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Sample records for birefringence measurement system

  1. The measurement system of birefringence and Verdet constant of optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Chen, Li; Guo, Qiang; Pang, Fufei; Wen, Jianxiang; Shang, Yana; Wang, Tingyun

    2013-12-01

    The Faraday magneto-optical effect of optical fiber has many applications in monitoring magnetic field and electric current. When a linearly polarized light propagates in the direction of a magnetic field, the plane of polarization will rotate linearly proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field, which following the relationship of θF =VBl. θF is the Faraday rotation angle, which is proportional to the magnetic flux density B and the Verdet constant V . However, when the optical fiber contains the effect of linear birefringence, the detection of Faraday rotation angle will depend on the line birefringence. In order to determine the Verdet constant of an optical fiber under a linear birefringence, the fiber birefringence needs to be accurately measured. In this work, a model is applied to analyze the polarization properties of an optical fiber by using the Jones matrix method. A measurement system based on the lock-in amplifier technology is designed to test the Verdet constant and the birefringence of optical fiber. The magnetic field is produced by a solenoid with a DC current. A tunable laser is intensity modulated with a motorized rotating chopper. The actuator supplies a signal as the phase-locked synchronization reference to the signal of the lock-in amplifier. The measurement accuracy is analyzed and the sensitivity of the system is optimized. In this measurement system, the Verdet constant of the SMF-28 fiber was measured to be 0.56±0.02 rad/T·m at 1550nm. This setup is well suitable for measuring the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sensitivity for lock-in amplifier at a low magnetic field strength.

  2. High Frequency Modulation Method for Measuring of Birefringence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulc M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A method of optical birefringence measurement is presented. It uses an el ectro-optic modulator for the high frequency modulation of polarization of the laser beam. The developed optical apparatus exhibits high sensitivity. It is able to measure very small birefringence of samples down to 10-3 rad. The accuracy and sensitivity of the method was checked by measurement of calibrated Sol eil – Babi net compensator. Method can be also used for online and accurate measurement of an optical components birefringence. This application was developed with the aim to measure Cotton-Mouton effect in air and nitrogen.

  3. A Linear Birefringence Measurement Method for an Optical Fiber Current Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoyi; Shao, Haiming; Li, Chuansheng; Xing, Fangfang; Wang, Yuqiao; Li, Wei

    2017-07-03

    In this work, a linear birefringence measurement method is proposed for an optical fiber current sensor (OFCS). First, the optical configuration of the measurement system is presented. Then, the elimination method of the effect of the azimuth angles between the sensing fiber and the two polarizers is demonstrated. Moreover, the relationship of the linear birefringence, the Faraday rotation angle and the final output is determined. On these bases, the multi-valued problem on the linear birefringence is simulated and its solution is illustrated when the linear birefringence is unknown. Finally, the experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method. When the numbers of turns of the sensing fiber in the OFCS are about 15, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, and 39, the measured linear birefringence obtained by the proposed method are about 1.3577, 1.8425, 2.0983, 2.5914, 2.7891, 3.2003 and 3.5198 rad. Two typical methods provide the references for the proposed method. The proposed method is proven to be suitable for the linear birefringence measurement in the full range without the limitation that the linear birefringence must be smaller than π/2.

  4. Real-time measurement system for tracking birefringence, weight, thickness, and surface temperature during drying of solution cast coatings and films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, E.; Drum, J.; Yucel, O.; Nugay, I. I.; Yalcin, B.; Cakmak, M.

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a new instrument to track temporal changes in physical parameters during the drying behavior of solutions, as well as curing of monomers. This real-time instrument follows in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence, weight, thickness, and surface temperature during the course of solidification of coatings and films through solvent evaporation and thermal or photocuring in a controlled atmosphere. It is specifically designed to simulate behavior of polymer solutions inside an industrial size, continuous roll-to-roll solution casting line and other coating operations where resins are subjected to ultraviolet (UV) curing from monomer precursors. Controlled processing parameters include air speed, temperature, initial cast thickness, and solute concentration, while measured parameters are thickness, weight, film temperature, in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence. In this paper, we illustrate the utility of this instrument with solution cast and dried poly (amide-imide)/DMAc (Dimethylacetamide) solution, water based black paint, and organo-modified clay/NMP (N-Methylpyrrolidone) solution. In addition, the physical changes that take place during UV photo polymerization of a monomer are tracked. This instrument is designed to be generic and it can be used for tracking any drying/swelling/solidification systems including paper, foodstuffs such as; grains, milk as well as pharmaceutical thin paste and slurries.

  5. Birefringent neutron prisms for spin echo scattering angle measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pynn, Roger; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Lee, W. T.; Stonaha, P.; Shah, V. R.; Washington, A. L.; Kirby, B. J.; Majkrzak, C. F.; Maranville, B. B.

    2009-09-01

    In the first decade of the 19th century, an English chemist, William Wollaston, invented an arrangement of birefringent prisms that splits a beam of light into two spatially separated beams with orthogonal polarizations. We have constructed similar devices for neutrons using triangular cross-section solenoids and employed them for Spin Echo Scattering Angle Measurement (SESAME). A key difference between birefringent neutron prisms and their optical analogues is that it is hard to embed the former in a medium which has absolutely no birefringence because this implies the removal of all magnetic fields. We have overcome this problem by using the symmetry properties of the Wollaston neutron prisms and of the overall spin echo arrangement. These symmetries cause a cancellation of Larmor phase aberrations and provide robust coding of neutron scattering angles with simple equipment.

  6. Analytical investigation of response of birefringent fiber Bragg grating sensors in distributed monitoring system based on optical frequency domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, D.; Murayama, H.

    2014-01-01

    When Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are used as strain sensors, both longitudinal and lateral strain can be applied uniformly or non-uniformly over the length of the FBGs. In order for the demodulation of such FBG signal, this paper investigates the response of birefringent FBGs which are monitored by distributed measurement system based on optical frequency domain reflectometry. A numerical model of the distributed measurement system is built based on piece-wise uniform approach, which considers polarization states of propagating lights. The numerical model simulates analytical response of birefringent FBGs especially when birefringence induces power fluctuations in the distributed spectra, which can be noise or new opportunity for sensitive monitoring of birefringence. Simulation results show the relationships between the power fluctuations and the polarization states of the propagating lights. Consequently, appropriate methods of polarization control for sensitive distributed birefringent FBG monitoring are discussed.

  7. The OVAL experiment: a new experiment to measure vacuum magnetic birefringence using high repetition pulsed magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Kamioka, Shusei; Inada, Toshiaki; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Namba, Toshio; Asai, Shoji; Omachi, Junko; Yoshioka, Kosuke; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Matsuo, Akira; Kawaguchi, Koushi; Kindo, Koichi; Nojiri, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    A new experiment to measure vacuum magnetic birefringence (VMB), the OVAL experiment, is reported. We developed an original pulsed magnet that has a high repetition rate and applies the strongest magnetic field among VMB experiments online. The vibration isolation design and feedback system enable the direct combination of the magnet with a Fabry-Pérot cavity. To demonstrate and benchmark the searching potential, a calibration measurement with dilute nitrogen gas and a prototype search for VMB are performed. Based on the results, a strategy to observe VMB is reported.

  8. A polarisation modulation scheme for measuring vacuum magnetic birefringence with static fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavattini, G.; Ejlli, A. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Della Valle, F. [Universita di Trieste, Dipt. di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, TS (Italy); Ruoso, G. [INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    A novel polarisation modulation scheme for polarimeters based on Fabry-Perot cavities is presented. The application to the measurement of the magnetic birefringence of vacuum with the HERA superconducting magnets in the ALPS-II configuration is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Quantification of birefringence readily measures the level of muscle damage in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Joachim; Sztal, Tamar; Currie, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Report of an unbiased quantification of the birefringence of muscle of fish larvae. ► Quantification method readily identifies level of overall muscle damage. ► Compare zebrafish muscle mutants for level of phenotype severity. ► Proposed tool to survey treatments that aim to ameliorate muscular dystrophy. -- Abstract: Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that progressively weaken and degenerate muscle. Many zebrafish models for human muscular dystrophies have been generated and analysed, including dystrophin-deficient zebrafish mutants dmd that model Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Under polarised light the zebrafish muscle can be detected as a bright area in an otherwise dark background. This light effect, called birefringence, results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres. Muscle damage, as seen in zebrafish models for muscular dystrophies, can readily be detected by a reduction in the birefringence. Therefore, birefringence is a very sensitive indicator of overall muscle integrity within larval zebrafish. Unbiased documentation of the birefringence followed by densitometric measurement enables the quantification of the birefringence of zebrafish larvae. Thereby, the overall level of muscle integrity can be detected, allowing the identification and categorisation of zebrafish muscle mutants. In addition, we propose that the establish protocol can be used to analyse treatments aimed at ameliorating dystrophic zebrafish models.

  10. Quantification of birefringence readily measures the level of muscle damage in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joachim, E-mail: Joachim.Berger@Monash.edu [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Sztal, Tamar; Currie, Peter D. [Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, EMBL Australia, Monash University, Clayton (Australia)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Report of an unbiased quantification of the birefringence of muscle of fish larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification method readily identifies level of overall muscle damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compare zebrafish muscle mutants for level of phenotype severity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed tool to survey treatments that aim to ameliorate muscular dystrophy. -- Abstract: Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that progressively weaken and degenerate muscle. Many zebrafish models for human muscular dystrophies have been generated and analysed, including dystrophin-deficient zebrafish mutants dmd that model Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Under polarised light the zebrafish muscle can be detected as a bright area in an otherwise dark background. This light effect, called birefringence, results from the diffraction of polarised light through the pseudo-crystalline array of the muscle sarcomeres. Muscle damage, as seen in zebrafish models for muscular dystrophies, can readily be detected by a reduction in the birefringence. Therefore, birefringence is a very sensitive indicator of overall muscle integrity within larval zebrafish. Unbiased documentation of the birefringence followed by densitometric measurement enables the quantification of the birefringence of zebrafish larvae. Thereby, the overall level of muscle integrity can be detected, allowing the identification and categorisation of zebrafish muscle mutants. In addition, we propose that the establish protocol can be used to analyse treatments aimed at ameliorating dystrophic zebrafish models.

  11. Repeating pulsed magnet system for axion-like particle searches and vacuum birefringence experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, T.; Inada, T.; Namba, T.; Asai, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Matsuo, A.; Kindo, K.; Nojiri, H.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a repeating pulsed magnet system which generates magnetic fields of about 10 T in a direction transverse to an incident beam over a length of 0.8 m with a repetition rate of 0.2 Hz. Its repetition rate is by two orders of magnitude higher than usual pulsed magnets. It is composed of four low resistance racetrack coils and a 30 kJ transportable capacitor bank as a power supply. The system aims at axion-like particle searches with a pulsed light source and vacuum birefringence measurements. We report on the details of the system and its performances.

  12. Repeating pulsed magnet system for axion-like particle searches and vacuum birefringence experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, T., E-mail: yamazaki@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Inada, T.; Namba, T. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Asai, S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsuo, A.; Kindo, K. [The Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Nojiri, H. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-10-11

    We have developed a repeating pulsed magnet system which generates magnetic fields of about 10 T in a direction transverse to an incident beam over a length of 0.8 m with a repetition rate of 0.2 Hz. Its repetition rate is by two orders of magnitude higher than usual pulsed magnets. It is composed of four low resistance racetrack coils and a 30 kJ transportable capacitor bank as a power supply. The system aims at axion-like particle searches with a pulsed light source and vacuum birefringence measurements. We report on the details of the system and its performances.

  13. Investigation of Dispersion and Performance Based on Ring Cavity by Birefringent Interleaver for DWDM Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsair-Chun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate a 25 GHz multichannel filter based on ring cavity birefringent optical interleaver for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM transmission systems. The simulation tool used in this work is the Advanced System Analysis Program (ASAP optical modeling software. We improve the dispersion performance by employing λ/6 and λ/4 wave plates as birefringent compensators for interleavers. The new structure exhibits a high performance with nearly zero ripple, a channel isolation greater than 102 dB, and a passband utilization of 86% within the C-band. The research results illustrate that our modified scheme can improve the dispersion of more than 76.6% in comparison with the previous studies of optical interleaver with birefringent crystal and ring cavity structures.

  14. Highly sensitive distributed birefringence measurements based on a two-pulse interrogation of a dynamic Brillouin grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marcelo A.; Denisov, Andrey; Angulo-Vinuesa, Xabier; Martin-Lopez, Sonia; Thévenaz, Luc; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    A method for distributed birefringence measurements is proposed based on the interference pattern generated by the interrogation of a dynamic Brillouin grating (DBG) using two short consecutive optical pulses. Compared to existing DBG interrogation techniques, the method here offers an improved sensitivity to birefringence changes thanks to the interferometric effect generated by the reflections of the two pulses. Experimental results demonstrate the possibility to obtain the longitudinal birefringence profile of a 20 m-long Panda fibre with an accuracy of 10-8 using 16 averages and 30 cm spatial resolution. The method enables sub-metric and highly-accurate distributed temperature and strain sensing.

  15. Advancements in the Interferometric Measurements of Real Time Finishing Birefringent Filter's Crystal Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Ma; Kushtal, Gi; Skomorovsky, Vi; Domyshev, Gn; Sadokhin, Vp

    2006-01-01

    The finishing of birefringent plates consists of two processes: polishing and evaluation of a surface, which have been performed separately till now. The purpose of this work is achieving of high accuracy of the evaluation and machining of the plane-parallel plates from birefringent crystals, in particular of crystal plates of birefringent filters during their finishing. The developed process combines evaluation and polishing in an interactive way. We have found modes of treatment, shape of polisher, have designed interferometer, with a mirror arranged in polisher. Visual checking of optical thickness comparatively with reference plate was carried out using the interference fringes of equal birefringence, and checking of an optical wedge - by interference rings of an equal inclination. The automated processing of TV camera interference fringes was impossible, because of gaps of interference fringes on polishing cells above the mirror. Therefore a special software was developed for processing of a complex fringe pattern interferogram. Software FastInterf uses furrier analysis technique which allows to process an interferogram with multiply gaps. Interferograms are registered by a high resolution TV camera (1280 x1024). Automatic processing of a fringe interferogram using FastInterf software takes less then one second. The influence of gaps is excluded, and the flat field is taken into account. Software provides full 3D surface and wavefront maps. Aberration analysis of a wavefront gives information on thickness of a plate comparatively with a reference one, optical wedge of plate and azimuth of an inclination of wave front. Moreover, software provides a control of surface quality. The measuring device, features of the software are described and process of interferometric evaluation during polishing is illustrated

  16. Simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature distribution using high birefringence PANDA fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengshi; Murayama, Hideaki

    2017-04-01

    New approach in simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature has been done by using a high birefringence PANDA fiber Bragg grating sensor. By this technique, we have succeeded in discriminating dynamic strain and temperature distribution at the sampling rate of 800 Hz and the spatial resolution of 1 mm. The dynamic distribution of strain and temperature were measured with the deviation of 5mm spatially. In addition, we have designed an experimental setup by which we can apply quantitative dynamic strain and temperature distribution to the fiber under testing without bounding it to a specimen.

  17. Semiconductor laser with a birefringent external cavity for information systems with wavelength division multiplexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranin, V D; Matyunin, S A; Tukmakov, K N [S.P. Korolev Samara State Aerospace University, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-31

    The spectrum of a semiconductor laser with a birefringent external Gires – Tournois cavity is studied. The generation of two main laser modes corresponding to the ordinary and extraordinary wave resonances is found. It is shown that the radiation spectrum is controlled with a high energy efficiency without losses for spectral filtration. The possibility of using two-mode lasing in optical communication systems with wavelength division multiplexing is shown. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  18. Birefringence characterization of injection molded microplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Achyut; Asundi, Anand

    2015-03-01

    Birefringence affects the quality of image analysis in injection molded micro-plates. Depending upon their manufacturing / production processes and the type of material, different plates exhibit varying amounts of birefringence. This birefringence is attributed to residual stress generated during the molding process. Polarimeter is the standard tool for birefringence distribution visualization and quantification. Broad chemical resistance and high mechanical stability of the plates are the desirable properties that can be characterized by birefringence measurement. Birefringence, expressed in nm/cm is light retardance (nm) after passing through a sample with certain thickness (cm). Low or uniform birefringence plates provide high-resolution demonstrating higher performance, hence suitable for bio-chemical analysis.

  19. Fabrication of birefringent nanocylinders for single-molecule force and torque measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ping-Chun; T Yu, Edward; Chang, Jen-Chien; La Porta, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Optically anisotropic subwavelength scale dielectric particles have been shown to enable studies of the mechanical properties of bio-molecules via optical trapping and manipulation. However, techniques emphasized to date for fabrication of such particles generally suffer from limited uniformity and control over particle dimensions, or low throughput and high cost. Here, an approach for rapid, low-cost, fabrication of large quantities of birefringent quartz nanocylinders with dimensions optimized for optical torque wrench experiments is described. For a typical process, 10 8 or more quartz cylinders with diameters of 500 nm and heights of 800 nm, with uniformity of ±5% in each dimension, can be fabricated over ∼10 cm 2 areas, for binding to a single bio-molecule, and harvested for use in optical trapping experiments. Use of these structures to measure extensional and torsional dynamics of single DNA molecules is demonstrated with measured forces and torques shown to be in very good agreement with previously reported results. (papers)

  20. All-solid birefringent hybrid photonic crystal fiber based interferometric sensor for measurement of strain and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Bobo; Yuan, Scott Wu; Zhang, A. Ping

    2011-01-01

    A highly sensitive fiber-optic interferometric sensor based on an all-solid birefringent hybrid photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is demonstrated for measuring strain and temperature. A strain sensitivity of similar to 23.8 pm/mu epsilon and a thermal sensitivity of similar to-1.12 nm/degrees C...

  1. Alignment of bicelles studied with high-field magnetic birefringence and small-angle neutron scattering measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebi, Marianne; van Rhee, Peter G; Christianen, Peter C M; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Fischer, Peter; Walde, Peter; Windhab, Erich J

    2013-03-12

    Birefringence measurements at high magnetic field strength of up to 33 T were used to detect magnetically induced alignment of bicelles composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), cholesterol, and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA) with complexed lanthanide ions. These birefringence measurements together with a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis in a magnetic field showed parallel alignment of the bicelles if the lanthanide was thulium (Tm(3+)), and perpendicular alignment with dysprosium (Dy(3+)). With the birefringence measurements, the order parameter S can be determined as a function of the magnetic field strength, if the magnetic alignment reaches saturation. Additional structural information can be obtained if the maximum induced birefringence is considered. The degree of alignment of the studied bicelles increased with decreasing temperature from 40 to 5 °C and showed a new bicellar structure comprising a transient hole formation at intermediate temperatures (20 °C) during heating from 5 to 40 °C.

  2. Fabrication Procedures and Birefringence Measurements for Designing Magnetically Responsive Lanthanide Ion Chelating Phospholipid Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Baumgartner, Mirjam E; Fischer, Peter; Windhab, Erich J; Liebi, Marianne; Kuster, Simon

    2018-01-03

    Bicelles are tunable disk-like polymolecular assemblies formed from a large variety of lipid mixtures. Applications range from membrane protein structural studies by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to nanotechnological developments including the formation of optically active and magnetically switchable gels. Such technologies require high control of the assembly size, magnetic response and thermal resistance. Mixtures of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and its lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ ) chelating phospholipid conjugate, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA), assemble into highly magnetically responsive assemblies such as DMPC/DMPE-DTPA/Ln 3+ (molar ratio 4:1:1) bicelles. Introduction of cholesterol (Chol-OH) and steroid derivatives in the bilayer results in another set of assemblies offering unique physico-chemical properties. For a given lipid composition, the magnetic alignability is proportional to the bicelle size. The complexation of Ln 3+ results in unprecedented magnetic responses in terms of both magnitude and alignment direction. The thermo-reversible collapse of the disk-like structures into vesicles upon heating allows tailoring of the assemblies' dimensions by extrusion through membrane filters with defined pore sizes. The magnetically alignable bicelles are regenerated by cooling to 5 °C, resulting in assembly dimensions defined by the vesicle precursors. Herein, this fabrication procedure is explained and the magnetic alignability of the assemblies is quantified by birefringence measurements under a 5.5 T magnetic field. The birefringence signal, originating from the phospholipid bilayer, further enables monitoring of polymolecular changes occurring in the bilayer. This simple technique is complementary to NMR experiments that are commonly employed to characterize bicelles.

  3. STUDY OF BIREFRINGENCE INFLUENCE ON IMAGE QUALITY OF PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY SYSTEMS IN VIEW OF PARTIALLY-COHERENT LIGHT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Nikulina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study. A vector model for conversion of electromagnetic radiation in optical systems is considered, taking into account the influence of birefringence, as well as partially coherent illumination. Model. The proposed model is based on the representation of the complex amplitude of the monochromatic field through thesuperposition of basic plane waves. Transmitted light image with partially coherent illumination is performed by the sourceintegration method. Main results. The results of simulation for the point spread function are demonstrating the level of the birefringence influence on the image quality. In the presence of the wave aberration about 0.098 of the wavelength, the wave energy loss in the center of the Airy disk with an average birefringence of 4 nm/cm was 8%, and at 16 nm/cm it reached 30%. The calculation of the point spread function for a real sample of fluorite is given. The central peak of the PSF without birefringence was 0.722, with regard to birefringence it was equal to 0.701. Practical significance. The findings can be used in the development of photolithographic lenses, as well as for the manufacturing of any other optical systems that require consideration of the polarization properties of the materials.

  4. A birefringent polarization modulator: Application to phase measurement in conoscopic interference patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiras, F. E.; Garea, M. T.; Perez, L. I.

    2016-04-01

    Conoscopic interferometry for crystal characterization is a very well-known technique with increasing applications in different fields of technology. The advantage of the scheme proposed here is the introduction of a polarization modulator that allows the recovery of the phase information contained in conoscopic interferograms. This represents a real advantage since the most relevant physical information of the sample under study is usually contained in the phase of the fringe pattern. Moreover, this technique works successfully even when there are no visible fringes. The setup employed is a simple conoscopic interferometer where the elements under study correspond to two birefringent crystal slabs and a commercial mica wave plate. It allows the crystals to be characterized and the wave plate retardance to be measured as a function of the angle of incidence. The modulator itself consists of a single tiltable crystal plate which, by means of phase shifting techniques, permits the recovery of a phase map for each sample. It is inexpensive and it can be easily calibrated, so it works with a wide range of phase shifting interferometry algorithms. We show that our scheme is easily adaptable to algorithms that require either a low or high amount of interferograms.

  5. Circular birefringence/dichroism measurement of optical scattering samples using amplitude-modulation polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Chun; Lo, Yu-Lung; Phan, Quoc-Hung

    2018-03-01

    A method is proposed for extracting the circular birefringence (CB), circular dichroism (CD) and depolarization (Dep) properties of optical scattering samples using an amplitude-modulation polarimetry technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by extracting the CB property of pure glucose aqueous samples, the CB/Dep properties of glucose solutions containing 0.02% lipofundin particles, and the CD/Dep properties of chlorophyllin solutions containing suspended polystyrene microspheres. The results show that the proposed technique has the ability to detect pure glucose with a resolution of 66 mg/dL over a concentration range of 0-500 mg/dL. Moreover, the glucose concentration of the CB/Dep samples can be detected over the same range with a resolution of 168 mg/dL. Finally, the chlorophyllin concentration of the CD/Dep sample can be detected over the range of 0-200 μg/dL with a resolution of 6.5 × 10-5. In general, the results show that the proposed technique provides a reliable and accurate means of measuring the CB/CD properties of optical samples with scattering effects, and thus has significant potential for biological sensing applications.

  6. Research on the detection system of liquid concentration base on birefringence light transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianze; Zhang, Xia; Hou, Luan; Jiang, Chuan

    2010-10-01

    The characteristics of the beam transmitting in the optical fiber and the liquid medium are analyzed in this paper. On this basis, a new type of semiconductor optical position sensitive detector is used for a receiving device, a light transmission method of birefringence is presented,and a set of opto-electrical detection system which is applied to detect liquid concentration is designed. The system is mainly composed of semiconductor lasers,optical systems, Psd signal conditioning circuit, Single-chip System, A/D conversion circuit and display circuit. Through theoretical analysis and experimental simulations, the accuracy of this system has been verified. Some main factors affecting the test results are analyzed detailedly in this paper. The experiments show that the temperature drift and the light intensity have a very small impact on this system. The system has some advantages, such as the simple structure, high sensitivity, good stability, fast response time, high degree of automation, and so on. It also can achieve the real-time detection of liquid concentration conveniently and accurately. The system can be widely applied in chemical, food, pharmacy and many other industries. It has broad prospects of application.

  7. A compact fiber sensor based on the high birefringence polarization maintaining fiber for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Cao, Zhigang; Zhang, Guosheng; Wang, Jian; Lin, Jiping; Yu, Benli

    2017-10-01

    A compact high birefringence polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) sensor for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement is proposed. This sensor is a modal interferometer (MI) sensor which is composed of a segment of high birefringence polarization maintaining fiber. One side of the fiber is spliced to the pigtail of a polarization beam splitter (PBS) with core-offset and axes alignment, the other end is spliced to the standard single-mode fiber (SMF) with core alignment and forms a fiber bubble. In experiments, an optical switch and the PBS are used to generate two orthogonal linear polarized lights. When the two orthogonal linear polarized lights enter the sensing fiber respectively, two different interference spectra will be achieved and own different response to the strain and temperature. Using these properties, the sensor realizes the simultaneous strain and temperature measurement. For 0.01 nm wavelength resolution, the strain and temperature resolution of the sensor are 10 uɛ and 0.285°C, respectively.

  8. High-speed polarized light microscopy for in situ, dynamic measurement of birefringence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianyu; Pankow, Mark; Shadow Huang, Hsiao-Ying; Peters, Kara

    2018-01-01

    A high-speed, quantitative polarized light microscopy (QPLM) instrument has been developed to monitor the optical slow axis spatial realignment during controlled medium to high strain rate experiments at acquisition rates up to 10 kHz. This high-speed QPLM instrument is implemented within a modified drop tower and demonstrated using polycarbonate specimens. By utilizing a rotating quarter wave plate and a high-speed camera, the minimum acquisition time to generate an alignment map of a birefringent specimen is 6.1 ms. A sequential analysis method allows the QPLM instrument to generate QPLM data at the high-speed camera imaging frequency 10 kHz. The obtained QPLM data is processed using a vector correlation technique to detect anomalous optical axis realignment and retardation changes throughout the loading event. The detected anomalous optical axis realignment is shown to be associated with crack initiation, propagation, and specimen failure in a dynamically loaded polycarbonate specimen. The work provides a foundation for detecting damage in biological tissues through local collagen fiber realignment and fracture during dynamic loading.

  9. Zero birefringence films of pullulan ester derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjo, Takahiro; Enomoto, Yukiko; Shimada, Hikaru; Nobukawa, Shogo; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Iwata, Tadahisa

    2017-04-01

    High-performance films with almost zero-birefringence and zero-wavelength dispersion were succeeded to prepare from pullulan esters derivatives (PLEs) without any additives. Optical transmittance analysis, birefringence measurement of PLE cast film and hot stretched films, and infrared dichroism analysis were conducted to characterize optical properties of PLE films comparing with cellulose triacetate which is commercially used as low-birefringence in optical devices. The aims of this study, characterization of optical properties of pullulan esters, can develop a deep understanding of the fundamental knowing and applicability of polysaccharides. Accordingly, authors believe this paper will open the gate for researches in the application of polysaccharides.

  10. In vivo polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of human burn scars: birefringence quantification and correspondence with histologically determined collagen density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E. H.; Feroldi, Fabio; Vlig, Marcel; de Boer, Johannes F.; van Zuijlen, Paul P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Obtaining adequate information on scar characteristics is important for monitoring their evolution and the effectiveness of clinical treatment. The aberrant type of collagen in scars may give rise to specific birefringent properties, which can be determined using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate a method to quantify the birefringence of the scanned volume and correlate it with the collagen density as measured from histological slides. Five human burn scars were measured in vivo using a handheld probe and custom-made PS-OCT system. The local retardation caused by the tissue birefringence was extracted using the Jones formalism. To compare the samples, histograms of birefringence values of each volume were produced. After imaging, punch biopsies were harvested from the scar area of interest and sent in for histological evaluation using Herovici polychrome staining. Two-dimensional en face maps showed higher birefringence in scars compared to healthy skin. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for the collagen density as measured by histology versus the measured birefringence was calculated at r=0.80 (p=0.105). In conclusion, the custom-made PS-OCT system was capable of in vivo imaging and quantifying the birefringence of human burn scars, and a nonsignificant correlation between PS-OCT birefringence and histological collagen density was found.

  11. Detecting strain in birefringent materials using spectral polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor); Huebschman, Michael L. (Inventor); Garner, Harold R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method, computer program product and system for analyzing multispectral images from a plurality of regions of birefringent material, such as a polymer film, using polarized light and a corresponding polar analyzer to identify differential strain in the birefringent material. For example, the birefringement material may be low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinylidene chloride, polyester, nylon, or cellophane film. Optionally, the method includes generating a real-time quantitative strain map.

  12. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  13. Coupled analysis between X-ray scattering and birefringence on an ionomer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijden, P.C. van der [Structures et Proprietes d' Architectures Moleculaires, UMR 5819 (LEA, CNRS, UJF) DRFMC/SPrAM, CEA - Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Diat, O. [Structures et Proprietes d' Architectures Moleculaires, UMR 5819 (LEA, CNRS, UJF) DRFMC/SPrAM, CEA - Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: odiat@cea.fr

    2005-08-15

    Birefringence and orientation factor determined from scattering data analysis are correlated. The intrinsic birefringence from crystalline and amorphous phase in the Nafion, a benchmark ionomer system, were determined and compared with other values from literature.

  14. Sensing characteristics of birefringent microstructured polymer optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczurowski, Marcin K.; Frazao, Orlando; Baptista, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally studied several sensing characteristics of a birefringent microstructured polymer optical fiber. The fiber exhibits a birefringence of the order 2×10-5 at 1.3 μm because of two small holes adjacent to the core. In this fiber, we measured spectral dependence of phase and group...

  15. Induced birefringence in optically isotropic glass by a short pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Paramita; Gupta, K. C.; Murali, C. G.; Dhareshwar, L. J.; Godwal, B. K.

    2006-10-01

    We have observed laser induced birefringence in optically isotropic glasses as well as in Nd:YAG crystal using polarized pulses of wavelength 1.06 µm and duration 100 ps with an intensity near 109 W cm-2. The laser used in the experiment was a Nd:YAG oscillator-amplifier system. The change in the material induced by the laser was not a permanent change but existed for as long as the laser pulse lasted. We observed conoscopic patterns when the laser was passed through glass or the Nd:YAG crystal. These patterns are typically seen when light is passed through birefringent materials kept between a polarizer and analyser. This observation immediately suggests that the glass or the crystal possesses optical birefringence. This birefringence is demonstrated in fused silica glass, Nd:glass and Nd:YAG crystal. The circular symmetric conoscopic patterns show that the optic axis is formed along the direction of laser propagation. The laser induced birefringence depended on the laser intensity and we characterized the magnitude of this change by measuring the output pulse at the end of the crossed polarizer.

  16. Birefringent phononic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Psarobas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of elastic anisotropy, caused in a phononic crystal due to low crystallographic symmetry, we adopt a model structure, already introduced in the case of photonic metamaterials, and by analogy, we study the effect of birefringence and acoustical activity in a phononic crystal. In particular, we investigate its low-frequency behavior and comment on the factors which determine chirality by reference to this model.

  17. Spinning wave plate design for retinal birefringence scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, K.; Gramatikov, B. I.; Wu, Y.-K.; Guyton, D. L.

    2009-02-01

    To enhance foveal fixation detection while bypassing the deleterious effects of corneal birefringence in retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), we developed a new RBS design introducing a double-pass spinning half wave plate (HWP) and a fixed double-pass retarder into the optical system. Utilizing the measured corneal birefringence from a data set of 300 human eyes, an algorithm and a related computer program, based on Mueller-Stokes matrix calculus, were developed in MATLAB for optimizing the properties of both wave plates. Foveal fixation detection was optimized with the HWP spun 9/16 as fast as the circular scan, with the fixed retarder having a retardance of 45° and fast axis at 90°. With this new RBS design, a significant statistical improvement of 7.3 times in signal strength, i.e. FFT power, was achieved for the available data set compared with the previous RBS design. The computer-model-optimized RBS design has the potential not only for eye alignment screening, but also for remote fixation sensing and eye tracking applications.

  18. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  19. Stress-induced birefringence control in femtosecond laser glass welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gstalter, M.; Chabrol, G.; Bahouka, A.; Serreau, L.; Heitz, J.-L.; Taupier, G.; Dorkenoo, K.-D.; Rehspringer, J.-L.; Lecler, S.

    2017-11-01

    Glass welding by femtosecond laser pulses causes microscopic structural modifications, affecting the refractive index due to residual stress. Locally induced birefringence is studied by photoelasticimetry using a polarized light microscope. The study is performed on borosilicate thin glass plates using an industrial femtosecond laser generating 300 fs pulses at 500 kHz, with a 100 mm focusing length F-theta lens allowing fast welding. For low-energy deposition, the principal birefringence axes are determined to be homogenous along the seam and perpendicular and parallel to the laser scanning direction. Tensile stress is induced in the laser scanning direction by the welding seams. The induced birefringence is determined to be equivalent for in-volume irradiated track and welding seams. An inhomogeneity of the birefringence within the seam is observed for the first time at high-energy deposition. The distribution of the birefringence can be controlled with the laser scanning patterns. The amount of residual stress is measured by compensating the local birefringence. The birefringence Δ n is estimated at 2.4 × 10^{-4}, corresponding to a residual stress amount around 59 MPa. The influence of the welding geometry is also illustrated.

  20. Polarisation dynamics of a birefringent Fabry-Perot cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlli, A.; Della Valle, F.; Zavattini, G.

    2018-02-01

    Optical Fabry-Perot cavities always show a non-degeneracy of two orthogonal polarisation states. This is due to the unavoidable birefringence of dielectric mirrors whose effects are extremely important in Fabry-Perot-based high-accuracy polarimeters: in birefringent cavities, ellipticities and rotations mix. We have developed and present here a theory of the polarisation state dynamics in a birefringent Fabry-Perot resonator, and we validate it through measurements performed with the polarimeter of the PVLAS experiment. The measurements are performed while a laser is frequency-locked to the cavity, and provide values for the phase difference between the two orthogonal polarisation components introduced by the combination of the two cavity mirrors (equivalent wave-plate) and for the finesse of the cavity. The theoretical formulas and the experimental data agree well showing that the consequences of the mirror birefringence must be taken into account in this and in any other similar experiment.

  1. China exported birefringent filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Mao, Weijun; Lu, Haitian; Zhu, Yong

    2001-09-01

    Since 1960s, Nanjing Astronomical Instrument Research center of CAS have been developing the birefringent filters for China solar observatories, the most famous one in the world is the 0.15Å(0.12Å)/5324Å(4861Å) filter for the 35cm Solar Magnetic Field Telescope of the Huairou Solar Station of Beijing Observatory. The big success in the field of Lyot filter has been proved by the international solar physics circle, since 1988, Japanese and Korean astronomers have been paying a lot of orders for making Lyot filters from China, up to now we have exported 11 sets of such sophisticated optical instruments, they have been used for routine solar observations in the observatories and planetaria in the two countries. We also begin to repair old Lyot filters made by Germany and France from foreign countries, as India and Germany.

  2. Angular tuning of the magnetic birefringence in rippled cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, Miguel A., E-mail: MiguelAngel.Arranz@uclm.es [Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologías Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo J. Cela 10, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Colino, José M. [Instituto de Nanociencia, Nanotecnología y Materiales Moleculares, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fábrica de Armas, 45071 Toledo (Spain)

    2015-06-22

    We report the measurement of magnetically induced birefringence in rippled Co films. For this purpose, the magneto-optical properties of ion beam eroded ferromagnetic films were studied using Kerr magnetometry and magnetic birefringence in the transmitted light intensity. Upon sufficient ion sculpting, these ripple surface nanostructures developed a defined uniaxial anisotropy in the in-plane magnetization, finely tuning the magnetic birefringence effect. We have studied its dependence on the relative orientation between the ripple direction and the magnetic field, and found this effect to be dramatically correlated with the capability to neatly distinguish the mechanisms for the in-plane magnetization reversal, i.e., rotation and nucleation. This double refraction corresponds univocally to the two magnetization axes, parallel and perpendicular to the ripples direction. We have also observed that tuned birefringence in stack assemblies of rippled Co films, which enables us to technically manipulate the number and direction of refraction axes.

  3. Angular tuning of the magnetic birefringence in rippled cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz, Miguel A.; Colino, José M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurement of magnetically induced birefringence in rippled Co films. For this purpose, the magneto-optical properties of ion beam eroded ferromagnetic films were studied using Kerr magnetometry and magnetic birefringence in the transmitted light intensity. Upon sufficient ion sculpting, these ripple surface nanostructures developed a defined uniaxial anisotropy in the in-plane magnetization, finely tuning the magnetic birefringence effect. We have studied its dependence on the relative orientation between the ripple direction and the magnetic field, and found this effect to be dramatically correlated with the capability to neatly distinguish the mechanisms for the in-plane magnetization reversal, i.e., rotation and nucleation. This double refraction corresponds univocally to the two magnetization axes, parallel and perpendicular to the ripples direction. We have also observed that tuned birefringence in stack assemblies of rippled Co films, which enables us to technically manipulate the number and direction of refraction axes

  4. Highly birefringent elliptical core photonic crystal fiber for terahertz application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Jakeya; Islam, Md. Saiful; Faisal, Mohammad; Islam, Mohammad Rakibul; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Abbott, Derek

    2018-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for designing a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with near zero flattened dispersion properties by applying elliptical air holes in the core area. The elliptical structure of the air holes in the porous-core region introduces asymmetry between x and y polarization modes, which consequently offers ultra-high birefringence. Also the compact geometry of the conventional hexagonal structure in the cladding confines most of the useful power. The optical properties including birefringence, dispersion, confinement loss, effective material loss (EML) and single modeness of the fiber are investigated using a full-vector finite element method. Simulation results show an ultra-high birefringence of 0 . 086 ultra-flattened near zero dispersion of 0 . 53 ± 0 . 07 ps/THz/cm in a broad frequency range. The practical implementation of the proposed fiber is feasible using existing fabrication technology and is applicable to the areas of terahertz sensing and polarization maintaining systems.

  5. Code for three dimensional analysis of thermal birefringence in solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Chiyoe; Hiura, Norimitsu; Matsui, Hiroki; Yoshida, Takuji; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Yamanaka, Masanobu; Izawa, Yasukazu; Nakai, Sadao

    1999-01-01

    A three dimensional (3D) analysis code of thermal birefringence in solid-state lasers was developed. Basic equations include thermal conduction, absorption of laser energy, thermal stress and thermal birefringence. Relative phase shifts induced by thermal effects measured and obtained by simulation are in good agreement with quantitatively. Edge effects of thermal birefringence are quantitatively estimated by 3D simulation. Those are unable to be estimated by 2D analysis. (author)

  6. Birefringent all-solid hybrid microstructured fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Ryuichiro; Jackson, Stuart D; Fleming, Simon; Kuhlmey, Boris T; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Himeno, Kuniharu

    2008-11-10

    We report the characterization of a birefringent all-solid hybrid microstructured fiber, in which the core-modes are guided by both the photonic bandgap (PBG) effect and total internal reflection (TIR). Due to the twofold symmetry, modal birefringence of 1.5 x 10(-4) and group birefringence of 2.1 x 10(-4) were measured at 1.31 microm, which is in the middle of the second bandgap. The band structure was calculated to be different from conventional 2-D PBG fibers due to the 1-D arrangement of high-index regions. The bend loss has a strong directional dependence due to the coexistence of the two guiding mechanisms. The fiber has two important properties pertinent to PBG fibers; spectral filtering, and chromatic dispersion specific to PBG fibers. The number of high-index regions, which trap pump power (by index guiding) when the fiber is used in cladding-pumped fiber lasers, is greatly reduced so that this fiber should enable efficient cladding pumping. This structure is suitable for linearly-polarized, cladding-pumped fiber lasers utilizing the properties of PBG fibers.

  7. Vector bright soliton behaviors of the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger system in the birefringent or two-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Tian, Bo; Xie, Xi-Yang; Guan, Yue-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Studied in this paper are the vector bright solitons of the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger system, which describes the simultaneous propagation of two ultrashort pulses in the birefringent or two-mode fiber. With the help of auxiliary functions, we obtain the bilinear forms and construct the vector bright one- and two-soliton solutions via the Hirota method and symbolic computation. Two types of vector solitons are derived. Single-hump, double-hump, and flat-top solitons are displayed. Elastic and inelastic interactions between the Type-I solitons, between the Type-II solitons, and between the two combined types of the solitons are revealed, respectively. Especially, from the interaction between a Type-I soliton and a Type-II soliton, we see that the Type-II soliton exhibits the oscillation periodically before such an interaction and becomes the double-hump soliton after the interaction, which is different from the previously reported.

