WorldWideScience

Sample records for birds theropoda aves

  1. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C; ZUSI, RICHARD L

    2007-01-01

    . Bootstrapping (based on 10 000 replicates) percentages and ratchet-minimized support (Bremer) indices indicated most nodes to be robust. Several fossil Neornithes (e.g. Dinornithiformes, Aepyornithiformes) were placed within the ingroup a posteriori either through unconstrained, heursitic searches based on the complete matrix augmented by these taxa separately or using backbone-constraints. Analysis confirmed the topology among outgroup Theropoda and achieved robust resolution at virtually all levels of the Neornithes. Findings included monophyly of the palaeognathous birds, comprising the sister taxa Tinamiformes and ratites, respectively, and the Anseriformes and Galliformes as monophyletic sister-groups, together forming the sister-group to other Neornithes exclusive of the Palaeognathae (Neoaves). Noteworthy inferences include: (i) the sister-group to remaining Neoaves comprises a diversity of marine and wading birds; (ii) Podicipedidae are the sister-group of Gaviidae, and not closely related to the Phoenicopteridae, as recently suggested; (iii) the traditional Pelecaniformes, including the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) as sister-taxon to other members, are monophyletic; (iv) traditional Ciconiiformes are monophyletic; (v) Strigiformes and Falconiformes are sister-groups; (vi) Cathartidae is the sister-group of the remaining Falconiformes; (vii) Ralliformes (Rallidae and Heliornithidae) are the sister-group to the monophyletic Charadriiformes, with the traditionally composed Gruiformes and Turniciformes (Turnicidae and Mesitornithidae) sequentially paraphyletic to the entire foregoing clade; (viii) Opisthocomus hoazin is the sister-taxon to the Cuculiformes (including the Musophagidae); (ix) traditional Caprimulgiformes are monophyletic and the sister-group of the Apodiformes; (x) Trogoniformes are the sister-group of Coliiformes; (xi) Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes are mutually monophyletic and closely related; and (xii) the Galbulae are retained within the

  2. Citogenética de aves. II. Características dos cromossomos Cytogenetics of birds. II. Characteristics of chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Waldrigues

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available Revisão bibliográfica onde são apresentadas as principais características pertinentes ao cariótipo das aves. Abordam-se aspectos referentes aos macros e microcromossomos, à distribuição da heterocromatina, à região organizadora do nucléolo, e ao relacionamento cario típico entre aves e outros animais.Bibliographic review presenting the principle characteristics pertaining to the avian karyotype and dealing with aspects referential to macro and microchromosomes, the distribution of heterochromatin, nucleolus organizing region and the karyotypic relationship between birds and other animals.

  3. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  4. First bird remains from the Eocene of Algarrobo, central Chile Primeros restos de aves del Eoceno de Algarrobo, Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto E Yury-Yáñez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Paleogene records of birds in the Eastern margin of the Pacific Ocean have increased in recent years, being almost exclusively restricted to fossil Sphenisciformes (penguins. New avian remains (Ornithurae, Neornithes from Middle-to-Late Eocene levels of the Estratos de Algarrobo unit, in Algarrobo, central Chile, are disclosed in the present work. These new finds are significant in representing the first non-spheniscid bird remains of Middle to Late Eocene age, recovered in mid-latitudes of the eastern Pacific and probably belonging to a procelarid. It complements the regional record of Eocene birds, previously known only at high-latitudes such as Seymour Island (Antarctica and Magallanes (Chile, and low-latitude locations in Peru.Los registros de aves paleógenas en el margen oriental del Océano Pacífico se han incrementado en los últimos años, estando casi exclusivamente restringidos a Sphenisciformes fósiles (pingüinos. Nuevos fósiles avianos (Ornithurae, Neornithes provenientes de niveles del Eoceno Medio a Tardío de los Estratos de Algarrobo, en Algarrobo, Chile central, son dados a conocer en el presente trabajo. Estos nuevos hallazgos son significativos en representar los primeros restos de aves no-spheníscidos de edad Eoceno Medio a Tardío, recuperadas en latitudes intermedias del Pacífico oriental y probablemente pertenezcan a un procelárido. Este hallazgo complementa el registro regional del grupo durante el Eoceno, anteriormente conocido en localidades de altas latitudes como isla Seymour (Antártica y Magallanes (Chile, y localidades de bajas latitudes en Perú.

  5. A hitherto unrecorded sighting of the Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samidurai Jayakumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Pochard Aythya ferina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae is recorded for the first time in Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India. As this species is recorded in other parts of Tamil Nadu, a brief sightings and distribution map is also specified.

  6. Ecología energética y nutricional en aves herbívoras pequeñas Energetics and nutritional ecology of small herbivorous birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VICTORIA LOPEZ-CALLEJA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available La herbivoría en aves es una estrategia poco común. Solo el 3% de las aves actuales consumen plantas como fuente de energía. Tanto la composición química de las plantas como las restricciones asociadas al vuelo y digestión en aves pueden explicar el reducido número de pequeños endotermos, como las aves, que son herbívoros. Nuestro objetivo es explicar como las aves herbívoras satisfacen sus requerimientos nutricionales y energéticos cuando consumen dietas extremadamente pobres. Para lo cual nos centramos en Phytotoma rara (Phytotomidae, posiblemente el ave herbívora más pequeña. Phytotoma rara presenta numerosas características, como el rápido tiempo de transito, un efectivo rompimiento de la pared celular, y la alta y constante actividad de las enzimas digestivas, que le permiten disponer de nutrientes y energía celulares, sin los costos energéticos asociados al desarrollo de estructuras anatómicas de fermentación bacteriana o lentos tiempos de transito. Estos son posiblemente adaptaciones cruciales en la evolución de la herbivoría en aves pequeñas.Herbivory is a rare strategy in birds. Only 3% of extant birds exploit plant material as an energy source. Both plant chemical composition and bird constraints associated to flight and digestion may explain why herbivory is so scarce in small endotherms such as birds. Here we tackle the question of how herbivorous birds meet energy/nutrient requirements when feeding on extremely poor diets. We focus on Phytotoma rara (Phytotomidae, possibly the smallest herbivorous bird. From our mini-review we conclude that several features such as the fast passage rates, an effective physical breakdown of cell walls, and constant and high activities of digestive enzymes make available the highly nutritious cell contents to the small herbivore, without the energy costs of anatomical structures for bacterial fermentation or slow passage rates. These are possible crucial adaptations in the

  7. Qualitative skeletal correlates of wing shape in extant birds (Aves: Neoaves)

    OpenAIRE

    Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2015-01-01

    Background Among living fliers (birds, bats, and insects), birds display relatively high aspect ratios, a dimensionless shape variable that distinguishes long and narrow vs. short and broad wings. Increasing aspect ratio results in a functional tradeoff between low induced drag (efficient cruise) and increased wing inertia (difficult takeoff). Given the wide scope of its functional effects, the pattern of aspect ratio evolution is an important factor that contributes to the substantial ecolog...

  8. Pesca associada entre golfinhos e aves marinhas Feeding associations between dolphin and sea birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emygdio L. A. Monteiro-Filho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Along ten years of study of a common dolphin from the brazilian coast, Sotalia brasiliensis Van Beneden, 1874, I could see some occasions of feeding associations of this dolphin with five species of birds, Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783, Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914, Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831, Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 and Phalacrocorax olivaceus Humboldt, 1895. The commonest association observed was between the dolphin and S. leucogaster, and in all the associations was characterized the commensalism, with advantaged to the birds.

  9. Birds (Aves, Serrania Sadiri, Parque Nacional Madidi, Depto. La Paz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessey, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the Serrania Sadiri for birds at elevations between 500-950m for a combined total of 15 days in threedifferent months. The area surveyed was along the Tumupasa/San Jose de Uchupiamones trail at the edge of ParqueNacional Madidi in Depto. La Paz, Bolivia. We report observations of 231 species of birds detected by sight and sound,including many outlying ridge specialists. We report and present photographs of a new species for Depto. La Paz(Caprimulgis nigrescens, the second Bolivian localities for Porphyrolaema prophyrolaema, Zimerius cinereicapillus,and Basileuterus chrysogaster, and five new species records for Parque Nacional Madidi.

  10. Power-line electrocution of birds (Electrocucion de Aves en Lineas Electricas en Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Manzano Fischer

    2006-01-01

    A result of rapid growth in human population and energy use, is proliferating power lines that electrocute birds, killing eagles and causing power outages. The United States was one of the first countries to recognize the significance of this problem. Suggested Practices for the Protection of Raptors on Power Lines, first published in the 1970s, has now been translated...

  11. Qualitative skeletal correlates of wing shape in extant birds (Aves: Neoaves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2015-02-27

    Among living fliers (birds, bats, and insects), birds display relatively high aspect ratios, a dimensionless shape variable that distinguishes long and narrow vs. short and broad wings. Increasing aspect ratio results in a functional tradeoff between low induced drag (efficient cruise) and increased wing inertia (difficult takeoff). Given the wide scope of its functional effects, the pattern of aspect ratio evolution is an important factor that contributes to the substantial ecological and phylogenetic diversity of living birds. However, because the feathers that define the wingtip (and hence wingspan and aspect ratio) often do not fossilize, resolution in the pattern of avian wing shape evolution is obscured by missing information. Here I use a comparative approach to investigate the relationship between skeletal proxies of flight feather attachment and wing shape. An accessory lobe of the internal index process of digit II-1, a bony correlate of distal primary attachment, shows weak but statistically significant relationships to aspect ratio and mass independent of other skeletal morphology. The dorsal phalangeal fossae of digit II-1, which house distal primaries VIII and IX, also show a trend of increased prominence with higher aspect ratio. Quill knobs on the ulna are examined concurrently, but do not show consistent signal with respect to wing shape. Although quill knobs are cited as skeletal correlates of flight performance in birds, their relationship to wing shape is inconsistent among extant taxa, and may reflect diverging selection pressures acting on a conserved architecture. In contrast, correlates of distal primary feather attachment on the major digit show convergent responses to increasing aspect ratio. In light of the diversity of musculoskeletal and integumentary mophology that underlies wing shape in different avian clades, it is unlikely that a single skeletal feature will show consistent predictive power across Neoaves. Confident inference of

  12. Niche evolution and diversification in a Neotropical radiation of birds (Aves: Furnariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeholzer, Glenn F; Claramunt, Santiago; Brumfield, Robb T

    2017-03-01

    Rapid diversification may be caused by ecological adaptive radiation via niche divergence. In this model, speciation is coupled with niche divergence and lineage diversification is predicted to be correlated with rates of niche evolution. Studies of the role of niche evolution in diversification have generally focused on ecomorphological diversification but climatic-niche evolution may also be important. We tested these alternatives using a phylogeny of 298 species of ovenbirds (Aves: Furnariidae). We found that within Furnariidae, variation in species richness and diversification rates of subclades were best predicted by rate of climatic-niche evolution than ecomorphological evolution. Although both are clearly important, univariate regression and multivariate model averaging more consistently supported the climatic-niche as the best predictor of lineage diversification. Our study adds to the growing body of evidence, suggesting that climatic-niche divergence may be an important driver of rapid diversification in addition to ecomorphological evolution. However, this pattern may depend on the phylogenetic scale at which rate heterogeneity is examined. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Visual and acoustic components of courtship in the bird-of-paradise genus Astrapia (Aves: Paradisaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Scholes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive and divergent courtship phenotypes of the birds-of-paradise make them an important group for gaining insights into the evolution of sexually selected phenotypic evolution. The genus Astrapia includes five long-tailed species that inhabit New Guinea’s montane forests. The visual and acoustic components of courtship among Astrapia species are very poorly known. In this study, we use audiovisual data from a natural history collection of animal behavior to fill gaps in knowledge about the visual and acoustic components of Astrapia courtship. We report seven distinct male behaviors and two female specific behaviors along with distinct vocalizations and wing-produced sonations for all five species. These results provide the most complete assessment of courtship in the genus Astrapia to date and provide a valuable baseline for future research, including comparative and evolutionary studies among these and other bird-of-paradise species.

  14. Psittacine birds (Aves : Psittaciformes) as new hosts of Baruscapillaria obsignata (Nematoda : Capillariidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kajerová, V.; Baruš, Vlastimil

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 4 (2005), s. 571-574 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Psittacine birds * capillariids * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.353, year: 2005 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol74/74-571.pdf

  15. The evolution of giant flightless birds and novel phylogenetic relationships for extinct fowl (Aves, Galloanseres)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Trevor H.; Degrange, Federico J.; Handley, Warren D.; Lee, Michael S. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The extinct dromornithids, gastornithids and phorusrhacids are among the most spectacular birds to have ever lived, with some giants exceeding 500 kg. The affinities and evolution of these and other related extinct birds remain contentious, with previous phylogenetic analyses being affected by widespread convergence and limited taxon sampling. We address these problems using both parsimony and tip-dated Bayesian approaches on an expansive taxon set that includes all key extinct flightless and flighted (e.g. Vegavis and lithornithids) forms, an extensive array of extant fowl (Galloanseres), representative Neoaves and palaeognaths. The Paleogene volant Lithornithidae are recovered as stem palaeognaths in the Bayesian analyses. The Galloanseres comprise four clades inferred to have diverged in the Late Cretaceous on Gondwana. In addition to Anseriformes and Galliformes, we recognize a robust new clade (Gastornithiformes) for the giant flightless Dromornithidae (Australia) and Gastornithidae (Eurasia, North America). This clade exhibits parallels to ratite palaeognaths in that flight presumably was lost and giant size attained multiple times. A fourth clade is represented by the Cretaceous Vegavis (Antarctica), which was strongly excluded from Anseriformes; thus, a crucial molecular calibration point needs to be reconsidered. The presbyornithids Wilaru (Australia) and Presbyornis (Northern Hemisphere) are robustly found to be the sister group to Anatoidea (Anseranatidae + Anatidae), a relatively more basal position than hitherto recognized. South America's largest bird, Brontornis, is not a galloansere, but a member of Neoaves related to Cariamiformes; therefore, giant Galloanseres remain unknown from this continent. Trait analyses showed that while gigantism and flightlessness evolved repeatedly in groups, diet is constrained by phylogeny: all giant Galloanseres and palaeognaths are herbivores or mainly herbivorous, and giant neoavians are zoophagous or omnivorous.

