present birefringence study based on the controlling of layer thickness of planar waveguides, using deposited layers based on magnetic nanoparticles. The birefringence can be reduced with a planar device, depending on a glass substrate. The simulation carried out by MATLAB allowed us to deduce the conditions to decrease the phase mismatch and increase the conversion ratio of modes. - Highlights: • We simulate the birefringence in isotropic and anisotropic waveguides. • The perpendicularly applied gelation field is very promising in decreasing the birefringence. • It is very promising to use the glass substrate and adjust the thin layer thickness. • The glass substrate contributes in increasing the range of mono-mode waveguide. • The optimal thickness is taken close to the cut-off thickness of the 2nd mode TE.

  5. The quantum vacuum in electromagnetic fields: From the Heisenberg-Euler effective action to vacuum birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The focus of these lectures is on the quantum vacuum subjected to classical electromagnetic fields. To this end we explicitly derive the renowned Heisenberg-Euler effective action in constant electromagnetic fields in a rather pedagogical and easy to conceive way. As an application, we use it to study vacuum birefringence constituting one of the most promising optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity.

  6. Design of a pentagonal photonic crystal fiber with high birefringence and large flattened negative dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuyou; Liu, Pan; Xu, Zhenlong; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-08-20

    Novel pentagonal photonic crystal fiber with high birefringence, large flattened negative dispersion, and high nonlinearity is proposed. The dispersion and birefringence properties of this structure are simulated and analyzed numerically based on the full vector finite element method (FEM). Numerical results indicate that the fiber obtains a large average dispersion of -611.9  ps/nm/km over 1,460-1,625 nm and -474  ps/nm/km over 1425-1675 nm wavelength bands for two kinds of optimized designs, respectively. In addition, the proposed PCF shows a high birefringence of 1.67×10-2 and 1.75×10-2 at the operating wavelength of 1550 nm. Moreover, the influence of the possible variation in the parameters during the fabrication process on the dispersion and birefringence properties is studied. The proposed PCF would have important applications in polarization maintaining transmission systems, residual dispersion compensation, supercontinuum generation, and the design of widely tunable wavelength converters based on four-wave mixing.

  7. Light-induced circular birefringence in cyanoazobenzene side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I; Nikolova, L; Ramanujam, P.S.;

    1999-01-01

    We report the inducement of large circular birefringence (optical activity) in films of a cyanoazobenzene side-chain liquid-crystalline polyester on illumination with circularly polarized light. The polyester has no chiral groups and is initially isotropic. The induced optical rotation is up to 5...

  8. Polarization modulational instability in a birefringent optical fiber with fourth order dispersion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Ganapathy; V C Kuriakose

    2001-10-01

    We obtain conditions for the occurrence of polarization modulational instability in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes for the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation modelling fourth order dispersion effects when the linearly polarized pump is oriented at arbitrary angles with respect to the slow and fast axes of the birefringent fiber.

  9. Extremely High-Birefringent Asymmetric Slotted-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber in THz Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Habib, Selim; Hasanuzzaman, G.K.M.

    2015-01-01

    of the circular cladding confines most of the power in the fiber-core. The fiber structure reported in this letter exhibits simultaneously ultrahigh modal birefringence of 7.5 × 10−2 and a very low effective absorption loss of 0.07 cm−1 for y-polarization mode at an operating frequency of 1 THz. It is highly...

  10. Effect of Third-order Dispersion of Birefringent Fiber on Pulse Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of thirdorder dispersion on pulse transmission is discussed. The coupled nonlinear Schrdinger equations characterizing the birefringent singlemode fibers is solved numerically with combined consideration on chromatic dispersion, including second and thirdorder dispersions, polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and nonlinearity. Various simulation results are presented.

  11. The measurement system of birefringence and Verdet constant of optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Chen, Li; Guo, Qiang; Pang, Fufei; Wen, Jianxiang; Shang, Yana; Wang, Tingyun

    2013-12-01

    The Faraday magneto-optical effect of optical fiber has many applications in monitoring magnetic field and electric current. When a linearly polarized light propagates in the direction of a magnetic field, the plane of polarization will rotate linearly proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field, which following the relationship of θF =VBl. θF is the Faraday rotation angle, which is proportional to the magnetic flux density B and the Verdet constant V . However, when the optical fiber contains the effect of linear birefringence, the detection of Faraday rotation angle will depend on the line birefringence. In order to determine the Verdet constant of an optical fiber under a linear birefringence, the fiber birefringence needs to be accurately measured. In this work, a model is applied to analyze the polarization properties of an optical fiber by using the Jones matrix method. A measurement system based on the lock-in amplifier technology is designed to test the Verdet constant and the birefringence of optical fiber. The magnetic field is produced by a solenoid with a DC current. A tunable laser is intensity modulated with a motorized rotating chopper. The actuator supplies a signal as the phase-locked synchronization reference to the signal of the lock-in amplifier. The measurement accuracy is analyzed and the sensitivity of the system is optimized. In this measurement system, the Verdet constant of the SMF-28 fiber was measured to be 0.56±0.02 rad/T·m at 1550nm. This setup is well suitable for measuring the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sensitivity for lock-in amplifier at a low magnetic field strength.

  12. Use of retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence as an addition to absorption in retinal scanning for biometric purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopov, Mikael; Gramatikov, Boris I.; Wu, Yi-Kai; Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L.

    2008-03-01

    We built a device sensitive to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer for biometric purposes. A circle of 20° diameter on the retina was scanned around the optic disk with a spot of light from a 785 nm laser diode. The nonbirefringent blood vessels indenting or displacing the retinal nerve fiber layer were seen as “blips” in the measured birefringence-derived signal. For comparison, the reflection-absorption signature of the blood vessel pattern in the scanned circle was also measured. The birefringence-derived signal proved to add useful information to the reflectance-absorption signature for retinal biometric scanning.

  13. Segment Orientation and Optical Birefringence of Amorphous Polymers Under Tensile Deformation: Novel Computational Method applied to Different Glassy Polycarbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Upendra; Sulatha, M. S.

    2005-03-01

    Orientation dependent optical properties of Bisphenol A polycarbonate and two aliphatic substituted polycarbonates in glassy phase have been studied by atomistic modeling using molecular mechanics simulations under tensile deformation. Probability distributions and orientation functions show that phenylene rings and carbonate groups vectors along the main chain orient towards stretching direction following deformation. Interchain packing of rings and carbonates become ordered with strain. Efficient computational approach for calculation of optical birefringence of amorphous polymers is presented and applied to the polycarbonates in detail. Polarizability anisotropy of the polymer segments and chain as a function of deformation is calculated by combining information on the conformations and group polarizabilities, and used to estimate birefringence during deformation. Simulated and experimental values for segment orientation and bulk birefringence are in very good agreement. Effect of the optical properties of atomic groups on bulk birefringence is brought forth for the first time by molecular simulation for polymers other than polyethylene.

  14. Spectral-domain measurement of the strain sensitivity of phase modal birefringence of polarization-maintaining optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Cezary

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a new and simple method of measuring the strain sensitivity of phase modal birefringence (dΔn/dε) of polarization maintaining fibers (PMFs). The method is based on measuring the spectral strain sensitivity of a strain sensor in the configuration of a Sagnac interferometer with a PMF. The measured spectral strain sensitivity of the sensor is used to determine the strain sensitivity of phase modal birefringence and the polarimetric strain sensitivity of the PMF. In addition, a new procedure for determining the sign of the strain sensitivity of phase and group modal birefringence of a PMF. Using this method, measurements of the strain sensitivity of modal birefringence of PMFs were performed: a PM-PCF and a Bow-Tie fiber, in the wavelength range 1460-1600 nm. A comparison of the results of these measurements with results obtained using other methods for the same types of fibers is presented.

  15. SANS, SAXS, rheology and birefringence-strengths and weaknesses in probing phase behaviour of a diblock copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigild, Martin Etchells; Eskimergen, Rüya; Mortensen, Kell

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetrically composed diblock copolymers exhibit multiphase behaviour and transit the lamellae, gyroid and hexagonal cylindrical phases before reaching the order–disorder temperature, TODT. During a heating experiment towards TODT we observe that birefringence measurements are more sensitive th...

  16. 3-D TECATE/BREW: Thermal, stress, and birefringent ray-tracing codes for solid-state laser design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, R. J.; Doss, S. K.; Nelson, R. G.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the physics, code formulations, and numerics that are used in the TECATE (totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermo-elasticity) and BREW (birefringent ray-tracing of electromagnetic waves) codes for laser design. These codes resolve thermal, stress, and birefringent optical effects in 3-D stationary solid-state systems. This suite of three constituent codes is a package referred to as LASRPAK.

  17. Birefringence and residual stress induced by CO2 laser mitigation of damage growth in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, L.; Cormont, P.; Rullier, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the residual stress field created near mitigated sites and its influence on the efficiency on the CO2 laser mitigation of damage growth process. A numerical model of CO2 laser interaction with fused silica is developed that take into account laser energy absorption, heat transfer, thermally-induced stress and birefringence. Specific photoelastic methods are developed to characterize the residual stress near mitigated sites in fused silica samples. The stress distribution and quantitative values of stress levels are obtained for sites treated with the CO2 laser in various conditions of energy deposition (beam size, pulse duration, incident power). The results obtained also show that the presence of birefringence/residual stress around the mitigated sites has a critical effect on their laser damage resistance.

  18. Measurement of stress-induced birefringence in glasses based on reflective laser feedback effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisha, Niu; YanXiong, Niu; Jiyang, Li

    2017-02-01

    A glass birefringence measurement system utilizing the reflective laser feedback (RLF) effect is presented. The measurement principle is analyzed based on the equivalent cavity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer, and the experiments are conducted with a piece of quartz glass with applied extrusion force. In the feedback system, aluminum film used as a feedback mirror is affixed to the back of the sample. When the light is reflected back into the cavity, as the reinjected light is imprinted with the birefringence information in the sample, the gain and polarization states of the laser are modulated. The variation of optical power and polarization states hopping is monitored to obtain the magnitude of the stress. The system has advantages such as simplicity and low-cost with a precision of 1.9 nm. Moreover, by adjusting the position of the aluminum, large-area samples can be measured anywhere at any place.

  19. A device for continuous monitoring of true central fixation based on foveal birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris; Irsch, Kristina; Müllenbroich, Marie; Frindt, Nicole; Qu, Yinhong; Gutmark, Ron; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David

    2013-09-01

    A device for continuous monitoring of central fixation utilizes birefringence, the property of the Henle fibers surrounding the human fovea, to change the polarization state of light. A circular scan of retinal birefringence, where the scanning circle encompasses the fovea, allows identification of true central fixation-an assessment much needed in various applications in ophthalmology, psychology, and psychiatry. The device allows continuous monitoring for central fixation over an extended period of time in the presence of fixation targets and distracting stimuli, which may be helpful in detecting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and other disorders characterized by changes in the subject's ability to maintain fixation. A proof-of-concept has been obtained in a small study of ADHD patients and normal control subjects.

  20. Detecting relic gravitational waves in the CMB: The contamination caused by the cosmological birefringence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB radiation is an excellent information channel for the detection of relic gravitational waves. However, the detection is contaminated by the B-mode polarization generated by some other effects. In this paper, we discuss the contaminations caused by the cosmological birefringence, which converts the CMB E-mode to the B-mode, and forms the effective noise for the detection of gravitational waves. We find that this contamination is significant, if the rotation angle is large. However, this kind of B-mode can be properly de-rotated, and the effective noises can be greatly reduced. We find that, comparing with the contaminations caused by cosmic weak lensing, the residual polarization generated by the cosmological birefringence is negligible for the detection of relic gravitational waves in the CMB.

  1. Negligible birefringence in dual-mode ion-exchanged glass waveguide gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yliniemi, Sanna; Albert, Jacques; Laronche, Albane; Castro, Jose M; Geraghty, David; Honkanen, Seppo

    2006-09-01

    Polarization dependence of UV-written Bragg gratings in buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides is investigated. A polarization-dependent shift in Bragg wavelength of less than 0.02 nm is measured, both for the even and the odd modes of a laterally dual-mode waveguide. The measured wavelength shift corresponds to a waveguide birefringence of the order of 10(-5), which is negligible for most applications in optical communications. It is observed that the UV-induced birefringence is small, within the limits of the measurement accuracy. The thermal stability of the fabricated gratings is also very good. The results are of particular importance for devices considered here since they require a polarization-independent mode-converting waveguide Bragg grating. Polarization-independent performance of these gratings enables the fabrication of a new class of integrated optical devices for telecommunication applications.

  2. Novel laser machining of optical fibers for long cavities with low birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Orucevic, Fedja; Noguchi, Atsushi; Kassa, Ezra; Keller, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method of machining optical fiber surfaces with a CO${}_2$ laser for use in Fiber-based Fabry-Perot Cavities (FFPCs). Previously FFPCs were prone to large birefringence and limited to relatively short cavity lengths ($\\le$ 200 $\\mu$m). These characteristics hinder their use in some applications such as cavity quantum electrodynamics with trapped ions. We optimized the laser machining process to produce large, uniform surface structures. This enables the cavities to achieve high finesse even for long cavity lengths. By rotating the fibers around their axis during the laser machining process the asymmetry resulting from the laser's transverse mode profile is eliminated. Consequently we are able to fabricate fiber mirrors with a high degree of rotational symmetry, leading to remarkably low birefringence. Through measurements of the cavity finesse over a range of cavity lengths and the polarization dependence of the cavity linewidth, we confirmed the quality of the produced fiber mirrors for us...

  3. Design of low-loss and highly birefringent hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P. J.; Williams, D. P.; Sabert, H.; Mangan, B. J.; Bird, D. M.; Birks, T. A.; Knight, J. C.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2006-08-01

    A practical hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design suitable for attaining low-loss propagation is analyzed. The geometry involves a number of localized elliptical features positioned on the glass ring that surrounds the air core and separates the core and cladding regions. The size of each feature is tuned so that the composite core-surround geometry is antiresonant within the cladding band gap, thus minimizing the guided mode field intensity both within the fiber material and at material / air interfaces. A birefringent design, which involves a 2-fold symmetric arrangement of the features on the core-surround ring, gives rise to wavelength ranges where the effective index difference between the polarization modes is larger than 10-4. At such high birefringence levels, one of the polarization modes retains favorable field exclusion characteristics, thus enabling low-loss propagation of this polarization channel.

  4. Anomalous birefringence in andradite-grossular solid solutions: a quantum-mechanical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacivita, Valentina; D'Arco, Philippe; Orlando, Roberto; Dovesi, Roberto; Meyer, Alessio

    2013-11-01

    The static linear optical properties (refractive indices, birefringence and axial angle) of andradite-grossular (Ca3Fe2Si3O12-Ca3Al2Si3O12) solid solutions have been computed at the ab initio quantum-mechanical level through the Coupled Perturbed Kohn-Sham scheme, using an all-electron Gaussian-type basis set. Geometry relaxation after substitution of 1-8 Al for Fe atoms in the primitive cell of andradite yields 23 non-equivalent configurations ranging from cubic to triclinic symmetry. Refractive indices vary quite regularly between the andradite (1.860) and grossular (1.671) end-members; the birefringence δ and the axial angle 2 V at intermediate compositions can be as large as 0.02° and 89°, respectively. Comparison with experiments suffers from inhomogeneities and impurities of natural samples; however, semi-quantitative agreement is observed.

  5. A novel synthesis approach for birefringent filters having arbitrarily amplitude transmittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halassi, Abde Rezzaq; Hamdi, Rachid; Bendimerad, Djalal Falih; Benkelfat, Badr-Eddine

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel procedure for the synthesis of a filter having an arbitrarily specified amplitude transmittance. The filter configuration consists of N birefringent stages placed between a polarizer and an analyzer, with each stage containing an identical section and a variable section. An additional variable section is placed in front of the analyzer. The synthesis procedure is based on the resolution of a generalized nonlinear equation system directly deducted from the Jones matrix formalism to determine the angles of each stage, the angle of the analyzer and the phase shifts of the variable sections. A typical example of a 6-stage birefringent filter having an arbitrarily non-symmetric amplitude transmittance is shown and the opto-geometrical parameters are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed synthesis procedure. The results obtained show an excellent agreement with those developed in the literature.

  6. Competition of Faraday rotation and birefringence in femtosecond laser direct written waveguides in magneto-optical glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Gross, S; Dekker, P; Withford, M J; Steel, M J

    2014-11-17

    We consider the process of Faraday rotation in femtosecond laser direct-write waveguides. The birefringence commonly associated with such waveguides may be expected to impact the observable Faraday rotation. Here, we theoretically calculate and experimentally verify the competition between Faraday rotation and birefringence in two waveguides created by laser writing in a commercial magneto-optic glass. The magnetic field applied to induce Faraday rotation is nonuniform, and as a result, we find that the two effects can be clearly separated and used to accurately determine even weak birefringence. The birefringence in the waveguides was determined to be on the scale of Δn = 10(-6) to 10(-5). The reduction in Faraday rotation caused by birefringence of order Δn = 10(-6) was moderate and we obtained approximately 9° rotation in an 11 mm waveguide. In contrast, for birefringence of order 10(-5), a significant reduction in the polarization azimuth change was found and only 6° rotation was observed.

  7. Bragg Gratings Induced in Birefringent Optical Fiber with an Elliptical Stress Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Meshkovskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of writing of type I and high-performance type II fiber Bragg gratings in birefringent optical fiber with an elliptical stress cladding by a single 20 ns pulse of KrF excimer laser (248 nm. The gratings’ efficiency produced by a single pulse was up to 100%. Experimental results on visualization of these gratings are presented.

  8. Thermal distortion and birefringence in repetition-rate plasma electrode Pockels cell for high average power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dingxiang Cao; Xiongjun Zhang; Wanguo Zheng; Shaobo He; Zhan Sui

    2007-01-01

    We numerically study thermally induced birefringence and distortion in plasma electrode Pockels cell based on KD*P as the electro-optic material. This device can repetitively operate under the heat capacity mode.Simulation results indicate that the excellent switching performances and low wave-front distortion are achieved within several tens seconds working time at average power in excess of 1 kW.

  9. Influence of Feedback Levels on Polarized Optical Feedback Characteristics in Zeeman-Birefringence Dual Frequency Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Wei; ZHANG Shu-Lian; ZHOU Lu-Fei; LIU Xiao-Yan; WANG Ming-Ming

    2007-01-01

    The influence of Feedback levels on the intensity and polarization properties of polarized optical feedback in a Zeeman-birefringence dual frequency laser is systematically investigated. By changing the feedback power ratio, different feedback levels are obtained. Three distinct regimes of polarized optical feedback effects are found and defined as regimes Ⅰ, Ⅱand Ⅲ. The feedback level boundaries among the regimes are acquired experimentally. The theoretical analysis is presented to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Higher Order Statistsics of Stokes Parameters in a Random Birefringent Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Salem; Bihan, Nicolas le

    2007-01-01

    We present a new model for the propagation of polarized light in a random birefringent medium. This model is based on a decomposition of the higher order statistics of the reduced Stokes parameters along the irreducible representations of the rotation group. We show how this model allows a detailed description of the propagation, giving analytical expressions for the probability densities of the Mueller matrix and the Stokes vector throughout the propagation. It also allows an exact descripti...

  11. Birefringence and dispersion of cylindrically polarized modes in nanobore photonic crystal fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Euser, T G; Joly, N Y; Gabriel, C; Marquardt, C; Zang, L Y; Förtsch, M; Banzer, P; Brenn, A; Elser, D; Scharrer, M; Leuchs, G; Russell, P St J

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that a nanoscale hollow channel placed centrally in the solid glass core of a photonic crystal fiber strongly enhances the cylindrical birefringence (the modal index difference between radially and azimuthally polarized modes). Furthermore, it causes a large split in group velocity and group velocity dispersion. We show analytically that all three parameters can be varied over a wide range by tuning the diameters of the nanobore and the core.

  12. Longitudinal coherence properties of light waves propagating through a birefringent fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, M; Shibata, N; Higashi, T; Seikai, S

    1987-05-01

    Longitudinal coherence properties of the waves propagating through a birefringent fiber are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Significant loss due to the polarization-dispersion slope is observed clearly for the interference between the two orthogonally polarized HE(11) modes. The results obtained experimentally reflect the theoretical predictions well for both the modulus of the degree of coherence and its curve shape versus the optical path difference in the wavelength region from 816 to 1540 nm.

  13. Dispersion-managed soliton interactions in fibers with randomly varying birefringence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI; Ju; (蔡炬); YANG; Xianglin; (杨祥林)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a soliton transmission model in high-speed dispersion-managed systems is advanced, and the equation of intrachannel soliton interactions in randomly varying birefringent fibers is acquired. The soliton interactions with the impact of PMD in uniform dispersion systems and DMS systems are also investigated numerically. We reveal the change in the collision length with PMD and map strength, and verify the robustness of DMS to PMD in soliton interactions.

  14. Study on Birefringent Color Generation for a Reflective Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyukh, Sergiy; Valyukh, Iryna; Xu, Peizhi; Chigrinov, Vladimir

    2006-10-01

    We study the possibility of a layer of a surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal coupled with several retardation plates for birefringent color generation. Double and single polarizer reflective bistable dichromatic ferroelectric liquid crystal displays are considered. We demonstrate that one or two retardation plates are sufficient for a display having good color characteristics and high brightness. Optimal parameters for green/red and blue/yellow ferroelectric liquid crystal displays are found.

  15. Suppression of Soliton Timing Jitters in Fibers with Random Birefringence by Periodical Polarization Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei-cheng; XU Wen-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Periodical polarization modulation scheme is proposed to suppress timing jitters induced by frequency fluctuations between two polarization components of solitons. In periodical polarization modulation scheme, the polarization states of the soliton are modulated to excite equally for suppressing timing jitters induced by two unequal polarization components in the soliton trapping. Moreover, polarization modulation can weaken the effect of random birefringence on the soliton pulses in each relay distance. The numerical result shows that the soliton timing jitters are suppressed by our proposed method.

  16. Imaging of irradiated human costal cartilage birefringence by PS-OCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Santin, Stefany P.; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mosca, Rodrigo C.; Bringel, Fabiana A.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: freitas.az@ipen.b, E-mail: rmosca@usp.b, E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sterilization by ionizing radiation is a technique used for tissue banks around the world to avoid transmission of infectious diseases by human allografts. However, high doses of ionizing radiation may cause undesirable changes in tissue structure, decreasing its mechanical properties, for example. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non destructive, non ionizing and real time method to investigate biological tissues without promote any change in tissue structure. Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) is an OCT technique that combines polarimetry with low coherence reflectometry to provide depth resolved measurements from birefringent structures as collagen. Costal cartilages from 15 cadaveric donors were preserved in high concentration glycerol and each individual sample was divided in 6 fragments. One of them was kept as a control group and the others were irradiated with gamma radiation from a Co-60 source with doses of 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy. OCT and PS-OCT images of the same region of the samples were obtained from a device OCS 1300 SS (Thorlabs, USA) with a coupling polarization module PSOCT 1300 (Thorlabs, USA). According with our results, birefringence may be visualized in all test groups as well in the control group, suggesting that sterilization by ionizing radiation does not affect the collagen structure significantly to cause total loss of birefringence, even if high doses as 75 and 100 kGy are used. The next step of our work is to develop a new method to quantify the birefringence using the optical properties of the tissue. (author)

  17. FARADAY PLASMA CURRENT SENSOR WITH COMPENSATION FOR RECIPROCAL BIREFRINGENCE INDUCED BY MECHANICALPERTURBATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. O. Barmenkov

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Faraday fiber-optic current sensor was employed to measure the tokamak plasma current. In order todecrease the influence of mechanical perturbations on the sensor sensitivity, a two-pass optical scheme witha variable Faraday mirror at the fiber end is proposed. A decrease, by two orders of magnitude, in theinfluence of the linear birefringence produced by an external piezoceramic fiber modulator was experimentallyobserved.

  18. Zona pellucida birefringence and meiotic spindle visualisation of human oocytes are not influenced by IVM technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Marjan; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Ashourzadeh, Sareh; Rahimipour, Marzieh

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of the meiotic spindle and zona pellucida (ZP) birefringence with morphology of in vivo- and in vitro-matured human oocytes. Germinal vesicles (n=47) and MI (n=38) oocytes obtained from stimulated ovaries of patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) underwent IVM. Using a PolScope (OCTAX PolarAID; Octax, Herbon, Germany), the presence of spindles and ZP birefringence was assessed in both in vivo-matured (n=56) and IVM (n=56) oocytes. In addition, the morphology of each matured oocyte was evaluated microscopically. There were insignificant differences for ZP birefringence and meiotic spindle between the in vivo-matured and IVM MII oocytes. Subanalysis revealed that the rates of morphologically abnormal oocytes did not differ significantly between the two groups, except in the case of irregular shape (P=0.001), refractile body (P=0.001) and fragmented polar body (P=0.03), which were higher in IVM oocytes. In the case of in vivo-matured oocytes, a significantly higher percentage of oocytes with intracytoplasmic and both intra- and extracytoplasmic abnormalities have a low birefringent ZP (P=0.007 and P=0.02, respectively). There was no relationship between morphological abnormalities and spindle detection. The findings suggest that clinical IVM is a safe technology that maintains the high maturation rate and integrity of oocytes. In addition, the use of the non-invasive PolScope is recommended for the detection of oocytes most suitable for ICSI.

  19. X-ray Birefringence Imaging of Materials with Anisotropic Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Benjamin A; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R; Kariuki, Benson M; Harris, Kenneth D M; Dolbnya, Igor P; Collins, Stephen P; Sutter, John P

    2015-02-05

    The X-ray birefringence imaging (XBI) technique, reported very recently, is a sensitive tool for spatially resolved mapping of the local orientational properties of anisotropic materials. In this paper, we report the first XBI measurements on materials that undergo anisotropic molecular dynamics. Using incident linearly polarized X-rays with energy close to the Br K-edge, the X-ray birefringence is dictated by the orientational properties of the C-Br bonds in the material. We focus on two materials (urea inclusion compounds containing 1,8-dibromooctane and 1,10-dibromodecane guest molecules) for which the reorientational dynamics of the brominated guest molecules (and hence the reorientational dynamics of the C-Br bonds) are already well characterized by other experimental techniques. The XBI results demonstrate clearly that, for the anisotropic molecular dynamics in these materials, the effective X-ray optic axis for the X-ray birefringence phenomenon is the time-averaged resultant of the orientational distribution of the C-Br bonds.

  20. Characteristics of Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fiber with Defected Core and Equilateral Pentagon Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel high birefringence and nearly zero dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber (PCF with elliptical defected core (E-DC and equilateral pentagonal architecture is designed. By applying the full-vector finite element method (FEM, the characteristics of electric field distribution, birefringence, and chromatic dispersion of the proposed E-DC PCF are numerically investigated in detail. The simulation results reveal that the proposed PCF can realize high birefringence, ranging from 10-3 to 10-2 orders of magnitude, owing to the embedded elliptical air hole in the core center. However, the existence of the elliptical air hole gives rise to an extraordinary electric field distribution, where a V-shaped notch appears and the size of the V-shaped notch varies at different operating wavelengths. Also, the mode field diameter is estimated to be about 2 μm, which implies the small effective mode area and highly nonlinear coefficient. Furthermore, the investigation of the chromatic dispersion characteristic shows that the introduction of the elliptical air hole is helpful to control the chromatic dispersion to be negative or nearly zero flattened over a wide wavelength bandwidth.

  1. Microwave birefringent metamaterials for polarization conversion based on spoof surface plasmon polariton modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Feng, Dayi; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    We propose the design of wideband birefringent metamaterials based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs). Spatial k-dispersion design of SSPP modes in metamaterials is adopted to achieve high-efficiency transmission of electromagnetic waves through the metamaterial layer. By anisotropic design, the transmission phase accumulation in metamaterials can be independently modulated for x- and y-polarized components of incident waves. Since the dispersion curve of SSPPs is nonlinear, frequency-dependent phase differences can be obtained between the two orthogonal components of transmitted waves. As an example, we demonstrate a microwave birefringent metamaterials composed of fishbone structures. The full-polarization-state conversions on the zero-longitude line of Poincaré sphere can be fulfilled twice in 6–20 GHz for both linearly polarized (LP) and circularly polarized (CP) waves incidence. Besides, at a given frequency, the full-polarization-state conversion can be achieved by changing the polarization angle of the incident LP waves. Both the simulation and experiment results verify the high-efficiency polarization conversion functions of the birefringent metamaterial, including circular-to-circular, circular-to-linear(linear-to-circular), linear-to-linear polarization conversions. PMID:27698443

  2. Photon pair generation by intermodal spontaneous four wave mixing in birefringent, weakly guiding optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Garay-Palmett, K; Dominguez-Serna, F; Ortiz-Ricardo, E; Monroy-Ruz, J; Ramirez, H Cruz; Ramirez-Alarcon, R; U'Ren, A B

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the generation of photon pairs through the process of spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in a few-mode, birefringent fiber. Under these conditions, multiple SFWM processes are in fact possible, each associated with a different combination of transverse modes for the four waves involved. We show that in the weakly guiding regime, for which the propagation modes may be well approximated by linearly polarized modes, the departure from circular symmetry due to the fiber birefringence translates into conservation rules which retain elements from azimuthal and rectangular symmetries: both OAM and parity must be conserved for a process to be viable. We have implemented a SFWM source based on a "bow-tie" birefringent fiber, and have measured for a collection of pump wavelengths the SFWM spectra of each of the signal and idler photons in coincidence with its partner photon. We have used this information, together with knowledge of the transverse modes into which the ...

  3. Novel laser machining of optical fibers for long cavities with low birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Morphew, Jack; Oručević, Fedja; Noguchi, Atsushi; Kassa, Ezra; Keller, Matthias

    2014-12-15

    We present a novel method of machining optical fiber surfaces with a CO₂ laser for use in Fiber-based Fabry-Perot Cavities (FFPCs). Previously FFPCs were prone to large birefringence and limited to relatively short cavity lengths (≤ 200 μm). These characteristics hinder their use in some applications such as cavity quantum electrodynamics with trapped ions. We optimized the laser machining process to produce large, uniform surface structures. This enables the cavities to achieve high finesse even for long cavity lengths. By rotating the fibers around their axis during the laser machining process the asymmetry resulting from the laser's transverse mode profile is eliminated. Consequently we are able to fabricate fiber mirrors with a high degree of rotational symmetry, leading to remarkably low birefringence. Through measurements of the cavity finesse over a range of cavity lengths and the polarization dependence of the cavity linewidth, we confirmed the quality of the produced fiber mirrors for use in low-birefringence FFPCs.

  4. Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael F. G.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Wallenburg, Marika A.; Li, Shu-Hong; Weisel, Richard D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Li, Ren-Ke; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2010-07-01

    Myocardial infarction leads to structural remodeling of the myocardium, in particular to the loss of cardiomyocytes due to necrosis and an increase in collagen with scar formation. Stem cell regenerative treatments have been shown to alter this remodeling process, resulting in improved cardiac function. As healthy myocardial tissue is highly fibrous and anisotropic, it exhibits optical linear birefringence due to the different refractive indices parallel and perpendicular to the fibers. Accordingly, changes in myocardial structure associated with infarction and treatment-induced remodeling will alter the anisotropy exhibited by the tissue. Polarization-based linear birefringence is measured on the myocardium of adult rat hearts after myocardial infarction and compared with hearts that had received mesenchymal stem cell treatment. Both point measurement and imaging data show a decrease in birefringence in the region of infarction, with a partial rebound back toward the healthy values following regenerative treatment with stem cells. These results demonstrate the ability of optical polarimetry to characterize the micro-organizational state of the myocardium via its measured anisotropy, and the potential of this approach for monitoring regenerative treatments of myocardial infarction.

  5. Microwave birefringent metamaterials for polarization conversion based on spoof surface plasmon polariton modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Feng, Dayi; Xu, Zhuo; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-10-01

    We propose the design of wideband birefringent metamaterials based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs). Spatial k-dispersion design of SSPP modes in metamaterials is adopted to achieve high-efficiency transmission of electromagnetic waves through the metamaterial layer. By anisotropic design, the transmission phase accumulation in metamaterials can be independently modulated for x- and y-polarized components of incident waves. Since the dispersion curve of SSPPs is nonlinear, frequency-dependent phase differences can be obtained between the two orthogonal components of transmitted waves. As an example, we demonstrate a microwave birefringent metamaterials composed of fishbone structures. The full-polarization-state conversions on the zero-longitude line of Poincaré sphere can be fulfilled twice in 6–20 GHz for both linearly polarized (LP) and circularly polarized (CP) waves incidence. Besides, at a given frequency, the full-polarization-state conversion can be achieved by changing the polarization angle of the incident LP waves. Both the simulation and experiment results verify the high-efficiency polarization conversion functions of the birefringent metamaterial, including circular-to-circular, circular-to-linear(linear-to-circular), linear-to-linear polarization conversions.

  6. An Optimal Cure Process to Minimize Residual Void and Optical Birefringence for a LED Silicone Encapsulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jae Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicone resin has recently attracted great attention as a high-power Light Emitting Diode (LED encapsulant material due to its good thermal stability and optical properties. In general, the abrupt curing reaction of the silicone resin for the LED encapsulant during the curing process induces reduction in the mechanical and optical properties of the LED product due to the generation of residual void and moisture, birefringence, and residual stress in the final formation. In order to prevent such an abrupt curing reaction, the reduction of residual void and birefringence of the silicone resin was observed through experimentation by introducing the multi-step cure processes, while the residual stress was calculated by conducting finite element analysis that coupled the heat of cure reaction and cure shrinkage. The results of experiment and analysis showed that it was during the three-step curing process that the residual void, birefringence, and residual stress reduced the most in similar tendency. Through such experimentation and finite element analysis, the study was able to confirm that the optimization of the LED encapsulant packaging process was possible.

  7. Contribution of counterions and degree of ionization for birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics parameters of PAH/PAZO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, Maria, E-mail: mfr@fct.unl.pt; Monteiro Timóteo, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Paulo A. [CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNL, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ferreira, Quirina [CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNL, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Telecomunicações, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Botelho do Rego, Ana Maria [Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-09-21

    Photo induced birefringent materials can be used to develop optical and conversion energy devices, and consequently, the study of the variables that influences the creation and relaxation of birefringence should be carefully analyzed. In this work, the parameters of birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics curves obtained on layer-by-layer (LBL) films, prepared from azo-polyectrolyte poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4 hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride)(PAH), are related with the presence of counterions and the degree of ionization of the polyelectrolytes. Those kinetics curves obtained on PAH/PAZO LBL films, prepared from PAH solutions with different pHs and maintaining the pH of PAZO solution constant at pH = 9, were analyzed taking into account the films composition which was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The creation and relaxation birefringence curves are justified by two processes: one associated to local mobility of the azobenzene with a characteristic time 30 s and intensity constant and other associated with polymeric chains mobility with the characteristic time and intensity decreasing with pH. These results allow us to conclude that the birefringence creation process, associated to local mobility of azobenzenes is independent of the degree of ionization and of number of counterions or co-ions present while the birefringence creation process associated to mobility of chains have its characteristic time and intensity dependent of both degree of ionization and number of counterions. The birefringence relaxation processes are dependent of the degree of ionization. The analysis of the films composition revealed, in addition, the presence of a protonated secondary or tertiary amine revealing that PAZO may have positive charges and consequently a zwitterionic behavior.

  8. Optical characterization of the nematic lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals: light absorption, birefringence, and scalar order parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastishin, Yu A; Liu, H; Schneider, T; Nazarenko, V; Vasyuta, R; Shiyanovskii, S V; Lavrentovich, O D

    2005-10-01

    We report on the optical properties of the nematic (N) phase formed by lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) in well aligned planar samples. LCLCs belong to a broad class of materials formed by one-dimensional molecular self-assembly and are similar to other systems such as "living polymers" and "wormlike micelles." We study three water soluble LCLC forming materials: disodium chromoglycate, a derivative of indanthrone called Blue 27, and a derivative of perylene called Violet 20. The individual molecules have a planklike shape and assemble into rodlike aggregates that form the phase once the concentration exceeds about 0.1 M. The uniform surface alignment of the N phase is achieved by buffed polyimide layers. According to the light absorption anisotropy data, the molecular planes are on average perpendicular to the aggregate axes and thus to the nematic director. We determined the birefringence of these materials in the N and biphasic N-isotropic (I) regions and found it to be negative and significantly lower in the absolute value as compared to the birefringence of typical thermotropic low-molecular-weight nematic materials. In the absorbing materials Blue 27 and Violet 20, the wavelength dependence of birefringence is nonmonotonic because of the effect of anomalous dispersion near the absorption bands. We describe positive and negative tactoids formed as the nuclei of the new phase in the biphasic N-I region (which is wide in all three materials studied). Finally, we determined the scalar order parameter of the phase of Blue 27 and found it to be relatively high, in the range 0.72-0.79, which puts the finding into the domain of general validity of the Onsager model. However, the observed temperature dependence of the scalar order parameter points to the importance of factors not accounted for in the athermal Onsager model, such as interaggregate interactions and the temperature dependence of the aggregate length.