  8. High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou; Broeng, Jes; Knudsen, Erik

    2001-01-01

    A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber.......A highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber design is analysed. Birefringence up to 10-3 is found. Random fluctuations in the cladding design are analysed, and the fiber is found to be a feasible polarization maintaining fiber....

  9. Measurement of the magnetically-induced QED birefringence of the vacuum and an improved search for laboratory axions: Technical report. Project definition study of the use of assets and facilities of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.A.; Fairbank, W.M. Jr.; Toki, W.H.; Kraushaar, P.F. Jr.; Jaffery, T.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Colorado State Collaboration has studied the feasibility of a high sensitivity QED birefringence/axion search measurement. The objective of this work is to measure, for the first time, the birefringence induced in the vacuum on a light beam travelling in a powerful magnetic field. The same experimental setup also allows a highly sensitive search for axion or axion-like particles. The experiment would combined custom-designed optical heterodyne interferometry with a string of six SSC prototype superconducting dipole magnets at the N-15 site of the SSC Laboratory. With these powerful laser tools, sensitivity advances of 10 7 to 10 9 over previous optical experiments will be possible. The proposed experiment will be able to measure the QED light-by-light scattering effect with a 0.5% accuracy. The increased sensitivity for the axion-two photon interaction will result in a bound on this process rivaling the results based on astrophysical arguments. In the technical report the authors address the scientific significance of these experiments and examine the limiting technical parameters which control their feasibility. The proposed optical/electronic scheme is presented in the context of a background of the known and projected systematic problems which will confront any serious attempt to make such measurements

  10. New pediatric vision screener employing polarization-modulated, retinal-birefringence-scanning-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system: opto-mechanical design and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Gramatikov, Boris I.; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David L.

    2014-06-01

    Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is a major public health problem, caused by misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) or defocus. If detected early in childhood, there is an excellent response to therapy, yet most children are detected too late to be treated effectively. Commercially available vision screening devices that test for amblyopia's primary causes can detect strabismus only indirectly and inaccurately via assessment of the positions of external light reflections from the cornea, but they cannot detect the anatomical feature of the eyes where fixation actually occurs (the fovea). Our laboratory has been developing technology to detect true foveal fixation, by exploiting the birefringence of the uniquely arranged Henle fibers delineating the fovea using retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), and we recently described a polarization-modulated approach to RBS that enables entirely direct and reliable detection of true foveal fixation, with greatly enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and essentially independent of corneal birefringence (a confounding variable with all polarization-sensitive ophthalmic technology). Here, we describe the design and operation of a new pediatric vision screener that employs polarization-modulated, RBS-based strabismus detection and bull's eye focus detection with an improved target system, and demonstrate the feasibility of this new approach.

  11. A Novel Wavelength Demodulation Method Using Twisted High Birefringence Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, L Y; Yang, H Y; Wu, F; Li, Z Q

    2006-01-01

    The mathematical model of twisted high birefringence fiber was established through theoretical analysis. A novel FBG wavelength demodulation method was put forward, by using the twisted high birefringence fiber. The numerical simulation and the experiments were carried out to the system. The standard cosine relationship was observed between the output intensity of polarization analyzer and the twist angle for the signal light with different wavelengths. When the twist angle of the high birefringence fiber is 0 and π/2, the output intensity ratio of the system presents the linear relationship with the wavelength approximately. The experiment shows that system is in agreement very well with theoretical analysis to demodulate guasi-linearly FBG wavelength shift in range of about 10 nm

  12. Correction of the phase retardation caused by intrinsic birefringence in deep UV lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serebriakov, A.; Bociort, F.; Braat, J.

    2005-01-01

    In the year 2001 it was reported that the birefringence induced by spatial dispersion (BISD), sometimes also called intrinsic birefringence, had been measured and calculated for fluorides CaF2 and BaF2 in the deep UV range. It was also shown that the magnitude of the BISD in these cubic crystals is

  13. Terahertz birefringence of potassium niobate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsygin, V. D.; Mamrashev, A. A.; Nikolaev, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present terahertz optical properties (refractive indices and absorption coefficients) of potassium niobate crystals measured by time-domain spectroscopy in the range of 0.2-2.0 THz. We observe average refractive indices nx = 5.25, ny = 4.8, nz = 5.9 for corresponding optical axes X, Y, Z with the large birefringence of Δn = nz - ny = 1.1. We report rising absorption coefficient at higher frequencies (α ∼ 50 cm-1 at 1 THz for all three axes) while the dichroism is not pronounced. Somewhat higher absorption compared to the previous results could be attributed to some polydomain structure remaining in the crystal.

  14. Cavity enhanced interference of orthogonal modes in a birefringent medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Kiran; Saha, Sudipta; Gupta, S. Dutta

    2018-03-01

    Interference of orthogonal modes in a birefringent crystal mediated by a rotator is known to lead to interesting physical effects (Solli et al., 2003). In this paper we show that additional feedback offered by a Fabry-Perot cavity (containing the birefringent crystal and the rotator) can lead to a novel strong interaction regime. Usual signatures of the strong interaction regime like the normal mode splitting and avoided crossings, sensitive to the rotator orientation, are reported. A high finesse cavity is shown to offer an optical setup for measuring small angles. The results are based on direct calculations of the cavity transmissions along with an analysis of its dispersion relation.

  15. Dynamical Birefringence: Electron-Hole Recollisions as Probes of Berry Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter B. Banks

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct measurement of Berry phases is still a great challenge in condensed-matter systems. The bottleneck has been the ability to adiabatically drive an electron coherently across a large portion of the Brillouin zone in a solid where the scattering is strong and complicated. We break through this bottleneck and show that high-order sideband generation (HSG in semiconductors is intimately affected by Berry phases. Electron-hole recollisions and HSG occur when a near-band-gap laser beam excites a semiconductor that is driven by sufficiently strong terahertz-frequency electric fields. We carry out experimental and theoretical studies of HSG from three GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. The observed HSG spectra contain sidebands up to the 90th order, to our knowledge the highest-order optical nonlinearity reported in solids. The highest-order sidebands are associated with electron-hole pairs driven coherently across roughly 10% of the Brillouin zone around the Γ point. The principal experimental claim is a dynamical birefringence: the intensity and polarization of the sidebands depend on the relative polarization of the exciting near-infrared (NIR and the THz electric fields, as well as on the relative orientation of the laser fields with the crystal. We explain dynamical birefringence by generalizing the three-step model for high-order harmonic generation. The hole accumulates Berry phases due to variation of its internal state as the quasimomentum changes under the THz field. Dynamical birefringence arises from quantum interference between time-reversed pairs of electron-hole recollision pathways. We propose a method to use dynamical birefringence to measure Berry curvature in solids.

  16. Ultraviolet-induced birefringence in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Deyerl, Hans-Jürgen; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær

    2005-01-01

    hydrogen being present in the system. Overall the birefringence, by deduction, is associated with anisotropy in hydrogen reactions within the fiber. As a result they lead, through known mechanisms of dilation in glass, to anisotropic stress relaxation that can be annealed out, with or without hydrogen...

  17. Electric birefringence and streaming-electric birefringence of synthesized imogolite: the anisotropy of electric polarizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Koibuchi, Sae; Hayashi, Naoki

    2007-04-15

    Imogolite synthesized from sodium orthosilicate and aluminum trichloride was fractionated into four fractions by centrifuging at 12,000 x g (1h). The supernatant, which did not deposit by three times centrifugations, was used for all measurements. The signal of birefringence under a reversing electric pulse showed that the permanent dipole moment is negligibly small at low fields. The electric birefringence under a rectangular electric pulse is positive. The saturated value is proportional to the concentration of imogolite in the range of 0-0.1mg/ml and decreases rapidly with an increase of added salt concentration for NaCl and AgNO(3). It slightly depends on the pH of solution and is biggest in pure water. Then we have determined the anisotropy of electric polarizability (Deltaalpha) for imogolite in pure water at 0.05 mg/ml. Deltaalpha we obtained from the method decreases rapidly at low fields and slowly at high fields as shown in references [M. Matsumoto, Colloids Surf. A 148 (1999) 75, M. Matsumoto, Biophys. Chem. 58 (1996) 173]. It is approximately shown by the following expression, Deltaalpha=Deltaalpha(infinity)+(Deltaalpha(0)-Deltaalpha(infinity))/(1+KE), (Deltaalpha(0):Deltaalpha at E=0, Deltaalpha(infinity):Deltaalpha at E=infinity). Using this relation we can draw the curve of electric birefringence as a function of electric field and compare it with experimental values. The results, when Deltaalpha(0)=1.17x10(-28)Fm(2), Deltaalpha(infinity)=0.005x10(-28)Fm(2) and K=0.00031 m/V, are in good agreement with each other. In order to explain the reason why the anisotropy of electric polarizability rapidly decreases with an increase of electric field we propose that the difference of electrophoretic mobility between parts of colloidal particle causes the orientation of a rod like particle. The theoretical electric birefringence as a function of electric field we obtained is considerably in good agreement with the experimental values.

  18. Accurate and quantitative polarization-sensitive OCT by unbiased birefringence estimator with noise-stochastic correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaragod, Deepa; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Ikuno, Yasushi; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Yamanari, Masahiro; Fukuda, Shinichi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Hong, Young-Joo; Li, En; Makita, Shuichi; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of OCT that contrasts the polarization properties of tissues. It has been applied to ophthalmology, cardiology, etc. Proper quantitative imaging is required for a widespread clinical utility. However, the conventional method of averaging to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast of the phase retardation (or birefringence) images introduce a noise bias offset from the true value. This bias reduces the effectiveness of birefringence contrast for a quantitative study. Although coherent averaging of Jones matrix tomography has been widely utilized and has improved the image quality, the fundamental limitation of nonlinear dependency of phase retardation and birefringence to the SNR was not overcome. So the birefringence obtained by PS-OCT was still not accurate for a quantitative imaging. The nonlinear effect of SNR to phase retardation and birefringence measurement was previously formulated in detail for a Jones matrix OCT (JM-OCT) [1]. Based on this, we had developed a maximum a-posteriori (MAP) estimator and quantitative birefringence imaging was demonstrated [2]. However, this first version of estimator had a theoretical shortcoming. It did not take into account the stochastic nature of SNR of OCT signal. In this paper, we present an improved version of the MAP estimator which takes into account the stochastic property of SNR. This estimator uses a probability distribution function (PDF) of true local retardation, which is proportional to birefringence, under a specific set of measurements of the birefringence and SNR. The PDF was pre-computed by a Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation based on the mathematical model of JM-OCT before the measurement. A comparison between this new MAP estimator, our previous MAP estimator [2], and the standard mean estimator is presented. The comparisons are performed both by numerical simulation and in vivo measurements of anterior and

  19. Controlled Terahertz Birefringence in Stretched Poly(lactic acid) Films Investigated by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Hotsumi; Nakamura, Madoka; Komatsubara, Nozomu; Okano, Makoto; Nakasako, Masayoshi; Sato, Harumi; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2017-07-20

    We report a correlation between the dielectric property and structure of stretched poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films, revealed by polarization-sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The experiments evidence that the dielectric function of the PLA film becomes more anisotropic with increasing draw ratio (DR). This behavior is explained by a classical Lorentz oscillator model assuming polarization-dependent absorption. The birefringence can be systematically altered from 0 to 0.13 by controlling DR. The combination of terahertz spectroscopy and 2D WAXS measurement reveals a clear correlation between the birefringence in the terahertz frequency domain and the degree of orientation of the PLA molecular chains. These findings imply that the birefringence is a result of the orientation of the PLA chains with anisotropic macromolecular vibration modes. Because of a good controllability of the birefringence, polymer-based materials will provide an attractive materials system for phase retarders in the terahertz frequency range.

  20. Determination of pitch rotation in a spherical birefringent microparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Basudev; Ramaiya, Avin; Schäffer, Erik

    2018-03-01

    Rotational motion of a three dimensional spherical microscopic object can happen either in pitch, yaw or roll fashion. Among these, the yaw motion has been conventionally studied using the intensity of scattered light from birefringent microspheres through crossed polarizers. Up until now, however, there is no way to study the pitch motion in spherical microspheres. Here, we suggest a new method to study the pitch motion of birefringent microspheres under crossed polarizers by measuring the 2-fold asymmetry in the scattered signal either using video microscopy or with optical tweezers. We show a couple of simple examples of pitch rotation determination using video microscopy for a microsphere attached with a kinesin molecule while moving along a microtubule and of a particle diffusing freely in water.

  1. Full Field Birefringence Measurement of Grown-In Stresses in Thin Silicon Sheet: Final Technical Report, 2 January 2002 - 15 January 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyluk, S.; Ostapenka, S.

    2008-11-01

    This paper summarizes polariscopy work that led to prototype non-contact, near-infrared light-transmission system for inspecting thin, flat, large-area Si wafers. Acoustic work led to commercially viable system to inspect wafers for microcracks.

  2. Use of retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence as an addition to absorption in retinal scanning for biometric purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopov, Mikael; Gramatikov, Boris I.; Wu, Yi-Kai; Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L.

    2008-03-01

    We built a device sensitive to the birefringence of the retinal nerve fiber layer for biometric purposes. A circle of 20° diameter on the retina was scanned around the optic disk with a spot of light from a 785 nm laser diode. The nonbirefringent blood vessels indenting or displacing the retinal nerve fiber layer were seen as “blips” in the measured birefringence-derived signal. For comparison, the reflection-absorption signature of the blood vessel pattern in the scanned circle was also measured. The birefringence-derived signal proved to add useful information to the reflectance-absorption signature for retinal biometric scanning.

  3. Polarization modulational instability in a birefringent optical fiber ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    odinger equation modelling fourth order dispersion effects when the linearly polarized pump is oriented at arbitrary angles with respect to the slow and fast axes of the birefringent fiber. Keywords. Birefringent optical fiber; fourth order dispersion; ...

  4. Measuring the Wavelength of a Diode Laser and the Birefringence of Mica: The Experimental Examination of the IPHO 40 Held in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Lopez, J. L.; Ortiz, M. E.; Rodriguez, L. F.; Romero-Rochin, V.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental examination applied in the 40th International Physics Olympiad held in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, is presented. The examination consisted of two parts: (1) based on the measurements of a diffraction pattern produced by a diode laser impinging on a sharp edge of a razor blade, the students were asked to estimate the wavelength of the…

  5. SANS, SAXS, rheology and birefringence-strengths and weaknesses in probing phase behaviour of a diblock copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigild, Martin Etchells; Eskimergen, Rüya; Mortensen, Kell

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetrically composed diblock copolymers exhibit multiphase behaviour and transit the lamellae, gyroid and hexagonal cylindrical phases before reaching the order–disorder temperature, TODT. During a heating experiment towards TODT we observe that birefringence measurements are more sensitive th...

  6. ANALYSIS OF INDEXED-GUIDED HIGHLY BIREFRINGENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this paper, a comparative study of three geometries of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers (HB PCF) is presented. The proposed geometries are: V type PCF,. Pseudo-Panda PCF and selectively liquid-filled PCF. Based on the famous Finite. Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method with the perfectly ...

  7. Automated Detection of Ocular Alignment with Binocular Retinal Birefringence Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David G.; Shah, Ankoor S.; Sau, Soma; Nassif, Deborah; Guyton, David L.

    2003-06-01

    We previously developed a retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) device to detect eye fixation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new binocular RBS (BRBS) instrument can detect simultaneous fixation of both eyes. Control (nonmyopic and myopic) and strabismic subjects were studied by use of BRBS at a fixation distance of 45 cm. Binocularity (the percentage of measurements with bilateral fixation) was determined from the BRBS output. All nonstrabismic subjects with good quality signals had binocularity >75%. Binocularity averaged 5% in four subjects with strabismus (range of 0 -20%). BRBS may potentially be used to screen individuals for abnormal eye alignment.

  8. Cosmic birefringence fluctuations and cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokcheon Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, BICEP2 measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB B-mode polarization has indicated the presence of primordial gravitational waves at degree angular scales, inferring the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r=0.2 and a running scalar spectral index, provided that dust contamination is low. In this Letter, we show that the existence of the fluctuations of cosmological birefringence can give rise to CMB B-mode polarization that fits BICEP2 data with r<0.11 and no running of the scalar spectral index. When dust contribution is taken into account, we derive an upper limit on the cosmological birefringence, Aβ2<0.0075, where A is the amplitude of birefringence fluctuations that couple to electromagnetism with a coupling strength β.

  9. 3-D TECATE/BREW: Thermal, stress, and birefringent ray-tracing codes for solid-state laser design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, R. J.; Doss, S. K.; Nelson, R. G.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the physics, code formulations, and numerics that are used in the TECATE (totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermo-elasticity) and BREW (birefringent ray-tracing of electromagnetic waves) codes for laser design. These codes resolve thermal, stress, and birefringent optical effects in 3-D stationary solid-state systems. This suite of three constituent codes is a package referred to as LASRPAK.

  10. Effect of salinity on the ultrasonic absorption and flow birefringence of microemulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, E.; Debeauvais, F.; Candau, F.; Lang, J.; Zana, R.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of microemulsions made of toluene, brine, sodium dodecylsulfate and butanol has been investigated as a function of salinity by means of ultrasonic absorption and flow birefringence techniques. As the salinity is increased in the system, phase transitions from Winsor I → Winsor III and Winsor III → Winsor II occur at S1 = 5.5 and S2 = 8 g NaCl/100 g water respectively. At both S1 and S2 salinities, the flow birefringence exhibits a divergence which demonstrates the existence of a...

  11. Birefringence dynamics of poly{1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt} cast films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madruga, Carla; Filho, Paulo Alliprandini; Andrade, Marta M.; Goncalves, Manuel; Raposo, Maria; Ribeiro, Paulo A.

    2011-01-01

    Photoinduced birefringence creation/decay dynamics in poly{1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt}cast films, has been characterized in the 5 to 100 mW writing laser power range at the wavelength of 514 nm. The maximum birefringence magnitude increased with laser beam power, being the largest value of 0.03, measured at 632.8 nm. Birefringence creation kinetics followed a biexponential behavior, where a slow process and a fast process could be clearly distinguished. The fast process accounted for more than 60% of birefringence. The time constants for both fast and slow processes decreased with increasing power of writing beam. Birefringence relaxation after removal of writing laser beam revealed to be independent of beam power and, was found to be ruled by two processes, described by a biexponential curve plus a constant term accounting for residual birefringence. A high residual birefringence signal of 85 ± 3% was attained, with the fast process contributing to 67% of decay from maximum value. The large values obtained for time constants for both birefringence creation and relaxation processes are believed to arise from stabilization of azo-group either by the formation of an ionic network, or by local short range interactions that are coming through as a result polyelectrolyte coiling due to its high degree of ionization.

  12. Soliton-mediated orientational ordering of gold nanorods and birefringence in plasmonic suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu-Xuan; Kelly, Trevor S; Zhang, Chensong; Xu, Huizhong; Chen, Zhigang

    2017-02-01

    We report on the soliton-mediated orientational ordering of gold nanorods in a colloidal plasmonic suspension. Due to the nonlinear optical response of the suspension, a light beam forms an optical spatial soliton which creates an effective optical waveguide. The orientation of the nanorods along the waveguide is regulated by the optical torque exerted by the linearly polarized soliton beam. By measuring the polarization transmission spectrum of a probe beam at a wavelength far from the plasmonic resonance, we observe orientation-enhanced birefringence along the soliton channel, suggesting a disorder-to-order transition of nanorods due to the action of the soliton beam. This approach may be applied in other colloidal systems with optical force-induced nonlinearity.

  13. Transient birefringence effects in electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshkov, O M

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of numerical modelling of transient birefringence that arises as a result of electromagnetically induced transparency on degenerate quantum transitions between the states with J = 0, 1 and 2 in the presence of the Doppler broadening of spectral lines. It is shown that in the case of a linearly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence leads to a decay of the input circularly polarised probe pulse into separate linearly polarised pulses inside a medium. In the case of a circularly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence manifests itself in a decay of the input linearly polarised probe pulse into separate circularly polarised pulses. It is shown that the distance that a probe pulse has to pass in a medium before decaying into subpulses is considerably greater in the first case than in the second. The influence of the input probe pulse power and duration on the process of spatial separation into individual pulses inside a medium is studied. A qualitative analysis of the obtained results is presented. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  14. Three dimensional birefringence control using nanoparticles for uniaxially oriented films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatoh, Kohki; Goda, Kazuya; Akimoto, Mitsuhiro; Abo, Tomohiro

    2017-07-01

    In uniaxially stretched films, the refractive indices perpendicular to the stretching direction have the same value, and so, the out-of-plane birefringence is half that of the in-plane birefringence. This means that these values cannot be controlled independently in uniaxially stretched films. The same relationship was previously observed when needle-shaped nanoparticles were added to uniaxially stretched films. This paper presents a method to achieve the three-dimensional birefringence control of uniaxially stretched films. When we added plate-shaped smectite nanoparticles to uniaxially stretched films, different relationships were observed for the in- and out-of-plane birefringence. The magnitude of the out-of-plane birefringence increased more than would be expected according to the usual relationship. According to our results, uniaxially stretched films with no out-of-plane birefringence and negative in-plane birefringence can be formed by adding smectite nanoparticles to polymer films with negative in-plane birefringence. Using our method, the three-dimensional birefringence of uniaxial polymers can be controlled, and the possibility of the uniaxial films could be drastically extended.

  15. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A major part of the sensors has been installed by others (see [1]) the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report...

  16. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A part of the sensors has been installed by others, the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report, are only valid...

  17. Measurement System & Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A part of the sensors has been installed by others, the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report, are only val...

  18. Residual stress measurement for injection molded components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Adhikari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Residual stress induced during manufacturing of injection molded components such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA affects the mechanical and optical properties of these components. These residual stresses can be visualized and quantified by measuring their birefringence. In this paper, a low birefringence polariscope (LBP is used to measure the whole-field residual stress distribution of these injection molded specimens. Detailed analytical and experimental study is conducted to quantify the residual stress measurement in these materials. A commercial birefringence measurement system was used to validate the results obtained to our measurement system. This study can help in material diagnosis for quality and manufacturing purpose and be useful for understanding of residual stress in imaging or other applications.

  19. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  20. Peak-locking error reduction by birefringent optical diffusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislaya, Ankur; Sciacchitano, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The use of optical diffusers for the reduction of peak-locking errors in particle image velocimetry is investigated. The working principle of the optical diffusers is based on the concept of birefringence, where the incoming rays are subject to different deflections depending on the light direction and polarization. The performances of the diffusers are assessed via wind tunnel measurements in uniform flow and wall-bounded turbulence. Comparison with best-practice image defocusing is also conducted. It is found that the optical diffusers yield an increase of the particle image diameter up to 10 µm in the sensor plane. Comparison with reference measurements showed a reduction of both random and systematic errors by a factor of 3, even at low imaging signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  2. Cross-phase modulational instability in an elliptical birefringent fiber ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cross-phase modulational instability in an elliptical birefringent fiber with higher order nonlinearity and dispersion. R Ganapathy V C Kuriakose. Research Articles Volume 58 Issue 4 April 2002 pp 669- ... Keywords. Cross-phase modulational instability; normal dispersion; group velocity mismatch; birefringent optical fiber.

  3. Modelling birefringence in isolated elliptical core photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Dybendal; Vienne, Guillaume; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2001-01-01

    A simple model for calculation of the birefringence in asymmetric isolated core PCFs employing approximation with an ellipsoid suspended in air is presented. Birefringence values in the order of 10-2 are obtained and comparison with both calculations based on a SEM picture of a real fiber...

  4. Anomalously temperature-independent birefringence in biaxial optical crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechin, Sergei G; Dmitriev, Valentin G; Dyakov, Vladimir A; Pryalkin, Vladimir I

    2000-01-01

    Temperature-independent birefringence in a biaxial crystal was predicted theoretically and observed experimentally for the first time. The width of the plot against temperature (the range corresponding to the temperature independence of the birefringence) at a fundamental radiation wavelength of 632.8 nm in a KTP crystal 5.9 mm long was more than 160 0 C. (letters to the editor)

  5. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  6. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  7. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution's contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution's leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system's loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are ‘taxed’ based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular...

  8. Multiple scattering of polarized light in birefringent slab media: experimental verifications and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Soichi

    2018-02-01

    The effective scattering Mueller matrices were measured for backward and forward scattering by applying a narrow polarized light on a polyacrylamide slab gel, which was strained vertically to generate birefringence inside. Monte Carlo simulations were performed in conditions that were the same as possible. The measured and simulated matrices were simplified to the reduced ones. They agreed well in both original and reduced forms. While they approximately take reciprocal forms for backward scattering, they approximately satisfy matrix forms that correspond to a reciprocal position of the mirror image for forward scattering. The reduced matrices were factorized by the Lu-Chipman polar decomposition to obtain the polarization parameters. The polarization parameters were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation and showed characteristic features of anisotropic slab media with a birefringence axis parallel to the slab surface.

  9. Nearly-off-axis transmissivity of Solc birefringent filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Liu, Liren; Zhang, Juan; Liu, De'an; Luan, Zhu

    2003-04-01

    The characteristics of light propagating near the axis of a birefringent filter are studied. A generalized formulation to describe the nearly-off-axis transmissivity of a Solc birefringent filter is derived. On this basis, the polarization conoscopic figures of Solc filters with different numbers of birefringent plates are simulated. Furthermore the variation of spectral transmission with angle of incidence is analyzed, and the field-of-view transmissivity and the spectral transmissivity averaged with respect to the spread of incident light are given. Primary experiments for verification are also demonstrated.

  10. Linear birefringence and optical ativity in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuolo, J.H.; Galvao, R.M.O.

    1982-02-01

    Linear birefringence and optical activity are considered separately to electromagnetic wave propagation in magnetized cold plasma, using frequency approximation much bigger than plasma frequency. It's showen that in some interesting cases, those phenomena could be independents. Explicit expressions are obtained for refraction indices to linear birefringency and optical activity. The correspondents indices attenuation aRe obtained in first orden of attenuation. It's showen that the characteristic states for linear dichroism coincide with the characteristic states for linear birefringence. The characteristic states for elliptic dichroism are obtained. (M.A.F.) [pt

  11. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution’s leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system’s loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are “taxed” based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular...

  12. Calorimetric measuring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Andrew Ewen; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    the system cooling requirement. A common problem is that high-frequency phenomena like proximity effect, skin effect, hysteresis losses, and eddy current losses appear in the systems. These losses are very difficult to treat both theoretically and in practice. It is often difficult to measure the effect...... in the system. If the switching speed can be increased, improvements may be possible (e.g., current ripple in an electrical machine or physical size of passive components may be reduced). On the other hand, increased switching speed may cause additional losses in a power electronic system and increase...

  13. A photoelastic measurement system for residual stress analysis in scintillating crystals by conoscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, L.; Paone, N.; Scalise, L.; Rinaldi, D.

    2015-06-01

    The assessment of the stress state of scintillating crystals is an important issue for producers as well as users of such materials, because residual stress may arise during growth process. In this paper, a measurement system, based on the use of a photoelastic, conoscopic optical setup, is proposed for the assessment of stress state in scintillating crystals. Local stress values can be measured on the crystal in order to observe their spatial distribution. With the proposed system, it is possible to vary the dimensions of the inspected measurement volume. It has been validated with reference to a known stress state induced in a birefringent crystal sample and it has been tested for the case of loaded and unloaded samples, showing sub-millimetric spatial resolution and stress uncertainty ≤0.25 MPa. The proposed measurement system is a valid method for the inspection of scintillating crystals required by producers and users of such materials.

  14. Theory of the Sagnac's interferometer of low birefringence and twist fiber; Teoria del interferometro de Sagnac de fibra de baja birrefrigencia y torcida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Kuzin, E. A.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Puebla (Mexico); Rojas-Laguna, R. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    The fibre Sagnac interferometer of low birefringence and twist in the lineal region is examined numerically, a method is shown to measure the birefringence in the fibers and rotation of the axes inside of the interferometer fibre loop. [Spanish] El interferometro de Sagnac de fibra de baja birrefrigencia y torcida en la region lineal es numericamente examinado, se muestra un metodo para medir la birrefrigencia en las fibras y rotacion de los ejes dentro de la fibra del lazo del interferometro.

  15. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present an economic model of systemic risk in which undercapitalization of the financial sector as a whole is assumed to harm the real economy, leading to a systemic risk externality. Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall...... (SES), that is, its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases in the institution’s leverage and its marginal expected shortfall (MES), that is, its losses in the tail of the system’s loss distribution. We demonstrate empirically the ability...... of components of SES to predict emerging systemic risk during the financial crisis of 2007–2009....

  16. Detection of local birefringence in embedded fiber Bragg grating caused by concentrated transverse load using optical frequency domain reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, D.; Murayama, H.; Igawa, H.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the capability of local birefringence detection in an embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) using optical frequency domain reflectometry. We embed an FBG into carbon fiber reinforced plastic specimen, and conduct 3-point bending test. The cross-sectional stresses are applied to the FBG at the loading location in addition to the non-uniform longitudinal strain distribution over the length of the FBG. The local birefringence due to the cross-sectional stresses was successfully detected while the non-uniform longitudinal strain distribution was accurately measured.

  17. Birefringent Microlens Array for Ultra High Resolution HMDs, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will be used to analyze, design, model, and test a birefringent microlens array for use in a new type of...

  18. Birefringent Microlens Array for Ultra High Resolution HMDs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will be used to analyze, design, model, and test a birefringent microlens array for use in a new type of...

  19. Aerial measuring systems program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    EG and G, Inc., has developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) an Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) program dedicated to environmental research at facilities of interest to DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other federal agencies. The AMS was orginally created to measure nuclear radiation; the program scope has been broadened dramatically to include a wide variety of remote sensors: multispectral and mapping cameras, optical and infrared multispectral scanners, air-sampling systems, and meteorological sensors. The AMS maintains seven aircraft as survey platforms, both fixed-wind aircraft and helicopters. Photography, scanner imagery, and radiation data are processed in dedicated, modern laboratories and used for a broad range of environmental impact studies. A graphic overview system has been developed for effective presentation of all types of remotely sensed data obtained at a facility of interest

  20. In situ measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  1. Cosmological birefringence constraints from CMB and astrophysical polarization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaverni, M. [Studio Teologico Interdiocesano, V.le Timavo 93, Reggio Emilia, 42121 Italy (Italy); Gubitosi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and sez. Roma1 INFN, Università di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro 2, Rome, 00185 Italy (Italy); Paci, F. [SISSA, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 Italy (Italy); Finelli, F., E-mail: matteo.galaverni@gmail.com, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: fpaci@sissa.it, E-mail: finelli@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF-IASF Bologna, via Gobetti 101, Bologna, I-40129 Italy (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    Cosmological birefringence is a rotation of the polarization plane of photons coming from sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. The rotation can also depend on the energy of the photons and not only on the distance of the source and on the cosmological evolution of the underlying theoretical model. In this work, we constrain few selected models for cosmological birefringence, combining CMB and astrophysical data at radio, optical, X and γ wavelengths, taking into account the specific energy and distance dependences.

  2. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution’s leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system’s loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are “taxed” based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular......, (i) the outcome of stress tests performed by regulators; (ii) the decline in equity valuations of large financial firms in the crisis; and, (iii) the widening of their credit default swap spreads....

  3. Sperm head's birefringence: a new criterion for sperm selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaroli, Luca; Magli, M Cristina; Collodel, Giulia; Moretti, Elena; Ferraretti, Anna P; Baccetti, Baccio

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics of birefringence in human sperm heads and apply polarization microscopy for sperm selection at intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Prospective randomized study. Reproductive Medicine Unit, Società Italiana Studi Medicina della Riproduzione, Bologna, Italy. A total of 112 male patients had birefringent sperm selected for ICSI (study group). The clinical outcome was compared with that obtained in 119 couples who underwent a conventional ICSI cycle (control group). The proportion of birefringent spermatozoa was evaluated before and after treatment in relation to the sperm sample quality. Embryo development and clinical outcome in the study group were compared with those in the controls. Proportion of birefringent sperm heads, rates of fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing implantation. The proportion of birefringent spermatozoa was significantly higher in normospermic samples when compared with oligoasthenoteratospermic samples with no progressive motility and testicular sperm extraction samples. Although fertilization and cleavage rates did not differ between the study and control groups, in the most severe male factor condition (oligoasthenoteratospermic with no progressive motility and testicular sperm extraction), the rates of clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and implantation were significantly higher in the study group versus the controls. The analysis of birefringence in the sperm head could represent both a diagnostic tool and a novel method for sperm selection.

  4. Quantitative orientational characterization if low - density polyethylene blow films by x-ray and birefringence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri Qazvini, N.; Mohammadi, N.; Ghaffarian, R.; Assempour, H.; Haghighatkish, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two important parameters of film blowing processes, i.e., take-up ration and blow-up ratio, on the overall orientation of low-density blown films have been investigated using birefringence measurements. Furthermore, by combining x-ray diffraction pole figure analysis and birefringence, the White and Spruiell biaxial orientation functions have been determined for aforementioned sample. Within the range of processing condition studied, increasing take-up ratio, increases orientation in both machine and transverse direction. Upon increasing blow-up ratio, orientation in the transverse direction increases and the overall orientation state approaches to equal biaxial one. Characterization of the crystalline regions by pole figure analysis reveals that a and b crystallographic axes preferentially orientate in the film plane and the direction normal to it, respectively. The amorphous regions do not have any preferential orientation

  5. Polarized light imaging of birefringence and diattenuation at high resolution and high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Shalin B; Shribak, Michael; Oldenbourg, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy provides unique opportunities for analyzing the molecular order in man-made and natural materials, including biological structures inside living cells, tissues, and whole organisms. 20 years ago, the LC-PolScope was introduced as a modern version of the traditional polarizing microscope enhanced by liquid crystal devices for the control of polarization, and by electronic imaging and digital image processing for fast and comprehensive image acquisition and analysis. The LC-PolScope is commonly used for birefringence imaging, analyzing the spatial and temporal variations of the differential phase delay in ordered and transparent materials. Here we describe an alternative use of the LC-PolScope for imaging the polarization dependent transmittance of dichroic materials. We explain the minor changes needed to convert the instrument between the two imaging modes, discuss the relationship between the quantities measured with each instrument, and touch on the physical connection between refractive index, birefringence, transmittance, diattenuation, and dichroism. (special issue article)

  6. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  7. Enterprise performance measurement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milija Bogavac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement systems are an extremely important part of the control and management actions, because in this way a company can determine its business potential, its market power, potential and current level of business efficiency. The significance of measurement consists in influencing the relationship between the results of reproduction (total volume of production, value of production, total revenue and profit and investments to achieve these results (factors of production spending and hiring capital in order to achieve the highest possible quality of the economy. (The relationship between the results of reproduction and investment to achieve them quantitatively determines economic success as the quality of the economy. Measuring performance allows the identification of the economic resources the company has, so looking at the key factors that affect its performance can help to determine the appropriate course of action.

  8. Radon integral measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia H, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Radon Integral Measurement System (SMIR) is a device designed specially to detect, to count and to store the data of the acquisition of alpha particles emitted by Radon-222 coming from the underground. The system includes a detection chamber, a radiation detector, a digital system with bateries backup and an auxiliary photovoltaic cell. A personal computer fixes the mode in which the system works, transmitting the commands to the system by the serial port. The heart of the system is a microprocesor working with interrupts by hardware. Every external device to the microprocessor sends his own interrupt request and the microprocessor handles the interrupts with a defined priority. The system uses a real time clock, compatible with the microprocessor, to take care of the real timing and date of the acquisition. A non volatile RAM is used to store data of two bytes every 15 minutes along 41 days as a maximum. After the setting up to the system by the computer, it can operate in stand alone way for up 41 days in the working place without the lose of any data. If the memory is full the next data will be written in the first locations of the memory. The memory is divided in pages corresponding every one of this to a different day of the acquisition. The counting time for every acquisition can be programmed by the user from 15 minutes to 65535 minutes but it is recommended to use a small time not to reach the limit of 65535 counts in every acquisition period. We can take information of the system without affecting the acquisition process in the field by using a lap top computer, then the information can be stored in a file. There is a program in the computer that can show the information in a table of values or in a bar graph. (Author)

  9. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  10. Imaging of irradiated human costal cartilage birefringence by PS-OCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Santin, Stefany P.; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mosca, Rodrigo C.; Bringel, Fabiana A.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: freitas.az@ipen.b, E-mail: rmosca@usp.b, E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sterilization by ionizing radiation is a technique used for tissue banks around the world to avoid transmission of infectious diseases by human allografts. However, high doses of ionizing radiation may cause undesirable changes in tissue structure, decreasing its mechanical properties, for example. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non destructive, non ionizing and real time method to investigate biological tissues without promote any change in tissue structure. Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) is an OCT technique that combines polarimetry with low coherence reflectometry to provide depth resolved measurements from birefringent structures as collagen. Costal cartilages from 15 cadaveric donors were preserved in high concentration glycerol and each individual sample was divided in 6 fragments. One of them was kept as a control group and the others were irradiated with gamma radiation from a Co-60 source with doses of 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 kGy. OCT and PS-OCT images of the same region of the samples were obtained from a device OCS 1300 SS (Thorlabs, USA) with a coupling polarization module PSOCT 1300 (Thorlabs, USA). According with our results, birefringence may be visualized in all test groups as well in the control group, suggesting that sterilization by ionizing radiation does not affect the collagen structure significantly to cause total loss of birefringence, even if high doses as 75 and 100 kGy are used. The next step of our work is to develop a new method to quantify the birefringence using the optical properties of the tissue. (author)

  11. Novel laser machining of optical fibers for long cavities with low birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Morphew, Jack; Oručević, Fedja; Noguchi, Atsushi; Kassa, Ezra; Keller, Matthias

    2014-12-15

    We present a novel method of machining optical fiber surfaces with a CO₂ laser for use in Fiber-based Fabry-Perot Cavities (FFPCs). Previously FFPCs were prone to large birefringence and limited to relatively short cavity lengths (≤ 200 μm). These characteristics hinder their use in some applications such as cavity quantum electrodynamics with trapped ions. We optimized the laser machining process to produce large, uniform surface structures. This enables the cavities to achieve high finesse even for long cavity lengths. By rotating the fibers around their axis during the laser machining process the asymmetry resulting from the laser's transverse mode profile is eliminated. Consequently we are able to fabricate fiber mirrors with a high degree of rotational symmetry, leading to remarkably low birefringence. Through measurements of the cavity finesse over a range of cavity lengths and the polarization dependence of the cavity linewidth, we confirmed the quality of the produced fiber mirrors for use in low-birefringence FFPCs.

  12. Collagen birefringence assessment in heart chordae tendineae through PS-OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Eusebio; Revuelta, José M.; González-Vargas, Nieves; Pontón, Alejandro; Calvo-Díez, Marta; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2017-02-01

    Degenerative mitral regurgitation is a serious and frequent human heart valve disease. Malfunctioning of this valve brings the left-sided heart through a significant increase of pressure and volume overload. Severe degenerative mitral incompetence generally requires surgical repair or valve replacement with a bioprosthesis or mechanical heart valve. Degenerative disease affects the leaflets or/and the chordae tendineae, which link both leaflets to the papillary muscles. During mitral valve surgical repair, reconstruction of the valve leaflets, annulus and chordae are provided to prevent postoperative recurrence of valve regurgitation. The operative evaluation of the diseased and apparently normal chordae tendineae mainly depends of the surgeońs experience, without any other objective diagnosis tool. In this work, PS-OCT (Polarization Sensitive-Optical Coherence Tomography) is applied for the first time to evaluate the pathological condition of human chordae coming from the mitral valve. It consists on a prospective study to test the viability of this technique for the evaluation of the collagen core of chords. This core presents a strong birefringence due to the longitudinal and organized arrangement of its collagen bundles. Different densities and organizations of the collagen core translate into different birefringence indicators whose measurement become an objective marker of the core structure. Ex-vivo mitral degenerative chordae tendineae have been analyzed with PS-OCT. Intensity OCT is used to obtain complementary morphological information of the chords. Birefringence results correlate with the previously reported values for human tendinous tissue.

  13. Transient magnetic birefringence for determining magnetic nanoparticle diameters in dense, highly light scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köber, Mariana; Moros, Maria; Grazú, Valeria; de la Fuente, Jesus M.; Luna, Mónica; Briones, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    The increasing use of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications calls for further development of characterization tools that allow for determining the interactions of the nanoparticles with the biological medium in situ. In cell-incubating conditions, for example, nanoparticles may aggregate and serum proteins adsorb on the particles, altering the nanoparticles’ performance and their interaction with cell membranes. In this work we show that the aggregation of spherical magnetite nanoparticles can be detected with high sensitivity in dense, highly light scattering media by making use of magnetically induced birefringence. Moreover, the hydrodynamic particle diameter distribution of anisometric nanoparticle aggregates can be determined directly in these media by monitoring the relaxation time of the magnetically induced birefringence. As a proof of concept, we performed measurements on nanoparticles included in an agarose gel, which scatters light in a similar way as a more complex biological medium but where particle-matrix interactions are weak. Magnetite nanoparticles were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and the hydrodynamic diameter distribution was determined in situ. For the different particle functionalizations and agarose concentrations tested, we could show that gel electrophoresis did not yield a complete separation of monomers and small aggregates, and that the electrophoretic mobility of the aggregates decreased linearly with the hydrodynamic diameter. Furthermore, the rotational particle diffusion was not clearly affected by nanoparticle-gel interactions. The possibility to detect nanoparticle aggregates and their hydrodynamic diameters in complex scattering media like cell tissue makes transient magnetic birefringence an interesting technique for biological applications.