  16. Aves en ambientes marinos y salinos: viviendo en hábitats secos Birds in marine and saline environments: living in dry habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Para las aves, ambientes salobres como los marinos y los salares, son en la práctica hábitats secos. Cuando las aves beben agua o consumen presas saladas, sus fluidos corporales aumentan la osmolaridad. Para mantener el equilibrio osmótico, las aves tienen que eliminar el exceso de electrolitos ingerido en los alimentos y el agua. Las estrategias adaptativas utilizadas por las aves marinas incluyen la utilización de la glándula de la sal, la cual produce soluciones de excreción más concentradas que el agua de mar. Tanto la fisiología y la plasticidad de la glándula nasal se correlaciona con las características ecológicas de las especies. Además, las aves pueden minimizar el estrés osmótico escogiendo presas hipo-osmóticas, o con menor contenido de agua, disminuyendo de este modo la ingestión de sales. Aun cuando la capacidad de concentración de la orina del riñón de aves es limitada, existen diferencias interespecíficas en su estructura y fisiología, lo que representa un mecanismo adaptativo para evitar la pérdida de agua. Este órgano es particularmente importante en aquellos taxa que no poseen la glándula de la sal, como paseriformes. Sin embargo, estas aves que aparentemente poseerían una restricción fisiológica para explotar ambientes salobres, incluyen algunas especies que habitan costas oceánicas y de salares. En esta revisión muestro que la interacción funcional del riñón y el intestino grueso en la fisiología osmoregulatoria, junto con la conducta de alimentación juegan un papel crucial en la mantención del balance hídrico y en la adaptación de estas especies a ambientes salobresFor birds, saline environments such as maritime and salt marsh habitats are essentially dry habitats. When birds drink saline water or consume salt-loaded preys, the osmolarity of their body fluids increases. In order to maintain the osmotic equilibrium, they have to eliminate the excess of electrolytes ingested with preys or

  17. Ticks on birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Carrapatos em aves capturadas no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Daniele Alves Costa Santolin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of parasitic infections, particularly those caused by ectoparasites, may influence the biology and ecology of wild birds. The aim of this study was to investigate occurrences and identify the species of ticks collected from wild birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. The birds were caught using mist nets between October 2009 and December 2010. In total, 223 birds were caught, represented by 53 species and 19 families in nine orders. Nineteen birds (n = 7 species were parasitized by immature ticks (prevalence of 8.5%. Forty-four ticks were collected, of which 23 were nymphs and 21 were larvae. There were associations between parasitism by ticks and non-Passeriformes birds, and between parasitism and ground-dwelling birds, which was possibly due to the presence (or inclusion among the captured birds of Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae. All the nymphs collected were identified as Amblyomma cajennense. In general terms, we must emphasize that wild birds in the study area may play the role of dispersers for the immature stages of A. cajennense, albeit non-preferentially.A prevalência das infecções parasitárias e em particular, aquelas causadas por ectoparasitos, pode influenciar na biologia e ecologia das aves silvestres. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a ocorrência e identificar as espécies de carrapatos coletadas em aves silvestres capturadas no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. As aves foram coletadas em rede-de-neblina durante o período de outubro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. No total foram capturadas 223 aves representadas por 53 espécies, 19 famílias em 9 ordens. Parasitismo por formas imaturas de carrapatos, foram encontradas em 19 aves (n = 7 espécies correspondendo a uma prevalência de 8,5%. Foram coletados 44 carrapatos onde 23 estavam em estágio de ninfa e 21 em estágio de larva. Houve associação entre o parasitismo por carrapatos

  18. A review of the mite subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)--parasites of New World birds (Aves: Neognathae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; OConnor, Barry M; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-30

    Mites of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Harpirhynchidae) associated with neognathous birds (Aves: Neognathae) in the New World are revised. In all, 68 species in 8 genera are recorded. Among them, 27 new species and 1 new genus are described as new for science: Harpyrhynchoides gallowayi Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Columba livia (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from Canada (Manitoba), H. zenaida Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Zenaida macroura (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from USA (Michigan), H. calidris Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Calidris minutilla (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from USA (Kansas), H. actitis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Actitis macularius (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from Canada (British Columbia), H. charadrius Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Charadrius vociferus (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Texas), H. pluvialis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Pluvialis dominica (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Ohio), H. bubulcus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Bubulcus ibis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Florida), H. ixobrychus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Ixobrychus exilis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Michigan), H. puffinus Mertins sp. nov. from Puffinus gravis (Procellariformes: Procellariidae) from USA (Florida), H. megascops Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Megascops asio (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Michigan), H. athene Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Athene canicularia (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Texas), H. coccyzus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Coccyzus americanus (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from USA (Michigan), H. crotophaga Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from Suriname; Crassacarus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen, gen. nov.: Crassacarus alexfaini Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. (type of genus

  19. Nitrógeno dietario como un nutriente limitante en aves frugívoras Dietary nitrogen as a limiting nutrient in frugivorous birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSQUE CARLOS

    2000-09-01

    las complejas interacciones involucradas en la regulación de las necesidades proteicas de las aves frugívorasFruit pulp is considered nutritionally inadequate for frugivorous birds because of its low protein content. Consequently, frugivores are expected to minimize their nitrogen losses as an adaptation to frugivory . In this review we examine properties of fruit and physiological traits of frugivores that affect their ability to subsist on fruit diets. Most tropical and temperate fruit seem to contain enough nitrogen to satisfy bird’s requirements if their food intake was adjusted to meet their energy needs, but requirements depend on body mass. Birds of larger body size should require foods having a higher ratio of nitrogen to energy than smaller species. However, digestible nitrogen may in fact be limiting because fruit pulp seems to contain considerable amounts of nonproteinaceous nitrogen and an amino acid composition that deviates from that required by birds. Both of these characteristics of fruit pulps should augment nitrogen losses of frugivores and consequently their needs when consuming natural diets. In terms of their physiology, we expect frugivores to maximize their nitrogen extraction efficiency from the diet and hint the possibility that low urinary nitrogen losses of frugivores might be related to a low metabolic rate. Minimization of endogenous fecal losses could be the most important adaptation of frugivores to subsist on nitrogen poor diets. It is not evident how specialized frugivores can have lower than expected nitrogen requirements when compared to birds of other dietary groups. We suggest several areas of research that should improve our understanding of the complex interactions involved in the regulation of protein needs of frugivorous birds

  20. Feeding visit time of fruit-eating birds in Cerrado plants: revisiting the predation risk model Tempo de visita de aves que comem frutos em plantas de Cerrado: revisitando o modelo do risco de predação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Aurélio Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruiting plants that attract frequent visits by fruit-eating birds tend to be predictable patches for a predator. Consequently, the risk of a predator attack increases the longer a bird stays on a fruiting plant. We tested whether large and cryptic species of fruit-eating birds spend more time per feeding visit than smaller and conspicuous ones in fruiting plants of the Brazilian Cerrado. Data were obtained from the literature for eight fruiting plant species and from field observations of birds feeding on fruits of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae. We searched for a positive linear relationship between the mean visit time and the total length of the species, considering bird color as a covariate. Feeding visits of the large and cryptic bird species lasted longer than feeding visits of small and conspicuous species. Large birds may be safer from predators because large predators are less common. Cryptic birds may be difficult to be detected by predators and, consequently, may be less likely to be attacked by predators than conspicuous birds. Thus, our results provide support to the hypothesis that vulnerable bird species spend less time foraging in fruiting plants.Plantas em frutificação atraem visitas freqüentes de aves que comem frutos e tendem a ser manchas previsíveis para um predador. Conseqüentemente, o risco de ataque de um predador aumenta com o tempo de permanência de uma ave frugívora em uma planta com frutos. Neste estudo, testamos se espécies de aves grandes e crípticas passam mais tempo por visita de alimentação em plantas em frutificação que espécies pequenas e conspícuas. Obtivemos dados da literatura para oito espécies de plantas do Cerrado e também de observações em campo de aves que se alimentam de frutos de Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae. Procuramos por uma relação positiva entre o tempo médio de visita e o comprimento total das espécies de aves, considerando a cor das espécies como uma co

  1. Noteworthy bird records at Lagoa Santa, southeastern Brazil Registros notáveis de aves em Lagoa Santa, sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lagoa Santa, a small town in southeastern Brazil where naturalist Peter Lund lived, is regarded nowadays as an important historical site for the biological sciences. From 1847 to 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, hosted by Lund, collected 343 bird species. This material is an outstanding reference for many modern ornithological studies. The present paper reports the occurrence of some rare and threatened birds for the region of Lagoa Santa between 1998 and 2005. In this account I list the Rusty-margined Guan Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815; the Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758; the Maguari Stork Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789; the Wood Stork Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758; the Black Hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820 and the Turquoise-fronted Parrot Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. It is also reported the southernmost record for the Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758 and the range extension of the Crowned Slaty flycatcher Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837. These data can be used as a baseline for studies of colonization and extinction.Lagoa Santa, cidade onde viveu Peter Lund é um dos sítios de maior importância histórica para as ciências biológicas. Durante os anos de 1847 e 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, a convite de Lund, coletou 343 espécies de aves que são hoje referência para vários estudos ornitológicos. O presente artigo relata a ocorrência de algumas aves raras e/ou ameaçadas para a região de Lagoa Santa, entre 1998 e 2005. A lista de espécies inclui a jacupemba Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815, o colhereiro Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758, a maguari Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789, a cabeça-seca Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758, o gavião-pega-macaco Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820; e o papagaio-verdadeiro Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. Relata-se também a ocorrência mais meridional da arara-canindé Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758, e a expansão da distribui

  2. Comunidade de aves da Reserva Estadual de Gurjaú, Pernambuco, Brasil Bird communities of the Gurjaú Reserve, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Maria de Lyra-Neves

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos quali-quantitativos foram realizados em um fragmento florestal da Reserva Estadual de Gurjaú, Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram registradas 220 espécies de aves no levantamento qualitativo. Através da contagem por pontos, foram identificadas 175 espécies em 6.470 contatos (270 amostras. A freqüência de ocorrência de 75% foi registrada para 43 espécies (19,6%; para a maioria das espécies a freqüência de ocorrência esteve abaixo de 25%.A qualitative and quantitative bird surveys were carried out in a forest fragment in Gurjau Reserve, Santo Agostinho Cape, Pernambuco State, Brazil. By qualitative census were registered 220 different bird species. Concerning the point counts, were identified 175 different species in 6.470 contacts (270 samples. A frequency of occurrence of 75% was registered for 43 species (19,6%; the most part of species had a frequency of occurrence below 25%.

  3. Prevention of Salmonella infection by contact using intestinal flora of adult birds and/or a mixture of organic acids Controle da transmissão de Salmonella por contato entre aves de exploração comercial pelo uso de flora intestinal de aves adultas e/ou uma mistura de ácidos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Helaine de Oliveira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the ability of competitive exclusion and a mixture of organic acids to prevent Salmonella infection by contact between newly hatched chicks. A bird infected with Salmonella was placed in a box containing non-infected birds, previously treated with a broth culture of faeces of adult birds (CE and/or a mixture of organic acids. The number of Salmonella organisms in the caeca of the contact birds was estimated at 4 and 8 days post-challenge. The birds were infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis (both repeated 5 times, Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Infantis (3 repetitions. The same approach was used to test the mixture of organic acids alone. In this case the birds received feed containing 0.8% of a mixture of formic acid (70% and propionic acid (30%. Also, a third trial was carried out with birds inoculated with the broth culture of faeces and fed with feed containing the mixture of organic acids. Appropriate controls were included. Whereas the birds from the control groups and the groups treated with the mixture of organic acids were heavily infected with Salmonella, those pre-treated with CE or CE plus the mixture of organic acids had no viable cells per gram of caecal contents.O presente trabalho avaliou a prevenção da disseminação de quatro sorotipos de Salmonella, de interesse em avicultura e saúde pública (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Infantis e Salmonella Enteritidis, entre aves recém-nascidas, com o intuito de diminuir a disseminação de salmonelas em rebanhos avícolas por aves que contraíram a infecção pela via vertical. Analisou-se experimentalmente a administração de microbiota intestinal de aves adultas em aves recém-nascidas, a incorporação de uma mistura de ácidos orgânicos na ração e a associação desses dois tratamentos, em grupos onde colocou-se uma ave infectada, para provocar a transmissão por contato. A microbiota

  4. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-02-24

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed.

  5. Aves en ambientes marinos y salinos: viviendo en hábitats secos Birds in marine and saline environments: living in dry habitats

    OpenAIRE

    PABLO SABAT

    2000-01-01

    Para las aves, ambientes salobres como los marinos y los salares, son en la práctica hábitats secos. Cuando las aves beben agua o consumen presas saladas, sus fluidos corporales aumentan la osmolaridad. Para mantener el equilibrio osmótico, las aves tienen que eliminar el exceso de electrolitos ingerido en los alimentos y el agua. Las estrategias adaptativas utilizadas por las aves marinas incluyen la utilización de la glándula de la sal, la cual produce soluciones de excreción más concentrad...

  6. Aves explorando flores de Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae durante a estação seca no Pantanal de Mato Grosso Exploitation of Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae flowers by birds during the dry season in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Parrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes têm evidenciado a importância de flores como recurso alimentar de diversas espécies de aves neotropicais. Este estudo teve o objetivo de listar espécies e descrever o comportamento das aves que se alimentaram de recursos florais de Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae no Pantanal Mato-Grossense. Para isso, foram acompanhadas aves que se alimentaram em 14 árvores floridas dessa espécie em um total de cerca de 25 horas de observação. Como resultados, 20 espécies de aves pertencentes a sete famílias taxonômicas foram observadas alimentando-se de recursos florais de E. fusca. Apesar de várias espécies de aves terem apresentado comportamentos destrutivos em maior proporção, algumas espécies, sobretudo das famílias Trochilidae e Icteridae, apresentaram estratégias alimentares compatíveis com o transporte de pólen. O cruzamento dos dados obtidos neste estudo com os da literatura indicam que a família Icteridae pode ter relevante papel na polinização dessa espécie vegetal.Recent studies reported the importance of flowers in the diet of many Neotropical bird species. In this paper we identify and describe the feeding behaviour of bird species that feed on flower resources of Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae in the Pantanal Mato-Grossense, Brazil. We recorded birds foraging in 14 flowered individuals of E. fusca during 25 hours of observation. We recorded 20 bird species belonging to seven families feeding on the flowers. Several of the observed behaviours were destructive, despite some species, especially the Trochilidae and Icteridae, showed feeding strategies that preserve the integrity of the flowers and are compatible with pollen transportation. The comparison of the data gathered in this study with the available literature indicates that the Icteridae may play an important role in pollination of this tree species.

  7. Frugivory by birds on Miconia albicans (MELASTOMATACEAE, in a fragment of cerrado in São Carlos, southeastern Brazil Frugivoria por aves em Miconia albicans (MELASTOMATACEAE, em um fragmento de cerrado em São Carlos, sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Allenspach

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The avian guild that consumes Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae fruits and its phenophases were studied in a fragment of cerrado vegetation located in southeastern Brazil. The fruiting period ocurred between October and January, coinciding with the wet season. Nineteen bird species, mainly of generalistic diets, were registered consuming fruits in 96 observational hours. Species of the families Emberizidae, Thraupidae and Tyrannidae showed the largest number of visits, while those of the families Mimidae and Columbidae, with higher body mass, were responsible for a considerable number of consumed fruits. A correlation was found between body mass and average fruit consumption per visit. Tree height was a relevant factor for bird attraction. Results suggest that M. albicans may be useful in the recovery of degraded areas.Foi estudada a guilda de aves que consomem frutos de Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae, bem como a fenologia dessa planta, em fragmento de cerrado no sudeste do Brasil. O período de frutificação ocorreu entre outubro e janeiro, coincidindo com a estação chuvosa. Dezenove espécies de aves, a maioria com dieta generalista, foram registradas consumindo frutos em 96 horas de observações. Espécies das famílias Emberizidae, Thraupidae e Tyrannidae apresentaram o maior número de visitas, enquanto aquelas das famílias Mimidae e Columbidae, de maior massa corporal, sobressaíram-se pelo número de frutos consumidos. Foi encontrada correlação entre massa corporal e consumo médio de frutos por visita. A altura das árvores foi um fator relevante na atração de aves. Os resultados sugerem que M. albicans pode ser útil na recuperação de áreas degradadas.