  9. Repeating pulsed magnet system for axion-like particle searches and vacuum birefringence experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T.; Inada, T.; Namba, T.; Asai, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Matsuo, A.; Kindo, K.; Nojiri, H.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a repeating pulsed magnet system which generates magnetic fields of about 10 T in a direction transverse to an incident beam over a length of 0.8 m with a repetition rate of 0.2 Hz. Its repetition rate is by two orders of magnitude higher than usual pulsed magnets. It is composed of four low resistance racetrack coils and a 30 kJ transportable capacitor bank as a power supply. The system aims at axion-like particle searches with a pulsed light source and vacuum birefringence measurements. We report on the details of the system and its performances.

  10. Strongly birefringent cut-wire pair structure as negative index wave plates at THz frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Weis, P.; Paul, O.; Imhof, C.; Beigang, R; Rahm, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report a new approach for the design and fabrication of thin wave plates with high transmission in the terahertz (THz) regime. The wave plates are based on strongly birefringent cut-wire pair metamaterials that exhibit refractive indices of opposite signs for two orthogonal polarization components of an incident wave. As specific examples, we fabricated and investigated a quarter- and a half-wave plate that revealed a peak intensity transmittance of 74% and 58% at 1.34 THz and 1.3 THz, res...

  11. Thermal Stress-Induced Birefringence in Borate Glass Irradiated by Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Ye; YU Bing-Kun; LU Bo; QIU Jian-Rong; YAN Xiao-Na; JIANG Xiong-Wei; ZHU Cong-Shan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Thermal stress-induced birefringence in borate glass which has been irradiated by 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses is observed under cross-polarized light. Due to the high temperature and pressure formed in the focal volume, the material at the edge of the micro-modified region is compressed between the expanding region and the unheated one, then stress emerges. Raman spectroscopy is used to investigate the stress distribution in the micro-modified region and indicates the redistributions of density and refractive index by Raman peak shift. We suggest that this technique can develop waveguide polarizers and Fresnel zone plates in integrated optics.

  12. Cladding defects in hollow core fibers for surface mode suppression and improved birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michieletto, M; Lyngsø, J K; Lægsgaard, J; Bang, O

    2014-09-22

    We demonstrate a novel polarization maintaining hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber geometry that reduces the impact of surface modes on fiber transmission. The cladding structure is modified with a row of partially collapsed holes to strip away unwanted surface modes. A theoretical investigation of the surface mode stripping is presented and compared to the measured performance of four 7-cells core fibers that were drawn with different collapse ratio of the defects. The varying pressure along the defect row in the cladding during drawing introduces an ellipticity of the core. This, combined with the presence of antiresonant features on the core wall, makes the fibers birefringent, with excellent polarization maintaining properties.

  13. Pump Spectral Bandwidth, Birefringence, and Entanglement in Type-II Parametric Down Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Erenso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The twin photons produced by a type-II spontaneous parametric down conversion are well know as a potential source of photons for quantum teleportation due to the strong entanglement in polarization. This strong entanglement in polarization, however, depends on the spectral composition of the pump photon and the nature of optical isotropy of the crystal. By exact numerical calculation of the concurrence, we have shown that how pump photons spectral width and the birefringence nature of the crystal directly affect the degree of polarization entanglement of the twin photons.

  14. Design of low-loss and highly birefringent hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Peter John; Williams, D.P.; Sabert, H.;

    2006-01-01

    A practical hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design suitable for attaining low-loss propagation is analyzed. The geometry involves a number of localized elliptical features positioned on the glass ring that surrounds the air core and separates the core and cladding regions. The size of each...... feature is tuned so that the composite core-surround geometry is antiresonant within the cladding band gap, thus minimizing the guided mode field intensity both within the fiber material and at material / air interfaces. A birefringent design, which involves a 2-fold symmetric arrangement of the features...

  15. Polarization sensitive localization based super-resolution microscopy with a birefringent wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkó, József; Gajdos, Tamás; Czvik, Elvira; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, Miklós

    2017-03-01

    A practical method has been presented for polarization sensitive localization based super-resolution microscopy using a birefringent dual wedge. The measurement of the polarization degree at the single molecule level can reveal the chemical and physical properties of the local environment of the fluorescent dye molecule and can hence provide information about the sub-diffraction sized structure of biological samples. Polarization sensitive STORM imaging of the F-Actins proved correlation between the orientation of fluorescent dipoles and the axis of the fibril.

  16. Tunable Microwave Photonic Notch Filter Based on a high-birefringence linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Yongxing; Dong Xinyong; Wang Jianfeng [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou (China); Zhou Junqiang, E-mail: phyjyxin@gmail.com [Network Technology Research Centre, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a continuously tunable microwave photonic notch filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This filter is based on the differential group delay generated by a high-birefringence linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating. This microwave photonic filter belongs to the orthogonal polarization approach, polarization maintaining structure ensures the filter free from the random optical interference problem. Its response is induced by the differential group delay (DGD) of the Hi-Bi LCFBG and it can be varied by tuning the grating through adding gradient strength to the grating. Free spectral range tuning by 9.27 GHz with more than 35 dB notch rejection is achieved.

  17. Numerical analysis of stress distribution in embedded highly birefringent PANDA fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiak, Piotr; Woliński, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents numerical analysis compared with experimental data of influence of polymerization shrinkage on highly birefringent (HB) PANDA optical fibers embedded in a composite material. Since polymerization is a chemical process consisting in combining single molecules in a macromolecular compound [1], principal directions of the polymerization shrinkage depend on a number of the composite layers associated with this process. In this paper a detailed analysis of the piezo-optic effects occurring in HB optical fibers before and after the lamination process answers the question to what extent a degree of the material degradation can be properly estimated.

  18. Design of infrared imaging birefringent interferometers for small-UAVs and handheld scanning systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola Fossi, Armande; Ferrec, Yann; Guerineau, Nicolas; Roux, Nicolas; Kling, Emmanuel; Sauer, Hervé

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging from unmanned aerial vehicles arouses a growing interest, as well for agriculture management as pollution monitoring or security purposes. Most of current instruments are in the visible or near infrared spectral range, but the midwave or longwave infrared may also be interesting. Among the available solutions for compact imaging spectrometers in this spectral range, static imaging Fourier transform spectrometers are well adapted, thanks to the absence of moving part, a 2D snapshot imaging, which can be useful for image registration, and a high flux collection efficiency. To reach a high compactness compliant with small UAVs, birefringent interferometers are good candidates. Indeed, they can be roughly seen as a plate which comes in front of the camera lens. We propose here firstly to expose the design rules of such instruments in the midwave or longwave infrared. The first point is about the material: highly birefringent uniaxial crystals materials are not so common in this spectral domain. For MWIR spectral imagers, TeO2 or YVO4 can be used. For LWIR instruments, current materials, like ZnGeP2 or AgGaS2 are available, but their birefringence is not so high. Calomel is a promising way, but not still available. The second point consists in defining the type of interferometer, like Savart interferometer, Wollaston interferometer, or other designs. To help this choice, we have developed a software tool to calculate the propagation of plane waves in a stack of birefringent plates. This allows us to choose the optimal assembly of the plates to reach the required spectral resolution. We will then present experimental results obtained with a MWIR prototype. This prototype, called SIBI,, works in the [3.7µm-4.8µm] spectral domain (or [2050cm 1-2700cm 1]), with a spectral resolution about 13cm 1. A first ground campaign was led in June 2015, on Mount Etna (Italy). This campaign was useful to emphasize the assets and drawbacks of this instrument

  19. Gravity-induced birefringence within the framework of Poincare gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Preuss, O; Haugan, Mark P; Jordan, S; Preuss, Oliver; Solanki, Sami K.; Jordan, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Gauge theories of gravity provide an elegant and promising extension of general relativity. In this paper we show that the Poincar\\'e gauge theory exhibits gravity-induced birefringence under the assumption of a specific gauge invariant nonminimal coupling between torsion and Maxwell's field. Furthermore we give for the first time an explicit expression for the induced phaseshift between two orthogonal polarization modes within the Poincar\\'e framework. Since such a phaseshift can lead to a depolarization of light emitted from an extended source this effect is, in principle, observable. We use white dwarf polarimetric data to constrain the essential coupling constant responsible for this effect.

  20. Effect of grain size on optical transmittance of birefringent polycrystalline ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tzu-Chien

    Polycrystalline ceramics are increasingly used for fabricating windows and domes for the mid infra-red regime (3-5 mum) due to their superior durability as compared to glass and the lower cost of their fabrication and finishing relative to single crystals without significant compromise in optical properties. Due to the noncubic structure, MgF2 and Al2O3 are birefringent ceramics. Birefringence causes scatter of light at the grain boundaries and diminishes in-line transmittance and optical performance. This dissertation presents experimental results and analyses of the grain-size and wavelength dependence of the in-line transmittance of polycrystalline MgF2 and Al2O3. Chapter 2 presents experimental results and analyses of light transmission in polycrystalline MgF2 as a function of the mean grain size at different wavelengths. The scattering coefficient of polycrystalline MgF 2 increased linearly with the mean grain size and inversely with the square of the wavelength of light. These trends are consistent with theoretical models based on both a limiting form of the Raleigh-Gans-Debye theory of particle scattering and light retardation theories that take refractive-index variations along the light path. Chapter 3 investigates the applicability of particle light scattering theories to light attenuation in birefringent polycrystalline ceramics by measuring light transmittance in a model two-phase system. The system consisted of microspheres of silica dispersed in a solution of glycerol in water. It was found that RGD theory showed the systematic deviation for higher particle volume fraction (φ > 0.2) and larger particle size (d p > 1 mum). This result suggested that light scattering models based on single particle scattering are unlikely to provide viable physical explanation for the effect of grain size on light transmittance in birefringent polycrystalline ceramics due to the high volume fraction in dense polycrystalline ceramics. Chapter 4 analyses light

  1. Repeating Pulsed Magnet System for Axion-like Particle Searches and Vacuum Birefringence Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, T; Namba, T; Asai, S; Kobayashi, T; Matsuo, A; Kindo, K; Nojiri, H

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a repeating pulsed magnet system which generates magnetic fields of about 10 T in a direction transverse to an incident beam over a length of 0.8 m with a repetition rate of 0.2 Hz. Its repetition rate is by two orders of magnitude higher than usual pulsed magnets. It is composed of four low resistance racetrack coils and a 30 kJ transportable capacitor bank as a power supply. The system aims at axion-like particle searches with a pulsed light source and vacuum birefringence measurements. We report on the details of the system and its performances.

  2. Refractive indices and birefringence of hybrid liquid crystal - nanoparticles composite materials in the terahertz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mavrona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We show that a hybrid LC-ferroelectric nanoparticle suspension of liquid crystal E7 doped with BaTiO3 nanoparticles leads to 10% increase in birefringence in the THz region of spectrum as compared to pure E7. Doped liquid crystals can be used to increase performance of THz modulators and waveplates. BaTiO3 nanoparticles used in the mixture were synthesised with the sol gel technique, and their refractive index has been measured in THz in powder form and in solution.

  3. Wide-field polarimetric analysis of photoinduced birefringence in azo-dye-doped thin films: irradiance and time dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, I.-G.; Razzetti, C.; Lottici, P. P.

    2007-03-01

    We have investigated by wide field polariscopy the behaviour of photoinduced birefringence (PIB) in sol-gel hybrid disperse red 1 (DR1) doped films. This technique allows the mapping of the local values of a bell-shaped pump beam irradiance and those of the corresponding photoinduced birefringence. By means of a point-to-point correlation of these maps, we have tracked the dependence of PIB, simultaneously and continuously, on exposure times and pump irradiances. We have then applied some of the available theoretical models, representing birefringence as an analytical function of irradiance and time, to interpolate the experimental PIB data. As compared to the usual PIB measurements, which neglect the spatial distribution of the pump irradiance, our results provide a more detailed and reliable empirical basis on which models of the orientational mechanisms of the photoisomerizable molecules can be developed.

  4. Measurement of the modal birefringence of single-mode K(+) ion-exchanged planar waveguides with polarimetric interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Z M; Itoh, K; Murabayashi, M

    2000-11-01

    The polarimetric interference pattern on the surface of single-mode planar waveguides made by potassium ion exchange in soda-lime glass substrates can be observed through a 45 degrees analyzer, which allows for the high-precision measurement of the modal birefringence of samples in a wide range of 0 to 5 x 10(-4). Using this method, believed to be new, we investigated the effects of exchange temperature and time on the modal birefringence of single-mode potassium ion-exchanged waveguides. The modal birefringence profile was achieved by measurement of the variation of the phase difference between the TE(0) and the TM(0) modes with hydrofluoric-acid-etching depth of the sample.

  5. Birefringence dynamics of poly{l_brace}1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt{r_brace} cast films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madruga, Carla [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Filho, Paulo Alliprandini [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, 38400902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Andrade, Marta M. [REQUIMTE, CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Goncalves, Manuel [Institute of Experimental Physics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Raposo, Maria [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ribeiro, Paulo A., E-mail: pfr@fct.unl.pt [Centro de Fisica e Investigacao Tecnologica CEFITEC, Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-09-01

    Photoinduced birefringence creation/decay dynamics in poly{l_brace}1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt{r_brace}cast films, has been characterized in the 5 to 100 mW writing laser power range at the wavelength of 514 nm. The maximum birefringence magnitude increased with laser beam power, being the largest value of 0.03, measured at 632.8 nm. Birefringence creation kinetics followed a biexponential behavior, where a slow process and a fast process could be clearly distinguished. The fast process accounted for more than 60% of birefringence. The time constants for both fast and slow processes decreased with increasing power of writing beam. Birefringence relaxation after removal of writing laser beam revealed to be independent of beam power and, was found to be ruled by two processes, described by a biexponential curve plus a constant term accounting for residual birefringence. A high residual birefringence signal of 85 {+-} 3% was attained, with the fast process contributing to 67% of decay from maximum value. The large values obtained for time constants for both birefringence creation and relaxation processes are believed to arise from stabilization of azo-group either by the formation of an ionic network, or by local short range interactions that are coming through as a result polyelectrolyte coiling due to its high degree of ionization.

  6. Laser-induced radial birefringence and spin-to-orbital optical angular momentum conversion in silver-doped glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Amjad, Jafar Mostafavi; Slussarenko, Sergei; Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico; 10.1063/1.3610474

    2012-01-01

    Samples of Ag$^+$/Na$^{+}$ ion-exchanged glass that have been subject to intense laser irradiation may develop novel optical properties, as a consequence of the formation of patterns of silver nanoparticles and other structures. Here, we report the observation of a laser-induced permanent transverse birefringence, with the optical axis forming a radial pattern, as revealed by the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion occurring in a probe light beam. The birefringence pattern can be modeled well as resulting from thermally-induced stresses arising in the silver-doped glass during laser exposure, although the actual mechanism leading to the permanent anisotropy is probably more complex.

  7. Laser-induced radial birefringence and spin-to-orbital optical angular momentum conversion in silver-doped glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Jafar Mostafavi; Khalesifard, Hamid Reza; Slussarenko, Sergei; Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico

    2011-07-01

    Samples of Ag+/Na+ ion-exchanged glass that have been subject to intense laser irradiation may develop novel optical properties, as a consequence of the formation of patterns of silver nanoparticles and other structures. Here, we report the observation of a laser-induced permanent transverse birefringence, with the optical axis forming a radial pattern, as revealed by the spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion occurring in a probe light beam. The birefringence pattern can be modeled well as resulting from thermally-induced stresses arising in the silver-doped glass during laser exposure, although the actual mechanism leading to the permanent anisotropy is probably more complex.

  8. High-magnification super-resolution FINCH microscopy using birefringent crystal lens interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Nisan; Lupashin, Vladimir; Storrie, Brian; Brooker, Gary

    2016-12-01

    Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) microscopy is a promising approach for high-resolution biological imaging but has so far been limited to use with low-magnification, low-numerical-aperture configurations. We report the use of in-line incoherent interferometers made from uniaxial birefringent α-barium borate (α-BBO) or calcite crystals that overcome the aberrations and distortions present with previous implementations that employed spatial light modulators or gradient refractive index lenses. FINCH microscopy incorporating these birefringent elements and high-numerical-aperture oil immersion objectives could outperform standard wide-field fluorescence microscopy, with, for example, a 149 nm lateral point spread function at a wavelength of 590 nm. Enhanced resolution was confirmed with sub-resolution fluorescent beads. Taking the Golgi apparatus as a biological example, three different proteins labelled with GFP and two other fluorescent dyes in HeLa cells were resolved with an image quality that is comparable to similar samples captured by structured illumination microscopy.

  9. [Temperature-dependent optical activity and birefringence study of D-alanine single crystal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zong-Sheng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Wen-Qing; Du, Wei-Min

    2006-02-01

    The measurement of the anisotropy of optical acitivity and birefringence is one of the most important clues to studying physical properties of a biaxial crystal of D-alanine. In order to investigate a second-order phase transition predicted by A. Salam between two states of D-alanine, the behavior of birefringence and optical activity is useful for the phenomenological approach to the transition mechanism. The optical activity as a peculiar quantity can respond to the modulation of the crystal lattice and to the change in the bonding nature of constituent atoms. In the present paper, the authors use the PEM-90 photoelastic modulator to study the conformation change of D-alanine at the temperature ranging from 220 to 290 K. The temperature dependence of I(2f)/I(dc) showed that the conformation of D-alanine molecule in single crystal changed around 250 K. The obtained results provide an obvious evidence of optical rotation phase transition predicted by Salam.

  10. Infrared birefringence imaging of residual stress and bulk defects in multicrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapati, Vidya; Schoenfelder, Stephan; Castellanos, Sergio; Oener, Sebastian; Koepge, Ringo; Sampson, Aaron; Marcus, Matthew A.; Lai, Barry; Morhenn, Humphrey; Hahn, Giso; Bagdahn, Joerg; Buonassisi1, Tonio

    2010-05-05

    This manuscript concerns the application of infrared birefringence imaging (IBI) to quantify macroscopic and microscopic internal stresses in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cell materials. We review progress to date, and advance four closely related topics. (1) We present a method to decouple macroscopic thermally-induced residual stresses and microscopic bulk defect related stresses. In contrast to previous reports, thermally-induced residual stresses in wafer-sized samples are generally found to be less than 5 MPa, while defect-related stresses can be several times larger. (2) We describe the unique IR birefringence signatures, including stress magnitudes and directions, of common microdefects in mc-Si solar cell materials including: {beta}-SiC and {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} microdefects, twin bands, nontwin grain boundaries, and dislocation bands. In certain defects, local stresses up to 40 MPa can be present. (3) We relate observed stresses to other topics of interest in solar cell manufacturing, including transition metal precipitation, wafer mechanical strength, and minority carrier lifetime. (4) We discuss the potential of IBI as a quality-control technique in industrial solar cell manufacturing.

  11. Novel pressure sensor by diode-pumped birefringent Nd:YAG dual-frequency laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunning; Li, Yan; Zhang, Shulian; Guo, Hui

    2002-09-01

    The prototype of a novel sensor based on laser frequency splitting technology is presented in this paper and the results of a series of experiments are reported. A scheme of the novel pressure sensor by diode-pumped birefringent Nd:YAG dual-frequency laser is brought forward. As a result of the stress birefringence the laser's longitudinal mode is split to two with frequency difference. Both the theoretical analysis and the experiments indicate that there is a direct ratio relation between the frequency difference and the pressure imposed on the Nd:YAG crystal. Therefore when the external pressure is sensed by the Nd:YAG dual-frequency laser and the beat frequency is measured by the frequency counter, the pressure value can be obtained from the magnitude of the beat frequency. The laser can operate under single mode or complex modes with little error to the experiment results. Some research work under different pumping ways is finished and it indicates that the beat frequency has little relation with pumping ways. The experiment has a good linearity (R greater than 0.999) with satisfied precision, sensitivity (5.27 MHz/kPa) and stability, which provides a good academic and experimental foundation for further research.

  12. Macroscopic birefringence in liquid crystals from novel cyanobacterial polysaccharide with an extremely high molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima-Kaneko, Maiko; Hayasaka-Kaneko, Daisaku; Miyazato, Shinji; Kaneko, Tatsuo

    2007-05-01

    We report an efficient method for extraction of anionic polysaccharides (PS) from cyanobacteria, Aphanothece sacrum; we used a hot alkaline solution (0.01 N NaOH) as an elution solvent in the first step of the extraction and isopropanol as a precipitation solvent in the last step. Thin fibers of PS were obtained at a high yield (50-80 % to the weight of the raw cyanobacterial sample). The spectroscopy and elemental analyses indicated the PS contains fucose, uronic acids (14.2 % by a carbazole-sulfuric acid method), a sugar unit containing amides. The solution of PS with a concentration of 1 wt% showed a very high viscosity (80 000cps) implying a high molecular weight, and a strong macroscopic birefringence with a texture typical of nematic liquid crystals was confirmed by crossed-polarizing microscopy (more than 0.5 wt%). The PS from A. sacrum may form a special structure rigid-rod enough to show LC phase and macroscopic birefringence.

  13. The system spatial-frequency filtering of birefringence images of human blood layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Boychuk, T. M.; Mincer, O. P.; Angelsky, P. O.; Bodnar, N. B.; Oleinichenko, B. P.; Bizer, L. I.

    2013-09-01

    Among various opticophysical methods [1 - 3] of diagnosing the structure and properties of the optical anisotropic component of various biological objects a specific trend has been singled out - multidimensional laser polarimetry of microscopic images of the biological tissues with the following statistic, correlative and fractal analysis of the coordinate distributions of the azimuths and ellipticity of polarization in approximating of linear birefringence polycrystalline protein networks [4 - 10]. At the same time, in most cases, experimental obtaining of tissue sample is a traumatic biopsy operation. In addition, the mechanisms of transformation of the state of polarization of laser radiation by means of the opticoanisotropic biological structures are more varied (optical dichroism, circular birefringence). Hereat, real polycrystalline networks can be formed by different types, both in size and optical properties of biological crystals. Finally, much more accessible for an experimental investigation are biological fluids such as blood, bile, urine, and others. Thus, further progress of laser polarimetry can be associated with the development of new methods of analysis and processing (selection) of polarization- heterogeneous images of biological tissues and fluids, taking into account a wider set of mechanisms anisotropic mechanisms. Our research is aimed at developing experimental method of the Fourier polarimetry and a spatialfrequency selection for distributions of the azimuth and the ellipticity polarization of blood plasma laser images with a view of diagnosing prostate cancer.

  14. Periodic reversal of magneto-optic Faraday rotation on uniaxial birefringence crystal with ultrathin magnetic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Su

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental approach of inclined incidence magneto-optic Faraday effect observed in the polar plane is applied. Three samples containing ferromagnetic cobalt ultrathin films on a semiconductor zinc oxide (0001 single crystal substrate with in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy are evaluated. Through the fine adjustment of crossed polarizers in the magneto-optic effect measurement completely recorded the detail optical and magneto-optical responses from the birefringent crystal substrate and the magnetic film, especially for the signal induced from the substrate with uniaxial optical axis. The angle dependency of interference phenomena periodically from the optical and magneto-optical responses is attributed to the birefringence even in the absence of a magnetic field. The new type of observation finds that the transmission Faraday intensity in the oblique incidence includes a combination of polarization rotations, which results from optical compensation from the substrate and magneto-optical Faraday effects from the film. The samples grown at different rates and examined by this method exhibit magnetic structure discriminations. This result can be applied in the advanced polarized-light technologies to enhance the spatial resolution of magnetic surfaces with microstructural information under various magnetic field direction.

  15. Measurements of linear and circular birefringence in metals by femtosecond optical pump-probe spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, R

    2002-01-01

    Optically induced transient linear and circular birefringence has been studied in three different materials: ferromagnetic Ni, semiconducting GaAs and the non-magnetic metal Al. A pump-probe experiment with sub-ps resolution was set up for this purpose. The time-resolved reflectivity, rotation and ellipticity of the reflected probe beam were recorded after pumping with light of variable helicity. In the Ni sample an ultrafast demagnetisation effect was observed and the variation of the rotation and ellipticity on sub-picosecond time scales was compared. Rotation and ellipticity were found to have a similar time dependence. In GaAs, optical orientation of spin was achieved and the subsequent spin relaxation was measured for different pump powers. Fitting of the optical rotation data has revealed the power dependence of the various decay constants. In the Al sample a small signal was observed that decays on ps time scales. This was attributed to a linear birefringence effect resulting from a cubic optical nonli...

  16. Highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultra-flattened negative dispersion over S + C + L + U bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Khandker, Emran

    2015-01-01

    + C + L + U wavelength bands and average dispersion of about −558.96 ps∕nm∕km with absolute dispersion variation of 9.7 ps∕nm∕km from 1460 to 1675 nm (215 nm bandwidth). Moreover, ultrahigh birefringence of 0.0299 is also achieved at a 1500 nm wavelength. © 2015 Optical Society of America...

  17. Deep tissue volume imaging of birefringence through fibre-optic needle probes for the delineation of breast tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Martin; Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Quirk, Bryden C.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Bouma, Brett E.; Sampson, David D.

    2016-07-01

    Identifying tumour margins during breast-conserving surgeries is a persistent challenge. We have previously developed miniature needle probes that could enable intraoperative volume imaging with optical coherence tomography. In many situations, however, scattering contrast alone is insufficient to clearly identify and delineate malignant regions. Additional polarization-sensitive measurements provide the means to assess birefringence, which is elevated in oriented collagen fibres and may offer an intrinsic biomarker to differentiate tumour from benign tissue. Here, we performed polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography through miniature imaging needles and developed an algorithm to efficiently reconstruct images of the depth-resolved tissue birefringence free of artefacts. First ex vivo imaging of breast tumour samples revealed excellent contrast between lowly birefringent malignant regions, and stromal tissue, which is rich in oriented collagen and exhibits higher birefringence, as confirmed with co-located histology. The ability to clearly differentiate between tumour and uninvolved stroma based on intrinsic contrast could prove decisive for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins.

  18. Efficiency of four-wave mixing between orthogonally polarized linear waves and solitons in a birefringent fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas Arabí, C.; Bessin, F.; Kudlinski, A.; Mussot, A.; Skryabin, D.; Conforti, M.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the interaction between orthogonally polarized solitons and dispersive waves via four-wave mixing in a birefringent fiber. We calculate analytically the efficiency of the phase-sensitive scattering between orthogonally polarized solitons and dispersive waves. Experiments performed by using a photonic crystal fiber perfectly match the analytical predictions.

  19. A New Distributed Measurement of Birefringence Vectors by P-OTDR Assisted by a High Speed Polarization Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Chao; WU Chong-Qing; LI Zheng-Yong; YANG Shuang-Show

    2011-01-01

    A new polarimetric optical time domain reflectometry (P-OTDR) measurement device assisted by a high speed polarization analyzer is designed and a new algorithm, which can be used to accurately measure the birefringence vector, is proposed. In this method, only one measurement is required and the result is insensitive to the input state of polarization. An 1-km single mode fiber (SMF) is measured and the distribution of the local birefringence vector along the SMF is obtained with a resolution of 2 cm.%@@ A new polarimetric optical time domain reflectometry(P-OTDR)measurement device assisted by a high speed polarization analyzer is designed and a new algorithm,which can be used to accurately measure the birefringence vector,is proposed.In this method,only one measurement is required and the result is insensitive to the input state of polarization.An 1-km single mode fiber(SMF)is measured and the distribution of the local birefringence vector along the SMF is obtained with a resolution of 2 cm.

  20. Localization length calculations in alternating metamaterial-birefringent disordered layered stacks

    CERN Document Server

    del Barco, O; Gevorkian, Zh

    2015-01-01

    A detailed theoretical and numerical analysis of the localization length in alternating metamaterial-birefringent random layered stacks, under uncorrelated thickness-disorder, has been performed. Similar structures have recently been reported to suppress the Brewster delocalization for $\\it{p}$-polarized light, when "standard" isotropic layers (with positive index of refraction) are considered instead of metamaterial layers, providing a generic means to produce polarization-insensitive, broadband reflections. However, this enhancement of localization is valid for short wavelengths $\\lambda$ compared to the mean layer thickness $a_0$. At higher wavelengths, we recover the Brewster anomalies for $\\it{p}$-polarized states impeding a remarkable localization of light. To achieve a better localization for a wider range of wavelengths, we replaced the conventional isotropic layers by negative-index metamaterials presenting low losses and constant index of refraction over the near-infrared range. As a result, our num...

  1. Birefringence and polarization rotator induced by electromagnetically induced transparency in rare earth ion-doped crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixiang; Liu, Jianji; Yu, Ping; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-05-01

    The birefringence induced by the electromagnetically induced transparency effect in a {Pr}^{3+}:{Y}_2 {SiO}_5 crystal was studied by using a balanced polarimeter technique. The results show that it is possible to control the polarization state of the output probe beam by adjusting the experimental conditions. Particularly, the coherently prepared {Pr}^{3+}:{Y}_2 {SiO}_5 crystal can serve as a polarization rotator for a linearly polarized input probe beam at the two-photon resonant condition. Such coherent control on the polarization of light should be useful for polarization-based classical and quantum information processing such as all-optical switching, polarization preserving light pulse memory and polarization qubits based on rare earth ion-doped solids.

  2. Polarized light imaging of birefringence and diattenuation at highresolution and high sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Shalin B; Oldenbourg, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy provides unique opportunities for analyzing the molecular order in man-made and natural materials, including biological structures inside living cells, tissues, and whole organisms. 20 years ago, the LC-PolScope was introduced as a modern version of the traditional polarizing microscope enhanced by liquid crystal devices for the control of polarization, and by electronic imaging and digital image processing for fast and comprehensive image acquisition and analysis. The LC- PolScope is commonly used for birefringence imaging, analyzing the spatial and temporal variations of the differential phase delay in ordered and transparent materials. Here we describe an alternative use of the LC-PolScope for imaging the polarization dependent transmittance of dichroic materials. We explain the minor changes needed to convert the instrument between the two imaging modes, discuss the relationship between the quantities measured with either instrument, and touch on the physical connection between ...

  3. High-resolution birefringence cartography of a vertical cavity semiconductor laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T

    2015-01-01

    We report on spatially resolved birefringence measurements in a multimode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) by using the emission wavelength distribution mapping. The point-by-point, polarization-resolved spectral information lends itself to the identification of anisotropies in the material and enables the estimate of refractive index differences and gradients in the two orthogonal polarization components with high spatial resolution. Compared with classical optical microscopy techniques, we can easily recognize the position of the emission wavelength split (which carefully points to the position of defects) with a much better spectral sensitivity (potentially as low as 3 GHz). The presented method is general and can be used with any bulk, light-emitting source (even passive, if external illumination is added) and may prove very useful for device fabrication, quality checks and process improvements.

  4. An ab initio investigation of the Buckingham birefringence of furan, thiophene, and selenophene in cyclohexane solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Antonio; Frediani, Luca; Ruud, Kenneth

    2007-10-01

    Using a recently developed quadratic response methodology for the calculation of frequency-dependent third-order properties of molecules in solution, we investigate the Buckingham birefringence of furan, thiophene, and selenophene in cyclohexane solution. These systems are chosen since accurate experimental data are available, allowing for a direct comparison of experimental observations with our theoretical estimates. Our model for describing the solvent effects is based on a dielectric continuum approach for the solvent, and uses a molecule-shaped cavity. Our results show qualitatively different Buckingham constants and effective quadrupole centers calculated with and without the solvent, and only when the solvent is included are the qualitative trends observed experimentally reproduced. It is demonstrated that a significant part of this effect arises from the geometry relaxation of the molecules in the solvent.

  5. Optical feedback characteristics in a helium neon laser with a birefringent internal cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Wei; Zhang Shu-Lian; Xu Ting; Wan Xin-Jun; Liu Gang

    2007-01-01

    The output characteristics of optical feedback in a helium-neon laser with a birefringent internal cavity are studied systematically in five different regions of the gain curve for the two orthogonally polarized modes. When the laser operates in the two end regions of the laser gain curve, one of the two orthogonally polarized modes will be a leading one in optical feedback. Strong mode competition can be observed. However, when the laser operates in the middle region of the laser gain curve, the two modes can oscillate equally with optical feedback. Besides the intensity of the two polarized lights, the total light intensity is also studied at the same time. M-shaped optical feedback curves are found. Particularly, when the average intensities of the two lights are comparable, the intensity modulation curve of the total light is doubled, which can be used to improve the resolution of an optical feedback system.

  6. The measurement of temperature with using of birefringence crystals as detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaba V. M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The carried out researches allowed to motivate and put into practice the polarizatoin-optical method of temperature measurement based on the phenomenon of temperature alteration in value of birefringence of the optically anisotropic crystals. The practical realization of the method with the use of Al2O3 and LiNbO3 plates as active elements of thermometers has shown, that the application of Al2O3 is more preferable due to a wide temperature interval of employment of material, its mechanical and chemical stability, absence of phase transitions. LiNbO3 has such lacks as nonlinearity of graduate dependence and presence of a phase transition point. Nevertheless, its use allows to raise the sensitivity of the thermometer and to increase the accuracy of measurements.

  7. Distributed measurement of mode coupling in birefringent fibers with random polarization modes

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Jing, Wencai; Zhang, Hongxia; Jia, Dagong; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhou, Ge; Zhang, Yimo

    2016-01-01

    A scanning white light interferometer is developed to measure the distributed polarization coupling (DPC) in high birefringence polarization maintaining fibers (PMFs). Traditionally, this technique requests only one polarization mode to be excited or both polarization modes to be excited with equal intensity in the PMF. Thus, an accurate alignment of the polarization direction with the principal axis in PMF is strictly required, which is not facilely realized in practical measurement. This paper develops a method to measure the spatial distribution of polarization mode coupling with random modes excited using a white light Michelson interferometer. The influence of incident polarization extinction ratio (PER) on polarization coupling detection is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. It is also analyzed and validated in corresponding measurement that the sensitivity of the polarization coupling detection system can be improved more than 100 times with the rotation of the analyzer.

  8. Manipulating full photonic band gaps in two dimensional birefringent photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Verma, Prabhat; Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Shoji, Satoru; Kawata, Satoshi

    2008-09-15

    The probability to realize a full photonic band gap in two-dimensional birefringent photonic crystals can be readily manipulated by introducing symmetry reduction or air holes in the crystal elements. The results lie in either creation of new band gaps or enlargement of existing band gaps. In particular, a combination of the two processes produces an effect much stronger than a simple summation of their individual contributions. Materials with both relatively low refractive index (rutile) and high refractive index (tellurium) were considered. The combined effect of introduction of symmetry reduction and air holes resulted in a maximum enlargement of the band gaps by 8.4% and 20.2%, respectively, for the two materials.

  9. In vitro birefringence imaging with spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Gong; Chuanmao Fan; Fan Zhang; Jianquan Yao

    2008-01-01

    Spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (SDPS-OCT) is a depth-resolved polarization-sensitive interferometry which integrates polarization optics into spectral domain optical co-herence tomography (SD-OCT). This configuration can obtain birefringence information of samples and improve the imaging speed. In this paper, horizontally polarized light is used to replace natural light of the source. Then, right-rotated circularly polarized light is the incident sample light. To obtain two orthogonal components of the polarized interferogram, the reflected light of the reference arm is set to be 45° linearly polarized light. These two components are acquired by two spectrometers synchronously. The system was employed to achieve 12.8-#m axial resolution and 4.36-#m transverse resolution. We have imaged in vitro chicken tendon and muscle tissues with these system.

  10. Quantum storage of polarization qubits in birefringent and anisotropically absorbing materials

    CERN Document Server

    Clausen, Christoph; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Storage of quantum information encoded into true single photons is an essential constituent of long-distance quantum communication based on quantum repeaters and of optical quantum information processing. The storage of photonic polarization qubits is, however, complicated by the fact that many materials are birefringent and have polarization-dependent absorption. Here we present and demonstrate a simple scheme that allows compensating for these polarization effects. The scheme is demonstrated using a solid-state quantum memory implemented with an ensemble of rare-earth ions doped into a biaxial yttrium orthosilicate (Y_{2}SiO_{5}) crystal. Heralded single photons generated from a filtered spontaneous parametric downconversion source are stored, and quantum state tomography of the retrieved polarization state reveals an average fidelity of 97.5 \\pm 0.4%, which is significantly higher than what is achievable with a measure-and-prepare strategy.