  14. UV-laser induced birefringence in olygoetheracrylate photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, K.

    2018-01-01

    Laser induced birefringence was studied during coherent treatment by two coherent UV laser beams at wavelength 355 nm. Principal role of the border separating photo-solidified and the surrounding non-solidified liquid-like fragments is demonstrated. The magnitudes of laser induced birefringence for probing 1150 nm wavelength were varied within 10-4…10-2. It is demonstrated that one can operate by values of the birefringence versus polymer solidification time. The UV-induced birefringence achieves a saturation after about 45 days. The reversible birefringence after switching off of the UV-solidification beams was equal to about 18% with respect to initially photo-stimulated. The discovered effect may be used for design and fabrication of electro-optical modulators operated by UV laser light. A principal physical mechanism is determined by an interaction between two coherent UV- nanosecond laser pulses at wavelengths of 355 nm (third harmonic of Nd:YAG laser). The discovered effects allow to propose a new type of UV-operated photopolymer materials for optical recoding of information.

  15. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  16. Validating Laser-Induced Birefringence Theory with Plasma Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-09-02

    Intense laser beams crossing paths in plasma is theorized to induce birefringence in the medium, resulting from density and refractive index modulations that affect the polarization of incoming light. The goal of the associated experiment, conducted on Janus at Lawrence Livermore’s Jupiter Laser Facility, was to create a tunable laser-plasma waveplate to verify the relationship between dephasing angle and beam intensity, plasma density, plasma temperature, and interaction length. Interferometry analysis of the plasma channel was performed to obtain a density map and to constrain temperature measured from Thomson scattering. Various analysis techniques, including Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and two variations of fringe-counting, were tried because interferograms captured in this experiment contained unusual features such as fringe discontinuity at channel edges, saddle points, and islands. The chosen method is flexible, semi-automated, and uses a fringe tracking algorithm on a reduced image of pre-traced synthetic fringes. Ultimately, a maximum dephasing angle of 49.6° was achieved using a 1200 μm interaction length, and the experimental results appear to agree with predictions.

  17. Highly Nonlinear and Birefringent Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Revathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and design a spiral photonic crystal fiber with elliptical air holes for achieving high birefringence, large nonlinearity, and negative dispersion. The structure is designed using chalcogenide glass (As2S3 for different ellipticity ratios of air holes in the cladding and the effect on various properties is observed. The proposed structure has birefringence of the order 10−2, nonlinearity of 26739.42 W−1 m−1, and dispersion of −1136.69 at 0.85 μm. An accurate numerical approach based on finite element method is used for the design and simulation of the structure. Due to high birefringence and negative dispersion, the proposed structure can be used for polarization control and dispersion compensation, respectively.

  18. The Study of Birefringent Homogenous Medium with Geometric Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Dipti

    2010-12-01

    The property of linear and circular birefringence at each point of the optical medium has been evaluated here from differential matrix N using the Jones calculus. This matrix lies on the OAM sphere for l = 1 orbital angular momentum. The geometric phase is developed by twisting the medium uniformly about the direction of propagation of the light ray. The circular birefringence of the medium, is visualized through the solid angle and the angular twist per unit thickness of the medium, k, that is equivalent to the topological charge of the optical element. (author)

  19. Interferometric method for birefringence determination with a polarizing microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Leonaş; Dumitraşcu, Irina; Dorohoi, Dana-Ortansa; Toma, Mihai

    2008-12-08

    We present a new mathematical technique which can be used to determine the main refractive indices and the birefringence of an anisotropic layer by using a polarizing microscope in conoscopic illumination. The values of the birefringence for the yellow radiation of a Na lamp are determined here for a Carpathian quartz sample, but the technique can also be applied to the study of other uniaxial substances such as liquid crystals, model membranes or biological tissues. The validity of the proposed method was tested by comparing the results with those obtained with a Rayleigh interferometer and by using the technology of channeled spectra.

  20. Polarized light field microscopy: an analytical method using a microlens array to simultaneously capture both conoscopic and orthoscopic views of birefringent objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenbourg, R

    2008-09-01

    For the comprehensive analysis of anisotropic materials, a new approach, called 'polarized light field microscopy' is introduced. It uses an LC-PolScope to which a microlens array was added at the image plane of the objective lens. The system is patterned after the 'light field microscope' that achieves both lateral and axial resolution in thick specimens in a single camera exposure. In polarized light field microscopy, the microlens array generates a hybrid image consisting of an array of small conoscopic images, each sampling a different object area. Analysis of the conoscopic images reveals the birefringence of each object area as a function of the propagation direction of transmitted light rays. The principles and utility of the instrument that we are calling 'light field LC-PolScope' are demonstrated with images of a thin, polycrystalline calcite film, revealing the azimuth and inclination angle of the optic axis for many crystals simultaneously, including crystals with diameters as small as 2 microm. Compared to traditional conoscopy and related methods, the vastly improved throughput and quantitative analysis afforded by the light field LC-PolScope make it the instrument of choice for measuring 3D birefringence parameters of complex structures.

  1. Polarized light field microscopy: an analytical method using a microlens array to simultaneously capture both conoscopic and orthoscopic views of birefringent objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenbourg, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    For the comprehensive analysis of anisotropic materials, a new approach, called “polarized light field microscopy” is introduced. It uses an LC-PolScope to which a microlens array was added at the image plane of the objective lens. The system is patterned after the “light field microscope” that achieves both lateral and axial resolution in thick specimens in a single camera exposure. In polarized light field microscopy, the microlens array generates a hybrid image consisting of an array of small conoscopic images, each sampling a different object area. Analysis of the conoscopic images reveals the birefringence of each object area as a function of the propagation direction of transmitted light rays. The principles and utility of the instrument that we are calling “light field LC-PolScope” are demonstrated with images of a thin, polycrystalline calcite film, revealing the azimuth and inclination angle of the optic axis for many crystals simultaneously, including crystals with diameters as small as 2 µm. Compared to traditional conoscopy and related methods, the vastly improved throughput and quantitative analysis afforded by the light field LC-PolScope make it the instrument of choice for measuring 3-dimensional birefringence parameters of complex structures. PMID:18754996

  2. Analysis of Indexed-Guided Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a comparative study of three geometries of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers (HB PCF) is presented. The proposed geometries are: V type PCF, Pseudo-Panda PCF and selectively liquid-filled PCF. Based on the famous Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method with the perfectly matched layer ...

  3. Cross-phase modulational instability in an elliptical birefringent fiber ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    birefringent fiber with higher order nonlinearity and dispersion ... order dispersion and nonlinear terms. Keywords. Cross-phase modulational instability; normal dispersion; group velocity mismatch; bire- fringent optical fiber. PACS Nos ...... Figure 13. Compares the gain spectrum obtained in case (iii) (dotted line) with that of.

  4. Exploiting cellophane birefringence to generate radially and azimuthally polarised vector beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalwe, Johnston; Ominde, Calvine; Rurimo, Geoffrey; Neugebauer, Martin; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We exploit the birefringence of cellophane to convert a linearly polarised Gaussian beam into either a radially or azimuthally polarised beam. For that, we fabricated a low-cost polarisation mask consisting of four segments of cellophane. The fast axis of each segment is oriented appropriately in order to rotate the polarisation of the incident linearly polarised beam as desired. To ensure the correct operation of the polarisation mask, we tested the polarisation state of the generated beam by measuring the spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters. Such a device is very cost efficient and allows for the generation of cylindrical vector beams of high quality. (paper)

  5. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  6. Novel technique for spatially resolved imaging of molecular bond orientations using x-ray birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, John P., E-mail: john.sutter@diamond.ac.uk; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harris, Kenneth D. M., E-mail: HarrisKDM@cardiff.ac.uk; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Kariuki, Benson M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Palmer, Benjamin A. [Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl St., Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2016-07-27

    Birefringence has been observed in anisotropic materials transmitting linearly polarized X-ray beams tuned close to an absorption edge of a specific element in the material. Synchrotron bending magnets provide X-ray beams of sufficiently high brightness and cross section for spatially resolved measurements of birefringence. The recently developed X-ray Birefringence Imaging (XBI) technique has been successfully applied for the first time using the versatile test beamline B16 at Diamond Light Source. Orientational distributions of the C–Br bonds of brominated “guest” molecules within crystalline “host” tunnel structures (in thiourea or urea inclusion compounds) have been studied using linearly polarized incident X-rays near the Br K-edge. Imaging of domain structures, changes in C–Br bond orientations associated with order-disorder phase transitions, and the effects of dynamic averaging of C–Br bond orientations have been demonstrated. The XBI setup uses a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator upstream from the sample and a horizontally deflecting single-crystal polarization analyzer downstream, with a Bragg angle as close as possible to 45°. In this way, the ellipticity and rotation angle of the polarization of the beam transmitted through the sample is measured as in polarizing optical microscopy. The theoretical instrumental background calculated from the elliptical polarization of the bending-magnet X-rays, the imperfect polarization discrimination of the analyzer, and the correlation between vertical position and photon energy introduced by the monochromator agrees well with experimental observations. The background is calculated analytically because the region of X-ray phase space selected by this setup is sampled inefficiently by standard methods.

  7. Measuring name system health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, Marco; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2012-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for

  8. Measurement System and Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Yordanova, Ginka

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A major part of the sensors has been installed by others (see [1]) the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this report...

  9. Measurement System and Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Villanueva, Héctor

    This Measurement System & Calibration report is describing DTU’s measurement system installed at a specific wind turbine. A major part of the sensors has been installed by others (see [1]) the rest of the sensors have been installed by DTU. The results of the measurements, described in this repor...

  10. Computer systems performance measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-06-01

    Computer system performance measurement techniques, tools, and approaches are presented as a foundation for future recommendations regarding the instrumentation of the ARTS ATC data processing subsystem for purposes of measurement and evaluation.

  11. In vivo glucose monitoring using dual-wavelength polarimetry to overcome corneal birefringence in the presence of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnstill, Casey W; Malik, Bilal H; Gresham, Vincent C; Coté, Gerard L

    2012-09-01

    Over the past 35 years considerable research has been performed toward the investigation of noninvasive and minimally invasive glucose monitoring techniques. Optical polarimetry is one noninvasive technique that has shown promise as a means to ascertain blood glucose levels through measuring the glucose concentrations in the anterior chamber of the eye. However, one of the key limitations to the use of optical polarimetry as a means to noninvasively measure glucose levels is the presence of sample noise caused by motion-induced time-varying corneal birefringence. In this article our group presents, for the first time, results that show dual-wavelength polarimetry can be used to accurately detect glucose concentrations in the presence of motion-induced birefringence in vivo using New Zealand White rabbits. In total, nine animal studies (three New Zealand White rabbits across three separate days) were conducted. Using the dual-wavelength optical polarimetric approach, in vivo, an overall mean average relative difference of 4.49% (11.66 mg/dL) was achieved with 100% Zone A+B hits on a Clarke error grid, including 100% falling in Zone A. The results indicate that dual-wavelength polarimetry can effectively be used to significantly reduce the noise due to time-varying corneal birefringence in vivo, allowing the accurate measurement of glucose concentration in the aqueous humor of the eye and correlating that with blood glucose.

  12. Constraints on cosmological birefringence energy dependence from CMB polarization data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubitosi, G.; Paci, F.

    2013-01-01

    We study the possibility of constraining the energy dependence of cosmological birefringence by using CMB polarization data. We consider four possible behaviors, characteristic of different theoretical scenarios: energy-independent birefringence motivated by Chern-Simons interactions of the electromagnetic field, linear energy dependence motivated by a 'Weyl' interaction of the electromagnetic field, quadratic energy dependence, motivated by quantum gravity modifications of low-energy electrodynamics, and inverse quadratic dependence, motivated by Faraday rotation generated by primordial magnetic fields. We constrain the parameters associated to each kind of dependence and use our results to give constraints on the models mentioned. We forecast the sensitivity that Planck data will be able to achieve in this respect

  13. New, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, In Hee; Shin, Sang-Mo; Kim, Dug Young

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new, simple theory-based, accurate polarization microscope for birefringence imaging of cytoskeletal structures of biological cells. The new theory lets us calculate very easily the phase retardation and the orientation of the principal axis of a particular area of a biological living cell in media by simply measuring the intensity variation of a pixel of a CCD camera while rotating a single polarizer. Just from the measured intensity maxima and minima, the amount of phase retardation δ between the fast and the slow axis of the sample area is obtained with an accuracy of 5.010+/-0.798×10-3 rad. The orientation of the principal axis is calculated from the angle of the polarizer for the intensity maximum. We have compared our microscopes with two previously reported polarization microscopes for birefringence imaging of cytoskeletal structures and demonstrated the utility of our microscope with the phase retardation and orientation images of weakly invasive MCF7 and highly invasive MDA MB 231 human breast cancer cells as an example.

  14. The use of Lorentz group formalism in solving polarization effects of a birefringent single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiekwene, G.C.; Brown, C.S.; Mensah, S.Y.; Bak, A.E.

    2000-07-01

    A theoretical analysis on the polarization effects of a light beam propagating in a birefringent single-mode fiber is presented. We derive a system of differential equations representing the evolution of Stokes parameters and illustrate their application to polarization effects in a straight birefringent single mode optical fiber. The solutions to the set of equations are obtained using specifically the methods of the unified formalism for polarization optics which adopt the use of the Stokes-Mueller equation and the Lorentz group to model polarization phenomena in media such as optical fibers. The analytical results presented using this approach are identical to results obtained from other conventional methods. We observe the characteristic exponential decrease in the total intensity of the input light due to attenuation by the fiber. (author)

  15. Theoretical analysis of the background intensity distribution in X-ray Birefringence Imaging using synchrotron bending-magnet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P.; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P.; Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Palmer, Benjamin A.

    2015-04-01

    In the recently developed technique of X-ray Birefringence Imaging, molecular orientational order in anisotropic materials is studied by exploiting the birefringence of linearly polarized X-rays with energy close to an absorption edge of an element in the material. In the experimental setup, a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator is used upstream from the sample to select the appropriate photon energy, and a horizontally deflecting X-ray polarization analyzer, consisting of a perfect single crystal with a Bragg reflection at Bragg angle of approximately 45°, is placed downstream from the sample to measure the resulting rotation of the X-ray polarization. However, if the experiment is performed on a synchrotron bending-magnet beamline, then the elliptical polarization of the X-rays out of the electron orbit plane affects the shape of the output beam. Also, because the monochromator introduces a correlation between vertical position and photon energy to the X-ray beam, the polarization analyzer does not select the entire beam, but instead selects a diagonal stripe, the slope of which depends on the Bragg angles of the monochromator and the polarization analyzer. In the present work, the final background intensity distribution is calculated analytically because the phase space sampling methods normally used in ray traces are too inefficient for this setup. X-ray Birefringence Imaging data measured at the Diamond Light Source beamline B16 agree well with the theory developed here.

  16. Theoretical analysis of the background intensity distribution in X-ray Birefringence Imaging using synchrotron bending-magnet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, John P., E-mail: john.sutter@diamond.ac.uk; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, Wales (United Kingdom); Palmer, Benjamin A. [Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl St., Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2015-04-28

    In the recently developed technique of X-ray Birefringence Imaging, molecular orientational order in anisotropic materials is studied by exploiting the birefringence of linearly polarized X-rays with energy close to an absorption edge of an element in the material. In the experimental setup, a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator is used upstream from the sample to select the appropriate photon energy, and a horizontally deflecting X-ray polarization analyzer, consisting of a perfect single crystal with a Bragg reflection at Bragg angle of approximately 45°, is placed downstream from the sample to measure the resulting rotation of the X-ray polarization. However, if the experiment is performed on a synchrotron bending-magnet beamline, then the elliptical polarization of the X-rays out of the electron orbit plane affects the shape of the output beam. Also, because the monochromator introduces a correlation between vertical position and photon energy to the X-ray beam, the polarization analyzer does not select the entire beam, but instead selects a diagonal stripe, the slope of which depends on the Bragg angles of the monochromator and the polarization analyzer. In the present work, the final background intensity distribution is calculated analytically because the phase space sampling methods normally used in ray traces are too inefficient for this setup. X-ray Birefringence Imaging data measured at the Diamond Light Source beamline B16 agree well with the theory developed here.

  17. A Portable Stiffness Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onejae Sul

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new stiffness measurement method is proposed that utilizes the lateral deformation profile of an object under indentation. The system consists of a force measurement module between a pair of equidistant touch sensing modules. Unique feature of the method is that by adjusting the touch module separation, indenter protrusion, and spring constant of the force sensing module, one can choose a desired sensing range for the force module. This feature helps to enhance the stiffness differentiation between objects of similar hardness and avoids measurement saturation. We devised a portable measurement system based on the method, and tested its performance with several materials including polymer foams and human skin.

  18. Thermal birefringence-compensated linear intracavity frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... green conversion efficiency was measured to be ∼12.7%. On further increasing of pump power, the output power starts to roll off as the cavity becomes unstable due to strong thermal effects. At the maximum output power, the green pulse duration (FWHM) was measured to be ∼73 ns. A typical green pulse ...

  19. Facilities projects performance measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The two DOE-owned facilities at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), are described. The performance measurement systems used at these two facilities are next described

  20. Retention Measures and Reporting Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ropp, Gary

    2003-01-01

    ...) and performed by the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center (NPRDC) to: (1) review current retention measures in use in the Navy, as well as the system used to distribute retention statistics, and (2...

  1. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  2. Mass properties measurement system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1993-01-01

    The MPMS mechanism possess two revolute degrees-of-freedom and allows the user to measure the mass, center of gravity, and the inertia tensor of an unknown mass. The dynamics of the Mass Properties Measurement System (MPMS) from the Lagrangian approach to illustrate the dependency of the motion on the unknown parameters.

  3. Acoustic building infiltration measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh

    2018-04-10

    Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.

  4. Exploring vacuum birefringence based on a 100 PW laser and an x-ray free electron laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Baifei; Bu, Zhigang; Xu, Jiancai; Xu, Tongjun; Ji, Liangliang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2018-04-01

    Exploring vacuum birefringence with the station of extreme light at Shanghai Coherent Light Facility is considered. Laser pulses of intensity beyond 1023 W cm-2 are capable of polarizing the vacuum due to the ultra-strong electro-magnetic fields. The subtle difference of the vacuum refractive indexes along electric and magnetic fields leads to a birefringence effect for lights propagating through. The vacuum birefringence effect can now be captured by colliding a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) beam with a high-power laser. The initial XFEL beam of pure linear polarization is predicated to gain a very small ellipticity after passing through the laser stimulated vacuum. Various interaction geometries are considered, showing that the estimated ellipticity lies between 1.8 × 10-10 and 10-9 for a 100 PW laser interacting with a 12.9 keV XFEL beam, approaching the threshold for todays’ polarity detection technique. The detailed experimental set-up is designed, including the polarimeter, the focusing compound refractive lens and the optical path. When taking into account the efficiencies of the x-ray instruments, it is found that about 10 polarization-flipped x-ray photons can be detected for a single shot for our design. Considering the background noise level, accumulating runs are necessary to obtain high confident measurement.

  5. Nuclear systems of level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, A.J.; Cabrera, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the industry there are processes in which is necessary to maintain the products level controlled which are handled for their transformation. The majority of such processes and by the operation conditions, they do not admit measure systems of level of invasive type then the application of nuclear techniques for level measurement results a big aid in these cases, since all the system installation is situated beyond frontiers of vessels that contain the product for measuring. In the Department of Nuclear Technology Applications of Mexican Petroleum Institute was developed a level measurement system by gamma rays transmission which operates in the Low Density Polyethylene plant of Petrochemical Complex Escolin at Poza Rica, Veracruz, Mexico. (Author)

  6. Aerial measuring system in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Forces in Japan (USFJ) to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the Government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 h, including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple USFJ aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with USFJ pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These factors combined to make for a programmatically unanticipated situation. In addition to the challenges of multiple and ongoing releases, integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight into addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System's mission beyond the borders of the U.S.

  7. Birefringence in a chiral medium, via temporal cloaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Humayun; Haneef, Muhammad

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports theoretical investigation of birefringence in a chiral medium for the creation of temporal cloaking. The chiral medium splits the input probe beam into left/right circular polarized beams. These left/right circular polarized beams are then controlled and modified within the chiral medium. The left circular polarized beam delays by 24 ns whereas the right circular polarized beam advances by  -23 ns at a control field of rabbi frequency 6γ . This opens a 47 ns time gap for temporal cloaking to hide information without noise corruption and energy loss. The results have potential applications in communication devices for secure propagation of light pulse.

  8. Tracer airflow measurement system (TRAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duo [Albany, CA

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for measuring fluid flow in a duct is disclosed. The invention uses a novel high velocity tracer injector system, an optional insertable folding mixing fan for homogenizing the tracer within the duct bulk fluid flow, and a perforated hose sampling system. A preferred embodiment uses CO.sub.2 as a tracer gas for measuring air flow in commercial and/or residential ducts. In extant commercial buildings, ducts not readily accessible by hanging ceilings may be drilled with readily plugged small diameter holes to allow for injection, optional mixing where desired using a novel insertable foldable mixing fan, and sampling hose.

  9. Fluid measurement and characterisation system

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi Coll, Antonio; Sacristán Riquelme, Jorge; García-Cantón, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a system for measuring parameters of a liquid being stirred. The invention consists of a system comprising a magnetic stirrer and a read unit that communicates wirelessly with wireless sensors positioned next to the magnetic stirring rod. In this way, it is possible to stir the liquid and monitor the parameters of the liquid with a single device and without using electrical wiring in order to access the interior of the container housing the liquid to be ...

  10. Ground-truth measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  11. Traceability of small force measurements and the future international system of units (SI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelifa Naceur-Eddine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The unit of force is connected to the international prototype of the kilogramme, unit of mass in the international system of units (SI, via dead weight machines using calibrated masses. However, forces below 10 μN, ubiquitous in nature and in some devices cannot be measured with a traceability to the SI. The measurement, with the uncertainty of these forces has implications for both basic and applied science. Today, many emerging sectors in micro/nanotechnology and biotechnology have started producing and using systems to implement low forces that, for various reasons, require them to be traceable. Also, the revision of the SI, scheduled for 2018 year, of linking the definitions of the kilogramme, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole to fixed numerical values of fundamental constants, has aroused particular interest in the measurement and calibration of small forces. In this paper, we will give some indications of the state of the art on the small force with a focus on the development of a force sensor using a photoelastic crystal as a monolithic solid-state laser. Basically, the force to be measured is applied to the crystal induces a birefringence in the laser medium which in turn manifests itself by the appearance of a splitting between the frequencies associated with the two polarization components of the oscillating laser mode. This difference is then exploited because, within the elastic limit of the crystal, it is proportional to the force acting on the laser.

  12. Strong modification of the reflection from birefringent layers of semiconductor nanowires by nanoshells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedenhofen, S.L.; Algra, R.E.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of light in layers of vertically aligned nanowires is determined by their unique and extreme optical properties. Depending on the nanowire filling fraction and their diameter, layers of nanowires form strongly birefringent media. This large birefringence gives rise to sharp angle

  13. A Novel Low Loss, Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fiber in THz Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanuzzaman, G. K. M.; Rana, Sohel; Habib, Selim

    2016-01-01

    We present a new kind of dual-hole unit-based porous-core hexagonal photonic crystal fiber (H-PCF) with low loss and high birefringence in terahertz regime. The proposed fiber offers simultaneously high birefringence and low effective material loss (EML) in the frequency range of 0.5-0.85 THz...

  14. Annealing of UV-Induced Birefringence in Hydrogen Loaded Germanosilicate Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Deyerl, Hans-Jürgen; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær

    2005-01-01

    UV-reduced birefringence in germanosilicate optical fibres loaded with hydrogen is annealed out at low temperatures (125o C). Annealing for induced birefringence in gratings written by either s or p polarised UV light are identical. The results are incosistent with previous models for the origin ...

  15. N-16 power measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, K.F.

    1977-12-01

    The thermal power output of a reactor can be measured by monitoring the total amount of heat removed from the reactor core per unit of time. Other methods of measuring the power level indirectly, as for instance, utilizing the neutron flux outside the core, have the disadvantage of heavy influences on the accuracy due to changes of the neutron flux distribution in the core caused by control rod operation and xenon buildup effects. Heat balance (ΔT) measurements in the primary loop are used to measure reactor power but require hot leg RTD bypass loops and have slow time response. An N-16 system has been developed which shows several advantages over the ΔT and excore power measurements. The Nitrogen-16 (N-16) activity in the primary coolant water of a PWR has long been considered as a possible parameter for continuous measurement of reactor power level. The N-16 activity is formed by fast neutron activation of Oxygen-16 contained in the water. Activation results from a threshold reaction requiring >10 MeV neutrons. It can be shown that the N-16 content in the coolant is a direct measure of the integrated fast flux throughout the core and is thereby a direct measure of the fission rate and total power generated. Decay of the N-16 produces 6 MeV gamma rays which readily penetrate the wall of the high pressure piping. Thus, the N-16 concentration in the coolant can easily be monitored by measuring the gamma radiation outside the pipe--for instance, at the hot leg of the coolant loop. The N-16 power monitor is calibrated against secondary heat balance measurements, since these are assumed to give the most accurate information on the absolute thermal power level

  16. Birefringent static Fourier-transform spectrometer for flow cytometry and imaging spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Alex

    2017-07-24

    A new concept for a birefringent static Fourier-transform spectrometer, applicable to both spectral flow cytometry and hyperspectral imaging, is introduced. Biological particles or scenes in relative motion are imaged onto a polarization interferometer consisting of a calcite Wollaston prism between crossed polarizers, with polarization axes at 45° with respect to the optical axes of the Wollaston prism. Due to the position-dependent optical path delay of the interferometer, interferograms are generated by the relative motion. These interferograms are recorded either by a flow cytometer detector, or in the case of hyperspectral imaging, by a CMOS focal plane array. Fourier-transforming the interferograms with respect to time yields the optical spectrum of each particle or scene position. The concept has applicability to situations where linear motion is already present, including flow cytometers, conveyor belt systems, fixed-wing aircraft, and nanosatellites.

  17. In-situ measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, David E.

    1983-01-01

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop "hairpin" configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. The electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements are obtained, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  18. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  19. Directional eye fixation sensor using birefringence-based foveal detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I.; Zalloum, Othman H. Y.; Wu, Yi Kai; Hunter, David G.; Guyton, David L.

    2007-04-01

    We recently developed and reported an eye fixation monitor that detects the fovea by its radial orientation of birefringent nerve fibers. The instrument used a four-quadrant photodetector and a normalized difference function to check for a best match between the detector quadrants and the arms of the bow-tie pattern of polarization states surrounding the fovea. This function had a maximum during central fixation but could not tell where the subject was looking relative to the center. We propose a linear transformation to obtain horizontal and vertical eye position coordinates from the four photodetector signals, followed by correction based on a priori calibration information. The method was verified on both a computer model and on human eyes. The major advantage of this new eye-tracking method is that it uses true information coming from the fovea, rather than reflections from other structures, to identify the direction of foveal gaze.

  20. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio

    2014-12-01

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  1. Existence of an isotropic point and birefringence dispersion study in (C2H5NH3)2CuCl4 crystal near its thermochromic phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J.; Gomez Cuevas, A.; Arriandiaga, M. A.; Socias, C.; Tello, M. J.

    1985-04-01

    The anomalous optical dispersion and the existence of an isotropic point in the organic-inorganic double-halide (C2H5NH3)2CuCl4 crystal (in short EACuC) around its thermochromic low-temperature phase transition were investigated by means of birefringence, thermal expansion, and calorimetric measurements as well as by direct conoscopic and orthoscopic observations under polarized light. The birefringence dispersion data are analyzed using a simple two-oscillator model based on the optical band structure of EACuC. The model adjustable parameters are related with the oscillator strength and average positions, respectively. The thermal behavior of the involved parameters is compatible with the existence of the isotropic point below the thermochromic phase transition. These results, together with the optical extinction measurements and the domain pattern observations, suggest a complicated structural phase-transition sequence which is also discussed.

  2. Host inflammatory response to polypropylene implants: insights from a quantitative immunohistochemical and birefringence analysis in a rat subcutaneous model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudente, Alessandro; Fávaro, Wágner José; Latuf, Paulo; Riccetto, Cássio Luis Zanettini

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To describe acute and sub acute aspects of histological and immunohistochemical response to PP implant in a rat subcutaneous model based on objective methods. Materials and Methods Thirty rats had a PP mesh subcutaneously implanted and the same dissection on the other side of abdomen but without mesh (sham). The animals were euthanized after 4 and 30 days. Six slides were prepared using the tissue removed: one stained with hematoxylin-eosin (inflammation assessment); one unstained (birefringence evaluation) and four slides for immunohistochemical processing: IL-1 and TNF-α (pro-inflammatory cytokines), MMP-2 (collagen metabolism) and CD-31 (angiogenesis). The area of inflammation, the birefringence index, the area of immunoreactivity and the number of vessels were objectively measured. Results A larger area of inflammatory reaction was observed in PP compared to sham on the 4th and on the 30th day (p=0.0002). After 4 days, PP presented higher TNF (p=0.0001) immunoreactivity than sham and no differences were observed in MMP-2 (p=0.06) and IL-1 (p=0.08). After 30 days, a reduction of IL-1 (p=0.010) and TNF (p=0.016) for PP and of IL-1 (p=0.010) for sham were observed. Moreover, area of MMP-2 immunoreactivity decreased over time for PP group (p=0.018). Birefringence index and vessel counting showed no differences between PP and sham (p=0.27 and p=0.58, respectively). Conclusions The implantation of monofilament and macroporous polypropylene in the subcutaneous of rats resulted in increased inflammatory activity and higher TNF production in the early post implant phase. After 30 days, PP has similar cytokines immunoreactivity, vessel density and extracellular matrix organization. PMID:27286125

  3. Integral measurement system for radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia H, J.M.; Pena E, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Integral measurement system for Radon is an equipment to detect, counting and storage data of alpha particles produced by Radon 222 which is emanated through the terrestrial peel surface. This equipment was designed in the Special Designs Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. It supplies information about the behavior at long time (41 days) on each type of alpha radiation that is present into the environment as well as into the terrestrial peel. The program is formed by an User program, where it is possible to determine the operation parameters of a portable probe that contains, a semiconductor detector, a microprocessor as a control central unit, a real time clock and calendar to determine the occurred events chronology, a non-volatile memory device for storage the acquired data and an interface to establish the serial communications with other personal computers. (Author)

  4. True mean rate measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichenlaub, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A digital radiation-monitoring system for nuclear power plants uses digital and microprocessor circuitry to enable rapid processing of pulse information from remote radiation monitors. The pulse rates are analyzed to determine whether new pulse-rate information is statisticaly the same as that previously received and to determine the best possible averaging time, which can be changed so that the statistical error remains below a specified level while the system response time remains short. Several data modules each process the pulse-rate information from several remote radiation monitors. Each data module accepts pulse data from each radiation monitor and measures the true average or mean pulse rate of events occurring with a Poisson distribution to determine the radiation level. They then develop digital output signals which indciate the respective radiation levels and which can be transmitted via multiplexer circuits for additional processing and display. The data modules can accept signals from remote control stations or computer stations via the multiplexer circuit to change operating thresholds and alarm levels in their memories. A check module scans the various data modules to determine whether the output signals are valid. It also acts as a redundant data module and will automatically replace an inoperative unit. (DN)

  5. Birefringence (spin rotation and spin dichroism) of high-energy deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevskij, V.G.; Rovba, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of birefringence (spin rotation and spin dichroism) of high-energy deuterons, currently observed in experiments, is the macroscopic quantum effect similar to the birefringence effect known in optics. This paper considers the contribution coming to the spin dichroism effect from the interaction of deuteron electric quadrupole moment and nuclear electric field. The effect proves to be responsive to the behavior of deuteron ground state wave functions at a small distance. [ru

  6. Using magnetic birefringence to determine the molecular arrangement of supramolecular nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, Jeroen C; Shklyarevskiy, Igor O; Christianen, Peter C M; Maan, J C; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2009-01-01

    Supramolecular aggregates can be aligned in solution using a magnetic field. Because of the optical anisotropy of the molecular building blocks, the alignment results in an anisotropic refractive index of the solution parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. We present a model for calculating the magnetic birefringence, using solely the magnetic susceptibilities and optical polarizabilities of the molecules, for any molecular arrangement. We demonstrate that magnetic birefringence is a very sensitive tool for determining the molecular organization within supramolecular aggregates.

  7. Investigating compression failure mechanisms in composite laminates with a transparent fiberglass-epoxy birefringent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuart, M. J.; Williams, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The response and failure of a + or - 45s class laminate was studied by transparent fiberglass epoxy composite birefringent material. The birefringency property allows the laminate stress distribution to be observed during the test and also after the test if permanent residual stresses occur. The location of initial laminate failure and of the subsequent failure propagation are observed through its transparency characteristics. Experimental results are presented.

  8. Microscopic Observation of Ferroelectric Domains in SrTiO3 Using Birefringence Imaging Techniques under High Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaka, Hirotaka; Nozaki, Hirofumi; Miura, Yoko

    2017-11-01

    Phase transitions in SrTiO3 between quantum paraelectric, coherent paraelectric, and electric-field-induced ferroelectric states are governed by tetragonal domains with quantum fluctuations. However, their characteristics are still unclear. To observe the electric-field-induced ferroelectric state using birefringence imaging techniques, we developed a suitable sample holder to apply high electric fields of up to E ≃ 5 kV/cm and temperatures down to T = 20 K. From birefringence imaging measurements of the ferroelectric LiNbO3 with varying electric field, distributions of the electric field in the sample stage were found to be negligible. In SrTiO3, a huge-retardance area corresponding to the ferroelectric domains appears at E > 2 kV/cm and T ≤ 60 K even though the paraelectric domains partially remain. Furthermore, the fast-axis direction rotates by 90° at the ferroelectric phase transition because of an electrostrictive effect in ferroelectrics. The phase diagram of the critical electric field and temperature agrees with previous reports obtained from dielectric and neutron scattering measurements.

  9. Microscopic observation of ferroelectric domains in SrTiO3 using birefringence imaging techniques under high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Hirotaka; Nozaki, Hirofumi; Miura, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Phase transitions in SrTiO 3 between quantum paraelectric, coherent paraelectric, and electric-field-induced ferroelectric states are governed by tetragonal domains with quantum fluctuations. However, their characteristics are still unclear. To observe the electric-field-induced ferroelectric state using birefringence imaging techniques, we developed a suitable sample holder to apply high electric fields of up to E ≃ 5 kV/cm and temperatures down to T = 20 K. From birefringence imaging measurements of the ferroelectric LiNbO 3 with varying electric field, distributions of the electric field in the sample stage were found to be negligible. In SrTiO 3 , a huge-retardance area corresponding to the ferroelectric domains appears at E > 2 kV/cm and T ≤ 60 K even though the paraelectric domains partially remain. Furthermore, the fast-axis direction rotates by 90° at the ferroelectric phase transition because of an electrostrictive effect in ferroelectrics. The phase diagram of the critical electric field and temperature agrees with previous reports obtained from dielectric and neutron scattering measurements. (author)

  10. InP/ZnS quantum-dot-dispersed nematic liquid crystal illustrating characteristic birefringence and enhanced electro-optical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aradhana; Pathak, Govind; Herman, Jakub; Inamdar, Sanjeev R.; Srivastava, Atul; Manohar, Rajiv

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigates the influence of InP/ZnS core/shell QDs on various parameters of Nematic LC sample 1832A, based on 4-(4-alkyl-cyclohexyl)benzene isothiocyanates and 4-(4-alkyl-cyclohexyl)biphenyl isothiocyanates. Observations recorded consist of distinguished functioning of birefringence phenomenon along with characteristic response time measurement. Further study of rotational viscosity and splay elastic constant portrays stupendous behavior strengthening the appositeness of the composites for low-charge consumable devices. The addition of 0.2 ml of core/shell QDs producing more than two times faster response and enhanced birefringence at low-temperature range can be employed in development of thermostable photonic devices. In addition, dielectric properties comprising of relative permittivity and conductivity have been reported supporting the outcome of the investigation in applicative LC-based technologies.

  11. Measurement System and Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  12. Birefringent phase demodulator: application to wave plate characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiras, F E; Riobó, L M; Matteo, C L; Perez, L I; Garea, M T

    2015-03-20

    The scope of this work is to present a phase demodulator that enables the recovery of temporal phase information contained in the phase difference between two signals with different polarizations. This demodulator is a polarization interferometer that may consist only of a uniaxial crystal slab and a polarizer sheet. The phase shift between two orthogonal components of the electric field is translated into space by means of birefringent crystals, which act as demodulators or phase analyzers with great robustness. The experimental scheme utilized is based on a simple conoscopic interference setup. Each portion of the space in which the interference pattern is projected contains not only the unknown temporal phase we want to recover, but also a phase shift due to the uniaxial crystal itself. The underlying idea is developing simultaneous phase shifting with uniaxial crystals. Thus, different phase recovery techniques can be applied in order to maximize their ability to track high-speed signals. Depending on the characteristics of the fringe pattern, it will permit phase recovery via different classical procedures. In order to prove the demodulator under different experimental and signal processing schemes, we employed it for wave plate characterization. The results obtained not only allow some wave plate features such as axes determination and retardance to be characterized, but also prove the working principle and capabilities of the demodulator.

  13. Stokes-Mueller matrix polarimetry technique for circular dichroism/birefringence sensing with scattering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc-Hung; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2017-04-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-enhanced method is proposed for measuring the circular dichroism (CD), circular birefringence (CB), and degree of polarization (DOP) of turbid media using a Stokes–Mueller matrix polarimetry technique. The validity of the analytical model is confirmed by means of numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed detection method enables the CD and CB properties to be measured with a resolution of 10 ? 4 refractive index unit (RIU) and 10 ? 5 ?? RIU , respectively, for refractive indices in the range of 1.3 to 1.4. The practical feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by detecting the CB/CD/DOP properties of glucose–chlorophyllin compound samples containing polystyrene microspheres. It is shown that the extracted CB value decreases linearly with the glucose concentration, while the extracted CD value increases linearly with the chlorophyllin concentration. However, the DOP is insensitive to both the glucose concentration and the chlorophyllin concentration. Consequently, the potential of the proposed SPR-enhanced Stokes–Mueller matrix polarimetry method for high-resolution CB/CD/DOP detection is confirmed. Notably, in contrast to conventional SPR techniques designed to detect relative refractive index changes, the SPR technique proposed in the present study allows absolute measurements of the optical properties (CB/CD/DOP) to be obtained.

  14. Brush seal performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Serdar; Akşit, Mahmut Faruk; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Duran, Ertuğrul Tolga; Duran, Ertugrul Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Brush seals are rapidly replacing conventional labyrinth seals in turbomachinery applications. Upon pressure application, seal stiffness increases drastically due to frictional bristle interlocking. Operating stiffness is critical to determine seal wear life. Typically, seal stiffness is measured by pressing a curved shoe to brush bore. The static-unpressurized measurement is extrapolated to pressurized and high speed operating conditions. This work presents a seal stiffness measurement syste...

  15. Measurement System and Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...

  16. Near Field Antenna Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-11

    training session in mid January to become fully familia r with the System 1000 hardware and Real -Time Executive software. No probl ems have been...07703 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Deyton, OH 1451133 ~Thief 1Naval Ship Systeme Command NASA Scientific & Tech 2 Departsien~ of the Navy Information

  17. HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Sydney J.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.

  18. Coherent Pair Production by Photons in the 20-170 GeV Energy Range Incident on Crystals and Birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballestrero, S.; Biino, C.; Birol, I.; Cenci, P.; Connell, S.H.; Eichblatt, S.; Fonseca, T.; Freund, A.; Gorini, B.; Groess, R.; Ispirian, K.; Ketel, T.J.; Kononets, Yu.V.; Lopez, A.; Mangiarotti, A.; van Rens, B.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Shieh, M.; Sona, P.; Strakhovenko, V.; Uggerhoj, E.; Uggerhj, Ulrik Ingerslev; Unel, G.; Velasco, M.; Vilakazi, Z.Z.; Wessely, O.; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2003-01-01

    The cross section for coherent pair production by linearly polarised photons in the 20-170 GeV energy range was measured for photon aligned incidence on ultra-high quality diamond and germanium crystals. The theoretical description of coherent bremsstrahlung and coherent pair production phenomena is an area of active theoretical debate and development. However, under our experimental conditions, the theory predicted the combined cross section and polarisation experimental observables very well indeed. In macroscopic terms, our experiment measured a birefringence effect in pair production in a crystal. This study of this effect also constituted a measurement of the energy dependent linear polarisation of photons produced by coherent bremsstrahlung in aligned crystals. New technologies for manipulating high energy photon beams can be realised based on an improved understanding of QED phenomena at these energies. In particular, this experiment demonstrates an efficient new polarimetry technique. The pair product...