  8. Patrón de actividad y abundancia de aves en un relleno sanitario de Chile central Abundance and activity-pattern of birds at a landfill in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL LOBOS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los rellenos sanitarios constituyen un foco de atracción para la avifauna, aunque las implicancias de esta relación no han sido exploradas en el país. Nosotros monitoreamos la actividad de aves en un relleno sanitario ubicado en las proximidades de la ciudad de Santiago, capital administrativa de Chile. Las principales aves en el área fueron la gaviota dominicana (Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, el tiuque (Milvago chimango Vieillot, la garza boyera {Buculbus ibis Linnaeus y el águila (Geranoaetus melanoleucus Swann. La gaviota dominicana alcanzó los valores de abundancia más altos (entre 358 y 1950 individuos por día y destacó por su comportamiento bimodal, directamente relacionado con los niveles de operación en el relleno sanitario. En el caso del águila se registró una conducta carroñera cleptoparásita sobre los tiuques, estos últimos seleccionan desechos orgánicos (pescados, tripas, carne, que les son usurpados por ellas. Finalmente señalamos medidas simples de manejo que deberían disminuir los números de aves en este tipo de actividad industrial.Landfills are considered an attractive habitat for several bird species; however, implications of this condition have not yet been explored in the country. We monitored birds' activity patterns that use a landfill located in the vicinity of Santiago, Chile's capital. Main birds recorded in the area were, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, Chimango caracara (Milvago chimango Vieillot, Cattle egret (Buculbus ibis Linnaeus and Black Chested Eagle (Geranoaetus melanoleucus Swann. Kelp Gull was the most abundant species, (with values between 358 to 1950 individuals per day and that also displayed a bimodal behavior linked directly to the landfill operation levels. In the case of Black Chested Eagle, we observed a kleptoparasitic behavior over Chimango Caracara which selected organic offal (fishes, innards, meat for its feeding and that are stolen by the eagle. Finally we

  9. Frugivoria por aves em Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae em ambientes antropizados na região de Sorocaba–SP. Frugivory by birds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae at anthropic environment in Sorocaba–SP region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Francine LAMBERTI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As aves, assim como toda fauna consumidora de frutos possuem grande importância no processo de dispersão de sementes. O declínio de suas populações pode gerar consequências para a reprodução e para o crescimento populacional dessas plantas zoocóricas, se a dispersão não for adequada ou se a quantidade de sementes dispersas for insuficiente. A espécie Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae, nativa do Brasil, é popularmente conhecida como pitangueira. Possui frutos globosos e sulcados, apresentando cores brilhantes desde o laranja, até vermelho ou preto, com polpa carnosa e agridoce, normalmente com umaa duas sementes. O presente estudo caracterizou as espécies de aves consumidoras dos frutos de E. uniflora, em dois ambientes da região de Sorocaba, Estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado entre fevereiro e setembro de 2012 com seis indivíduos de E. uniflora, sendo três em ambiente altamente antropizado, e três em área menos antropizada. A avifauna foi amostrada por meio de observações focais, considerando sua riqueza, abundância relativa, frequência de visitas, comportamento e diversidade. O padrão fenológico de E. uniflora também foi descrito, assim como a quantidade de frutos produzidos. Foram realizadas 116 horasde observação focal, durante as quais foram registradas 185 visitas de aves pertencentes àsfamílias Thamnophilidae, Vireonidae, Turdidae, Thraupidae consumindo seus frutos. Os resultadosobtidos indicam que áreas menos antropizadas, mais arborizadas e com fragmentos mais próximos, como a área urbana de Araçoiaba, apresentam maior riqueza, abundância e diversidade de aves consumidoras de E. uniflora, quando comparada com a área urbana de Sorocaba. The birds, as all frugivorous animals, have great importance to seed dispersion process. Populational decline can generate consequences for the reproduction and population growth of many zoochoric plants if the dispersion is not adequate or if the amount of

  10. Differential effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in Valdivian temperate rainforests Efectos diferenciales de la fragmentación del hábitat sobre aves y mamíferos del bosque valdiviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOUGLAS A. KELT

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Four recent studies on Chilean vertebrates underscore the very different effects that habitat fragmentation may have under different conditions. In southern Chile, birds exhibited significant species-area relationships, whereas the more depauperate small mammal community did not. The avifauna of highly isolated rainforest remnants in Fray Jorge National Park (IV Región presented steeper species-area relations than those in southern Chile, reminiscent of land-bridge islands after faunal relaxation. The small mammal results were unexpected but may reflect the reduced vagility and immigration potential of this group. Additionally, the inter-remnant matrix habitat may support large populations of only some species, allowing them to capitalize on resources that are available in forest remnants. Such an effect is less likely for birds due to their greater vagility. Although the influence of remnant area is more clearly demonstrated for birds in Chile, it appears that small mammal assemblages may be more immediately impacted by habitat fragmentation than are birds, and that further fragmentation of temperate rainforests will seriously impoverish the small mammal assemblage, many of whose members are endemic to this region. Further research should emphasize the role of the inter-remnant matrix, of habitat corridors, and of the relative sensitivity of different species to matrix/corridor quality and remnant isolationCuatro estudios recientes en vertebrados chilenos subrayan los efectos muy diversos que la fragmentación del hábitat puede tener bajo diversas condiciones. En el sur de Chile, las aves exhibieron relaciones significativas entre la riqueza de especies y el área de hábitat ("especies-area", mientras que tal relación no se observó en la comunidad de pequeños mamíferos, la cual tiene menos especies. La avifauna de los fragmentos remanentes altamente aislados del Parque Nacional Fray Jorge (IV Región presentaron relaciones especies

  11. Composição das comunidades de aves em duas florestas secundárias contíguas no Sudeste do Brasil. Birds communities composition of two secondary forests in the Southeast Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Zamorano ANTUNES

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitas décadas são necessárias até queuma floresta secundária apresente uma estruturasemelhante à de uma área em estádio avançado.Há espécies de aves florestais que dependem deflorestas avançadas, enquanto outras utilizamflorestas secundárias. Neste trabalho se comparaa riqueza de espécies de aves, a estrutura tróficada comunidade e a presença de espécies dedistribuição restrita em duas florestas secundáriascontíguas, mas com estruturas de vegetação distintas:os parques estaduais Alberto Löfgren - PEALe Cantareira - PEC. As aves foram amostradas emtrajetos efetuados entre agosto de 2005 e dezembrode 2008, e a vegetação foi avaliada a partir de 100pontos quadrantes por parque. A riqueza e onúmero de espécies de aves com distribuiçãorestrita foram significativamente maiores no PEC.As guildas insetívoros do sub-bosque, insetívorosterrestres e frugívoros terrestres apresentaramriqueza menor de espécies no PEAL em relação aoPEC. Concluiu-se que a avifauna florestal doPEAL é um subconjunto da avifauna do PEC,que a vegetação menos desenvolvida do primeiroe dificuldades de estabelecimento de populaçõessão as possíveis causas das diferenças observadasentre os parques e que ações de manejo podemaumentar a riqueza no PEAL, o que seriaimportante regionalmente.Many decades are required to asecondary forest shows a structure similar to anarea in advanced stage. Some forest bird speciesdepend on forest in advanced stage, while othersuse secondary forests. This work compares therichness of bird species, the trophic structure of thecommunity and the presence of species ofrestricted distribution in two adjacent secondaryforests, but with different structures of vegetation:the State Parks Alberto Löfgren - PEAL andCantareira - PEC. Birds were sampled on pathsmade between August 2005 and December 2008and vegetation was evaluated from 100 points perpark. The richness and number of bird specieswith restricted

  12. Efeitos da fragmentação florestal sobre as comunidades de aves - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2030 Effects of forest fragmentation on bird communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz dos Anjos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute os efeitos da fragmentação florestal sobre as comunidades de aves verificados em diversos estudos, e apresenta considerações para a conservação da avifauna. Os principais fatores ambientais determinantes da riqueza de aves em florestas e que são alterados no processo de fragmentação são a área florestal, o grau de isolamento, a diversidade de hábitats e o efeito de borda. Os diversos estudos diferiram em seus resultados em relação aos efeitos da fragmentação sobre a avifauna, mas alguns padrões são notáveis: 1. extinção seletiva de espécies nos fragmentos (há grupos mais susceptíveis ou mais resistentes ao processo, enquanto outros são até beneficiados; 2. densidade compensatória (aumento na densidade de algumas espécies em relação a sua densidade em florestas contínuas. Os resultados levam à conclusão de que para uma plena conservação da comunidade de aves florestais de uma região é necessária a conservação das grandes florestas, ao invés de diversos fragmentos pequenosEffects of forest fragmentation on bird communities and considerations for avifauna conservation are discussed here. Forest area, isolation, habitat diversity, and edge effect are the main environmental factors that determine bird richness in forests, and they undergo alterations during forest fragmentation. Several studies have shown different results regarding to fragmentation effects on the avifauna, and some of them are noticeable, such as: (1 selective extinction within the fragments, i. e., some groups are more susceptible than others to the process and some other groups are even benefited by fragmentation; (2 compensatory density, meaning that there is a density increase of some species in relation to their density in continuous forests. It has been enforced that it is necessary to preserve large extensions of forests instead of preserving several small fragments

  13. Chlamydia psittaci en aves en cautiverio del aquarium de Valencia, Venezuela | Chlamydia psittaci in captive birds of the aquarium of Valencia, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez-Leo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia psittaci (Cp is an obligate intracellular bacterium, capable of invading birds and mammals. The prevalence of Cp in adult free-living birds is less than 5%, however in captivity the frequency is very variable (5 - 90%. Cp infections represent a health problem for birds living in captive centers, since in some cases it can be fatal thus generating more concern in threatened species. Therefore, the purpose of this study was the detection of Cp through the nested PCR in birds in captivity and its association to some specific taxonomic order. During 2015-2016, 44 cloacal swabs from six orders of birds were collected from the Valencia Aquarium (VA. The frequency of positives was as high as 77.3% and there was no association between the presence of Cp and a specific bird order. The results were associated with overcrowding conditions in which birds survive, absence of timely diagnosis of Cp in birds entering the VA and possible elevated levels of avian stress. It was confirmed that the state of captivity favors infection by Cp. These results demonstrate the need to promote the adaptation of conditions in captive bird habitats and the timely detection of Cp through molecular methods, mainly for spaces that act as centers for reception of specimens from confiscation, whose goal be their reintroduction to their natural habitat, as part of environmental conservation programs.

  14. Aves silvestres infestadas por Phthiraptera (Insecta na Zona da Mata Norte de Pernambuco, Brasil Wild birds infested by Phthiraptera (Insecta in Pernambuco North Zona da Mata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Aline Roda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the relationship between Phthiraptera and wild birds captured by mist nets at the Engenho Independência, at Vicência's county. Three families of Phthiraptera were identified. The Menoponidae were the one with the highest number of hosts. They were specially found in the dorsal face of the remiges. The Trochiloecetidae were only seen infesting the neck of birds belonging to the hummingbirds. The Philopteridae were observed on birds from three orders showing the highest variety of distribution on the birds.

  15. Vírus da doença de Newcastle em aves não vacinadas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Serology for the Newcastle disease virus in non vaccinated birds in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Granja de Oliveira Junior

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN tem sido isolado na maioria das espécies de aves de vida livre e doméstica em todo o mundo. O comércio internacional de aves deve ser considerado como um fator importante na disseminação da doença. Infecções naturais e experimentais já foram demonstradas em, pelo menos, 236 espécies de aves. Portanto, aves silvestres livres ou cativas, e aves domésticas não vacinadas, podem atuar como reservatório para o VDN. Para analisar esta hipótese, aves do Zoológico Municipal do Rio de Janeiro e de propriedades particulares nos municípios de Seropédica, Japeri, Paulo de Frontin, Paracambi, Valença, Barra do Piraí, Rio de Janeiro e Nova Friburgo tiveram sangue coletado para detecção de anticorpos para VDN. Um painel de 837 plasmas foi obtido, no período de agosto de 1998 a julho de 2001, e analisado pelo teste de inibição da hemaglutinação (HI, dos quais 12 foram soropositivas (1,43% para o VDN, indicando prévio contato das aves com o patógeno.The Newcastle disease virus (NDV has been isolated in most of the species of free and domestic life all over the world. The international trade of birds should be considered as an important factor of disease spread. Natural and experimental infections were already demonstrated in, at least, 236 species of birds. Therefore, wild, free or captive, and non vaccinated domestic birds can act as reservoir for VDN. To analyze this hypothesis, birds from the municipal Zoo of Rio de Janeiro and from private properties in the municipal districts of Seropédica, Japeri, Paulo de Frontin, Paracambi, Valença, Barra do Piraí, Rio de Janeiro and Nova Friburgo, RJ, Brazil had their blood collected and plasmas stored for detection of antibodies levels for VDN. A panel of 837 plasmas was obtained, in the period of August of 1998 to July of 2001, and analyzed by the hemaglutination inhibition (HI test, from which 12 were soropositives (1.43% for NDV, indicating the

  16. aves: charadriiformes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and (b) to trace the evolution of the display within a single well-defined suborder of birds such as the. Charadrii. Threat displays are especially informative in such studies, but courtship, distraction and other displays are also useful. The value of display postures in the systematics of the waders is discussed. INTRODUCTION.

  17. Doenças de aves selvagens diagnosticadas na Universidade Federal do Paraná (2003-2007 Diseases of wild birds diagnosed at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil (2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizah G.C. Santos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os 253 atendimentos realizados em aves selvagens entre agosto de 2003 a agosto de 2006 no Ambulatório de Animais Selvagens do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Paraná, 45 casos (17,8% referiram-se a consultas à espécie Serinus canarius (canário-belga. Dentre as aves atendidas e suas respectivas ordens obteve-se uma maior ocorrência da ordem Psittaciforme. As enfermidades mais freqüentemente visualizadas foram as afecções traumáticas com 56 casos (22,13%. Destas, 17 animais (30,91% possuíam algum tipo de fratura, sendo a fratura rádio-ulnar a mais comum, com 17,65% de ocorrência. As outras moléstias mais relatadas foram a presença de ectoparasitos (12,50% e endoparasitos (10,68%, doenças respiratórias (10,42%, procedimentos preventivos (7,55%, afecções dermatológicas (6,51%, neoplasias (4,95%, afecções oftálmicas (4,43%, afecções gastrintestinais (3,91%, caquexia (3,39%, afecções neurológicas (2,86%, automutilação (2,86%, obesidade (2,34%, agressão por outros animais (1,56 %, doenças nutricionais (1,30%, retenção de ovo (1,04%, bouba aviária (0,78% e gota úrica (0,52%. Tendo em vista a alta prevalência de traumatismos e presença de ecto e endo parasitas que poderiam ser evitados se estivesse ocorrendo um manejo adequado com a ave, sugere-se a necessidade que o Médico Veterinário assuma um papel mais efetivo na Medicina Veterinária Preventiva buscando informar e debater questões referentes ao modo correto de alimentação, criação e manejo das aves, assim como também o esclarecimento acerca das questões referentes às zoonoses quando da consulta veterinária.From 253 wild birds attended at the Wild Animal Ambulatory of the Veterinary Hospital, Paraná Federal University, between August 2003 and August 2006, 45 cases (17.8% were related to the species Serinus canarius (Belgian Canary. Within these attended birds and its respective orders, most morbid conditions occurred with the

  18. Ecological relationships between feather mites (Acari) and wild birds of Emberizidae (Aves) in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lyra-Neves, Rachel M. de; Farias, Ângela M. Isidro de; Telino-Júnior, Wallace R.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate feather mites on birds of the Family Emberizidae, to collect data on the ecological ectoparasite-host relationship and infestation level. A sum of 94 birds of 9 species was captured at the Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, Igarassú, Pernambuco, Brazil, from August 1996 to July 1997. Five genera of mites from the superfamily Analgoidea were identified: Analges Nitzsch, 1818; Mesalgoides Gaud & Atyeo, 1967; Pterodectes Robin, 1877; Proctophyllodes ...

  19. The integration of diet, physiology, and ecology of nectar-feeding birds La integración de la dieta, fisiología, y ecología en aves nectarívoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODD J. McWHORTER

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Balance between energy acquisition and expense is critical for the survival and reproductive success of organisms. Energy budgets may be limited by environmental factors as well as by animal design. These restrictions may be especially important for small endotherms such as hummingbirds, which have exceedingly high energy demands. Many nectar-feeding bird species decrease food intake when sugar concentration in food is increased. This feeding response can be explained by two alternative hypotheses: compensatory feeding and physiological constraint. The compensatory feeding hypothesis predicts that if birds vary intake to maintain a constant energy intake to match energy expenditures, then they should increase intake when expenditures are increased. Broad-tailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus and Green-backed fire crown hummingbirds (Sephanoides sephaniodes were presented with diets varying in energy density and exposed to various environmental temperatures. Birds decreased volumetric food intake in response to sugar concentration. However, when they were exposed to lower environmental temperatures, and hence increased thermoregulatory demands, they did not increase their rate of energy consumption and lost mass. These results support the existence of a physiological constraint to the energy budgets of hummingbirds. Digestive and peripheral organ function limitations may impose severe challenges to the energy budgets of these small endotherms, and therefore play a significant role in determining their distribution, ecology, and natural history.El balance entre la adquisición y el uso de energía es crítico para la reproducción y sobrevivencia. Los presupuestos energéticos de los organismos pueden estar limitados tanto por factores ambientales como por su fisiología. Estas restricciones pueden ser especialmente importantes para pequeños endotérmos como los colibríes (picaflores que tienen costos energéticos altos por unidad de masa

  20. Ecological relationships between feather mites (Acari and wild birds of Emberizidae (Aves in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyra-Neves Rachel M. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate feather mites on birds of the Family Emberizidae, to collect data on the ecological ectoparasite-host relationship and infestation level. A sum of 94 birds of 9 species was captured at the Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, Igarassú, Pernambuco, Brazil, from August 1996 to July 1997. Five genera of mites from the superfamily Analgoidea were identified: Analges Nitzsch, 1818; Mesalgoides Gaud & Atyeo, 1967; Pterodectes Robin, 1877; Proctophyllodes Robin, 1877 and Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899. Among the 94 birds examined, 92 (97,87% were infested. Regarding the prevalence, it was observed that the genera with higher percentage were, respectively, Pterodectes (88,04%, Proctophyllodes (56,52% and Trouessartia (45,65%.