  11. Optical Search for QED vacuum magnetic birefringence, Axions and photon Regeneration

    CERN Multimedia

    Srnka, A; Pugnat, P; Hryczuk, A; Slunecka, M; Jary, V; Finger, M; Finger, M; Kral, M

    2007-01-01

    Since its prediction in 1936 by Euler, Heisenberg and Weisskopf in the earlier development of the Quantum Electrodynamic (QED) theory, the Vacuum Magnetic Birefringence (VMB) is still a challenge for optical metrology techniques. According to QED, the vacuum behaves as an optically active medium in the presence of an external magnetic field. It can be experimentally probed with a linearly polarized laser beam. After propagating through the vacuum submitted to a transverse magnetic field, the polarization of the laser beam will change to elliptical and the parameters of the polarization are directly related to fundamental constants such as the fine structure constant and the electron Compton wavelength. Contributions to the VMB could also arise from the existence of light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles like axions that couple to two photons and this would manifest itself as a sizeable deviation from the initial QED prediction. On one side, the interest in axion search, providing an answer to the strong-CP p...

  12. Giant birefringence in optical antenna arrays with widely tailorable optical anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kats, Mikhail A; Aoust, Guillaume; Yu, Nanfang; Blanchard, Romain; Aieta, Francesco; Gaburro, Zeno; Capasso, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The manipulation of light by conventional optical components such as a lenses, prisms and wave plates involves engineering of the wavefront as it propagates through an optically-thick medium. A new class of ultra-flat optical components with high functionality can be designed by introducing abrupt phase shifts into the optical path, utilizing the resonant response of arrays of scatters with deeply-subwavelength thickness. As an application of this concept, we report a theoretical and experimental study of birefringent arrays of two-dimensional (V- and Y-shaped) optical antennas which support two orthogonal charge-oscillation modes and serve as broadband, anisotropic optical elements that can be used to locally tailor the amplitude, phase, and polarization of light. The degree of optical anisotropy can be designed by controlling the interference between the light scattered by the antenna modes; in particular, we observe a striking effect in which the anisotropy disappears as a result of destructive interferenc...

  13. Neural network calibration of a snapshot birefringent Fourier transform spectrometer with periodic phase errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, David; Kudenov, Michael W

    2016-05-16

    Systematic phase errors in Fourier transform spectroscopy can severely degrade the calculated spectra. Compensation of these errors is typically accomplished using post-processing techniques, such as Fourier deconvolution, linear unmixing, or iterative solvers. This results in increased computational complexity when reconstructing and calibrating many parallel interference patterns. In this paper, we describe a new method of calibrating a Fourier transform spectrometer based on the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs). In this way, it is demonstrated that a simpler and more straightforward reconstruction process can be achieved at the cost of additional calibration equipment. To this end, we provide a theoretical model for general systematic phase errors in a polarization birefringent interferometer. This is followed by a discussion of our experimental setup and a demonstration of our technique, as applied to data with and without phase error. The technique's utility is then supported by comparison to alternative reconstruction techniques using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and linear unmixing.

  14. Transient birefringence of liquids induced by terahertz electric-field torque on permanent molecular dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadi, Mohsen; Kampfrath, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic understanding of low-frequency molecular motions in liquids has been a longstanding goal in soft-matter science. So far, such low-frequency motions have mostly been accessed indirectly by off-resonant optical pulses. A more direct approach would be to interrogate the dynamic structure of liquids with terahertz (THz) radiation. Here, we provide evidence that resonant excitation with intense THz pulses is capable of driving reorientational-librational modes of aprotic polar liquids through coupling to the permanent molecular dipole moments. We observe a hallmark of this enhanced coupling: a transient optical birefringence up to an order of magnitude higher than obtained with optical excitation. Our results open up the path to applications such as efficient molecular alignment and systematic study of the coupling of rotational motion to other collective motions in liquids.

  15. Fibre orientation contrast for depth-resolved identification of structural interfaces in birefringent tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Nate J; Park, Jesung; Zaatari, Haitham N; III, H Grady Rylander; Milner, Thomas E [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0800, Austin, TX 78712-1084 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    Incorporation of polarimetric sensitivity into optical coherence tomography can provide additional image contrast when structures of interest are optically anisotropic (e.g., fibrous tissue). We present a generalized technique based on polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography to detect changes in depth-resolved fibre orientation and thus increase image contrast in multiple-layered birefringent tissues. A high contrast B-scan image of collagen fibre orientation is shown for a porcine intervertebral disc cartilage specimen that exhibited low backscattering intensity contrast. Interfaces in the annulus fibrosus identified using depth-resolved fibre orientation allowed quantification of lamellae thickness. Moreover, the technique detects changes in fibre orientation without intense processing needed to effectively quantify tissue retardation and diattenuation.

  16. Relationship between birefringence and neurotubule density in the primate retinal nerve fiber layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranibar, R. G.; Kemp, N. J.; Dwelle, J. C.; Byers, S. E.; Markey, M. K.; Milner, T. E.; Rylander, H. G.

    2007-02-01

    The relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) birefringence (Δn) and neurotubule density (NTD, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neurotubules per unit RNFL area) was investigated by correlating measurements of these two parameters in 1 eye of a healthy cynomolgus monkey. Phase retardation per unit depth (PR/UD, proportional to Δn) was measured at 5.6-15 ° intervals around the optic nerve head (ONH) with an enhanced polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (EPS-OCT) instrument. Transverse tissue sections containing 3 RGC nerve fiber bundles from each peripapillary RNFL octant were imaged with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Morphological measurements taken in TEM images were used by a novel algorithm to estimate NTD. Registered PR/UD and NTD data were then correlated using single- and multi-level models, yielding correlation coefficients in the range 0.49 = 80%), NTD measurements in at least 16, rather than 8, RNFL sectors were needed. Interestingly, a single-level correlation coefficient of r = 0.81 (P = 0.01) was calculated between octant-averaged PR/UD and RGC axoplasmic area (A x, axon area less non-cytoskeletal organelle area) mode. A x represents a RGC axon's neurotubule-inhabitable area. Intuitively, a strong relationship should exist between A x and neurotubule number if neurotubules provide the primary structural support for RGC axons and structural requirements are the same in all RGC axons. If this relationship exists, error resulting from NTD estimation methods or preservation artifacts may have caused lower observed correlations of PR/UD with NTD than with A x mode, and more accurate methods of measuring in vivo NTD may be required to determine an accurate relationship between RNFL birefringence and NTD.

  17. Probing vacuum birefringence under a high-intensity laser field with gamma-ray polarimetry at the GeV scale

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamiya, Yoshihide; Moritaka, Toseo; Seto, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Probing vacuum structures deformed by high intense fields is of great interest in general. In the context of quantum electrodynamics (QED), the vacuum exposed by a linearly polarized high-intensity laser field is expected to show birefringence. We consider the combination of a 10 PW laser system to pump the vacuum and 1 GeV gamma-rays to probe the birefringent effect. The vacuum birefringence can be measured via the polarization flip of the probe gamma-rays. We discuss the design of the gamma-ray polarimeter and then evaluate the measurability of the reduction of the degree of linear polarization due to the appearance of birefringence. We found that the measurement is indeed feasible given a realistic set of laser parameters and achievable pulse statistics.

  18. Theory of the Sagnac's interferometer of low birefringence and twist fiber; Teoria del interferometro de Sagnac de fibra de baja birrefrigencia y torcida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Kuzin, E. A.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Puebla (Mexico); Rojas-Laguna, R. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    The fibre Sagnac interferometer of low birefringence and twist in the lineal region is examined numerically, a method is shown to measure the birefringence in the fibers and rotation of the axes inside of the interferometer fibre loop. [Spanish] El interferometro de Sagnac de fibra de baja birrefrigencia y torcida en la region lineal es numericamente examinado, se muestra un metodo para medir la birrefrigencia en las fibras y rotacion de los ejes dentro de la fibra del lazo del interferometro.

  19. Long period gratings and rocking filters written with a CO 2 laser in highly-birefringent boron-doped photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. P.; Anuszkiewicz, A.; Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.; Baptista, J. M.; Frazão, O.; Mergo, P.; Santos, J. L.; Urbanczyk, W.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of fabricating short-length long-period gratings and rocking filters in highly birefringent Photonic Crystal Fiber using a CO 2 laser. In our experiments both kinds of gratings were made in the same Boron doped highly birefringent PCF using similar exposure parameters. We also present the sensing capabilities of both fabricated gratings to temperature, strain and hydrostatic pressure by interrogation of the wavelength shifts at different resonances.

  20. Combined density functional/polarizable continuum model study of magnetochiral birefringence: Can theory and experiment be brought to agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansík, Branislav; Rizzo, Antonio; Frediani, Luca; Ruud, Kenneth; Coriani, Sonia

    2006-12-01

    The magnetic-field-induced axial birefringence (magnetochirality) of five closed-shell chiral molecules (three substituted oxiranes, carvone, and limonene) is studied at the density functional theory level using Becke's 3-parameter Lee-Yang-Parr functional and frequency-dependent quadratic response theory. The influence of the environment and the conformational distribution on the property is also studied. The environment effects are described by the polarizable continuum model in its integral-equation formulation. The effect of the conformational distribution is investigated by performing calculations on several conformers—for carvone and limonene—followed by Boltzmann averaging. The calculated values for the magnetochiral birefringence are compared to previous ab initio results and experimental data where available. The refined model presented here brings the ab initio values closer to experiment. Still, disagreements remain in some cases and it appears difficult to resolve these discrepancies.

  1. Design and optimization of highly nonlinear low-dispersion crystal fiber with high birefringence for four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Ni; Ren, Li-Yong; Gong, Yong-Kang; Li, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Lei-Ran; Sun, Chuan-Dong

    2010-06-01

    We have proposed a novel type of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with low dispersion and high nonlinearity for four-wave mixing. This type of fiber is composed of a solid silica core and a cladding with a squeezed hexagonal lattice elliptical airhole along the fiber length. Its dispersion and nonlinearity coefficient are investigated simultaneously by using the full vectorial finite element method. Numerical results show that the proposed highly nonlinear low-dispersion fiber has a total dispersion as low as +/-2.5 ps nm(-1) km(-1) over an ultrabroad wavelength range from 1.43 to 1.8 microm, and the corresponding nonlinearity coefficient and birefringence are about 150 W(-1) km(-1) and 2.5x10(-3) at 1.55 microm, respectively. The proposed PCF with low ultraflattened dispersion, high nonlinearity, and high birefringence can have important application in four-wave mixing.

  2. Ultrafast, low-power, all-optical switching via birefringent phase-matched transverse mode conversion in integrated waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Hellwig, Tim; Schnack, Martin; Boller, Klaus -J; Fallnich, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the potential of birefringence-based, all-optical, ultrafast conversion between the transverse modes in integrated optical waveguides by modelling the conversion process by numerically solving the multi-mode coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The observed conversion is induced by a control beam and due to the Kerr effect, resulting in a transient index grating which coherently scatters probe light from one transverse waveguide mode into another. We introduce birefringent phase matching to enable efficient all-optically induced mode conversion at different wavelengths of the control and probe beam. It is shown that tailoring the waveguide geometry can be exploited to explicitly minimize intermodal group delay as well as to maximize the nonlinear coefficient, under the constraint of a phase matching condition. The waveguide geometries investigated here, allow for mode conversion with over two orders of magnitude reduced control pulse energy compared to previous schemes and thereby promise ...

  3. [Study on the axial strain sensor of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror based on the absolute integral of the monitoring peak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Zeng, Jie; Liang, Da-Kai; Wang, Xue-Liang; Ni, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ji-Feng; Luo, Wen-Yong

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper, the theoretical expression of the wavelength change and the axial strain of birefringence fiber loop mirror is developed. The theoretical result shows that the axial strain sensitivity of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror is much lower than conventional birefringence fiber loop mirror. It is difficult to measure the axial strain by monitoring the wavelength change of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror, and it is easy to cause the measurement error because the output spectrum is not perfectly smooth. The different strain spectrum of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror was measured experimentally by an optical spectrum analyzer. The measured spectrum was analysed. The results show that the absolute integral of the monitoring peak decreases with increasing strain and the absolute integral is linear versus strain. Based on the above results, it is proposed that the axial strain can be measured by monitoring the absolute integral of the monitoring peak in this paper. The absolute integral of the monitoring peak is a comprehensive index which can indicate the light intensity of different wavelength. This method of monitoring the absolute integral of the monitoring peak to measure the axial strain can not only overcome the difficulty of monitoring the wavelength change of birefringence photonic crystal fiber loop mirror, but also reduce the measurement error caused by the unsmooth output spectrum.

  4. Study of Collagen Birefringence in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Picrosirius Red and Polarized Light Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was done to evaluate birefringence pattern of collagen fibres in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Picrosirius red stain and polarization microscopy and to determine if there is a change in collagen fibres between different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods. Picrosirius red stained 5 μm thick sections of previously diagnosed different grades of squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa were studied under polar...

  5. Exploiting the relationship between birefringence and force to measure airway smooth muscle contraction with PS-OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David C.; Hariri, Lida P.; Holz, Jasmin A.; Szabari, Margit V.; Harris, R. Scott; Cho, Jocelyn L.; Hamilos, Daniel L.; Luster, Andrew D.; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to observe airway dynamics is fundamental to forming a complete understanding of pulmonary diseases such as asthma. We have previously demonstrated that Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can be used to observe structural changes in the airway during bronchoconstriction, but standard OCT lacks the contrast to discriminate airway smooth muscle (ASM) bands- ASM being responsible for generating the force that drives airway constriction- from the surrounding tissue. Since ASM in general exhibits a greater degree of birefringence than the surrounding tissue, a potential solution to this problem lies in the implementation of polarization sensitivity (PS) to the OCT system. By modifying the OCT system so that it is sensitive to the birefringence of tissue under inspection, we can visualize the ASM with much greater clarity and definition. In this presentation we show that the force of contraction can be indirectly measured by an associated increase in the birefringence signal of the ASM. We validate this approach by attaching segments of swine trachea to an isometric force transducer and stimulating contraction, while simultaneously measuring the exerted force and imaging the segment with PS-OCT. We then show how our results may be used to extrapolate the force of contraction of closed airways in absence of additional measurement devices. We apply this technique to assess ASM contractility volumetrically and in vivo, in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic human volunteers.

  6. Photon-pair generation by intermodal spontaneous four-wave mixing in birefringent, weakly guiding optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay-Palmett, K.; Cruz-Delgado, D.; Dominguez-Serna, F.; Ortiz-Ricardo, E.; Monroy-Ruz, J.; Cruz-Ramirez, H.; Ramirez-Alarcon, R.; U'Ren, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the generation of photon pairs through the process of spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) in a few-mode, birefringent fiber. Under these conditions, multiple SFWM processes are in fact possible, each associated with a different combination of transverse modes for the four waves involved. We show that in the weakly guiding regime, for which the propagation modes may be well approximated by linearly polarized modes, the departure from circular symmetry due to the fiber birefringence translates into conservation rules, which retain elements from azimuthal and rectangular symmetries: both OAM and parity must be conserved for a process to be viable. We have implemented a SFWM source based on a bowtie birefringent fiber, and have measured for a collection of pump wavelengths the SFWM spectra of each of the signal and idler photons in coincidence with its partner photon. We have used this information, together with knowledge of the transverse modes into which the signal and idler photons are emitted, as input for a genetic algorithm, which accomplishes two tasks: (i) the identification of the particular SFWM processes that are present in the source, and (ii) the characterization of the fiber used.

  7. Study of Collagen Birefringence in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Picrosirius Red and Polarized Light Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai Arun Gopinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study was done to evaluate birefringence pattern of collagen fibres in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Picrosirius red stain and polarization microscopy and to determine if there is a change in collagen fibres between different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods. Picrosirius red stained 5 μm thick sections of previously diagnosed different grades of squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa were studied under polarization microscopy for arrangement as well as birefringence of collagen fibres around tumour islands. Results. It was found that thin collagen fibres increased and thick collagen fibres decreased with dedifferentiation of OSCC (P<0.0001 . It was observed that there was change in polarization colours of thick fibres from yellowish orange to greenish yellow with dedifferentiation of OSCC indicating loosely packed fibres (P<0.0001. Conclusion. There was a gradual change of birefringence of collagen from yellowish orange to greenish yellow from well to poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, indicating that there is a change from mature form of collagen to immature form as tumour progresses. Studying collagen fibres with Picrosirius red for stromal changes around tumour islands along with routine staining may help in predicting the prognosis of tumour.

  8. Theoretical analysis of the background intensity distribution in X-ray Birefringence Imaging using synchrotron bending-magnet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, John P., E-mail: john.sutter@diamond.ac.uk; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, Wales (United Kingdom); Palmer, Benjamin A. [Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl St., Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2015-04-28

    In the recently developed technique of X-ray Birefringence Imaging, molecular orientational order in anisotropic materials is studied by exploiting the birefringence of linearly polarized X-rays with energy close to an absorption edge of an element in the material. In the experimental setup, a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator is used upstream from the sample to select the appropriate photon energy, and a horizontally deflecting X-ray polarization analyzer, consisting of a perfect single crystal with a Bragg reflection at Bragg angle of approximately 45°, is placed downstream from the sample to measure the resulting rotation of the X-ray polarization. However, if the experiment is performed on a synchrotron bending-magnet beamline, then the elliptical polarization of the X-rays out of the electron orbit plane affects the shape of the output beam. Also, because the monochromator introduces a correlation between vertical position and photon energy to the X-ray beam, the polarization analyzer does not select the entire beam, but instead selects a diagonal stripe, the slope of which depends on the Bragg angles of the monochromator and the polarization analyzer. In the present work, the final background intensity distribution is calculated analytically because the phase space sampling methods normally used in ray traces are too inefficient for this setup. X-ray Birefringence Imaging data measured at the Diamond Light Source beamline B16 agree well with the theory developed here.

  9. Theoretical analysis of the background intensity distribution in X-ray Birefringence Imaging using synchrotron bending-magnet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P.; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P.; Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Palmer, Benjamin A.

    2015-04-01

    In the recently developed technique of X-ray Birefringence Imaging, molecular orientational order in anisotropic materials is studied by exploiting the birefringence of linearly polarized X-rays with energy close to an absorption edge of an element in the material. In the experimental setup, a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator is used upstream from the sample to select the appropriate photon energy, and a horizontally deflecting X-ray polarization analyzer, consisting of a perfect single crystal with a Bragg reflection at Bragg angle of approximately 45°, is placed downstream from the sample to measure the resulting rotation of the X-ray polarization. However, if the experiment is performed on a synchrotron bending-magnet beamline, then the elliptical polarization of the X-rays out of the electron orbit plane affects the shape of the output beam. Also, because the monochromator introduces a correlation between vertical position and photon energy to the X-ray beam, the polarization analyzer does not select the entire beam, but instead selects a diagonal stripe, the slope of which depends on the Bragg angles of the monochromator and the polarization analyzer. In the present work, the final background intensity distribution is calculated analytically because the phase space sampling methods normally used in ray traces are too inefficient for this setup. X-ray Birefringence Imaging data measured at the Diamond Light Source beamline B16 agree well with the theory developed here.

  10. Open source software for electric field Monte Carlo simulation of coherent backscattering in biological media containing birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, Andrew J; Rogers, Jeremy D; Capoğlu, Ilker R; Mutyal, Nikhil N; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Backman, Vadim

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT. We present an open source electric field tracking Monte Carlo program to model backscattering in biological media containing birefringence, with computation of the coherent backscattering phenomenon as an example. These simulations enable the modeling of tissue scattering as a statistically homogeneous continuous random media under the Whittle-Matérn model, which includes the Henyey-Greenstein phase function as a special case, or as a composition of discrete spherical scatterers under Mie theory. The calculation of the amplitude scattering matrix for the above two cases as well as the implementation of birefringence using the Jones N-matrix formalism is presented. For ease of operator use and data processing, our simulation incorporates a graphical user interface written in MATLAB to interact with the underlying C code. Additionally, an increase in computational speed is achieved through implementation of message passing interface and the semi-analytical approach. Finally, we provide demonstrations of the results of our simulation for purely scattering media and scattering media containing linear birefringence.

  11. Axion-induced birefringence effects in laser driven nonlinear vacuum interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Villalba-Chávez, Selym

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of a probe electromagnetic field through a counterpropagating strong plane wave is investigated. The effects of the electromagnetic field-(pseudo)scalar axion field interaction and of the self-interaction of the electromagnetic field mediated by virtual electron-positron pairs in the effective Lagrangian approach are included. First, we show that if the strong field is circularly polarized, contrary to the leading-order nonlinear QED effects, the axion-photon interaction induces a chiral-like birefringence and a dichroism in the vacuum. The latter effect is explained by evoking the conservation of the total angular momentum along the common propagation direction of probe and the strong wave, which allows for real axion production only for probe and strong fields with the same helicity. Moreover, in the case of ultra-short strong pulses, it is shown that the absorption coefficients of probe photons depend on the form of the pulse and, in particular, on the carrier-envelope phase of the strong b...

  12. A hybrid tunable THz metadevice using a high birefringence liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, Nassim; Lisitskiy, Mikhail; Papari, Gianpaolo; Tkachenko, Volodymyr; Andreone, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a hybrid re-configurable three dimensional metamaterial based on liquid crystal as tuning element in order to build novel devices operating in the terahertz range. The proposed metadevice is an array of meta-atoms consisting of split ring resonators having suspended conducting cantilevers in the gap region. Adding a “third dimension” to a standard planar device plays a dual role: (i) enhance the tunability of the overall structure, exploiting the birefringence of the liquid crystal at its best, and (ii) improve the field confinement and therefore the ability of the metadevice to efficiently steer the THz signal. We describe the design, electromagnetic simulation, fabrication and experimental characterization of this new class of tunable metamaterials under an externally applied small voltage. By infiltrating tiny quantities of a nematic liquid crystal in the structure, we induce a frequency shift in the resonant response of the order of 7–8% in terms of bandwidth and about two orders of magnitude change in the signal absorption. We discuss how such a hybrid structure can be exploited for the development of a THz spatial light modulator. PMID:27708395

  13. Narrow band pass filter using birefringence film and quarter-wave film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-kun; Song, Jang-Kun

    2016-03-01

    While a pixel in a color image has three colorimetric information of RGB, that in a spectral image contains full spectral information, several tens times more information compared to the color image. Hence, the spectral image is widely applicable in biology, material science, and environmental science. Although several methods for spectral image acquisition have been suggested to date, those methods are expensive, bulky, or slow in actual device. In this work, we designed a novel type of tunable narrow band-pass filter using rotatable polarizer, quarter-wave plate, and birefringence films. Different from the conventional Lyot-Ohman type filter, we do not use a liquid crystal layer. The selection of wavelength is made by rotating the polarizer in our filter set, and adopted a piezoelectric rotational actuator for that. We simulated to find the optimal conditions of the filter set, and finally, fabricated a filter module. The minimum band width was 5 nm, which is suitable for usual spectral imaging and can be reduced further if necessary, and the wavelength of light passing through the filter set was continuously selectable. After setting the filter in a microscope, we obtained a spectral image set for a bio sample that contained full spectrum information in each pixel. Using image processing, we could demonstrate to read out the spectral information for any selected position.

  14. Interference-based linear birefringence measurements of thermally induced changes in collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan J.; Walsh, Joseph T.

    1994-08-01

    Linear birefringence (LB) is a polarization-specific property of many semi-crystalline structures in tissue. Specifically, collagen, with its triple helix conformation, exhibits LB in its native state. Rat tail tendon (RTT) was chosen for the LB experiments because it is > 90% collagen and the collagen fiber alignment is nearly parallel with the RTT length. This alignment results in RTT exhibiting uniaxial characteristics such that two properly chosen optical axes display differing refractive indices ((Delta) n equals nslow - nfast). RTT, which has an elliptical cross section, has its slow axis parallel to the tendon's length and a fast axes along the tendon's cross section. Native RTT has a refractive index difference of (Delta) n equals 1.5 X 10-3. For a typical tendon thickness of 200 micrometers , the phase shift, (delta) equals n*d (d, diameter), is approximately equal to 300 nm (transmission measurement). Heating of RTT results in a repeatable loss of (delta) . If monochromatic light is used the sample's output intensity is proportional to sin2((delta) (pi) /(lambda) ) where (lambda) is the wavelength of the light. Thus, given the native phase shift, the incident light's wavelength may be chosen such that the sample's loss of LB with heating is intensity- mapped on the sample's image.

  15. Few-cycle solitons in the medium with permanent dipole moment under conditions of the induced birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    Propagation of electromagnetic pulse in the birefringent medium consisting of symmetric and asymmetrical molecules is investigated. Stationary quantum states of asymmetrical molecules have the permanent dipole moment. Under considered conditions the ordinary pulse component excites quantum transitions between stationary states. The extraordinary component, besides, causes a dynamic chirp of frequencies of these transitions. The new solitonic modes of propagation of the half- and single-period pulses are found. The solitonic mechanism of simultaneous generation of the second and zero harmonics in the modes of "bright" and "dark" solitons is analyzed.

  16. Dark soliton interaction in optical time division multiplexed system with randomly varying birefringence and random dispersion map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Li(李宏); Tiejun Wang(王铁军); Dexiu Huang(黄德修)

    2004-01-01

    Correlated perturbations caused by both randomly varying birefringence and random dispersion map are considered in optical time division multiplexed dispersion-managed dark soliton system, and their effects on soliton interaction are investigated numerically. These perturbations enhance soliton interaction, and their effects relate to the strength of perturbation, separation, and pulse width. The correlation plays an important role and reinforces these effects. Moreover, there is a stochastic limit between two perturbations in the system, where the effect is the largest and the corresponding interaction distance is the shortest.

  17. Electrical induction and optical erasure of birefringence in the isotropic liquid phase of a dichiral azobenzene liquid-crystalline compound (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Isa

    2015-10-01

    Liquid crystal is a representative soft matter, which has physical properties between those of conventional liquid and those of crystal in a temperature range above a melting point. A liquid-crystal display (LCD) employs the response of the liquid-crystal alignment to the electric field and is a key device of an information display. For common LCDs, the precise control of the initial alignment of LC molecules is needed so that a good dark state, thus a high contrast ratio, can be obtained. If the birefringence can be induced in the liquid phase by the application of electric field, it is of great use as a material for the LCD application. In this study, we will report a unique property of dichiral azobenzene liquid crystals: an electric induction of birefringence in a liquid phase of an antiferroelectric dichiral azobenzene liquid crystal. The optically isotropic texture changes into the homogenous birefringent texture by the application of the in-plane electric field above the clearing temperature of the liquid crystal. We find that one of the possible reasons of the induction of the birefringence in the isotropic phase is the electrically-induced increase of the phase transition temperature between the antiferroelectric liquid-crystalline and "liquid" phases, i.e., increase in the clearing temperature. The resulting birefringence can be disappeared by the irradiation of UV light, due to the photoinduced isomerization of the azobenzene compound, thus dual control of the birefringent structure, by the irradiation of light and/or by the application of the electric field, is achieved.

  18. Model and Simulation of a Tunable Birefringent Fiber Using Capillaries Filled with Liquid Ethanol for Magnetic Quasiphase Matching In-Fiber Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Zeringue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique to tune a magnetic quasi-phase matching in-fiber isolator through the application of stress induced by two mutually orthogonal capillary tubes filled with liquid ethanol is investigated numerically. The results show that it is possible to “tune” the birefringence in these fibers over a limited range depending on the temperature at which the ethanol is loaded into the capillaries. Over this tuning range, the thermal sensitivity of the birefringence is an order-of-magnitude lower than conventional fibers, making this technique well suited for magnetic quasi-phase matching.

  19. Mueller matrix analysis for all optical fiber co-existence of birefringence-polarization dependent gain-mode coupling at a single wavelength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Chio; Wu Chong-Qing; Li Zheng-Yong; Yang Shuang-Shou; Gao Kai-Qiang; Yu Kuang-Lu; Feng Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Birefringence (polarization-related phase-shift),polarization dependent gain (PDG) and mode coupling are three factors that may synchronously influence the transmission of single-wavelength polarized light in optical fibers.This paper obtains a new Mueller matrix analysis,which can be used under conditions that all these three factors are existing and changing.According to our transmission model,the state of polarization (SOP) changes along an optical microstructure fiber with co-existence of birefringence-PDG-mode coupling were simulated. The simulated results,which show the phenomena of SOP constringency,are in good agreement with previous theoretical analyses.

  20. Design of a birefringent Michelson interferometer-based interleaver with ultra-low dispersion and low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haocheng; Zheng, Baozhong; Liu, Qingming; Li, Yang; Wu, Li; Gu, Shijie

    2011-11-21

    We design and demonstrate a birefringent Michelson interferometer based interleaver with ultra-low dispersion and low cost. The interleaver consists of polarizing beam splitters (PBS's) and quarter-wave plates and half-wave plates. The PBS's based Michelson interferometers provide the optical path difference for interference between the two orthogonal polarization components and the half-wave plates provide the birefringent needed to minimize ripple of output. The designed interleaver with two-stage interferometer in a 50 GHz channel spacing application exhibits a 0.5 dB passband and a 25 dB stopband both 27 GHz; a channel isolation higher than 35 dB and chromatic dispersion less than ±5 ps/nm within 0.5 dB passband; 1.3 dB insertion loss and 0.3 dB PDL; 0.04 GHz/°C thermal stability. Since all of the optical components can be optically bonded together, the device is robust and easy to be aligned, which reduces labor cost.

  1. Ultrafast, low-power, all-optical switching via birefringent phase-matched transverse mode conversion in integrated waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Tim; Epping, Jörn P; Schnack, Martin; Boller, Klaus-J; Fallnich, Carsten

    2015-07-27

    We demonstrate the potential of birefringence-based, all-optical, ultrafast conversion between the transverse modes in integrated optical waveguides by modelling the conversion process by numerically solving the multi-mode coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The observed conversion is induced by a control beam and due to the Kerr effect, resulting in a transient index grating which coherently scatters probe light from one transverse waveguide mode into another. We introduce birefringent phase matching to enable efficient all-optically induced mode conversion at different wavelengths of the control and probe beam. It is shown that tailoring the waveguide geometry can be exploited to explicitly minimize intermodal group delay as well as to maximize the nonlinear coefficient, under the constraint of a phase matching condition. The waveguide geometries investigated here, allow for mode conversion with over two orders of magnitude reduced control pulse energy compared to previous schemes and thereby promise nonlinear mode switching exceeding efficiencies of 90% at switching energies below 1 nJ.

  2. Wide-field imaging of birefringent synovial fluid crystals using lens-free polarized microscopy for gout diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Lee, Seung Yoon Celine; Zhang, Yun; Furst, Daniel; Fitzgerald, John; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-06-01

    Gout is a form of crystal arthropathy where monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposit and elicit inflammation in a joint. Diagnosis of gout relies on identification of MSU crystals under a compensated polarized light microscope (CPLM) in synovial fluid aspirated from the patient’s joint. The detection of MSU crystals by optical microscopy is enhanced by their birefringent properties. However, CPLM partially suffers from the high-cost and bulkiness of conventional lens-based microscopy, and its relatively small field-of-view (FOV) limits the efficiency and accuracy of gout diagnosis. Here we present a lens-free polarized microscope which adopts a novel differential and angle-mismatched polarizing optical design achieving wide-field and high-resolution holographic imaging of birefringent objects with a color contrast similar to that of a standard CPLM. The performance of this computational polarization microscope is validated by imaging MSU crystals made from a gout patient’s tophus and steroid crystals used as negative control. This lens-free polarized microscope, with its wide FOV (>20 mm2), cost-effectiveness and field-portability, can significantly improve the efficiency and accuracy of gout diagnosis, reduce costs, and can be deployed even at the point-of-care and in resource-limited clinical settings.

  3. Utility of birefringence changes due to collagen thermal denaturation rate process analysis: vessel wall temperature estimation for new short term heating balloon angioplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kenji; Shimazaki, Natsumi; Gotoh, Maya; Nakatani, Eriko; Arai, Tsunenori

    2007-02-01

    Our photo thermal reaction heating architecture balloon realizes less than 10 s short term heating that can soften vessel wall collagen without damaging surrounding tissue thermally. New thermal balloon angioplasty, photo-thermo dynamic balloon angioplasty (PTDBA) has experimentally shown sufficient opening with 2 atm low pressure dilation and prevention of chronic phase restenosis and acute phase thrombus in vivo. Even though PTDBA has high therapeutic potential, the most efficient heating condition is still under study, because relationship of treatment and thermal dose to vessel wall is not clarified yet. To study and set the most efficient heating condition, we have been working on establishment of temperature history estimation method from our previous experimental results. Heating target of PTDBA, collagen, thermally denatures following rate process. Denaturation is able to be quantified with measured collagen birefringence value. To express the denaturation with equation of rate process, the following ex vivo experiments were performed. Porcine extracted carotid artery was soaked in two different temperature saline baths to enforce constant temperature heating. Higher temperature bath was set to 40 to 80 degree Celsius and soaking duration was 5 to 40 s. Samples were observed by a polarizing microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The birefringence was measured by polarizing microscopic system using Brace-Koehler compensator 1/30 wavelength. The measured birefringence showed temperature dependency and quite fit with the rate process equation. We think vessel wall temperature is able to be estimated using the birefringence changes due to thermal denaturation.

  4. Linear to Circular Polarisation Conversion using Birefringent Properties of Aligned Crystals for Multi-GeV Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Yu V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, Erik; Uggerhøj, U; Van Rens, B; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Ünel, G; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2003-01-01

    We present the first experimental results on the use of a thick aligned Si crystal acting as a quarter wave plate to induce a degree of circular polarisation in a high energy linearly polarised photon beam. The linearly polarised photon beam is produced from coherent bremsstrahlung radiation by 178 GeV unpolarised electrons incident on an aligned Si crystal, acting as a radiator. The linear polarisation of the photon beam is characterised by measuring the asymmetry in electron-positron pair production in a Ge crystal, for different crystal orientations. The Ge crystal therefore acts as an analyser. The birefringence phenomenon, which converts the linear polarisation to circular polarisation, is observed by letting the linearly polarised photons beam pass through a thick Si quarter wave plate crystal, and then measuring the asymmetry in electron-positron pair production again for a selection of relative angles between the crystallographic planes of the radiator, analyser and quarter wave plate. The systematics...

  5. Coherent Pair Production by Photons in the 20-170 GeV Energy Range Incident on Crystals and Birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Yu V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, Erik; Uggerhøj, U; Van Rens, B; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Ünel, G; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2003-01-01

    The cross section for coherent pair production by linearly polarised photons in the 20-170 GeV energy range was measured for photon aligned incidence on ultra-high quality diamond and germanium crystals. The theoretical description of coherent bremsstrahlung and coherent pair production phenomena is an area of active theoretical debate and development. However, under our experimental conditions, the theory predicted the combined cross section and polarisation experimental observables very well indeed. In macroscopic terms, our experiment measured a birefringence effect in pair production in a crystal. This study of this effect also constituted a measurement of the energy dependent linear polarisation of photons produced by coherent bremsstrahlung in aligned crystals. New technologies for manipulating high energy photon beams can be realised based on an improved understanding of QED phenomena at these energies. In particular, this experiment demonstrates an efficient new polarimetry technique. The pair product...

  6. A novel fiber-laser-based fiber Bragg grating strain sensor with high-birefringence Sagnac fiber loop mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ou Xu; Shaohua Lu; Suchun Feng; Shuisheng Jian

    2008-01-01

    A novel fiber-laser-based strain sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The laser cavity is composed of a high-birefringence Sagnac fiber loop mirror (HiBi-SFLM) and a fiher Bragg grating (FBG) which also acts as a strain-sensing element. In the linear region of the HiBi-SFI,M reflection spectrum, when the strain applied on the FBG makes the Bragg grating wavelength shift,, the laser output power changes due to reflectivity variation of the HiBi-SFLM. Experimental results show that the laser output power varies ahnost linearly with the applied strain. The measurement of the output power can be performed by a conventional photo-detector.

  7. High-birefringence photonic crystal fiber Michelson interferometer with cascaded fiber Bragg grating for pressure and temperature discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoling; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin

    2016-09-01

    A simple and compact interferometer for temperature and pressure discrimination is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. It consists of a short section of high-birefringence photonic crystal fiber (Hi-Bi PCF) and a cascaded fiber Bragg grating (FBG). In the Hi-Bi PCF, two orthogonal polarized modes are employed as optical arms to construct, such as a Michelson interferometer. Combined with a cascaded FBG, pressure and temperature measurements are discriminated by a matrix method, and the pressure sensitivity of Hi-Bi PCF is determined to be around 3.65 nm/MPa. The proposed Michelson interferometer is easy-to-fabricate, flexible, and low-cost, which shows great potential in future applications of remote sensing.