  19. Introduction to control system performance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, K C

    1968-01-01

    Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave

  20. Study of one-dimensional nanolayered graded photonic crystal consisting of birefringent and dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kumar, Dhananjay; Kushwaha, Angad S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2018-02-01

    In the present paper, we have studied a comparison between dielectric-dielectric photonic crystal (PhC) and birefringent-dielectric PhC structure with, and without, gradation in the thickness of the layers of the proposed structure. Graded birefringent-dielectric PhC has a linear change in the thickness of the layers. With the help of the transfer matrix method, the proposed structures have been extensively investigated. It is found that photonic band gap (PBG) width and omnidirectional reflection band width has been widely enhanced, in graded birefringent-dielectric PhC structure as compared to the non-graded birefringent-dielectric PhC structure, for both TE and TM polarizations. We have also found that the gradation in the thickness of the birefringent layer is more effective, as compare the gradation in the thickness of the dielectric layer, for enhancement of reflection band width. The results obtained are quite good and thus, it may be widely used as broad band optical and omnidirectional reflector.

  1. Measures of Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Gastro- intestinal Pupillary Response Respiratory Salivary Amylase Vascular Manipulative Body-Based/ Tension-Release Practices Trauma...Physiological Activities ANS Physiological Activities Cardiac Pupillary Response Catecholamines Respiration Cortisol Salivary Amylase Galvanic Skin...results reported  Cronbach alpha exceeding 0.70 Validity was assessed by the tool’s ability to quantify the data to be measured and was

  2. SQUID-based measuring systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    field produced by a given two-dimensional current density distribution is inverted using the Fourier transform technique. Keywords ... Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are the most sensitive detectors for measurement of ... omagnetic prospecting, detection of gravity waves etc. Judging the importance ...

  3. SQUID-based measuring systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cryostats and precision X-Y table with stepper motor for accurate positioning for the re- construction of electrical current density from measured spatial variation of magnetic field. A planar gradiometric DC SQUID sensor for NDE has been designed and developed to be used in relatively unshielded environment and is shown ...

  4. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs

  5. Isochromate fringes simulation by Cassini-like curves for photoelastic analysis of birefringent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, D.; Pietroni, P.; Davi, F.

    2009-01-01

    In optically birefringent uniaxial and biaxial crystals, analyzed by plane polariscope, isochromate interference fringes can be observed. By means of the classical electromagnetic theory a Cassini-like analytical equation of the isochromate fringes, depending on the refraction indexes, has been obtained. The proposed analytical equation is a useful tool to evaluate the internal stress state, as it is related to the isochromate shapes owing to the induced variation of the refraction indexes. Uniaxial crystals can assume complex biaxial behaviour due to particular stress configurations. PbWO 4 (PWO) uniaxial scintillating crystals have been studied. The Cassini-like curves fit well experimental measurements in the case of uniaxial stress. In this research work, a simple model has been proved in the case of strong isochromate fringes distortion due to a stress gradient induced by the bending load. The model fits well the interference pattern, acquired experimentally. This study can pave the way for the quality control on scintillating crystals, used in the fields of high-energy detectors, security and biomedical applications, with complex internal stress state.

  6. Probing Stress-Induced Optical Birefringence of Glassy Polymers by Whispering Gallery Modes Light Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenko, Karolina; Pissadakis, Stavros; Gkantzounis, Georgios; Aluculesei, Alina; Fytas, George

    2017-12-31

    An optical resonance method for the determination of the strain- and stress-optical coefficients of optically transparent polymers is presented and exemplified for monodisperse and bidisperse molecular weight polystyrene (PS). This method employs whispering gallery modes (WGMs) resonation inside a spheroid polymeric cavity, suspended on an optical fiber taper waist, which, in turn, is used for subjecting the polymeric resonator to controlled strain conditions. The wavelength shifts of equal order transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization WGMs are measured, as well as their relative birefringence versus applied strain. For monodisperse PS microspheroids (2 and 50 kDa) the stress-optical coefficient is negative, contrary to the results for bulk PS in the glassy state indicating different phenyl group orientation of the PS monomer with respect to the strain direction. In the bidisperse (2 and 50 kDa) spheroid with a symmetric monomer composition, local structural irregularities are probably responsible for the observed coupling between WGMs. The method possesses metrological capabilities for probing the molecular orientation of polymer-based resonators.

  7. Measurement system as a subsystem of the quality management system

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubica Floreková; Ján Terpák; Marcela Čarnogurská

    2006-01-01

    Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what), operation (how) and structure (why). Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirem...

  8. ANSYS-based birefringence property analysis of side-hole fiber induced by pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinbang; Gong, Zhenfeng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the influences of pressure and temperature on the birefringence property of side-hole fibers with different shapes of holes using the finite element analysis method. A physical mechanism of the birefringence of the side-hole fiber is discussed with the presence of different external pressures and temperatures. The strain field distribution and birefringence values of circular-core, rectangular-core, and triangular-core side-hole fibers are presented. Our analysis shows the triangular-core side-hole fiber has low temperature sensitivity which weakens the cross sensitivity of temperature and strain. Additionally, an optimized structure design of the side-hole fiber is presented which can be used for the sensing application.

  9. ANSYS-based birefringence property analysis of side-hole fiber induced by pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinbang; Gong, Zhenfeng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the influences of pressure and temperature on the birefringence property of side-hole fibers with different shapes of holes using the finite element analysis method. A physical mechanism of the birefringence of the side-hole fiber is discussed with the presence of different external pressures and temperatures. The strain field distribution and birefringence values of circular-core, rectangular-core, and triangular-core side-hole fibers are presented. Our analysis shows the triangular-core side-hole fiber has low temperature sensitivity which weakens the cross sensitivity of temperature and strain. Additionally, an optimized structure design of the side-hole fiber is presented which can be used for the sensing application.

  10. Temperature sensibility of the birefringence properties in side-hole photonic crystal fiber filled with Indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Vera, Erick, E-mail: erickreyes@itm.edu.co; Gómez-Cardona, Nelson D. [Escuela de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 3840 Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ingeniería, Instituto Tecnológico Metropolitano, A.A. 54954 Medellín (Colombia); Chesini, Giancarlo; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Torres, Pedro [Escuela de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 3840 Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-17

    We report on the temperature sensitivity of the birefringence properties of a special kind of photonic crystal fiber containing two side holes filled with Indium metal. The modulation of the fiber birefringence is accomplished through the stress field induced by the expansion of the metal. Although the fiber was made at low gas pressures during the indium infiltration process, the birefringence showed anomalous property at a relatively low temperature value, which is completely different from those reported in conventional-like fibers with two holes filled with metal. By modeling the anisotropic changes induced by the metal expansion to the refractive index within the fiber, we are able to reproduce the experimental results. Our results have practical relevance for the design of devices based on this technology.

  11. Guiding and birefringent properties of a hybrid PDMS/silica photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, Christos; Vlachos, Kyriakos; Kakarantzas, George

    2011-02-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a highly birefringent (Hi-Bi) photonic crystal fiber (PCF) infiltrated with PDMS elastomer in order to enhance the sensitivity of the fiber to external temperature variations. Index guiding mechanism of the new PDMS/Silica structure and birefringent properties were investigated numerically and experimentally. We investigated the temperature dependance of birefringence from 20-120°C. For the particular design of Hi-Bi PCF, the cut-off operating wavelength of the hybrid fiber was found to be around 750 nm. We also experimentally demonstrate the effect of the elastomer inclusions to the polarization of the fiber. The sensitivity of the PDMS/Silica Hi-Bi fiber was found to be ~ 0.37 rad/K/cm for temperatures ranging from 20 to 80°C. The total length of the hybrid PCF examined was about 1.4 cm.

  12. Effect of pH, ethanol concentration, and temperature on detection of quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis birefringence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott O’Meara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the western United States, federal, state, and local agencies have engaged in extensive efforts to detect the presence of larval dreissenid mussels (veligers in water bodies before such a presence becomes a full-scale infestation. Cross-polarized light microscopy (CPLM is commonly used to detect the veliger’s specific birefringence pattern, but the effect of sample preservation on dreissenid birefringence has not yet been determined. This study examined the effects of solution pH, ethanol concentration, and storage temperature on veliger birefringence loss. Birefringence loss was determined by examining veligers under CPLM at regular intervals over a 30 day period. Veliger birefringence loss was below five percent in all basic solutions, regardless of holding temperature or ethanol concentration. Veliger birefringence loss was also below five percent in acidic solutions that were refrigerated or contained 50–70 percent ethanol. Veligers in acidic solutions that were held at 25°C and 34°C with 0–25 percent ethanol had 7–25 percent veliger birefringence loss over a 30 day period. While ethanol addition and refrigeration are both important preservation methods, the results of this study indicate that samples collected for dreissenid veliger detection by CPLM must also be maintained at a basic pH in order to preserve veliger shell integrity and birefringence. Determining the best conditions for long-term preservation of veliger shells requires further investigation, and these results should not be assumed best for analyses other than CPLM.

  13. A shielded measurement system for irradiated nuclear fuel measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, W.R.; Aumeier, S.E.; Klann, R.T.

    1999-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is driving a transition toward dry storage of irradiated nuclear fuel (INF), toward characterization of INF for final disposition, and toward resumption of measurement-based material control and accountability (MC and A) efforts for INF. For these reasons, the ability to efficiently acquire radiological measurements of INF in a dry environment is important. The DOE has recently developed a guidance document proposing MC and A requirements for INF. The intent of this document is to encourage the direct measurement of INF on inventory within DOE. The guidance document reinforces and clarifies existing material safeguards requirements as they pertain to INF. Validation of nuclear material contents of non-self-protecting INF must be accomplished by direct measurement, application of validated burnup codes using qualified initial fissile content, burnup data, and age or by other valid means. The fuel units must remain intact with readable identification numbers. INF may be subject to periodic inventories with visual item accountability checks. Quantitative measurements may provide greater assurance of the integrity of INF inventories at a lower cost and with less personnel exposure than visual item accountability checks. Currently, several different approaches are used to measure the radiological attributes of INF. Although these systems are useful for a wide variety of applications, there is currently no relatively inexpensive measurement system that is readily deployable for INF measurements for materials located in dry storage. The authors present the conceptual design of a shielded measurement system (SMS) that could be used for this purpose. The SMS consists of a shielded enclosure designed to house a collection of measurement systems to allow measurements on spent fuel outside of a hot cell. The phase 1 SMS will contain {sup 3}He detectors and ionization chambers to allow for gross neutron and gamma-ray measurements. The phase 2

  14. Investigating compression failure mechanisms in composite laminates with a transient fiberglass-epoxy birefringent material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuart, M. J.; Williams, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study is reported in which a nondestructive technique involving the use of a transparent fiberglass-epoxy composite birefringent material has been used to investigate compression failure mechanisms in graphite-epoxy laminates. It is shown that the birefringency and transparency of the fiberglass-epoxy material permits regions of high stress to be located and the mechanisms of local failure propagation to be identified within the laminate. The material may also be useful for studying stress fields and for identifying failure initiation and propagation mechanisms in a wide variety of composite-structure problems.

  15. Highly birefringent crystal for Raman transitions with phase modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Nieves; Abediyeh, Vahide; Hamzeloui, Saeed; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Gomez, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    We present a system to excite Raman transitions with minimum phase noise. The system uses a phase modulator to generate the phase locked beams required for the transition. We use a long calcite crystal to filter out one of the sidebands, avoiding the cancellation that appears at high detunings for phase modulation. The measured phase noise is limited by the quality of the microwave synthesizer. We use the calcite crystal a second time to produce a co-propagating Raman pair with perpendicular polarizations to drive velocity insensitive Raman transitions. Support from CONACYT and Fundacion Marcos Moshinsky.

  16. Integrated multi-parameter flow measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; van der Wouden, E.J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and realized an integrated multi-parameter flow measurement system, consisting of an integrated Coriolis and thermal flow sensor, and a pressure sensor. The integrated system enables on-chip measurement, analysis and determination of flow and several physical properties of both

  17. Qualification of a Voltammetry Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Sunna

    2014-01-01

    The voltammetry measurement system consisting of a potentiostat μStat 200, electrode strips and accessories has been scrutinized, following the four phases of instrument qualification. These are design qualification, installation qualification, operational qualification and performance qualification in succeeding order. As design qualification operational specifications of the voltammetry measurement system have been collected. These were the innovative technique of screen printing electro...

  18. Birefringence of cellotape: Jones representation and experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, Augusto; Frances, Jorge; Neipp, Cristian [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, Elena [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y Anatomia, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we analyse a simple experiment to study the effects of polarized light. A simple optical system composed of a polarizer, a retarder (cellotape) and an analyser is used to study the effect on the polarization state of the light which impinges on the setup. The optical system is characterized by means of a Jones matrix, and a simple procedure based on Jones vectors is used to obtain an expression for the intensity after the light passes through the optical system. The light intensity is measured by a photodetector and the expression obtained theoretically is experimentally validated. By fitting the experimental intensity data, the value of the retardation introduced by the retarder can also be obtained.

  19. Electronic instrumentation system for pulsed neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, J.; Igielski, A.; Kowalik, W.

    1982-01-01

    An essential point of pulsed neutron measurement of thermal neutron parameters for different materials is the registration of the thermal neutron die-away curve after a fast neutron bursts have been injected into the system. An electronic instrumentation system which is successfully applied for pulsed neutron measurements is presented. An important part of the system is the control unit which has been designed and built in the Laboratory of Neutron Parameters of Materials. (author)

  20. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  1. Human Characteristics and Measures in Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MEASURES IN SYSTEMS DESIGN 19.2.5 Physiological Factors Human physiology is based on the concept of homeostasis , the natural feedback system that...characteristics of the human components within our "man-made" systems engineering ecosystem . Understanding the strengths and limitations of the human

  2. System Entropy Measurement of Stochastic Partial Differential Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available System entropy describes the dispersal of a system’s energy and is an indication of the disorder of a physical system. Several system entropy measurement methods have been developed for dynamic systems. However, most real physical systems are always modeled using stochastic partial differential dynamic equations in the spatio-temporal domain. No efficient method currently exists that can calculate the system entropy of stochastic partial differential systems (SPDSs in consideration of the effects of intrinsic random fluctuation and compartment diffusion. In this study, a novel indirect measurement method is proposed for calculating of system entropy of SPDSs using a Hamilton–Jacobi integral inequality (HJII-constrained optimization method. In other words, we solve a nonlinear HJII-constrained optimization problem for measuring the system entropy of nonlinear stochastic partial differential systems (NSPDSs. To simplify the system entropy measurement of NSPDSs, the global linearization technique and finite difference scheme were employed to approximate the nonlinear stochastic spatial state space system. This allows the nonlinear HJII-constrained optimization problem for the system entropy measurement to be transformed to an equivalent linear matrix inequalities (LMIs-constrained optimization problem, which can be easily solved using the MATLAB LMI-toolbox (MATLAB R2014a, version 8.3. Finally, several examples are presented to illustrate the system entropy measurement of SPDSs.

  3. A complex-polarization-propagator protocol for magneto-chiral axial dichroism and birefringence dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cukras, Janusz; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    A computational protocol for magneto-chiral dichroism and magneto-chiral birefringence dispersion is presented within the framework of damped response theory, also known as complex polarization propagator theory, at the level of time-dependent Hartree–Fock and time-dependent density functional...

  4. Extremely High-Birefringent Asymmetric Slotted-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber in THz Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Raonaqul; Habib, Selim; Hasanuzzaman, G.K.M.

    2015-01-01

    of the circular cladding confines most of the power in the fiber-core. The fiber structure reported in this letter exhibits simultaneously ultrahigh modal birefringence of 7.5 × 10−2 and a very low effective absorption loss of 0.07 cm−1 for y-polarization mode at an operating frequency of 1 THz. It is highly...

  5. Conoscopic evaluation of the birefringence of gradient-index lenses: infidelity sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Diana; Camacho, Javier

    2002-12-01

    Gradient-index lenses are samples whose special characteristics must be taken into account to design the optical polariscopes that can be applied in the evaluation of their birefringence. We discuss the main infidelity sources that modify the conoscopic patterns when a traditional polariscopic setup is used.

  6. Conoscopic evaluation of the birefringence of gradient-index lenses: infidelity sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Diana; Camacho, Javier

    2002-12-01

    Gradient-index lenses are samples whose special characteristics must be taken into account to design the optical polariscopes that can be applied in the evaluation of their birefringence. We discuss the main infidelity sources that modify the conoscopic patterns when a traditional polariscopic setup is used.

  7. LiTaO.sub.3./sub. crystals with near-zero birefringence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glazier, A. M.; Zhang, N.; Bartasyte, A.; Keeble, D.S.; Huband, S.; Thomas, P.A.; Gregora, Ivan; Borodavka, Fedir; Margueron, S.; Hlinka, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2012), s. 1030-1037 ISSN 0021-8898 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : lithium tantalate * birefringence * domains * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.343, year: 2012

  8. Low-cost and easy to setup experiment to deter-mine birefringence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 2. Birefringence of Mica. Sarmistha Sahu. Classroom Volume 15 Issue 2 February 2010 pp 165-169 ... Author Affiliations. Sarmistha Sahu1. Department of Physics, Maharani Lakshmi Ammani College for Women, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  9. Artificial high birefringence in all-dielectric gradient grating for broadband terahertz waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Fan, Fei; Xu, Shi-Tong; Chang, Sheng-Jiang

    2016-12-09

    Subwavelength dielectric gratings are widely applied in the phase and polarization manipulation of light. However, the dispersion of the normal dielectric gratings is not flat while their birefringences are not enough in the THz regime. In this paper, we have fabricated two all-dielectric gratings with gradient grids in the THz regime, of which artificial birefringence is much larger than that of the equal-grid dielectric grating demonstrated by both experiments and simulations. The transmission and dispersion characteristics are also improved since the gradient grids break the periodicity of grating lattices as a chirp feature. From 0.6-1.4 THz, a broadband birefringence reaches 0.35 with a low dispersion and good linearity of phase shift, and the maximum phase shift is 1.4π. Furthermore, these gradient gratings are applied as half-wave plates and realize a linear polarization conversion with a conversion rate over 99%, also much higher than the equal-grid gratings. These gradient gratings show great advantages compared to the periodic gratings and provide a new way in the designing of artificial birefringence material.

  10. Entropy Measurement for Biometric Verification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Meng-Hui; Yuen, Pong C

    2016-05-01

    Biometric verification systems are designed to accept multiple similar biometric measurements per user due to inherent intrauser variations in the biometric data. This is important to preserve reasonable acceptance rate of genuine queries and the overall feasibility of the recognition system. However, such acceptance of multiple similar measurements decreases the imposter's difficulty of obtaining a system-acceptable measurement, thus resulting in a degraded security level. This deteriorated security needs to be measurable to provide truthful security assurance to the users. Entropy is a standard measure of security. However, the entropy formula is applicable only when there is a single acceptable possibility. In this paper, we develop an entropy-measuring model for biometric systems that accepts multiple similar measurements per user. Based on the idea of guessing entropy, the proposed model quantifies biometric system security in terms of adversarial guessing effort for two practical attacks. Excellent agreement between analytic and experimental simulation-based measurement results on a synthetic and a benchmark face dataset justify the correctness of our model and thus the feasibility of the proposed entropy-measuring approach.

  11. Evaluation of the MADAM waste measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, L.A.; Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Multiple Assay Dual Analysis Measurement (MADAM) system is a combined low-level and transuranic waste assay system. The system integrates commercially available Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) capability with a multienergy x-ray and gamma-ray analysis to measure these two waste forms. In addition, the system incorporates a small neutron slab detector to satisfy safeguards concerns and the capability for automated high-resolution gamma-ray analysis for isotope identification. Since delivery of the system to this facility, an evaluation of the waste measurement characteristics of the system has been conducted. A set of specially constructed NIST-traceable standards was fabricated for calibration and evaluation of the low-level waste (LLW) measurement system. The measurement characteristics of the LLW assay system were determined during the evaluation, including detection limits for all isotopes of interest, matrix attenuation effects, and detector response as a function of source position. Based on these studies, several modifications to the existing analysis algorithms have been performed, new correction factors for matrix attenuation have been devised, and measurement error estimates have been calculated and incorporated into the software

  12. INFORMATION SECURITY IN MOBILE MODULAR MEASURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tkhishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A special aspect of aircraft test is carrying out both flight evaluation and ground operation evaluation in a structure of flying aids and special tools equipment. The specific of flight and sea tests involve metering in offshore zone, which excludes the possibility of fixed geodetically related measuring tools. In this regard, the specific role is acquired by shipbased measurement systems, in particular the mobile modular measuring systems. Information processed in the mobile modular measurement systems is a critical resource having a high level of confidentiality. When carrying out their functions, it should be implemented a proper information control of the mobile modular measurement systems to ensure their protection from the risk of data leakage, modification or loss, i.e. to ensure a certain level of information security. Due to the specific of their application it is difficult to solve the problems of information security in such complexes. The intruder model, the threat model, the security requirements generated for fixed informatization objects are not applicable to mobile systems. It was concluded that the advanced mobile modular measuring systems designed for flight experiments monitoring and control should be created due to necessary information protection measures and means. The article contains a diagram of security requirements formation, starting with the data envelopment analysis and ending with the practical implementation. The information security probabilistic model applied to mobile modular measurement systems is developed. The list of current security threats based on the environment and specific of the mobile measurement system functioning is examined. The probabilistic model of the information security evaluation is given. The problems of vulnerabilities transformation of designed information system into the security targets with the subsequent formation of the functional and trust requirements list are examined.

  13. Photoplethysmographic measurements from central nervous system tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J P; Kyriacou, P A; Chang, S H; Maney, K; George, K J; Langford, R M

    2007-01-01

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a number of potential patient monitoring applications. This proof of concept project aims to address the unmet need of real-time measurement of oxygen saturation in the central nervous system (CNS) for patients recovering from neurosurgery or trauma, by developing a fibre optic signal acquisition system for internal placement through small apertures. The development and testing of a two-wavelength optical fibre reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system is described together with measurements in rats and preliminary results from a clinical trial of the system in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be consistently obtained from the rat spinal cord (n=6) and human cerebral cortex (n=4) using the fibre optic probe. These findings justify further development and clinical evaluation of this fibre optic system

  14. Photoplethysmographic measurements from central nervous system tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J P [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Chang, S H [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Maney, K [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); George, K J [Neuroscience Centre, Queen Mary, University of London, E1 0NS (United Kingdom); Langford, R M [Anaesthetic Laboratory, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a number of potential patient monitoring applications. This proof of concept project aims to address the unmet need of real-time measurement of oxygen saturation in the central nervous system (CNS) for patients recovering from neurosurgery or trauma, by developing a fibre optic signal acquisition system for internal placement through small apertures. The development and testing of a two-wavelength optical fibre reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system is described together with measurements in rats and preliminary results from a clinical trial of the system in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be consistently obtained from the rat spinal cord (n=6) and human cerebral cortex (n=4) using the fibre optic probe. These findings justify further development and clinical evaluation of this fibre optic system.

  15. Computer system performance measurement techniques for ARTS III computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    Direct measurement of computer systems is of vital importance in: a) developing an intelligent grasp of the variables which affect overall performance; b)tuning the system for optimum benefit; c)determining under what conditions saturation thresholds...

  16. Entanglement networks of 1,2-polybutadiene crosslinked in states of strain. VII. Stress-birefringence relations. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, H.C.; Carpenter, R.L.; Ferry, J.D.

    1979-11-01

    Crosslinks are introduced by ..gamma.. irradiation into 1,2-polybutadiene while strained in uniaxial extension near T/sub g/ with stretch ratio lambda/sub 0/, thereby trapping a proportion of the entanglements originally present. The stress at any subsequent strain lambda is accurately given by the sum sigma/sub N/ + sigma/sub x/, where sigma/sub N/ is the stress contributed by a trapped entanglement network with lambda = 1 as reference and a Mooney-Rivlin stress-strain relation, and sigma/sub x/ is that contributed by a crosslink network with lambda = lambda/sub 0/ as reference and neo-Hookean stress-strain relation. The birefringence is accurately given as ..delta..n = C/sub N/sigma/sub N/ + C/sub x/sigma/sub x/, where the C's are the respective stress-optical coefficients. From measurements at lambda = lambda/sub 0/ where sigma/sub x/ = 0, C/sub N/ can be determined separately. For polymer with 88% 1,2-microstructure, C/sub N/ and C/sub x/ are nearly equal and independent of irradiation dose, though strongly dependent on temperature. For polymer with (95-96)% 1,2, C/sub N/ and C/sub x/ are different (even opposite in sign) and dependent on dose. This behavior is associated with a side reaction of cyclization by the ..gamma.. irradiation, which is inhibited by the 1,4 moiety in the polymer with lesser 1,2 content. It is responsible for residual birefringence in the state of ease (lambda = lambda/sub s/) where sigma/sub N/ = -sigma/sub x/ and the stress is zero.

  17. Joint and weak measurements on qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.L.; Pryde, G.J.; Bartlett, S.D.; Ralph, T.C.; Wiseman, H.M.; White, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Along with the well-known concept of projective measurements, quantum mechanics allows various kinds of generalized measurement operators. Two important examples are: joint measurements on two or more quantum systems that cannot be achieved by local operations (LOCC); and weak measurements that obtain less information about a system than does a projective measurement, but with correspondingly less disturbance. Unlike the result of a strong measurement, the average value of a weak measurement of an observable (its weak value), when followed by projective postselection in a complementary basis, can lie outside the range of eigenvalues. This discrepancy is not observed in analogous classical measurements. Weak values aid the resolution of quantum paradoxes, and can simplify analysis of weakly coupled systems. We use a generalized measurement device to measure the weak value of a photon's polarization in the horizontal/vertical basis (the Stokes operator S1 = |H> weak up to 47, outside the usual range -1 ≤ S1 ≤ 1. Unlike previous observations of weak values, our measurement works by entangling two separate systems, and thus can only be described by quantum theory, not a classical wave theory. Also, we have used a two-qubit joint measurement based on a controlled-NOT gate by which certain twoqubit unentangled states can be more reliably distinguished than by using LOCC. We quantify this using a payoff function, for which the optimal LOCC measurement attains 2/3, and our experimental measurement attains 0.72 ± 0.02, close to the global optimum of 3/4. (author)

  18. Measurement and evaluation systems for NPP commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elko, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Standard core monitoring and information systems are designed with an emphasis on normal operation of nuclear power plant. Their purpose is to provide necessary support for reactor operators and other operating personnel during the fuel cycle. After each fuel reloading, and to the larger extent during the plant commissioning, a variety of start-up tests need to be carried out and evaluated. Sampling periods, accuracy and communication delays of standard systems are not always suitable for test performance and evaluation. For technical and safety reasons, the access to standard monitoring and information systems is very limited. Non-Standard Measurement and Evaluation Systems are highly specialized devices designed with an emphasis on start-up tests performance and evaluation. They are capable of high frequency sampling, processing and communication of hundreds of technological signals with required accuracy and low communication delay. All technological signals needed for the test performance and evaluation are collected from various systems, concentrated in one system and fully accessible to a test leader, a reactor physicist or other users. In addition, Non-Standard Measurement and Evaluation Systems can perform other tasks like data storing and presentation, data distribution to other systems or external computers via network, reactivity calculations, etc. Structure of such systems can vary, but generally it is a mixture of two basic concepts: a mobile system and a stationary system. A basic description of hardware structure and software equipment of Non-Standard Measurement and Evaluation Systems is given in the paper (Authors)

  19. Preparation Measurements and Assessment of Roof Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláž, Richard; Bagoňa, Miloslav

    2014-11-01

    The Institute of Architectural Engineering at the Civil Engineering Faculty TU of Kosice, in its ongoing research, aims to monitor the physical properties of building envelope structures with emphasis placed on hydrothermal problems, at present. The research focuses on the assembly of equipment in climate chambers with their respective sample envelopes and fenestration systems, which are involved in a measuring experiment. The prime aim is to design a logical and transparent system for gathering, evaluating and storing hydrothermal related data. This contribution further illustrates the embedding system of measurement points in installed samples and the system of monitoring their physical properties over an annual period.

  20. Three-component laser anemometer measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Louis J.

    1991-01-01

    A brief overview of the different laser anemometer (LA) optical designs available is presented. Then, the LA techniques that can be used to design a three-component measurement system for annular geometries are described. Some of the facility design considerations unique to these LA systems are also addressed. Following this, the facilities and the LA systems that were used to successfully measure the three components of velocity in the blading of annular-flow machines are reviewed. Finally, possible LA system enhancements and future research directions are presented.

  1. Analysis of measurement system as the mechatronics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giniotis, V [Institute of Geodesy, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania, Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania); Grattan, K T V [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences Electrical, Electronic and Information Eng, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Rybokas, M [Department of Information Technologies, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania); Brucas, D, E-mail: gi@ap.vtu.l, E-mail: k.t.v.grattan@city.ac.u, E-mail: MRybokas@gama.l, E-mail: domka@ktv.l, E-mail: vg@ai.vgtu.l [Department of Geodesy and Cadastre, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania)

    2010-07-01

    The paper deals with the mechatronic arrangement for angle measuring system application. The objects to be measured are the circular raster scales, rotary encoders and coded scales. The task of the measuring system is to determine the bias of angle measuring standard as the circular scale and to use the results for the error correction and accuracy improvement of metal cutting machines, coordinate measuring machines, robots, etc. The technical solutions are given with the application of active materials for smart piezoactuators implemented into the several positions of angular measuring equipment. Mechatronic measuring system is analysed as complex integrated system and some of its elements can be used as separate units. All these functional elements are described and commented in the paper with the diagrams and graphs of errors and examples of microdisplacement devices using the mechatronic elements.

  2. Analysis of measurement system as the mechatronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giniotis, V; Grattan, K T V; Rybokas, M; Brucas, D

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the mechatronic arrangement for angle measuring system application. The objects to be measured are the circular raster scales, rotary encoders and coded scales. The task of the measuring system is to determine the bias of angle measuring standard as the circular scale and to use the results for the error correction and accuracy improvement of metal cutting machines, coordinate measuring machines, robots, etc. The technical solutions are given with the application of active materials for smart piezoactuators implemented into the several positions of angular measuring equipment. Mechatronic measuring system is analysed as complex integrated system and some of its elements can be used as separate units. All these functional elements are described and commented in the paper with the diagrams and graphs of errors and examples of microdisplacement devices using the mechatronic elements.

  3. Measurement system as a subsystem of the quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Floreková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what, operation (how and structure (why. Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirements defines the measurement, analysis and improvement for each organization in order to present the products conformity, the quality management system conformity guarantee and for the continuously permanent improvement of effectivity, efficiency and economy of quality management system.

  4. Telemetric measurement system of beehive environment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Sawicki, Aleksander

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a measurement system of beehive environmental conditions. The purpose of the device is to perform measurements of parameters such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, internal temperature, humidity and sound level. The measured values were transferred to the MySQL database, which is located on an external server, with the use of GPRS protocol. A website presents the measurement data in the form of tables and graphs. The study also shows exemplary results of environmental conditions measurements recorded in the beehive by hour cycle.

  5. Measurement System Characterization in the Presence of Measurement Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commo, Sean A.

    2012-01-01

    In the calibration of a measurement system, data are collected in order to estimate a mathematical model between one or more factors of interest and a response. Ordinary least squares is a method employed to estimate the regression coefficients in the model. The method assumes that the factors are known without error; yet, it is implicitly known that the factors contain some uncertainty. In the literature, this uncertainty is known as measurement error. The measurement error affects both the estimates of the model coefficients and the prediction, or residual, errors. There are some methods, such as orthogonal least squares, that are employed in situations where measurement errors exist, but these methods do not directly incorporate the magnitude of the measurement errors. This research proposes a new method, known as modified least squares, that combines the principles of least squares with knowledge about the measurement errors. This knowledge is expressed in terms of the variance ratio - the ratio of response error variance to measurement error variance.

  6. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  7. Automated statistical modeling of analytical measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The statistical modeling of analytical measurement systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) has been completely automated through computer software. The statistical modeling of analytical measurement systems is one part of a complete quality control program used by the Remote Analytical Laboratory (RAL) at the ICPP. The quality control program is an integration of automated data input, measurement system calibration, database management, and statistical process control. The quality control program and statistical modeling program meet the guidelines set forth by the American Society for Testing Materials and American National Standards Institute. A statistical model is a set of mathematical equations describing any systematic bias inherent in a measurement system and the precision of a measurement system. A statistical model is developed from data generated from the analysis of control standards. Control standards are samples which are made up at precise known levels by an independent laboratory and submitted to the RAL. The RAL analysts who process control standards do not know the values of those control standards. The object behind statistical modeling is to describe real process samples in terms of their bias and precision and, to verify that a measurement system is operating satisfactorily. The processing of control standards gives us this ability

  8. A performance measurement system for engineering services

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A performance measurement system which provides both a means of monitoring performance and a resource to support management decision making is described. The process of performance indicator development is discussed and typical indicators are described. The paper concludes with a summary of some of the lessons learned in applying productivity measurements to engineering services tasks and in automating data collection, evaluation and interpretation.

  9. System Controls and Measures Oxygen Fugacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    System developed at Johnson Space Center controls and measures oxygen fugacity in high-temperature chemical research. A ceramic-electrolyte cell is the sensing element. All hardware needed to control gas flow and temperature and to measure cell electromotive force is included. An analytic balance allows in situ thermogravimetric sample analysis.

  10. Influence of the Wavelength Dependence of Birefringence in the Generation of Supercontinuum and Dispersive Wave in Fiber Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Acuna Herrera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform numerical analysis about the influence of the wavelength dependence of birefringence (WDB in the Supercontinuum (SC and dispersive wave (DW generation. We study different birefringence profiles such as constant, linear, and parabolic. We see that, for a linear and parabolic profile, the generation of SC practically does not change, while this does so when the constant value of the birefringence varies. Similar situation happens with the generation of dispersive waves. In addition, we observe that the broadband of the SC increases when the Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS is neglected for all WDB profiles.

  11. Measurement trends for future safeguards systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloga, S.M.; Hakkila, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Safeguards for future commercial-scale nuclear facilities may employ three materials control and accounting concepts: classical accounting, dynamic materials balancing, and independent verification of inventories and materials balances. Typical measurement needs associated with the implementation of these concepts at high-throughput facilities are discussed. Promising measurement methods for meeting these needs are described and recent experience is cited. General directions and considerations for meeting advanced safeguards systems needs through measurement technology development over the next decade are presented

  12. Dynamic Properties of Impulse Measuring Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.; Lausen, P.

    1971-01-01

    After some basic considerations the dynamic properties of the measuring system are subjected to a general examination based on a number of responses, characteristic of the system. It is demonstrated that an impulse circuit has an internal impedance different from zero, for which reason...

  13. CITYkeys Smart city performance measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huovila, A.; Airaksinen, M.; Pinto-Seppa, I.; Piira, K.; Bosch, P.R.; Penttinen, T.; Neumann, H.M.; Kontinakis, N.

    2017-01-01

    Cities are tackling their economic, social and environmental challenges through smart city solutions. To demonstrate that these solutions achieve the desired impact, an indicator-based assessment system is needed. This paper presents the process of developing CITYkeys performance measurement system

  14. Internal Performance Measurement Systems: Problems and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    . The analysis uses and extends N rreklit's (2000) critique of the BSC by applying the concepts developed therein to contemporary research on the BSC and to the development of practice in performance measurement. The analysis is of relevance for many companies in the Asia-Pacific area as an increasing numbers......This article pursues two aims: to identify problems and dangers related to the operational use of internal performance measurement systems of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) type and to provide some guidance on how performance measurement systems may be designed to overcome these problems...

  15. Measuring Vulnerability in the Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Paloviita, Ari; Puupponen, Antti; Kortetmäki, Teea; Silvasti, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Food system vulnerability is an emerging concept for food security policies and food supply chain management. Hence, measuring food system vulnerability is necessary for developing appropriate food security policies and managing food supply chain vulnerabilities. In this paper, we aim to clarify the development process of food system vulnerability indicators. We conducted an abducted qualitative content analysis based on public documents of various Finnish organizations, including mi...

  16. NKS MOMS. Final report. [Mobile Measurement Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilssen, J. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Aage, H.K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA) (Denmark); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (IRSA) (Iceland)

    2013-02-15

    Mobile car-borne measurement systems are an important asset in early phase emergency response in all Nordic countries. However, through the development of the systems in the different countries, there are considerable differences between the systems developed. This complicates Nordic cooperation and mutual assistance in emergency situations. This project aimed to facilitate harmonization of mobile measurement systems between the Nordic countries. The project focused on harmonizing data formats, information exchange and measurement strategies. Although the work done was funded by each member, the project established a good platform for cooperation which will hopefully continue beyond the scope of the project. A two-day seminar was held in May 2012, where all participants presented the current status (equipment, methods used etc.), in addition to invited speakers presenting development within the field of mobile detection and in situ measurements. Exchange of experiences and information on different measurement systems and practises in use was an important part of the seminar. The seminar was followed up by a small workshop during the REFOX exercise in Lund, Sweden, September 2012. Exchange of measurement data from the exercise was facilitated through a workspace proveded by NRPA as part of the MOMS project. The work done in this project will be presented at the NordEx12 seminar in March 2013. (Author)

  17. Multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Matthias; Leonhardt, Steffen; Heimann, Konrad; Bernstein, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Non-contact heart and lung activity monitoring would be a desirable supplement to conventional monitoring techniques. Based on the potential of non-contact magnetic induction measurements, requirements for an adequate monitoring system were estimated. This formed the basis for the development of the presented extendable multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS). Special focus was given to the dynamic behaviour and simultaneous multichannel measurements, so that the system allows for up to 14 receiver coils working simultaneously at 6 excitation frequencies. Moreover, a real-time software concept for online signal processing visualization in combination with a fast software demodulation is presented. Finally, first steps towards a clinical application are pointed out and technical performance as well as first in vivo measurements are presented. This paper covers some aspects previously presented in Steffen and Leonhardt (2007 Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Electrical Bioimpedance and the 8th Conf. on Electrical Impedance Tomography, Graz 2007)

  18. Image processing system for flow pattern measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Satoru; Miyanaga, Yoichi; Takeda, Hirofumi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of an image processing system for measurements of flow patterns occuring in natural circulation water flows. In this method, the motions of particles scattered in the flow are visualized by a laser light slit and they are recorded on normal video tapes. These image data are converted to digital data with an image processor and then transfered to a large computer. The center points and pathlines of the particle images are numerically analized, and velocity vectors are obtained with these results. In this image processing system, velocity vectors in a vertical plane are measured simultaneously, so that the two dimensional behaviors of various eddies, with low velocity and complicated flow patterns usually observed in natural circulation flows, can be determined almost quantitatively. The measured flow patterns, which were obtained from natural circulation flow experiments, agreed with photographs of the particle movements, and the validity of this measuring system was confirmed in this study. (author)

  19. Linear systems a measurement based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Mohsenizadeh, D N

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents recent results obtained on the analysis, synthesis and design of systems described by linear equations. It is well known that linear equations arise in most branches of science and engineering as well as social, biological and economic systems. The novelty of this approach is that no models of the system are assumed to be available, nor are they required. Instead, a few measurements made on the system can be processed strategically to directly extract design values that meet specifications without constructing a model of the system, implicitly or explicitly. These new concepts are illustrated by applying them to linear DC and AC circuits, mechanical, civil and hydraulic systems, signal flow block diagrams and control systems. These applications are preliminary and suggest many open problems. The results presented in this brief are the latest effort in this direction and the authors hope these will lead to attractive alternatives to model-based design of engineering and other systems.

  20. A Critique of Health System Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Health system performance measurement is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Many authors have identified multiple methodological and substantive problems with performance measurement practices. Despite the validity of these criticisms and their cross-national character, the practice of health system performance measurement persists. Theodore Marmor suggests that performance measurement invokes an "incantatory response" wrapped within "linguistic muddle." In this article, I expand upon Marmor's insights using Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework to suggest that, far from an aberration, the "linguistic muddle" identified by Marmor is an indicator of a broad struggle about the representation and classification of public health services as a public good. I present a case study of performance measurement from Alberta, Canada, examining how this representational struggle occurs and what the stakes are. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. V.L. Ginzburg's elliptic screw polarization modes in an optical medium with linear birefringence and twist: Determination of their parameters by the method of Jones matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    Using the method of Jones matrices, we have calculated parameters of elliptic screw polarization modes (ESPMs). ESPM formalism has been proposed by V.L. Ginzburg for an optical medium with unperturbed linear birefringence and circular birefringence induced by twisting of the medium. The evolution of the polarization state of radiation (PSR) in relation to the length of the examined optical medium has been considered, which is important for twisted single-mode optical fibers and cholesteric liquid crystals. We have shown that the problem can be substantially simplified if the evolution of ESPMs is considered in a screw coordinate system comoving with the twist of the optical medium. In particular, we have shown that a curve on the Poincaré sphere mapping the evolution of the PSR for natural (normal) waves of the examined optical medium in the screw coordinate system degenerates into a point. For comparison, we have found natural waves of this medium in a fixed (laboratory) coordinate system and considered the evolution of their PSR, which is represented by a complex curve on the Poincaré sphere. Also, the evolution of the PSR of improper waves passed through the examined optical medium has been studied in both the fixed and the screw coordinate systems.