  1. Dispersión de semillas por aves en un paisaje de bosque mesófilo en el centro de Veracruz, México: Su papel en la restauración pasiva Seed dispersal by birds in a cloud forest landscape in central Veracruz, Mexico: Its role in passive restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVETTE HERNÁNDEZ-LADRÓN DE GUEVARA

    2012-03-01

    las especies de semillas encontradas, el 59 % germinó en las excretas del 78 % de las especies de aves. Este trabajo muestra que en los bosques mesófilos de montaña las aves son agentes dispersores importantes de especies de plantas pertenecientes a bosques secundarios y también dispersores de algunas plantas del bosque primario, por ello son agentes que facilitan el proceso de sucesión forestal.Seed dispersal by birds may play a major role in the successful natural forest restoration process as birds can deposit pioneer and primary seeds species, thereby defining the recovery of plant community composition over time. In this study, seed ingestion and dispersion by frugivorous birds were analyzed as processes facilitating the restoration of tropical cloud montane forests in central Veracruz, Mexico. Birds were classified according to their affinity to the forest and their preference to a particular forest stratum, in order to determine whether these factors were related to the richness, abundance and diversity of ingested and dispersed seeds. We analyzed 93 fecal samples from 23 bird species. A total of 2699 seeds from 17 plant species were found in the fecal samples, the most abundant seed was from the shrub Conostegia xalapensis. We analyzed the correlation between seed size and beak size for the six most frequently captured bird species. We also evaluated the effect of bird ingestion on seed germination by performing two experiments, the first one using the total number of seeds found in fecal samples, and the second one using C. xalapensis seeds that were administered artificially to the birds and their germination compared with control seeds. We found significant differences among the ingested seed diversity indexes for the most commonly captured birds, which supports a differential seed consumption and dispersion. However, there were no significant differences of the seed abundance and richness between birds with different forest affinity or forest stratum

  2. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  3. Levantamento das aves marinhas no percurso Rio de Janeiro: Bahia (Brasil A survey of the marine birds in the route Rio de Janeiro: Bahía (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Pacheco Coelho

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine birds were surveyed between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, latitudes 24º44'S and 17º50'S, from July to September 1984. Sixteen species were recorded belonging to six families, with most sightings occurring between 24º44'S and 22º3$'S. Data suggest two distinct communities, the more southerly one is represented by Daption capense and the one further north by Puffinus gravis.

  4. A New Species of Pengornithidae (Aves: Enantiornithes) from the Lower Cretaceous of China Suggests a Specialized Scansorial Habitat Previously Unknown in Early Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Han; O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new enantiornithine bird, Parapengornis eurycaudatus gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning, China. Although morphologically similar to previously described pengornithids Pengornis houi, Pengornis IVPP V18632, and Eopengornis martini, morphological differences indicate it represents a new taxon of the Pengornithidae. Based on new information from this specimen we reassign IVPP V18632 to Parapengornis sp. The well preserved pygostyle of the new specimen elucidates the morphology of this element for the clade, which is unique in pengornithids among Mesozoic birds. Similarities with modern scansores such as woodpeckers may indicate a specialized vertical climbing and clinging behavior that has not previously been inferred for early birds. The new specimen preserves a pair of fully pennaceous rachis-dominated feathers like those in the holotype of Eopengornis martini; together with the unique morphology of the pygostyle, this discovery lends evidence to early hypotheses that rachis-dominated feathers may have had a functional significance. This discovery adds to the diversity of ecological niches occupied by enantiornithines and if correct reveals are remarkable amount of locomotive differentiation among Enantiornithes. PMID:26039693

  5. Ticks on birds in a forest fragment of Brazilian cerrado (savanna in the municipality of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Carrapatos de aves em um fragmento florestal de Cerrado, município de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Virginia Tolesano-Pascoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of ticks species, parasite prevalence and infestation intensity of birds in a forest fragment (18º 56' 57" S and 48º 12' 14" W within the Brazilian cerrado (savanna, in the municipality of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 162 birds from 26 species were captured. One adult tick, 296 larvae and 67 nymphs were found on passerine birds. Of these, it was identified 31 larvae and 27 nymphs of Amblyomma longirostre, 17 nymphs of A. nodosum, one A. cajennense larvae and one male of Rhipicephalus sanguineus. All other ticks were identified as Amblyomma sp. larvae (n = 264 or nymphs (n = 26. Overall tick infestation intensity and prevalence were 4.32 ticks/infested bird and 52%, respectively. Sampling of host-seeking ticks on the ground within the forest during a two-year period showed only five Amblyomma sp. nymphs and one adult male of A. nodosum whereas a search for ticks on domestic animals (cattle, horses and dogs found Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Although identification was possible in only 27% of bird ticks there seemed to be no correlation between environmental and domestic animal and bird infestation. It can be assumed that bird infestation may occur above the ground or at specific sites not sampled.Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as espécies de carrapatos em aves silvestres, sua prevalência e a intensidade de infestação em um fragmento florestal (18º 56' 57" S e 48º 12' 14" W do Cerrado, no município de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram capturadas 162 aves de 26 espécies, mas apenas as aves Passeriformes estavam infestadas. Nestas, foram encontrados um carrapato adulto, 67 ninfas e 296 larvas. Dentre os carrapatos foi possível a identificação de 31 larvas e 27 ninfas de Amblyomma longirostre, 17 ninfas de A. nodosum, uma larva de A. cajennense e um Rhipicephalus sanguineus macho. Todos os outros carrapatos foram classificados como larvas (n = 264 ou ninfas (n = 26 de

  6. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina: Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae), their inquiline birds and mammals, new hosts for Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turienzo, Paola; Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-06-03

    The insect fauna in nests of Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae) were studied in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Córdoba, and La Pampa in Argentina. A total of 7364 insect specimens comprising 77 taxa in a total of 29 families and 7 orders was found in their nests: 40 identified to species, 23 identified to genus, and 14 identified to family. Coryphistera alaudina and some of their vertebrate inquilines are new host records for the triatomine bugs Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and/or Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The insects in the nests of C. alaudina are separated by functional guilds, and their permanence time inside the nests are presented in a new manner and discussed.

  7. Patrones biogeográficos de las aves de la península de Yucatán Biogeographical patterns of the Yucatán Peninsula birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gala Cortés-Ramírez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de actualizar el conocimiento de la avifauna (residente, migratoria y endémica de la Península de Yucatán, se analizaron datos de distribución puntual y distribuciones potenciales obtenidas mediante modelos de nicho ecológico a partir de la información obtenida de colecciones científicas. Para examinar la similitud entre la avifauna, se utilizó un índice de distancia fenética y se estimó el número probable de especies que se distribuye en la región. El número de registros en la base de datos quedó conformado por la presencia de 436 especies de aves (de 440 estimadas, 5 de las cuales son endémicas de México y se distribuyen en isla Cozumel y en la parte norte de la península, donde se encuentran las zonas de mayor aridez, el bosque tropical seco y 17 especies cuasiendémicas que se distribuyen en el resto de la península. Se reconocieron 4 principales agrupamientos de similitud faunística; uno al norte, otro en el área central, uno más al sur de la península y el cuarto en isla Cozumel.We analyzed geographical distribution patterns for the resident, migratory and endemic birds of the Yucatán Peninsula, using data obtained in scientific collections and predicted distributional areas obtained by ecological niche models with the purpose of updating the knowledge about the birds of the area. We examined the similarity between the bird components using a phenetic distance index, and estimated the possible number of species distributed in the peninsula. We recorded the presence of 436 species (of 440 estimated with the information of database. Five species are endemic to Mexico and 17 quasiendemic. Mexican endemics are distributed in Cozumel Island and in the northwestern portion of the peninsula, in dryer areas with tropical dry forest. Quasiendemic species are distributed in the southeastern portion of the peninsula, mainly in areas with high humidity. Similarity analysis lead to the recognition of 4 major

  8. Aves do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó: o Vale do Rio Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brasil The birds of "Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó": the Rio Cipó valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um levantamento de espécies de aves do Vale do alto Rio Cipó durante o período de maio de 1998 a novembro de 2002. A região está totalmente inserida em uma das unidades de conservação mais importantes do sudeste do Brasil, o Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, em Minas Gerais. O método utilizado foi o de observação direta ao longo de 'transectos', captura com redes e identificação a partir do uso de vocalizações. A riqueza de espécies foi estimada usando-se o método de 'jackknife'. Foram registradas 226 espécies de aves pertencentes a 43 famílias. Isso corresponde cerca de 27% das 837 espécies já registradas para o bioma do Cerrado. Foram capturados 2.249 indivíduos num total de 4.486,82 horas-rede, onde foram amostradas 119 espécies pertencentes a 23 famílias. A riqueza foi estimada em 239 ± 5 espécies. Constam nesta lista seis espécies endêmicas do Cerrado: Augastes scutatus (Temminck, 1824 (Trochilidae, Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied-NeuWied, 1821 (Furnariidae, Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein, 1832 (Pipridae, Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823 (Corvidae, Charitospiza eucosma (Oberholser, 1905, Saltator atricollis (Vieillot, 1817, e Porphyrospiza caerulescens (Wied-Neuwied, 1830 (Emberizidae. Ocorrem também três espécies quase-ameaçadas de extinção: Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758 (Cathartidae, Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 e Charitospiza eucosma (Emberizidae. O Vale do Rio Cipó abriga uma porção significativa da avifauna do Cerrado. Alguns dos habitat encontrados no Vale estão se tornando cada vez mais raros na região do Cerrado de todo o Brasil, como as matas ciliares e o sistema de lagoas temporárias ao longo dos rios. Mesmo as cachoeiras, habitat importante para várias espécies, vêm desaparecendo em outras regiões do Brasil. Nesse sentido, a região do Vale do Rio Cipó dentro Parque consolida um dos seus objetivos que é a conservação da biodiversidade.It is

  9. Biologia de aves capturadas em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil Biology of birds captured in an Atlantic Forest fragment at Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivyanne S. Magalhães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados alguns aspectos da biologia da avifauna do Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, fragmento de 60 ha de Mata Atlântica, no município de Igarassu, Pernambuco. Objetivando obter informações acerca das espécies desse bioma, foram realizadas observações entre agosto de 1996 e julho de 1997 e capturas mensais utilizando redes de neblina, entre julho de 2003 e junho de 2004. Entre observações, capturas, recapturas e recuperações, foram registradas 151 espécies (31 famílias para a área, onde 456 aves (53 espécies/25 famílias foram capturadas com redes ornitológicas. Foram recuperadas 10 espécies (tempo de anilha de seis a oito anos. O número de capturas foi maior nos meses mais quentes. A maioria das espécies capturadas (52,8% teve freqüência de ocorrência menor que 25%, sendo Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766, Arremon taciturnus (Hermann, 1783, Neopelma pallescens (Lafresnaye, 1853 e Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 as mais freqüentes. Houve correlação significativa entre as análises dos valores médios entre massa corpórea e sexo, dados biométricos (medidas da asa, tarso e diâmetro do tarso e sexo e entre mudas e estação do ano. O maior período com muda associada à placa de incubação foi de março a maio (pico em maio. Os resultados fortaleceram a imprevisibilidade dos efeitos das alterações ambientais na estrutura da comunidade de aves em longo prazo. Reforçam ainda que os desequilíbrios populacionais possam vir a aumentar as chances de extinção, sendo necessárias novas alternativas para a proteção da biodiversidade, sobretudo em fragmentos florestais.We carried out a study about the biology of the avifauna of Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, a 60 ha fragment of Atlantic Forest in the town of Igarassu, Pernambuco. To obtain information about species of this bioma, observations were done between August, 1996 and July, 1997 and monthly captures using mist nets were conducted between July, 2003

  10. Comunidade de aves no Parque Estadual da Fonte Grande, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil Birds of the Parque Estadual da Fonte Grande, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Simon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho divulga a composição da comunidade de aves no Parque Estadual da Fonte Grande (PEFG, Vitória, Espírito Santo, com base em levantamentos de campo realizados entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003. Com um esforço de campo em torno de 450 horas, obtivemos um total de 120 espécies, distribuídas em 37 famílias. Pelo método Jackknife 1, estimou-se uma riqueza de 146 espécies (129 This paper provides the avifauna composition recorded between January and December 2003 in the Fonte Grande State Park (PEFG, municipality of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. We obtained a total of 120 species belonging to 37 families, after 450 hours of field work. We estimated a richness of 146 species (129 < IC(95% < 163, according to Jackknife 1 method. However, the species accumulation curve has not reached its assintotics. Four species out of 120 recorded are endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Leucopternis lacernulatus, Phaethornis idaliae, Thamnophilus ambiguus and Attila rufus, and one of them (L. lacernulatus is included in the list of Brazilian birds threatened with extinction. The comparison among the three basic inventory methods (auditive, sightseeing and net capture revealed that the sightseeing method detected the largest number of species (x² = 17.55, p < 5%, of which 26 (22% were recorded exclusively by this method. This result is explained by the dominance of open landscape species in the Park, associated with the type of field work employed in this study.