  8. Precision Controlling of Frequency Difference for Elastic-Stress Birefringence He-Ne Dual-Frequency Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lu-Fei; ZHANG Shu-Lian; GUO Hong; REN Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Birefringence-Zeeman dual frequency lasers are capable of producing frequency difference from several kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz, but the precision of giving and stabilizing of the beat frequency still needs improvement to the range of ±200 kHz. We design a new elastic force-exerting device comprised of the bottom part, two arms and two pieces of force-exerting sheets. The frequency difference smoothly tuning is realized with this device in a large range of 2 MHz to 20 MHz. Power-balance frequency stabilization system is used to investigate characters of the temperature, frequency difference and laser power. The precision of the frequency difference has reach up to JrlOO kHz after system temperature balance. Analyses of the laser frequency difference and power character are carried out.

  9. Polarized supercontinuum in birefringent photonic crystal fibre pumped at 1064 nm and application to tuneable visible/UV generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, C; Wadsworth, W J

    2008-02-18

    We generate a flat, polarized and single mode supercontinuum (SC) spanning 450-1750 nm in a highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre (PCF) pumped by a 1064 nm microchip laser. More than 99% of the total power is kept in a single linear polarization. The measured power coupling penalty due to the elliptical core is less than 6% (0.25 dB). As one of its applications, we demonstrate tuneable visible/UV generation in the nonlinear crystal BIBO pumped by this polarized SC source. A tuneable range of 400-525 nm is obtained by critical phase matching in BIBO. We also show the results of visible/UV generation in BIBO pumped by the signal wavelength of polarized four-wave mixing (FWM) in PCF.

  10. Generation of radially and azimuthally polarized beams in Yb:YAG laser with intra-cavity lens and birefringent crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandam, Manasadevi P; Senatsky, Yuri; Ueda, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-31

    We demonstrated the operation of cw diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser in radial or azimuthal polarized (RP or AP) beams using a combination of birefringent uniaxial crystal (c-cut YVO4 or α-BBO) and lens as intra-cavity elements. RP and AP doughnut modes (M2 = 2-2.5, polarization extinction ratio 50-100:1) with output power up to 60 mW were generated. Apart from doughnut modes, RP or AP ring-like off-axis oscillations and multi-ring beams with mixed RP and AP were also observed at the output of this laser scheme. Using intra-cavity short focus lenses with spherical aberrations AP or RP modes of higher orders was obtained. Mechanism of mode selection in the laser is discussed. The large variety of beams with axially symmetric polarizations from the output of the proposed laser scheme may find applications in different fields.

  11. A Note on the Analysis of Electrodynamic Fields Radiated by Time-Harmonic Sources Within Non-Birefringent Anisotropic Media

    CERN Document Server

    Sainath, Kamalesh

    2015-01-01

    We address a challenge concerning the spectral-domain-based analysis of electromagnetic fields produced by time-harmonic current sources within planar-layered media, which arises specifically when sources are embedded inside non-birefringent anisotropic medium (NBAM) layers. In NBAM, the highly symmetric permeability and permittivity tensors can induce directionally-dependent, but polarization independent, propagation properties supporting "degenerate" characteristic polarizations. That is to say, the considered NBAM support four linearly independent field polarization eigenvectors associated with only two (rather than four) unique, non-defective eigenvalues. We explain problems that can arise when the source(s) specifically reside within NBAM planar layers when using canonical field expressions as well as obtain alternative expressions, immune to such problems, that form the foundation for a robust eigenfunction-based analysis of electromagnetic radiation and scattering within planar-layered media.

  12. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in highly birefringent multimode tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber for distributed optical sensors (Retraction Notice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baili, Amira; Cherif, Rim; Zghal, Mourad

    2016-09-01

    This paper, originally published on September 15, 2016, was retracted from the SPIE Digital Library on October 5, 2016, due to a high degree of similarity between specific portions of the text of the paper to the following publications: J. Tchahame, J. Beugnot, A. Kudlinski, and T. Sylvestre, "Multimode Brillouin spectrum in a long tapered birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 40, 4281-4284 (2015). doi: 10.1364/OL.40.004281 W. W. Ke, X. J. Wang and X. Tang, "Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Model in Multi-Mode Fiber Lasers," in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 305-314, Sept.-Oct. 2014. doi: 10.1109/JSTQE.2014.2303256.

  13. Phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography: simultaneous imaging of in situ tissue structure, blood flow velocity, standard deviation, birefringence, and Stokes vectors in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongwu; Ding, Zhihua; Zhao, Yonghua; Miao, Jianjun; Nelson, J. Stuart; Chen, Zhongping

    2002-10-01

    We describe a phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography system that can simultaneously yield in situ images of tissue structure, blood flow velocity, standard deviation, birefringence, and the Stokes vectors in human skin. Multifunctional images were obtained by processing of analytical interference fringe signals derived from two perpendicular polarization-detection channels. The blood flow velocity and standard deviation images were obtained by comparison of the phases from pairs of analytical signals in neighboring A-lines in the same polarization state. The analytical signals from two polarization-diversity detection channels were used to determine the four Stokes vectors for four reference polarization states. From the four Stokes vectors, the birefringence image, which is not sensitive to the orientation of the optical axis in the sample, was obtained. Multifunctional in situ images of a port wine stain birthmark in human skin are presented.

  14. Nematic/smectic-a transition (NS{sub A}), location of tri critical point (TCP) in nO.m series. A birefringence study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisipati, Venkata G.K.M.; Latha, Divi Madhavi; Madhav, Boddapati T.P. [Liquid Crystal Research Centre, ECE Dept., Koneru Lakshmaiah Univ., Vaddeswaram (India); Datta Prasad, Potapragada V. [Dept. of Physics, The Hindu Coll., Machilipatnam (India)

    2010-04-15

    The tri critical point (TCP), where the second-order transition transforms to first order has been located in nO.m homologous series. The order parameter has been estimated from the birefringence {delta}n, from the refractive indices and from birefringence data available in literature and from those obtained at our laboratory on a number of nO.m compounds. The compounds in the nO.m series exhibit both second and first-order nematic/smectic-A (NS{sub A}) transition depending on the McMillan ratio (T{sub NA}/T{sub IN}) which in turn depends on the nematic and smectic-A thermal ranges. The data presented are compared with the body of the data available on this homologous series obtained with other techniques. (orig.)

  15. Enhanced pulse compression induced by the interaction between the third-order dispersion and the cross-phase modulation in birefringent fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文成; 陈伟成; 张书敏; 罗爱平; 刘颂豪

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the enhanced pulse compression due to the interaction between the positive third-order dispersion (TOD) and the nonlinear effect (cross-phase modulation effect) in birefringent fibres. Polarization soliton compression along the slow axis can be enhanced in a birefringent fibre with positive third-order dispersion. while the polarization soliton compression along the fast axis can be enhanced in the fibre with negative third-order dispersion.Moreover, there is an optimal third-order dispersion parameter for obtaining the optimal pulse compression.Redshifted initial chirp is helpful to the pulse compression, while blueshifted chirp is detrimental to the pulse compression. There is also an optimal chirp parameter to reach maximum pulse compression. The optimal pulse compression for TOD parameters under different N-order solitons is also found.

  16. Performance Analysis of High-speed Optical Pulse Transmission in Dispersion-managed Nonlinear Birefringent Fiber Using Quantum Well Laser Diode Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Minhui; CHEN Jianping

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the high bit-rate optical pulse trasmission in single mode optical fiber with chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion (small random birefringence) and nonlinearity. Numerical method employed can precisely describe their interactive effect on transmission performance. Different dispersion maps and the related performance are analysed. Various simulation results and discussion are given. The results show that chromatic dispersion compensation should be carefully designed. Appropriate dispersion management can also alleviate the effect of polarization mode dispersion.

  17. Anomalous electric birefringence behavior of sonicated DNA fragments as observed in reversing-pulse transients and steady-state sign reversal: a multicomponent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kiwamu

    2007-04-15

    Anomalous electric birefringence signals of a sonicated and column-fractionated medium-size calf thymus DNA sample (bp=570) in Na(+) solutions were measured at 7 degrees C. The reversing-pulse electric birefringence (RPEB) signal pattern was theoretically calculated in the low electric field region for two axially symmetric models coexisting in equilibrium in solution. The RPEB theory is based on the electric dipole moment due to ion-fluctuation along the longitudinal direction and the electric polarizability anisotropy (Deltaalpha'), together with various electric and optical parameters assigned to the models. An analytical method was developed for the steady-state birefringence of the two-component system in a wide range of electric fields. The NaDNA samples exhibit complex RPEB patterns mixed with negative- and positive-going profiles. An experimental RPEB signal of NaDNA at an absorbance (A(260)) of 8 was fitted to theoretical curve at weak electric fields. The anomalous RPEB signal was attributed to the component 2, which shows a dip in the buildup and another in the reverse processes with a positive sign and a larger relaxation time. For the component 1, a normal DNA profile with negative sign is associated with a narrow dip in the reverse and a faster relaxation time in the decay signal. The field-strength dependence of observed steady-state birefringence delta(infinity) could be fitted for NaDNA at A(260)=8 by the SUSID orientation function with saturated ionic and electronic moments. An apparent positive maximum and the sign reversal in delta(infinity) at weak electric fields is an interplay between the positive component 2 with positive optical factor Deltag and negative Deltaalpha' and the negative component 1 with negative Deltag and positive Deltaalpha'. Possible conformation of two DNA components involved in solution was estimated.

  18. Thermal birefringence-compensated linear intracavity frequency doubled Nd:YAG rod laser with 73 ns pulse duration and 160Wgreen output power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Sharma; A J Singh; P K Gupta; P Hedaoo; P K Mukhopadhyay; K Ranganathan; K S Bindra; S M Oak

    2014-02-01

    In a thermally birefringence-compensated linear cavity configuration, ∼160 W of average green power by intracavity frequency doubling of AO Q-switched Nd:YAG/LBO-based laser is demonstrated. The corresponding optical to optical conversion efficiency is estimated to be ∼12.7%. The pulse repetition rate is 20 kHz with the individual pulse duration of 73 ns. The beam quality parameter is measured to be 18.

  19. Azo polymers with electronical push and pull structures prepared via RAFT polymerization and its photoinduced birefringence behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two methacrylate monomers containing azo and electronical push and pull structure, e.g. 2-Methyl-acrylic-acid-2-{[4-(4-cyano-phenylazo-3-methyl-phenyl]-ethyl-amino-ethyl ester (MACP with cyano substituted and 2-Methylacrylic-acid-2-{ethyl-[4-(4-methoxy-phenylazo-3-methyl-phenyl]-amino}-ethyl ester (MAMP with methoxy substituted, were synthesized and polymerized using 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB as chain transfer agent and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator. The results showed that the polymerization displayed characteristics of ‘living’/controlled free radical polymerization. Thus, the obtained polymers, polyMACP (pMACP and polyMAMP (pMAMP, had controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weights distribution. The chain extension experiments of pMACP and pMAMP using styrene as the second monomer were successfully carried out. The photo-induced trans-cis-trans isomerization kinetic of pMACP and pMAMP in chloroform solution were described. Marked differences in rate for the trans-cis and cis-trans isomerization of pMACP and pMAMP were observed in chloroform solution due to the different electronic effects in these two polymers. Photoinduced birefringence and surface relief grating (SRG of the pMACP and pMAMP were investigated in thin film state.

  20. A no-moving-parts sensor for the detection of eye fixation using polarised light and retinal birefringence information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I; Guyton, David L

    2017-01-26

    Polarised near-infra-red light is reflected from the foveal area in a detectable bow-tie pattern of polarisation states, offering the opportunity for eye tracking. A coaxial optical transducer was developed, consisting of a laser diode, a polariser, a filter, and a photodetector. Several such transducers may be used to interrogate different spots on the retina, thus eliminating the requirement for scanning systems with moving parts. To test the signal quality obtainable, using just one transducer, a test subject was asked to fixate successively on twelve targets located on a circle around the transducer, to simulate the retina's being interrogated by twelve sensors placed on a 3(0) diameter circle surrounding the projection of the fovea. The resulting signal is close to the "ideal" sine wave that would have been recorded from a propeller-type birefringence pattern from a human fovea. The transducer can be used in the detection of fixation for medical and other purposes. It does not require calibration, strict restrictions on head position, or head-mounted appliances.

  1. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  2. Linear birefringence and dichroism in citric acid coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jing-Fung, E-mail: jacklin@cc.feu.edu.tw [Graduate School of Computer Application Engineering, Far East University, No. 49, Zhonghua Road, Xinshi District, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Chun-Chin [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Far East University, No. 49, Zhonghua Road, Xinshi District, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Meng-Zhe [Graduate School of Computer Application Engineering, Far East University, No. 49, Zhonghua Road, Xinshi District, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-15

    To prepare highly dispersed water-based Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), we adopted the co-precipitation method and used citric acid (CA) as the surfactant. Via transmission electronic microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray diffractometry, we characterized the dispersibility and size of the products. Through two single-parameter experiments, including the pH value of suspension and the action of double centrifugations, the appropriate parameters' values were determined. Further, to produce CA coated MNPs with good magneto-optical properties as high retardance and low dichroism, the orthogonal design method was used to find the optimal parameters' values, including pH value of suspension after coating was 5, molar ratio of CA to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNPs was 0.06, volume of CA was 40 ml, and coating temperature was 70 °C. Above all, the linear birefringence and dichroism of the best CA coated ferrofluid we produced were measured by a Stokes polarimeter as 23.6294° and 0.3411 under 64.5 mT, respectively. Thus, the biomedical applications could be performed hereafter. - Highlights: • We examine pH changes about retardance/dichroism of citric acid coated ferrofluid. • We examine centrifugal action about dispersity of citric acid coated ferrofluid. • Dispersity of coated suspensions with different pH is investigated by DLS results. • Optimum combination and influence sequence obtained by Taguchi method is found. • Molar ratio of CA to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} deeply influences the retardance and dichroism of FFs.

  3. Dual-band wavelength tunable nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber lasers induced by birefringence variation and gain curvature alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Fong; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2014-09-08

    With the combining effects of the fiber birefringence induced round-trip phase variation and the gain profile reshaping induced spectral filtering in the Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) cavity, the mechanism corresponding to the central wavelength tunability of the EDFL passively mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation is explored. Bending the intracavity fiber induces the refractive index difference between orthogonal axes, which enables the dual-band central wavelength shift of 2.9 nm at 1570 nm region and up to 10.2 nm at 1600 nm region. The difference between the wavelength shifts at two bands is attributed to the gain dispersion decided by the gain spectral curvature of the EDFA, and the spacing between two switchable bands is provided by the birefringence induced variation on phase delay which causes transmittance variation. In addition, the central wavelength shift can also be controlled by varying the pumping geometry. At 1570 nm regime, an offset of up to 5.9 nm between the central wavelengths obtained under solely forward or backward pumping condition is observed, whereas the bidirectional pumping scheme effectively compensates the gain spectral reshaping effects to minimize the central wavelength shift. In contrast, the wavelength offset shrinks to only 1.1 nm when mode-locking at 1600 nm under single-sided pumping, as the gain profile strongly depends on the spatial distribution of the excited erbium ions under different pumping schemes. Except the birefringence variation and the gain spectral filtering phenomena, the gain-saturation mechanism induced refractive index change and its influence to the dual-band central wavelength tunability are also observed and analyzed.

  4. Effect of change in macular birefringence imaging protocol on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness parameters using GDx VCC in eyes with macular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Tanuj; Tinwala, Sana I; Dave, Vivek; Agarwal, Anand; Sharma, Reetika; Wadhwani, Meenakshi

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of two macular birefringence protocols (bow-tie retardation and irregular macular scan) using GDx VCC on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters in normal eyes and eyes with macular lesions. In eyes with macular lesions, the standard protocol led to significant overestimation of RNFL thickness which was normalized using the irregular macular pattern protocol. In eyes with normal macula, absolute RNFL thickness values were higher in irregular macular pattern protocols with the difference being statistically significant for all parameters except for inferior average thickness. This has implications for monitoring glaucoma patients who develop macular lesions during the course of their follow-up.

  5. Birefringence imaging and orientation of laser patterned β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals with bending and curved shapes in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuki; Honma, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: komatsu@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp

    2013-11-15

    Nonlinear optical β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals (β-BBO) with bending and curved shapes were patterned at the surface of 8Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}–42BaO–50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass by laser irradiations (Yb:YVO{sub 4} laser with a wavelength of 1080 nm, power of 0.8 W, and scanning speed of 4 μm/s), and the orientation state of β-BBO crystals was examined from the birefringence imaging obtained by polarization optical microscope (POM) observations. The formation (crystallization) of β-BBO crystals follows along laser scanning direction even if the laser scanning direction changes at a certain point within the bending angle of 60°. The birefringence images indicate that the formation of highly c-axis oriented β-BBO crystals follows along laser scanning direction even if the laser scanning direction changes, and in particular the direction of the c-axis of β-BBO crystals changes gradually at the bending point. The model for the orientation of the c-axis of β-BBO near the bending point is proposed. The present study proposes that the laser-induced crystallization opens a new door for the science and technology in crystal growth engineering. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the birefringence images obtained by the Abrio IM imaging system (λ=546 nm) for the laser-patterned β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal line with the bending angle of 45° in the glass. The relation between the direction of slow axis and color is also shown. It is demonstrated that the formation (crystallization) of highly c-axis oriented β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals follows along laser scanning direction even if the laser scanning direction changes. Display Omitted - Highlights: • β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals with bending and curved shapes were patterned by laser irradiations. • The orientation was examined from the birefringence imaging. • Highly c-axis oriented crystals follows along laser scanning direction. • The c-axis direction changes gradually at the bending point. • The

  6. A new structure of photonic crystal fiber with high sensitivity, high nonlinearity, high birefringence and low confinement loss for liquid analyte sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faizul Huq Arif

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the design and optimization of microstructure optical fiber for liquid sensing applications. A number of propagation characteristics have been compared between two formations of hexagonal cladding of our proposed PCF structure. The core of the proposed PCF structure is designed with two rows of supplementary elliptical air holes. We investigate the performance of the designed PCFs for Ethanol as a liquid sample to be sensed. Numerical analysis is carried out by employing the full vectorial Finite Element Method (FEM to examine the modal birefringence, confinement loss, relative sensitivity and nonlinear coefficient of the proposed PCF structure.

  7. Birefringence controlled room-temperature picosecond spin dynamics close to the threshold of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. Y.; Jähme, H.; Soldat, H.; Gerhardt, N. C.; Hofmann, M. R.; Ackemann, T.

    2010-11-01

    We analyze the spin-induced circular polarization dynamics at the threshold of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers at room-temperature using a hybrid excitation combining electrically pumping without spin preference and spin-polarized optical injection. After a short pulse of spin-polarized excitation, fast oscillations of the circular polarization degree (CPD) are observed within the relaxation oscillations. A theoretical investigation of this behavior on the basis of a rate equation model shows that these fast oscillations of CPD could be suppressed by means of a reduction of the birefringence of the laser cavity.

  8. Measuring the wavelength of a diode laser and the birefringence of mica: the experimental examination of the IPHO 40 held in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran-Lopez, J L [Faculty of Science, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); OrtIz, M E; Romero-Rochin, V [Institute of Physics, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); RodrIguez, L F [Center for Radioastronomy and Astrophysics, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    The experimental examination applied in the 40th International Physics Olympiad held in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, is presented. The examination consisted of two parts: (1) based on the measurements of a diffraction pattern produced by a diode laser impinging on a sharp edge of a razor blade, the students were asked to estimate the wavelength of the laser. (2) By using the same experimental setup, the contestants had to measure the birefringence of a mica film. For completeness, we give a brief description of the theoretical test. Finally, we present the distribution of marks and show, on the world map, with different colours, the performance of various countries.

  9. Scattering of a cross-polarized linear wave by a soliton at an optical event horizon in a birefringent nanophotonic waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Ciret, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The scattering of a linear wave on an optical event horizon, induced by a cross polarized soliton, is experimentally and numerically investigated in integrated structures. The experiments are performed in a dispersion-engineered birefringent silicon nanophotonic waveguide. In stark contrast with co-polarized waves, the large difference between the group velocity of the two cross-polarized waves enables a frequency conversion almost independent on the soliton wavelength. It is shown that the generated idler is only shifted by 10 nm around 1550 nm over a pump tuning range of 350 nm. Simulations using two coupled full vectorial nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations fully support the experimental results.

  10. Form birefringence analysis in a grating by means of modal theory; Analisis de la birrefringencia de forma en una rejilla mediante la teoria modal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Ponce, G.; Solano, Cristina [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    The propagation of a plane electromagnetic wave through a grating using the modal theory is analyzed. The eigenproblem is solved in function of the ratio illumination wavelength {lambda} to grating period (d). When this ratio is much greater than one (quasiestatic limit), the grating shows a response similar to an uniaxial film. It is possible to approximate the eigenfunction for calculating the effective refractive indices of the birefringent element. This effect is called form birefringence and can be used to design retardation plates. [Spanish] En este trabajo se analiza la propagacion de una onda electromagnetica plana a traves de una rejilla utilizando la teoria modal. Estableciendo el problema de valor caracteristico se determina que la solucion es dependiente de la razon longitud de onda de iluminacion {lambda} y el periodo de la rejilla (d). En el caso {lambda}/d mayor que 1, conocido como el limite cuasiestatico, la rejilla se comporta como una pelicula uniaxial, obteniendose los indices ordinario y extraordinario a partir de una aproximacion a la ecuacion caracteristica. Este fenomeno, llamado birrefringencia de forma, puede emplearse para disenar elementos birrefringentes.

  11. Parametric approaches to micro-scale characterization of tissue volumes in vivo and ex vivo: Imaging microvasculature, attenuation, birefringence, and stiffness (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, David D.; Chin, Lixin; Gong, Peijun; Wijesinghe, Philip; Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Allen, Wesley M.; Klyen, Blake R.; Kirk, Rodney W.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; McLaughlin, Robert A.

    2016-03-01

    INVITED TALK Advances in imaging tissue microstructure in living subjects, or in freshly excised tissue with minimum preparation and processing, are important for future diagnosis and surgical guidance in the clinical setting, particularly for application to cancer. Whilst microscopy methods continue to advance on the cellular scale and medical imaging is well established on the scale of the whole tumor or organ, it is attractive to consider imaging the tumor environment on the micro-scale, between that of cells and whole tissues. Such a scenario is ideally suited to optical coherence tomography (OCT), with the twin attractions of requiring little or no tissue preparation, and in vivo capability. OCT's intrinsic scattering contrast reveals many morphological features of tumors, but is frequently ineffective in revealing other important aspects, such as microvasculature, or in reliably distinguishing tumor from uninvolved stroma. To address these shortcomings, we are developing several advances on the basic OCT approach. We are exploring speckle fluctuations to image tissue microvasculature and we have been developing several parametric approaches to tissue micro-scale characterization. Our approaches extract, from a three-dimensional OCT data set, a two-dimensional image of an optical parameter, such as attenuation or birefringence, or a mechanical parameter, such as stiffness, that aids in characterizing the tissue. This latter method, termed optical coherence elastography, parallels developments in ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Parametric imaging of birefringence and of stiffness both show promise in addressing the important issue of differentiating cancer from uninvolved stroma in breast tissue.

  12. Real-time measurement system for tracking birefringence, weight, thickness, and surface temperature during drying of solution cast coatings and films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, E.; Drum, J.; Yucel, O.; Nugay, I. I.; Yalcin, B.; Cakmak, M.

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a new instrument to track temporal changes in physical parameters during the drying behavior of solutions, as well as curing of monomers. This real-time instrument follows in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence, weight, thickness, and surface temperature during the course of solidification of coatings and films through solvent evaporation and thermal or photocuring in a controlled atmosphere. It is specifically designed to simulate behavior of polymer solutions inside an industrial size, continuous roll-to-roll solution casting line and other coating operations where resins are subjected to ultraviolet (UV) curing from monomer precursors. Controlled processing parameters include air speed, temperature, initial cast thickness, and solute concentration, while measured parameters are thickness, weight, film temperature, in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence. In this paper, we illustrate the utility of this instrument with solution cast and dried poly (amide-imide)/DMAc (Dimethylacetamide) solution, water based black paint, and organo-modified clay/NMP (N-Methylpyrrolidone) solution. In addition, the physical changes that take place during UV photo polymerization of a monomer are tracked. This instrument is designed to be generic and it can be used for tracking any drying/swelling/solidification systems including paper, foodstuffs such as; grains, milk as well as pharmaceutical thin paste and slurries.

  13. Near-Field Birefringence Response of Liquid Crystal Molecules in Thickness Direction of Liquid Crystal Thin Film Orientated by Shear Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing QIN; Norihiro UMEDA

    2007-01-01

    Information of molecular orientation in nematic liquid crystal (LC) is attractive and important for applications in the field of display devices. We demonstrate a novel method using a birefringence scanning near-field optical microscope (Bi-SNOM) with a probe which is inserted into the LC thin film to detect the molecular orientation from its birefringence responses in the thickness direction of the LC thin film. The probe is laterally vibrated when going forward into the LC thin film, and the retardation and azimuth angle are recorded as the probe going down. Firstly, the thickness of the LC thin film is measured by the shear force detection. Since the shear force acts as a stimulation to reorientate the LC molecules above the substrate surface, we can detect the molecular orientation caused by a polyimide alignment substrate and the effect to molecular orientation caused by vibration of fibre probe. As a result, the orientation profiling of the LC film in depth direction is obtained in both the cases that the direction of probe vibrating is vertical/parallel to the rubbing direction of the alignment film.Furthermore, the thickness of completely orientated layers just above the substrate surface can also be obtained by either vibrating probe or no-vibrating probe. Ultimately, the LC thin film can be modelled in thickness direction from all the results using this method.

  14. Density-functional and electron correlated study of five linear birefringences--Kerr, Cotton-Mouton, Buckingham, Jones, and magnetoelectric--in gaseous benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Antonio; Cappelli, Chiara; Jansík, Branislav; Jonsson, Dan; Sałek, Paweł; Coriani, Sonia; Agren, Hans

    2004-11-08

    We present the results of an extended study of five birefringences--Kerr, Cotton-Mouton, Buckingham, Jones, and Magnetoelectric--on benzene in the gas phase. The relevant molecular quantities--first-order properties, linear, quadratic, and cubic response functions--are computed employing the density-functional theory (DFT) response theory, with a choice of functionals. In some cases, different functionals are employed for the wave-function computational step and for the subsequent analytical response calculation to determine the combination yielding at the same time the optimal energy and energy derivative results. Augmented correlation consistent basis sets of double and triple zeta quality are used. The DFT results are compared to those obtained at the Hartree-Fock level and in some cases within a coupled cluster singles and doubles electronic structure model. The study tries to assess the ability of the DFT response theory to describe a wide range of properties in a system of rather large size and high complexity. The relative strength of the five birefringences for plausible experimental conditions is determined and, when possible, comparison is made with the results of the measurements.

  15. Fully vectorial laser resonator modeling of continuous-wave solid-state lasers including rate equations, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoubar, Daniel; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-07-27

    The computer-aided design of high quality mono-mode, continuous-wave solid-state lasers requires fast, flexible and accurate simulation algorithms. Therefore in this work a model for the calculation of the transversal dominant mode structure is introduced. It is based on the generalization of the scalar Fox and Li algorithm to a fully-vectorial light representation. To provide a flexible modeling concept of different resonator geometries containing various optical elements, rigorous and approximative solutions of Maxwell's equations are combined in different subdomains of the resonator. This approach allows the simulation of plenty of different passive intracavity components as well as active media. For the numerically efficient simulation of nonlinear gain, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence effects in solid-state active crystals a semi-analytical vectorial beam propagation method is discussed in detail. As a numerical example the beam quality and output power of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser are improved. To that end we compensate the influence of stress-induced birefringence and thermal lensing by an aspherical mirror and a 90° quartz polarization rotator.

  16. Cross-splicing method for compensating fiber birefringence in polarization-maintaining fiber ring laser mode locked by nonlinear polarization evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzheng; Zhang, Liqiang; Zhuo, Zhuang; Guo, Songzhen

    2016-07-20

    We propose a cross-splicing method, for the first time to our knowledge, to compensate the effect of fiber birefringence in a polarization-maintaining fiber ring laser mode locked by nonlinear polarization evolution. This method has been investigated numerically and experimentally. The results indicate that stable mode-locking pulses can be obtained in the cavity with this method; otherwise, no mode-locking states are achieved. The design processes of the laser cavity are presented. Pulses with single pulse energy of 2.1 nJ are generated at pump power of 460 mW. The spectral bandwidth and pulse duration are 17.5 nm and 11.7 ps, respectively. The tunability of the laser is also studied. The central wavelength can be tuned from 1023.2 to 1045.9 nm.

  17. An astronomical search for evidence of new physics: Limits on gravity-induced birefringence from the magnetic white dwarf RE J0317-853

    CERN Document Server

    Preuss, Oliver; Solanki, Sami K; Jordan, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field directly with gravitational gauge fields leads to new physical effects that can be tested using astronomical data. Here we consider a particular case for closer scrutiny, a specific nonminimal coupling of torsion to electromagnetism, which enters into a metric-affine geometry of space-time. We show that under the assumption of this nonminimal coupling, spacetime is birefringent in the presence of such a gravitational field. This leads to the depolarization of light emitted from extended astrophysical sources. We use polarimetric data of the magnetic white dwarf ${RE J0317-853}$ to set strong constraints on the essential coupling constant for this effect, giving $k^2 \\lsim (19 {m})^2 $.

  18. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach.

  19. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I.; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L.

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach.

  20. Coherent Bremsstrahlung, Coherent Pair Production, Birefringence and Polarimetry in the 20-170 GeV energy range using aligned crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Y V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, U; Uggerhøj, Erik; Van Rens, B; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Ünel, G; Kononets, Yu V

    2008-01-01

    The processes of coherent bremsstrahlung (CB) and coherent pair production (CPP) based on aligned crystal targets have been studied in the energy range 20-170 GeV. The experimental arrangement allowed these phenomena as well as their polarization dependence to be evaluated under conditions where single-photon cross-sections could be measured. This proved very important as the theoretical description of CB and CPP is an area of active theoretical debate and development. The theoretical approach used in this paper predicts both the cross sections and polarization observables very well for the experimental conditions investigated, indicating that the understanding of CB and CPP is reliable up to energies of 170 GeV. A birefringence effect in CPP was studied and it was demonstrated this enabled new technologies for high energy photon beam optics, such as polarimeters (for both linear and circular polarization) and phase plates. We also present new results regarding the features of coherent high energy photon emis...

  1. Vector bright soliton behaviors of the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger system in the birefringent or two-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Tian, Bo; Xie, Xi-Yang; Guan, Yue-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Studied in this paper are the vector bright solitons of the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger system, which describes the simultaneous propagation of two ultrashort pulses in the birefringent or two-mode fiber. With the help of auxiliary functions, we obtain the bilinear forms and construct the vector bright one- and two-soliton solutions via the Hirota method and symbolic computation. Two types of vector solitons are derived. Single-hump, double-hump, and flat-top solitons are displayed. Elastic and inelastic interactions between the Type-I solitons, between the Type-II solitons, and between the two combined types of the solitons are revealed, respectively. Especially, from the interaction between a Type-I soliton and a Type-II soliton, we see that the Type-II soliton exhibits the oscillation periodically before such an interaction and becomes the double-hump soliton after the interaction, which is different from the previously reported.

  2. Generation and controlling of the dispersive wave by femtosecond pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regimes of the birefringent photonic crystal fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the generation of the dispersive wave (DW) in the normal dispersion regimes of the birefringent photonic crystal fiber (BPCF) fabricated in this work. The remarkable blue-shifted radiation is found to be generated when 30 fs pulses are input in the normal dispersion regime of the BPCF for the first time. The characteristics of the blue-shifted DW strongly depend on the polarization of the input pulse. As a result, two peaks appear in the blue-shifted region of the spectrum when the input pulses polarize along the slow axis of the BPCF. With the increase of the center wavelength of the initial input pulse, the difference between the wavelengths of the two peaks widens. The peak location in the spectrum can be explained by the phase matching condition between the DW and the input pulse. In addition, when the input polarization is set to an angle of 45° with respect to the principal axes of the BPCF, the cross-phase modulation and coherent coupling between two orthogonally polarized modes would result in pulse trapping in the BPCF. Accordingly, the DW shift toward short wavelength is restrained. The DW generation in the normal-dispersion regimes of BPCF can be controlled by the phase matching condition and polarization of the input pulse.

  3. Third order optical non-linear (Z-scan), birefringence, photoluminescence, mechanical and etching studies on melaminium levulinate monohydrate (MLM) single crystal for optical device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, N.; Anbalagan, G.

    2016-10-01

    Z-scan studies on the grown crystal was investigated by diode-pumped Nd; YAG laser. Nonlinear refractive index (n2) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ3) values of MLM were found to be -1.0 × 10-8 cm2/W and 1.36 × 10-6 esu respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis depicted that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group P21/c. Birefringence study revealed the optical dispersion behavior of MLM crystal. Linear refractive index on (10-1) plane was measured by prism coupling technique and was estimated to be 1.4705. Hardness study was carried out along three different planes which exhibit hardness anisotropy of 41.11%. Meyer's index values of the grown crystal for the (10-1), (010) and (111) planes were found to be 2.39, 2.61 and 2.04 respectively. Etching studies on the prominent (10-1) growth plane was explained by two dimensional layer growth mechanisms. Photoluminescence study was performed on MLM crystal to explore its efficacy towards optical device fabrications.

  4. Evidence for vacuum birefringence from the first optical-polarimetry measurement of the isolated neutron star RX J1856.5-3754

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, R. P.; Testa, V.; González Caniulef, D.; Taverna, R.; Turolla, R.; Zane, S.; Wu, K.

    2017-02-01

    The `Magnificent Seven' (M7) are a group of radio-quiet isolated neutron stars discovered in the soft X-rays through their purely thermal surface emission. Owing to the large inferred magnetic fields (B ≈ 1013 G), radiation from these sources is expected to be substantially polarized, independently of the mechanism actually responsible for the thermal emission. A large observed polarization degree (PD) is, however, expected only if quantum-electrodynamic (QED) polarization effects are present in the magnetized vacuum around the star. The detection of a strong linearly polarized signal would therefore provide the first observational evidence of QED effects in the strong-field regime. While polarization measurements in the soft X-rays are not feasible yet, optical polarization measurements are within reach also for quite faint targets, like the M7 which have optical counterparts with magnitudes ≈26-28. Here, we report on the measurement of optical linear polarization for the prototype, and brightest member, of the class, RX J1856.5-3754 (V ˜ 25.5), the first ever for one of the M7, obtained with the Very Large Telescope. We measured a PD = 16.43 ± 5.26 per cent and a polarization position angle PA = 145.39° ± 9.44°, computed east of the North Celestial Meridian. The PD that we derive is large enough to support the presence of vacuum birefringence, as predicted by QED.

  5. Reversing-pulse electric birefringence of multicomponent systems: the formulation and signal simulation for two axially symmetric components in equilibrium and the appearance of unusual signal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kiwamu

    2007-04-15

    This paper consists of two parts on reversing-pulse electric birefringence (RPEB) signal patterns. The first is the theoretical formulation of two axially symmetric models coexisting in equilibrium in solution. The present RPEB theory is based on the original Tinoco-Yamaoka theory with classical electric dipole moments, which was recently modified and extended by Yamaoka, Sasai, and Kohno to include various electric and optical parameters and most importantly the ion-fluctuation dipole moment (1/2) along the longitudinal direction of axially symmetric molecules. The theory contains the electric polarizability anisotropy Deltaalpha', which can be either positive or negative in relation to the shape of components. The overall signal can be expressed as the sum of the fractions of two components in proportions to the coefficient F(1) or F(2) (=1-F(1)). The second part is the simulation of theoretical RPEB curves for the two-component system with various sets of electric and hydrodynamic parameters for hypothetical but interesting cases. In consideration of the decay behavior, calculated decay curves were compared with experimentally conceivable signals, classifying them into three categories according to cases: F(1)>1, 0signal in buildup and reverse transients reveals the mechanism of field orientation and electro-optic properties of molecules in solution. The ratio q=/ktDeltaalpha(') is the crucial factor that controls the pattern of RPEB signals. If q value of one component is positive and the other is negative, the simulated RPEB curves are characterized by three cases: q>0, q0 or qsignals. If -1signal patterns appears.