  2. Coordinate metrology accuracy of systems and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Sładek, Jerzy A

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on effective methods for assessing the accuracy of both coordinate measuring systems and coordinate measurements. It mainly reports on original research work conducted by Sladek’s team at Cracow University of Technology’s Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology. The book describes the implementation of different methods, including artificial neural networks, the Matrix Method, the Monte Carlo method and the virtual CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), and demonstrates how these methods can be effectively used in practice to gauge the accuracy of coordinate measurements. Moreover, the book includes an introduction to the theory of measurement uncertainty and to key techniques for assessing measurement accuracy. All methods and tools are presented in detail, using suitable mathematical formulations and illustrated with numerous examples. The book fills an important gap in the literature, providing readers with an advanced text on a topic that has been rapidly developing in recent years. The book...

  3. Vapor Sensor Realized in an Ultracompact Polarization Interferometer Built of a Freestanding Porous-Silicon Form Birefringent Film

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O, Beom-Hoan; Liu, Rong; Li, Yang Y; Sailor, Michael J; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2005-01-01

    .... The simulation accurately predicts the polarization interference signal, which is used to estimate the effective refractive indexes characterizing the form birefringence of a porous-silicon film with 0.001 accuracy...

  4. Dual-cladding high-birefringence and high-nonlinearity photonic crystal fiber with As2S3 core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedian; He, Menghui; Chang, Min; Chen, Hui; Chen, Nan; Qi, Ningning; Yuan, Manman; Qin, Xiaofei

    2018-03-01

    A novel dual-cladding photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with elliptical As2S3 core has been proposed to obtain high-birefringence and high-nonlinearity in PCFs. As2S3 has a high refractive index and a high nonlinear refractive index, as a result, it has a desired application on strengthening birefringence and nonlinearity. Then outer cladding of the PCF contains a hexagonal array of circular air holes. A circular array of circular air holes is introduced near the core as the inner cladding. We find that inner cladding could heighten birefringence and nonlinearity obviously. The simulation results show that the birefringence is as high as 0.307 at a wavelength of 1550 nm, and the nonlinearities of X- and Y-polarized reach 28660 km-1 W-1 and 38080 km-1 W-1 at the same wavelength, respectively.

  5. Novel surface measurement system reading cost savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sword, M.

    1996-05-01

    A new state-of-the-art data acquisition system for the oil and natural gas industries is being marketed by OPSCO`92 Industries Ltd. The unit is portable, it measures surface data which is calibrated to bottom-hole conditions and designed to measure temperature and pressure information without the necessity of sending testing equipment downhole. The Surface Data System (SDS) uses silicon-crystal technology, is mounted in a suitcase size carrying case, and runs off a 12-volt battery enclosure which can be backed up by a small solar panel. The first generation system can handle 16 different channels of information input on a laptop computer. Pressure, pressure differential, temperature, frequency and pulse signals for flow meter measurements are handled by standard sensors. Areas of application include build-up and fall-off tests, pipeline evaluation, pre-frac tests, underbalanced drilling and gas well evaluation. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  6. Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  7. Tritium monitoring system for near ambient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falter, K.G.; Bauer, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of research on an improved tritium measurement system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the U.S. Navy. Present tritium-in-air monitoring systems installed by the Navy can reliably measure to less than 10 μCi/m 3 , but medical and safety issues are pushing measurement needs to below 1 μCi/m 3 , which is equivalent to 1-10 nCi/ml in liquid samples, using calcium metal converter. A significant effort has been expended over the past 10 years by the Navy RADIAC Development Program at ORNL on various schemes to improve the detection of tritium in both air and liquid at near ambient levels. One such scheme includes a liquid flow-through system based on an NE102 sponge scintillator with dual photomultiplier tubes for tube noise rejection

  8. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration. The instruments used are: • a fast-response, three-dimensional (3D) wind sensor (sonic anemometer) to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the speed of sound (SOS) (used to derive the air temperature) • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain the water vapor density and the CO2 concentration, and • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain methane density and methane flux at one SGP EF and at the NSA CF. The ECOR systems are deployed at the locations where other methods for surface flux measurements (e.g., energy balance Bowen ratio [EBBR] systems) are difficult to employ, primarily at the north edge of a field of crops. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system in SGP, NSA, Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes. The SEBS at one SGP and one NSA site also support upwelling and downwelling PAR measurements to qualify those two locations as Ameriflux sites.

  9. Design of an Antenna Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kyle

    Modern communication systems require next generation antenna, whose performance can only be verified through specialized equipment and methodology. For example, a vector network analyzer can be used to determine metrics such as the impedance bandwidth of an antenna. However, a vector network analyzer provides only a portion of the operational characteristics of an antenna. Instead, controlled environments known as anechoic chambers are used to ascertain the radiation characteristics of an antenna under test. These facilities typically incorporate a variety of different instruments to facilitate the measurement process. Rotary tables, linear actuators, vector network analyzers, and amplifiers are examples of typical components that are used in an anechoic chamber. While one could certainly manually control these components, it is more efficient to automate the measurement procedure. This saves time and increases repeatability of measurements. This thesis presents a complete software design for automated antenna measurement system for use in anechoic chambers. This developed software is both modular and flexible, which allows for easy adaptation for new equipment over time and allows the system to run in a simulation mode if some hardware components are not present. The system has also proven its capability by successfully measuring the radiation pattern of a dipole antenna, even in an anechoic chamber lacking wall-to-wall absorbers.

  10. Electronic system for Langmuir probe measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitov, M.; Bankova, A.; Dimitrova, M.; Ivanova, P.; Tutulkov, K.; Djermanova, N.; Dejarnac, R.; Stöckel, J.; Popov, Tsv K.

    2012-03-01

    A newly developed Langmuir probe system for measurements of current-voltage (IV) characteristics in the tokamak divertor area is presented and discussed. The system is partially controlled by a computer allowing simultaneous and independent feeding and registration of signals. The system is mounted in the COMPASS tokamak, Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The new electronic circuit boards include also active low-pass filters which smooth the signal before recording by the data acquisition system (DAQ). The signal is thus less noisy and the data processing is much easier. We also designed and built a microcontroller-driven waveform generator with resolution of 1 Ms/s. The power supply is linear and uses a transformer. We avoided the use of a switching power supply because of the noise that it could generate. Examples of measurements of the IV characteristics by divertor probes in the COMPASS tokamak and evaluation of the EEDF are presented.

  11. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  12. Measurement system for SSRF pulsed magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chengcheng; Gu Ming; Liu Bo; Ouyang Lianhua

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the magnetic field measurement system for pulsed magnets in SSRF. The system consists of magnetic probes, analog active integrator, oscilloscope, stepper motor and a controller. An application program based on LabVIEW has been developed as main control unit. After the magnetic field mapping of a septum magnet prototype, it is verified that the test results accord with the results of theoretical calculation and computer simulation. (authors)

  13. Reactivity Measurement and Analysis System (RMAS-7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2015-07-01

    This paper tries to describe the Reactivity Measurement and Analysis System 7 (RMAS-7), which is an Areva’s hardware and software solution capable of accomplishing the physic startup tests in a work shift. RMAS-7 is a modular solution designed to be a powerful, convenient data collection and analysis system based on Ethernet communication network. This last feature allows RMAS-7 to have a distributed architecture. (Author)

  14. Quantum system lifetimes and measurement perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najakov, E.

    1977-05-01

    The recently proposed description of quantum system decay in terms of repeated measurement perturbations is modified. The possibility of retarded reductions to a unique quantum state, due to ineffective localization of the decay products at initial time measurements, is simply taken into account. The exponential decay law is verified again. A modified equation giving the observed lifetime in terms of unperturbed quantum decay law, measurement frequency and reduction law is derived. It predicts deviations of the observed lifetime from the umperturbed one, together with a dependence on experimental procedures. The influence of different model unperturbed decay laws and reduction laws on this effect is studied

  15. Stress induced birefringence in hybrid TIR/PBG guiding solid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian; Mangan, Brian Joseph; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2010-01-01

    We report on two types of polarization maintaining solid photonic crystal fibers that guide light by a combination of a photonic bandgap and total internal reflection. Group and phase birefringence are studied experimentally and numerically for stress-applying parts made from B-doped and F......-doped silica. The stress field originating from Ge-doped cladding rods is shown to interfere with the stress field from the B-doped and F-doped rods. Since the differential expansion coefficients of B-doped and F-doped silica have opposite signs this interference is either destructive or constructive....... Consequently, we found that the fiber with F-doped stress applying parts has the highest modal phase birefringence, and polarization cross talk is characterized by an h-parameter below 3⋅10−5 m−1....

  16. Stress induced birefringence in hybrid TIR/PBG guiding solid photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngsø, J K; Mangan, B J; Olausson, C B; Roberts, P J

    2010-06-21

    We report on two types of polarization maintaining solid photonic crystal fibers that guide light by a combination of a photonic bandgap and total internal reflection. Group and phase birefringence are studied experimentally and numerically for stress-applying parts made from B-doped and F-doped silica. The stress field originating from Ge-doped cladding rods is shown to interfere with the stress field from the B-doped and F-doped rods. Since the differential expansion coefficients of B-doped and F-doped silica have opposite signs this interference is either destructive or constructive. Consequently, we found that the fiber with F-doped stress applying parts has the highest modal phase birefringence, and polarization cross talk is characterized by an h-parameter below 310(-5) m(-1).

  17. A note on the birefringence angle estimation in CMB data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruppuso, A. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Maggio, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, Trieste (Italy); Molinari, D.; Natoli, P., E-mail: gruppuso@iasbo.inaf.it, E-mail: maggio@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: molinari@iasfbo.inaf.it, E-mail: ntlpla@unife.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and INFN, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    Parity violating physics beyond the standard model of particle physics induces a rotation of the linear polarization of photons. This effect, also known as cosmological birefringence (CB), can be tested with the observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies which are linearly polarized at the level of 5–10%. In particular CB produces non-null CMB cross correlations between temperature and B mode-polarization, and between E- and B-mode polarization. Here we study the properties of the so called D-estimators, often used to constrain such an effect. After deriving the framework of both frequentist and Bayesian analysis, we discuss the interplay between birefringence and weak-lensing, which, albeit parity conserving, modifies pre-existing TB and EB cross correlation.

  18. Improvement of chirped pulse contrast using electro-optic birefringence scanning filter method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Shuguang; Wang Xianglin; Wang Qishan; Zhang Bin; Sun Nianchun; Wang Fei

    2013-01-01

    A method using scanning filter to improve the contrast of chirped pulse is proposed, and the principle of this method is analyzed. The scanning filter is compared with the existing pulse-picking technique and nonlinear filtering technique. The scanning filter is a temporal gate that is independent on the intensity of the pulses, but on the instantaneous wavelengths of light. Taking the electro-optic birefringence scanning filter as an example, the application of scanning filter methods is illustrated. Based on numerical simulation and experimental research, it is found that the electro-optic birefringence scanning filter can eliminate a prepulse which is several hundred picoseconds before the main pulse, and the main pulse can maintain a high transmissivity. (authors)

  19. Terahertz polarization converter based on all-dielectric high birefringence metamaterial with elliptical air holes

    KAUST Repository

    Zi, Jianchen

    2018-02-15

    Metamaterials have been widely applied in the polarization conversion of terahertz (THz) waves. However, common plasmonic metamaterials usually work as reflective devices and have low transmissions. All-dielectric metamaterials can overcome these shortcomings. An all-dielectric metamaterial based on silicon with elliptical air holes is reported to achieve high artificial birefringence at THz frequencies. Simulations show that with appropriate structural parameters the birefringence of the dielectric metamaterial can remain flat and is above 0.7 within a broad band. Moreover, the metamaterial can be designed as a broadband quarter wave plate. A sample metamaterial was fabricated and tested to prove the validity of the simulations, and the sample could work as a quarter wave plate at 1.76 THz. The all-dielectric metamaterial that we proposed is of great significance for high performance THz polarization converters.

  20. The Nonlinear Changes of Temperature Response Birefringence of Side-Hole Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Fu, Jianbo; Li, Dailin; Zhu, Huafeng; Wang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    For deeply investigate the birefringence responding of side-hole fiber caused by temperature, the response performance are analyzed by finite element method and elastic-optic theory, especially the nonlinear changes. The simulation results showed that the response birefringence is linear with temperature no matter how the geometry changed, but the response sensitivity is nonlinear with geometry parameters. The hole radius and hole-core distance both have their limit value to get obvious temperature sensitivity. Large hole radius and small hole-core distance is good to get high response sensitivity. Furthermore some interesting results are discussed about the response sensitivity changed with the square value of hole-core separation angle. The sensitivity is nonlinear with the square of hole-core separation angle for temperature, which is different to pressure response sensitivity.

  1. Evaluation of polycarbonate substrate hologram recording medium regarding implication of birefringence and thermal expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toishi, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Tomiji; Fukumoto, Atsushi; Sugiki, Mikio; Watanabe, Kenjiro

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we evaluate photopolymer media using a polycarbonate (PC) substrate. In holographic data storage medium, substrates that sandwich the photopolymer material are needed to protect the photopolymer material against exogenous shock and open air. An optical glass such as BK-7 is normally used as a substrate, but a PC substrate has a cost advantage and is easy to fabricate compared with optical glass. For holographic recording and reading, however, the high birefringence and high thermal expansion of a PC substrate are significant problems. First, we analyze the degree of degradation of output power by the polarization change and estimate the threshold value of birefringence to record hologram normally. Next, we estimate the temperature tolerance of hologram readout with polycarbonate substrate hologram medium. These analyses results indicate the possible usage of the PC substrate as holographic recording media.

  2. Study of the Magnetically Induced QED Birefringence of the Vacuum in experiment OSQAR

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083980

    Classical electrodynamics in a vacuum is a linear theory and does not foresee photon-photon scattering or other nonlinear effects between electromagnetic fields. In 1936 Euler, Heisenberg and Weisskopf put framework, in the earliest development of quantum electrodynamics (QED), that vacuum can behave as a birefringent medium in the presence of the external transverse magnetic field. This phenomenon is known as Vacuum Magnetic Birefringence (VMB) and it is still challenging for optical metrology since the first calculations in 1970. When linearly polarized light travels through the strong transverse magnetic field in vacuum, the polarization state of the light would change to elliptical. The difference in the refraction indexes of the ordinary and extraordinary ray is directly related to fundamental constants, such as fine structure constant or Compton wavelength. Contributions to VMB could also arise from the existence of light scalar or pseudoscalar particles, such as axions or axions like particles. Axions ...

  3. Highly birefringent phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings inscribed with femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Wang, Yiping; Liao, Changrui; Wang, Qiaoni; Yang, Kaiming; Sun, Bing; Yin, Guolu; Liu, Shen; Zhou, Jiangtao; Zhao, Jing

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate a highly birefringent phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PS-FBG) inscribed in H2-free fiber with a near-infrared femtosecond Gaussian laser beam and uniform phase mask. The PS-FBG was fabricated from an ordinary fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a case in which overexposure was applied. The spectral evolution from FBG to FS-FBG was observed experimentally with a decrease in transmission loss at dip wavelength, blueshift of the dip wavelength, decrease in the cladding mode loss, and an increase in the insertion loss. A high birefringence was demonstrated experimentally with the existence of PS-FBG only in TM polarization. The formation of the PS-FBG may be due to a negative index change induced by the higher intensity in the center of the Gaussian laser beam.

  4. Detecting relic gravitational waves in the CMB: The contamination caused by the cosmological birefringence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB radiation is an excellent information channel for the detection of relic gravitational waves. However, the detection is contaminated by the B-mode polarization generated by some other effects. In this paper, we discuss the contaminations caused by the cosmological birefringence, which converts the CMB E-mode to the B-mode, and forms the effective noise for the detection of gravitational waves. We find that this contamination is significant, if the rotation angle is large. However, this kind of B-mode can be properly de-rotated, and the effective noises can be greatly reduced. We find that, comparing with the contaminations caused by cosmic weak lensing, the residual polarization generated by the cosmological birefringence is negligible for the detection of relic gravitational waves in the CMB.

  5. Birefringence and residual stress induced by CO2 laser mitigation of damage growth in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, L.; Cormont, P.; Rullier, J. L.

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the residual stress field created near mitigated sites and its influence on the efficiency on the CO2 laser mitigation of damage growth process. A numerical model of CO2 laser interaction with fused silica is developed that take into account laser energy absorption, heat transfer, thermally-induced stress and birefringence. Specific photoelastic methods are developed to characterize the residual stress near mitigated sites in fused silica samples. The stress distribution and quantitative values of stress levels are obtained for sites treated with the CO2 laser in various conditions of energy deposition (beam size, pulse duration, incident power). The results obtained also show that the presence of birefringence/residual stress around the mitigated sites has a critical effect on their laser damage resistance.

  6. Flexible transparent aerogels as window retrofitting films and optical elements with tunable birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingkun; Frazier, Allister W.; Zhao, Xinpeng; De La Cruz, Joshua A.; Hess, Andrew J.; Yang, Ronggui; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-06-01

    Experimental realization of optically transparent, mechanically robust and flexible aerogels has been a longstanding challenge, which limits their practical applications in energy-saving devices, such as thermally insulating films for enhancing energy efficiency of windows. The poor transparency precluded even hypothetical consideration of the possibility of birefringent aerogels. We develop birefringent and optically isotropic aerogels that combine properties of thermal super-insulation, mechanical robustness and flexibility, and transparency to visible-spectrum light. This unusual combination of physical properties is achieved by combining liquid crystalline self-organization of cellulose nanofibers with polysiloxane cross-linking and control of the nanoscale porosity to form hybrid organic-inorganic mesostructured aerogels. Potential applications of these inexpensive materials range from single pane window retrofitting to smart fabrics.

  7. Calculation of the mean differential group delay of periodically spun, randomly birefringent fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtarossa, Andrea; Griggio, Paola; Pizzinat, Anna; Palmieri, Luca

    2002-05-01

    Spinning is one of the most effective and well-known ways to reduce polarization mode dispersion of optical fibers. In spite of the popularity of spinning, a detailed theory of spin effects is still lacking. We report an analytical expression for the mean differential group delay of a randomly birefringent spun fiber. The result holds for any periodic spin function with a period shorter than the fiber's beat length.

  8. Linear heating system for measurement of thermoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    scence intensity is monitored. The theory of TL usually assumes that the sample temperature varies linearly with time, although more general theories have been formu- lated and calculations made for non-linear heating system. Previous descriptions of apparatus for the measurement of TL have been published elsewhere ...

  9. Characteristics of a simple blackbody measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.; Anger, N.H.; Kaehms, R.; Jaeger, K.B.

    1988-01-01

    An axially symmetric blackbody (BB) measurement system with a circular aperture and a circular detector is considered. The BB can be of a right circular conical shape, a right cylindrical shape, or a combination of these two shapes. Assuming that the BB is ideal, the power received by the detector is calculated. 8 references

  10. Power system observability with minimum phasor measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper presents optimal phasor measurement units (PMUs) placement algorithms for power system observability. The optimal placement problem (OPP) is formulated such that minimizing the number of PMU installations for full network observability. Three approaches, in this paper, are introduced aiming at reducing ...

  11. SIMS: The SLAC Industrial Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.

    1990-01-01

    Kern was the first survey company to market an Industrial Measurement System when it released ECDS (Electronic Coordinate Determination System) in the mid-1980s. Originally written for the PDP-11, a version was later released for the PC (ECDS-PC). SLAC purchased this system in 1986 and immediately began to use it for the alignment of the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider). Although ECDS enabled SLAC to perform tasks with a speed never before achieved, they experienced limitations in the software. Since Kern proved unresponsive and SLAC was unable to purchase the source code for any amount of money, they set about writing their own portions of code. They first wrote a system of menus tailored for their specific alignment tasks, and disabled much of the ECDS menu structure. Due to dissatisfaction with the ECDS bundle adjustment program, they wrote their own bundle adjustment in 1988. A further step towarad having their own complete IMS was to develop a data capture program, a task which has been underway since the beginning of this year. They do not yet have data analysis features that are fully integrated, but they do have stand-alone packages that have been written at SLAC. When they first started tinkering with ECDS there was no intention of developing a complete system, but they now have all the elements of such a system - SIMS, the SLAC Industrial Measurement System

  12. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, William

    2014-01-01

    With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.

  13. Sustainable Food Security Measurement: A Systemic Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findiastuti, W.; Singgih, M. L.; Anityasari, M.

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable food security measures how a region provides food for its people without endangered the environment. In Indonesia, it was legally measured in Food Security and Vulnerability (FSVA). However, regard to sustainable food security policy, the measurement has not encompassed the environmental aspect. This will lead to lack of environmental aspect information for adjusting the next strategy. This study aimed to assess Sustainable Food security by encompassing both food security and environment aspect using systemic eco-efficiency. Given existing indicator of cereal production level, total emission as environment indicator was generated by constructing Causal Loop Diagram (CLD). Then, a stock-flow diagram was used to develop systemic simulation model. This model was demonstrated for Indonesian five provinces. The result showed there was difference between food security order with and without environmental aspect assessment.

  14. Improvement of Ultrasonic Distance Measuring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly introduces a kind of ultrasonic distance measuring system with AT89C51 single chip as the core component. The paper expounds the principle of ultrasonic sensor and ultrasonic ranging, hardware circuit and software program, and the results of experiment and analysis.The hardware circuit based on SCM, the software design adopts the advanced microcontroller programming language.The amplitude of the received signal and the time of ultrasonic propagation are regulated by closed loop control. [1,2]The double closed loop control technology for amplitude and time improves the measuring accuracy of the instrument. The experimental results show that greatly improves the measurement accuracy of the system.

  15. An Optimal Cure Process to Minimize Residual Void and Optical Birefringence for a LED Silicone Encapsulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jae Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicone resin has recently attracted great attention as a high-power Light Emitting Diode (LED encapsulant material due to its good thermal stability and optical properties. In general, the abrupt curing reaction of the silicone resin for the LED encapsulant during the curing process induces reduction in the mechanical and optical properties of the LED product due to the generation of residual void and moisture, birefringence, and residual stress in the final formation. In order to prevent such an abrupt curing reaction, the reduction of residual void and birefringence of the silicone resin was observed through experimentation by introducing the multi-step cure processes, while the residual stress was calculated by conducting finite element analysis that coupled the heat of cure reaction and cure shrinkage. The results of experiment and analysis showed that it was during the three-step curing process that the residual void, birefringence, and residual stress reduced the most in similar tendency. Through such experimentation and finite element analysis, the study was able to confirm that the optimization of the LED encapsulant packaging process was possible.

  16. Characteristics of Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fiber with Defected Core and Equilateral Pentagon Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel high birefringence and nearly zero dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber (PCF with elliptical defected core (E-DC and equilateral pentagonal architecture is designed. By applying the full-vector finite element method (FEM, the characteristics of electric field distribution, birefringence, and chromatic dispersion of the proposed E-DC PCF are numerically investigated in detail. The simulation results reveal that the proposed PCF can realize high birefringence, ranging from 10-3 to 10-2 orders of magnitude, owing to the embedded elliptical air hole in the core center. However, the existence of the elliptical air hole gives rise to an extraordinary electric field distribution, where a V-shaped notch appears and the size of the V-shaped notch varies at different operating wavelengths. Also, the mode field diameter is estimated to be about 2 μm, which implies the small effective mode area and highly nonlinear coefficient. Furthermore, the investigation of the chromatic dispersion characteristic shows that the introduction of the elliptical air hole is helpful to control the chromatic dispersion to be negative or nearly zero flattened over a wide wavelength bandwidth.

  17. Birefringence induced by pp-wave modes in an electromagnetically active dynamic aether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpin, Timur Yu.; Balakin, Alexander B.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory we study the birefringence effect, which can occur in the pp-wave symmetric dynamic aether. The dynamic aether is considered to be a latently birefringent quasi-medium, which displays this hidden property if and only if the aether motion is non-uniform, i.e., when the aether flow is characterized by the non-vanishing expansion, shear, vorticity or acceleration. In accordance with the dynamo-optical scheme of description of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the dynamic aether, we shall model the susceptibility tensors by the terms linear in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector. When the pp-wave modes appear in the dynamic aether, we deal with a gravitationally induced degeneracy removal with respect to hidden susceptibility parameters. As a consequence, the phase velocities of electromagnetic waves possessing orthogonal polarizations do not coincide, thus displaying the birefringence effect. Two electromagnetic field configurations are studied in detail: longitudinal and transversal with respect to the aether pp-wave front. For both cases the solutions are found, which reveal anomalies in the electromagnetic response on the action of the pp-wave aether mode. (orig.)

  18. Electric field-induced transient birefringence and light scattering of synthetic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharian, N; Schelly, Z A

    1999-05-12

    The dynamics of electric field-induced transient birefringence Deltan(t) and light scattering (detected as turbidity) of 190 nm diameter unilamellar vesicles of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine are investigated as a function of applied field strength E, length of the square pulse Deltat, lipid concentration, mean hydrodynamic diameter , ionic strength, and temperature. Generally, induced birefringence exclusively is observed at low lipid concentration and below certain threshold values of E and Deltat, whereas concomitant induced turbidity appears at high lipid concentration and above thresholds values of E and Deltat. Turbidity is monitored through the change in transmitted intensity DeltaS parallel(t) and DeltaS perpendicular(t) of light polarized parallel and perpendicular to the applied field E. The field-induced structural changes are reflected in double-exponential forward relaxation and triple-exponential reverse relaxation of the positive birefringence, and in non-exponential relaxations of DeltaS parallel (t) and DeltaS perpendicular(t). Under the field, the associated physical events are interpreted as elongation of the spherical bilayer shells in the direction of E, linear chain formation (pearling) of the induced dipolar liposomes parallel to E, and partial fusion of adjoining vesicles within the chains. Under conditions where electroporation can be detected, pore opening succeeds the elongation of the vesicles. After termination of the field, the vesicles return to their original time average spherical shape, the oriented chains randomize and disintegrate, and the fused structures are converted either to unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles.

  19. Birefringence induced by pp-wave modes in an electromagnetically active dynamic aether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpin, Timur Yu.; Balakin, Alexander B. [Kazan Federal University, Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory we study the birefringence effect, which can occur in the pp-wave symmetric dynamic aether. The dynamic aether is considered to be a latently birefringent quasi-medium, which displays this hidden property if and only if the aether motion is non-uniform, i.e., when the aether flow is characterized by the non-vanishing expansion, shear, vorticity or acceleration. In accordance with the dynamo-optical scheme of description of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the dynamic aether, we shall model the susceptibility tensors by the terms linear in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector. When the pp-wave modes appear in the dynamic aether, we deal with a gravitationally induced degeneracy removal with respect to hidden susceptibility parameters. As a consequence, the phase velocities of electromagnetic waves possessing orthogonal polarizations do not coincide, thus displaying the birefringence effect. Two electromagnetic field configurations are studied in detail: longitudinal and transversal with respect to the aether pp-wave front. For both cases the solutions are found, which reveal anomalies in the electromagnetic response on the action of the pp-wave aether mode. (orig.)

  20. Multi-scale biomedical systems: measurement challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale biomedical systems are those that represent interactions in materials, sensors, and systems from a holistic perspective. It is possible to view such multi-scale activity using measurement of spatial scale or time scale, though in this paper only the former is considered. The biomedical application paradigm comprises interactions that range from quantum biological phenomena at scales of 10-12 for one individual to epidemiological studies of disease spread in populations that in a pandemic lead to measurement at a scale of 10+7. It is clear that there are measurement challenges at either end of this spatial scale, but those challenges that relate to the use of new technologies that deal with big data and health service delivery at the point of care are also considered. The measurement challenges lead to the use, in many cases, of model-based measurement and the adoption of virtual engineering. It is these measurement challenges that will be uncovered in this paper. (paper)

  1. System for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, V.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers, comprising: a set of containers adapted for receiving aqueous solutions of biological samples containing biopolymers which are subsequently precipitated in said containers on particles of diatomite in the presence of a coprecipitator, then filtered, dissolved, and mixed with a scintillator; radioactivity measuring means including a detection chamber to which is fed the mixture produced in said set of containers; an electric drive for moving said set of containers in a stepwise manner; means for proportional feeding of said coprecipitator and a suspension of diatomite in an acid solution to said containers which contain the biological sample for forming an acid precipitation of biopolymers; means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers; precipitated biopolymer filtering means for successively filtering the precipitate, suspending the precipitate, dissolving the biopolymers mixed with said scintillator for feeding of the mixture to said detection chamber; a system of pipelines interconnecting said above-recited means; and said means for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers including, a measuring cell arranged in a detection chamber and communicating with said means for filtering precipitated biopolymers through one pipeline of said system of pipelines; a program unit electrically connected to said electric drive, said means for acid precipatation of biopolymers, said means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers, said filtering means, and said radioactivity measuring device; said program unit adapted to periodically switch on and off the above-recited means and check the sequence of the radioactivity measuring operations; and a control unit for controlling the initiation of the system and for selecting programs

  2. Fully automated system for pulsed NMR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A system is described which places many of the complex, tedious operations for pulsed NMR experiments under computer control. It automatically optimizes the experiment parameters of pulse length and phase, and precision, accuracy, and measurement speed are improved. The hardware interface between the computer and the NMR instrument is described. Design features, justification of the choices made between alternative design strategies, and details of the implementation of design goals are presented. Software features common to all the available experiments are discussed. Optimization of pulse lengths and phases is performed via a sequential search technique called Uniplex. Measurements of the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times and of diffusion constants are automatic. Options for expansion of the system are explored along with some of the limitations of the system

  3. Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN

    2012-07-10

    A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

  4. Measuring the Balance Control System – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Jančová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Past studies of postural control during standing have employed wide range of procedures including the outcome measures use to quantify postural control, the duration of the sample collected, sampling frequency and methods for data processing. Due to these differences there remains little, if any, common grounds for comparisons between studies to establish a concrete understanding of the features and bouns which characterize normal healthy postural control. This article deals with terms such as reliability and repeatability of stabilometric measurements, stabilometric data quantification and analysis. To clear up those terms is suggested, by the author of this paper, very important. The stabilometric measurements remain, nevertheless, different when dealing with aging adults. Though, we notes some alterations of the aging systems, this article is not entirely dedicated to the seniors population. Measurements of COP and technical notes remain the main axis of present paper.

  5. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  6. Slot Antenna for Wireless Temperature Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43......% fractional bandwidth at the 2.4 GHz ISM-band. The slot antenna has been optimized for excitation by a passive chip soldered onto it. Measurement results are compared with simulation results and show good agreements....

  7. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio...... composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  8. Influence of the optical fiber type on the performances of fiber-optics current sensor dedicated to plasma current measurement in ITER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerssens, Matthieu; Descamps, Frédéric; Gusarov, Andrei; Mégret, Patrice; Moreau, Philippe; Wuilpart, Marc

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we compare, by means of simulations using the Jones formalism, the performances of several optical fiber types (low birefringence and spun fibers) for the measurement of plasma current in international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The main results presented in this paper concern the minimum value of the ratio between the beat length and the spun period, which allows meeting the ITER current measurement specifications. Assuming a high-birefringence spun fiber with a beat length of 3 mm, we demonstrate that the minimum ratio between the beat length and the spun period is 4.4 when considering a 28 m long sensing fiber surrounding the vacuum vessel. This minimum ratio rises to 10.14 when a 100 m long lead fiber connecting the interrogating system to the sensing fiber is taken into account.

  9. MEMS based Doppler velocity measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Minchul

    The design, fabrication, modeling and characterization of a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) based in-air Doppler velocity measurement system using a 1 cm2 planar array are described. Continuous wave operation in a narrowband was chosen in order to maximize range, as it allows for better rejection of broadband noise. The sensor array has a 160-185 kHz resonant frequency to achieve a 10 degree beamwidth. A model for the cMUT and the acoustic system which includes electrical, mechanical, and acoustic components is provided. Furthermore, characterization of the cMUT sensor with a variety of testing procedures is provided. Laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), beampattern, reflection, and velocity testing characterize the performance of the sensors. The sensor is capable of measuring the velocity of a moving specular reflector with a resolution of 5 cm/s, an update rate of 0.016 second, and a range of 1.5 m.

  10. Vacuum measuring system for channel electron multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, A.; Ritzinger, W.

    1982-03-01

    A system in which channel electron multipliers can be calibrated to be used as detectors of electrons or protons in space is described. The system consists of an electron gun built in a vacuum chamber and equipped with a control Faraday cup and a high impedance electrometer to measure electron fluxes. It contains an electron flux control with buffer amplifier, a proportional integration differentiation regulation unit, and a heating current power regulation. Detection efficiency dependency on the energy of the incident particles, the saturation that yields decreasing count rates at continuously increasing particle flux, or the statistical pulse height distribution giving information about well or restrictedly usuable multipliers can be measured. The optimum supply voltage of the multipliers at which small fluctuations do not cause any changes of the pulse height distribution, and the function count rates vs. supply voltage for selecting good or poor multipliers can also be determined.

  11. Measuring cell identity in noisy biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Kenneth D.; Kussell, Edo

    2011-01-01

    Global gene expression measurements are increasingly obtained as a function of cell type, spatial position within a tissue and other biologically meaningful coordinates. Such data should enable quantitative analysis of the cell-type specificity of gene expression, but such analyses can often be confounded by the presence of noise. We introduce a specificity measure Spec that quantifies the information in a gene's complete expression profile regarding any given cell type, and an uncertainty measure dSpec, which measures the effect of noise on specificity. Using global gene expression data from the mouse brain, plant root and human white blood cells, we show that Spec identifies genes with variable expression levels that are nonetheless highly specific of particular cell types. When samples from different individuals are used, dSpec measures genes’ transcriptional plasticity in each cell type. Our approach is broadly applicable to mapped gene expression measurements in stem cell biology, developmental biology, cancer biology and biomarker identification. As an example of such applications, we show that Spec identifies a new class of biomarkers, which exhibit variable expression without compromising specificity. The approach provides a unifying theoretical framework for quantifying specificity in the presence of noise, which is widely applicable across diverse biological systems. PMID:21803789

  12. Space Acceleration Measurement System-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS-II) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  13. Designing an accurate system for temperature measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochan Orest

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of compensation of changes in temperature field along the legs of inhomogeneous thermocouple, which measures a temperature of an object, is considered in this paper. This compensation is achieved by stabilization of the temperature field along the thermocouple. Such stabilization does not allow the error due to acquired thermoelectric inhomogeneity to manifest itself. There is also proposed the design of the furnace to stabilize temperature field along the legs of the thermocouple which measures the temperature of an object. This furnace is not integrated with the thermocouple mentioned above, therefore it is possible to replace this thermocouple with a new one when it get its legs considerably inhomogeneous.. There is designed the two loop measuring system with the ability of error correction which can use simultaneously a usual thermocouple as well as a thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field. The latter can be used as a reference sensor for the former.

  14. Birefringence of Cellotape: Jones Representation and Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belendez, Augusto; Fernandez, Elena; Frances, Jorge; Neipp, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse a simple experiment to study the effects of polarized light. A simple optical system composed of a polarizer, a retarder (cellotape) and an analyser is used to study the effect on the polarization state of the light which impinges on the setup. The optical system is characterized by means of a Jones matrix, and a simple…

  15. Contribution of counterions and degree of ionization for birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics parameters of PAH/PAZO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, Maria, E-mail: mfr@fct.unl.pt; Monteiro Timóteo, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Paulo A. [CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNL, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ferreira, Quirina [CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNL, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Telecomunicações, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Botelho do Rego, Ana Maria [Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-09-21

    Photo induced birefringent materials can be used to develop optical and conversion energy devices, and consequently, the study of the variables that influences the creation and relaxation of birefringence should be carefully analyzed. In this work, the parameters of birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics curves obtained on layer-by-layer (LBL) films, prepared from azo-polyectrolyte poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4 hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride)(PAH), are related with the presence of counterions and the degree of ionization of the polyelectrolytes. Those kinetics curves obtained on PAH/PAZO LBL films, prepared from PAH solutions with different pHs and maintaining the pH of PAZO solution constant at pH = 9, were analyzed taking into account the films composition which was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The creation and relaxation birefringence curves are justified by two processes: one associated to local mobility of the azobenzene with a characteristic time 30 s and intensity constant and other associated with polymeric chains mobility with the characteristic time and intensity decreasing with pH. These results allow us to conclude that the birefringence creation process, associated to local mobility of azobenzenes is independent of the degree of ionization and of number of counterions or co-ions present while the birefringence creation process associated to mobility of chains have its characteristic time and intensity dependent of both degree of ionization and number of counterions. The birefringence relaxation processes are dependent of the degree of ionization. The analysis of the films composition revealed, in addition, the presence of a protonated secondary or tertiary amine revealing that PAZO may have positive charges and consequently a zwitterionic behavior.

  16. Nuclear instrumentation for the industrial measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with nuclear instrumentation and its application to industry, power plant fuel reprocessing plant and finally with homeland security. The first part concerns the reactor instrumentation, in-core and ex-core measurement system. Ionization Uranium fission chamber will be introduced with their acquisition system especially Campbell mode system. Some progress have been done on regarding sensors failure foresee. The second part of this work deals with reprocessing plant and associated instrumentation for nuclear waste management. Proportional counters techniques will be discussed, especially Helium-3 counter, and new development on electronic concept for reprocessing nuclear waste plant (one electronic for multipurpose acquisition system). For nuclear safety and security for human and homeland will be introduce. First we will explain a new particular approach on operational dosimetric measurement and secondly, we will show new kind of organic scintillator material and associated electronics. Signal treatment with real time treatment is embedded, in order to make neutron gamma discrimination possible even in solid organic scintillator. Finally, the conclusion will point out future, with most trends in research and development on nuclear instrumentation for next years. (author) [fr

  17. Detecting central fixation by means of artificial neural networks in a pediatric vision screener using retinal birefringence scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I

    2017-04-27

    Reliable detection of central fixation and eye alignment is essential in the diagnosis of amblyopia ("lazy eye"), which can lead to blindness. Our lab has developed and reported earlier a pediatric vision screener that performs scanning of the retina around the fovea and analyzes changes in the polarization state of light as the scan progresses. Depending on the direction of gaze and the instrument design, the screener produces several signal frequencies that can be utilized in the detection of central fixation. The objective of this study was to compare artificial neural networks with classical statistical methods, with respect to their ability to detect central fixation reliably. A classical feedforward, pattern recognition, two-layer neural network architecture was used, consisting of one hidden layer and one output layer. The network has four inputs, representing normalized spectral powers at four signal frequencies generated during retinal birefringence scanning. The hidden layer contains four neurons. The output suggests presence or absence of central fixation. Backpropagation was used to train the network, using the gradient descent algorithm and the cross-entropy error as the performance function. The network was trained, validated and tested on a set of controlled calibration data obtained from 600 measurements from ten eyes in a previous study, and was additionally tested on a clinical set of 78 eyes, independently diagnosed by an ophthalmologist. In the first part of this study, a neural network was designed around the calibration set. With a proper architecture and training, the network provided performance that was comparable to classical statistical methods, allowing perfect separation between the central and paracentral fixation data, with both the sensitivity and the specificity of the instrument being 100%. In the second part of the study, the neural network was applied to the clinical data. It allowed reliable separation between normal subjects

  18. Improvement an enterprises marketing performance measurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Business conditions in which modern enterprises do business are more and more complex. The complexity of the business environment is caused by activities of external and internal factors, which imposes the need for the turn in management focus. One of key turns is related to the need of adaptation and development of new business performance evaluation systems. The evaluation of marketing contribution to business performance is very important however a complex task as well. The marketing theory and practice indicates the need for developing adequate standards and systems for evaluating the efficiency of marketing decisions. The better understanding of marketing standards and ways that managers use is a very important factor that affects the efficiency of strategic decision-making. The paper presents the results of researching the way in which managers perceive and apply marketing performance measures. The data that were received through the field research sample enabled the consideration of the managers' attitudes on practical ways of implementing marketing performance measurement and identifying measures that managers imply as used mostly in business practice.

  19. Multiphase magnetic systems: Measurement and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Ahmadzadeh, Mostafa; Xu, Ke; Dodrill, Brad; McCloy, John S.

    2018-01-01

    Multiphase magnetic systems are common in nature and are increasingly being recognized in technical applications. One characterization method which has shown great promise for determining separate and collective effects of multiphase magnetic systems is first order reversal curves (FORCs). Several examples are given of FORC patterns which provide distinguishing evidence of multiple phases. In parallel, a visualization method for understanding multiphase magnetic interaction is given, which allocates Preisach magnetic elements as an input "Preisach hysteron distribution pattern" to enable simulation of different "wasp-waisted" magnetic behaviors. These simulated systems allow reproduction of different major hysteresis loops and FORC patterns of real systems and parameterized theoretical systems. The experimental FORC measurements and FORC diagrams of four commercially obtained magnetic materials, particularly those sold as nanopowders, show that these materials are often not phase pure. They exhibit complex hysteresis behaviors that are not predictable based on relative phase fraction obtained by characterization methods such as diffraction. These multiphase materials, consisting of various fractions of BaFe12O19, ɛ-Fe2O3, and γ-Fe2O3, are discussed.