  11. Frugivoria por aves em Nectandra megapotamica (Lauraceae em uma área de Floresta Estacional Decidual no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Bird frugivory on Nectandra megapotamica (Lauraceae in an area of deciduous seasonal forest in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilise M. Krügel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A importância dos frutos de Lauraceae tem sido relatada na dieta de muitas aves, principalmente das famílias Ramphastidae, Cotingidae e Trogonidae. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar quais espécies de aves consomem os frutos de Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez (Lauraceae numa área de Floresta Estacional Decidual e, com base na análise de alguns dos componentes qualitativos e quantitativos da dispersão, inferir quais aves podem atuar como dispersores de suas sementes. O estudo foi desenvolvido no Campo de Instrução de Santa Maria (CISM (29º43'S, 53º42'W, município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Num total de 70 h de observação focal, foram registradas 726 visitas de 21 espécies de aves. As aves consideradas como potencialmente dispersoras de N. megapotamica foram Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818, T. rufiventris Vieillot, 1818, Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766 e T. amaurochalinus Cabanis, 1850 entre as residentes, e Tyrannus savanna Vieillot, 1808 e Myiodynastes maculatus (Müller, 1766 entre as migratórias. As aves com dieta generalista pareceram favorecer a dispersão de N. megapotamica, pois consumiram os frutos inteiros, realizaram visitas curtas (menos de 3 minutos e apresentaram maior freqüência de visitação que, por sua vez, está relacionada a uma maior remoção dos frutos. Nectandra megapotamica possui características que a incluem no sistema de dispersão generalista, exceto pelo alto valor nutritivo dos seus frutos.The importance of Lauraceae fruits has been reported on the diet of several birds, mainly from the Ramphastidae, Cotingidae and Trogonidae families. The objectives of this study were to determine which birds consume the fruits of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez (Lauraceae in a deciduous seasonal forest and, based on the analysis of some of the qualitative and quantitative dispersal components, infer which birds can act as dispersers of the seeds. The study was carried out at the

  12. Comunidade de aves de sub-bosque em uma área de entorno do Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Understory bird community in a surrounded area of Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana R. Maia-Gouvêa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em mata secundária no Município de Itatiaia, Estado do Rio de Janeiro (22º30'S e 44º30'W próximo ao Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, com o objeitvo de descrever a comunidade de aves ali presente. Foram amostrados três tipos vegetacionais distintos: reflorestamento, bosque e pomar, tendo sido realizadas 19 excursões entre 1984 e 1999. As aves foram amostradas através de capturas com redes de neblina e anilhamento, tendo sido utilizadas de 15 a 31 redes de 12 x 2 m e malha 36 mm. Foram também obtidas medidas morfométricas (comprimento total, asa, bico, cauda e tarso e dados biológicos (sexo, idade reprodução e muda. Depois de 5.621,79 horas-rede, foi registrado um total de 553 capturas, com 71 recapturas (12,84%; 417 indivíduos foram anilhados, e 65 beija-flores deixaram de ser marcados por falta de anilhas específicas. A comunidade estudada esteve representada por 77 espécies e 18 famílias, apresentando índice de diversidade H' = -1,594 e a curva do coletor com tendência à estabilização. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Emberizidae (n = 21; 27,27% e Tyrannidae (n = 15; 19,48%. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Turdus leucomelas (n = 40; 9,59% e Turdus rufiventris (n = 36; 8,63%. Seis das espécies amostradas (7,8% são endêmicas do bioma Mata Atlântica. Na estação chuvosa foram amostradas 68 espécies, e na estação seca, 42; e as capturas estiveram relacionadas com as chuvas (rs = -0,6778; p = 0,05. O período reprodutivo ocorreu de outubro a março estando correlacionado com o início da estação chuvosa (rs = -0,702; p = 0,052.This study was conduced in a second growth woodland close to Itatiaia National Park (22º30'S e 44º30'W, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and aimed to describe the understory bird community living in this area. We sampled three different vegetation types, reforestation, wood and orchard, through 19 field trips between 1984 and 1999. Birds

  13. Multivariate analysis of stable isotope data in the traceability process for birds=Análise multivariada em dados de isótopos estáveis no processo de rastreabilidade em aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Márcia Pereira Sartori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Isotope analysis has proved to be an extremely important tool in the traceability process; however, statistical analyses of the results show discrepancies, as the data depend on and originate from several chemical elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur (CHONS. In order to establish the proper analysis of traceability data for birds using the stable isotope technique and evaluate the need for a combined analysis of the variables, data for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 were used from eggs (albumen + yolk of laying hens and the pectoral muscle of broilers, which were subjected to univariate statistical analysis (ANOVA and complemented with Tukey’s test and multivariate statistical analysis (MANOVA and Discriminant Analysis. The data were analyzed using Minitab 16 software, and the results, corroborated in the theory, confirm the need for multivariate analysis, showing also that discriminant analysis clarifies questions from the results of the other analysis methods compared in this study.A análise isotópica tem se mostrado uma ferramenta de suma importância ao processo de rastreabilidade, no entanto, existem divergências nas análises estatísticas dos resultados, uma vez que os dados são dependentes e advindos de vários elementos químicos tais como Carbono, Hidrogênio, Oxigênio, Nitrogênio e Enxofre (CHON’S. Com o intuito de estabelecer a análise propícia para os dados de rastreabilidade em aves pela técnica de isótopos estáveis e avaliar a necessidade da análise conjunta das variáveis, foram usados dados de carbono-13 e de nitrogênio-15 de ovos (albúmen + gema de poedeiras e músculo peitoral de frangos de corte, os quais foram submetidos à análise estatística univariada (Anova e complementada pelo teste de Tukey e multivariada (Manova e Discriminante. Os dados foram analisados no software Minitab 16, e os resultados, consolidados na teoria, confirmam a necessidade de análise multivariada, mostrando

  14. Composição química e valores de energia metabolizável de subprodutos agroindustriais determinados com diferentes aves = Chemical composition and values of metabolizable energy of alternative feedstuffs determined with different birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Batista Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a composição química e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn do farelo da castanha de caju (FCC, do farelo de coco (FCe de dois tipos de levedura da cana-de-açúcar (LEV1 e LEV2 para pintos, galos e codornas japonesas. Três ensaios de metabolismo foram realizados utilizando a metodologia de coleta total de excretas. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração-referência e quatro rações-teste(40% do subproduto e 60% da ração-referência. Para todos os alimentos avaliados, os valores de EMA e EMAn determinados com codornas e galos foram superiores aos determinados com pintos. Para o FC e LEV2, os valores de EMA e EMAn obtidos com codornas foram inferiores aos obtidos com galos; entretanto, para o FCC, obtiveram-semaiores valores de EMA e EMAn com codornas. Independentemente do tipo de ave, os valores de EM determinados para a LEV1 foram superiores aos da LEV2.This experiment was conducted to determine the chemical composition and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of cashew nut meal (CNM, coconut meal (CONM and two types of sugar cane yeast (SCY1 andSCY2 for chicks, roosters end Japanese quail. Three digestibility trials were carried out using the methodology of the total excreta collection. Treatments consisted of a referencediet and four test-diets (40% feedstuffs and 60% reference-diet. The values ofmetabolizable energy determined with Japanese quail and roosters were higher than those obtained with chicks. For CONM and SCY2, the AME and AMEn determined with Japanese quail were lower than those determined for roosters, but the highest values of AME and AMEn for CNM were obtained with Japanese quail. Regardless of the bird type,the SCY1 showed higher values of AME and AMEn than those of SCY2.

  15. Avaliação do desempenho de um aquecedor para aves adaptado para utilizar biogás como combustível Birds heater adaptation and performance using biogas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M. B. Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se ensaio para avaliar a adaptação (diâmetro do injetor e o desempenho (consumo e eficiência de aquecimento de um aquecedor tipo campânula, adaptado para queimar biogás. Foi testado um aquecedor comum que, queimando gás liquefeito de petróleo (GLP, opera à baixa pressão (28 cm.c.a., com capacidade calorífica de 5.024 kJ h-1 e recomendado para 500 aves. O aquecedor foi avaliado com o combustível original (GLP, sem qualquer modificação no injetor de gás, e após adaptação para o funcionamento a biogás. Na adaptação, foi mantida a mesma grelha do queimador principal, aumentando-se a perfuração do injetor para permitir o funcionamento e a avaliação. Foram avaliados cinco injetores com perfurações de 1,0053; 1,5080; 1,5708; 1,7672 e 1,980 mm². Também se variaram as pressões do biogás na entrada do aquecedor de 10; 12; 15; 17 e 20 cm de coluna d'água (cm.c.a.. Os resultados indicaram que as expressões de cálculo teórico e parâmetros propostos na bibliografia podem ser utilizados com segurança na adaptação de aquecedores do tipo campânula utilizados em aviários; que a adaptação é de simples execução, indicando a viabilidade da utilização dos aquecedores já existentes em granjas e no mercado, e que as temperaturas do ar foram semelhantes às obtidas com o combustível original (GLP.It was carried out a trial to evaluate the adaptation (injector diameter and performance (biogas consumption and heating efficiency of a heating adapted to burn biogas. It was tried a common heater, burning liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, operating with low gas pressure (28 cm water column, with calorific capacity of 5024 kJ/h and recommended for 500 birds. The heater was evaluated with the original fuel (LPG without any modification in the gas injector and after adapting to biogas burning. Five injectors were evaluated with drillings of 1,0053; 1,5080; 1,5708; 1,7672 and 1,980 mm2. It also was varied the biogas

  16. Fisonomía vegetal y abundancia de aves en un bosque templado con dos niveles de perturbación en el Eje Neovolcánico Transversal Vegetation physiognomy and abundance of birds in a temperate forest with two disturbance levels in the Eje Neovolcanico Transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Ugalde-Lezama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante noviembre 2003 y junio 2004 se estudió la abundancia de especies de aves y su relación con la fisonomía vegetal en un bosque templado bajo 2 condiciones: bosque de pino no perturbado (ZOQ1 y bosque de pino perturbado (ZOQ2 de la Estación Forestal Experimental Zoquiapan (EFEZ, Estado de México. Para el conteo de aves se empleó el método de puntos de conteo con radio fijo (25 m. Los principales gradientes de las variables descriptoras de la vegetación se determinaron con análisis de componentes principales (ACP y la relación fisonomía-abundancia por especie y grupos de aves mediante análisis de regresión Poisson (ARP. Los ejes principales del ACP explicaron el 84.3, 83.4 y 81.7% de la variabilidad presente en la vegetación de ZOQ1, ZOQ2 y ZOQ1-ZOQ2. La cobertura, diámetro y altura de árboles fueron las variables que explicaron el 41.5, 43.7 y 41.8% de la varianza para el componente 1. La cobertura, diámetro y altura de arbustivas explicaron el 28.4, 25.0 y 25.3% para el 2; por último, la cobertura de herbáceas y arbustivas el 14.4, 14.6 y 14.5% para el componente 3. Los ARP indicaron una relación estadísticamente significativa (pFrom November 2003 to June 2004, we studied the abundance of bird species and their relationship with vegetation physiognomy (structure in a temperate forest under 2 conditions: undisturbed forest (ZOQ1 and disturbed forest (ZOQ2 of the Zoquiapan Forest Experimental Station (EFEZ, acronym in Spanish in central Mexico. Birds were recorded using the method of fixed radius point counts (25 m. We identified the major gradients of variation of descriptive variables of vegetation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and the relationship between vegetation physiognomy and bird abundance through Poisson regression analyses (ARP. The three main axes of PCA explained the 84.3, 83.4 and 81.7% of the variability present in the vegetation of ZOQ1, ZOQ2 and ZOQ1-ZOQ2, respectively. Tree cover, diameter

  17. Intra-specific brood parasitism revealed by DNA micro-satellite analyses in a sub-oscine bird, the vermilion flycatcher Parasitismo intraespecífico revelado mediante análisis de microsatélites de ADN en un ave suboscina, el cardenalito o saca tu real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO A RÍOS-CHELÉN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extra-pair reproduction is known to occur in many avian species. However, among passerines, the majority of studies on extra-pair reproduction have been carried out in oscine birds from temperate regions. Conversely, sub-oscines species, and particularly, species that inhabit tropical regions, have been studied to a much lesser extent. Given that a majority of avian species live in the tropics, it is important to study more tropical and sub-oscine species to have a more accurate picture of the rates of extra-pair reproduction among passerines, and a better understanding of the adaptive function of extra-pair reproduction in birds. Tropical species differ from temperate species in several ecological and life history traits, that may influence the occurrence of different modes of extra-pair reproduction and their prevalence. In this study we asked whether extra-pair reproduction occur in a sexually dimorphic and socially monogamous sub-oscine, the vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus. We report cases of extra-pair paternity, extra-pair maternity and intra-specific brood parasitism, and discuss our results in the view of other studies with passerinesSe sabe que la reproducción extrapareja ocurre en muchas especies de aves. Sin embargo, entre paserinos, la mayoría de los estudios se han llevado a cabo en aves oscinas de regiones templadas. Por el contrario, las especies suboscinas, y en particular las especies que habitan regiones tropicales, se han estudiado mucho menos. Por lo tanto, es importante estudiar más especies tropicales y suboscinas para tener una visión más acertada de las tasas de reproducción extrapareja en paserinos y un mejor entendimiento de la función adaptativa de la reproducción extrapareja en aves. Las especies tropicales difieren de las especies que habitan regiones templadas en diversos rasgos ecológicos y de historia de vida, que podrían influir en las tasas de ocurrencia de diferentes modos de reproducci

  18. Shyness and boldness in greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae: the effects of antipredator training on the personality of the birds Timidez e coragem em emas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae: os efeitos do treinamento anti-predação na personalidade das aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The shy-bold continuum is an axis of behavioural variation for some species, but the consequences of shyness and boldness in antipredatory behaviour is unknown. Bold animals have the tendency to be predated first after release in comparison to shy animals, who naturally avoid the predators. Antipredatory training has been used to enhance the defence behaviours of naive animals by various researchers around the world. For greater rheas, Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758, this kind of study is pioneer. In this study we have investigated if there are relationships between personality and performance of greater rheas in antipredatory training. We also investigated if the training procedures influenced the behaviour of the birds when presented to novel objects. Fifteen zoo-borne greater rheas were studied and 16 personality tests were run, being eight before the application of antipredator training, and eight after the training. We presented to the birds four novel objects (ball, box, bag and person and recorded their behaviour and the distance of the birds in relation to the objects. Results showed that the birds behave boldly before training and shyly after it. The antipredator training modified significantly the behaviour of the rheas, making them more careful about novel situations. Personalities affected the behaviour of the birds during antipredator training. The study of the animal personalities can be an useful tool in reintroduction programs since it helps to choose the animals with the highest chance of survival to reintroduce.O contínuo timidez-coragem é um eixo de variação comportamental para algumas espécies, mas as conseqüências da timidez e coragem no comportamento anti-predação não são conhecidas. Animais corajosos tendem a ser predados primeiramente após a reintrodução em comparação com os animais tímidos, que naturalmente evitam os predadores. O treinamento anti-predação tem sido usado para aumentar os comportamentos

  19. Variação local na composição da comunidade de aves no Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, São Miguel Arcanjo – SP e proposta para o monitoramento do impacto do ecoturismo. Local variation in bird communities composition at Carlos Botelho State Park, São Miguel Arcanjo – SP, Southeastern Brazil and proposals for monitoring the impact of ecotourism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Gonçalves da SILVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Como todas as atividades humanas, o ecoturismo apresenta o potencial de impactar negativamente o meio ambiente, necessitando ser monitorado e manejado. As aves podem ser incluídas em protocolos de monitoramento desse impacto, porém devem ser considerados outros fatores que influenciam a composição das comunidades de aves antes de se propor tais protocolos. Dentre estes se destaca a influência da heterogeneidade estrutural da vegetação sobre a distribuição e a abundância das aves. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: verificar como esse fator atua localmente numa área de Mata Atlântica sob uso público e propor um protocolo de monitoramento de impacto dessa atividade que utilize as aves como indicadores. A avifauna foi amostrada ao longo de duas trilhas, uma na qual o turismo é monitorado e outra sob o sistema autoguiado. A heterogeneidade estrutural ao longo dessas trilhas foi avaliada, e as duas comunidades de aves comparadas em relação à riqueza, composição de espécies, abundância relativa, diversidade e estrutura trófica. Foram utilizados os métodos de pontos de escuta e o de pontos quadrantes. As trilhas diferiram significativamente na maioria dos parâmetros de estrutura da vegetação analisados e na composição de espécies de aves, mas não nos demais parâmetros considerados para a avifauna. Dezessete espécies apresentaram abundância relativa significativamente diferente entre as áreas e, destas, seis relacionadas a parâmetros estruturais da vegetação. Propõe-se a avaliação do impacto do uso público sobre a avifauna em cada uma das trilhas através do monitoramento da abundância relativa das espécies considerando possíveis alterações estruturais na vegetação local e o monitoramento de 15 espécies de fácil detecção e que não diferiram significativamente em abundância relativa entre as trilhas.Like all human activities, ecotourism has the potential to negatively impact the environment and need

  20. Theropoda dinosaurs tracks from Triassic basin nd Ischigualasto - Villa Union, western Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, V.; Bracco, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Anchisauripus isp. and Theropoda indet. dinosaurs tracks from the Triassic Los Rastros and Ischigualasto formations, at the Ischigualasto-Villa Union Basin, Western Argentina, are described in this paper. This record completes the paleontological data provided by rest of bones and increases the stratigraphic range of some taxa in which bones are either missing or scarse. On the other hand, this report also allows us to enlarge the faunistic assemblage of some vertebrate assemblages [es

  1. Frugivoria por aves em Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) em ambientes antropizados na região de Sorocaba–SP. Frugivory by birds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) at anthropic environment in Sorocaba–SP region

    OpenAIRE

    Nayara Francine LAMBERTI; Regina Yuri Hashimoto MIURA; Bruna Gonçalves da SILVA

    2012-01-01

    As aves, assim como toda fauna consumidora de frutos possuem grande importância no processo de dispersão de sementes. O declínio de suas populações pode gerar consequências para a reprodução e para o crescimento populacional dessas plantas zoocóricas, se a dispersão não for adequada ou se a quantidade de sementes dispersas for insuficiente. A espécie Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae), nativa do Brasil, é popularmente conhecida como pitangueira. Possui frutos globosos e sulcados, apresentando cores...