  6. Evidence of a circularly polarized light mode along the optic axis in c-cut NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, induced by circular differential reflection and anomalous birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, Werner; Steininger, Steven [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Herreros-Cedres, Javier [Departmento de Fisica Basica, Facultad de Fisica, University De La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Glazer, Anthony Michael, E-mail: kaminsky@chem.washington.ed [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-10

    The anomalous birefringence and circular differential reflection of NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (4-bar2m), cut on the optic axis, have been found to cause an additional signal in measurements of the optical rotation employing polarized light technology, with the sample between crossed and slightly modulated linear polarizers (tilting high accuracy universal polarimetry). The azimuthal rotation of the linearly polarized light, up to 100 times larger than expected, is described in terms of a circularly polarized light mode along the optic axis of varying amplitude. Experimental evidence leading to our conclusion is given and a qualitative model for the effect is presented.

  7. Spin rotation and birefringence effect for a particle in a high energy storage ring and measurement of the real part of the coherent elastic zero-angle scattering amplitude, electric and magnetic polarizabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, V G

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper the equations for the spin evolution of a particle in a storage ring are analyzed considering contributions from the tensor electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the particle. Study of spin rotation and birefringence effect for a particle in a high energy storage ring provides for measurement as the real part of the coherent elastic zero-angle scattering amplitude as well as tensor electric and magnetic polarizabilities. We proposed the method for measurement the real part of the elastic coherent zero-angle scattering amplitude of particles and nuclei in a storage ring by the paramagnetic resonance in the periodical in time nuclear pseudoelectric and pseudomagnetic fields.

  8. Measurement of the magnetically-induced QED birefringence of the vacuum and an improved search for laboratory axions: Technical report. Project definition study of the use of assets and facilities of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.A.; Fairbank, W.M. Jr.; Toki, W.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hall, J.L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Joint Inst. for Lab. Astrophysics]|[National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States); Kraushaar, P.F. Jr.; Jaffery, T.S. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Waxahachie, TX (United States)

    1994-10-31

    The Colorado State Collaboration has studied the feasibility of a high sensitivity QED birefringence/axion search measurement. The objective of this work is to measure, for the first time, the birefringence induced in the vacuum on a light beam travelling in a powerful magnetic field. The same experimental setup also allows a highly sensitive search for axion or axion-like particles. The experiment would combined custom-designed optical heterodyne interferometry with a string of six SSC prototype superconducting dipole magnets at the N-15 site of the SSC Laboratory. With these powerful laser tools, sensitivity advances of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} over previous optical experiments will be possible. The proposed experiment will be able to measure the QED light-by-light scattering effect with a 0.5% accuracy. The increased sensitivity for the axion-two photon interaction will result in a bound on this process rivaling the results based on astrophysical arguments. In the technical report the authors address the scientific significance of these experiments and examine the limiting technical parameters which control their feasibility. The proposed optical/electronic scheme is presented in the context of a background of the known and projected systematic problems which will confront any serious attempt to make such measurements.

  9. Ellipticity induced in vacuum birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Torgrimsson, Greger

    2014-01-01

    We consider signals of photon-photon scattering in laser-based, low energy experiments. In particular, we consider the ellipticity induced on a probe beam by a strong background field, and compare it with a recent worldline expression for the photon polarisation flip amplitude. When the probe and the background are plane waves, the ellipticity is equal to the flip amplitude. Here we investigate the ellipticity-amplitude relation for more physical fields.

  10. Spatial-frequency Fourier polarimetry of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy of linear and circular birefringence in the diagnostics of oncological changes in morphological structure of biological tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushenko, Yu A; Gorskii, M P; Dubolazov, A V; Motrich, A V; Ushenko, V A; Sidor, M I [Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi (Ukraine)

    2012-08-31

    Theory of polarisation-correlation analysis of laser images of histological sections of biopsy material from cervix tissue based on spatial frequency selection of linear and circular birefringence mechanisms is formulated. Comparative results of measuring the coordinate distributions of the complex degree of mutual anisotropy (CDMA), produced by fibrillar networks formed by myosin and collagen fibres of cervix tissue in different pathological conditions, namely, pre-cancer (dysplasia) and cancer (adenocarcinoma), are presented. The values and variation ranges of statistical (moments of the first - fourth order), correlation (excess-autocorrelation functions), and fractal (slopes of approximating curves and dispersion of extrema of logarithmic dependences of power spectra) parameters of the CDMA coordinate distributions are studied. Objective criteria for pathology diagnostics and differentiation of its severity degree are determined. (image processing)

  11. Birefringence in quantum wells of heterostructures In0.68Al0.1Ga0.13As/In0.42Al0.22Ga0.24As/InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrbu, N.; Dorogan, A.; Dorogan, V.; Zalamai, V.

    2015-06-01

    The polarization dependences of reflection and wavelength modulated reflection spectra of quantum wells In0.68Al0.1Ga0.13As/In0.42Al0.22Ga0.24As were investigated. Spectral dependences of refractive indices, extinction coefficients, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constants of quantum wells structures for different polarizations were calculated by the Kramers-Kronig analysis. A phenomenon of birefringence and an interference of polarized light waves in quantum wells were researched. The isotropic wavelength λ0 = 1.246 μm was found out. Interference spectra changes the density of fringes and refractive indices (Δni, ΔnKK = nP,P-nS,S) intersect zero axis at energy of isotropic wavelength (0.955 eV).

  12. Quantitative analysis of aggregation in dilute solutions of effectively rigid biomacromolecules via the combination of oscillatory flow birefringence and viscoelasticity measurements: example study of aggregation of bovine fibrinogen in aqueous glycerol, and detection of a large aggregate formed on addition of guanidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J W; Nestler, F H M; Schrag, J L

    2004-12-20

    Oscillatory flow birefringence (OFB) properties have been measured for dilute solutions of bovine fibrinogen in 65-68% aqueous glycerol with the Miller-Schrag Thin Fluid Layer (TFL) apparatus employing either titanium or stainless steel surfaces in contact with the solutions. The shearing frequency range was 1 to 2500 Hz, the concentrations ranged from 4 to 8 mg/ml, and measurement temperatures were 9.9, 10.0, and 15.8 degrees C. The data showed evidence of significant amounts of aggregation that apparently is caused by the presence of glycerol; contributions from the various aggregates were readily detected since the staggered half-overlap aggregation in this system results in substantial differences in the rotational relaxation times of the various effectively rigid aggregates. The combination of oscillatory flow birefringence and viscoelasticity (VE) data provided sensitive and precise characterization of aggregation in these example systems; all aggregates exhibited the expected positive optical anisotropy. The length of unaggregated fibrinogen in solution was found to be that obtained via electron microscopy. Addition of guanidine hydrochloride to hopefully reduce aggregation did so but also resulted in formation of a very large (2800 to 3500 A), apparently nearly monodisperse, negatively birefringent aggregate, suggesting that this new species might be formed by lateral aggregation.

  13. Raman effect on dark soliton trapping in high birefringence fiber%拉曼增益对高双折射光纤中暗孤子俘获的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫青; 贾维国; 于宇; 张俊萍; 门克内木乐

    2015-01-01

    Not only the interaction between optical pulse and orbital electron but also the interaction between optical pulse and optical phonon needs to be considered when input pulse energy is large. The latter induces the simulated Raman scattering, thus generating the Raman gain. We analyze the effect of Raman gain, especially parallel Raman gain, on dark soliton trapping in high birefringence fiber by analytical method and numerical method. In the first part, we introduce some research results of soliton trapping obtained in recent years. In the second part, the coupled nonlinear Schr?dinger equation including Raman gain is utilized for high birefringence fiber. The trapping threshold of dark soliton with considering the Raman gain is deduced by the Lagrangian approach when input pulse is the dark soliton pulse that the amplitude of two polarized components of the dark soliton are the same (see formula (26)). Fig. 1. shows the relation between threshold and parallel Raman gain according to formula (26) when group velocity mismatching coefficient values are 0.15, 0.3, and 0.5 (vertical Raman gains are all 0.1). In the third part, the propagation of the two orthogonal polarization components of dark soliton is simulated by the fractional Fourier transform method. Figures 2-4 show respectively dark soliton trapping with group velocity mismatching coefficient values of 0.15, 0.3 and 0.5. We consider three situations in which Raman gain is not included and the parallel Raman gains are 0.4 and 0.6 when vertical Raman gains are both 0.1 in different group velocity mismatching coefficient values. We obtain the threshold of dark soliton by numerical method under different conditions and analyze the figures. At the same time, we compare the analytical solution with the numerical solution and discuss the effect of Raman gain on dark soliton trapping. The last part focuses on our conclusion. It is found that the threshold which is obtained by analytical method is smaller than that

  14. 庞加莱球方法对非线性相干耦合模在低双折射光纤中的偏振态稳定性分析%Polarization stability analysis of nonlinear coherent coupling by using Poincaré sphere in a weakly birefringent fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    通拉嘎; 贾卫国; 杨军; 张俊萍

    2012-01-01

    通过对低双折射非线性相干耦合模传输方程引入斯托克斯参量表达式,利用庞加莱球图示法,分析了非线性相干耦合波在低双折射光纤中偏振态的衍化规律,并运用相图法数学几何法给出了双折射差与偏振不稳定性的关系,临街功率表达式.当两个运动常量满足关系时,偏振态围绕庞加莱球上的P1,P2稳定点旋转的闭合曲线衍化,并呈现椭圆偏振态;当两个运动常量满足关系时,出现保偏现象;当两个运动常量满足关系时,偏振态围绕P1,P3稳定点旋转的闭合曲线衍化.%Nonlinear polarization evolution for different birefringence regions in a weakly birefringent fiber was analysed by using Poincaré sphere.It was derived by quoting the Stoke's parameters formalism in the nonlinear coupled differential equations for the nonlinear coupled-mode.The phase plane method shows how the evolution of polarization was governed by refringence.Three conditions was derived for different initial values.While the two constants of motion allow for the inequality-R>Γ,the polarization state would either be elliptical or spin around the stable singular points P1 and P2 on the Poincaré sphere.For the inequality-R=Γ,the linear polarization maintaing phenomenon would occur,the critical power for polarization instability was obtained by using geometrical methods.For the inequality-R<Γ<R,the evolution of polarization state would spin around the two points fixed point P and P3 on the Poincaré sphere.

  15. 一种带葡萄柚空气孔的高双折射ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF光子准晶光纤%Highly birefringent ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF photonic quasi-crystal fib er with twin grap efruits holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟; 娄淑琴; 邹辉; 韩博琳

    2014-01-01

    A novel design of highly birefringent photonic quasi-crystal fiber based on ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF glass with twin grapefruit air holes near the core and twofold symmetry is proposed. The basic unit is composed of one square and its neighboring regular triangle. Using the finite element method, the birefringence and confinement loss are investigated simultaneously by changing the pitch of air holes and sizes of air holes. Numerical results show that the fiber maintains single mode operation in a wide wavelength range from 1.8 µm to 2.2 µm, and the birefringence is on the order of 10-2, two orders of magnitude larger than that of the conventional polarization-maintaining fibers, which is largest (around 2 µm) ever reported to our knowledge and the same order of magnitude as that obtained by fiber using elliptic air holes But this designed fiber is easy to fabricate compared with the fibers using elliptic air holes.%提出了一种具有二重对称性的ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN)氟化物玻璃基的光子准晶光纤。光纤结构是以ZBLAN氟化物玻璃为背景材料,外包层由圆形空气孔以正方形与正三角形分布组成的基本单元构成,在芯区两侧引入两个对称的葡萄柚空气孔,以增加光纤的双折射。应用全矢量有限元法,研究了光纤的双折射和限制损耗特性与结构参数的关系。通过优化光纤结构参数,在1800-2200 nm的波长范围内获得了具有单模传输特性的高双折射光纤,其模式双折射高达10-2,比普通保偏光纤高出两个数量级,与目前报道的采用椭圆空气孔微结构光纤获得的高双折射具有同样的量级。但与具有椭圆空气孔微结构光纤相比,提出的光纤结构更易于制作。研究结果为开辟2µm波段光器件的研究做出了有益的探索。

  16. Characterizing microscopic domains of birefringence in thin tissue sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Moody, Alex; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2001-07-01

    A tissue engineering problem that we anticipate will become increasingly of interest is how to grow protein layers and filaments in preferred orientations. For example, the polymerization of monomers into an oriented structure which may exert influence on adherent cells. In this paper, we report on an optical solution using polarized light measurements to probe the structure and orientation of fibers. In particular in this initial study, we measure the fast-axis orientation and retardance of micro-domains in thin sections of liver, muscle, and skin tissues using a polarizing microscope. The size of microdomains of iso- retardance is in the range 10-100 μm, which suggests that optical measurements with laser beams that are on the order of 1-mm in diameter or with imaging cameras with pixels sizes on the order of 100 s of μm will average over several microdomains and consequently complicate interpretation of measurements.

  17. Birefringence of cellotape: Jones representation and experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, Augusto; Frances, Jorge; Neipp, Cristian [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, Elena [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y Anatomia, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we analyse a simple experiment to study the effects of polarized light. A simple optical system composed of a polarizer, a retarder (cellotape) and an analyser is used to study the effect on the polarization state of the light which impinges on the setup. The optical system is characterized by means of a Jones matrix, and a simple procedure based on Jones vectors is used to obtain an expression for the intensity after the light passes through the optical system. The light intensity is measured by a photodetector and the expression obtained theoretically is experimentally validated. By fitting the experimental intensity data, the value of the retardation introduced by the retarder can also be obtained.

  18. Investigations on birefringence effects in polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xiaolian; Saez-Rodriguez, D.; Bang, Ole;

    2014-01-01

    because of the larger thermo-optic coefficient and smaller Young's modulus of polymer materials. (M)POFBGs are most often photowritten in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) materials using a continuous-wave 325 nm HeCd laser. For the first time to the best of our knowledge, we study photoinduced...... dependent loss (PDL) and differential group delay (DGD) were computed from the Jones matrix eigenanalysis using an optical vector analyser. Maximum values exceeding several dB and a few picoseconds were obtained for the PDL and DGD, respectively. The response to lateral force was finally investigated...

  19. Gravitational birefringence of light in Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Duval, C

    2016-01-01

    The spacetime evolution of massless spinning particles in a Robertson-Walker background is derived using the deterministic system of equations of motion due to Papapetrou, Souriau and Saturnini. A numerical integration of this system of differential equations in the case of the standard model is performed. The deviation of the photon worldlines from the null geodesics is of the order of the wavelength. Perturbative solutions are also worked out in a more general case. An experimental measurement of this deviation would test the acceleration of our expanding universe.

  20. Ultrafast acousto-optic mode conversion in optically birefringent ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejman, Mariusz; Vaudel, Gwenaelle; Infante, Ingrid C.; Chaban, Ievgeniia; Pezeril, Thomas; Edely, Mathieu; Nataf, Guillaume F.; Guennou, Mael; Kreisel, Jens; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Dkhil, Brahim; Ruello, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    The ability to generate efficient giga-terahertz coherent acoustic phonons with femtosecond laser makes acousto-optics a promising candidate for ultrafast light processing, which faces electronic device limits intrinsic to complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Modern acousto-optic devices, including optical mode conversion process between ordinary and extraordinary light waves (and vice versa), remain limited to the megahertz range. Here, using coherent acoustic waves generated at tens of gigahertz frequency by a femtosecond laser pulse, we reveal the mode conversion process and show its efficiency in ferroelectric materials such as BiFeO3 and LiNbO3. Further to the experimental evidence, we provide a complete theoretical support to this all-optical ultrafast mechanism mediated by acousto-optic interaction. By allowing the manipulation of light polarization with gigahertz coherent acoustic phonons, our results provide a novel route for the development of next-generation photonic-based devices and highlight new capabilities in using ferroelectrics in modern photonics.

  1. COMMENT: Comment on `Inhomogeneities and birefringence in quartz'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Grégoire, P.; Luk'yanchuk, I.

    1999-10-01

    We comment on the role of the novel incommensurate elongated-triangle (ELT) phase in the huge light scattering in quartz at small angles that was observed more than 40 years ago at the icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/>-icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> phase transition and was associated with optical inhomogeneities of unknown nature. The relation of these inhomogeneities with the differently oriented ferroelastic blocks of the ELT phase proposed by us and co-workers in a previous publication was misinterpreted and criticized in a recent article by Aslanyan et al (Aslanyan T E, Shigenari T and Abe K 1998 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10 4577), who claimed also that the lock-in occurs at qicons/Journals/Common/neq" ALT="neq" ALIGN="TOP"/>0. Responding to their criticism, we claim that the ELT blocks do have ferroelastic properties which induce the inhomogeneities of optical indices and that the lock-in occurs at q = 0.

  2. Birefringent Bragg Gratings in Highly-Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin Cook; John Canning; John Holdsworth

    2008-01-01

    Efficient writing of Bragg gratings in 12-ring highly-nonlinear photonic crystal fibers is described. Experimental and numerical investigations are performed to reveal the optimum angle for coupling UV writing light to the core. Furthermore, we show that the formation of a strongly briefringent grating is at a particular angle of orientation.

  3. Negative radiation pressure and negative effective refractive index via dielectric birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Jonathan; Rechtsman, Mikael C; Segev, Mordechai

    2012-04-09

    We show that light guided in a planar dielectric slab geometry incorporating a biaxial medium has lossless modes with group and phase velocities in opposite directions. Particles in a vacuum gap inserted into the structure experience negative radiation pressure: the particles are pulled by light rather than pushed by it. This effectively one-dimensional dielectric structure represents a new geometry for achieving negative radiation pressure in a wide range of frequencies with minimal loss. Moreover, this geometry provides a straightforward platform for experimentally resolving the Abrahams-Minkowski dilemma.

  4. Femtosecond Nonlinear Birefringence and Dichroism in Au:TiO_2 Composite Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Au:TiO2 nanocomposite film was fabricated by rf-sputtering. Both real and imaginary parts of x(3) were investigated by optical Kerr effect and pump-probe methods with femtosecond pulse with values of about 10-8 esu.

  5. Hybrid Young interferometer for high resolution measurement of dynamic speckle using high birefringence liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, N.; Holdynski, Z.; Merta, I.; Marc, P.; Kula, P.; Mazur, R.; Piecek, W.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the Young interference experiment is the fundamental setup to combine two beams and to construct the phase modulated light. Moreover, homodyne phase demodulator is based on signal decoding in back Fourier focal plane using bicell photodetector (B-PD). On the above base, we propose a novel experimental approach to the signals demodulation by using the optical interferometer which operates in homodyne mode, combined with liquid crystal spatial light modulators operating both phase as speckle modulator. Dynamic phase changes between the two beams can be controlled by monopixel liquid crystals cell placed in one branch of the interferometer. A phase modulation effect in a signal arm of interferometer is observed as a dynamic shift of the speckle pattern. Simple arithmetic combination of signals from B-PD placed in speckle pattern plane is only one necessary numerical manipulation to obtain exactly phase difference. Concept of signals demodulation in the Fourier focal plane can be only used for exactly defined geometrical (B-PD as well as Young interferometer) and physical parameters (polarization, wavelength). We optimize the setup geometry to obtain extremely high measurement resolution. In this paper we focus on the principles of operation of each part of the system as well as discussion their requirement in order to increase the signal to noise ratio.

  6. Time-Resolved Studies of Photoinduced Birefringence in Azobenzene Dye-Doped Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    state, where the fairly limited work has been done [8,9]. Here we report on transient photoinduced birefrin- gence ( PIB ) measurements on several azo...response time ranges from within 20ns to more than 200 μs. Our results show the response time of PIB to be sys- tematically related to the size of the...lowest optical transition energy. Furthermore, our results suggest that PIB effects can be used to discriminate between0003-6935/08/285074-04$15.00/0

  7. Cladding defects in hollow core fibers for surface mode suppression and improved birefringence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Lyngso, J. K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel polarization maintaining hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber geometry that reduces the impact of surface modes on fiber transmission. The cladding structure is modified with a row of partially collapsed holes to strip away unwanted surface modes. A theoretical investigation...... of the surface mode stripping is presented and compared to the measured performance of four 7-cells core fibers that were drawn with different collapse ratio of the defects. The varying pressure along the defect row in the cladding during drawing introduces an ellipticity of the core. This, combined...

  8. Characterization of Birefringence and Dispersion Properties in an Arrayed Waveguide Grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong Hwan Song; Oh Dal Kwon; Dong-Su Kim; Sun Tae Jung; Kyung Shik Lee

    2003-01-01

    We have characterized polarization dependent loss(PDL), differential group delay(DGD), and chromatic dispersion of an AWG and a simple method was proposed to estimate the chromatic dispersion from the measured DGD of the device.

  9. Low Loss and Highly Birefringent Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, P. John; Williams, D.P.; Mangan, Brian J.;

    2006-01-01

    A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design is proposed which enables both low-loss and polarization-maintained signal propagation. The design relies on an arrangement of antiresonant features positioned on the glass ring that surrounds the air core....

  10. Modeling Interferometric Structures with Birefringent Elements: A Linear Vector-Space Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    the conventional representation, state |si〉 is repre- sented by the 3D vector ~si as well as a “fiducial paddle ” which permits an overall phase to be...which is represented by a fiducial paddle attached to ~s. Thus, in rotating through angle φ, the orientation of the initial fiducial paddle at ~si is...changed to the grey shaded paddle at ~sf . The overall phase change is represented by a rotation of the fiducial paddle by an additional Modeling

  11. Orientational tomography of optical axes directions distributions of multilayer biological tissues birefringent polycrystalline networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Dovhaliuk, Rostyslav Y.

    2013-09-01

    We present a novel measurement method of optic axes orientation distribution which uses a relatively simple measurement setup. The principal difference of our method from other well-known methods lies in direct approach for measuring the orientation of optical axis of polycrystalline networks biological crystals. Our test polarimetry setup consists of HeNe laser, quarter wave plate, two linear polarizers and a CCD camera. We also propose a methodology for processing of measured optic axes orientation distribution which consists of evaluation of statistical, correlational and spectral moments. Such processing of obtained data can be used to classify particular tissue sample as "healthy" or "pathological". For our experiment we use thin layers of histological section of normal and muscular dystrophy tissue sections. It is shown that the difference between mentioned moments` values of normal and pathological samples can be quite noticeable with relative difference up to 6.26.

  12. The optimum scheme of a static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on birefringent crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongqing Zhang(张冬青); Fuquan Wu(吴福全); Shuhai Fan(范树海)

    2003-01-01

    An optimum design of static Fourier-transform spectrometer based on Savert prisms is presented in this paper. A new method of increasing path difference and resolution of spectrometer is given. When the angle between the crystal optical axis of the first Savert prism and the incident interface is 58° and the angle between the crystal optical axis of the second Savert prism and the incident interface is 28°, the maximum path difference will be 0.63 mm, the maximum resolution will be 15.8 cm-1, and the whole field-of-view will reach 6°.

  13. Birefringence and band structure of CdP{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beril, S.I.; Stamov, I.G. [Tiraspol State Corporative University, Yablocikin Street 5, 2069 Tiraspol, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Syrbu, N.N., E-mail: sirbunn@yahoo.com [Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Avenue, 2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Zalamai, V.V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, 5 Academy Street, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    The spatial dispersion in CdP{sub 2} crystals was investigated. The dispersion is positive (n{sup k||c}>n{sup k||y}) at λ>λ{sub 0} and negative (n{sup k||c}

  14. Optical fiber Sagnac interferometer for sensing scalar directional refraction: application to magnetochiral birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Loas, Goulc'hen; Vallet, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We present a set-up dedicated to the measurement of the small scalar directional anisotropies associated to the magnetochiral interaction. The apparatus, based on a polarization-independent fiber Sagnac interferometer, is optimized to be insensitive to circular anisotropies and to residual absorption. It can thus characterize samples of biological interests, for which the two enantiomers are not available and/or which present poor transmission. The signal-to-noise ratio is shown to be limited only by the source intensity noise, leading to a detection limit of Df = 500 nrad.Hz-1/2. It yields a limit on the magnetochiral index nMC < 4 10-13 T-1 at 1550 nm for the organic molecules tested.

  15. The use of birefringence for predicting the stiffness of injection molded polycarbonate discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, N.M.; Pouzada, A.S.; Voerman, J.H.D.; Powell, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    Polycarbonate discs were injection molded with different sets of molding conditions. The parameters studied were the flow rate, melt- and mold-temperature. The discs were subjected to three point support flexural tests. Those tests are specially intended for injection molded discs because of their i

  16. Low Loss and Highly Birefringent Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design is proposed which enables both low-loss and polarization-maintained signal propagation. The design relies on an arrangement of antiresonant features positioned on the glass ring that surrounds the air core.

  17. Stress-induced birefringence in elastomers doped with ferrofluid magnetic particles: Mechanical and optical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP 05315-970 (Brazil); Bailey, C. [Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, P.O. Box 5190, Kent, OH 44242-0001 (United States); Godinho, M.H. [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia e CENIMAT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, P-2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Figueirinhas, J.L. [CFMC, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649 003 Lisbon (Portugal); Palffy-Muhoray, P. [Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State University, P.O. Box 5190, Kent, OH 44242-0001 (United States); Figueiredo Neto, A.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP 05315-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: afigueiredo@if.usp.br

    2006-05-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles from magnetic colloidal suspensions were incorporated in the urethane/urea elastomer (PU/PBDO) by adding to the prepolymers solution in toluene diverse amounts of magnetite grains. It is shown that ferrofluid grains can be efficiently incorporated into the elastomer according to this procedure. Mechanical and optical experiments performed show that the elastomer preparation procedure (casting) introduces a structural anisotropy on the optically isotropic sample. This fact is put in evidence by the measurements of the Young's moduli and orientation of the sample's optical axis under stress. The dependence of the phase shift of both the pure and ferrofluid-doped elastomer samples under strain is linear, and the strain-optic coefficient is show to be linear with the ferrofluid concentration.

  18. Dataset for Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotov, S.S.; Drevinskas, R.; Lotarev, S.V.; Lipatiev, A.S.; Beresna, M.; Cerkauskaite, A.; Sigaev, V.N.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled nanostructures created by femtosecond laserirradiation are demonstrated in alkali-free aluminoborosilicate glass. The growth of the induced retardance associated with the nanograting formation is three orders of magnitude slower than in silicaglass and is observed only within a narrow range of pulse energies. However, the strength of retardance asymptotically approaches the value typically measured in pure silicaglass, which is attractive for practical applications. A similar i...

  19. Direct writing of birefringent elements by ultrafast laser nanostructuring in multicomponent glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, S. S.; Drevinskas, R.; Lotarev, S. V.; Lipatiev, A. S.; Beresna, M.; ČerkauskaitÄ--, A.; Sigaev, V. N.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    Self-assembled nanostructures created by femtosecond laser irradiation are demonstrated in alkali-free aluminoborosilicate glass. The growth of the induced retardance associated with the nanograting formation is three orders of magnitude slower than in silica glass and is observed only within a narrow range of pulse energies. However, the strength of retardance asymptotically approaches the value typically measured in pure silica glass, which is attractive for practical applications. A similar intensity threshold for nanograting formation of about 1 TW/cm2 is observed for all glasses studied. The radially polarized vortex beam micro-converter designed as a space-variant quarter-wave retarder for the near-infrared spectral range is imprinted in commercial Schott AF32 glass.

  20. Broadband tunable Raman soliton self-frequency shift to mid-infrared band in a highly birefringent microstructure fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Xin-Ying, Bi; Jun-Qi, Wang; Yu-Wei, Qu; Ying, Han; Gui-Yao, Zhou; Yue-Feng, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Raman soliton self-frequency shifted to mid-infrared band (λ > 2 μm) has been achieved in an air-silica microstructure fiber (MF). The MF used in our experiment has an elliptical core with diameters of 1.08 and 2.48 μm for fast and slow axis. Numerical simulation shows that each fundamental orthogonal polarization mode has two wide-spaced λ ZDW and the λ ZDW pairs located at 701/2110 nm and 755/2498 nm along the fast and slow axis, respectively. Using 810-nm Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser as pump, when the output power varies from 0.3 to 0.5 W, the furthest red-shift Raman solitons in both fast and slow axis shift from near-infrared band to mid-infrared band, reaching as far as 2030 and 2261 nm. Also, mid-infrared Raman solitons can always be generated for pump wavelength longer than 790 nm if output pump power reaches 0.5 W. Specifically, with pump power at 0.5 W, the mid-infrared soliton in slow axis shifts from 2001 to 2261 nm when the pump changes from 790 nm to 810 nm. This means only a 20 nm change of pump results in 260 nm tunability of a mid-infrared soliton. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61405172, 61405173, and 61275093), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. F2014203194), the College Science Research Program of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. QN20131044), and the Program of Independent Research for the Young Teachers of Yanshan University of China (Grant No. 13LGB017).

  1. Quasi-phase-matching high harmonic generation using trains of pulses produced using an array of birefringent plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Kevin; Robinson, Tom; Hooker, Simon M

    2012-03-12

    Quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation using trains of up to 8 counter-propagating pulses is explored. For trains of up to 4 pulses the measured enhancement of the harmonic signal scales with the number of pulses N as (N + 1)², as expected. However, for trains with N > 4, no further enhancement of the harmonic signal is observed. This effect is ascribed to changes of the coherence length Lc within the generating medium. Techniques for overcoming the variation of Lc are discussed. The pressure dependence of quasi-phase-matching is investigated and the switch from true-phase-matching to quasi-phase-matching is observed.

  2. Effect of Initial Chirping and Pulse Shape on 10 Gb/s Optical Pulse Transmission in Birefringent Nonlinear Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical method to solve the problem related with theinteractive effect of dispersion (both chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion) and nonlinearity on optical pulse transmission is present. Evolutions of pulses with various initial chirping and shape at bit-rate of 10 Gb/s are simulated and compared. Gaussian pulse with appropriate prechirping is propitious for high bit-rate transmission.

  3. Photodetectors and birefringence in ZnP{sub 2}–S{sub 2h}{sup 5} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamov, I.G. [Tiraspol State Corporative University, Yablocicin Street 5, 2069 Tiraspol, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Syrbu, N.N., E-mail: sirbunn@yahoo.com [Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Avenue, 2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Dorogan, A.V. [Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Avenue, 2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    The spectral dependences of refractive indexes n{sub o}(n{sup ⊥}), n{sub e}(n{sup ||}) and Δn=n{sub o}(n{sup ⊥})−n{sub e}(n{sup ||}) were studied in ZnP{sub 2}–C{sub 2h}{sup 5} crystals. The intersection of n{sub o}(n{sup ⊥}) and n{sub e}(n{sup ||}) was found for λ{sub 0}=0.906 μm. The crystal possesses positive dispersion Δn=n{sub o}(n{sup ⊥})−n{sub e}(n{sup ||}) in the region where λ>λ{sub 0}, and a negative dispersion is observed in the region where λ<λ{sub 0}. The electrical, spectral and azimuth characteristics of monolith n–r- and Me-n–r-ZnP{sub 2}C{sub 2h}{sup 5} and discrete ZnP{sub 2}–C{sub 2h}{sup 5–}ZnP{sub 2}–D{sub 4}{sup 8} structures were studied, and a prognosis was made on the usage perspective of these devices.

  4. Cross-phase modulational instability in an elliptical birefringent fiber with higher order nonlinearity and dispersion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Ganapathy; V C Kuriakose

    2002-04-01

    We obtain conditions for the occurrence of cross-phase modulational instability in the normal dispersion regime for the coupled higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher order dispersion and nonlinear terms.

  5. Investigation on crystalline perfection, optical transmittance, birefringence, temperature-dependent refractive index, laser damage threshold and pyroelectric characteristics of inversely soluble lithium sulfate monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P.; Bhatt, Rajeev; Bhaumik, Indranil; Karnal, A. K.; Ramasamy, P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    Bulk prismatic lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals were grown by seed rotation with slow heating method from aqueous solution. Small FWHM obtained from high-resolution X-ray diffraction spectrum shows that the crystals grown by this method have less defects and absence of low-angle grain boundaries. The high transmittance and low reflectance nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. The principal refractive indices of a LSMH crystal have been measured by a prism coupling method for the wavelengths of 0.407, 0.532, 0.828, 1.064 and 1.551 µm at room temperature, and Sellmeier equations are determined from the fitting of the data point. The refractive index data confirm that LSMH crystal is negative biaxial and the optic axis lies in YZ plane with an angle (2 V y ) of 51.74° with respect to y axis at 532 nm wavelength. The thermo-optic coefficients were determined from the temperature-dependent refractive indices measured in the range of 30-125 °C for the wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm. The surface laser damage threshold studies reveal the higher optical radiation stability against 532-nm laser. The pyroelectric coefficients and pyroelectric figure of merit were determined from the pyroelectric current measurement by the Byer and Roundy method.

  6. Lag temperature measurement based on birefringence%基于双折射的滞后温度测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马任德; 宋连科; 周留柱

    2011-01-01

    在强磁场环境下,研究了K9玻璃内部线性双折射随温度的变化.实验发现强磁场对输出结果的影响可以忽略,K9玻璃内部线性双折射的变化滞后于环境温度.通过测量双折射的变化,可以估计K9玻璃内部温度.

  7. Evidence for vacuum birefringence from the first optical polarimetry measurement of the isolated neutron star RX\\, J1856.5$-$3754

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; Caniulef, D Gonzalez; Taverna, R; Turolla, R; Zane, S; Wu, K

    2016-01-01

    The "Magnificent Seven" (M7) are a group of radio-quiet Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) discovered in the soft X-rays through their purely thermal surface emission. Owing to the large inferred magnetic fields ($B\\approx 10^{13}$ G), radiation from these sources is expected to be substantially polarised, independently on the mechanism actually responsible for the thermal emission. A large observed polarisation degree is, however, expected only if quantum-electrodynamics (QED) polarisation effects are present in the magnetised vacuum around the star. The detection of a strongly linearly polarised signal would therefore provide the first observational evidence of QED effects in the strong-field regime. While polarisation measurements in the soft X-rays are not feasible yet, optical polarisation measurements are within reach also for quite faint targets, like the M7 which have optical counterparts with magnitudes $\\approx 26$--$28$. Here, we report on the measurement of optical linear polarisation for the prototype...

  8. Dielectric and magnetic birefringence in low-chlorine-doped n-type Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger, M.F.; Hofmann, T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States); Hetterich, M. [DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Kirby, R.D.; Sellmyer, D.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States); Schubert, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry over the spectral range from 1.24 to 3.34 eV is used to investigate a set of molecular beam epitaxy grown lowchlorine-doped n-type Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Se films on (001)-oriented GaAs for x=0.0, 0.02, 0.14 and 0.28. We present evidence for intrinsic optical anisotropy in dependence of the Mn concentration caused by wurtzitestructure domain formation. We employ a previously established dielectric function model that accounts for band-gap transition energy splitting in cubic semiconductors [Phys. Rev. B 60, 16618 (1999)]. Room temperature magneto-optic generalized ellipsometry in the Kerrconfiguration reveals the sp-d exchange energy splitting parameters upon expanding our anisotropy model by inclusion of chiral spin-polarized band-to-band transition contributions. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Measuring the Wavelength of a Diode Laser and the Birefringence of Mica: The Experimental Examination of the IPHO 40 Held in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Lopez, J. L.; Ortiz, M. E.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Romero-Rochin, V.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental examination applied in the 40th International Physics Olympiad held in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, is presented. The examination consisted of two parts: (1) based on the measurements of a diffraction pattern produced by a diode laser impinging on a sharp edge of a razor blade, the students were asked to estimate the wavelength of the…

  10. Design of birefringent prisms in differential interference contras t microscopy%微分干涉相衬显微镜中偏光棱镜设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡昕; 徐毓娴; 张志利

    2001-01-01

    微分干涉相衬显微测量术在生物医学、材料科学等领域中有广泛应用,其中偏振分光棱镜设计是关键技术之一.对应用于微分干涉相衬显微系统中的偏振分光棱镜Nomarski棱镜的主要参数之间的关系进行分析,并做了设计计算,得出了一些有实用价值的结论,使Noma rski棱镜的设计更简便,有利于促进微分干涉相衬显微测量术在我国的推广应用.

  11. Temperature-Dependent Optical Activity and Birefringence Study of D-Alanine Single Crystal%D-丙氨酸单晶低温变温光学性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗升; 龚龑; 王文清; 杜为民

    2006-01-01

    用PEM-90光弹调制器和透射偏振光的方法,研究D-丙氨酸单晶结构低温变温光学性质的变化.D-丙氨酸单晶是双轴晶体,晶体各向异性,先测定劳埃像,结合D-丙氨酸晶体特征,确定晶面为[010]面.由于电弱力宇称不守恒,D-和L-丙氨基酸分子间存在宇称破缺能差,Salam预言在某临界温度(~250 K)下,D-氨基酸分子会发生二级相变.在218~290 K,通过原位测量D-丙氨酸晶体的旋光性质(I2f/Ide)随温度的变化,发现D-丙氨酸晶体在250 K左右有明显的旋光相变,与前期D-缬氨酸晶体低温相变结果相类似,从而为Salam预言的二级相变提供了佐证.