  20. Automatic radiation measuring system connected with GPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    The most serious nuclear disaster in Japan has broken out at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to Great East Japan Earthquake. Prompt and exact mapping of the contamination is of great importance for radiation protection and for the environment restoration. We have developed radiation survey systems KURAMA and KURAMA-2 for rapid and exact measurement of radiation dose distribution. The system is composed of a mobile radiation monitor and the computer in office which is for the storage and visualization of the data. They are connected with internet and are operated for continuous radiation measurement while the monitor is moving. The mobile part consists of a survey meter, an interface to transform the output of the survey meter for the computer, a global positioning system, a computer to process the data for connecting to the network, and a mobile router. Thus they are effective for rapid mapping of the surface contamination. The operation and the performance of the equipment at the site are presented. (J.P.N.)

  1. EAST machine assembly and its measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    The EAST (HT-7U) superconducting tokamak consists of a superconducting poloidal field magnet system, a toroidal field magnet system, a vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, thermal shields and a cryostat vessel. The main parts of the machine have been delivered to ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) successionally from 2003. For its complicated constitution and precise requirement, a reasonable assembly procedure and measurement technique should be defined carefully. Before the assembly procedure, a reference frame has been set up with reference fiducial targets on the wall of the test hall by an industrial measurement system. After the torus of TF coils is formed, a new reference frame will be set up from the position of the TF torus. The vacuum vessel with all inner parts will be installed with reference of the new reference frame. The big size and mass of components, special configuration of the superconducting machine with tight installation tolerances of the HT-7U (EAST) machine result in complicated assembly procedure. The procedure had begun with the installation of the support frame and the base of cryostat vessel last year. In this paper, the requirements of the assembly precise for some key components of the machine are described. The reference frame for the assembly and maintenance is explained. The assembly procedure is introduced

  2. Measurements of system sharpness for two digital breast tomosynthesis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N. W.; Bosmans, H.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work was to propose system sharpness parameters for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems that include the influence of focus size and focus motion for use in quality assurance protocols. X-ray focus size was measured using a multiple pinhole test object, while detector presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured from projection images of a 10 cm × 10 cm, 1 mm thick steel edge, for the Siemens Inspiration and Hologic Selenia Dimensions DBT systems. The height of the edge above the table was then varied from 1 to 78 mm. The MTF expected from theory for the projection images was calculated from the measured detector MTF, focus size MTF and focus motion MTF and was compared against measured curves. Two methods were used to measure the in-plane MTF in the DBT volume: a tungsten wire of diameter 25 µm and an Al edge 0.2 mm thick, both imaged with a 15 mm thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plate. The in-depth point spread function (PSF) was measured using an angled tungsten wire. The full 3D MTF was estimated with a 0.5 mm diameter aluminium bead held in a 45 mm thick PMMA phantom, with the bead 15 and 65 mm above the table. Inspiration DBT projection images are saved at native detector resolution (85 µm), while the Dimensions re-bins projections to 140 µm pixels (2 × 2 binning); both systems used 2 × 2 binning of projection data before reconstruction. The 50% point for the MTF (MTF0.50) measured in the DBT projection images for the tube-travel direction fell as a function of height above the table from 3.60 to 0.90 mm-1 for the Inspiration system and from 2.50 to 1.20 mm-1 for the Dimensions unit. The maximum deviation of measured MTF0.50 from the calculated value was 13%. MTF0.50 measured in-plane (tube-travel direction) fell as a function of height above the table from 1.66 to 0.97 mm-1 for the Inspiration system and from 2.21 to 1.31 mm-1 for the Dimensions system. The full-width half-maximum for the in-depth PSF was 3

  3. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor- capacit or circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequenci es correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induc tion. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic fi eld used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for disce rning changes in sensor's response frequency, resistance and amplitud e is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminat ing the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each se nsor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to a ny form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  4. Transmission Quality Measurements in DAB+ Broadcast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilski Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital media, delivering broadcast content to customers at an acceptable level of quality is one of the most challenging tasks. The most important factor is the efficient use of available resources, including bandwidth. An appropriate way of managing the digital multiplex is essential for both the economic and technical issues. In this paper we describe transmission quality measurements in the DAB+ broadcast system. We provide a methodology for analysing parameters and factors related with the efficiency and reliability of a digital radio link. We describe a laboratory stand that can be used for transmission quality assessment on a regional and national level.

  5. Interactive measurement system for medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsuka, T.; Kubo, T.

    1980-01-01

    The information obtained by quantitative reading of medical pictures is very effective for diagnosis. However, high level tasks such as pattern recognition are difficult to be automated completely, hence an interactive system is a viable and economical alternative. The physician traces the contour of the object of interest using a graphics pen attached to a tablet digitizer. From these digitized contours, the computer calculates the area, length, number of objects, etc., and extracts shape features. The system comprises a mini-computer, a graphic tablet and a graphic display. At present it is possible to perform the following tasks interactively: pelvimetry with the help of radiographs, measurement of the dimensions of microorgans, estimation of cardiac parameters from ECG, etc. (Auth.)

  6. Material permeance measurement system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-05-08

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  7. Dual-goniometer system for channeling measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, M.; Hellborg, R.

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes a two-goniometer system for obtaining azimuthally averaged measurements in channeling experiments. The system consists of a tri-axial master goniometer and a bi-axial goniometer. Both goniometers are controlled by stepping motors. The alignment goniometer has a target holder, which permits the beam spot to be placed anywhere in a 6 x 6 mm 2 square on the target crystal without loosing the target orientation. The design, construction and operation of the goniometers as well as stepping motor control units and programs for computer control of the goniometers are described. Two control programs cover orientation of the target crystal and a number of other normal experimental conditions. (author)

  8. A no-moving-parts sensor for the detection of eye fixation using polarised light and retinal birefringence information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I; Guyton, David L

    2017-05-01

    Polarised near-infra-red light is reflected from the foveal area in a detectable bow-tie pattern of polarisation states, offering the opportunity for eye tracking. A coaxial optical transducer was developed, consisting of a laser diode, a polariser, a filter, and a photodetector. Several such transducers may be used to interrogate different spots on the retina, thus eliminating the requirement for scanning systems with moving parts. To test the signal quality obtainable, using just one transducer, a test subject was asked to fixate successively on twelve targets located on a circle around the transducer, to simulate the retina's being interrogated by twelve sensors placed on a 3 0 diameter circle surrounding the projection of the fovea. The resulting signal is close to the "ideal" sine wave that would have been recorded from a propeller-type birefringence pattern from a human fovea. The transducer can be used in the detection of fixation for medical and other purposes. It does not require calibration, strict restrictions on head position, or head-mounted appliances.

  9. Design of low-loss and highly birefringent hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Peter John; Williams, D.P.; Sabert, H.

    2006-01-01

    A practical hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design suitable for attaining low-loss propagation is analyzed. The geometry involves a number of localized elliptical features positioned on the glass ring that surrounds the air core and separates the core and cladding regions. The size of each...... feature is tuned so that the composite core-surround geometry is antiresonant within the cladding band gap, thus minimizing the guided mode field intensity both within the fiber material and at material / air interfaces. A birefringent design, which involves a 2-fold symmetric arrangement of the features...

  10. A Fibre Bragg Grating Interrogation Technique Based on High Birefringence Fibre Loop Mirror and WDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fibre Bragg grating (FBG interrogation technique based on high Birefringence fibre loop mirror (Hi-Bi FLM and wavelength division multiplexer (WDM is proposed and demonstrated. The approximate linear edge of the transmittance of the Hi-Bi FLM, which is a sinusoidal function of wavelength, is used to interrogate the sensing FBGs and WDMs is used to realize wavelength discrimination .Suitable for both static and dynamic sensing, this interrogation method has the advantages of all fibre design and high stability.

  11. Pump Spectral Bandwidth, Birefringence, and Entanglement in Type-II Parametric Down Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Erenso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The twin photons produced by a type-II spontaneous parametric down conversion are well know as a potential source of photons for quantum teleportation due to the strong entanglement in polarization. This strong entanglement in polarization, however, depends on the spectral composition of the pump photon and the nature of optical isotropy of the crystal. By exact numerical calculation of the concurrence, we have shown that how pump photons spectral width and the birefringence nature of the crystal directly affect the degree of polarization entanglement of the twin photons.

  12. Importance of Interfacial Interactions to Access Shear Elasticity of Liquids and Understand Flow Induced Birefringence from Liquid Crystals to Worm-Like Micellar Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noirez Laurence

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work points out the importance of the substrate boundary conditions to lower the dissipation in the dynamic measurement and access the closest dynamic characteristics of liquids, in particular to access the low frequency shear elasticity. The liquid/surface interface is a source of dissipation that enters and impacts the measurement. Examples of steady-state shear flows or flow birefringence are presented to highlight the non-universality of the behavior with respect to the nature of the substrate or the sheared thickness. Additionally the present development completes and extends the identification of low frequency shear elasticity made at sub-millimeter gaps in various one-component liquids to salt-free aqueous solutions (CTAB-water (Hexadecyl-TrimethylAmmonium Bromide.

  13. Measurement and control systems using nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jose Altino Tupinamba; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2007-01-01

    Non-destructive Assay is applied to machines and components quality tests. These elements would not have a good performance if they were conceived without concern about the mechanical project quality, used materials, manufacture processes and inspection and maintenance methodology. In this work, a measure and control system of non destructive processes was developed, using a radioactive source with a defined energy in function of the material to be analyzed. This system involves: interface of input/output (I/O) (hardware) and graphical interface (software). In the non destructive analysis, it is made the comparison of the signal proceeding from the sensor with a signal preset (set point) or analogical signal of reference (Base Line), which is adjusted in the I/O interface. Analyzed the signal, the system will make the decision: to reject or to accept the analyzed material. The I/O interface is implemented by electronic equipment with a MCS51. The purpose of this interface is to supply conditions to exchange information, using serial RS232, between the sensor and the microcomputer. The graphical interface (software) is written in visual C++ language. (author)

  14. Photoinduced Birefringent Pattern and Photoinactivation of Liquid-Crystalline Copolymer Films with Benzoic Acid and Phenylaldehyde Side Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Inada, Shogo; Fujii, Ryosuke; Kondo, Mizuho

    2018-02-06

    In situ formation of N-benzylideneaniline (NBA) side groups achieved photoinduced cooperative reorientation of photoinactive copolymers with phenylaldehyde (PA) and benzoic acid (BA) side groups doped with 4-methoxyaniline (AN) molecules. Thermally stimulated molecular reorientation of the side groups was generated due to the axis-selective photoreaction of the NBA moieties. Selective coating with AN on the copolymer film formed NBA moieties in the desired region, resulting in a photoinduced birefringent pattern. Additionally, postannealing at an elevated temperature for a long time attained photoinactivation of the reoriented film, and recoating with AN to form NBA achieved the multiple birefringent patterns and repatterning of the reoriented structures. The slow thermal hydrolysis of NBA, which was 50 times slower than the thermally stimulated self-organization of the side groups due to the presence of BA side groups, contributed to the photodurability of the reoriented film and multiple birefringent patterns.

  15. High birefringence and near-zero dispersion photonic crystal fiber at the wavelength of 1.55μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Wu, Limin; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) which consists of squeezed triangle lattice and elliptical air holes. Birefringence and dispersion properties of this PCF have been numerically estimated by the supercell lattice method. Numerical results show that the birefringence is on the order of 10-2 over ultrabroad wavelength rang from1.3μm to 1.7μm and birefringence can be reached 1.71×10-2 at the operating wavelength of 1.55μm. It is also demonstrated that two near-zero dispersion of -1.75(ps/nm/km) (x-polarized mode) and-0.33(ps/nm/km) (y-polarized mode) at 1.55μm can be achieved. Morever, the fluctuations of the dispersion with fiber parameters are very small. The simulation results show that our proposed PCF are robust to fabrication imperfections.

  16. CAMEX-3 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) aboard the NASA DC-8 consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air velocity with...

  17. NAMMA DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) dataset used the MMS, which consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air...

  18. CAMEX-4 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air velocity with respect to the aircraft,...

  19. CAMEX-4 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) was collected by the MMS, which consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air...

  20. Hydrostatic levelling systems: Measuring at the system limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Edi; Geiger, Alain; Ingensand, Hilmar; Licht, Hans; Limpach, Philippe; Steiger, Andreas; Zwyssig, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Three hydrostatic displacement monitoring system applications in Switzerland are discussed; the first concerns experience gained monitoring the foundation of the Albigna dam, the second relating to the underground stability of the Swiss Light Source synchrotron and the third concerning the deformation of a bridge near the city of Lucerne. Two different principles were applied, the Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) using the “half-filled pipe principle” developed by the Paul Scherrer Institute and the Large Area Settlement System (LAS) using the “differential pressure principle”. With both systems ground deformations induced by tidal forces can be seen. However, high accuracy of single sensors is not sufficient. A well-designed configuration of the complete system is equally important. On the other hand there are also limits imposed by installation logistics and by the environmental conditions. An example is the bridge monitoring application, where the acceleration along the bridge due to the passage of heavy trucks limits the feasibility of using hydrostatic levelling measurements.

  1. Vacuum birefringence and the x-ray polarization from black-hole accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Ilaria; Heyl, Jeremy

    2018-04-01

    In the next decade, x-ray polarimetry will open a new window on the high-energy Universe, as several missions that include an x-ray polarimeter are currently under development. Observations of the polarization of x rays coming from the accretion disks of stellar-mass and supermassive black holes are among the new polarimeters' major objectives. In this paper, we show that these observations can be affected by the quantum electrodynamic (QED) effect of vacuum birefringence: after an x-ray photon is emitted from the accretion disk, its polarization changes as the photon travels through the accretion disk's magnetosphere, as a result of the vacuum becoming birefringent in the presence of a magnetic field. We show that this effect can be important for black holes in the energy band of the upcoming polarimeters and has to be taken into account in a complete model of the x-ray polarization that we expect to detect from black-hole accretion disks, both for stellar mass and for supermassive black holes. We find that, for a chaotic magnetic field in the disk, QED can significantly decrease the linear polarization fraction of edge-on photons, depending on the spin of the hole and on the strength of the magnetic field. This effect can provide, for the first time, a direct way to probe the magnetic field strength close to the innermost stable orbit of black-hole accretion disks and to study the role of magnetic fields in astrophysical accretion in general.

  2. Infrared birefringence imaging of residual stress and bulk defects in multicrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapati, Vidya; Schoenfelder, Stephan; Castellanos, Sergio; Oener, Sebastian; Koepge, Ringo; Sampson, Aaron; Marcus, Matthew A.; Lai, Barry; Morhenn, Humphrey; Hahn, Giso; Bagdahn, Joerg; Buonassisi1, Tonio

    2010-05-05

    This manuscript concerns the application of infrared birefringence imaging (IBI) to quantify macroscopic and microscopic internal stresses in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cell materials. We review progress to date, and advance four closely related topics. (1) We present a method to decouple macroscopic thermally-induced residual stresses and microscopic bulk defect related stresses. In contrast to previous reports, thermally-induced residual stresses in wafer-sized samples are generally found to be less than 5 MPa, while defect-related stresses can be several times larger. (2) We describe the unique IR birefringence signatures, including stress magnitudes and directions, of common microdefects in mc-Si solar cell materials including: {beta}-SiC and {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} microdefects, twin bands, nontwin grain boundaries, and dislocation bands. In certain defects, local stresses up to 40 MPa can be present. (3) We relate observed stresses to other topics of interest in solar cell manufacturing, including transition metal precipitation, wafer mechanical strength, and minority carrier lifetime. (4) We discuss the potential of IBI as a quality-control technique in industrial solar cell manufacturing.

  3. Polarization Converter with Controllable Birefringence Based on Hybrid All-Dielectric-Graphene Metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owiti, Edgar O.; Yang, Hanning; Liu, Peng; Ominde, Calvine F.; Sun, Xiudong

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies on hybrid dielectric-graphene metasurfaces have been used to implement induced transparency devices, while exhibiting high Q-factors based on trapped magnetic resonances. Typically, the transparency windows are single wavelength and less appropriate for polarization conversion structures. In this work, a quarter-wave plate based on a hybrid silicon-graphene metasurface with controllable birefringence is numerically designed. The phenomena of trapped magnetic mode resonance and high Q-factors are modulated by inserting graphene between silicon and silica. This results in a broader transmission wavelength in comparison to the all-dielectric structure without graphene. The birefringence tunability is based on the dimensions of silicon and the Fermi energy of graphene. Consequently, a linear-to-circular polarization conversion is achieved at a high degree of 96%, in the near-infrared. Moreover, the polarization state of the scattered light is switchable between right and left hand circular polarizations, based on an external gate biasing voltage. Unlike in plasmonic metasurfaces, these achievements demonstrate an efficient structure that is free from radiative and ohmic losses. Furthermore, the ultrathin thickness and the compactness of the structure are demonstrated as key components in realizing integrable and CMOS compatible photonic sensors.

  4. Approach of Measuring System Analyses for Automotive Part Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    S. Homrossukon; S. Sansureerungsigun

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to introduce an efficient and to standardize the measuring system analyses for automotive industrial. The study started by literature reviewing about the management and analyses measurement system. The approach of measuring system management, then, was constructed. Such approach was validated by collecting the current measuring system data using the equipments of interest including vernier caliper and micrometer. Their accuracy and precision of measurements were analyzed. Final...

  5. Performance Measurement Systems in Swedish Health Care Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kollberg, Beata

    2007-01-01

    In the quality management literature, measurements are attributed great importance in improving products and processes. Systems for performance measurement assessing financial and non-financial measurements were developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The research on performance measurement systems has mainly been focused on the design of different performance measurement systems. Many authors are occupied with the study of the constructs of measures and developing prescriptive models of...

  6. Calibration and Validation of Measurement System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Riemann, Sven; Knapp, Wilfried

    The report deals with the calibration of the measuring equipment on board the Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype.......The report deals with the calibration of the measuring equipment on board the Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype....

  7. Demodulation of DPSK signals up to 40 Gb/s using a highly birefringent photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Geng, Yan; Zsigri, Beata

    2006-01-01

    Phase-to-intensity modulation conversion of differential phase-shift keying signals is successfully demonstrated at 10 and 40 Gb/s using a polarization Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer implemented with only 2.4 m of a highly birefringent air-guiding photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber. Such a PBG fiber...

  8. Highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultra-flattened negative dispersion over S + C + L + U bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Khandker, Emran

    2015-01-01

    We present a new cladding design for photonic crystal fiber (PCF) on a decagonal structure to simultaneously achieve ultra-flattened large negative dispersion and ultrahigh birefringence. Numerical results confirm that the proposed PCFexhibits ultra-flattened large negative dispersion over the S ...

  9. Gas exchange measurements in natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    Direct knowledge of the rates of gas exchange in lakes and the ocean is based almost entirely on measurements of the isotopes 14 C, 222 Rn and 3 He. The distribution of natural radiocarbon has yielded the average rate of CO 2 exchange for the ocean and for several closed basin lakes. That of bomb produced radiocarbon has been used in the same systems. The 222 Rn to 226 Ra ratio in open ocean surface water has been used to give local short term gas exchange rates. The radon method generally cannot be used in lakes, rivers, estuaries or shelf areas because of the input of radon from sediments. A few attempts have been made to use the excess 3 He produced by decay of bomb produced tritium in lakes to give gas transfer rates. The uncertainty in the molecular diffusivity of helium and in the diffusivity dependence of the rate of gas transfer holds back the application of this method. A few attempts have been made to enrich the surface waters of small lakes with 226 Ra and 3 H in order to allow the use of the 222 Rn and 3 He methods. While these studies give broadly concordant results, many questions remain unanswered. The wind velocity dependence of gas exchange rate has yet to be established in field studies. The dependence of gas exchange rate on molecular diffusivity also remains in limbo. Finally, the degree of enhancement of CO 2 exchange through chemical reactions has been only partially explored. 49 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  10. Measuring Systems Interoperability: Challenges and Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasunic, Mark; Anderson, William

    2004-01-01

    Interoperability is the ability of systems, units, or forces to provide services to and accept services from other systems, units, or forces and to use the services exchanged to enable them to operate...

  11. GRIP DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP DC-8 Meteorological measurement System (MMS) dataset was collected by the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS), which provides high-resolution, accurate...

  12. Evidence of a circularly polarized light mode along the optic axis in c-cut NH4H2PO4, induced by circular differential reflection and anomalous birefringence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, Werner; Steininger, Steven; Herreros-Cedres, Javier; Glazer, Anthony Michael

    2010-01-01

    The anomalous birefringence and circular differential reflection of NH 4 H 2 PO 4 (4-bar2m), cut on the optic axis, have been found to cause an additional signal in measurements of the optical rotation employing polarized light technology, with the sample between crossed and slightly modulated linear polarizers (tilting high accuracy universal polarimetry). The azimuthal rotation of the linearly polarized light, up to 100 times larger than expected, is described in terms of a circularly polarized light mode along the optic axis of varying amplitude. Experimental evidence leading to our conclusion is given and a qualitative model for the effect is presented.

  13. Semiconductor optical amplifier direct modulation with double-stage birefringent fiber loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Thomas; Rizou, Zoe V.; Zoiros, Kyriakos E.; Morel, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The feasibility of cascading two birefringent fiber loops (BFLs) for directly modulating a conventional semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) at a faster data rate than that being possible by its limited electrical bandwidth is demonstrated for the first time. The experimental results reveal the improvements in the quality characteristics of the encoded signal compared to those achieved with a single-stage BFL. The observed trends are complemented by numerical simulations, which allow to investigate the impact of the double-stage BFL detuning and specify how this critical parameter must be selected for enhanced performance. Provided that it is properly tailored, the proposed optical notch filtering scheme efficiently compensates for the pattern-dependent SOA response and enables this element to be employed as intensity modulator with improved performance at enhanced data speeds.

  14. Optical Search for QED vacuum magnetic birefringence, Axions and photon Regeneration

    CERN Multimedia

    Pugnat, P; Hryczuk, A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Kral, M

    2007-01-01

    Since its prediction in 1936 by Euler, Heisenberg and Weisskopf in the earlier development of the Quantum Electrodynamic (QED) theory, the Vacuum Magnetic Birefringence (VMB) is still a challenge for optical metrology techniques. According to QED, the vacuum behaves as an optically active medium in the presence of an external magnetic field. It can be experimentally probed with a linearly polarized laser beam. After propagating through the vacuum submitted to a transverse magnetic field, the polarization of the laser beam will change to elliptical and the parameters of the polarization are directly related to fundamental constants such as the fine structure constant and the electron Compton wavelength. Contributions to the VMB could also arise from the existence of light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles like axions that couple to two photons and this would manifest itself as a sizeable deviation from the initial QED prediction. On one side, the interest in axion search, providing an answer to the strong-CP p...

  15. ARTICLES: Polarization effects in birefringent fiber waveguides with an elliptic borosilicate cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'yants, V. V.; Zalogin, A. N.; Ivanov, G. A.; Isaev, Victor A.; Kozel, S. M.; Listvin, V. N.; Chamorovskiĭ, Yu K.

    1986-10-01

    Single-mode fiber waveguides with an elliptic borosilicate cladding were developed and their polarization characteristics were studied. It was found that the mode birefringence was independent of the radiation frequency and varied linearly with the fiber waveguide temperature. The length of the beats was ~10 mm at λ = 0.85μ, whereas the dispersion of the polarization modes was 300 psec/km. The losses were 5-10 dB/km at λ = 0.85μ and the mode coupling parameter was h = 2×10-4m-1. A study was made of the possibility of using single-mode fiber waveguides for the depolarization of nonmonochromatic radiation and also as tunable delay lines.

  16. Polarization effects in birefringent fiber-optic waveguides with an elliptical borosilicate cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriants, V. V.; Zalogin, A. N.; Ivanov, G. A.; Isaev, V. A.; Kozel, S. M.

    1986-10-01

    Single-mode fiber-optic waveguides (SFW) with an elliptical borosilicate cladding are developed and their polarization characteristics are studied. It is shown that their mode birefringence, while independent of the radiation frequency, depends linearly on the SFW temperature. The beat length is about 10 mm at a wavelength of 0.85 micron and the dispersion of the polarization modes is about 300 ps/km. The losses amount to 5-10 dB/km at 0.85 micron and the mode coupling parameter is 0.0002/m. Consideration is given to the possibility of using SFW for the depolarization of nonmonochromatic radiation and as tunable delay lines.

  17. Constraints on direction-dependent cosmic birefringence from Planck polarization data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Dagoberto; Boubel, Paula; Scott, Douglas

    2017-12-01

    Cosmic birefringence is the process that rotates the plane of polarization by an amount, α, as photons propagate through free space. Such an effect arises in parity-violating extensions to the electromagnetic sector, such as the Chern-Simons term common in axion models, quintessence models, or Lorentz-violating extensions to the standard model. Most studies consider the monopole of this rotation, but it is also possible for the effect to have spatial anisotropies. Paying particular attention to large scales, we implement a novel pixel-based method to extract the spherical harmonics for L 30. Our results are consistent with no detection and we set 95 % upper limits on the amplitude of a scale-invariant power spectrum of L(L+1)CL/2π<[2.2 (stat.)±0.7 (syst.)]×10-5=[0.07 (stat.)±0.02 (syst.)] deg2, on par with previous constraints. This implies specific limits on the dipole and quadrupole amplitudes to be √C1/4π lesssim 0.o2 and √C2/4π lesssim 0.o1, at 95 % CL, respectively, improving previous constraints by an order of magnitude. We further constrain a model independent M=0 quadrupole in an arbitrary direction to be α20 = 0.o02 ± 0.o21, with an unconstrained direction. However, we find an excess of dipolar power with an amplitude √3C1/4π = 0.o32±0.o10 (stat.)±0.o08 (syst.)], in the direction (l,b)=(295o,17o)±(22o,17o) (stat.)±(5o,16o) (syst.), larger than 1.4 % of simulations with no birefringence. We attribute part of this signal to the contamination of residual foregrounds not accounted for in our simulations, although this should be further investigated.

  18. Highly sensitive straightness measurement system using a ball-lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minho; Yang, Hyun-Ik; Cho, Nahm-Gyoo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new and simple optical technique to accurately measure the straightness errors of a linear stage is proposed. To improve the performance, including the measurement sensitivity and resolution of the measurement system, and to simultaneously measure two-dimensional straightness errors (2D straightness errors), an optical system was designed using a laser, a retro-reflector, a ball-lens, and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (2D PSD). The characteristics of the measurement system were analytically and experimentally investigated. A prototype measurement system was manufactured based on the investigated results, and the performances of this system have been tested. The measuring performance of the system was easily improved by about 12 times using the proposed technique and it can be further improved. It is shown that the proposed technique can easily and effectively improve the performance of a conventional straightness measurement system based on the geometric optical method using a PSD. (paper)

  19. PLS beam position measurement and feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.Y.; Lee, J.; Park, M.K.; Kim, J.H.; Won, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    A real-time orbit correction system is proposed for the stabilization of beam orbit and photon beam positions in Pohang Light Source. PLS beam position monitoring system is designed to be VMEbus compatible to fit the real-time digital orbit feedback system. A VMEbus based subsystem control computer, Mil-1553B communication network and 12 BPM/PS machine interface units constitute digital part of the feedback system. With the super-stable PLS correction magnet power supply, power line frequency noise is almost filtered out and the dominant spectra of beam obtit fluctuations are expected to appear below 15 Hz. Using DSP board in SCC for the computation and using an appropriate compensation circuit for the phase delay by the vacuum chamber, PLS real-time orbit correction system is realizable without changing the basic structure of PLS computer control system. (author)

  20. Center of mass movement estimation using an ambulatory measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Buurke, Jaap; Veltink, Petrus H.; Bussmann, J.B.J; Horemans, H.L.D.; Hurkmans, H.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Human body movement analysis is done in so-called 'gait-laboratories' where several gait variables are estimated by measurement systems such as optical position measurement systems, EMG or force plates. The accuracy of the ambulatory system is verified by comparing it to an optical reference system

  1. Power system observability with minimum phasor measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The OPP methodologies applied include the system observablility during normal operating conditions, as well as during single branch forced outages. In order to improve the speed of convergence, an initial PMU placement is provided by graph-theoretic procedure. The IEEE 14-bus, 118-bus standard test power systems ...

  2. International Instructional Systems: How England Measures Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creese, Brian; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Although England was not included in the International Instructional Systems Study because it was not a high-performing jurisdiction by the Study's definition, contributors largely were England-based. Analysing the Study's nine overall aspects of instructional systems, this paper finds that England is out of step with many of the high-performing…

  3. Methods and systems for measuring anions

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad

    2016-08-18

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, systems for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, anion sensor systems, and the like.

  4. Analysis of reliability parameters for complicated information measurement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sydor, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    A method of analysis of reliability parameters for complicated systems by means of generating functions is developed taking account of aging of the systems output elements. Main reliability parameters of complicated information measurement systems are examined in this paper.

  5. NAMMA DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MMS consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air velocity with respect to the aircraft, an aircraft-motion sensing system to...

  6. Distributed Force and Moment Measurement System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The structural design of aircraft and their propulsion systems is a challenging task that requires accurate, flexible ground facilities capable of operating over the...

  7. Multichannel system for angular distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Putz, K.

    A description is given of the individual blocks of the spectrometric apparatus used for measuring the angular distribution of particle spectra and excitation functions of (d,p) reactions at an electrostatic accelerator and the U-120 M cyclotron, both operating at the Nuclear Physics Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences at Rez. Main attention was devoted to attaining maximum energy resolution at a high measurement efficiency, this by installing 8 independent spectrometric chains allowing simultaneous measurement of angular distribution in 8 points of the beam. The semiconductor detectors were cooled to -40 degC to -60 degC, which significantly reduced the level of inherent detector noise. An energy resolution of 13 keV was attained using Tesla detectors at a particle energy of 11 MeV. A brief review of data processing and software is given. (B.S.)

  8. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  9. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  10. Volatility Measurements Applied to Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    ABBREVIATIONS CAPM Capital Asset Pricing Model CCOP Cryptologic Carry-On Program CFO Chief Financial Officer CIO Chief Information Officer DCF Discounted...financial markets and the measurement of beta and its relation to volatility. The Capital Asset Pricing Model ( CAPM ) describes the risk and return

  11. Measures of Autonomic Nervous System Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Cortisol Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) Gastro- intestinal Pupillary Response Respiratory Salivary Amylase Vascular Manipulative Body-Based...Salivary Amylase Galvanic Skin Response Vascular Gastrointestinal The ANS Measures Table in Appendix A provides a summary of over fifty tools...Subject-to-subject repeatable results reported  Cronbach alpha exceeding 0.70 Validity was assessed by the tool’s ability to quantify the

  12. Creep measurements on curing epoxy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Charlotte; Szabo, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The chemical curing of a stoichiometric mixture of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and a 1,3-bis-(aminomethyl)-cyclohexane is studied.Creep experiments are combined with measurements in a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) to determine the change in bulk viscosity due to network formation....

  13. Weak measurements in non-Hermitian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, A.

    2012-11-01

    ‘Weak measurements’—involving a weak unitary interaction between a quantum system and a meter followed by a projective measurement—are investigated when the system has a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. We show in particular how the standard definition of the ‘weak value’ of an observable must be modified. These studies are undertaken in the context of bound-state scattering theory, a non-Hermitian formalism for which the involved Hilbert spaces are unambiguously defined and the metric operators can be explicitly computed. Numerical examples are given for a model system. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.

  14. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, B. S.; Ham, C. S.; Chung, C. E. and others

    2000-03-01

    This report contains descriptions on the following six items. The first item is the result of a study on CsI(TI) crystals with their light emitting characteristics and the result of a study on plastic scintillators. The second item is the result of a study on advanced radiation detectors and includes experiments for the effect of using a Compton suppressor with an HPGe detector. For the third item, we describe the results of a design work done using EGS4 for a thickness gauge, a density gauge, and a level gauge. The fourth item contains descriptions on the prototype circuit systems developed for a level gauge, a thickness gauge, and for a survey meter. The fifth part contains the computed tomography algorithm and a prototype scanning system developed for a CT system. As the sixth and the last item, we describe the prototype high precision heat source and the prototype heat-voltage converter which we have designed and fabricated.

  15. Dynamic Measurements of a Novel System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    In the PSO project 345-061, a novel system solution combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and thermally activated building systems (TABS) has been proposed for cooling and ventilation in Danish office buildings. Due to the application of diffuse ceiling inlet, cold outdoor air...... can be supplied into the room without any risk of draught even in the extreme winter. This means that natural ventilation is available even in winter and it is beneficial to reduce the energy consumption for buildings with cooling demand in cold seasons....

  16. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  17. The Strategic Systems Therapies: Measuring the Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, Michael

    As family therapy becomes a serious intellectual disipline, the relationships among its leading variations require closer examination. To examine similarities and differences among four closely related approaches (brief, problem-focused therapy; structural family therapy; strategic family therapy; and systemic family therapy) and to determine if…

  18. Measuring healthcare productivity - from unit to system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Vesa Johannes; Peltokorpi, Antti; Torkki, Paulus; Tallbacka, Kaj

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare productivity is a growing issue in most Western countries where healthcare expenditure is rapidly increasing. Therefore, accurate productivity metrics are essential to avoid sub-optimization within a healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to focus on healthcare production system productivity measurement. Design/methodology/approach - Traditionally, healthcare productivity has been studied and measured independently at the unit, organization and system level. Suggesting that productivity measurement should be done in different levels, while simultaneously linking productivity measurement to incentives, this study presents the challenges of productivity measurement at the different levels. The study introduces different methods to measure productivity in healthcare. In addition, it provides background information on the methods used to measure productivity and the parameters used in these methods. A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical information for managers. Findings - The study introduces different approaches and methods to measure productivity in healthcare. Practical implications - A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical benefits for managers. Originality/value - The authors focus on the measurement of the whole healthcare production system and try to avoid sub-optimization. Additionally considering an individual patient approach, productivity measurement is examined at the unit level, the organizational level and the system level.

  19. Improved Measurement System for Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-05

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO...undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this period and intend to work for the Department of Defense The number of undergraduates...The high sensitivity of the TLS turbulence measurements is ideally suited for operation in the low turbulence regimes that characterize nocturnal

  20. Overhead traveling crane vibration research using experimental wireless measuring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz HANISZEWSKI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an operations and constructions description of theexperimental wireless measuring system for measuring accelerations in bridge cranes,based on PHIDGET 1056 sensors. Developed experimental research and measuringmethodology allows the use of the proposed wireless system on other cranesconstructions. The paper also shows examples of the results of vibration measurementsand FFT spectra, obtained on the basis of accelerations measurements.

  1. Automatic measurement system for light element isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Kouichi.

    1990-01-01

    The automatic measurement system for the light element isotope analysis was developed by installing the specially designed inlet system which was controlled by a computer. The microcomputer system contains specific interface boards for the inlet system and the mass spectrometer, Micromass 602 E. All the components of the inlet and the computer system installed are easily available in Japan. Ten samples can be automatically measured as a maximum of. About 160 minutes are required for 10 measurements of δ 18 O values of CO 2 . Thus four samples can be measured per an hour using this system, while usually three samples for an hour using the manual operation. The automatized analysis system clearly has an advantage over the conventional method. This paper describes the details of this automated system, such as apparatuses used, the control procedure and the correction for reliable measurement. (author)

  2. Computerized x-ray radiographic system for fuel pellet measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.R.; Karnesky, R.A.; Bromley, C.

    1977-01-01

    The development and operation of a computerized system for determination of fuel pellet diameters from x-ray radiography is described. Actual fuel pellet diameter measurements made with the system are compared to micrometer measurements on the same pellets, and statistically evaluated. The advantages and limitations of the system are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development

  3. The Entropy Theoretic Measure for Manpower Systems in Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study provides a realistic appraisal of the use of entropy measures in manpower systems. The appraisal shows that the existing entropy measures for manpower systems give a partial picture of the behavioural mechanism of the system. Consequent upon this, we propose the use of transition probabilities of the ...

  4. Development of radiation measurement system for irradiated gemstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornduangkaeo, Areeratt; Kajornrith, Varavuth; Pongkasem, Somchai; Punyanut, Adisak; Maneewong, Apichate; Kbooncham, Kanchana; Salaemae, Nuhayatee; Puchsaka, Jinnawat; Srihera, Porames; Adwichai, Watcharee

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The objective of this research study was to develop the radiation measurement system for irradiated gemstones by using the automatic sample changer with hole-through NaI(Tl) detector compared to HPGe detector. The result showed that measuring time for the new system is less than 100 times HPGe detector. The accuracy of the system is 4-10%

  5. New Protective Measures for Cooling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. Anthony; Nonohue, Jonh M.

    1974-01-01

    Cooling water treatments have been updated and improved during the last few years. Particularly important are the nontoxic programs which conform plant cooling water effluents to local water quality standards without expenditures for capital equipment. The relationship between scaling and corrosion in natural waters has been recognized for many years. This relationship is the basis for the Langelier Saturation Index control method which was once widely applied to reduce corrosion in cooling water systems. It used solubility characteristics to maintain a very thin deposit on metal surfaces for preventing corrosion. This technique was rarely successful. That is, the solubility of calcium carbonate and most other inorganic salts depends on temperature. If good control exists on cold surfaces, excessive deposition results on the heat transfer tubes. Also, because water characteristic normally vary in a typical cooling system, precise control of scaling at both hot and cold surfaces is virtually impossible

  6. Measurement system performance during cold checkout runs at the BNFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.; Crawford, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The measurement systems in a complex nuclear fuel plant such as the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant rely on capabilities to remotely measure solution quantities and determine the nuclear material content of these solutions. During recent testing activities using natural uranium, a major objective of the NMC group was to demonstrate these solution measurement capabilities. Installed measurement systems at the BNFP use the most recent innovations in measurement equipment and techniques for remote solution measurement. This paper presents the measurement methods and results of the tests and evaluations. 6 figures

  7. Leak rate measurements and detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.; Shack, W.J.; Claytor, T.

    1984-01-01

    A research program is under way at the Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the USNRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to evaluate and develop improved leak detection systems. The primary focus of the work has been on acoustic emission detection of leaks. Leaks from artificial flaws, laboratory-generated IGSCCs and thermal fatigue cracks, and field-induced intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) from reactor piping have been examined. The effects of pressure, temperature, and leak rate and geometry on the acoustic signature are under study. The use of cross-correlation techniques for leak location and pattern recognition and autocorrelation for source discrimination is also being considered

  8. Measuring the sustainability of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroger, W.

    2001-01-01

    Today's energy policies are characterised by a contradictory position. In theory, there is a clear will to respond to emerging threats, e.g. evidence of man-made climate change, irresponsible use of limited resources, geopolitical discrepancies with unbalanced satisfaction of vital needs. In practice, decision making is dominated by economic competitiveness and maximization of short-term profit. The use of fossil fuels is unbroken and still increasing. A recent Green Paper concluded that the EU countries have to reduce growing structural weaknesses by limiting dependence on fuel imports and to give priority to energy systems that do not emit global warming gases. (authors)

  9. Measuring the mass distribution in stellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremaine, Scott

    2018-03-01

    One of the fundamental tasks of dynamical astronomy is to infer the distribution of mass in a stellar system from a snapshot of the positions and velocities of its stars. The usual approach to this task (e.g., Schwarzschild's method) involves fitting parametrized forms of the gravitational potential and the phase-space distribution to the data. We review the practical and conceptual difficulties in this approach and describe a novel statistical method for determining the mass distribution that does not require determining the phase-space distribution of the stars. We show that this new estimator out-performs other distribution-free estimators for the harmonic and Kepler potentials.

  10. CAMEX-3 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) dataset consists of atmospheric parameters measured by the MMS instruments aboard NASA DC-8 aircraft. The MMS...

  11. Airport Visibility Measuring Systems Elements of Deployment Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    This report analyzes the deployment cost for different visibility measuring systems necessary to satisfy CAT I, II, and II operations. The analysis is based on airport operational requirements and data for commercially available visibility measuring ...

  12. A Raspberry Pi Based Portable Endoscopic 3D Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schlobohm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geometry measurements are very important to monitor a machine part’s health and performance. Optical measurement system have several advantages for the acquisition of a parts geometry: measurement speed, precision, point density and contactless operation. Measuring parts inside of assembled machines is also desirable to keep maintenance cost low. The Raspberry Pi is a small and cost efficient computer that creates new opportunities for compact measurement systems. We have developed a fringe projection system which is capable of measuring in very limited space. A Raspberry Pi 2 is used to generate the projection patterns, acquire the image and reconstruct the geometry. Together with a small LED projector, the measurement system is small and easy to handle. It consists of off-the-shelf products which are nonetheless capable of measuring with an uncertainty of less than 100 μ m .

  13. Multi-channel temperature measurement system for automotive battery stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Radoslaw; Wojtkowski, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    A multi-channel temperature measurement system for monitoring of automotive battery stack is presented in the paper. The presented system is a complete battery temperature measuring system for hybrid / electric vehicles that incorporates multi-channel temperature measurements with digital temperature sensors communicating through 1-Wire buses, individual 1-Wire bus for each sensor for parallel computing (parallel measurements instead of sequential), FPGA device which collects data from sensors and translates it for CAN bus frames. CAN bus is incorporated for communication with car Battery Management System and uses additional CAN bus controller which communicates with FPGA device through SPI bus. The described system can parallel measure up to 12 temperatures but can be easily extended in the future in case of additional needs. The structure of the system as well as particular devices are described in the paper. Selected results of experimental investigations which show proper operation of the system are presented as well.