  2. Frugivoria por aves em um mosaico de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e reflorestamento misto em Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil Frugivory by birds in a mosaic of seasonal semideciduous forest and a mixed reforested area in Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Athiê

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recuperação florestal com base nas interações animal-planta, foram avaliadas as espécies ornitocóricas e o consumo de frutos por aves em um mosaico de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e um reflorestamento misto, em Rio Claro, São Paulo. Através do monitoramento da frutificação e avaliação dos eventos de frugivoria em sessões focais e ad libitum, foram registradas 31 espécies ornitocóricas fornecendo frutos para 38 espécies de aves consumidoras. No reflorestamento misto foram observadas 90,3% (n=28 das espécies ornitocóricas frutificando ao longo de todo ano, enquanto no fragmento florestal, somente 51,6% (n=16 delas foram registradas, com maiores variações temporais na oferta de frutos; 65,2% (n=1027 dos frutos foram consumidos no reflorestamento misto e 34,8% (n=547 no fragmento florestal. Tais resultados podem estar relacionados ao menor tamanho do fragmento de vegetação nativa, o que, proporcionalmente, poderia determinar uma menor riqueza de espécies vegetais no mesmo e/ou ao fato de a dispersão abiótica tender a predominar nos locais fragmentados e perturbados. O reflorestamento misto, embora apresente algumas espécies vegetais exóticas, está sendo ecologicamente mais funcional para a avifauna e, devido à proximidade com o fragmento, parece estar contribuindo para a manutenção das comunidades de aves residentes e visitantes deste último através dos recursos alimentares oferecidos.To support future forest recovery projects based on plant-animal interactions, this work aimed to evaluate the ornithochoric species and fruit consumption by birds in both a mosaic of seasonal semideciduous forest and a mixed reforested area in Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil. By monitoring and evaluating fruiting and frugivory events in focal and ad libitum sessions, 31 ornithochoric species were found that provide fruits to 38 species of frugivorous birds. In the mixed reforested area, 90.3% (n

  3. DETERMINACIÓN DE SEXO EN AVES MEDIANTE HERRAMIENTAS MOLECULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUBIA E. MATTA CAMACHO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La ausencia de dimorfismo sexual en los estadios juveniles y durante la edad adulta de gran cantidad de especies de aves, dificulta o imposibilita la determinación del sexo basados en el fenotipo. El empleo de marcadores moleculares para determinar el sexo de las aves es una herramienta útil debido a la exactitud y rapidez de los resultados y a su vez se constituye en un método que minimiza el estrés durante la toma de muestra, comparado con otras técnicas invasivas que pudieran afectar la salud o estabilidad biológica del animal. La determinación temprana del sexo en aves resulta de especial relevancia cuando se consideran programas de conservación ex situ, producción, explotación y estudios de ecología de poblaciones. Esta revisión presenta las metodologías usadas para determinar el sexo, haciendo especial énfasis en herramientas moleculares, presentando sus ventajas y limitaciones. Palabras clave: dimorfismo sexual, aves, CHD, tipificación molecular cromosoma W, cromosoma Z. ABSTRACT The lack of sexual dimorphism in nestling, juvenile or adult birds of large number of avian species, makes it difficult or impossible sex determination based on phenotipic characteristics. To use molecular markers for bird sex determination is a rapid and safe procedure; moreover this methodology minimizes the stress during sampling, compared to other invasive techniques that could affect the health or biological stability of the animal. The early sex determination in birds is of particular importance when considering ex situ conservation programs, production, exploitation or population ecology studies. This review presents the methodologies used to sex determination, making emphasize on molecular tools, showing its advantages and limitations. Keywords: sexual dimorphism, birds, CHD, molecular typing, W chromosome, Z chromosome

  4. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil Comunidade de aves em um fragmento de floresta de araucária em relação a mudanças na paisagem circundante no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation Este estudo avaliou a dinâmica da comunidade de aves em um fragmento florestal ao longo de sete anos e correlacionou às mudanças ocorridas na paisagem circundante. A área de estudo localiza-se na Região Sul do Brasil (Estado do Paraná e a vegetação está representada por Floresta Ombrófila Mista. O período de amostragem ocorreu entre os anos de 1988 a 1994 e o método utilizado foi captura-marcação e recaptura. Para análise da mudança no uso e cobertura da paisagem foram utilizadas imagens Landsat TM e um sistema de informação geográfico. Quatro classes foram usadas, sendo: plantios com espécies exóticas, floresta nativa, capoeiras (vegetação nativa < 2 m de altura e áreas abertas (campo abandonado, pastagens, área agrícola e solo exposto. Foi analisada a relação entre as mudanças na paisagem e as mudanças na abundância e diversidade de aves de floresta, de área aberta, de borda e especialistas de bambu. Foram calculadas as estimativas de riqueza para cada ano estudado. A riqueza registrada na área de estudo foi de 96 espécies e as estimativas foram 114, 118 e 110 espécies para Chao 1, Jackknife 1 e Bootstrap, respectivamente. A comunidade de aves variou em abundância, riqueza e diversidade entre os anos estudados. Considerando a diversidade de espécies, os valores observados em 1991, 1993 e 1994 foram significativamente diferentes. As modificações na paisagem tamb

  5. Comparação quantitativa da comunidade de aves de um fragmento de floresta semidecidual do interior do Estado de São Paulo em intervalo de 30 anos A 30-year quantitative comparison of the bird community of a semideciduous forest remnant in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Poucos estudos avaliaram em longo prazo a variação no tamanho populacional das espécies de aves em fragmentos florestais. Para avaliar a riqueza e a abundância específica da comunidade de aves de um remanescente de mata semidecidual do interior do Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil, foi conduzido o censo da avifauna florestal utilizando-se a metodologia de contagem em transecção. Estes resultados foram comparados com levantamento realizado na mesma localidade 30 anos antes, e as aves foram classificadas de acordo com suas categorias alimentares com a finalidade de associá-las à tendência ao aumento/diminuição de suas abundâncias após este intervalo de tempo. Embora tenha havido predominância de espécies com diminuição populacional, todas as categorias tróficas analisadas apresentaram também espécies com aumento em suas abundâncias. A maioria das espécies com propensão a deslocarem-se entre fragmentos apresentou diminuição em suas abundâncias. Sugerimos que, em relação a suas abundâncias específicas, as categorias tróficas são igualmente afetadas pelos processos da fragmentação, e que a regeneração florestal sofrida pelo remanescente pode ter resultado na perda de espécies de bordas. Espécies cujas abundâncias tenham reduzido neste intervalo de tempo podem sofrer extinção local futuramente.Few studies have evaluated long-term changes in avian abundance in forest remnants. To compare both species richness and abundance of the bird community in a forest fragment located in the municipality of Gália, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, we surveyed forest birds using transect counts. We compared our results with a survey conducted 30 years earlier at the same locality and further classified bird species according to their food habits to eventually predict fluctuations of specific abundance. Although species with population declines predominated in the community, all trophic categories had species

  6. Tere tulemast allveelaevale / Ave Alavainu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alavainu, Ave, 1942-

    2005-01-01

    22. nov. toimub Kärdla kultuurikeskuses Nikolai Tihhonovi "Balladi naeltest" lahtine proov. Loo on tõlkinud ja lavastanud Ave Alavainu. Lavastust mängitakse ka Jõgeval toimuvatel Betti Alveri XIII luulepäevadel "Tähetund"

  7. Masayo Ave meetodid / Kai Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Kai, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Jaapani disainerist Masayo Avest, tema loomingust, tegevusest, põhimõtetest, disainitava haptilisest aspektist, Masayo Ave juhendamisel 2006. a, toimunud õpitoast Eesti Kunstiakadeemias, näitusest Tallinnas, ettekandest disainiseminaril "FutureSense"

  8. Ave Nahkuri taaskasutuskodu / Mari Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Kunstnik Ave Nahkuri kujundatud ja elukaaslase Imre abil oma kätega tehtud kodu Piibe maantee ääres Raudoja kõrtsitalus leiab tihti rakendust ka jooga- ja kunstilaagrite ning koolituste toimumispaigana

  9. Análise comparativa da assembléia de aves em dois remanescentes florestais no interior do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Comparative analysis of birds community in two forested fragments in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo J. Donatelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o levantamento quantitativo e qualitativo da comunidade de aves de dois fragmentos de floresta estacional semidecídua no interior do estado de São Paulo de julho de 2004 a julho de 2005. Para o estudo quantitativo utilizou-se da metodologia de Pontos de Escuta. Foram analisados os índices de diversidade e de freqüência de ocorrência dessa comunidade. O levantamento qualitativo registrou 181 espécies na Fazenda Rio das Pedras - FRP (Itapetininga, 350 ha e 126 espécies na Fazenda Santa Maria II - FSM (Buri, 480 ha, enquanto que o levantamento quantitativo registrou a presença de 73 espécies em 988 contatos e 64 espécies em 1019 contatos para FRP e FSM, respectivamente. O índice pontual de abundância (IPA variou de 0,01 (1 contato a 1,32 (132 contatos, para FRP e na FSM variou entre 0,01 (1 contato a 0,97 (97 contatos. A diversidade do fragmento da FRP foi de H’ = 3,04 e na FSM de H’ = 2,85 onde a eqüitatividade em ambas áreas foi de 0,91. A comunidade de aves nos fragmentos estudados mostrou o mesmo padrão encontrado em outros fragmentos de floresta estacional semidecídua de tamanhos relativos. As categorias alimentares mais representativas nos dois remanescentes foram insetívoras (53% na FSM e 50% na FRP e frugívoras (23% na FSM e 26% na FRP. Dentre os insetívoros, destacaram-se as famílias Tyrannidae na FSM e Thamnophilidae na FRP. Tanto na FSM como na FRP os insetívoros de sub-bosque foram mais representativos (53% e 51,4% respectivamente, seguidos pelos frugívoros de sub-bosque (50% na FSM e frugívoros de copa (52,6% na FRP. A importância do estudo de comunidade de aves esta ligada à elaboração do plano de manejo e conservação das áreas naturais.Qualitative and quantitative survey of bird community were performed in two distinct semideciduous forest in the interior of the State of São Paulo from July 2004 to July 2005. Point Counts were used for the quantitative survey followed by diversity and

  10. Evolução morfológica de Ceratosauria e Tyrannosauroidea (Dinosauria: Theropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Delcourt de Seixas Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Theropoda foram os dinossauros mais bem sucedidos durante e Era Mesozoica e mantiveram-se bem diversos até os tempos presentes. Dentre eles, Tyrannosauroidea e Ceratosauria foram amplamente distribuídos entre os hemisférios norte e sul durante os Períodos Jurássico e Cretáceo, respectivamente. Ambos foram predadores de topo, com formas basais possuindo crânios pequenos, pescoços compridos, pernas e caudas alongadas; enquanto as formas mais derivadas eram caracterizadas com crânios maiores, pe...

  11. Aberraciones cromáticas en aves de la colección ornitológica del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” Chromatic aberrations in birds of the ornithological collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ricardo Urcola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinan las aberraciones cromáticas que afectan el plumaje de las aves en la colección ornitológica del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales de Buenos Aires. Estas alteraciones se deben a exceso o defecto en la producción y/o deposición del pigmento melanina, las familias afectadas pertenecen a Tinamidae, Spheniscidae, Ardeidae, Threskiornithidae, Anatidae, Falconidae, Rallidae, Charadriidae, Columbidae, Strigidae, Momotidae, Furnariidae, Mimidae, Motacillidae, Emberizidae e Icteridae. Dentro de las aberraciones propuestas el leucismo parcial (40,5 % es la más numerosa, seguida por la dilución pastel (23,8 %, albinismo (14,3 % y finalmente los plumajes brown, ino y eumelanismo parcial (7,1 % cada una.The paper makes out a strong case for determine chromatic aberrations that affect the coloring of the birds in the ornithological collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales de Buenos Aires. These alterations are due to excess or deficiency in the production and/or deposition of melanin pigment, the affect families belong to Tinamidae, Spheniscidae, Ardeidae, Threskiornithidae, Anatidae, Falconidae, Rallidae, Charadriidae, Columbidae, Strigidae, Momotidae, Furnariidae, Mimidae, Motacillidae, Emberizidae and Icteridae. Within the proposed changes, the partial leucism (40,5 % is the most numerous, followed by pastel dilution (23,8 %, albinism (14,3 % and finally brown aberrations, ino and partial eumelanism, each one of then had (7,1 %.

  12. Number Needed To… $ave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocker, Graeme M; Verma, Jennifer Y; Demmons, Jillian; Mittmann, Nicole

    2015-02-06

    The 'Number Needed to Treat' (NNT) is a useful measure for estimating the number of patients that would need to receive a therapeutic intervention to avoid one of the adverse events that the treatment is designed to prevent. We explored the possibility of an adaption of NNT to estimate the 'Number Needed to $ave' (NN$) as a new, conceptual systems metric to estimate potential cost-savings to the health system from implementation of a treatment, or in this case, a program. We used the outcomes of the INSPIRED COPD Outreach ProgramTM to calculate that 26 patients would need to complete the program to avoid healthcare expenditures of $100,000, based on hospital bed days avoided. The NN$ does not translate into 'cost savings' per se, but redirection of resource expenditures for other purposes. We propose that the NN$ metric, if further developed, could help to inform system-level resource allocation decisions in a manner similar to the way that the NNT metric helps to inform individual-level treatment decisions.