  12. 石墨烯包层结构光子晶体光纤的高双折射特性%High Birefringence in Graphene Structure Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宵宵; 范万德; 廖文英; 唐文海; 隋佳男; 曹学伟; 李乙钢

    2016-01-01

    将PG玻璃材料制作成的椭圆纤芯引入光子晶体光纤中心,设计了一种石墨烯包层结构的高双折射光子晶体光纤.基于有限元法对该光纤的双折射特性进行了数值模拟,研究了光纤孔径比、孔间距和纤芯椭圆对双折射特性的影响,并以该光子晶体光纤的模场面积和限制性损耗为依据进行了优化.研究结果表明:在波长1 550 nm处,光纤双折射率高迭0.13,满足高双折射要求;两偏振方向模场面积小于0.7 μm2,限制性损耗低于10-6 dB/km.该光纤可有效保持光在传输系统中的偏振状态,为高稳定性超连续谱的产生提供依据.

  13. 一种基于肖特玻璃的新型高双折射光子晶体光纤%A Novel High Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fiber Based on Schott Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江昀; 曹晔; 逯艳杰; 童峥嵘

    2014-01-01

    设计了一种基于肖特玻璃SF57的新型高双折射光子晶体光纤,在纤芯和包层同时引入椭圆空气孔,并且在包层的最内层对称地引入两个圆形空气孔.通过改变空气孔的间距和椭圆率,采用全矢量有限元法研究了该光纤的双折射、限制损耗和色散特性.数值研究发现,在纤芯中引入小椭圆空气孔,可极大地提高双折射的数值.通过优化光纤的结构参数,当孔间距A为1.60 μm,椭圆率η为0.5时,在波长1.55μm处,双折射高达5.22×10 2,限制损耗低至8.82×1010dB/m,且该光纤在1.0~2.2 μm的波长范围内保持正常色散,可用于宽带色散补偿.该设计对研究新型背景材料的光子晶体光纤具有一定的意义.

  14. Polarization locking in an isotropic, modelocked soliton Er/Yb fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, S; Collings, B; Knox, W

    1997-07-07

    A modelocked fiber laser, operating in the soliton regime without any explicit intracavity polarizers, is observed to spontaneously lock its output polarization for certain values of the intracavity birefringence. For other settings of the intracavity birefringence the output polarization undergoes pulse-to-pulse evolution. The dependence of the output polarization evolution on intracavity birefringence outside of the locking regions can be understood with a simple model. The locking behavior exhibits several surprising aspects and is not completely understood.

  15. Lumière lente par amplification paramétrique dans les fibres optiques biréfringentes

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser, Nour

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to the physical process of slow light induced by vector parametric amplification in highly and weakly birefringent optical fibers. Our first study concerns slow light induced by parametric amplification in highly birefringent fibers. Unlike the scalar process, we theoretically demonstrate that large optical delays can be in principle generated in birefringent fibers, one order of magnitude higher than for the scalar case. Both analytical and numerical results in the case of a...

  16. Orthogonally linear polarized lasers(Ⅰ)--principle and devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shulian; XU Ting

    2005-01-01

    Two kinds of orthogonally polarized lasers, i.e. Zeeman dual-frequency lasers and four-frequency ring lasers (laser gyros) have been developed since the invention of lasers, in which circularly polarized lights oscillate. This paper summarizes recent progress of the study on orthogonally linear polarized lasers with the standing wave cavity. Firstly, the expression of producing orthogonally linear polarized lights in standing wave cavity, i.e. laser frequency splitting, is given. Almost all the birefringence effects made in laser cavity are used to produce orthogonally linear polarized lights. The effect includes quartz crystal birefringence effect, calcite birefringence effect,stress (photo-elastic) birefringence effect and electro-optical birefringence effect. Secondly, several physical phenomena of orthogonally linear polarized lasers are discovered such as aberrance of frequency splitting curves caused by optical activity of quartz crystal, order-passing of longitudinal modes with frequency splitting and strong modes competition. Finally, because the traditional Zeeman dual frequency laser cannot output frequency difference larger than 3 MHz, the approaches of obtaining larger frequency difference are studied. The sequential results, several kinds of orthogonally polarized lasers, are described, such as birefringence dual frequency lasers outputting a frequency difference from 40 MHz to hundreds of megahertz, birefringence-Zeeman dual frequency lasers outputting a frequency difference from 1 MHz to hundreds of megahertz, the LD pumped YAG birefringence dual frequency laser outputting frequency difference of several gigahertz, and the lasers whose longitudinal mode spacing is c/4L instead of c/2L.

  17. Terahertz polarization conversion with quartz waveplate sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaveev, A. K.; Kropotov, G. I.; Tsygankova, E. V.; Tzibizov, I. A.; Ganichev, S. D.; Danilov, S. N.; Olbrich, P.; Zoth, C.; Kaveeva, E. G.; Zhdanov, A. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Deyanov, R. Z.; Redlich, B.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of calculation and experimental testing of an achromatic polarization converter and a composite terahertz waveplate (WP), which are represented by sets of plane-parallel birefringent plates with in-plane birefringence axis. The calculations took into account the effect of inte

  18. Simulation of erasure of photoinduced anisotropy by circularly polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajti, Sz.; Kerekes, Á.; Barabás, M.;

    2001-01-01

    The temporal evolution of photoinduced birefringence is investigated on the basis of a model proposed by Pedersen and co-workers, This model is extended for the case of elliptically polarized light, and used to describe the erasure of photoinduced birefringence by circularly polarized light...

  19. Orientational dynamics in dye-doped organic electro-optic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apitz, D.; Svanberg, C.; Jespersen, K.G.;

    2003-01-01

    The time dependent birefringence of polymer-based electro-optic materials is investigated using ellipsometry. We show that the birefringence after switching off the poling field does not depend only on the induced refractive index, but also on how that level was reached. The role of the poling vo...

  20. Reactive mesogen photoalignment on photopolymerizable composite layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahilny, U. V.; Stankevich, A. I.; Trofimova, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The volume photoanisotropy (photoinduced birefringence) and surface photoanisotropy (LC photoalignment) of compositions of LC monomer - benzaldehyde polymer upon polarized UV radiation have been revealed and investigated. A high quality of photoalignment is confirmed by an extreme value of birefringence and low imperfection of phase plates fabricated on the basis of LC monomer on composite layer.

  1. Optical anisotropy in packed isotropic spherical particles: indication of nanometer scale anisotropy in packing structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kohei; Inasawa, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Yukio

    2013-02-28

    We investigated the origin of birefringence in colloidal films of spherical silica particles. Although each particle is optically isotropic in shape, colloidal films formed by drop drying demonstrated birefringence. While periodic particle structures were observed in silica colloidal films, no regular pattern was found in blended films of silica and latex particles. However, since both films showed birefringence, regular film structure patterns were not required to exhibit birefringence. Instead, we propose that nanometer-scale film structure anisotropy causes birefringence. Due to capillary flow from the center to the edge of a cast suspension, particles are more tightly packed in the radial direction. Directional packing results in nanometer-scale anisotropy. The difference in the interparticle distance between radial and circumferential axes was estimated to be 10 nm at most. Nanometer-scale anisotropy in colloidal films and the subsequent optical properties are discussed.

  2. Polarization holographic recording in Disperse Red1 doped polyurethane polymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksejeva, J.; Gerbreders, A.; Gertners, U.; Reinfelde, M.; Teteris, J.

    2011-06-01

    In this report holographic recording of polarisation and surface relief gratings in Disperse Red 1 (DR1) doped polyurethane polymer films was studied. In this material DR1 is chemically bounded to polyurethane polymer main chain. Polarization holographic recording was performed by two orthogonal circularly polarized 532 nm laser beams. Photoinduced birefringence is a precondition for polarization holograms recording, therefore a detailed study of a photoinduced birefringence and changes of optical properties was performed. The lasers with wavelengths of 375nm, 448nm, 532 nm and 632.8 nm were used as pumping beam for sample excitation. The photoinduced birefringence Δn was measured at 532 nm and 632.8 nm wavelengths. The photoinduced birefringence dependence on the pumping beam wavelength and intensity was investigated. Surface relief grating (SRG) formation was observed during polarization holographic recording process. A profile of SRG was studied by AFM. A relationship between SRG formation and photoinduced birefringence has been discussed.

  3. Analysis of the collagen birefringence and the relative attenuation coefficient of health and burned skin irradiated with linearly polarized He-Ne laser; Analise da birrefringencia do colageno e do coeficiente de atenuacao de amostras de pele sadia e queimada irradiadas pelo laser de He-Ne linearmente polarizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniela de Fatima Teixeira da

    2002-07-01

    Low-intensity laser therapy is characterized by its ability to induce athermic effects and nondestructive photobiological processes. Although it has been in use for more than 40 years, this phototherapy is still not an established therapeutic modality. The objectives of this study were: to quantify the collagen fibers organization by polarized light microscopy in normal and burned skin samples at day 17 post-injury considering preferential axis as the animal's spinal column and aligning the linear laser polarization in two directions of polarization, parallel or perpendicular to this axis; to determine the relative attenuation coefficient for the intensity light by the technique of imaging the light distribution in normal and burned skin during wound healing process taking only parallel direction of polarization. To reach the objectives, burns about 6 mm in diameter were created with liquid N{sub 2} on the back of the rats and the lesions were irradiated on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-wounding, D= 1 J/cm{sup 2}, to investigate the effects of low-intensity linearly polarized He-Ne laser beam on skin wounds healing. Control lesions were not irradiated. The results have demonstrated that: the skin samples irradiated with linearly parallel polarized He-Ne laser beam showed collagen fibers more organized; burned skin samples presents a higher attenuation coefficient than normal skin samples. These results are important to optimize low intensity laser therapy dosimetry on acceleration wound healing. (author)

  4. In vivo detection of exercised-induced ultrastructural changes in genetically-altered murine skeletal muscle using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppart, Stephen

    2006-02-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers are a known source of form birefringence in biological tissue. The birefringence present in skeletal muscle is associated with the ultrastructure of individual sarcomeres, specifically the arrangement of A-bands corresponding to the thick myosin filaments. Certain structural proteins that prevent damage and maintain the structural and functional health of the muscle fiber preserve the organization of the Abands in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the level of birefringence detected can estimate the health of the muscle as well as the damage incurred during exercise. Murine skeletal muscle from both genetically-altered (mdx) and normal (wild-type) specimens were imaged in vivo with a fiber-based PSOCT imaging system to quantitatively determine the level of birefringence present in the tissue before and after exercise. The mdx muscle lacks dystrophin, a structural protein that is mutated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans. Muscle from these mdx mice exhibited a marked decrease in birefringence after exercise, whereas the wild-type muscle was highly birefringent before and after exercise. The quantitative results from this tissue optics study suggest for the first time that there is a distinct relationship between the degree of birefringence detected using PS-OCT and the sarcomeric ultrastructure present within skeletal muscle.

  5. Role of the Caenorhabditis elegans multidrug resistance gene, mrp-4, in gut granule differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin; King, Brian; Lawrenson, Andrea L; Schroeder, Lena K; Kershner, Aaron M; Hermann, Greg J

    2007-11-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans gut granules are lysosome-related organelles with birefringent contents. mrp-4, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter homologous to mammalian multidrug resistance proteins, functions in the formation of gut granule birefringence. mrp-4(-) embryos show a delayed appearance of birefringent material in the gut granule but otherwise appear to form gut granules properly. mrp-4(+) activity is required for the extracellular mislocalization of birefringent material, body-length retraction, and NaCl sensitivity, phenotypes associated with defective gut granule biogenesis exhibited by embryos lacking the activity of GLO-1/Rab38, a putative GLO-1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor GLO-4, and the AP-3 complex. Multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-4 localizes to the gut granule membrane, consistent with it playing a direct role in the transport of molecules that compose and/or facilitate the formation of birefringent crystals within the gut granule. However, MRP-4 is also present in oocytes and early embryos, and our genetic analyses indicate that its site of action in the formation of birefringent material may not be limited to just the gut granule in embryos. In a search for genes that function similarly to mrp-4(+), we identified WHT-2, another ABC transporter that acts in parallel to MRP-4 for the formation of birefringent material in the gut granule.

  6. Femtosecond laser writing of waveguide retarders in fused silica for polarization control in optical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luís A; Grenier, Jason R; Herman, Peter R; Aitchison, J Stewart; Marques, Paulo V S

    2011-09-12

    Femtosecond laser (300 fs, 500 kHz, 522 nm) fabrication of optical waveguides in bulk silica glass is extended to waveguide retarders. We study the merits of nanograting orientation (perpendicular or parallel to the waveguide) for generating high and low birefringence waveguides. This is used together with other exposure condition to control the waveguide birefringence between 10⁻⁵ and 10⁻⁴ permitting for the simultaneous fabrication of the waveguides and the tuning of the retardance demonstrating quarter and half-wave retarders in the 1200 nm to 1700 nm spectrum. The wavelength dependence of the birefringence is also characterized over a range of exposure conditions.

  7. Primate retina imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducros, Mathieu G.; Marsack, Jason D.; Rylander, H. Grady; Thomsen, Sharon L.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2001-12-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) is applied to determine the depth-resolved polarization state of light backreflected from the eye. The birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) was observed and measured from PSOCT images recorded postmortem in a Rhesus monkey. An image-processing algorithm was developed to identify birefringent regions in acquired PSOCT retinal images and automatically determine the thickness of the RNFL. Values of the RNFL thickness determined from histology and PSOCT were compared. PSOCT may provide a new method to determine RNFL thickness and birefringence for glaucoma diagnostics.

  8. Complex polarization ratio to determine polarization properties of anisotropic tissue using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jesung; Kemp, Nate J; Rylander, H Grady; Milner, Thomas E

    2009-08-03

    Complex polarization ratio (CPR) in materials with birefringence and biattenuance is shown as a logarithmic spiral in the complex plane. A multi-state Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm using the CPR trajectory collected by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was developed to determine polarization properties of an anisotropic scattering medium. The Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm using the CPR trajectory is verified using simulated PS-OCT data with speckle noise. Birefringence and biattenuance of a birefringent film, ex-vivo rodent tail tendon and in-vivo primate retinal nerve fiber layer were determined using measured CPR trajectories and the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear fitting algorithm.

  9. A self-tunable Titanium Sapphire laser by rotating a set of parallel plates of active material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iparraguirre, Ignacio; Azkargorta, Jon; Fernandez, Joaquín; Balda, Rolindes; Del Río Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Illarramendi, M Asunción; Aramburu, Ibon

    2009-03-02

    In a recent work, the authors reported the experimental demonstration of wavelength tuning in a single birefringent plate of Ti:sapphire crystal based on its own birefringence properties. In that device, the thickness of the active plate, limited by the width of the single order tuning spectral region, imposed a strong constraint in the power performance of the laser. The aim of this work is to overcome this limitation by using a set of several identical birefringent plates so that the wavelength tuning of the laser is obtained by synchronously rotating the plates in their own plane. A discussion about the laser performance is presented.

  10. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  11. Passive optical losses in laser glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caird, J.A.; Milanovich, F.P.; Nielsen, N.D.; Powell, H.T.; Marion, J.E.; Pertica, A.J.; Roe, J.N.

    1989-05-11

    Background absorption, scattering, and stress-birefringence loss measurements are reported for phosphate laser glass amplifier media used in fusion and high average power laser systems. Typical background absorption and stress birefringence losses were found to be comparable, and on the order of 10/sup /minus/3/ cm/sup /minus/1/. Scattering losses, on the other hand, were typically found to be more than an order of magnitude smaller. The results indicate that improvements in the cost/performance ratio can be achieved by reducing background absorption of birefringence, and possibly also through the use of cheaper polishing techniques. 6 refs.

  12. Millimeter-wave receiver design for plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Hansen, S. K.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou;

    2016-01-01

    Scattered millimeter waves entering from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are generally elliptically polarized. In order to convert the millimeter waves to linearly polarized waves (required for the detector), birefringent window assemblies (sapphire) have...

  13. Wideband, 50 dB Attenuation Range Liquid Crystal Based Variable Optical Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.J.; Pan; Henry; He; Eric; Zhang

    2003-01-01

    A compact variable optical attenuator, covering C and L bands with over 50 dB attenuation range, is realized using a single liquid crystal cell with a tilted fused silica coating compensating the cell's small residual birefringence.

  14. Polarimetric investigation of materials with both linear and circular anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I.; Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.;

    1997-01-01

    We investigate light propagation through materials with both linear and circular anisotropy and find the relation of the amplitude and polarization transfer functions to the four anisotropic characteristics: linear circular birefringence, and linear and circular dichroism. We determine these four...

  15. Polarisation control of DFB fibre lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varming, Poul; Philipsen, Jacob Lundgreen; Berendt, Martin Ole;

    1998-01-01

    The polarisation properties of a distributed feedback (DFB) fibre laser are investigated. It is shown experimentally that the birefringence of the UV induced phase-shift is the dominating effect controlling the polarisation properties of the laser...

  16. Non-reciprocity of Faraday rotation in gyrotropic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Vlokh R.; Adamenko D.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that, under the conditions of coexisting natural optical activity and non-zero linear optical birefringence, reversal of the light wave vector sign can result in changing angle of Faraday rotation.

  17. Distributed optical fiber sensor for spatial location of polarization mode coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokgor, Ilkan; Handerek, Vincent A.; Rogers, Alan J.

    1993-03-01

    Transverse stress applied to a highly birefringent fiber at an arbitrary angle (other than 0 or 90 degrees) to the fiber birefringence axes causes rotation of the birefringence axes and changes the beat length of the fiber in that section. If one of the polarization modes is excited at the input, coupling of light from one mode to the other will be observed at a stress point. The presentation describes a method for determining the locations of discrete mode coupling points spaced along a polarization maintaining fiber using a pump-prob architecture based on the optical Kerr effect. Probe light experiences coupling at different stress locations. Counterpropagating strong pump light also experiences coupling while inducing additional birefringence, and changing the polarization state of the probe at the output. This system may be made temperature independent by introducing a phase tracking/triggering system. The advantages and limitations of this technique are described.

  18. Research on a system and method of automated whole-field measurement of optical glass stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-jun; Tang, Yi; Bai, Ting-zhu

    2008-03-01

    On the basis of the principle of single quarter wave plate method, a model of automatic whole-field measuring optical glass stress is presented, which is called "4+1steps phase shifting method" including the model for the isoclinic parameter and the stress birefringence. According to this model, an automatic whole-field measuring system is established. The correctness of the model was testified by numeric emulation experiments under the preset conditions of isoclinic angle and stress birefringence. Practical measurement obtained a result coincident with the actual distribution of the isoclinic angle and the birefringence. The automatic whole-field measuring model and system can achieve the whole process intelligently and automatically, and dispose the disadvantages of tradition method about interpreting the stress level by subjective judging birefringence of some selected spots.

  19. Evolution and the Calcite Eye Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Vernon L

    2013-01-01

    Calcite is a uniaxial, birefringent crystal, which in its optically transparent form, has been used for animal eye lenses, the trilobite being one such animal. Because of the calcite birefringence there is a difficulty in using calcite as a lens. When the propagation direction of incoming light is not exactly on the c-axis, the mages blur. In this paper, calcite blurring is evaluated, and the non-blurring by a crystallin eye lens is compared to a calcite one.

  20. Involvement of TBL/DUF231 proteins into cell wall biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Volker; Selbig, Joachim; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger

    2010-01-01

    Through map-based cloning we determined TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE (TBR) belongs to a plant-specific, yet anonymous gene family with 46 members in Arabidopsis thaliana. These genes all encode the domain of unknown function 231 (DUF231). TBR and its homolog TRICHOME BIREFRINGENCE-LIKE3 (TBL3) are transcriptionally coordinated with CELLULOSE SYNTHASE (CESA) genes, and loss of TBR or TBL3 results in decreased levels of crystalline secondary wall cellulose in trichomes and stems, respectively. Loss o...

  1. Handbook of the Properties of Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    1997 (1968). A- 20 CADMIM SUFIDE(Cd6 ~CADMIUM SULFIDE (CdS) Room Temperature Birefringence Versus WavelengthŘ Wavelength (inoi) n 0.5120 2.751 0.5130...2.359 2.368 0.9500 2.344 2.359 A- 219 CADMIM SUFIDE(Cd6 ~CADMIUM SULFIDE (CdS) Room Temperature Birefringence Versus Havelength4 Wavel1ength 0 e

  2. Polarization properties of photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2000-01-01

    We present the first analysis of polarization properties of photonic bandgap fibers. Strong birefringence may be obtained for modest non-uniformities in and around the core region, suggesting the use of photonic bandgap fibers as polarization maintaining components.......We present the first analysis of polarization properties of photonic bandgap fibers. Strong birefringence may be obtained for modest non-uniformities in and around the core region, suggesting the use of photonic bandgap fibers as polarization maintaining components....

  3. Non-Maxwellian probability density function of fibers with lumped polarization mode dispersion elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Cristian; Mecozzi, Antonio

    2004-05-15

    We give an analytical expression for the probability density function of the differential group delay for a concatenation of Maxwellian fiber sections and an arbitrary number of lumped elements with constant and isotropically oriented birefringence. When the contribution of the average squared of the constant birefringence elements is a significant fraction of the total, we show that the outage probability can be significantly overestimated if the probability density function of the differential group delay is approximated by a Maxwellian distribution.

  4. 一种Sagnac干涉仪结构的光子晶体光纤温度传感器%A Photonic Crystal Fiber Temperature Sensor Based on Sagnac Interferometer Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍铁生; 王丽; 王哲; 刘玉敏; 胡署阳; 尹丽丹

    2012-01-01

    采用Sagnac干涉仪结构,设计了一种高双折射光子晶体光纤环镜温度传感器.光子晶体光纤温度稳定性好,通过向高双折射光子晶体光纤空气孔填充热光系数高的液体材料——乙醇,从而实现温度传感的目的.采用平面波展开法,分析了高双折射光子晶体光纤的双折射与传输波长和温度的关系.理论分析表明,填充乙醇后,高双折射光子晶体光纤的双折射随着传输波长和温度的增加而增加,且双折射与温度成线性关系.实验中将一段填充乙醇的高双折射光子晶体光纤与3 dB耦合器熔接制作成Sagnac干涉仪结构的光纤环镜,当温度从45℃升至80℃时,光谱仪上观察到凹点λi向短波方向漂移了309.280 nm,温度灵敏度高达8.837 nm/℃.%A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror temperature sensor based on Sagnac interferometer structure is designed. As the photonic crystal fiber has good temperature stability, in order to achieve the temperature sensing, ethanol which has a high thermal coefficient is filled into the air holes of the high birefringence photonic crystal fiber. Using plane wave expansion method, the relationship between birefringence of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber and transmission wavelength, and that between birefringence and temperature are analyzed. Theoretical analysis shows that: filled with ethanol, the birefringence of high birefringence photonic crystal fiber increases with the increase of the transmission wavelength and temperature, besides, there is a linear relationship between birefringence and temperature. In the experiment, a piece of high birefringence photonic crystal fiber filled with ethanol is welded with a 3 dB coupler to form a fiber loop mirror. When the temperature rises from 45℃ to 80 ℃ , the concave point drift of 309. 280 nm towards the short wavelength is observed on spectrum analyzer. The sensitivity is as high as 8. 837 nm/℃ .

  5. Visualization of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease by polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Woehrer, Adelheid; Ricken, Gerda; Augustin, Marco; Mitter, Christian; Pircher, Michael; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2017-03-01

    One major hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the deposition of extracellular senile plaques and vessel wall deposits composed of amyloid-beta (Aβ). In AD, degeneration of neurons is preceded by the formation of Aβ plaques, which show different morphological forms. Most of them are birefringent owing to the parallel arrangement of amyloid fibrils. Here, we present polarization sensitive optical coherence microscopy (PS-OCM) for imaging mature neuritic Aβ plaques based on their birefringent properties. Formalin-fixed, post-mortem brain samples of advanced stage AD patients were investigated. In several cortical brain regions, neuritic Aβ plaques were successfully visualized in tomographic and three-dimensional (3D) images. Cortical grey matter appeared polarization preserving, whereas neuritic plaques caused increased phase retardation. Consistent with the results from PS-OCM imaging, the 3D structure of senile Aβ plaques was computationally modelled for different illumination settings and plaque sizes. Furthermore, the birefringent properties of cortical and meningeal vessel walls in CAA were investigated in selected samples. Significantly increased birefringence was found in smaller vessels. Overall, these results provide evidence that PS-OCM is able to assess amyloidosis based on intrinsic birefringent properties.

  6. Digitally Reinforced Polarization of Hematoxylin-Eosin in the Diagnosis of Renal Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait ŞEN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Systemic amyloidosis is a rare disorder, characterized by extracellular accumulation of Congo red positive fibrillar amyloid protein deposits that have an amorphous, eosinophilic appearance on hematoxylin-eosin stained preparations. The kidney is the most commonly affected organ by systemic amyloidosis. Congo red staining increases the positive birefringence of the weakly birefringent unstained amyloid. In this study, we investigated the potential diagnostic power of digitally reinforced birefringence of routine hematoxylin-eosin stained slides from renal biopsies.Material and Method: We reviewed 130 hematoxylin-eosin stained slides for polarization. Sixty-five new amyloidosis cases were diagnosed by renal biopsy. All renal biopsies were evaluated by light microscopy and immunofluorescence. Slides were reevaluated blindly using a microscope (Olympus BX51 that was attached polarization filters and connected to a digital camera (Olympus DP21, SAL. Deposits that showed green birefringence on hematoxylin-eosin preparations with digitalized microscopy were considered positive and the results were confirmed using Congo red.Results: Of the 65 Congo red confirmed amyloid positive biopsies, 61 showed green birefringence with hematoxylin-eosin. Of the 65 Congo-red confirmed amyloid negative biopsies, two were considered to be false positive. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were estimated as 94%, 97%, 97% and 94% respectively.Conclusion: We concluded that polarized hematoxylin-eosin sections can be used digitally as a fast and first step diagnostic method for renal amyloidosis

  7. Visualization of neuritic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease by polarization-sensitive optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Woehrer, Adelheid; Ricken, Gerda; Augustin, Marco; Mitter, Christian; Pircher, Michael; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2017-01-01

    One major hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is the deposition of extracellular senile plaques and vessel wall deposits composed of amyloid-beta (Aβ). In AD, degeneration of neurons is preceded by the formation of Aβ plaques, which show different morphological forms. Most of them are birefringent owing to the parallel arrangement of amyloid fibrils. Here, we present polarization sensitive optical coherence microscopy (PS-OCM) for imaging mature neuritic Aβ plaques based on their birefringent properties. Formalin-fixed, post-mortem brain samples of advanced stage AD patients were investigated. In several cortical brain regions, neuritic Aβ plaques were successfully visualized in tomographic and three-dimensional (3D) images. Cortical grey matter appeared polarization preserving, whereas neuritic plaques caused increased phase retardation. Consistent with the results from PS-OCM imaging, the 3D structure of senile Aβ plaques was computationally modelled for different illumination settings and plaque sizes. Furthermore, the birefringent properties of cortical and meningeal vessel walls in CAA were investigated in selected samples. Significantly increased birefringence was found in smaller vessels. Overall, these results provide evidence that PS-OCM is able to assess amyloidosis based on intrinsic birefringent properties. PMID:28262719

  8. Using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography to identify tumor stromal fibrosis and increase tumor biopsy yield (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Adams, David C.; Miller, Alyssa J.; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Tissue biopsy is the principal method used to diagnose tumors in a variety of organ systems. It is essential to maximize tumor yield in biopsy specimens for both clinical diagnostic and research purposes. This is particularly important in tumors where additional tissue is needed for molecular analysis to identify patients who would benefit from mutation-specific targeted therapy, such as in lung carcinomas. Inadvertent sampling of fibrotic stroma within tumor nodules contaminates biopsies, decreases tumor yield, and can impede diagnosis. The ability to assess tumor composition and guide biopsy site selection in real time is likely to improve diagnostic yield. Polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) measures birefringence in organized tissues, such as collagen, and could be used to distinguish tumor from fibrosis. In this study, PS-OCT was obtained in 65 lung nodule samples from surgical resection specimens containing varying ratios of tumor and fibrosis. PS-OCT was obtained with either a custom-built helical scanning catheter (0.8 or 1.6mm in diameter) or a dual-axis bench top scanner. Strong birefringence was observed in nodules containing dense fibrosis, with no birefringence in adjacent regions of tumor. Tumors admixed with early, loosely-organized collagen demonstrated mild-to-moderate birefringence, and tumors with little collagen content showed little to no birefringent signal. PS-OCT provides significant insights into tumor nodule composition, and has potential to differentiate tumor from stromal fibrosis during biopsy site selection to increase diagnostic tumor yield.

  9. A study on the qualitative morphological features of the muscle and subcutaneous shapes in vivo using Fourier-domain common path OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Ho; Xuan, Liu; Kang, Jin U.; Song, Chul-Gyu

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated a polarization sensitive subcutaneous and muscle imaging based on common path optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) using near infrared source. The axial and lateral resolutions of our PS-OCT system are 9μm and 6μm, respectively. The internal structural information has been extracted by the real-time signal analysis (Fourier Transform) from the modulated spectral intensity depending on the beam and tissue birefringence. Preliminary results using fresh beef and in vivo rat show that we can visualize the birefringence effect of the tissue collagen fibers in the samples for better image contrast and sensitivity for detection of hidden dermal structures. Compared to conventional CP-OCT, our proposed PS-OCT could provide depth-resolved images, which reflect tissue birefringence.

  10. Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyle Park, B.; Pierce, Mark C.; Cense, Barry; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2004-11-01

    We present an analysis for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography that facilitates the unrestricted use of fiber and fiber-optic components throughout an interferometer and yields sample birefringence, diattenuation, and relative optic axis orientation. We use a novel Jones matrix approach that compares the polarization states of light reflected from the sample surface with those reflected from within a biological sample for pairs of depth scans. The incident polarization alternated between two states that are perpendicular in a Poincaré sphere representation to ensure proper detection of tissue birefringence regardless of optical fiber contributions. The method was validated by comparing the calculated diattenuation of a polarizing sheet, chicken tendon, and muscle with that obtained by independent measurement. The relative importance of diattenuation versus birefringence to angular displacement of Stokes vectors on a Poincaré sphere was quantified.

  11. Great circle solution to polarization-based quantum communication (QC) in optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Hughes, Richard John

    2016-03-15

    Birefringence in optical fibers is compensated by applying polarization modulation at a receiver. Polarization modulation is applied so that a transmitted optical signal has states of polarization (SOPs) that are equally spaced on the Poincare sphere. Fiber birefringence encountered in propagation between a transmitter and a receiver rotates the great circle on the Poincare sphere that represents the polarization bases used for modulation. By adjusting received polarizations, polarization components of the received optical signal can be directed to corresponding detectors for decoding, regardless of the magnitude and orientation of the fiber birefringence. A transmitter can be configured to transmit in conjugate polarization bases whose SOPs can be represented as equidistant points on a great circle so that the received SOPs are mapped to equidistant points on a great circle and routed to corresponding detectors.

  12. Dual-wavelength stable nanosecond pulses generation from cladding-pumped fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuling Hu; Jing Yu; Chunqing Gao; Guanghui Wei; Fuyun Lü

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the generation of dual-wavelength stable nanosecond pulses by a laser diode pumped Ybdoped double-clad fiber laser is presented. In the experiment, the fiber laser with two-mirror cavity is approved which operates in a self-Q-switching regime. The Q-switching mechanism is based on stimulatedBrillouin scattering (SBS). When the pump power achieves the SBS threshold, the fiber laser changes from the start resonator to the SBS resonator. With different reflectivities of the second mirror, stable dual-wavelength pulses with the pulse width range from 10 ns to less than 2 ns are obtained. The resultwas explained theoretically by birefringency (including stochastic birefringency and bend birefringency).

  13. Structure and optical properties of ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sumei; Fu, Xiaoyong; Xia, Guodong; Wang, Jianguo; Shao, Jianda; Fan, Zhengxiu

    2006-10-01

    The glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique was used to deposit ZnS films by electron beam evaporation method. The cross sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image illustrated a highly orientated microstructure composed of slanted column. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis indicated that incident flux angle had significant effects on the nodule size and surface roughness. Under identical nominal thickness, the actual thickness of the GLAD films is related to the incident flux angle. The refractive index and in-plane birefringence of the GLAD ZnS films were discussed, and the maximum birefringence Δ n = 0.036 was obtained at incident flux angle of α = 80°. Therefore, the glancing angle deposition technique is a promising way to create a columnar structure with enhanced birefringent property.

  14. Residual lens effects in 2D mode of auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based switchable 2D/3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijter, M.; IJzerman, W. L.; de Boer, D. K. G.; de Zwart, S. T.

    2006-04-01

    We discuss residual lens effects in multi-view switchable auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based 2D/3D displays. With the introduction of a switchable lenticular, it is possible to switch between a 2D mode and a 3D mode. The 2D mode displays conventional content, whereas the 3D mode provides the sensation of depth to the viewer. The uniformity of a display in the 2D mode is quantified by the quality parameter modulation depth. In order to reduce the modulation depth in the 2D mode, birefringent lens plates are investigated analytically and numerically, by ray tracing. We can conclude that the modulation depth in the 2D mode can be substantially decreased by using birefringent lens plates with a perfect index match between lens material and lens plate. Birefringent lens plates do not disturb the 3D performance of a switchable 2D/3D display.

  15. Fabrication of microchannels in fused silica using femtosecond Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashunin, D. A., E-mail: yashuninda@yandex.ru [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, 24 Minin St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Malkov, Yu. A. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Mochalov, L. A.; Stepanov, A. N. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, 24 Minin St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Ave., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-07

    Extended birefringent waveguiding microchannels up to 15 mm long were created inside fused silica by single-pulse irradiation with femtosecond Bessel beams. The birefringent refractive index change of 2–4 × 10{sup −4} is attributed to residual mechanical stress. The microchannels were chemically etched in KOH solution to produce 15 mm long microcapillaries with smooth walls and a high aspect ratio of 1:250. Bessel beams provide higher speed of material processing compared to conventional multipulse femtosecond laser micromachining techniques and permit simple control of the optical axis direction of the birefringent waveguides, which is important for practical applications [Corrielli et al., “Rotated waveplates in integrated waveguide optics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4249 (2014)].

  16. Frequency tuning of polarization oscillations: Toward high-speed spin-lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, Markus, E-mail: markus.lindemann@rub.de; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R. [Photonics and Terahertz Technology, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer [Institute of Optoelectronics, Ulm University, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2016-01-25

    Spin-controlled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) offer a high potential to overcome several limitations of conventional purely charged-based laser devices. Presumably, the highest potential of spin-VCSELs lies in their ultrafast spin and polarization dynamics, which can be significantly faster than the intensity dynamics in conventional devices. Here, we experimentally demonstrate polarization oscillations in spin-VCSELs with frequencies up to 44 GHz. The results show that the oscillation frequency mainly depends on the cavity birefringence, which can be tuned by applying mechanical strain to the VCSEL structure. A tuning range of about 34 GHz is demonstrated. By measuring the polarization oscillation frequency and the birefringence governed mode splitting as a function of the applied strain simultaneously, we are able to investigate the correlation between birefringence and polarization oscillations in detail. The experimental findings are compared to numerical calculations based on the spin-flip model.

  17. A Jones matrix formalism for simulating 3D Polarised Light Imaging of brain tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, Miriam; De Raedt, Hans; Reckfort, Julia; Amunts, Katrin; Axer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The neuroimaging technique 3D Polarised Light Imaging (3D-PLI) provides a high-resolution reconstruction of nerve fibres in human post-mortem brains. The orientations of the fibres are derived from birefringence measurements of histological brain sections assuming that the nerve fibres - consisting of an axon and a surrounding myelin sheath - are uniaxial birefringent and that the measured optic axis is oriented in direction of the nerve fibres (macroscopic model). Although experimental studies support this assumption, the molecular structure of the myelin sheath suggests that the birefringence of a nerve fibre can be described more precisely by multiple optic axes oriented radially around the fibre axis (microscopic model). In this paper, we compare the use of the macroscopic and the microscopic model for simulating 3D-PLI by means of the Jones matrix formalism. The simulations show that the macroscopic model ensures a reliable estimation of the fibre orientations as long as the polarimeter does not resolve ...