  14. Moire interferometry and hole drilling system for residual stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Min; Dai, Fulong; Lu, Jian

    2003-04-01

    A combined system of four beams moire interferometer and incremental hole-driling machine was designed and applied for residual stress measurement. Two typical experiments were done using this system: non-uniform in-depth residual stress measurement of an ultrasonic shot-peening Aluminum plate; non-uniform in-plane residual stress measurement of an elastic-plastic Aluminum bent beam. Experiments results show good accordant with other measurement results and theory analysis results.

  15. Measurement of resilience and its application to enterprise information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. W.; Gao, F.; Ip, W. H.

    2010-05-01

    In this article, we present a measure for resilience in the context of enterprise information systems or service systems in a more general sense. Resilience of the system is a property of the system, which focuses on the recovery ability of the system after a partial damage of the system. Enterprise information systems such as enterprise resource planning, supply chain management, customer relationship management, manufacturing execution system, etc. play a critical role in the daily operation of modern enterprises by timely and sustainable delivery of information. Therefore, resilience is especially important for the enterprise information systems. The proposed measure for resilience is based on the recovery ability of the system, which departs from the existing approaches in literature and presents a unique contribution. An example is given to illustrate how the proposed measure works.

  16. Application of virtual instrument in accelerator beam measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guoqing; China Science and Technology Univ., Hefei; Yu Xiaoqi; Zhang Pengfei

    2007-01-01

    Virtual instrument is a novel computer-based technical method of measurement, which has got rapidly development and has been applied in many fields because of a variety of advantages. In this paper we mainly introduce application of virtual instrument in accelerator beam measurement system. Beam measurement system is an important part of accelerator technology and has important effect on accelerator debugging, running and machine research. Adopting new measurement methods and increasing accuracy of measurement directly affect accelerator debugging and running. Now many accelerators have been adopted virtual instrument system. (authors)

  17. Radiation internal exposure measurements archiving system (REMAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitar, A.; Maghrabi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a personal-computer-based software, REMAS, which helps users to estimate intake activity and resulting internal doses for all radionuclides existing in (International Commission on Radiological Protection) ICRP 78 and other important elements. In addition to its use in internal dose calculations, it facilitates management of data of monitored persons who are occupationally exposed to unsealed radioactive substances. Furthermore, REMAS offers the possibility to generate different reports of results. The program is suitable for laboratories working in the field of assessment of occupational intake and also for users of radioactive material who are routinely monitored. REMAS, which is bilingual program (English and Arabic), was built with GUI environment and was developed using Microsoft FoxPro. It runs on Microsoft Windows XP operating systems. (authors)

  18. [An integrated system of blood pressure measurement with bluetooth communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hongyang; Xu, Zuyang; Chai, Xinyu

    2012-07-01

    The development of the integrated blood pressure system with bluetooth communication function is introduced. Experimental results show that the system can complete blood pressure measurement and data transmission wireless effectively, which can be used in m-Health in future.

  19. Competitiveness measurement system in the advertising sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda-Bautista, Rocío; García-Melón, Mónica; Baptista, Doris C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to find indicators that can be used to measure companies' competitiveness and performance in an efficient and reliable way is presented. The aim is to assist managers of companies within a specific industrial sector by providing information about their relative position in the market so as to define better action plans that may improve the company's performance. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process, a multicriteria decision method, with the Balanced Scorecard. It allows the definition of a number of competitiveness indicators based on the performance and setting of the advertising sector. In this way it is possible to obtain a Competitiveness Index that allows a company to know its relative position with respect to other companies in the sector, and establish a ranking of the companies ordered by their competitiveness level. A case study in the advertising industry of Venezuela is provided. Results show that improvement plans for the agencies analyzed should promote creativity, innovation and the use of new technologies, as a particular form of innovation. These factors were considered to be the most relevant indicators in the advertising sector. The participating experts agreed that the methodology is useful and an improvement over current competitiveness assessment methods.

  20. New measuring and protection system at VR-1 training reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropik, M.; Jurickova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution describes the new measuring and protection system of the VR-1 training reactor. The measuring and protection system upgrade is an integral part of the reactor I and C upgrade. The new measuring and protection system of the VR-1 reactor consists of the operational power measuring and the independent power protection systems. Both systems measure the reactor power and power rate, initiate safety action if safety limits are exceeded and send data (power, power rate, status, etc.) to the reactor control system. The operational power measuring system is a full power range system that receives signal from a fission chamber. The signal is evaluated according to the reactor power either in the pulse or current mode. The current mode utilizes the DC current and Campbell techniques. The new independent power protection system operates in the two highest reactor power decades. It receives signals from a boron chamber and evaluates it in the pulse mode. Both systems are computer based. The operational power measuring and independent power protection systems are diverse - different types and location of chambers, completely different hardware, software algorithms for the power and power rate calculations, software development tools and teems for the software manufacturing. (author)

  1. Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2001-01-01

    A transportable miniaturized fiber-pigtailed measurement system is presented which allows quantitative fluorescence detection in microliquid handling systems. The microliquid handling chips are made in silica on silicon technology and the optical functionality is monolithically integrated...... with the microfluidic channel system. This results in inherent stability and photolithographic alignment precision. Permanently attached optical fibers provide a rugged connection to the light source, detection, and data processing unit, which potentially allows field use of such systems. Fluorescence measurements...

  2. Design techniques for large scale linear measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.

    1979-03-01

    Techniques to design measurement schemes for systems modeled by large scale linear time invariant systems, i.e., physical systems modeled by a large number (> 5) of ordinary differential equations, are described. The techniques are based on transforming the physical system model to a coordinate system facilitating the design and then transforming back to the original coordinates. An example of a three-stage, four-species, extraction column used in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements is presented. The basic ideas are briefly discussed in the case of noisy measurements. An example using a plutonium nitrate storage vessel (reprocessing) with measurement uncertainty is also presented

  3. Study of Collagen Birefringence in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Picrosirius Red and Polarized Light Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai Arun Gopinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study was done to evaluate birefringence pattern of collagen fibres in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Picrosirius red stain and polarization microscopy and to determine if there is a change in collagen fibres between different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods. Picrosirius red stained 5 μm thick sections of previously diagnosed different grades of squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa were studied under polarization microscopy for arrangement as well as birefringence of collagen fibres around tumour islands. Results. It was found that thin collagen fibres increased and thick collagen fibres decreased with dedifferentiation of OSCC (P<0.0001 . It was observed that there was change in polarization colours of thick fibres from yellowish orange to greenish yellow with dedifferentiation of OSCC indicating loosely packed fibres (P<0.0001. Conclusion. There was a gradual change of birefringence of collagen from yellowish orange to greenish yellow from well to poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, indicating that there is a change from mature form of collagen to immature form as tumour progresses. Studying collagen fibres with Picrosirius red for stromal changes around tumour islands along with routine staining may help in predicting the prognosis of tumour.

  4. Open source software for electric field Monte Carlo simulation of coherent backscattering in biological media containing birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, Andrew J; Rogers, Jeremy D; Capoğlu, Ilker R; Mutyal, Nikhil N; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Backman, Vadim

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT. We present an open source electric field tracking Monte Carlo program to model backscattering in biological media containing birefringence, with computation of the coherent backscattering phenomenon as an example. These simulations enable the modeling of tissue scattering as a statistically homogeneous continuous random media under the Whittle-Matérn model, which includes the Henyey-Greenstein phase function as a special case, or as a composition of discrete spherical scatterers under Mie theory. The calculation of the amplitude scattering matrix for the above two cases as well as the implementation of birefringence using the Jones N-matrix formalism is presented. For ease of operator use and data processing, our simulation incorporates a graphical user interface written in MATLAB to interact with the underlying C code. Additionally, an increase in computational speed is achieved through implementation of message passing interface and the semi-analytical approach. Finally, we provide demonstrations of the results of our simulation for purely scattering media and scattering media containing linear birefringence.

  5. Eigenmodes of spin vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with local linear birefringence and gain dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fördös, T.; Jaffrès, H.; Postava, K.; Seghilani, M. S.; Garnache, A.; Pištora, J.; Drouhin, H. J.

    2017-10-01

    We present a general method for the modeling of semiconductor lasers such as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser containing multiple quantum wells and involving anisotropies that may reveal (i) a local linear birefringence due to the strain field at the surface or (ii) a birefringence in quantum wells due to phase amplitude coupling originating from the reduction of the biaxial D2 d symmetry group to the C2 v symmetry group at the III-V ternary semiconductor interfaces. From a numerical point of view, a scattering S-matrix recursive method is implemented using a gain or amplification tensor derived analytically from the Maxwell-Bloch equations. It enables one to model the properties of the emission (threshold, polarization, and mode splitting) from the laser with multiple quantum well active zones by searching for the resonant eigenmodes of the cavity. The method is demonstrated on real laser structures and is presently used for the extraction of optical permittivity tensors of surface strain and quantum wells in agreement with experiments. The method can be generalized to find the laser eigenmodes in the most general case of circular polarized pumps (unbalance between the spin-up and spin-down channels) and/or dichroism allowing an elliptically polarized light emission as recently demonstrated experimentally when the linear birefringence is almost compensated [Joly et al., Opt. Lett. 42, 651 (2017), 10.1364/OL.42.000651].

  6. Efficiency criteria for high reliability measured system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sal'nikov, N.L.

    2012-01-01

    The procedures of structural redundancy are usually used to develop high reliability measured systems. To estimate efficiency of such structures the criteria to compare different systems has been developed. So it is possible to develop more exact system by inspection of redundant system data unit stochastic characteristics in accordance with the developed criteria [ru

  7. Measuring Isotope Ratios Across the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Chris R.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios in C, H, N, O and S are powerful indicators of a wide variety of planetary geophysical processes that can identify origin, transport, temperature history, radiation exposure, atmospheric escape, environmental habitability and biology [1]. For the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, for example, the (sup 1)(sup 3)C/(sup 1)(sup 2)C ratio identifies it as a Mars (SNC) meteorite; the ??K/??Ar ratio tells us the last time the rock cooled to solid, namely 4 Gya; isotope ratios in (sup 3)He, (sup 2)(sup 1)Ne and (sup 3)?Ar show it was in space (cosmic ray exposure) for 10-20 million years; (sup 1)?C dating that it sat in Antarctica for 13,000 years before discovery; and clumped isotope analysis of (sup 1)?O(sup 1)(sup 3)C(sup 1)?O in its carbonate that it was formed at 18+/-4 ?C in a near-surface aqueous environment [2]. Solar System Formation

  8. System for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, I.M.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    The system for measuring the proton polarization in a polarized target representing the high-sensitivity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described Q-meter with series connection and a circuit for measuring system resonance characteristic is used for NMR-absorption signal recording. Measuring coil is produced of a strip conductor in order to obtain uniform system sensitivity to polarization state in all target volume and improve signal-to-noise ratio. Polarization measuring system operates ion-line with the M-6000 computer. The total measuring error for the value of free proton polarization in target taking into account the error caused by local depolarization of working substance under irradiation by high-intense photon beam is <= 6%. Long-term application of the described system for measuring the proton polarization in the LUEh-20000 accelerator target used in the pion photoproduction experiments has demonstrated its high reliability

  9. A novel multipoint measuring system of photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palva, L.; Garam, E.; Manoochehri, F.; Sepponen, R.; Hari, P.; Rajala, K.; Ruotoistenmaki, H.; Seppala, I.

    1998-01-01

    A novel multipoint measuring system of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) has been designed. It is used as a component of a field measurement system of photosynthesis. The system consists of a multichannel fiberoptic sensor, Intel 486-based microcomputer (PC) with software for control and analysis and interface electronics. The fiberoptic sensor comprises 800 measuring points which are arranged in a regular grid on a plane. This grid is attached to a cuvette to observe the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR falling on the needles along with simultaneous measurements of CO 2 exchange. PAR is registered through a fiberoptic bundle using a charge coupled device (CCD) sensor. The system has been in operation between July and October 1996 within a Scots pine canopy. The results demonstrate that the obtained regression between the photosynthetic rate estimated with the multipoint PAR measuring system and the measured CO 2 exchange rate is as tight within a canopy as in unshaded conditions. (author)

  10. Application research of tune measurement system in Hefei light source

    CERN Document Server

    Sun Bao Gen; Xu Hong Liang; Lu Ping; Wang Jun; Gao Yun Feng; Wang Li; LiuJinYing

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the measurement and research of some beam parameters using tune measurement system for Hefei Light Source (HLS), which include the betatron tune, beta function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, and central frequency. Additionally, it also describes the measurement of the influence of DC clearing electrodes on the betatron tune shift and gives some measurement results. The measurement results are compared with the theoretical values and they are in good agreement

  11. A novel non-contact profiler design for measuring synchrotron radiation mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yao; Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K.; DeBiasse, R.A.; Wang, Run-Wen

    1990-08-01

    A novel optical profiler is described in this paper for measurement of surface profiles of synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The measurement is based on a combination of an optical heterodyne technique and a precise phase measurement procedure without a reference surface. A Zeeman two-frequency He-Ne laser is employed as the light source. The common-path optical system, which uses a birefringent lens as the beam splitter, minimizes the effects of air turbulence, sample vibration and temperature variation. A special autofocus system allows the profiler to measure the roughness and shape of a sample surface. The optical system is mounted on a large linear air-bearing slide, and is capable of scanning over distances covering the spatial period range from several microns to nearly one meter with a high measurement accuracy. 9 refs., 5 figs

  12. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  13. Computer controlled scanning systems for quantitative track measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    The status of three computer cntrolled systems for quantitative track measurements is described. Two systems, an automated optical track scanner (AOTS) and an automated scanning electron microscope (ASEM) are used for scanning solid state track recorders (SSTR). The third system, the emulsion scanning processor (ESP), is an interactive system used to measure the length of proton tracks in nuclear research emulsions (NRE). Recent advances achieved with these systems are presented, with emphasis placed upon the current limitation of these systems for reactor neutron dosimetry

  14. Birefringence characteristics in sperm heads allow for the selection of reacted spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaroli, Luca; Magli, M Cristina; Ferraretti, Anna P; Crippa, Andor; Lappi, Michela; Capitani, Serena; Baccetti, Baccio

    2010-02-01

    To verify clinical outcome after injection of spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction (reacted spermatozoa) vs. those still having an intact acrosome (nonreacted spermatozoa). Prospective, randomized study. Reproductive Medicine Unit, Italian Society for the Study of Reproductive Medicine, Bologna, Italy. According to a prospective randomization including 71 couples with severe male factor infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed under polarized light that permitted analysis of the pattern of birefringence in the sperm head. Twenty-three patients had their oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa, 26 patient's oocytes were injected with nonreacted spermatozoa, and in 22 patients both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa were injected. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was performed under polarized light to selectively inject acrosome-reacted and acrosome-nonreacted spermatozoa. Rates of fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing implantation. There was no effect on the fertilizing capacity and embryo development of either type of sperm, whereas the implantation rate was higher in oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa (39.0%) vs. those injected with nonreacted spermatozoa (8.6%). The implantation rate was 24.4% in the group injected with both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa. The delivery rate per cycle followed the same trend. Spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction seem to be more prone to supporting the development of viable ICSI embryos. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance tolerance analysis of birefringent fiber loop for semiconductor optical amplifier pattern effect suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizou, Zoe V.; Zoiros, Kyriakos E.; Hatziefremidis, Antonios; Connelly, Michael J.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of the birefringent fiber loop (BFL) when the settings of the components that construct this module are not perfect. The BFL is employed for suppressing the pattern effect on directly amplified data in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The analysis is conducted by describing the non-optimum BFL transmission response using Jones matrix method. This allows to formulate a comprehensive model, which is validated by comparing it to the experiment. Then we investigate and specify how sensitive the BFL is to imperfections of its building components by assessing its performance against the output amplitude modulation, power penalty, and crosstalk. For each critical operating parameter, we derive the tolerance range within which these performance metrics are acceptable. The obtained results suggest that the BFL can efficiently mitigate the SOA pattern effect even if it is built from non-ideal components. This can be achieved provided that these components are designed according to their extracted operating conditions, which are practically satisfiable.

  16. Low-birefringent and highly tough nanocellulose-reinforced cellulose triacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeta, Hiroto; Fujisawa, Shuji; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Berglund, Lars; Isogai, Akira

    2015-05-27

    Improvement of the mechanical and thermal properties of cellulose triacetate (CTA) films is required without sacrificing their optical properties. Here, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted cellulose nanofibril/CTA nanocomposite films were fabricated by casting and drying methods. The cellulose nanofibrils were prepared by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, and amine-terminated PEG chains were grafted onto the surfaces of the TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNs) by ionic bonds. Because of the nanosize effect of TOCNs with a uniform width of ∼3 nm, the PEG-TOCN/CTA nanocomposite films had high transparency and low birefringence. The grafted PEG chains enhanced the filler-matrix interactions and crystallization of matrix CTA molecules, resulting in the Young's modulus and toughness of CTA film being significantly improved by PEG-grafted TOCN addition. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the original CTA film was mostly preserved even with the addition of PEG-grafted TOCNs. These results suggest that PEG-TOCNs are applicable to the reinforcement for transparent optical films.

  17. Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Readiness to adopt a performance measurement system for substance abuse treatment: Findings from the Service Quality Measures initiative. ... system, findings show that the likelihood of adoption can be further increased through improved provider awareness and enhanced leadership support for this health innovation.

  18. Reporting Systems for Sustainability: What Are They Measuring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    The dominance of the neoliberal discourse in the sustainability debate has tended to privilege the economy over environment and social dimensions with implications for what is measured by sustainability monitoring systems. Moreover, systems to measure sustainability, including those influenced by neoliberal discourse, lack robust definitions and…

  19. STORM-SEWER FLOW MEASUREMENT AND RECORDING SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Frederick A.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive study and development of instruments and techniques for measuring all components of flow in a storm-sewer drainage system were undertaken by the U. S. Geological Survey under the sponsorship of FHWA. The study involved laboratory and field calibration and testing of measuring flumes, pipe insert meters, weirs, and electromagnetic velocity meters as well as the development and calibration of pneumatic bubbler and pressure transducer head-measuring systems. Tracer dilution and acoustic-flowmeter measurements were used in field verification tests. A single micrologger was used to record data from all the instruments and also to activate on command the electromagnetic velocity meter and tracer dilution systems.

  20. EPOS1 - a multiparameter measuring system to earthquake prediction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Heinicke, J.; Koch, U.; Wiegand, J.

    1998-01-01

    The approach to earthquake prediction by geophysical, geochemical and hydrological measurements is a long and winding road. Nevertheless, the results show a progress in that field (e.g. Kobe). This progress is also a result of a new generation of measuring equipment. SARAD has developed a versatile measuring system (EPOS1) based on experiences and recent results from different research groups. It is able to record selected parameters suitable to earthquake prediction research. A micro-computer system handles data exchange, data management and control. It is connected to a modular sensor system. Sensor modules can be selected according to the actual needs at the measuring site. (author)

  1. Low Value Capacitance Measurement System with Adjustable Lead Capacitance Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Sarkar; Anjan Rakshit; Amitava Chatterjee; Kesab Bhattacharya

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a low cost, highly accurate low capacitance measurement system that can be used over a range of 0 – 400 pF with a resolution of 1 pF. The range of capacitance may be easily altered by a simple resistance or capacitance variation of the measurement circuit. This capacitance measurement system uses quad two-input NAND Schmitt trigger circuit CD4093B with hysteresis for the measurement and this system is integrated with PIC 18F2550 microcontroller f...

  2. Grid Based Integration Technologies of Virtual Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D P; He, L S; Yang, H

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel integrated architecture of measurement system for the new requirements of measurement collaboration, measurement resource interconnection and transparent access etc in the wide-area and across organization in the context of a grid. The complexity of integration on a grid arises from the scale, dynamism, autonomy, and distribution of the measurement resources. The main argument of this paper is that these complexities should be made transparent to the collaborative measurement, via flexible reconfigurable mechanisms and dynamic virtualization services. The paper is started by discussing the integration-oriented measurement architecture which provides collaborative measurement services to distributed measurement resources and then the measurement mechanisms are discussed which implements the transparent access and collaboration of measurement resources by providing protocols, measurement schedule and global data driven model

  3. AMINA-chip : a miniaturized measurement system for ambient ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Björn Herman

    2004-01-01

    The development of a miniaturized and integrated measurement system for gaseous ammonia is described in this thesis. The measuring principle, ¿AMINA¿, is an indirect method for selectively measuring ammonia that makes use of pH-transitions, electrolyte conductivity detection and phaseseparating

  4. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  5. Development of Precision Information Measuring System for Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSHCHUPKIN, O.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying the neural network method are presented to reduce the amount of calibration points for the multisensor (MS, in particular for the photodiode. This allows transmitting to the MS individual conversion function and provides the high accuracy of measurement. The structure of synthesized information-measuring system and its measuring channel has created for implementing of the proposed approach. A structural scheme is proposed as well for values transmitting the etalon measures to measuring systems. Its used to determine the errors of photodiodes, as those which are produced for customers. This assures the interchangeability of sensors when using the individual conversion function.

  6. Computer Generated Hologram System for Wavefront Measurement System Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Gene

    2011-01-01

    Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) have been used for some time to calibrate interferometers that require nulling optics. A typical scenario is the testing of aspheric surfaces with an interferometer placed near the paraxial center of curvature. Existing CGH technology suffers from a reduced capacity to calibrate middle and high spatial frequencies. The root cause of this shortcoming is as follows: the CGH is not placed at an image conjugate of the asphere due to limitations imposed by the geometry of the test and the allowable size of the CGH. This innovation provides a calibration system where the imaging properties in calibration can be made comparable to the test configuration. Thus, if the test is designed to have good imaging properties, then middle and high spatial frequency errors in the test system can be well calibrated. The improved imaging properties are provided by a rudimentary auxiliary optic as part of the calibration system. The auxiliary optic is simple to characterize and align to the CGH. Use of the auxiliary optic also reduces the size of the CGH required for calibration and the density of the lines required for the CGH. The resulting CGH is less expensive than the existing technology and has reduced write error and alignment error sensitivities. This CGH system is suitable for any kind of calibration using an interferometer when high spatial resolution is required. It is especially well suited for tests that include segmented optical components or large apertures.

  7. A software system for measuring bubble chamber films on line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, G.; Hulth, P.O.

    1974-01-01

    A system has been developed for measuring bubble chamber films on line. This report describes the computer program used in the on-line system. The program guides the operator during the measurements, makes on-line control of the measurement data and produces output data on magnetic tape in a format suitable as input for the geometry programme THRESH. The on-line program is coded in the assembly language OSAS-A used for CDC 8090 computers. (Auth.)

  8. Balanced Scorecard Based Performance Measurement & Strategic Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Permatasari, Paulina

    2006-01-01

    Developing strategy and performance measurement are an integral part of management control system. Making strategic decision about planning and controlling require information regarding how different subunits in organization work. To be effective, performance measurement, both financial and non-financial must motivate manager and employees at different levels to force goal accomplishment and organization strategic. An organization's measurement system strongly affects the behavior of people b...

  9. A comparison of displacement measuring systems for single-axis measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdale, S.J.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses an attempt to make a relative comparison of the performance of an ordinary supermicrometer retrofitted with several different displacement measuring systems. The methodology used was a gage repeatability and reproducibility study. The environment, equipment, and operators were held constant in an experimental design that highlights the difference in capability of the various displacement measuring systems.

  10. Implementation and rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at US industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of 5 years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well. - Highlights: ► We examine uptake/rejection of industrial steam system energy efficiency measures. ► We examine metrics that correspond to uptake/rejection of recommended measures. ► We examine barriers hindering steam system energy efficiency measure implementation. ► Uptake/rejection of steam measures is linked to potential cost metrics. ► Increased uptake of measures and uptake of more costly measures increases with time

  11. Coast-down time measuring system based on photoelectric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-min; Wang, Da-yong; Qi, Fang

    2010-10-01

    Coast-down time measuring system can measure the time when speed values of Chassis Dynamometers for Automobile Emissions Testing change from initial velocity to end velocity under different load in a given speed range. This coast-down time will represent characters of Chassis Dynamometers for Automobile Emissions Testing such as Dynamometer inertia weight, constant load coast-down time, variable load coast-down time, Chassis Dynamometers for Automobile Emissions Testing can be calibrated by comparing these coast-down time with theoretical values. Working principle of coast-down time measuring system is a photoelectric sampler of coast-down time measuring system collects speed values information of Chassis Dynamometers for Automobile Emissions Testing. Then, determine speed values through calculation. When the velocity is equal to initial velocity Vb value, measuring system starts a timer. When speed reaches end velocity Ve value, measuring system stops the timer. So time interval is coast-down time from Vb to Ve. It is obvious that accuracy of coast-down time measurement lies on whether start and end velocity can be judged accurately and determined quickly, whether accuracy of timing can be admitted, and lies on how long these can be done. Coast-down time measuring system with photoelectric sampler proposed in this paper involves all the above factors, as well as improves measurement accuracy of coast-down time.

  12. Practical methods for measuring refrigerant mass distribution inside refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Guoliang; Ma, Xiaokui; Zhang, Ping; Han, Weizhe [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kasahara, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro [Daikin Air-Conditioning R and D Laboratory, Ltd., 1304 Kanaoka-cho, Sakai, Osaka 591-8511 (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present methods for measuring refrigerant mass distribution inside a refrigeration system conveniently and accurately. The quasi on-line measurement method (QOMM) was presented for measuring refrigerant mass inside heat exchangers. Compared with the existing liquid nitrogen method (LNM), QOMM can avoid the refrigerant waste and accelerate the measurement process. For measuring refrigerant mass inside the compressor, QOMM was used together with the oil level observation method. The liquid level method (LLM) was used to measure the refrigerant mass inside the accumulator and the receiver. In order to verify the accuracy of the measurement methods, not only the deviation of the measurement method for refrigerant in single component was analyzed, but also the prediction of the total refrigerant charge in an air conditioner was verified. The results showed that the maximal prediction deviation of the refrigerant charge in the whole refrigeration system is 1.7%. (author)

  13. [Scientific information systems: tools for measures of biomedical research impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete Cortés, José; Banqueri Ozáez, Jesús

    2008-12-01

    The present article provides an analysis and description of the use of scientific information systems as instruments to measure and monitor results and investigative activity in biomedicine. Based on the current situation concerning the use and implementation of these systems, we offer a detailed description of the actors of these systems and propose a functional architecture for this class of software. In addition, the instruments that these types of systems offer for the measurement of the impact of the results of research are described in depth, as these instruments can help in decision making. Finally, a selection of national and international scientific information systems are listed and reviewed.

  14. Development of automated measuring system for machining of turbine casings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Hironobu; Otsuka, Shunpei; Niinaga, Yasunori; Arai, Takao.

    1984-01-01

    In the machining of large turbine components, the method of NC machining and measuring and inspection system which can ensure the flexibility and high accuracy are now desired. Stub boring is the large NC machining system developed on the basis of such requirement, and the machining the inside diameter of steam turbine casings can be realized with high efficiency and high accuracy. In this paper, the large NC machining system, the method of centering alignment for casings by utilizing an industrial television, and the automatic measuring system for machining dimensions are described. The reliability of computer-aided assembly system for steam turbines can be thus promoted. (J.P.N.)

  15. A computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisitions/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined

  16. Impeachment as an Accountability Measure in a Presidential System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data collected by means of documents and literature indicates that the presidential system has checks and balances as measures to prevent the abuse of power. ... The paper concludes that a political system where systemic corruption prevails will reduce impeachment to a mere instrument of political vendetta.

  17. Design of a mobile hydrological data measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunping; Wang, Tianmiao; Dai, Fenfen

    2017-06-01

    The current hydrological data acquisition is mainly used in the instrument measurement. Instrument measurement equipment is mainly fixed in a certain water area and the device is easy to be lost. In view of a series of problems, the dynamic measurement system is established by the method of unmanned surface vessel and embedded technology, which can realize any positions measurement of a lake. This method has many advantages, such as mobile convenience, saving money and so on.

  18. Radionuclide measuring systems and improved methods of evaluation for the measurement of wear in stationary and mobile systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausch, W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developped flow through measuring unit makes it possible to perform continuous wear measurements on stationary and mobile systems. It was specifically designed for measurements on engine components of passenger cars. For tests of long duration an oil sampling technique was developed. Fully automated measurements are achieved with a sampling device suitable for both stationary and mobile systems. For systems with oil consumption a mathematical model provides for the necessary connection of the loss of wear particles through oil consumption. In certain cases an empirical graphical method can achieve nearly the same results. (orig.) [de

  19. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  20. [A new parameter measurement system for electrosurgery output].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Li, Dianli; Xu, Wendong; Song, Chengli

    2014-04-01

    Accurate measurements of voltage and current from electrosurgery are the basis of development of electrosurgery with feedback function. We, therefore, developed a parameter measurement system based on PC, with high voltage and current from electrosurgery being sensed with transformers, amplified, filtered, transformed into single-ended signals, and then into RMS signals. The root mean square (RMS) signals were transformed into digital signals through DAQ card and the data was processed in PC with Labview. The process included sampling, displaying and storage. The experiment results indicated that the measurement system could measure the output parameters from electrosurgery steadily and correctly so that the development of the system has been successful. It can be the basis of development of embedded parameters measurement system and can provide accurate feedback information for intellectual electrosurgery.

  1. Calibration of the CCD photonic measuring system for railway inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, D. V.; Ryabichenko, R. B.; Krivosheina, E. A.

    2005-08-01

    Increasing of traffic speed is the most important task in Moscow Metro. Requirements for traffic safety grow up simultaneously with the speed increasing. Currently for track inspection in Moscow Metro is used track measurement car has built in 1954. The main drawbacks of this system are absence of automated data processing and low accuracy. Non-contact photonic measurement system (KSIR) is developed for solving this problem. New track inspection car will be built in several months. This car will use two different track inspection systems and car locating subsystem based on track circuit counting. The KSIR consists of four subsystems: rail wear, height and track gauge measurement (BFSM); rail slump measurement (FIP); contact rail measurement (FKR); speed, level and car locating (USI). Currently new subsystem for wheel flange wear (IRK) is developed. The KSIR carry out measurements in real-time mode. The BFSM subsystem contains 4 matrix CCD cameras and 4 infrared stripe illuminators. The FIP subsystem contains 4 line CCD cameras and 4 spot illuminators. The FKR subsystem contains 2 matrix CCD cameras and 2 stripe illuminators. The IRK subsystem contains 2 CCD cameras and 2 stripe illuminators. Each system calibration was carried out for their adjustment. On the first step KSIR obtains data from photonic sensors which is valued in internal measurement units. Due to the calibration on the second step non-contact system converts the data to metric measurement system.

  2. ADC's Insertion Devices and Magnetic Measurement Systems Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhim, A.; Kulesza, J.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper Advance Design Consulting USA, Inc. (ADC) will discuss ADC's major improved capabilities for building Wiggler Insertion Devices, Undulator Planar Devices, Elliptical Polarizing Undulators (EPU), In-Vacuum Undulators (IVU), Cryogenically Cooled in-vacuum Undulators (CPMU), Super Conductive Undulator, and Insertion Device Magnetic Measurement Systems. ADC has designed, built and delivered Insertion Devices and Magnetic Measurement Systems to such facilities as MAX-lab (two EPUs, a Planar, and Measurement System), ALBA and ASP (Wigglers), BNL (CPMU), SSRF (two IVUs and a Measurement System), PAL (one IVU and Measurement System), NSRRC (one 4m EPU), and SRC (Planar and EPU). ADC's magnetic field measurement system is a sophisticated and sensitive machine for the measurement of magnetic fields in undulators (Planar and EPU), wigglers and in-vacuum ID units. The magnetic fields are measured using 3 axis hall-effect probes, mounted orthogonally, to a thin wand. The wand is mounted to a carriage that rides on vacuum air bearings. The base is granite. A flip coil is provided on two vertical towers with X, Y and Theta axes. Special software is provided to assist in homing, movement, and data collection and analysis.

  3. Approximate entropy normalized measures for analyzing social neurobiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sofia; Milho, João; Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2012-01-01

    When considering time series data of variables describing agent interactions in social neurobiological systems, measures of regularity can provide a global understanding of such system behaviors. Approximate entropy (ApEn) was introduced as a nonlinear measure to assess the complexity of a system behavior by quantifying the regularity of the generated time series. However, ApEn is not reliable when assessing and comparing the regularity of data series with short or inconsistent lengths, which often occur in studies of social neurobiological systems, particularly in dyadic human movement systems. Here, the authors present two normalized, nonmodified measures of regularity derived from the original ApEn, which are less dependent on time series length. The validity of the suggested measures was tested in well-established series (random and sine) prior to their empirical application, describing the dyadic behavior of athletes in team games. The authors consider one of the ApEn normalized measures to generate the 95th percentile envelopes that can be used to test whether a particular social neurobiological system is highly complex (i.e., generates highly unpredictable time series). Results demonstrated that suggested measures may be considered as valid instruments for measuring and comparing complexity in systems that produce time series with inconsistent lengths.

  4. Flexible coordinate measurement system based on robot for industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yin; Yang, Xue-you; Liu, Chang-jie; Ye, Sheng-hua

    2010-10-01

    The flexible coordinate measurement system based on robot which is applicable to multi-model vehicle is designed to meet the needs of online measurement for current mainstream mixed body-in-white(BIW) production line. The moderate precision, good flexibility and no blind angle are the benefits of this measurement system. According to the measurement system, a monocular structured light vision sensor has been designed, which can measure not only edges, but also planes, apertures and other features. And a effective way to fast on-site calibration of the whole system using the laser tracker has also been proposed, which achieves the unity of various coordinate systems in industrial fields. The experimental results show satisfactory precision of +/-0.30mm of this measurement system, which is sufficient for the needs of online measurement for body-in-white(BIW) in the auto production line. The system achieves real-time detection and monitoring of the whole process of the car body's manufacture, and provides a complete data support in purpose of overcoming the manufacturing error immediately and accurately and improving the manufacturing precision.

  5. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  6. Measurement system and model for simultaneously measuring 6DOF geometric errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuqiong; Zhang, Bin; Feng, Qibo

    2017-09-04

    A measurement system to simultaneously measure six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) geometric errors is proposed. The measurement method is based on a combination of mono-frequency laser interferometry and laser fiber collimation. A simpler and more integrated optical configuration is designed. To compensate for the measurement errors introduced by error crosstalk, element fabrication error, laser beam drift, and nonparallelism of two measurement beam, a unified measurement model, which can improve the measurement accuracy, is deduced and established using the ray-tracing method. A numerical simulation using the optical design software Zemax is conducted, and the results verify the correctness of the model. Several experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system and measurement model.

  7. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%.

  8. System security assessment in real-time using synchrophasor measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Wache, Markus

    2013-01-01

    measures to ensure stable and secure operation of the system are necessary. Time stamped synchrophasor measurements lay the foundation for development of new real-time applications for security and stability assessment. The paper provides overview of existing solutions for synchrophasor based security...... assessment and sheds light on ongoing research activities that focus on exploiting wide-area synchrophasor measurements for real-time security assessment of sustainable power systems. At last, an mathematical mapping enabling informative visualization of the system state in respect to aperiodic rotor angle...

  9. Demonstration of a mobile NDA safeguards measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Increasing use is being made of nondestructive assay instruments for identification and measurements of nuclear materials. Important advantages of NDA are: timeliness, portability, and ease of use. Recent developments in computer systems and NDA allow for the integration of sample planning, control of NDA, and data analysis into one transportable system. This session acquaints the course participants with the use of mobile NDA safeguards measurement systems. This session considers the practical problems and the type of results that can be expected from field use of NDA instruments. An existing mobile safeguards system will be used to demonstrate some of the differences between field and laboratory conditions. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) cite the advantages and disadvantages of a mobile NDA safeguards measurement system; (2) identify principal NDA instruments most applicable for use in a mobile system; and (3) identify selected modifications to NDA instruments for field use

  10. Visual Peoplemeter: A Vision-based Television Audience Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKELIN, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual peoplemeter is a vision-based measurement system that objectively evaluates the attentive behavior for TV audience rating, thus offering solution to some of drawbacks of current manual logging peoplemeters. In this paper, some limitations of current audience measurement system are reviewed and a novel vision-based system aiming at passive metering of viewers is prototyped. The system uses camera mounted on a television as a sensing modality and applies advanced computer vision algorithms to detect and track a person, and to recognize attentional states. Feasibility of the system is evaluated on a secondary dataset. The results show that the proposed system can analyze viewer's attentive behavior, therefore enabling passive estimates of relevant audience measurement categories.

  11. Data acquisition and processing system for coincidence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xu

    1990-07-01

    An instrument has been designed for the absolute measurement of radioactivity with 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence. The instrument can be used as a standard device for the radioactivity measurement in metrology laboratories. Also it can be used in the nuclear science and engineering research for absolute measurement of nuclear decay rate. The control of the system dead time and coincidence resolving time is digitized. The precision can reach ±2 ns. For data acquisition and communication the normalizing GPIB interface system technique is adopted. The measuring error caused by this instrument itself can be better than ±0.02%

  12. On-line pressure measurement using scanning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, A.G.; Watson, A.P.

    1978-08-01

    Data collection methods can be improved significantly by using pressure scanning systems in conjunction with transducers for the measurement of pressure distribution in fluid flow rigs. However, the response of pressure transducers to the slight random pressure fluctuations that occur in practice can cause some measurement problems, especially for accurate work. The nature of these pressure fluctuations is examined and suitable analysis techniques are recommended. Results obtained using these techniques are presented. It is concluded that by using the correct techniques pressure transducer systems can be used to measure pressure distributions accurately and are sufficiently sensitive to measure very small systematic effects with great precision. (author)

  13. Developing a lean measurement system to enhance process improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A key ingredient to underpin process improvement is a robust, reliable, repeatable measurement system. Process improvement activity needs to be supported by accurate and precise data because effective decision making, within process improvement activity, demands the use of “hard” data. One of the oldest and most established process improvement methods is Deming’s Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA cycle which is reliant on the check phase, a measurement activity where data is being gathered and evaluated. Recent expansions of the PDCA such as the Six-Sigma Define-Measure-Analyse-Improve-Control (DMAIC methodology place significant importance upon measurement. The DMAIC cycle incorporates the regimented requirement for the inclusion of measurement system analysis (MSA into the breakthrough strategy. The call for MSA within the DMAIC cycle is to provide the improvement activity with a robust measurement system that will ensure a pertinent level of data during any validation process. The Lean methodology is heavily centred on the removal of the seven Mudas (wastes from a manufacturing process: defects, overproduction, transportation, waiting, inventory, motion and processing. The application of lean, particularly within the manufacturing industry, has led to a perception that measurement is a waste within a manufacturing process because measurement processes identify defective products. The metrologists’ pursuit for measurement excellence could be construed as a hindrance by the “cost down” demands being perpetrated from the same organisation’s lean policy. So what possible benefits does enforcing the regimes of the lean and quality philosophies upon the measurement process have and how does this ultimately enhance the process improvement activity? The key fundamental to embed with any process improvement is the removal of waste. The process improvement techniques embedded within lean and quality concepts are extremely powerful practices in the

  14. Machine vision system for measuring conifer seedling morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Michael P.; Kranzler, Glenn A.

    1995-01-01

    A PC-based machine vision system providing rapid measurement of bare-root tree seedling morphological features has been designed. The system uses backlighting and a 2048-pixel line- scan camera to acquire images with transverse resolutions as high as 0.05 mm for precise measurement of stem diameter. Individual seedlings are manually loaded on a conveyor belt and inspected by the vision system in less than 0.25 seconds. Designed for quality control and morphological data acquisition by nursery personnel, the system provides a user-friendly, menu-driven graphical interface. The system automatically locates the seedling root collar and measures stem diameter, shoot height, sturdiness ratio, root mass length, projected shoot and root area, shoot-root area ratio, and percent fine roots. Sample statistics are computed for each measured feature. Measurements for each seedling may be stored for later analysis. Feature measurements may be compared with multi-class quality criteria to determine sample quality or to perform multi-class sorting. Statistical summary and classification reports may be printed to facilitate the communication of quality concerns with grading personnel. Tests were conducted at a commercial forest nursery to evaluate measurement precision. Four quality control personnel measured root collar diameter, stem height, and root mass length on each of 200 conifer seedlings. The same seedlings were inspected four times by the machine vision system. Machine stem diameter measurement precision was four times greater than that of manual measurements. Machine and manual measurements had comparable precision for shoot height and root mass length.