  13. Rapanea ferruginea (Ruiz & Pav. Mez. (Myrsinacea como uma importante fonte alimentar para as aves em uma mata de galeria no interior do Estado de São Paulo Rapanea ferruginea (Ruiz & Pav. Mez. (Myrsinacea as an important food resource birds in a gallery forest in São Paulo, southeastern Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia C. Pascotto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécie típica de ambientes úmidos, Rapanea ferruginea produz diásporos globosos contendo uma única semente, envolta por um delgado pericarpo negro-arroxeado. Os comportamentos alimentares e a contribuição das aves na dispersão de sementes de R. ferruginea foram investigados em uma área de borda de mata de galeria, no município de São Manuel (22°43’S, 48°34’W, estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Em 38 horas e 40 minutos de observações realizadas entre 20 de outubro e 12 de novembro de 2005, foram consumidos 11618 frutos por 31 espécies de aves, sendo a alta taxa de remoção de diásporos provavelmente devido à superabundância de frutos e à exposição dos mesmos na planta. Das 31 espécies registradas, 25 foram consideradas como potenciais dispersores por engolirem o diásporo inteiro e por realizarem visitas freqüentes e de curta duração. Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis, 1851 foi a espécie que mais se alimentou em R. ferruginea, seguida por Dryocopus lineatus (Linnaeus, 1766 e Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818, responsáveis por 43% do total de frutos consumidos, sendo ainda a primeira a espécie mais freqüente. A técnica de captura de frutos mais empregada foi "picking", enquanto "hanging" foi a menos utilizada, mas predominante em Vireo olivaceus(Vieillot, 1817 e D.lineatus. Foram registrados poucos encontros agonísticos, sendo Mimus saturninus Hellmayr, 1903 a espécie responsável pelo maior número de encontros interespecíficos, enquanto que as interações intraespecíficas foram lideradas por T. amaurochalinus e por T. leucomelas.Characteristic of humid habitats, Rapanea ferruginea produces globose drupes containing a single seed covered by a thin black-purplish pulp. The feeding behavior and the contribution of birds in dispersing R. ferrugineafruits was examined in a gallery forest edge in São Manuel (22°43’S, 48°34’W, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In 38 hours and 40 minutes of focal

  14. Abundância sazonal de aves migratórias na Área de Proteção Ambiental de Piaçabuçu, Alagoas, Brasil Seasonal abundance of migratory birds in the Piaçabuçu Protection Area, Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna A. S. Cabral

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Todos os anos milhares de aves limícolas e migratórias invernam ao longo da costa da América do Sul, entre setembro e abril, onde adquirem massa corpórea e realizam mudas para retornar aos sítios de reprodução. Estudos quali-quantitativos foram realizados na Área de Proteção Ambiental de Piaçabuçu, Alagoas, Brasil, através da contagem direta, objetivando o acompanhamento das flutuações sazonais da avifauna migrante. Foram registradas cinco espécies da família Charadriidae: Vanellus chilensis (Wagler, 1827; Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758; Charadrius semipalmatus Bonaparte, 1825; Charadrius collaris Vieillot, 1818 e Charadrius wilsonia (Ord, 1814 e cinco espécies da família Scolopacidae: Arenaria interpres (Linnaeus, 1758; Actitis macularius (Linnaeus, 1766; Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Gmelin, 1789; Calidris pusilla (Linnaeus, 1766 e Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764. Pluvialis squatarola, Charadrius semipalmatus, Charadrius collaris, Arenaria interpres, Calidris pusilla e Calidris alba foram consideradas constantes (presentes em mais de 50% das observações. Charadrius semipalmatus e Calidris alba apresentaram os maiores índices de freqüência de ocorrência nos meses de novembro e dezembro e, março e setembro, respectivamente. A correlação de Spearman demonstra uma forte dependência na migração destas espécies. A fidelidade dessas aves a APA de Piaçabuçu observada nessa pesquisa indica ser a área um sítio de invernada, reforçando sua importância para a conservação das espécies migratórias que utilizam o local.Every year, thousands of limicola and migratory birds winter on the South American coast, between September and April, where they acquire body mass and undergo moulting before returning to their reproduction sites. Qualitative and quantitative studies were performed in the Piaçabuçu Protection Area located in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, by direct counting, aiming to follow upon the birds' seasonal

  15. Reconsidering the Avian Nature of the Oviraptorosaur Brain (Dinosauria: Theropoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Balanoff

    Full Text Available The high degree of encephalization characterizing modern birds is the product of a long evolutionary history, our understanding of which is still largely in its infancy. Here we provide a redescription of the endocranial space of the oviraptorosaurian dinosaur Conchoraptor gracilis with the goal of assessing the hypothesis that it shares uniquely derived endocranial characters with crown-group avians. The existence of such features has implications for the transformational history of avian neuroanatomy and suggests that the oviraptorosaur radiation is a product of the immediate stem lineage of birds-after the divergence of Archaeopteryx lithographica. Results derived from an expanded comparative sample indicate that the strong endocranial similarity between Conchoraptor and modern birds largely reflects shared conservation of plesiomorphic features. The few characters that are maintained as being uniquely expressed in these two taxa are more likely products of convergence than homology but still indicate that the oviraptorosaur endocranial cavity has much to teach us about the complex history of avian brain evolution.

  16. NASA's atmospheric variability experiments /AVE/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K.; Turner, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of seven mesoscale experiments were conducted under the NASA program, Atmospheric Variability Experiments (AVE). Rawinsonde, satellite, aircraft, and ground observations were recorded during specially selected meteorological periods lasting from 1 to 3 days. Details are presented for each AVE relative to observation times, experiment size and location, and significant weather. Some research results based on the use of these AVE data are referenced. These include contributions to regional numerical prediction; relations between wind shears, instability, and thunderstorm motion and development; relations between moisture and temperature and the probability of convection; retrieval of tropospheric temperature profiles from cloud-contaminated satellite data; variation of convection intensity as a result of atmospheric variability; and effects of cloud rotation on their trajectories.

  17. Programa de conservacion para aves migratorias neotropicales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Finch; Marcia Wilson; Roberto Roca

    1992-01-01

    Mas de 250 especies de aves terrestres migran a Norte America durante la epoca reproductiva para aprovechar los sistemas templados. No obstante, las aves migratorias neotropicales pasan la mayor parte de su ciclo de vida en los habitat tropicales y subtropicales de paises latinoamericanos y caribefios donde viven en una asociacion cercana con las aves residentes. Para...

  18. Refratariedade das galinhas ao "Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum Cruzi" III - dissociação dos fenômenos da refratariedade e da lise dos epimastigotas pelo soro das aves The refractory state of birds towards the "Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi". III - The dissociation of the phenomena of the refractory state and the lysis of the epimastigotes by chicken sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nery-Guimarães

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Há muito tempo é sabido serem as aves refratárias ao "T. (S. cruzi". Em trabalhos anteriores verificou-se que nas galinhas pode-se obter infecções "in ovo" diagnosticáveis até o 21º de incubação, porém, logo após o nascimento os pintos mostram-se refratários ao parasito, que é destruído no ponto de inoculação. Neste trabalho verificou-se que tripomastigotas injetados diretamente no sangue, podem ser esporadicamente encontrados até 1h depois. Verificou-se também que galinhas bursectomizadas, com associação de testosterona "in ovo" e ciclofosfamida nos 4 primeiros dias de vida permanecem refratárias. Entretanto, o soro dessas aves perde a capacidade lítica que o soro das aves normais possui para os epimastigotas do "T. (S. cruzi", pela qual são responsáveis as gama-globulinas séricas, conforme foi verificado após o fracionamento do soro em coluna de DEAE-Sefádex A50. A dissociação dos 2 fenômenos, mostra que a capacidade lítica pode ser atribuída a um "anticorpo natural" - uma vez que é eliminada ou grandemente diminuída com a supressão do sistema imunitário bursa- dependente - porém, o mesmo não se pode concluir quanto à refratariedade. Esta, provavelmente, deve estar relacionada ao próprio metabolismo celular após o nascimento.The refractory state of birds to the "T (S cruzi" is well known since long ago. In previous papers it was possible to observe in chicks, infection "in ovo", still present at the last dat of incubation. Nevertheless after hatching the chicks become refractory to the parasite. The destruction of the parasites takes place in the skin at the inoculation point. Throughout these studies the authors verified that the trypomastigotes forms disappear within an hour, after being injected directly into the blood stream. Bursectomized chicks by treatment with testosterone "in ovo" plus cyclophosphamide in the first four days of life, show also the refractory condition, but their sera lack the

  19. Ocorrência e tratamento de sarna knemidocóptica (Knemidokoptes sp. em aves de companhia atendidas na Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense, RJ, Brasil Occurrence and treatment of knemidocoptic mange (Knemidokoptes sp. in pet birds company cared at the Veterinary Medicine College - Universidade Federal Fluminense, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio Freire Bruno

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A sarna knemidocóptica ocasionada pelo ácaro Knemidokoptes sp. pode ser considerada uma enfermidade de caráter relevante na rotina clínica aviária. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar a ocorrência da sarna knemidocóptica em aves de companhia atendidas no Setor de Animais Selvagens da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF, ressaltando as principais espécies acometidas e a eficácia do tratamento clínico estabelecido. No período entre janeiro de 2000 e junho de 2006, 374 aves foram atendidas no Setor; 25 delas eram portadoras de ectoparasitos, das quais 68% (n=17 com diagnóstico de sarna knemidocóptica. As lesões associadas à presença do Knemidokoptes sp. ocorreram principalmente na região dos pés em 14 aves (82,4%, sendo os Passeriformes (Serinus canarius os mais acometidos com 14 casos (82,4%, seguidos de três casos (17,7% em Psitaciformes (Melopsittacus undulatus. Os sinais clínicos constituíram-se de lesões hiperqueratosas e deformidade de dígitos. A confirmação do diagnóstico foi realizada por meio, da identificação microscópica do ácaro a partir de raspado cutâneo da área infestada. Em 15 pacientes portadores da sarna knemidocóptica, entre Passeriformes e Psitaciformes, administrou-se pomada composta por sulfureto de potássio 3g 100g-1 e carbonato de potássio 3g 100g-1 associados uma vez ao dia, em dias alternados, por quatorze dias. Apenas dois pacientes (11,8% foram tratados com aplicação tópica de solução à base de benzoato de benzila 25%, na mesma freqüência e duração do tratamento anterior. Foi intercalado o uso de óleo mineral puro 100%, aplicado topicamente duas vezes ao dia, em ambos os tratamentos. Nos casos mais graves (três pacientes, associou-se ao tratamento 0,06ml de ivermectina 1% pour on em dose única. Os pacientes submetidos a esses tratamentos obtiveram em sua totalidade a cura clínica.Knemidocoptic mange caused by Knemidokoptes sp. can be

  20. Reconsidering the Avian Nature of the Oviraptorosaur Brain (Dinosauria: Theropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanoff, Amy M.; Bever, G. S.; Norell, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The high degree of encephalization characterizing modern birds is the product of a long evolutionary history, our understanding of which is still largely in its infancy. Here we provide a redescription of the endocranial space of the oviraptorosaurian dinosaur Conchoraptor gracilis with the goal of assessing the hypothesis that it shares uniquely derived endocranial characters with crown-group avians. The existence of such features has implications for the transformational history of avian neuroanatomy and suggests that the oviraptorosaur radiation is a product of the immediate stem lineage of birds—after the divergence of Archaeopteryx lithographica. Results derived from an expanded comparative sample indicate that the strong endocranial similarity between Conchoraptor and modern birds largely reflects shared conservation of plesiomorphic features. The few characters that are maintained as being uniquely expressed in these two taxa are more likely products of convergence than homology but still indicate that the oviraptorosaur endocranial cavity has much to teach us about the complex history of avian brain evolution. PMID:25494183

  1. Terrestrial birds living on marine environments: does dietary composition of Cinclodes nigrofumosus (Passeriformes: Furnariidae predict their osmotic load? Aves terrestres viviendo en ambientes marinos: ¿es la composición dietaria de Cinclodes nigrofumosus (Passeriformes: Furnariidae un buen predictor de su carga osmótica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding on saline marine foods may be especially challenging for passerine birds that lack functional salt glands and have a limited ability to concentrate urine. To reduce the salt load imposed by consumption of marine food these birds may select food with low salt contents and/or increase their intake of freshwater. The genus Cinclodes is particular among passerines because it includes species that inhabit both inland and maritime shores. We analyzed the diet of Cinclodes nigrofumosus and explored the possible relationships between dietary composition and salt load at mesic and arid coastal sites of Chile. From a biogeographical perspective, we hypothesized that freshwater availability is critical to the relationship between diet composition and osmotic load of C. nigrofumosus. Our analysis of prey abundance and distribution indicated that the diet of C. nigrofumosus is composed mainly by marine prey, in spite of the availability of terrestrial insects at both sites. Stomach content osmolality was higher in the arid site, but it was not correlated with prey type, which suggests that Cinclodes nigrofumosus avoid a high osmotic load, drinking fresh water when available. Thus physiological constraints are modulating niche breath of CinclodesAlimentarse de presas marinas representa un desafío para aves paseriformes que no poseen glándula de la sal y tienen una habilidad limitada para concentrar orina. Para reducir la carga osmótica asociada al consumo de presas marinas estas aves podrían optar por incluir presas con bajas concentraciones salinas en su dieta y/o aumentar la ingestión de agua dulce. El género Cinclodes es particular entre los paseriformes debido a que incluye especies que habitan riberas de lagos, ríos y costas marinas. Analizamos la dieta de Cinclodes nigrofumosus y exploramos la posible relación entre la composición de ésta y la carga salina en dos sitios costeros de Chile, uno mésico y otro árido. En este estudio

  2. NASA's AVE/VAS program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented concerning the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE) which was conducted during the spring of 1982 as part of NASA's Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) demonstration. The AVE/VAS Ground Truth Field Experiment is examined in detail, which comprised the obtaining of rawinsonde observations during various meteorological conditions on four different days when VAS data were obtained. These experiments were performed over 24 hr periods in a mesoscale network of 24 National Weather Service rawinsonde sites and 13 NASA and NOAA special sites. The VAS, operating as a part of the GOES satellite system, was employed to provide two-dimensional cloud mapping capability during each of the AVE/VAS experiment periods. Among the goals of this AVE/VAS program, in addition to management of the acquisition and processing of the data, were to perform the research and development needed to produce data products from VAS radiances, to validate the data, and to assess the impact of the data on mesoscale meteorological forecasting and research requirements.

  3. Pelvic and hindlimb musculature of Tyrannosaurus rex (Dinosauria: Theropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, Matthew T; Hutchinson, John R

    2002-09-01

    In this article, we develop a new reconstruction of the pelvic and hindlimb muscles of the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex. Our new reconstruction relies primarily on direct examination of both extant and fossil turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. These observations are placed into a phylogenetic context and data from extant taxa are used to constrain inferences concerning the soft-tissue structures in T. rex. Using this extant phylogenetic bracket, we are able to offer well-supported inferences concerning most of the hindlimb musculature in this taxon. We also refrain from making any inferences for certain muscles where the resulting optimizations are ambiguous. This reconstruction differs from several previous attempts and we evaluate these discrepancies. In addition to providing a new and more detailed understanding of the hindlimb morphology of T. rex--the largest known terrestrial biped--this reconstruction also helps to clarify the sequence of character-state change along the line to extant birds. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. HIGH RATES OF EVOLUTION PRECEDED THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H; Benton, Michael J; Polly, P David

    2014-01-01

    The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with Aves evolved before their origin, at high rates, and support the notion that numerous lineages of paravians were experimenting with different modes of flight through the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. PMID:24471891

  5. Uso de florestas secundárias por aves de sub-bosque em uma paisagem fragmentada na Amazônia central Use of secondary forests by understory birds in a fragmented landscape in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vitor Campos e Silva

    2012-03-01

    secondary forests that are established in the abandoned areas. The trend is an increase in secondary forests cover, resulting in a mosaic of primary forest (FP and fragments separated by an array of secondary forests (FS. In this scenario, the prediction of a massive extinction could be wrong if many species could survive in the secondary forests. To assess the importance of FS for the understory birds we sampled areas in regeneration and a continuous forest of a fragmented landscape. We conducted mist netting (24 nets/day for six consecutive days/month, for 8 months (May-November in 2009. Some forest species as do not seem to be adapted to the secondary forest environment and their occurrences are restricted to continuous forest environments. But most focal species showed no significant difference in apparent survival rates between the enviroments, suggesting that these species inhabit the secondary forest and the primary forest similarly. Because most of the matrix in fragmented landscapes are composed by secondary forests, such results highlights the conservation value that these habitats present in the long term. Thus, FS should be regarded as dynamic matrix that not only allows the movement of individuals but also function as habitat for many species typical of FP.

  6. Aves endêmicas e ameaçadas de extinção da Estação Ecológica de Xitué e a contribuição do taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth para a riqueza local. Endemic and threatened birds of the Xitué Ecological Station and the contribution of the bamboo Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth to local richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Zamorano ANTUNES

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O contínuo ecológico da Serra deParanapiacaba, no sul do Estado de São Paulo,é uma área de extrema importância para aconservação das aves. Dentro do contínuo, a EstaçãoEcológica de Xitué é a Unidade de Conservaçãocuja avifauna é menos conhecida. Em levantamentoefetuado em 2006 foram registradas em Xitué48 espécies endêmicas da Mata Atlântica e 8ameaçadas de extinção. Apesar de ser a espécievegetal dominante em vastos trechos da estação,o taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth parececontribuir pouco para a riqueza de espécies de avesencontradas. No entanto, entre estas espécies seencontra o criticamente ameaçado papa-capim-dataquaraSporophila falcirostris, granívoroespecializado em sementes de taquaras.The Paranapiacaba Range ecologicalcontinuum, in State of São Paulo southernBrazil, is an extremely important area to birdconservation. In Paranapiacaba Range the birds ofXitué Ecological Station remains poorly known.We surveyed the Xitué birds in 2006 and we found48 Atlantic Forest endemics species and 8 threatened.Although the bamboo Guadua tagoara (NeesKunth dominate many areas of Xitué, it contributedtoo little for bird richness. However, between thesebird species was the critically endangered Temminck’sSeedeater Sporophila falcirostris, specializedbamboo granivorous.