  18. Plasmonic metagratings for simultaneous determination of Stokes parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2016-01-01

    Measuring light's state of polarization is an inherently difficult problem, since the phase information between orthogonal polarization states is typically lost in the detection process. In this work, we bring to the fore the equivalence between normalized Stokes parameters and diffraction contrasts in appropriately designed phase-gradient birefringent metasurfaces and introduce a concept of all-polarization birefringent metagratings. The metagrating, which consists of three interweaved metasurfaces, allows one to easily analyze an arbitrary state of light polarization by conducting simultaneous (i.e., parallel) measurements of the correspondent diffraction intensities that reveal immediately the Stokes parameters of the polarization state under examination. Based on plasmonic metasurfaces operating in reflection at the wavelength of 800 nm, we design and realize phase-gradient birefringent metasurfaces and the correspondent metagrating, while experimental characterization of the fabricated components convinc...

  19. Spectropolarimetric interferometer based on single-mode glass waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhi-Mei; Xia, Shanhong; Matsuda, Naoki

    2008-02-04

    A novel simple spectropolarimetric interferometer was developed based on single-mode potassium ion-exchanged (PIE) glass waveguides that generally have a large birefringence due to the compressive stress induced in the ion-exchanged layers. By using the spectropolarimetric interferometry, wavelength dependence of the modal birefringence of single-mode PIE waveguides was accurately obtained in a broad bandwidth, without need to measure individual modal indices. The modal birefringence decreases with increasing wavelength. The spectropolarimetric interferometer was demonstrated to be responsive to changes occurring within the penetration depth of the evanescent field. A refractive-index change of Deltan = 0.002 was easily detected in the case of a 2-cm-long interaction path length.

  20. Polarization modulation instability in photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruhlak, R J; Wong, G K; Chen, J S; Murdoch, S G; Leonhardt, R; Harvey, J D; Joly, N Y; Knight, J C

    2006-05-15

    Polarization modulation instability (PMI) in birefringent photonic crystal fibers has been observed in the normal dispersion regime with a frequency shift of 64 THz between the generated frequencies and the pump frequency. The generated sidebands are orthogonally polarized to the pump. From the observed PMI frequency shift and the measured dispersion, we determined the phase birefringence to be 5.3 x 10(-5) at a pump wavelength of 647.1 nm. This birefringence was used to estimate the PMI gain as a function of pump wavelength. Four-wave mixing experiments in both the normal and the anomalous dispersion regimes generated PMI frequency shifts that show good agreement with the predicted values over a 70 THz range. These results could lead to amplifiers and oscillators based on PMI.

  1. Equilateral pentagon polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with low nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Han-Rui; Li Xu-You; Hong Wei; Hao Jin-Hui

    2012-01-01

    A new pentagon polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with low nonlinearity is introduced. The full vector finite element method was used to investigate the distribution and the effective area of modal field,the nonlinear properties,the effective indices of two orthogonal polarization modes and the birefringence of the new PM-PCF effectively.It is found that the birefringence of the new polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre can easily achieve the order of 10-4,and it can obtain higher birefringence,larger effectively mode-field area and lower nonlinearity than traditional hexagonal polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibre with the same hole pitch,same hole diameter,and same ring number.It is important for sensing and communication applications,especially has potential application for fibre optical gyroscope.

  2. Design of eight-mode polarization-maintaining few-mode fiber for multiple-input multiple-output-free spatial division multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixian; LaRochelle, Sophie

    2015-12-15

    We propose a polarization-maintaining few-mode fiber (FMF) that features an elliptical ring shaped core with a high refractive index contrast ∼0.03 between the core and the cladding. This fiber design alleviates the usual trade-off between the number of guided modes and the achievable birefringence that is usually observed in conventional elliptical-core FMFs. Through numerical simulations, we show that this fiber design can support up to 10 guided vector modes over the entire C band while providing large birefringence. Except for the two fundamental modes, the eight higher-order vector modes are all separated from their adjacent modes by effective index differences >10⁻⁴, which is the typical birefringence value of single-mode polarization maintaining fibers. The designed fiber targets applications in spatial division multiplexing of optical channels, without multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing, for short-reach optical interconnects.

  3. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki; Sanfelice, Rafaela C; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Oyanguren, Patricia; Galante, María J

    2013-04-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n=0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery.

  4. Orthogonality breaking sensing model based on the instantaneous Stokes vector and the Mueller calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Roche, Muriel; Parnet, François; Alouini, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Polarimetric sensing by orthogonality breaking has been recently proposed as an alternative technique for performing direct and fast polarimetric measurements using a specific dual-frequency dual-polarization (DFDP) source. Based on the instantaneous Stokes-Mueller formalism to describe the high-frequency evolution of the DFDP beam intensity, we thoroughly analyze the interaction of such a beam with birefringent, dichroic and depolarizing samples. This allows us to confirm that orthogonality breaking is produced by the sample diattenuation, whereas this technique is immune to both birefringence and diagonal depolarization. We further analyze the robustness of this technique when polarimetric sensing is performed through a birefringent waveguide, and the optimal DFDP source configuration for fiber-based endoscopic measurements is subsequently identified. Finally, we consider a stochastic depolarization model based on an ensemble of random linear diattenuators, which makes it possible to understand the progress...

  5. Temperature-insensitive polarimetric vibration sensor based on HiBi microstructured optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chah, Karima; Linze, Nicolas; Caucheteur, Christophe; Mégret, Patrice; Tihon, Pierre; Verlinden, Olivier; Sulejmani, Sanne; Geernaert, Thomas; Berghmans, Francis; Thienpont, Hugo; Wuilpart, Marc

    2012-09-01

    A new type of highly birefringent microstructured optical fiber has been tested for vibration measurements using a polarimetric technique. This technique takes advantage of the stress-induced phase shift between the two orthogonally polarized fiber eigenmodes. Comparison of three different fiber types shows that standard single-mode fibers do not provide stable measurements and that conventional polarization-maintaining fibers lead to a significant cross-sensitivity to temperature. However, for highly birefringent microstructured fibers specifically designed to provide a temperature-independent birefringence, our experiments show repeatable vibration measurements over a frequency range extending from 50 Hz to 1 kHz that are unaffected by temperature variations (up to 120 °C).

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigation of optically spin-injected VECSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Alexandre; Frougier, Julien; Baili, Ghaya; Alouini, Mehdi; George, Jean-Marie; Sagnes, Isabelle; Dolfi, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We report theoretical and experimental analysis of spin-injected VECSELs. First, we fabricate and characterize an optically pumped (100)-oriented InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum well VECSEL. The structure is designed to allow the integration of a Metal-Tunnel-Junction ferromagnetic spin-injector for future electrical injection. We report here the control at room temperature of the VECSEL polarization using optical spin injection in the active medium. The switching between two highly circular polarization states had been demonstrated using an M-shaped extended cavity in multi-modes lasing. This first result witnesses an efficient spin-injection in the active medium of the laser. Then, we report birefringence measurements of the VECSEL in oscillating conditions. The proposed technique relies on the measurement in the microwave domain of the beatnote between the oscillating mode and the amplified spontaneous emission of the cross-polarized non-lasing field lying in the following longitudinal mode. This technique is shown to offer extremely high sensitivity and accuracy enabling to track the amount of residual birefringence according to the laser operation conditions. Finally, we discuss the compensation of the residual linear phase anisotropy by controlling the birefringence of an intracavity electro-optical crystal. A 44-fold birefringence reduction is obtained. Besides, we study the modification of the laser polarization eigen states with birefringence compensation: a rotation of the linear polarization state is observed when the total phase anisotropy is reduced. An elliptical polarization eigen state is obtained at the minimum of the birefringence into the laser cavity, more favorable for spin injection.

  7. Design and analysis of optically pumped semiconductor VECSEL with ANECz optical control layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqi Zhou; Dapeng Zhao; Yajuan Li; Qingxin Yang

    2008-01-01

    Through the reversible isomerization of trans-cis-trans under the linear polarization light, the molecules of azo materials have the same tropism which is vertical to the polarization of light. This means that azo materials have photo-induced birefringence which is related to optical power and polarization angle of the light. Based on the photo-induced birefringence of azo materials, we design a new type of optically pumped semiconductor vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (OPS-VECSEL) which can control the polarization and frequency of the ejection laser. The functional molecules of azo materials are [3-azo- (4'nitro)]-(9-ethyl)-carbazole (ANECz).

  8. A near-infrared zero-order achromatic retarder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arijit Saha; Kallol Bhattacharya; Ajoy Kumar Chakraborty

    2011-10-01

    Phase retarders normally show strong wavelength dependence. Achromatic retarders which exhibit nearly identical characteristics over a wide wavelength spectrum is used in polychromatic light. The present investigation deals with a technique to design and study the characteristics of an achromatic combination of birefringent plates in 800–2000 nm range. The retarder has been designed using calcite, crystalline quartz and ADP. The thicknesses of the plates are 19.38 m, 446.14 m and 12.57 m respectively. The new arrangement of three birefringent plates proposed has the promise of producing a zero-order quarter wave achromatic combination with fairly good accuracy.

  9. All-optical subdiffraction multilevel data encoding onto azo-polymeric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoini, Matteo; Biagioni, Paolo; Duò, Lamberto; Finazzi, Marco

    2009-03-01

    By exploiting photo-induced reorientation in azo-polymer thin films, we demonstrate all-optical polarization-encoded information storage with a scanning near-field optical microscope. In the writing routine, 5-level bits are created by associating different bit values to different birefringence directions, induced in the polymer after illumination with linearly polarized light. The reading routine is then performed by implementing polarization-modulation techniques on the same near-field microscope, in order to measure the encoded birefringence direction.

  10. Use of fiber helical coils to obtain polarization insensitive fiber devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Diana; Garcia-Weidner, A.; Rodriguez-Garcia, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Using a new model for the description of the birefringence of a helical coil, it is shown that the birefringence effect on the signal polarization introduced by a fiber device can be canceled out by introducing two helical coils at the required orientation. Experimental results obtained using this modification in a polarization insensitive device (optical isolator) and in a non-polarization insensitive device working at two different wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexer) are presented and discussed. Such modified devices were used in the construction of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a full control of the input signal and pump states of polarization.

  11. Effects of heavy bosonic excitations on QED vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Paola; Gamboa, Jorge; Mendez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Since the present experimental bound for the vacuum birefringence leaves room for additional contributions, we propose that an effective heavy axion-like excitation (ALE) also couples to the conventional QED. Following a large-mass approach we discuss the effect this coupling has on the birefringence of the electromagnetic vacuum. We show that the experimental bound allows for a mass $m_A > 1 {eV}$ and a coupling constant $g_A > 10^{-12} {eV}^{-1}$. The extremely low photon-ALE conversion probability could also explain the experimental non-observation of vacuum dichroism.

  12. Reflective composite sheet design for LCD backlight recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyung; Kim, Kibeom; Lee, Eun Soo; Jeong, Won Young; Lim, Dae Young; Choi, Suk-Won

    2014-05-01

    We have designed a reflective composite sheet consisting of a birefringent polymer matrix and isolated isotropic or minimally birefringent fibers. The optical properties of the sheet have been investigated in terms of the width, spacing, and thickness of the individual fibers. Commercial software (FDTD Solution) was used to simulate the reflectance of the proposed sheet, and conventional processes such as cast-film extrusion in combination with solid-state drawing were used to manufacture the multilayer composite sheet. The measured and simulated reflectance spectra confirm the feasibility of employing the sheet as a reflective polarizer.

  13. A new test of the Einstein equivalence principle and the isotropy of space

    CERN Document Server

    Haugan, Mark P; Haugan, Mark P; Kauffmann, Thierry F

    1995-01-01

    Recent research has established that nonsymmetric gravitation theories like Moffat's NGT predict that a gravitational field singles out an orthogonal pair of polarization states of light that propagate with different phase velocities. We show that a much wider class of nonmetric theories encompassed by the \\chi g formalism predict such violations of the Einstein equivalence principle. This gravity-induced birefringence of space implies that propagation through a gravitational field can alter the polarization of light. We use data from polarization measurements of extragalactic sources to constrain birefringence induced by the field of the Galaxy. Our new constraint is 10^8 times sharper than previous ones.

  14. Polarisation effects in twin-core fibre: Application for mode locking in a fibre laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, I. A.; Kablukov, S. I.; Podivilov, Evgenii V.; Babin, Sergei A.; Apolonski, A. A.

    2012-09-01

    We report the first measurements of the longitudinal power distribution in a twin-core optical fibre at different input light polarisations. Experimental evidence is presented that, because of the difference in birefringence between the cores, the power in them depends on which core the beam is launched into. Experimental data are interpreted in terms of a modified polarisation model for mode coupling in twin-core fibres which takes into account the birefringence of the cores. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the use of the polarisation properties of a twincore fibre for mode locking in a fibre laser.

  15. Polarisation effects in twin-core fibre: Application for mode locking in a fibre laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobach, I A; Kablukov, S I; Podivilov, Evgenii V; Babin, Sergei A; Apolonski, A A

    2012-09-30

    We report the first measurements of the longitudinal power distribution in a twin-core optical fibre at different input light polarisations. Experimental evidence is presented that, because of the difference in birefringence between the cores, the power in them depends on which core the beam is launched into. Experimental data are interpreted in terms of a modified polarisation model for mode coupling in twin-core fibres which takes into account the birefringence of the cores. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the use of the polarisation properties of a twincore fibre for mode locking in a fibre laser. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  16. DETERMINATION OF OPTICAL LOSSES AT FIBERS JOINING WITH DIFFERENT MODEFIELD DIAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Varlamov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For optical losses reducing at fiber optic systems creation the angular distribution of the output radiation of birefringent optical fibers with elliptical stress cladding with 4, 12, 16 and 18 mol. % GeO2 is measured. Obtained data make it possible to predict losses at joining of optical fibers with elliptical stress cladding and different concentrations of GeO2 with each other, as well as standard telecom fibers, such as SMF-28, other birefringent optical fibers and integrated optics components.

  17. Dual-polarization mode-locked Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, J; Vallet, M; Brunel, M

    2012-07-15

    A mode-locked solid-state laser containing a birefringent element is shown to emit synchronously two frequency combs associated to the two polarization eigenstates of the cavity. An analytical model predicts the polarization evolution of the pulse train, which is determined by the adjustable intracavity birefringence. Experiments realized with a Nd:YAG laser passively mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror are in perfect agreement with the model. Locking between the two combs arises for particular values of their frequency difference, e.g., half the repetition rate, and the pulse train polarization sequence is then governed by the relative overall phase offset of the two combs.

  18. Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Y.; Gautam, M.; Divakar Rao, K.; Swami, M. K.; Gupta, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    We report a study on the use of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) for discriminating malignant (invasive ductal carcinoma), benign (fibroadenoma) and normal (adipocytes) breast tissue sites. The results show that while conventional OCT, that utilizes only the intensity of light back-scattered from tissue microstructures, is able to discriminate breast tissues as normal (adipocytes) and abnormal (malignant and benign) tissues, PS-OCT helps in discriminating between malignant and benign tissue sites also. The estimated values of birefringence obtained from the PSOCT imaging show that benign breast tissue samples have significantly higher birefringence as compared to the malignant tissue samples.

  19. Orientation of the agarose gel matrix in pulsed electric fields.

    OpenAIRE

    Stellwagen, J; Stellwagen, N C

    1989-01-01

    The technique of transient electric birefringence was used to investigate the effect of pulsed electric fields on the orientation of the agarose gel matrix. Orientation of the gel was observed at all electric field strengths. Very slow, time-dependent effects were observed when pulses of 10-100 V/cm were applied to 1% gels for 0.5-2 seconds, indicating that domains of the matrix were being oriented by the electric field. The sign of the birefringence reversed when the direction of the applied...

  20. Anisotropy in Thermo-Optic Coefficient of Different Polymer Systems by Attenuated Total Reflection Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; CAO Zhuang-Qi; SHEN Qi-Shun; MENG Qing-Hua; HUANG De-Ying; GUO Kun-Peng; QIU Ling; SHEN Yu-Quan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Thermo-optic coefficient dn/dT as well as volume expansion coefficients β of different polymer systems are measured for both TE and TM polarizations in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration. Experimental results indicate that cross-linked polymer systems exhibit the thermal expansion coefficients smaller than those of the original side-chain systems. Moreover, the anisotropies in thermo-optic coefficients of the polymer systems with small birefringence exhibit linear relationship with the anisotropies in volume expansion coefficients, but the polymer systems with larger birefringence exhibit more complicated relationship.

  1. Testing Chameleon Theories with Light Propagating through a Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, P; Davis, A C; Mota, D F; Shaw, D J

    2007-01-01

    It was recently argued that the observed PVLAS anomaly can be explained by chameleon field theories in which large deviations from Newton's law can be avoided. Here we present the predictions for the dichroism and the birefringence induced in the vacuum by a magnetic field in these models. We show that chameleon particles behave very differently from standard axion-like particles (ALPs). We find that, unlike ALPs, the chameleon particles are confined within the experimental set-up. As a consequence, the birefringence is always bigger than the dichroism in PVLAS-type experiments.

  2. Magneto optical rotation in a GaAs Quantum Well Waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Mortezapour, Ali; Mahmoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of two orthogonally polarized beams and a four-level GaAs quantum well (QW) waveguide is investigated. It is shown that, by applying a static magnetic field normal to the propagation direction of the driving beams, the birefringence can be induced in the QW waveguide. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the dephasing rate between two ground states of the QW waveguide makes it a dichromatic medium and can also diminish the induced birefringence. Our results show how a large and complete magneto-optical rotation in the QW waveguide can be obtained via adjusting the intensity of the magnetic field and also the length of the QW waveguide.

  3. Physical models of polarization mode dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyuk, C.R.; Wai, P.K.A. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The effect of randomly varying birefringence on light propagation in optical fibers is studied theoretically in the parameter regime that will be used for long-distance communications. In this regime, the birefringence is large and varies very rapidly in comparison to the nonlinear and dispersive scale lengths. We determine the polarization mode dispersion, and we show that physically realistic models yield the same result for polarization mode dispersion as earlier heuristic models that were introduced by Poole. We also prove an ergodic theorem.

  4. Quasi-Wollaston-Prism for Terahertz Frequencies Fabricated by 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Serrano, A. I.; Castro-Camus, E.

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a quasi-Wollaston prism for terahertz frequencies based on form birefringence. The prism uses the birefringence induced in a sub-wavelength layered plastic-air structure that produces refraction in different directions for different polarizations. The component was simulated using the finite-difference-time-domain method, fabricated by 3D printing and subsequently tested by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy showing a polarization separation around of 23° for frequencies below 400 GHz, exhibiting cross polarization power extinction ratios better than 1.6 × 10-3 at 200 GHz.

  5. The application of three-dimensional photoelasticity to impact problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostin, I.C. [Moscow State Univ. of Civil Engeneering (Russian Federation); Fedorov, A.V. [Mining School of Nantes (France)

    1995-12-31

    A method is proposed for the solution of three-dimensional dynamic problems in geometrically complex structural configurations under impact. The methodology developed employs the generation of photoelastically observable stress wave propagation in a birefringent material applied to the external surfaces of a structure. This work demonstrated the extension of this technique to impact loading. Problems of practical engineering application, such as the gluing of birefringent material to test models were examined experimentally. Pulsed magnetic fields generated by capacitor discharge were employed on typical complex engineering models to demonstrate that the methodology is adequate for solving practical impact problems.

  6. Characterization of muscle stretching and damage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Zeng, Nan; Liu, Celong; Ma, Hui

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we study muscle elastic drawing and damage using our lab's polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) instrument and polarization sensitive Monte Carlo program. First, we acquire two-dimensional PS-OCT images of elastically drawn and injured muscle, injury processes including dehydration and hydrolysis, we extract some characteristics from experimental results including extinction coefficient, integral reflectivity and birefringence and so on, which will change during muscle is being elastically drawn or injured. In order to further understand and evaluate the degree of muscle elastic drawing or damage according to the measurements parameters mentioned above, we do some corresponding simulations using our lab's Monte Carlo program, which is based on a sphere cylinder birefringence model and can simulate complicated tissue containing anisotropic microstructures and various polarization imaging and measurement systems. For muscle elastic drawing, we find that integral reflectivity sometimes increases and decreases as muscle's elastic drawing continues, and through simulation we are unable to find the relationship between extinction coefficients and muscle elastic drawing. As for muscle damage, we simulate two processes: dehydration and hydrolysis. We find that as dehydration deepens, the birefringence of muscle is increasing but getting slowly and the integral reflectivity is decreasing, and as hydrolysis deepens, the birefringence decreases and the integral reflectivity decreases almost linearly. Through the analysis above, we demonstrate the validity of those parameters to characterize muscle elasticity and fiber structure and explain its potential for assessment of muscle damage.

  7. A study of airway smooth muscle in asthmatic and non-asthmatic airways using PS-OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David C.; Holz, Jasmin A.; Szabari, Margit V.; Hariri, Lida P.; Harris, R. Scott; Cho, Jocelyn L.; Hamilos, Daniel L.; Luster, Andrew D.; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Present understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of asthma has been severely limited by the lack of an imaging modality capable of assessing airway conditions of asthma patients in vivo. Of particular interest is the role that airway smooth muscle (ASM) plays in the development of asthma and asthma related symptoms. With standard Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), imaging ASM is often not possible due to poor structural contrast between the muscle and surrounding tissues. A potential solution to this problem is to utilize additional optical contrast factors intrinsic to the tissue, such as birefringence. Due to its highly ordered structure, ASM is strongly birefringent. Previously, we demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive OCT(PS-OCT) has the potential to be used to visualize ASM as well as easily segment it from the surrounding (weakly) birefringent tissue by exploiting a property which allows it to discriminate the orientation of birefringent fibers. We have already validated our technology with a substantial set of histological comparisons made against data obtained ex vivo. In this work we present a comprehensive comparison of ASM distributions in asthmatic and non-asthmatic human volunteers. By isolating the ASM we parameterize its distribution in terms of both thickness and band width, calculated volumetrically over centimeters of airway. Using this data we perform analyses of the asthmatic and non-asthmatic airways using a broad number and variety and subjects.

  8. Methacryluic Azopolymers for Holographic Storage: A Comparison among Different Polymer Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcén, Patricia; Oriol, Luis; Sánchez, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The photoinduced anisotropy and volume holographic storage in a series of polymers with different architectures and azo contents of 7% and 20% in weight have been investigated. Measurements of the birefringence (An) induced with im- early polarised 488 nm light show that for polymers with an azo ...

  9. A new transient network model for associative polymer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, R.H.W.; Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Duits, M.H.G.; Mellema, J.

    1999-01-01

    A new model for the linear viscoelastic behavior of polymer networks is developed. In this model the polymer system is described as a network of spring segments connected via sticky points (as in the Lodge model). [Lodge, A. S., “A network theory of flow birefringence and stress in concentrated poly

  10. Demonstration of frequency control and CW diode laser injection control of a titanium-doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Clayton H.; Brockman, Philip; Hess, Robert V.; Modlin, Edward A.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental frequency narrowing studies of a Ti:sapphire ring laser with no intracavity optical elements are reported. Frequency narrowing has been achieved using a birefringent filter between a partially reflecting reverse wave suppressor mirror and the ring cavity output mirror. Results of CW diode laser injection seeding are reported.

  11. ZEEMAN ELLIPSOMETER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.; WIND, M.M.; Lepoole, R.; Habing, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9416310 (A1) Ellipsometer comprising at least a Zeeman laser (Z) to generate two beams (g1, g2) which are slightly shifted in frequency and (after transmission through a birefringent crystal (quarter-wave plate)) are both polarized linearly but perpendicular to one another, a non-

  12. Calibration of the optical torque wrench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedaci, F.; Huang, Z.; Van Oene, M.; Dekker, N.H.

    2012-01-01

    The optical torque wrench is a laser trapping technique that expands the capability of standard optical tweezers to torque manipulation and measurement, using the laser linear polarization to orient tailored microscopic birefringent particles. The ability to measure torque of the order of kBT (∼4 pN

  13. Methacrylic azopolymers for holographic storage: A comparison among different polymer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcen, P.; Oriol, L.; Sanchez, C.;

    2007-01-01

    The photoinduced anisotropy and volume holographic storage in a series of polymers with different architectures and azo contents of 7% and 20% in weight have been investigated. Measurements of the birefringence (An) induced with nearly polarised 488 nm light show that for polymers with an azo con...... copolymers, as volume holographic storage material....

  14. Temporally uncorrelated photon-pair generation by dual-pump four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; McKinstrie, C. J.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    We study the preparation of heralded single-photon states using dual-pump spontaneous four-wave mixing. The dual-pump configuration, which in our case employs cross-polarized pumps, allows for a gradual variation of the nonlinear interaction strength enabled by a birefringence-induced walk-off be...

  15. Comparison of the mesogenic and physical properties of polar tolanes, biphenyls, and terphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadło, A.; Dąbrowski, R.; Ziółek, A.; Kula, P.; Urban, S.; Gauza, S.; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2005-09-01

    Low viscosity high birefringence nematic liquid crystalline compounds and mixtures are described. They belong to the families of 4'-alkyl-3-fluoro-4-isothiocyanatobiphenyls, 4"-alkyl-3,5-difluoro-4-isothiocyanatoterphenyls, 4'-alkyl-3-fluoro-4-isothiocyanatotolanes and 4'-(4-alkylphenyl)-3,5-difluoro-4-isothiocyanatotolanes.

  16. Polarization holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters with linear and circular photoanisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Ludmila; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, Mario Tonev;

    1996-01-01

    We investigate thin phase polarization holographic gratings recorded with two waves with orthogonal linear polarizations in materials in which illumination with linearly/circularly polarized light gives rise to linear/circular birefringence. The theoretical analysis shows that the presence of cir...

  17. Gain in regularity for a coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Vera Villagrán

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the gain of regularity for the initial value problem for acoupled nonlinear Schrödinger system that describes some physical phenomena such as the propagation in birefringent optical fibers, Kerr-like photo refractive media in optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. This study is motivated by the results obtained by N. Hayashi et al.

  18. System of polarization correlometry of biological liquids layers polycrystalline structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Boychuk, T. M.; Mincer, O. P.; Angelsky, P. O.; Bodnar, N. B.; Oleinichenko, B. P.; Bizer, L. I.

    2013-09-01

    A model of generalized optical anisotropy of human bile is suggested and a method of polarimetric of the module and phase Fourier of the image of the field of laser radiation is analytically substantiated, that is generated by the mechanisms of linear and circular birefringence of polycrystalline networks with a diagnosis and differentiation of cholelithiasis against a background of chronic cholecystitis.

  19. Methods and means of Stokes-polarimetry microscopy of optically anisotropic biological layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Ushenko, V. A.; Ushenko, Yu. A.; Sakhnovskiy, M. Yu.; Sidor, M.; Prydiy, O. G.; Olar, O. I.; Lakusta, I. I.

    2016-12-01

    The results of optical modeling of biological tissues polycrystalline multilayer networks have been presented. Algorithms of reconstruction of parameter distributions were determined that describe the linear and circular birefringence. For the separation of the manifestations of these mechanisms we propose a method of space-frequency filtering. Criteria for differentiation of benign and malignant tissues of the women reproductive sphere were found.

  20. Polarization modulators for CMBPol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, P A R; Savini, G [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Chuss, D T [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Hanany, S [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota/Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Haynes, V; Pisano, G [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy - Alan Turing Building, Upper Brooke street, Manchester, M13 4PL (United Kingdom); Keating, B G [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Kogut, A [Code 665 Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ruhl, J E [Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States); Wollack, E J [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    We review a number of technologies that are candidates for active polarization modulators for CMBPol. The technologies are appropriate for instruments that use bolometric detectors and include birefringent crystal-based and metal-mesh-based half-wave plates, variable phase polarization modulator, Faraday rotator, and photolithographed modulators. We also give a current account of the status of millimeter-wave orthomode transducers.

  1. Quantitative assessment of muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojie; Chin, Lixin; Klyen, Blake R; Shavlakadze, Tea; McLaughlin, Robert A; Grounds, Miranda D; Sampson, David D

    2013-11-01

    Minimally invasive, high-resolution imaging of muscle necrosis has the potential to aid in the assessment of diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Undamaged muscle tissue possesses high levels of optical birefringence due to its anisotropic ultrastructure, and this birefringence decreases when the tissue undergoes necrosis. In this study, we present a novel technique to image muscle necrosis using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). From PS-OCT scans, our technique is able to quantify the birefringence in muscle tissue, generating an image indicative of the tissue ultrastructure, with areas of abnormally low birefringence indicating necrosis. The technique is demonstrated on excised skeletal muscles from exercised dystrophic mdx mice and control C57BL/10ScSn mice with the resulting images validated against colocated histological sections. The technique additionally gives a measure of the proportion (volume fraction) of necrotic tissue within the three-dimensional imaging field of view. The percentage necrosis assessed by this technique is compared against the percentage necrosis obtained from manual assessment of histological sections, and the difference between the two methods is found to be comparable to the interobserver variability of the histological assessment. This is the first published demonstration of PS-OCT to provide automated assessment of muscle necrosis.

  2. Photon and dilepton spectra from nonlinear QED effects in supercritical magnetic fields induced by heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We discuss properties of photons in extremely strong magnetic fields induced by the relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We investigate the vacuum birefringence, the real-photon decay, and the photon splitting which are all forbidden in the ordinary vacuum, but become possible in strong magnetic fields. These effects potentially give rise to anisotropies in photon and dilepton spectra.

  3. Efficient Tunable Mid-Wave Infrared Laser from 2 μm Tm,Ho:YVO4 Pumped Gain-Switched Cr2+:ZnSe Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Pei-Bei; YAO Bao-Quan; LI Gang; JU You-Lun; WANG Yue-Zhu

    2011-01-01

    An efficient mid-wave infrared gain-switched Cr2+ :ZnSe laser pumped by a 2.058μm Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser is reported. As much as 3.86 W output is achieved with the pump power of 13.4 W at pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz, corresponding to the slope efficiency of 30.9%. With a quartz birefringent filter inserted in the laser cavity and by rotating the external angle of the quartz birefringent filter, wavelength tuning range nearly from 2453nm to 2508nm with 5nm linewidth (FWHM) is also obtained.%@@ An efficient mid-wave infrared gain-switched Cr2+ :ZnSe laser pumped by a 2.058μm Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser is reported.As much as 3.86 W output is achieved with the pump power of 13.4 W at puke repetition frequency of 15 kHz,corresponding to the slope efficiency of 30.9%.With a quartz birefringent filter inserted in the laser cavity and by rotating the external angle of the quartz birefringent filter,wavelength tuning range nearly from 2453nm to 2508nm with 5nm linewidth(FWHM) is also obtained.

  4. Single and Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Shyroki, Dzmitry M.

    2013-01-01

    for analysis and design of photonic crystal devices, such as 2D ring resonators for filters, single and coupled nanobeam cavities, birefringence in photonic crystal cavities, threshold analysis in photonic crystal lasers, gap solitons in photonic crystals, novel photonic atolls, dynamic characteristics...

  5. Transparent alumina: A light scattering model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apetz, R.; Van Bruggen, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    A model based on Rayleigh-Gans-Debye light scattering theory has been developed to describe the light transmission properties of fine-grained, fully dense polycrystalline ceramics consisting of birefringent crystals. This model extends light transmission models based on geometrical optics, which are

  6. Response function for the characterization of photo-induced anisotropy in azobenzene containing polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajti, S.; Kerekes, Á.; Ramanujam, P.S.;

    2002-01-01

    A response function is derived for the description of photo-induced birefringence and dichroism in case of materials where the underlying process is photo-isomerization. Our result explains the usefulness of the theoretical formulae derived earlier by Kakichashvili for photo-anisotropic materials...

  7. Macroscopic invisibility cloaking of visible light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Luo, Y.; Zhang, Jingjing;

    2011-01-01

    to a few wavelengths. Here, we report the first realization of a macroscopic volumetric invisibility cloak constructed from natural birefringent crystals. The cloak operates at visible frequencies and is capable of hiding, for a specific light polarization, three-dimensional objects of the scale...

  8. Improvement of Response Performance of Liquid Crystal Optical Devices by using a Low Viscosity Component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zeng-Hui; LIU Yong-Gang; YAO Li-Shuang; CAO Zhao-Liang; MU Quan-Quan; HU Li-Fa; LU Xing-Hai; XUAN Li; ZHANG Zhi-Yong

    2011-01-01

    Difluorooxymethylene-bridged (CF2O) liquid crystal (LC) with low viscosity is prepared and used as a fast response LC material. When the material is mixed with isothiocyanato LCs with high birefringence, the visco-elastic coefficient of the mixture decreases evidently and, accordingly, the response performance increases. While the concentration of CF2O LCs is about 7%, the LC mixture approximately maintains high birefringence and exhibits a fastest response performance that is 14% higher than that of pure isothiocyanato LCs. Therefore, the LC material and mixing method could find useful applications in optical devices.%@@ Difluorooxymethylene-bridged(CF2O)liquid crystal(LC)with low viscosity is prepared and used as a fast response LC material.When the material is mixed with isothiocyanato LCs with high birefringence,the visco-elastic coefficient of the mixture decreases evidently and,accordingly,the response performance increases.While the concentration of CF2O LCs is about 7%,the LC mixture approximately maintains high birefringence and exhibits a fastest response performance that is 14%higher than that of pure isothiocyanato LCs.Therefore,the LC material and mixing method could find useful applications in optical devices.

  9. Tunable All-in-Fiber Waveplates Based on Negative Dielectric Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Weirich, Johannes;

    2008-01-01

    Tunable all-in-fiber waveplates based on negative dielectric liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers are presented. The birefringence can be tuned electrically and thermally to work as a quarter-wave or a half-wave plate in the range 1520 nm-1580 nm....

  10. Modal dynamics in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers with elliptical veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda

    2005-08-08

    Modal characteristics of hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers with elliptical veins are studied by use of a recently proposed numerical method. The dynamic behavior of bandgap guided modes, as the wavelength and aspect ratio are varied, is shown to include zero-crossings of the birefringence, polarization dependent radiation losses, and deformation of the fundamental mode.

  11. Influence of UV irradiation on the blue and red light photoinduced processes in azobenzene polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, F.J.; Sánchez, C.; Villacampa, B.

    2004-01-01

    Birefringence induced in a series of liquid crystalline side-chain azobenzene polyesters with different substituent groups was investigated under irradiation with 488 and 633 nm linearly polarized lights. Two different initial conditions have been used: the effect of a previous irradiation with U...

  12. Unusual Photo-Induced Behaviour in a Side Chain Liquid Crystalline Azo-Polyester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, D; Rodríguez, F.J.; Sánchez, C.

    2006-01-01

    An unusual behaviour has been observed in the photo-indueed response of an azobenzene side chain liquid erystalline polyester (P6d4). Room temperature irradiation with linearly polarised 488 nm light does not induce any birefringence (An) in films of this polymer that have been quenehed from the ...

  13. Nematic Cells for Digital Light Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishnyak, Oleg; Golovin, Andrii; Laventovich, Oleg; Kreminska, Liubov; Winker, Bruce; Pouch, John; Miranda, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Smectic A (SmA) materials can be used in non-mechanical, digital beam deflectors (DBDs) as fillers for passive birefringent prisms based on decoupled pairs of electrically controlled, liquid crystalline polarization rotators, like twisted nematic (TN) cells and passive deflectors. DBDs are used in free-space laser communications, optical fiber communications, optical switches, scanners, and in-situ wavefront correction.

  14. Nanostructure Core Fiber With Enhanced Performances: Design, Fabrication and Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.; Yan, Min; Ren, G.B.;

    2009-01-01

    We report a new type of silica-based all-solid fiber with a 2-D nanostructure core. The nanostructure core fiber (NCF) is formed by a 2-D array of high-index rods of sub-wavelength dimensions. We theoretically study the birefringence property of such fibers over a large wavelength range. Large...

  15. Characterization of 2.25Cr1Mo welded ferritic steel plate by using diffractometric and ultrasonic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, F.; Ghia, S. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy); Albertini, G.; Ceretti, M.; Rustichelli, F. [Ancona Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Medica; Castelnuovo, A.; Depero, L. [Univ. degli studi, Brescia.Fac. di ingegneria, dip. di ingegneria meccanica (Italy); Giamboni, S.; Gori, M. [Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano (CESI), Milan (Italy)

    1995-12-01

    Four different techniques (X-ray and neutron diffraction, ultrasonic birefringence and incremental hole drilling method) were applied for evaluating residual stress in a butt-welded ferritic steel palte. Measurements were carried out both before and after welding. Effects of post-welding heat treatment is also considered. A comparison between results obtained by using four different techniques is done.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of terahertz anisotropic anti-rod dimer planar metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Novitsky, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe the fabrication and characterization of free-standing membranes with thick anti-rod dimers metamaterials for terahertz waves. Two different designs with parallel and V-shape anti-rods were analysed. Even though both structures consists of simple elements, namely anti......-rod dimers, they reveal interesting birefringent and dichroic transmission properties....