  15. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-12-07

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  16. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shortis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  17. Coupled thermal-optic effects and electrical modulation mechanism of birefringence crystal with Gaussian laser incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ji; He Zhi-Hong; Ma Yu; Dong Shi-Kui

    2015-01-01

    We study the Gaussian laser transmission in lithium niobate crystal (LiNbO 3 ) by using the finite element method to solve the electromagnetic field’s frequency domain equation and energy equation. The heat generated is identified by calculating the transmission loss of the electromagnetic wave in the birefringence crystal, and the calculated value of the heat generated is substituted into the energy equation. The electromagnetic wave’s energy losses induced by its multiple refractions and reflections along with the resulting physical property changes of the lithium niobate crystal are considered. Influences of ambient temperature and heat transfer coefficient on refraction and walk-off angles of O-ray and E-ray in the cases of different incident powers and crystal thicknesses are analyzed. The E-ray electrical modulation instances, in which the polarized light waveform is adjusted to the rated condition via an applied electrical field in the cases of different ambient temperatures and heat transfer coefficients, are provided to conclude that there is a correlation between ambient temperature and applied electrical field intensity and a correlation between surface heat transfer coefficient and applied electrical field intensity. The applicable electrical modulation ranges without crystal breakdown are proposed. The study shows that the electrical field-adjustable heat transfer coefficient range becomes narrow as the incident power decreases and wide as the crystal thickness increases. In addition, it is pointed out that controlling the ambient temperature is easier than controlling the heat transfer coefficient. The results of the present study can be used as a quantitative theoretical basis for removing the adverse effects induced by thermal deposition due to linear laser absorption in the crystal, such as depolarization or wave front distortion, and indicate the feasibility of adjusting the refractive index in the window area by changing the heat transfer

  18. Birefringence Bragg Binary (3B) grating, quasi-Bragg grating and immersion gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebizuka, Noboru; Morita, Shin-ya; Yamagata, Yutaka; Sasaki, Minoru; Bianco, Andorea; Tanabe, Ayano; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Aoki, Wako

    2014-07-01

    A volume phase holographic (VPH) grating achieves high angular dispersion and very high diffraction efficiency for the first diffraction order and for S or P polarization. However the VPH grating could not achieve high diffraction efficiency for non-polarized light at a large diffraction angle because properties of diffraction efficiencies for S and P polarizations are different. Furthermore diffraction efficiency of the VPH grating extinguishes toward a higher diffraction order. A birefringence binary Bragg (3B) grating is a thick transmission grating with optically anisotropic material such as lithium niobate or liquid crystal. The 3B grating achieves diffraction efficiency up to 100% for non-polarized light by tuning of refractive indices for S and P polarizations, even in higher diffraction orders. We fabricated 3B grating with liquid crystal and evaluated the performance of the liquid crystal grating. A quasi-Bragg (QB) grating, which consists long rectangle mirrors aligned in parallel precisely such as a window shade, also achieves high diffraction efficiency toward higher orders. We fabricated QB grating by laminating of silica glass substrates and glued by pressure fusion of gold films. A quasi-Bragg immersion (QBI) grating has smooth mirror hypotenuse and reflector array inside the hypotenuse, instead of step-like grooves of a conventional immersion grating. An incident beam of the QBI grating reflects obliquely at a reflector, then reflects vertically at the mirror surface and reflects again at the same reflector. We are going to fabricate QBI gratings by laminating of mirror plates as similar to fabrication of the QB grating. We will also fabricate silicon and germanium immersion gratings with conventional step-like grooves by means of the latest diamond machining methods. We introduce characteristics and performance of these gratings.

  19. Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Yamamoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.

  20. Earth System Research Laboratory Long-Term Surface Aerosol Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerosol measurements began at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) baseline observatories in the mid-1970's with the...

  1. Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermid, I. Stuart; Haner, David A.; Kleiman, Moshe M.; Walsh, T. Daniel; White, Mary L.

    1991-01-01

    A lidar facility has been established at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-Table Mountain Facility located at an altitude of 2300 m in the San Gabriel Mountains in Southern California. This facility is using the technique of differential absorption lidar to measure atmospheric ozone concentration profiles. Two separate systems are needed to obtain the profile from the ground up to an altitude of 45 to 50 km. An Nd:YAG-based system is described for measurements from the ground up to 15 to 20 km altitude, and an excimer-laser-based system for measurements from 15 km to 45 to 50 km altitude. The systems were designed to make high-precision, long-term measurements to aid in the detection of changes in the atmospheric ozone abundance through participation in the Network of Detection of Stratospheric Change.

  2. Process tomography via sequential measurements on a single quantum system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bassa, H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors utilize a discrete (sequential) measurement protocol to investigate quantum process tomography of a single two-level quantum system, with an unknown initial state, undergoing Rabi oscillations. The ignorance of the dynamical parameters...

  3. Real-time personal dose measurement and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Cheng Chang; Liu Zhengshan; Yang Huating; Deng Changming; Zhang Xiu; Guo Zhanjie

    2001-01-01

    The composition and design of a real-time personal dose measurement and management system are described. Accordingly, some pertinent hardware circuits and software codes including their operation modes are presented

  4. Quadratic measurement and conditional state preparation in an optomechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Brawley, George; Vanner, Michael A.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator....

  5. ARTS III Computer Systems Performance Measurement Prototype Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-01

    Direct measurement of computer systems is of vital importance in: a) developing an intelligent grasp of the variables which affect overall performance; b)tuning the systsem for optimum benefit; c)determining under what conditions saturation threshold...

  6. Oceanographic measurements from the Texas Automated Buoy System (TABS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Texas Automated Buoy System contains daily oceanographic measurements from seven buoys off the Texas coast from Brownsville to Sabine. The Texas General Land...

  7. The software for the CERN LEP beam orbit measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morpurgo, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Beam Orbit Measurement (BOM) system of LEP consists of 504 pickups, distributed all around the accelerator, that are capable of measuring the positions of the two beams. Their activity has to be synchronized, and the data produced by them have to be collected together, for example to form a 'closed orbit measurement' or a 'trajectory measurement'. On the user side, several clients can access simultaneously the results from this instrument. An automatic acquisition mode, and an 'on request' one, can run in parallel. This results in a very flexible and powerful system. The functionality of the BOM system is fully described, as well as the structure of the software processes which constitute the system, and their interconnections. Problems solved during the implementation are emphasized. (author)

  8. An Antenna Measurement System Based on Optical Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Hosono

    2013-01-01

    the advantage of the system is demonstrated by measuring an ultra-wideband (UWB antenna both by the optical and electrical feeding systems and comparing with a calculated result. Ripples in radiation pattern due to the electrical feeding are successfully suppressed by the optical feeding. For example, in a radiation measurement on the azimuth plane at 3 GHz, ripple amplitude of 1.0 dB that appeared in the electrical feeding is reduced to 0.3 dB. In addition, a circularly polarized (CP antenna is successfully measured by the proposed system to show that the system is available not only for amplitude but also phase measurements.

  9. Accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, Takashi; Maruishi, Yoshihiro (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works); Aritomi, Masanori; Kawa, Tunemichi

    1993-05-01

    An accurate volume measurement system for a large amount of plutonium nitrate solution stored in a reprocessing or a conversion plant has been developed at the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC) Tokai Works. A pair of differential digital quartz pressure transducers is utilized in the volume measurement system. To obtain high accuracy, it is important that the non-linearity of the transducer is minimized within the measurement range, the zero point is stabilized, and the damping property of the pneumatic line is designed to minimize pressure oscillation. The accuracy of the pressure measurement can always be within 2Pa with re-calibration once a year. In the PCDF, the overall uncertainty of the volume measurement has been evaluated to be within 0.2 %. This system has been successfully applied to the Japanese government's and IAEA's routine inspection since 1984. (author).

  10. Human factors research using the EPRI performance measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozinsky, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A computer-based evaluation system has been developed for objectively measuring certain elements of an operator's performance on a power plant simulator. The Performance Measurement System (PMS) is designed to help the instructor in his total evaluation by providing measurements and documentation of certain essential elements of a trainee's performance. Some measurements of operator performance can be applied to Human Factors research on the operator - control room interface. The computerized system provides measurements of how the operator has responded to plant indicators and made switch manipulations. Magnetic tape data containing indications of all the control room gauges, annunciator lights, and switch and knob positions are collected, with time to one-second accuracy

  11. Attitude angular measurement system based on MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei

    2014-09-01

    For the purpose of monitoring the attitude of aircraft, an angular measurement system using a MEMS heat convection accelerometer is presented in this study. A double layers conditioning circuit that center around the single chip processor is designed and built. Professional display software with the RS232 standard is used to communicate between the sensor and the computer. Calibration experiments were carried out to characterize the measuring system with the range of - 90°to +90°. The curves keep good linearity with the practical angle. The maximum deviation occurs at the 90°where the value is 2.8°.The maximum error is 1.6% and the repeatability is measured to be 2.1%. Experiments proved that the developed measurement system is capable of measuring attitude angle.

  12. Measurement system analysis for one-sided tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szemik Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement system analysis is carried out in order to determine if a capability to perform measurements in terms of product and process control is sufficient, indicating that the type I and the type II appraisal errors probability are acceptable. Statistical analyses for measurement system evaluation presented in the literature and the industrial manuals are not applicable for all complex and unusual applications. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a robust statistical analysis method for measurement system variability analysis, in terms of product control scenario applied to one-sided tolerance. In the hereby presented study, the authors presented the theoretical principles of statistical techniques for measurement variations evaluation. Subsequently, the formula of gauge repeatability and reproducibility in terms of lower specification limit was proposed. The research hypothesis was tested using the statistical analysis.

  13. Simuluating quantum many-body systems subject to measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren

    is found. The technique is exemplified by numerical simulations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-chain model subject to various instances of the measurement model. In particular, we focus on local measurements with small support and nonlocal measurements, which induce long-range correlations.......We demonstrate how to simulate both discrete and continuous stochastic evolutions of a quantum many-body system subject to measurements using matrix product states. A particular, but generally applicable, measurement model is analyzed and a simple representation in terms of matrix product operators...

  14. Simulating quantum many-body systems subject to measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren

    is found. The technique is exemplified by numerical simulations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-chain model subject to various instances of the measurement model. In particular, we focus on local measurements with small support and nonlocal measurements, which induce long-range correlations.......We demonstrate how to simulate both discrete and continuous stochastic evolutions of a quantum many-body system subject to measurements using matrix product states. A particular, but generally applicable, measurement model is analyzed and a simple representation in terms of matrix product operators...

  15. Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available equally well to both classical and quantum optical systems. A projective measurement, in the context of quantum mechanics, is understood to be the process where a projection operator operates on some input state. Often this projection operator is composed...) Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems Filippus S. Roux* and Yingwen Zhang CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa (Received 3 July 2014; published 22 September 2014) Experimental setups for the optical...

  16. The flow measurement plan for the primary system of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun; Seo, J. K.; Park, C. T.; Yoon, J. H.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, D. J.

    2001-08-01

    It is the common features of the integrated reactor that the main components of the primary system are installed within the reactor vessel, and so there are no any flow pipes connecting the reactor coolant pumps or steam generators. Due to no any flow pipes, it is impossible to measure the differential pressure at the primary system of the integrated reactor, and it also makes impossible measure the primary coolant flow rate. SMART is also a integrated reactor type, and have a problem as same as the above case. The objective of the study is to draw up the flow measurement plan for the primary system of SMART. In this study, firstly we reviewed the flow measurement methods at the primary system for the existing commercial nuclear power reactors. As a result of the review, we selected preliminarily the 3 methods which is a good possibility of application to SMART. The 3 methods are as follows. Flow measurement method by MCP rotation speed, flow measurement method by HBM, flow measurement method by pump motor power. For the above methods, we have evaluated whether they actually can be applied to SMART, and also have set up the concrete methodology. Finally we have made a selection of the above methods as the flow measurement plan for the primary system of SMART. Peculiarly, we did not found out a precedent which the direct pump motor power-flow rate curve is used as the flow measurement method in the existing commercial nuclear power reactors. Therefore, to use this method for SMART, it is needed to bear the follow-up measures in mind. The follow-up measures is included in this report

  17. Hierarchical, Three-Dimensional Measurement System for Crime Scene Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Adamczyk; Maciej, Sieniło; Robert, Sitnik; Adam, Woźniak

    2017-07-01

    We present a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) measuring systems, developed for the process of crime scene documentation. This measuring system facilitates the preparation of more insightful, complete, and objective documentation for crime scenes. Our system reflects the actual requirements for hierarchical documentation, and it consists of three independent 3D scanners: a laser scanner for overall measurements, a situational structured light scanner for more minute measurements, and a detailed structured light scanner for the most detailed parts of tscene. Each scanner has its own spatial resolution, of 2.0, 0.3, and 0.05 mm, respectively. The results of interviews we have conducted with technicians indicate that our developed 3D measuring system has significant potential to become a useful tool for forensic technicians. To ensure the maximum compatibility of our measuring system with the standards that regulate the documentation process, we have also performed a metrological validation and designated the maximum permissible length measurement error E MPE for each structured light scanner. In this study, we present additional results regarding documentation processes conducted during crime scene inspections and a training session. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Automatic control system for measuring currents produced by ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancaccio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Ionization Chambers in current mode operation are usually used in Nuclear Metrology. Activity measurements are quickly performed by Ionization Chambers, with very good precision. For this purpose measurements of very low ionization currents, carried out by high quality instrumentation, are required. Usually, electrometers perform the current integration method under command of signals from an automation system, in order to reduce the measurement uncertainties. Among the measurement systems at the Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear (LMN) of IPEN, there are two ionization chamber systems. In the present work, an automation system developed for current integration measurements is described. This automation system is composed by software (graphic interface and control) and an electronic module connected to a microcomputer, by means of a commercial data acquisition card. Several test measurements were performed in order to determine the intrinsic uncertainty, linearity and stability of the system. Using calibrated radioactive solutions, the IG12/A20 chamber calibration factors for 18 F and 153 Sm were obtained, making possible to determine activities of these radionuclides. (author)

  19. Consensus of Multiagent Systems with Sampled Information and Noisy Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Jun Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider consensus problems of first-order multiagent systems with sampled information and noisy measurements. A distributed stochastic approximation type algorithm is employed to attenuate the measurement noises. We provide conditions under which almost sure strong consensus is guaranteed for fixed and switching directed network topologies. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  20. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelesen, Peter [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  1. Measurement System for Playout Delay of TV Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, W.J.; Stokking, H.M.; Brandenburg, R. van; Boer, P.T. de

    2014-01-01

    TV signals are carried towards end-users using different (broadcast) technologies and by different providers. This is causing differences in the playout timing of the TV signal at different locations and devices. Authors have developed a measurement system for measuring the relative playout delay of

  2. Logarithmic derivative method and system for capacitance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yichun; Wang, Lingzhi; Cai, Yuanfeng; Wu, Cunqiao

    2015-08-01

    A novel method based on logarithmic derivative is introduced to analyze multi-lifetime decay. As the discharge voltage signal of a RC circuit is a special kind of multi-lifetime exponential decay, the logarithmic derivative method can be used to measure single capacitance and multiple capacitances. With the logarithmic derivative method, a log(t) curve strongly peaked at precisely log(τ) is obtained, where the lifetime τ equals to RC. In a measurement system, if the resistance R is known, then the capacitance under test can be calculated. A logarithmic derivative curve fitting method is also presented, which has better anti-noise capability than the method that simply finds the maximum data on the peak. The curve fitting method can also be used for multiple capacitors measurement. To measure small capacitances, a large enough time window of the measuring instrument is required. Based on a field programmable gate array and a high speed analog-to-digital converter, a measurement system is developed. This system can provide the 16-bit resolution with sampling rate up to 250 MHz, which has a large enough time window for measuring lifetime shorter than 10(-8) s. To reduce the amount of data needed to be stored and the noise due to the derivative treatment of transient data, the interpolation and noise-filter algorithms are employed. Experiments indicate that the logarithmic derivative method and system are suitable for the measurement of capacitances discharge and other exponential decay processes.

  3. 24 CFR 84.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metric system of measurement. 84.15 Section 84.15 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205...

  4. A laboratory goniometer system for measuring reflectance and emittance anisotropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, P.P.J.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Bartholomeus, H.; Schaepman, M.E.; Schaepman-Strub, G.; Jalink, H.; Schoor, van der R.; Jong, de A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a laboratory goniometer system for performing multi-angular measurements under controlled illumination conditions is described. A commercially available robotic arm enables the acquisition of a large number of measurements over the full hemisphere within a short time span making it

  5. Coherent Bremsstrahlung, Coherent Pair Production, Birefringence and Polarimetry in the 20-170 GeV energy range using aligned crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Y V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, U; Uggerhøj, Erik; Van Rens, B; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Ünel, G; Kononets, Yu V

    2008-01-01

    The processes of coherent bremsstrahlung (CB) and coherent pair production (CPP) based on aligned crystal targets have been studied in the energy range 20-170 GeV. The experimental arrangement allowed these phenomena as well as their polarization dependence to be evaluated under conditions where single-photon cross-sections could be measured. This proved very important as the theoretical description of CB and CPP is an area of active theoretical debate and development. The theoretical approach used in this paper predicts both the cross sections and polarization observables very well for the experimental conditions investigated, indicating that the understanding of CB and CPP is reliable up to energies of 170 GeV. A birefringence effect in CPP was studied and it was demonstrated this enabled new technologies for high energy photon beam optics, such as polarimeters (for both linear and circular polarization) and phase plates. We also present new results regarding the features of coherent high energy photon emis...

  6. Procurement performance measurement system in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Ozdamar, Linet; Ng, Chai Peng

    2005-01-01

    The rising operating cost of providing healthcare is of concern to health care providers. As such, measurement of procurement performance will enable competitive advantage and provide a framework for continuous improvement. The objective of this paper is to develop a procurement performance measurement system. The paper reviews the existing literature in procurement performance measurement to identify the key areas of purchasing performance. By studying the three components in the supply chain collectively with the resources, procedures and output, a model is been developed. Additionally, a balanced scorecard is proposed by establishing a set of generic measures and six perspectives. A case study conducted at the Singapore Hospital applies the conceptual model to describe the purchasing department and the activities within and outside the department. The results indicate that the material management department has already made a good start in measuring the procurement process through the implementation of the balanced scorecard. There are many data that are collected but not properly collated and utilized. Areas lacking measurement include cycle time of delivery, order processing time, effectiveness, efficiency and reliability. Though a lot of hard work was involved, the advantages of establishing a measurement system outweigh the costs and efforts involved in its implementation. Results of balanced scorecard measurements provide decision-makers with critical information on efficiency and effectiveness of the purchasing department's work. The measurement model developed could be used for any hospital procurement system.

  7. A robotic vision system to measure tree traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The autonomous measurement of tree traits, such as branching structure, branch diameters, branch lengths, and branch angles, is required for tasks such as robotic pruning of trees as well as structural phenotyping. We propose a robotic vision system called the Robotic System for Tree Shape Estimati...

  8. Entropic uncertainty measures for large dimensional hydrogenic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Puertas-Centeno; N.M. Temme (Nico); I.V. Toranzo; J.S. Dehesa

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe entropic moments of the probability density of a quantum system in position and momentum spaces describe not only some fundamental and/or experimentally accessible quantities of the system but also the entropic uncertainty measures of Rényi type, which allow one to find the most

  9. Improved measurement system for the whole body monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    A static four-detector system has been established as a whole body radioactivity measurement system. A technique is being developed to position the detectors in such a manner as to minimise longitudinal distribution effects within a subject. This technique, which represents the human body as a simple geometric model, requires the determination of efficiency at any point within this model

  10. Estimating angle-dependent systematic error and measurement uncertainty for a conoscopic holography measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paviotti, Anna; Carmignato, Simone; Voltan, Alessandro; Laurenti, Nicola; Cortelazzo, Guido M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess angle-dependent systematic errors and measurement uncertainties for a conoscopic holography laser sensor mounted on a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). The main contribution of our work is the definition of a methodology for the derivation of point-sensitive systematic and random errors, which must be determined in order to evaluate the accuracy of the measuring system. An ad hoc three dimensional artefact has been built for the task. The experimental test has been designed so as to isolate the effects of angular variations from those of other influence quantities that might affect the measurement result. We have found the best measurand to assess angle-dependent errors, and found some preliminary results on the expression of the systematic error and measurement uncertainty as a function of the zenith angle for the chosen measurement system and sample material.

  11. [Principles and experimental analysis of a measuring system for measuring spacesuit joint's damping parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Jin, Ming-he; Liu, Hong; Gao, Xiao-hui; Li, Tan-qiu; Zhao, Yong-jun

    2003-10-01

    To measure the damping parameters of the spacesuit joint. The principles of the passive robot system for measuring spacesuit joint's damping parameters were presented. Basing on its special mechanical structure, a 3 DOF model of the flexible IVA (intra-vehicular activity) spacesuit's sleeve was built. The optimal approximation of inverse calculation based on 6 dimension space interval was described. The damping parameters of an actual IVA spacesuit's sleeve were measured on the actual testbed. Also, the potential application of the measuring system was discussed. The model of spacesuit sleeve and the forward/inverse kinematics were proved by experimental measurements and real time 3D simulation. The principles and the proposed method of the measurement were testified.

  12. A new system for the measurement of the space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazmandi, T.; Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Beaujean, R.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation from space mainly consists of charged heavy particles (protons and heavier particles). Due to this fact, the effective dose significantly differs from the physical dose. Current measuring equipment is not fully suitable to measure both of the quantities simultaneously. A combined device for measurement of the mentioned values consists of an on-board thermoluminescence dosimeter reader and a three-axis silicon detector linear energy transfer spectrometer. This paper deals with the main characteristic of the new system. This system can be, applied for dosimetry of air crew as well. (authors)

  13. A new system for measurement of the space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazmandi, T.; Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Beaujean, R.

    2001-01-01

    The space radiation mainly consists of heavy charged particles (protons and heavier particles). Due to this fact its effective dose significantly differs from the physical dose. The recently used measuring equipment is not fully suitable to measure both quantities simultaneously. The combined device for measurement of mentioned values consists of an on board thermoluminescent dosimeter reader and a three axis silicon telescope as a linear energy transfer spectrometer. The paper deals with the main characteristics of the new system. This system can be applied for dosimetry of air-crew as well. (authors)

  14. Experiences with phantom measurements in different mammographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Aichinger, U.; Lell, M.; Kuchar, I.; Bautz, W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Determination of image quality between conventional film screen system, digital phosphor storage plate mammography (high resolution) and digital mammography. Materials and Methods: Mammograms of the Wisconsin Mammographic Random Phantom, Model 152 A (Radiation Measurements Inc., Wisconsin) were acquired using a conventional film-screen system, a digital storage phosphor plate system and a digital system. Results: Of 225 possible details, 191/a 38.2, 193/a 38.6, and 202/a 40.4 details were detected with conventional film-screen system, digital phosphor storage plate mammography and digital mammography, respectively. There was no significant difference (p [de

  15. Realization of a free-space 2 × 4 90° optical hybrid based on the birefringence and electro-optic effects of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Lingyu; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    A free-space 2 × 4 90° optical hybrid with electro-optic modulation is presented. The hybrid principally consists of two pairs of electro-optic crystal plates coated with gold electrodes and a polarization analyzer. The optical hybrid uses the birefringence effect of a crystal to split and combine a signal beam and a local oscillator beam, uses the electro-optic effect to introduce a phase modulation and produce a phase shift, and outputs four-channel signal/local oscillator mixed beams whose phase difference can be adjusted continuously. A LiNbO 3 crystal is used to design and manufacture the space optical hybrid, and an experimental system is used to verify its performance. The results show that the output phase of the hybrid is continuously adjustable, enabling the hybrid to function perfectly as a 2 × 4 90° space optical hybrid under an appropriate electric field, and that the phase error can be compensated for by an electric field adjustment. (paper)

  16. Radially polarized and passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser based on intracavity birefringent mode discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuehuan; Wu, Yongxiao; Chen, Sanbin; Li, Jianlang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a passive Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser with radially polarized beam emission by using a c-cut YVO4 birefringent crystal as the intracavity polarization discriminator, and a Cr4+:YAG crystal as the saturable absorber and output coupler. The maximum averaged laser power reached 3.89 W with a high slope efficiency of 66.5%. The laser pulse had a peak power of 161 W, 160 ns duration, and 151 kHz repetition rate at the absorbed pump power of 6.48 W. Such a radially polarized pulse would facilitate numerous applications.

  17. Diffraction behavior of a birefringence grating and a surface relief grating recorded on an azo polymer film by using writing beams with a (+45 .deg. , -45 .deg. ) polarization combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ui-Jung; Kim, Jung-Sung; Oh, Cha-Hwan; Lee, Geon-Joon; Lee, Young-Pak; Song, Seok-Ho; Kim, Pill-Soo; Han, Yang-Kyoo

    2004-01-01

    By employing an orthogonal linear-polarization combination, (+45 .deg. ,-45 .deg. ), we prepared a surface relief grating (SRG) and a birefringence grating (BG) on an azo polymer film. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the SRG height gradually increased, and the height was 56.5 nm at an input fluence of 63 J/cm 2 . All the diffraction orders from the gratings were measured simultaneously, and the BG characteristics were analyzed from the s and the p components of the first-order diffraction beam and the measured SRG height. The BG showed an abrupt increase in the beginning of writing, but decreased shortly later, and became smaller than the SRG at a few minutes after writing. The phase shift between the two gratings was determined to be π, which is crucial for determining the SRG formation mechanism.

  18. Development of a system to measure local measurement conditions around textile electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saim; Oliveira, Joana; Roethlingshoefer, Lisa; Leonhard, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    The three main influence factors on the interface between textile electrode an skin are: temperature, contact pressure and relative humidity. This paper presents first results of a prototype, which measures these local measurement conditions around textile electrodes. The wearable prototype is a data acquisition system based on a microcontroller with a flexible sensor sleeve. Validation measurements included variation of ambient temperature, contact pressures and sleeve material. Results show a good correlation with data found in literature.

  19. Noise Susceptibility Measurements of Front-End Electronics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Allongue, B; Blanchot, G; Faccio, F; Fuentes, C; Michelis, S; Orlandi, S; Toro, A

    2008-01-01

    The conducted and radiated noise that is emitted by a power supply constrains the noise performance of the frontend electronics system that it powers. The characterization of the noise susceptibility of the front-end electronics allows setting proper requirements for the back-end power supply in order to achieve the expected system performance. A method to measure the common mode current susceptibility using current probes is presented. The compatibility between power supplies and various front-end systems is explored.

  20. New Vehicle Speed Measurement System with Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Goda, Yuji; Chen, Shenjing; Zhang, Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    This research proposes a new vehicle speed measuring system based on image processing technique. Generally, in order to detect the vehicle from image taken in dark circumstance, expensive high-performance camera is needed. However, this system needs only a cheap general camera, like digital camera or the camera mounted on smartphones. Thereby, this system uses as speed gun. By controlling the shutter speed of camera, a bright line which comes from the headlamp of a moving vehicle is appeared ...

  1. Diagnostic and Measuring Systems of the Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the diagnostic and measuring systems dedicated for complex output tests of power transformers aswell as their diagnostic is dcscribcd. The aim of research in this area was to elaborate the problem of so-called open loop measuring system controlled by PC. The attribute "open" means the possibility to adapt the system for different electric equipment, different measurands and an zdaptation of the way of monitoring, evaluation and distribution of output information according to specific requirements the controlled transformer.

  2. Armando System Measurements at R-306 FY 2003 Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, S S

    2003-01-01

    This report details some of the measurements made by Bechtel Nevada (BN) to characterize the Armando radiographic detection system and marks the completion of the R-306 Armando System Characterization milestone. The measurements, made in July 2003, utilized the Cygnus pulse power machine, which was assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Firing Site R-306. This report describes the test configuration used and the findings concerning the following Armando radiographic detection system issues for source spot size, mirror vs. pellicle performance, scintillator configuration evaluation, resolution and reproducibility, off-axis scatter contribution, and source spectra reproducibility.

  3. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test procedure is to verify that the mechanical and electrical features of the Surface Moisture Measurement System are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. This procedure will be used in conjunction with a software acceptance test procedure, which addresses testing of software and electrical features not addressed in this document. Hardware testing will be performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  4. System for measuring of proton polarization in polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, A.Ya.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kuz'menko, V.S.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Trotsenko, V.I.; Chechetenko, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement system of proton polarization in the target, which uses the method of nuclear magnetic resonance is described. To record the signal of NMR-absorption a parallel Q-meter of voltage with analogous subtraction of resonance characteristics of measurement circuit is used. To obtain gradual sensitivity of the system to polarization state in the whole volume of the target the measurement coils is made of tape conductor. The analysis and mathematical modelling of Q-meter are carried out. Corrections for nonlinearity and dispersion are calculated. Key diagrams of the main electron blocks of Q-meter are presented. The system described operates on line with the M6000 computer. Total error of measurement of polarization value of free protons in the target does not exceed 6% [ru

  5. Escape rate scaling in infinite measure preserving systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munday, Sara; Knight, Georgie

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scaling of the escape rate from piecewise linear dynamical systems displaying intermittency due to the presence of an indifferent fixed point. Strong intermittent behaviour in the dynamics can result in the system preserving an infinite measure. We define a neighbourhood of the indifferent fixed point to be a hole through which points escape and investigate the scaling of the rate of this escape as the length of the hole decreases, both in the finite measure preserving case and infinite measure preserving case. In the infinite measure preserving systems we observe logarithmic corrections to and polynomial scaling of the escape rate with hole length. Finally we conjecture a relationship between the wandering rate and the observed scaling of the escape rate. (paper)

  6. The AD and ELENA orbit, trajectory and intensity measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Hernández, R.; Alves, D.; Angoletta, M. E.; Marqversen, O.; Molendijk, J.; Oponowicz, E.; Ruffieux, R.; Sánchez-Quesada, J.; SØby, L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the new Antiproton Decelerator (AD) orbit measurement system and the Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) orbit, trajectory and intensity measurement system. The AD machine at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is presently being used to decelerate antiprotons from 3.57 GeV/c to 100 MeV/c for matter vs anti-matter comparative studies. The ELENA machine, presently under commissioning, has been designed to provide an extra deceleration stage down to 13.7 MeV/c. The AD orbit system is based on 32 horizontal and 27 vertical electrostatic Beam Position Monitor (BPM) fitted with existing low noise front-end amplifiers while the ELENA system consists of 24 \\gls{BPM}s equipped with new low-noise head amplifiers. In both systems the front-end amplifiers generate a difference (delta) and a sum (sigma) signal which are sent to the digital acquisition system, placed tens of meters away from the AD or ELENA rings, where they are digitized and further processed. The beam position is calculated by dividing the difference signal by the sum signal either using directly the raw digitized data for measuring the turn-by-turn trajectory in the ELENA system or after down-mixing the signals to baseband for the orbit measurement in both machines. The digitized sigma signal will be used in the ELENA system to calculate the bunched beam intensity and the Schottky parameters with coasting beam after passing through different signal processing chain. The digital acquisition arrangement for both systems is based on the same hardware, also used in the ELENA Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) system, which follows the VME Switched Serial (VXS) enhancement of the Versa Module Eurocard 64x extension (VME64x) standard and includes VITA 57 standard Field Programmable Gate Array Mezzanine Card (FMC). The digital acquisition Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) firmware shares many common functionalities with the LLRF system but

  7. Development of an integrated control and measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manges, W.W.

    1984-03-01

    This thesis presents a tutorial on the issues involved in the development of a minicomputer-based, distributed intelligence data acquisition and process control system to support complex experimental facilities. The particular system discussed in this thesis is under development for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). In the AVLIS program, we were careful to integrate the computer sections of the implementation into the instrumentation system rather than adding them as an appendage. We then addressed the reliability and availability of the system as a separate concern. Thus, our concept of an integrated control and measurement (ICAM) system forms the basis for this thesis. This thesis details the logic and philosophy that went into the development of this system and explains why the commercially available turn-key systems generally are not suitable. Also, the issues involved in the specification of the components for such an integrated system are emphasized

  8. Remote measurements of radioactivity distribution with BROKK robotic system - 16147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Oleg; Danilovich, Alexey; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Sergey; Potapov, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Robotic system for the remote measurement of radioactivity in the reactor areas was developed. The BROKK robotic system replaces hand-held radiation measuring tools. The system consists of a collimated gamma detector, a standard gamma detector, color CCD video camera and searchlights, all mounted on a robotic platform (BROKK). The signals from the detectors are coupled with the video signals and are transferred to an operator's console via a radio channel or a cable. Operator works at a safe position. The video image of the object with imposed exposure dose rate from the detectors generates an image on the monitor screen, and the images are recorded for subsequent analysis. Preliminary work has started for the decommissioning of a research reactor at the RRC 'Kurchatov Institute'. Results of the remote radioactivity measurements with new system during radiation inspection waste storage of this reactor are presented and discussed. (authors)

  9. Arrester Resistive Current Measuring System Based on Heterogeneous Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun Hua; Li, Zai Lin; Yuan, Feng; Hou Pan, Feng; Guo, Zhan Nan; Han, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Metal Oxide Arrester (MOA) suffers from aging and poor insulation due to long-term impulse voltage and environmental impact, and the value and variation tendency of resistive current can reflect the health conditions of MOA. The common wired MOA detection need to use long cables, which is complicated to operate, and that wireless measurement methods are facing the problems of poor data synchronization and instability. Therefore a novel synchronous measurement system of arrester current resistive based on heterogeneous network is proposed, which simplifies the calculation process and improves synchronization, accuracy and stability and of the measuring system. This system combines LoRa wireless network, high speed wireless personal area network and the process layer communication, and realizes the detection of arrester working condition. Field test data shows that the system has the characteristics of high accuracy, strong anti-interference ability and good synchronization, which plays an important role in ensuring the stable operation of the power grid.

  10. Development of measurement system for gauge block interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomkokard, S.; Jinuntuya, N.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    We developed a measurement system for collecting and analyzing the fringe pattern images from a gauge block interferometer. The system was based on Raspberry Pi which is an open source system with python programming and opencv image manipulation library. The images were recorded by the Raspberry Pi camera with five-megapixel capacity. The noise of images was suppressed for the best result in analyses. The low noise images were processed to find the edge of fringe patterns using the contour technique for the phase shift analyses. We tested our system with the phase shift patterns between a gauge block and a reference plate. The phase shift patterns were measured by a Twyman-Green type of interferometer using the He-Ne laser with the temperature controlled at 20.0 °C. The results of the measurement will be presented and discussed.

  11. Nonlinear polarization dynamics in a weakly birefringent all-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber : toward a practical coherent fiber supercontinuum laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    Dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreased all-normal dispersion (DFDD-ANDi) photonic crystal fibers have been identified as promising candidates for high-spectral-power coherent supercontinuum (SC) generation. However, the effects of the unintentional birefringence of the fibers on the SC......−5 profoundly affects the SC generation in a DFDD-ANDi photonic crystal fiber. Conventional simulations based on the scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE) fail to reproduce the prominent observed features of the SC generation in a short piece (9-cm) of this fiber. However, these features can...... be qualitatively or semi-quantitatively understood by the coupled GNLSE that takes into account the form-birefringence. The nonlinear polarization effects induced by the birefringence significantly distort the otherwise simple spectrotemporal field of the SC pulses. We therefore propose the fabrication...

  12. Drone based measurement system for radiofrequency exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vandenbossche, Matthias; Thielens, Arno; Martens, Luc

    2016-03-10

    For the first time, a method to assess radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure of the general public in real environments with a true free-space antenna system is presented. Using lightweight electronics and multiple antennas placed on a drone, it is possible to perform exposure measurements. This technique will enable researchers to measure three-dimensional RF-EMF exposure patterns accurately in the future and at locations currently difficult to access. A measurement procedure and appropriate measurement settings have been developed. As an application, outdoor measurements are performed as a function of height up to 60 m for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz base station exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Bohmian mechanics, open quantum systems and continuous measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Nassar, Antonio B

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how Bohmian mechanics overcomes the need for a measurement postulate involving wave function collapse. The measuring process plays a very important role in quantum mechanics. It has been widely analyzed within the Copenhagen approach through the Born and von Neumann postulates, with later extension due to Lüders. In contrast, much less effort has been invested in the measurement theory within the Bohmian mechanics framework. The continuous measurement (sharp and fuzzy, or strong and weak) problem is considered here in this framework. The authors begin by generalizing the so-called Mensky approach, which is based on restricted path integral through quantum corridors. The measuring system is then considered to be an open quantum system following a stochastic Schrödinger equation. Quantum stochastic trajectories (in the Bohmian sense) and their role in basic quantum processes are discussed in detail. The decoherence process is thereby described in terms of classical trajectories issuing from th...

  14. Development of distance measurement system using Ar laser under water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakawa, Shinichi; Shibaike, Kunio; Shimizu, Sumiya; Yoshimura, Koji; Aoyama, Tomio

    1996-01-01

    For positioning measurement of an underwater vehicle robot in a reactor pressure vessel for ultrasonic inspection of the vessel, we developed distance measurement system using pan/tilt mechanisms to control directions of an argon gas laser and outgoing/incoming lights. This can automatically measure three-dimensional position and follow of the underwater vehicle robot up to 0.5 ppm water turbidity, this is the first of its kind in the world. This system can measure up to maximum length measuring distance of 8.5 m underwater, within a ±3.6 mm error. We adopted the power 75 mW output for argon gas laser modulated at 80 MHz, and a detector with resolution of 0.004 degree for the pan/tilt mechanisms. (author)

  15. Low Power Shoe Integrated Intelligent Wireless Gait Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Y.; Mazalan, M.; Bakar, N. A.; Anuar, A. F.; Zainol, M. Z.; Hamzah, F.

    2014-04-01

    Gait analysis measurement is a method to assess and identify gait events and the measurements of dynamic, motion and pressure parameters involving the lowest part of the body. This significant analysis is widely used in sports, rehabilitation as well as other health diagnostic towards improving the quality of life. This paper presents a new system empowered by Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU), ultrasonic sensors, piezoceramic sensors array, XBee wireless modules and Arduino processing unit. This research focuses on the design and development of a low power ultra-portable shoe integrated wireless intelligent gait measurement using MEMS and recent microelectronic devices for foot clearance, orientation, error correction, gait events and pressure measurement system. It is developed to be cheap, low power, wireless, real time and suitable for real life in-door and out-door environment.

  16. A complex network-based importance measure for mechatronics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Bi, Lifeng; Lin, Shuai; Li, Man; Shi, Hao

    2017-01-01

    In view of the negative impact of functional dependency, this paper attempts to provide an alternative importance measure called Improved-PageRank (IPR) for measuring the importance of components in mechatronics systems. IPR is a meaningful extension of the centrality measures in complex network, which considers usage reliability of components and functional dependency between components to increase importance measures usefulness. Our work makes two important contributions. First, this paper integrates the literature of mechatronic architecture and complex networks theory to define component network. Second, based on the notion of component network, a meaningful IPR is brought into the identifying of important components. In addition, the IPR component importance measures, and an algorithm to perform stochastic ordering of components due to the time-varying nature of usage reliability of components and functional dependency between components, are illustrated with a component network of bogie system that consists of 27 components.

  17. Limitations and corrections in measuring dynamic characteristics of structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, P.L.

    1978-10-01

    The work deals with limitations encountered in measuring the dynamic characteristics of structural systems. Structural loading and response are measured by transducers possessing multiple resonant frequencies in their transfer function. In transient environments, the resultant signals from these transducers are shown to be analytically unpredictable in amplitude level and frequency content. Data recorded during nuclear effects simulation testing on structures are analyzed. Results of analysis can be generalized to any structure which encounters dynamic loading. Methods to improve the recorded data are described which can be implemented on a frequency selective basis during the measurement process. These improvements minimize data distortion attributable to the transfer characteristics of the measuring transducers

  18. A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Dombrowski, Mark; Korb, C. Laurence; Milrod, Jeffry; Walden, Harvey

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of a differential absorption lidar system capable of remotely measuring the vertical structure of tropospheric pressure and temperature are described. The measurements are based on the absorption by atmospheric oxygen of the spectrally narrowband output of two pulsed alexandrite lasers. Detailed laser output spectral characteristics, which are critical to successful lidar measurements, are presented. Spectral linewidths of 0.026 and 0.018 per cm for the lasers were measured with over 99.99 percent of the energy contained in three longitudinal modes.

  19. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  20. Three-dimensional measurement system for crime scene documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marcin; Hołowko, Elwira; Lech, Krzysztof; Michoński, Jakub; MÄ czkowski, Grzegorz; Bolewicki, Paweł; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Sitnik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Three dimensional measurements (such as photogrammetry, Time of Flight, Structure from Motion or Structured Light techniques) are becoming a standard in the crime scene documentation process. The usage of 3D measurement techniques provide an opportunity to prepare more insightful investigation and helps to show every trace in the context of the entire crime scene. In this paper we would like to present a hierarchical, three-dimensional measurement system that is designed for crime scenes documentation process. Our system reflects the actual standards in crime scene documentation process - it is designed to perform measurement in two stages. First stage of documentation, the most general, is prepared with a scanner with relatively low spatial resolution but also big measuring volume - it is used for the whole scene documentation. Second stage is much more detailed: high resolution but smaller size of measuring volume for areas that required more detailed approach. The documentation process is supervised by a specialised application CrimeView3D, that is a software platform for measurements management (connecting with scanners and carrying out measurements, automatic or semi-automatic data registration in the real time) and data visualisation (3D visualisation of documented scenes). It also provides a series of useful tools for forensic technicians: virtual measuring tape, searching for sources of blood spatter, virtual walk on the crime scene and many others. In this paper we present our measuring system and the developed software. We also provide an outcome from research on metrological validation of scanners that was performed according to VDI/VDE standard. We present a CrimeView3D - a software-platform that was developed to manage the crime scene documentation process. We also present an outcome from measurement sessions that were conducted on real crime scenes with cooperation with Technicians from Central Forensic Laboratory of Police.