  17. Generation of 415 W of p-polarized output power in long pulse operation of Nd:YAG laser using z-fold resonator geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Ambar; Mondal, Shyamal; Singh, Ravindra; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Datta, P. K.; Oak, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    We report on the generation of high average power linearly p-polarized beam in long pulse operation of dual rod Nd:YAG laser. A z-fold resonator configuration has been designed using simple optical scheme to provide effective birefringence compensation, compactness, and reduction of alignment criticality. Using this geometry, a maximum linearly p-polarized average output power of 415 W and a pulse energy of 150 J was achieved with a slope efficiency of 4.3%, which is on higher side for typical lamp pumped long pulse Nd:YAG lasers. For effective birefringence compensation, an intra-cavity concave mirror based imaging system, a 90° quartz rotator, and a re-entrant feedback mirror has been used. This scheme resulted in an enhancement of p-polarized output power of more than 80% as compared to the p-polarized output power without birefringence compensation. Depolarization loss in the resonator has also been reduced significantly from a value of 35% to a value of ~1.8% after birefringence compensation.

  18. The Mesoscopic Theory of Polymer Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pokrovskii, Vladimir N

    2010-01-01

    Explains various dynamics effects (diffusion, neutron scattering, viscoelasticity, optical birefringence) observed in very concentrated solutions and melts of linear polymers from a macromolecular point of view. This work is suitable for professional researchers in the fields of polymer science, polymer engineering and materials science

  19. Optical imaging of fast, dynamic neurophysiological function.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rector, D. M. (David M.); Carter, K. M. (Kathleen M.); Yao, X. (Xincheng); George, J. S. (John S.)

    2002-01-01

    Fast evoked responses were imaged from rat dorsal medulla and whisker barrel cortex. To investigate the biophysical mechanisms involved, fast optical responses associated with isolated crustacean nerve stimulation were recorded using birefringence and scattered light. Such studies allow optimization of non-invasive imaging techniques being developed for use in humans.

  20. Method for sensing an analyte in a fluid and sensor unit for such method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, N.H.; Pedaci, F.; Barland, S.

    2012-01-01

    The invention provides a method for sensing with a sensor system an analyte in an analyte fluid. The sensor system comprises a micron scale birefringent entity, a laser unit configured to generate polarized laser light, a polarization rotation device, wherein the laser unit and polarization rotation

  1. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar s

  2. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki [‘Materials - Technologies’ Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Polytechnic School, Universidad País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pza Europa 1, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Sanfelice, Rafaela C.; Pavinatto, Felippe J.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, Centro, CEP 13560-970, São Carlos (Brazil); Oyanguren, Patricia [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA), University of Mar del Plata and National Research Council (CONICET), J. B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Galante, María J., E-mail: galant@fi.mdp.edu.ar [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA), University of Mar del Plata and National Research Council (CONICET), J. B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2013-04-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n = 0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery. Highlights: ► Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films of epoxy-based azopolymers were obtained and analyzed. ► Optical properties of LB and spin coated (SC) films were compared. ► Azo content, structure, laser power and number of layers were main factors studied. ► LB films had larger free volume for the azobenzenes isomerization than SC. ► LB films led to higher birefringence and faster dynamics compared to SC.

  3. A simple, inexpensive photoelastic modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kyle J.; Lytle, Christian R.; Kavanaugh, James A.; Thielen, James A.; Green, Adam S.

    2009-01-01

    A block of birefringent gelatin acts as a variable retarder when driven harmonically by a speaker coil and can be used to vary the polarization of a laser beam sinusoidally. We model this effect with Mueller matrices and show that the gelatin behaves much like a commercial photoelastic modulator and is suitable for a variety of polarimetry experiments in an advanced undergraduate optics course.

  4. Optical angular momentum conversion in a nanoslit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chimento, P.F.; Alkemade, P.F.A.; T Hooft, G.W.; Eliel, E.R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate partial conversion of circularly polarized light into orbital angular momentum-carrying vortex light with opposite-handed circular polarization. This conversion is accomplished in a novel manner using the birefringent properties of a circular subwavelength slit in a thin metal film. O

  5. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Erica; Carter, James F; Hill, Jenny C; Morton, Carolyn; Daeid, Niamh Nic; Sleeman, Richard

    2008-05-20

    Plastic bags are frequently used to package drugs, explosives and other contraband. There exists, therefore, a requirement in forensic casework to compare bags found at different locations. This is currently achieved almost exclusively by the use of physical comparisons such as birefringence patterns. This paper discusses some of the advantages and shortcomings of this approach, and presents stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) as a supplementary tool for effecting comparisons of this nature. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic data are presented for sixteen grip-seal plastic bags from a wide range of sources, in order to demonstrate the range of values which is likely to be encountered. Both isotopic and physical comparison (specifically birefringence) techniques are then applied to the analysis of rolls of bags from different manufacturing lots from a leading manufacturer. Both approaches are able to associate bags from a common production batch. IRMS can be applied to small fragments which are not amenable to physical comparisons, and is able to discriminate bags which could be confused using birefringence patterns alone. Similarly, in certain cases birefringence patterns discriminate bags with similar isotopic compositions. The two approaches are therefore complementary. When more than one isotopically distinct region exists within a bag (e.g. the grip-seal is distinct from the body) the ability to discriminate and associate bags is greatly increased.

  6. Anisotropy of Wood in the Microwave Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziherl, Sasa; Bajc, Jurij; Urankar, Bernarda; Cepic, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    Wood is transparent for microwaves and due to its anisotropic structure has anisotropic dielectric properties. A laboratory experiment that allows for the qualitative demonstration and quantitative measurements of linear dichroism and birefringence in the microwave region is presented. As the proposed experiments are based on the anisotropy (of…

  7. Substrate Material for Holographic Emulsions Utilizing Fluorinated Polyimide Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierow, Paul A. (Inventor); Clayton, William R. (Inventor); St.Clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A new holographic substrate utilizing flexible. optically transparent fluorinated polyimides. Said substrates have 0 extremely low birefringence which results in a high signal to noise ratio in subsequent holograms. Specific examples of said fluorinated polyimides include 6FDA+APB and 6FDA+4BDAF.

  8. Polarization maintaining large-mode area photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Nielsen, Martin Dybendal; Mortensen, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber. Unlike, previous work on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers, birefringence is introduced using stress applying parts. This has allowed us to realize fibers, which are both single mode at any wavelength a...

  9. Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I; Nikolova, L; Todorov, T;

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the polarization properties of holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters in which an anisotropic grating that is due to photoinduced linear and circular birefringence is recorded in the volume of the material and a relief grating appears on the surface. A theoretical...

  10. Orientation of the pigment molecules in the chloroplast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1955-01-01

    Dichroism, absorption anisotropy, and anomal dispersion of birefringence were measured in the big lamellate chloroplasts of Mougeotia. The results of these measurements indicate a certain orientation of the chlorophyll molecules, and to a smaller extent, of the carotenoids in the chloroplast. In sp

  11. Determination of the Components of the Gyration Tensor of Quartz by Oblique Incidence Transmission Two-Modulator Generalized Ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga, O. [Universitat de Barcelona; Canillas, A. [Universitat de Barcelona; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The two independent components of the gyration tensor of quartz, g{sub 11} and g{sub 33}, have been spectroscopically measured using a transmission two-modulator generalized ellipsometer. The method is used to determine the optical activity in crystals in directions other than the optic axis, where the linear birefringence is much larger than the optical activity.

  12. A Cost-Effective Optical Device for the Characterization of Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millier, Brian; Aleman Milán, Gianna

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of an apparatus to measure the optical birefringence of a liquid crystal is described. The instrument also includes temperature control and monitoring circuitry to allow for the measurement of the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition temperature. An important feature of this design is that the students are able to…

  13. Testing local Lorentz invariance with gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostelecký, V. Alan, E-mail: kostelec@indiana.edu [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Mewes, Matthew [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    The effects of local Lorentz violation on dispersion and birefringence of gravitational waves are investigated. The covariant dispersion relation for gravitational waves involving gauge-invariant Lorentz-violating operators of arbitrary mass dimension is constructed. The chirp signal from the gravitational-wave event GW150914 is used to place numerous first constraints on gravitational Lorentz violation.

  14. A high definition Mueller polarimetric endoscope for tissue characterisation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Elson, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism of most medical endoscopes is based on the interaction between light and biological tissue, inclusive of absorption, elastic scattering and fluorescence. In essence, the metrics of those interactions are obtained from the fundamental properties of light as an electro-magnetic waves, namely, the radiation intensity and wavelength. As another fundamental property of light, polarisation can not only reveal tissue scattering and absorption information from a different perspective, but is also able to provide a fresh insight into directional tissue birefringence properties induced by birefringent compositions and anisotropic fibrous structures, such as collagen, elastin, muscle fibre, etc at the same time. Here we demonstrate a low cost high definition Muller polarimetric endoscope with minimal alteration of a rigid endoscope. By imaging birefringent tissue mimicking phantoms and a porcine bladder, we show that this novel endoscopic imaging modality is able to provide different information of interest from unpolarised endoscopic imaging, including linear depolarization, circular depolarization, birefringence, optic axis orientation and dichroism. This endoscope can potentially be employed for better tissue visualisation and benefit endoscopic investigations and intra-operative guidance.

  15. Study of optical properties and proteoglycan content of tendons by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Rupani, Asha; Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Wimpenny, Ian; Weightman, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The highly orientated collagen fibers in tendons play a critical role for transferring tensile stress, and they demonstrate birefringent optical properties. However, the influence that proteoglycans (PGs) have on the optical properties of tendons is yet to be fully elucidated. PGs are the essential components of the tendon extracellular matrix; the changes in their quantities and compositions have been associated with tendinopathies. In this study, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to reveal the relationship between PG content/location and birefringence properties of tendons. Fresh chicken tendons were imaged at regular intervals by PS-OCT and polarization light microscopy during the extraction of PGs, using guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). Complementary time-lapsed images taken from the two modalities mutually demonstrated that the extraction of PGs disturbed the local organization of collagen bundles. This corresponded with a decrease in birefringence and associated banding pattern observed by PS-OCT. Furthermore, this study revealed there was a higher concentration of PGs in the outer sheath region than in the fascicles, and therefore the change in birefringence was reduced when extraction was performed on unsheathed tendons. The results provide new insights of tendon structure and the role of PGs on the structural stability of tendons, which also demonstrates the great potential for using PS-OCT as a diagnostic tool to examine tendon pathology.

  16. Solvent micro-evaporation and concentration gradient synergistically induced crystallization of poly(L-lactide) and ring banded supra-structures with radial periodic variation of thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaoyong; Li, Hongfei; Wen, Huiying

    2014-01-01

    The crystalline morphology and structure of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) in a PLLA film-chloroform system were investigated by means of wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), polarized optical microscopy (POM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Birefringent and nonbirefringent ring banded supra-structure...

  17. Square shaped flat-top beam in refractive beam shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2015-08-01

    Lossless transformation of round Gaussian to square shaped flat-top collimated beam is important in building highpower solid state laser systems to improve optical pumping or amplification. There are industrial micromachining applications like scribing, display repair, which performance is improved when a square shaped spot with uniform intensity is created. Proved beam shaping solutions to these techniques are refractive field mapping beam shapers having some important features: flatness of output phase front, small output divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, operation with TEM00 and multimode lasers. Usual approach to design refractive beam shapers implies that input and output beams have round cross-section, therefore the only way to create a square shaped output beam is using a square mask, which leads to essential losses. When an input laser beam is linearly polarized it is suggested to generate square shaped flat-top output by applying beam shaper lenses from birefringent materials or by using additional birefringent components. Due to birefringence there is introduced phase retardation in beam parts and is realized a square shaped interference pattern at the beam shaper output. Realization of this approach requires small phase retardation, therefore weak birefringence effect is enough and birefringent optical components, operating in convergent or divergent beams, can be made from refractive materials, which crystal optical axis is parallel to optical axis of entire beam shaper optical system. There will be considered design features of beam shapers creating square shaped flat-top beams. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  18. Eternal 5D optical data storage in glass (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazansky, Peter G.; Cerkauskaite, Ausra; Drevinskas, Rokas; Zhang, Jingyu

    2016-09-01

    A decade ago it has been discovered that during femtosecond laser writing self-organized subwavelength structures with record small features of 20 nm, could be created in the volume of silica glass. On the macroscopic scale the self-assembled nanostructure behaves as a uniaxial optical crystal with negative birefringence. The optical anisotropy, which results from the alignment of nano-platelets, referred to as form birefringence, is of the same order of magnitude as positive birefringence in crystalline quartz. The two independent parameters describing birefringence, the slow axis orientation (4th dimension) and the strength of retardance (5th dimension), are explored for the optical encoding of information in addition to three spatial coordinates. The slow axis orientation and the retardance are independently manipulated by the polarization and intensity of the femtosecond laser beam. The data optically encoded into five dimensions is successfully retrieved by quantitative birefringence measurements. The storage allows unprecedented parameters including hundreds of terabytes per disc data capacity and thermal stability up to 1000°. Even at elevated temperatures of 160oC, the extrapolated decay time of nanogratings is comparable with the age of the Universe - 13.8 billion years. The recording of the digital documents, which will survive the human race, including the eternal copies of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Newton's Opticks, Kings James Bible and Magna Carta, is a vital step towards an eternal archive. Additionally, a number of projects (such as Time Capsule to Mars, MoonMail, and the Google Lunar XPRIZE) could benefit from the technique's extreme durability, which fulfills a crucial requirement for storage on the Moon or Mars.

  19. Experimental Layout for Investigating Temperature Dependednce of the Vibration Plane Rotation in Some Identified Mineral and Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kaahwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents results of a recent study done in Norway from Bergen University, to determine temperature dependence of linear birefringence in mineral oil and linear and induced birefringence in vegetable oils. The study was done between the temperature range of 6 and 45ºC in magnetic field up to 140 mT. It found the intrinsic birefringences responsible for optical activity in vegetable oils with impurities and all mineral oils. The results of optical activity in both oils obeyed the equation f = A + aw (1 where aw is the angle at which minimum irradiance Imin occurs in water and other substances which are optically inactive. Heavy oils like red diesel, Esso diesel and Fina diesel No. 2 rotate more the vibration plane and they possess more intrinsic birefringences than light diesel. The research team found that the temperature effect on rotation in both mineral and vegetable oils with impurities, yielded results that obeyed the equation f1 = A - bT (3 where b is positive. In vegetable oils for human consumption, application of magnetic field causes induced birefringences responsible for f given by f2 = VHL + aw (4 where V is Verdet’s constant in rad T-1m-1 and H is the magnetic field intensity in Am-1. Also the temperature dependence on rotation in vegetable oils free from impurities obeyed the relationship given by equation = VHL–bT (5. This method can be used to determine the level of refinement of mineral and vegetable oils.

  20. High-resolution polarization sensitive OCT for ocular imaging in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialová, Stanislava; Rauscher, Sabine; Gröger, Marion; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Baumann, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    A new high-resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography system was developed for imaging rodent retina. Various light-tissue interactions such as birefringence and depolarization can change the polarization state of light. In the eye, there are several tissues that have these properties, for example retinal pigment epithelium (depolarization) and sclera (birefringence). These layers play key roles in diseases like age-related macular degeneration or glaucoma. Animal models are an important component for understanding disease pathogenesis. The gold standard for the evaluation of preclinical experiments is histology, which is an invasive and terminal procedure. Since OCT is non-invasive, it has the potential to be an alternative to histology with the benefit of long-term study of the disease progression in the same animal. In this study, a superluminescent diode with spectrum width 100 nm and mean wavelength 840 nm is used as a light source in order to enable high axial resolution. Spectrometers are custom built to enable high imaging speed that allows acquiring 3D data sets with 1024x200x1536 voxels in 3.44 s. From the acquired data, images displaying phase retardation induced by birefringence and orientation of birefringent axis were calculated. In first measurements, we were able to identify the RPE-choroid complex (depolarization effect) and the sclera (strong birefringence) in the retina of Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats. Our preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of the system for high speed/resolution imaging of the rodent retina. This is useful for longitudinal studies of disease models of retinal disease in rats and mice

  1. Fiber-optic parametric amplifiers: Their advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Fatih

    Fiber-optic parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) can be used in lightwave systems for several signal-processing applications including optical amplification, phase conjugation, and wavelength conversion. In principle, FOPAs can provide high gain uniform over a wide wavelength range (> 100 nm). What is more, FOPAs add little noise to the amplified signal. FOPAs can have noise figure as low as 0 dB when operated in the phase-sensitive mode and 3 dB in the phase insensitive mode. However, in practice, these advantages of FOPAs are compromised. In this work, I investigate several factors that limit the performance of FOPAs, and propose practical schemes to minimize those limitations. FOPAs can provide a relatively large gain bandwidth because the gain spectrum of FOPAs is not determined by material resonances but by the phase-matching condition. For the same reason, FOPAs are very sensitive to perturbations stemming from fiber irregularities. One such irregularity is that fiber dispersion varies randomly along the fiber length. My numerical modeling showed that, because of such variations, FOPA gain spectrum cannot maintain its flatness and also that FOPA gain profile changes from one fiber to the other. Using stochastic methods, an analytic theory is developed that can predict an "average gain spectrum." This analytic theory can be used to show that flatness of FOPA gain is recovered at the expense of reducing the gain bandwidth. Another fiber irregularity that affects FOPA gain spectrum is the residual birefringence. During the fiber-drawing process, the cross section of fiber core inevitably deviates from perfect circular symmetry. As a result, all non-polarization maintaining fibers exhibit residual birefringence. Both the magnitude of birefringence and the direction of its principal axis vary along the fiber length as well as in time. Because of residual birefringence, state of polarizations of the propagating fields change randomly also. Since the underlying four

  2. Cognitive training transfer using a personal computer-based game: A close quarters battle case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Michael D.

    In this dissertation, liquid crystal (LC) materials and devices are investigated in order to meet the challenges for photonics and displays applications. We have studied three kinds of liquid crystal materials: positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, negative dielectric anisotropic LCs, and dual-frequency LCs. For the positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, we have developed some high birefringence isothiocyanato tolane LC compounds with birefringence ˜0.4, and super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane LC compounds with birefringence as high as ˜0.7. Moreover, we have studied the photostability of several high birefringence LC compounds, mixtures, and LC alignment layers in order to determine the failure mechanism concerning the lifetime of LC devices. Although cyano and isothiocyanato LC compounds have similar absorption peaks, the isothiocyanato compounds are more stable than their cyano counterparts under the same illumination conditions. This ultraviolet-durable performance of isothiocyanato compounds originates from its molecular structure and the delocalized electron distribution. We have investigated the alignment performance of negative dielectric anisotropic LCs in homeotropic (vertical aligned, VA) LC cell. Some (2, 3) laterally difluorinated biphenyls, terphenyls and tolanes are selected for this study. Due to the strong repulsive force between LCs and alignment layer, (2,3) laterally difluorinated terphenyls and tolanes do not align well in a VA cell resulting in a poor contrast ratio for the LC panel. We have developed a novel method to suppress the light leakage at dark state. By doping positive Deltaepsilon or non-polar LC compounds or mixtures into the host negative LC mixtures, the repulsive force is reduced and the cell exhibits an excellent dark state. In addition, these dopants increase the birefringence and reduce the viscosity of the host LCs which leads to a faster response time. In this dissertation, we investigate the

  3. Integrated real time studies to track all physical and chemical changes in polyimide film processing from casting to imidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Emre

    Physical and chemical changes during the complex multi-step thermal imidization reaction were investigated including all processing steps (solution casting, drying and imidization), using newly developed highly instrumented measurement systems. These instruments allowed us to observe the dynamic relationship between the bound solvent evaporation that causes relaxation and chain orientation during the imidization. Drying and imidization of PMDA-ODA solutions in NMP were investigated by a novel custom designed measurement system that tracks real time weight, thickness, surface temperature, in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence. At low temperature drying stage (T bound solvent as solvent molecules decomplexed from the polymer chains and plasticized the film. During the latter stage, out-of-plane birefringence rose rapidly as the polymer chains increasingly became oriented with their chain axes were preferentially oriented in the film plane. Throughout the whole process the in-plane birefringence remained zero. For the first time, these real time measurements allowed us to quantitatively show the dynamics between chain relaxation due to evaporation of the decomplexed solvent molecules, and orientation development due to decreased chain mobility caused by imidization reaction and increasing Tg for the PMDA-ODA/NMP solutions. In addition, the dynamics of this interplay was investigated by varying the processing conditions: initial casting thickness and drying temperature. Chemical conversion, bound solvent and chain orientation that take place during thermal imidization of uniaxially constraint PMDA-ODA polyamic acid precursor film was investigated up to 200°C using real time measurement system that combines true stress, true strain, in-plane birefringence and temperature with polarized ultra-rapid scan polarized FT-IR spectrometry (URS-FT-IR). Upon heating, initially isotropic solution cast film developed stress and birefringence from the beginning while the solvent

  4. Fabrication of elliptic microfibers with CO2 laser for high-sensitivity refractive index sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Peng; Li, Jie; Gao, Shuai; Jin, Long; Ran, Yang; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2014-06-15

    We propose a convenient method for achieving highly birefringent (HiBi) elliptic microfibers by use of the CO2-laser machining and the flame-brushing techniques. With optimization of fabrication process, a high birefringence of up to 2.10×10(-2) is experimentally obtained. Especially, within a polarization Sagnac interferometer acting as a refractive index (RI) sensor, both positive and abnormal negative sensitivity is measured, dependent on the geometrical variables of the HiBi microfiber. The maximum RI sensitivity is ∼195,348  nm/RI-unit around RI=1.35887, which is the highest among the microfiber devices as reported, to our knowledge.

  5. Passive endoscopic polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with completely fiber based optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Lucas; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Ng, Samson; MacAulay, Calum E.; Poh, Catherine; Lane, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PSOCT) is a functional extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) that is sensitive to well-structured, birefringent tissue such as scars, smooth muscle and cartilage. In this work, we present a novel completely fiber based swept source PSOCT system using a fiber-optic rotary pullback catheter. This PSOCT implementation uses only passive optical components and requires no calibration while adding minimal additional cost to a standard structural OCT imaging system. Due to its complete fiber construction, the system can be made compact and robust, while the fiber-optic catheter allows access to most endoscopic imaging sites. The 1.5mm diameter endoscopic probe can capture 100 frames per second at pullback speeds up to 15 mm/s allowing rapid traversal of large imaging fields. We validate the PSOCT system with known birefringent tissues and demonstrate in vivo PSOCT imaging of human oral scar tissue.

  6. Investigation of stress induced by CO2 laser processing of fused silica optics for laser damage growth mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, Laurent; Cormont, Philippe; Rullier, Jean-Luc

    2009-12-21

    Laser damage mitigation' is a process developed to prevent the growth of nanosecond laser-initiated damage sites under successive irradiation. It consists of re-fusing the damage area with a CO2 laser. In this paper we investigate the stress field created around mitigated sites which could have an influence on the efficiency of the process. A numerical model of CO2 laser interaction with fused silica is developed. It takes into account laser energy absorption, heat transfer, thermally induced stress and birefringence. Residual stress near mitigated sites in fused silica samples is characterized with specific photoelastic methods and theoretical data are compared to experiments. The stress distribution and quantitative values of stress levels are obtained for sites treated with the CO2 laser in various conditions of energy deposition (beam size, pulse duration, incident power). The results provided evidence that the presence of birefringence/residual stress around the mitigated sites has an effect on their laser damage resistance.

  7. Thermal effects in high-power Nd:YAG disk-type solid state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huomu; Feng, Guoying; Zhou, Shouhuan

    2011-09-01

    An investigation of thermal effects in a high-power Nd:YAG disk-type solid state laser pumped with different pump beam transverse profiles is carried out by numerical simulation based on the finite element method (FEM). Impact of the heat sink on the thermal effects is included in the simulation. The distribution of first principle stress, thermally induced birefringence, including the distribution and variation of the birefringence loss, are studied. The characteristics of the phase variation are analyzed with consideration of the temperature gradient, deformation, strain and thermal stress. Thermal lensing is explored as a function of pump power and of the radius pumped with different pump beam transverse profiles. The non-parabolic part of optical phase distortion is simulated. Furthermore, the characteristics of the bi-focus of the disk laser are also studied. Experiments on the maximum tensile stress distribution and depolarization loss are carried out. The presented calculations are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  8. Switching of 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses using a compact PMN-PT modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adany, Peter; Price, E Shane; Johnson, Carey K; Zhang, Run; Hui, Rongqing

    2009-03-01

    A voltage-controlled birefringent cell based on ceramic PMN-PT material is used to enable fast intensity modulation of femtosecond laser pulses in the 800 nm wavelength window. The birefringent cell based on a PMN-PT compound has comparatively high electro-optic response, allowing for a short interaction length of 3 mm and thus very small size, low attenuation of 0.16 dB, and negligible broadening for 100 fs optical pulses. As an application example, agile wavelength tuning of optical pulses is demonstrated using the soliton self-frequency shift in a photonic crystal fiber. By dynamically controlling the optical power into the fiber, this system switches the wavelength of 100 fs pulses from 900 nm to beyond 1120 nm with less than 5 micros time. In addition, a feedback system stabilizes the wavelength drift against external conditions resulting in high wavelength stability.

  9. Exploitation of transverse spatial modes in spontaneous four wave mixing photon-pair sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ramirez, Hector; Ramirez-Alarcon, Roberto; Cruz-Delgado, Daniel; Monroy-Ruz, Jorge; Ortiz-Ricardo, Erasto; Dominguez-Serna, Francisco; Garay-Palmett, Karina; U'Ren, Alfred B.

    2016-09-01

    We present a source for which multiple spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) processes are supported in a few mode birefringent fiber, each process associated with a particular combination of transverse modes for the four participating waves. Within the weakly guiding regime, for which the propagation modes may be well approximated by linearly polarized (LP) modes, the departure from circular symmetry due to the fiber birefringence translates into orbital angular momentum (OAM) and parity conservation rules, i.e. reflecting elements from both azimuthal and rectangular symmetries. In our source: i) each process is group-velocity-matched so that it is, by design, nearly-factorable, and ii) the spectral separation between neighboring processes is greater than the marginal spectral width of each process. Consequently, there is a direct correspondence between the joint amplitude of each process and each of the Schmidt mode pairs of the overall two-photon state. The present paper covers work presented in Refs.1 and.2

  10. Measurement of Thermo-Elastic Deformation of an Optic using a Polarization Based Shearing Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Beyersdorf, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A shearing interferometer is presented which uses polarization control to shear the wavefront and to modulate the interference pattern. The shear is generated by spatial walk-off in a birefringent crystal. By adjusting the orientation of the birefringent crystal, the components of the wavefront gradient can be independently measured to allow determination of the full wavefront vector gradient as well as reconstruction of the wavefront. Further, the monolithic nature of the crystal used for shearing allows the interferometer to be setup without need for precise alignment of any components. An algorithm incorporating homodyne detection is presented which analyzes the modulated interferograms to determine the components of the wavefront gradient, from which the wavefront is reconstructed. The thermal deformation of a mirror subject to heating from absorption of a Gaussian pump beam was accurately observed with a sensitivity better than \\lambda/160. We show that this sensitivity is scale invariant, and present a ...

  11. Photonic Crystal Fibres as the Transmission Medium for Future Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsigri, Beata

    2006-01-01

    the large birefringence of AG-PBGFs, realised in only 2.4 m AG PBGF for demodulation of 9.95 and 39.8 Gbit/s di®erential phase shift keying modulated signals is demonstrated, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of AG-PBGF for realising stable and compact fibre birefringence based optical devices....... and index guiding PCFs. Nevertheless, both PCF types exhibit numerous novel properties { not obtainable by standard fibre technology { that are very attractive for optical communication systems. Even though PCFs have now existed already for a decade, their exploitation for telecommunication applications has...... carried on a single wavelength is increased to 80 Gbit/s, the highest capacity transmitted on a single wavelength over PCF today, by polarisation multiplexed differential phase shift keying signal transmission. Index guiding PCFs have also been studied for signal processing applications as well...

  12. Gupta-Bleuler Photon Quantization in the SME

    CERN Document Server

    Colladay, Don; Potting, Robertus

    2014-01-01

    Photon quantization is implemented in the standard model extension (SME) using the Gupta-Bleuler method and BRST concepts. The quantization prescription applies to both the birefringent and non-birefringent CPT-even couplings. A curious incompatibility is found between the presence of the Lorentz-violating terms and the existence of a nontrivial conjugate momentum $\\Pi^0$ yielding problems with covariant quantization procedure. Introduction of a mass regulator term can avoid the vanishing of $\\Pi^0$ and allows for the implementation of a covariant quantization procedure. Field-theoretic calculations involving the SME photons can then be performed using the mass regulator, similar to the conventional procedure used in electrodynamics for infrared-divergence regulation.

  13. Influence of the optical fiber type on the performances of fiber-optics current sensor dedicated to plasma current measurement in ITER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerssens, Matthieu; Descamps, Frédéric; Gusarov, Andrei; Mégret, Patrice; Moreau, Philippe; Wuilpart, Marc

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we compare, by means of simulations using the Jones formalism, the performances of several optical fiber types (low birefringence and spun fibers) for the measurement of plasma current in international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The main results presented in this paper concern the minimum value of the ratio between the beat length and the spun period, which allows meeting the ITER current measurement specifications. Assuming a high-birefringence spun fiber with a beat length of 3 mm, we demonstrate that the minimum ratio between the beat length and the spun period is 4.4 when considering a 28 m long sensing fiber surrounding the vacuum vessel. This minimum ratio rises to 10.14 when a 100 m long lead fiber connecting the interrogating system to the sensing fiber is taken into account.

  14. Integrated optic current transducers incorporating photonic crystal fiber for reduced temperature dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Woo-Sung; Kim, Sung-Moon; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2015-08-24

    Optical current transducers (OCT) are indispensable for accurate monitoring of large electrical currents in an environment suffering from severe electromagnetic interference. Temperature dependence of OCTs caused by its components, such as wave plates and optical fibers, should be reduced to allow temperature-independent operation. A photonic crystal fiber with a structural optical birefringence was incorporated instead of a PM fiber, and a spun PM fiber was introduced to overcome the temperature-dependent linear birefringence of sensing fiber coil. Moreover, an integrated optic device that provides higher stability than fiber-optics was employed to control the polarization and detect the phase of the sensed optical signal. The proposed OCT exhibited much lower temperature dependence than that from a previous study. The OCT satisfied the 0.5 accuracy class (IIEC 60044-8) and had a temperature dependence less than ± 1% for a temperature range of 25 to 78 °C.

  15. Quasi-phasematching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum, David S.; Fejer, Martin M.

    2007-03-01

    The use of microstructured crystals in quasi-phasematched (QPM) nonlinear interactions has enabled operation of nonlinear devices in regimes inaccessible to conventional birefringently phasematched media. This review addresses basic aspects of the theory of QPM interactions, microstructured ferroelectrics and semiconductors for QPM, devices based on QPM media, and a series of techniques based on engineering of QPM gratings to tailor spatial and spectral response of QPM interactions. Because it is not possible in a brief review to do justice to the large body of results that have been obtained with QPM media over the past twenty years, the emphasis in this review will be on aspects of QPM interactions beyond their use simply as highly nonlinear alternatives to conventional birefringent media. To cite this article: D.S. Hum, M.M. Fejer, C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  16. Polarization-dependent optics using gauge-field metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fu; Xiao, Shiyi; Li, Jensen, E-mail: j.li@bham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Wang, Saisai; Hang, Zhi Hong [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-12-14

    We show that effective gauge field for photons with polarization-split dispersion surfaces, being realized using uniaxial metamaterials, can be used for polarization control with unique opportunities. The metamaterials with the proposed gauge field correspond to a special choice of eigenpolarizations on the Poincaré sphere as pseudo-spins, in contrary to those from either conventional birefringent crystals or optical active media. It gives rise to all-angle polarization control and a generic route to manipulate photon trajectories or polarizations in the pseudo-spin domain. As demonstrations, we show beam splitting (birefringent polarizer), all-angle polarization control, unidirectional polarization filter, and interferometer as various polarization control devices in the pseudo-spin domain. We expect that more polarization-dependent devices can be designed under the same framework.

  17. Design and test of a novel accelerometer made-up of an optical-fiber embedded within a polymer resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihon Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a transducer for an optical-fiber accelerometer based on a polarization analysis. The transducer is made up of a fiber section embedded within a resin placed between two metallic pieces. Due to the acceleration, the resin is crushed between the metallic pieces, deforming the fiber section and inducing birefringence in the latter. This birefringence modifies the light polarization state, which can be used as an acceleration measurement. The sensor characteristics (sensitivity and resonance frequency are numerically and experimentally determined. Sine accelerations at 120 Hz with amplitudes going from 5 m/s2 to 13 m/s2 have been successfully measured. The resonance frequency for the transducer crushing mode is above 5000 Hz, but low-frequency vibration modes exist, disturbing the measurements.

  18. Pulsar polarisation below 200 MHz: Average profiles and propagation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Noutsos, A; Kondratiev, V I; Weltevrede, P; Verbiest, J P W; Karastergiou, A; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Alexov, A; Breton, R P; Bilous, A V; Cooper, S; Falcke, H; Grießmeier, J -M; Hassall, T E; Hessels, J W T; Keane, E F; Osłowski, S; Pilia, M; Serylak, M; Stappers, B W; ter Veen, S; van Leeuwen, J; Zagkouris, K; Anderson, K; Bähren, L; Bell, M; Broderick, J; Carbone, D; Cendes, Y; Coenen, T; Corbel, S; Eislöffel, J; Fender, R; Garsden, H; Jonker, P; Law, C; Marko, S; Masters, J; Miller-Jones, J; Molenaar, G; Osten, R; Pietka, M; Rol, E; Rowlinson, A; Scheers, B; Spreeuw, H; Staley, T; Stewart, A; Swinbank, J; Wijers, R; Wijnands, R; Wise, M; Zarka, P; van der Horst, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the highest-quality polarisation profiles to date of 16 non-recycled pulsars and four millisecond pulsars, observed below 200 MHz with the LOFAR high-band antennas. Based on the observed profiles, we perform an initial investigation of expected observational effects resulting from the propagation of polarised emission in the pulsar magnetosphere and the interstellar medium. The predictions of magnetospheric birefringence in pulsars have been tested using spectra of the pulse width and fractional polarisation from multifrequency data. The derived spectra offer only partial support for the expected effects of birefringence on the polarisation properties, with only about half of our sample being consistent with the model's predictions. It is noted that for some pulsars these measurements are contaminated by the effects of interstellar scattering. For a number of pulsars in our sample, we have observed significant variations in the amount of Faraday rotation as a function of pulse phase, which is possi...

  19. Chemical structure-optical property understanding in bisphenyls and substituted polycarbonates by molecular simulations: Role of polarizabilities and conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Upendra; Sulatha, M. S.

    2005-03-01

    We present calculations of polarizability tensors, optical anisotropy of organic molecules, repeating units and polymer chains of several bisphenyls, bisphenol carbonates and polycarbonates with a variety of chemical substitutions.^1,2 Theoretical calculations of polarizabilities and optical birefringence of several newer structures having specific side-group substitutions which render low birefringence, not previously reported, is also shown here. Our method combines VOSRIS scheme^3, molecular geometry and conformations from force-field simulations and accurate anisotropic polarizability tensors. Aliphatic, aliphatic aromatic and cycloaliphatic substitutions reduce optical anisotropy in relation to bisphenol A polycarbonate. Calculated /x of these structurally modified polycarbonates^2 follows linear behavior with respect to experimentally observed melt stress-optical coefficient (Cm). *J. Phys. Chem. A, 107, 97 (2003) *Macromolecules, 36, 2944 (2003) *P.J. Flory, Statistical Mechanics of Chain Molecules, Wiley Interscience, New York (1969)

  20. Active phase compensation of quantum key distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; HAN ZhengFu; MO XiaoFan; XU FangXing; WEI Guo; GUO GuangCan

    2008-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) system must be robust enough in practical communication. Besides birefringence of fiber, system performance is notably affected by phase drift. The Faraday-Michelson QKD system can auto-compensate the birefringence of fiber, but phase shift is still a serious problem in its practical operation. In this paper, the major reason of phase drift and its effect on Faraday-Michel-son QKD system is analyzed and an effective active phase compensation scheme is proposed. By this means, we demonstrate a quantum key distribution system which can stably run over 37-km fiber in practical working condition with the long-time averaged quantum bit error rate of 1.59% and the stan-dard derivation of 0.46%. This result shows that the active phase compensation scheme is suitable to be used in practical QKD systems based on double asymmetric interferometers without additional de-vices and thermal controller.