  7. Composição química e valores de energia metabolizável de subprodutos agroindustriais determinados com diferentes aves - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i3.679 Chemical composition and values of metabolizable energy of alternative feedstuffs determined with different birds - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i3.679

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani Ribeiro Vieira Lopes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a composição química e os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn do farelo da castanha de caju (FCC, do farelo de coco (FC e de dois tipos de levedura da cana-de-açúcar (LEV1 e LEV2 para pintos, galos e codornas japonesas. Três ensaios de metabolismo foram realizados utilizando a metodologia de coleta total de excretas. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração-referência e quatro rações-teste (40% do subproduto e 60% da ração-referência. Para todos os alimentos avaliados, os valores de EMA e EMAn determinados com codornas e galos foram superiores aos determinados com pintos. Para o FC e LEV2, os valores de EMA e EMAn obtidos com codornas foram inferiores aos obtidos com galos; entretanto, para o FCC, obtiveram-se maiores valores de EMA e EMAn com codornas. Independentemente do tipo de ave, os valores de EM determinados para a LEV1 foram superiores aos da LEV2.This experiment was conducted to determine the chemical composition and the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of cashew nut meal (CNM, coconut meal (CONM and two types of sugar cane yeast (SCY1 and SCY2 for chicks, roosters end Japanese quail. Three digestibility trials were carried out using the methodology of the total excreta collection. Treatments consisted of a reference-diet and four test-diets (40% of feedstuffs and 60% of reference-diet. The values of metabolizable energy determined with Japanese quail and roosters were higher than those obtained with chicks. For CONM and SCY2, the AME and AMEn determined with Japanese quails were lower than those determined for roosters, but the highest values of AME and AMEn for CNM were obtained with Japanese quail. Independente of the bird type the SCY1 showed higher values of AME and AMEn than those of SCY2.

  8. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  9. Acerca del Ave Fénix en las tradiciones islámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buendía, Pedro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Western cultural milieus it has been customary to identify the Arabian legend of the giant bird ʻAnqāʼ Mugrib as a version of the mythical Phoenix known from Greco-Latin sources. Linking these two together is based almost exclusively on the Phoenix supposedly coming from Arabia. However, a detailed analysis of the sources clearly shows that the two myths are essentially different, and describe two birds that are completely divergent in shape, mythical development and textual significance. Although the ʻAnqāʼ has merged in some texts with the myth of the Phoenix, because of its long life, Arab and Persian literature also speak of a bird known as qaqnus which has essentially the same characteristics as the one in the Greco-Latin myth of the Phoenix. The qaqnus bird, in addition, is usually mentioned as another bird along with the ʻAnqāʼ, making clear that it is different and separate from this.

    En medios culturales occidentales, ha sido costumbre identificar la leyenda árabe del ave gigante ʻAnqāʼ Mugrib con el mito del ave Fénix tal y como se conoce en las fuentes grecolatinas. Dicha identificación se basa casi exclusivamente en la presunta procedencia del Fénix de Arabia. Sin embargo, un detallado análisis de los textos muestra de forma clara que ambos mitos son esencialmente diferentes y describen a dos aves que formal y estructuralmente son completamente distintas. Aunque la leyenda de la ʻAnqāʼ se contamina en algunos textos con el mito de la vetusta edad del Fénix, las literaturas árabe y persa conocen un ave llamada qaqnus cuyas características concuerdan esencialmente con las del mito grecolatino del Fénix. Esta ave qaqbus además, suele ser mencionada como un ave diferente y aparte de la ʻAnqāʼ.

  10. Masayo Ave õpetab puudutama / Lylian Meister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meister, Lylian, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Jaapani disainerist ja arhitektist Masayo Avest, tema mõtteid disainist, arvamus eestlastest. 2006. a. juhendas M. Ave Eesti Kunstiakadeemias workshop'i, kus osalesid tootedisaini ja tekstiilieriala üliõpilased. Talve tekstuuride väljendamiseks sündis "Haptic Dictionary" ja näitus Tallinnas Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis. 15 ill., neist 9 M. Ave töödest

  11. Efeitos da exploração madeireira de baixo impacto sobre uma comunidade de aves de sub-bosque na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Pará, Brasil Effects of low impact selective logging on an understory bird community in the Tapajós National Forest, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Magalli Pinto Henriques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo compara a resposta de uma comunidade aves à exploração madeireira de baixo impacto através da distribuição das espécies em floresta controle e manejada ao longo de cinco anos com amostragem pré e pós-exploração. O procedimento de ordenação mostrou que a similaridade da comunidade de aves após a exploração madeireira foi menor que a similaridade entre as amostras do período de pré-exploração. Além disso, a ordem das abundâncias das 43 espécies mais comuns foi alterada entre o período anterior à exploração e 3 a 4 anos após a exploração na floresta manejada. A exploração afetou as taxas de captura de 20 espécies, diretamente ou através de uma interação com o tempo. Os insetívoros terrícolas e os insetívoros que seguem bandos mistos foram as guildas mais afetadas pela exploração madeireira. Ambas as guildas mostraram declínio, correlacionado com o tempo, em suas abundâncias em floresta manejada. Insetívoros seguidores de formigas e insetívoros arborícolas não apresentaram diferenças entre a floresta manejada e controle, apesar de algumas espécies dessas guildas terem apresentado efeitos relacionados ao manejo florestal, diretamente ou através de uma interação entre o tempo e o manejo. Frugívoros também não apresentaram efeitos significativos relacionados ao manejo florestal. Nectarívoros aumentaram tanto na floresta explorada como na floresta controle. Efeitos temporais de aumento ou declínio observados em guildas e em 12 espécies ocorreram tanto na floresta controle como na floresta explorada. Este resultado sugere que mudanças temporais na área explorada podem estar relacionadas à sucessão enquanto que mudanças temporais na floresta controle podem estar relacionados à exploração com intensidade de 40m³/ha de parcelas adjacentes.This study compares the avian response to low impact selective logging by comparing bird species distribution in control and cut forest during

  12. Bone histology, phylogeny, and palaeognathous birds (Aves, Palaeognathae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legendre, Lucas; Bourdon, Estelle; Scofield, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a phylogenetic signal in the variation of osteohistological features has been recently debated in the literature. Previous studies have found a significant signal for some features, but these results were obtained on a small amount of characters and a reduced sample. Here we perfo...

  13. Osteologia craniana de Nyctibiidae (Aves, Caprimulgiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vernaschi Vieira da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A família Nyctibiidae (urutaus apresenta sete espécies incluídas em um único gênero Nyctibius, distribuídas por toda a região neotropical desde o México até a Argentina, alcançando sua maior diversidade na região amazônica. São aves de hábito noturno caracterizadas por um distintivo mimetismo em troncos vegetais, onde permanecem imóveis durante o período diurno. Devido seus hábitos noturnos e comportamentos crípticos, o estudo de seus hábitos de vida é excessivamente difícil, o que faz desse grupo um dos menos conhecidos da região tropical. Logo, informações sobre comportamento e história natural da família são muito escassas, e raras são as contribuições a respeito de sua anatomia. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi descrever detalhadamente a osteologia craniana de seis das sete espécies de Nyctibiidae reconhecidas, incluindo Nyctibius griseus, N. grandis, N. aethereus, N. jamaicensis, N. leucopterus e N. bracteatus. Observa-se uma grande variação na osteologia craniana dentro da família, a qual apresenta um crânio bastante modificado e adaptado aos seus hábitos de vida, basicamente no que se refere a abrigar os olhos extremamente desenvolvidos e a proporcionar uma grande abertura bucal. Os ossos que formam o teto da cavidade bucal apresentam um achatamento dorso-ventral, particularmente nos ossos pterigóide e paraesfenóide, e o osso palatino é muito desenvolvido lateralmente. Na região de fusão da maxila com o arco jugal observa-se uma projeção, única entre as aves, a qual é vista até externamente com a ave em vida. O osso vômer tem grande variação dentro da família, apresentando um número variável de projeções rostrais entre as espécies. A região caudal do crânio é bastante larga, havendo grande distância entre os ossos quadrados, os quais são verticalmente posicionados e apresentam um reduzido processo orbital. A mandíbula, elástica e flexível, apresenta uma curta regi

  14. Morfometría y fecundidad de Profilicollis bullocki Mateo, Córdova & Guzmán 1982 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae en especies simpátricas de aves costeras de Chile Morphometry and fecundity of Profilicollis bullocki Mateo, Córdova & Guzmán 1982 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae in sympatric coastal bird species of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA RIQUELME

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y se compara la morfología y fecundidad de individuos adultos del acantocéfalo Profilicollis bullocki Mateo, Córdova & Guzmán 1982 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae extraídos del intestino de cuatro especies de aves costeras Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein 1823, Larus pipixcan Wagler 1831, Podiceps occipitalis Garnot 1826 y Numenius phaeopus Linné 1758, capturadas en Caleta Lenga (36º45' S, 73º10' O, Chile. Los resultados señalan que la identidad de la especie hospedadora es un factor relevante para entender las variaciones de la morfología y de la fecundidad del parásito. Los acantocéfalos recolectados desde L. dominicanus y L. pipixcan eran los de mayor tamaño corporal. Además, la fecundidad de los parásitos aumentaba con su tamaño corporal. Sin embargo, el análisis de los residuos de la regresión entre la fecundidad y la longitud total del cuerpo de P. bullocki mostró que la fecundidad del parásito en L. dominicanus es similar a la encontrada en L. pipixcan y que en estas especies es significativamente mayor que la encontrada en los parásitos recolectados de P. occipitalis. Se discute que para establecer qué hospedadores son de mejor calidad para este parásito, aparte de su desempeño reproductivo del parásito en cada especie hospedadora, es necesario también considerar la abundancia de los hospedadores y la magnitud que alcanzan las poblaciones del parásito en cada una de ellasWe describe and compare the variations in morphology and fecundity of Profilicollis bullocki Mateo, Córdova & Guzmán 1982 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae adults collected from 4 alternative sympatric and definitive marine coastal bird host species (Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein 1823, Larus pipixcan Wagler 1831, Podiceps occipitalis Garnot 1826 and Numenius phaeopus Linné 1758, sampled at Caleta Lenga, Chile (36º45' S, 73º10' W. Results show that the specific identity of the host species is a relevant factor to explain morphometric

  15. The importance of riparian forest for the maintenance of bird species richness in an Atlantic Forest remnant, southern Brazil A importância da floresta ripária para a manutenção da riqueza de espécies de aves em um remanescente de Floresta Atlântica no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz dos Anjos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the composition and guild structure of bird communities of riparian and upland forest in an Atlantic forest reserve, the Godoy State Park (GP, in northern Paraná State, southern Brazil. Unlimited distance point counts were sampled monthly from September-December 2001, along four trails. Two trails in upland forest (TA and TB were parallel to each other and about 300 m apart. Two trails in riparian forest (TC and TD were along the Apertados River, about 100 m away from the river. A total of 145 species were recorded: 81 species were recorded in both upland and riparian forests, 19 species were recorded only in upland forest and 45 species were recorded exclusively in riparian forest. Among the 81 species occurring in both forest types, 18 species had significantly higher numbers of contacts in the riparian forest while only 8 species had significantly higher numbers of contacts in the upland forest. Taking into account the contacts numbers of the species the large frugivores guild was closely associated to the upland forest, while bamboo and vine-tangles insectivore, canopy insectivores, edge omnivores, ground omnivore and midstory insectivores were those more closely related to the riparian forest.Comparamos a composição e a estrutura de guilda da comunidade de aves da floresta ripária e alta em uma reserva de Floresta Atlântica, o Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy (GP, no norte do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Pontos de escutas com distância ilimitada foram realizados mensalmente de setembro-dezembro de 2001, ao longo de quatro trilhas. Duas trilhas na floresta alta (TA e TB paralelas uma a outra e com distância de 300 m. Duas trilhas na floresta ripária (TC e TD ao longo do Rio Apertados, distantes 100 m do rio. Um total de 145 espécies foi registrado: 81 espécies foram registradas em ambas as florestas, 19 espécies foram registradas somente na floresta alta e 45 espécies foram registradas exclusivamente na floresta rip

  16. Aves, The Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedenfeld, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Galapagos avifauna has been described previously, it is necessary to list, clarify, and update the previously published records of birds occurring in the archipelago, and to clarify some recent records that are erroneous or were presented with none or few details. The list of breeding (including endemic species and subspecies and non-endemic breeding species and regular migrant species totals only 88 species, although including the 57 vagrant species, the number is 145 species. However, endemism in Galapagos is quite high, with half (50% of the regular avifauna being endemic at the species or subspecies level. If only land birds are considered, the endemism levels are much higher, with 70% of land bird species being endemic, and 58% of the “regular” seabirds being endemic as well. It is hoped this article will stimulate other ornithologists and observers who may have additional records to come forth with their information.

  17. Aves municipales oficiales de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos M. Domínguez Cristóbal

    2009-01-01

    Las aves constituyen uno de los recursos de muy poco uso como símbolo oficial representativo de los municipios en Puerto Rico. Es muy probable que la decisión que màs pueda influenciar en esa selección esté relacionada con la movilidad de las aves ya que éstas no se limitan a una municipalidad en específico...

  18. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  19. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  20. Surveillance of arbovirus infections in the atlantic forest region, State of São Paulo, Brazil: I. detection of hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies in wild birds between 1978 and 1990 Vigilância de infecções por arbovírus na Região da Mata Atlântica, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.: I. Detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação em aves silvestres entre 1978 e 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivani B. Ferreira

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We report data related to arbovirus antibodies detected in wild birds periodically captured from January 1978 to December 1990 in the counties of Salesópolis (Casa Grande Station, Itapetininga and Ribeira Valley, considering the different capture environments. Plasmas were examined using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI tests. Only monotypic reactions were considered, except for two heterotypic reactions in which a significant difference in titer was observed for a determined virus of the same antigenic group. Among a total of 39,911 birds, 269 birds (0.7% belonging to 66 species and 22 families were found to have a monotypic reaction for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE, Western equine encephalitis (WEE, Ilheus (ILH, Rocio (ROC, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE, SP An 71686, or Caraparu (CAR viruses. Analysis of the data provided information of epidemiologic interest with respect to these agents. Birds with positive serology were distributed among different habitats, with a predominance of unforested habitats. The greatest diversity of positive reactions was observed among species which concentrate in culture fields.Apresentam-se os resultados referentes a anticorpos para arbovírus em aves silvestres capturadas, periodicamente, de janeiro de 1978 a dezembro de 1990, nos municípios de Salesópolis (Estação de Casa Grande; Itapetininga e municípios do Vale do Ribeira, considerando-se os diferentes ambientes de captura. Plasmas foram examinados, por testes de Inibição de Hemaglutinação (IH. Considerou-se apenas as reações monotípicas, com exceção de duas reações heterotípicas, onde ocorreu uma diferença de título significativa para um determinado vírus de um mesmo grupo antigênico. Em um total de 39.911 aves, foram encontradas 269 aves pertencentes a 66 espécies e 22 famílias, com reação monotípica para os vírus Encefalite Equina do Leste (EEE, Encefalite Equina Venezuelana (VEE

  1. Status and management of neotropical migratory birds: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M.; Peter W. Stangel

    1993-01-01

    The future for neotropical migratory birds rests with our commitment and ability to provide them adequate habitat during all periods of their life cycle. Our commitment to this cause is apparent in the groundswell of interest in neotropical migrants and the many proactive and coopemtive partnerships resulting from the Partners in Flight - Aves de las Americas...

  2. Aves, province of Guizhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our inventories of birds observed and collected at three field sites from the province of Guizhou,southeastern China. Our findings detailed herein complement our previous ornithological surveys from Guangxiprovince, as part of a comprehensive biotic survey of the region. Of 153 total bird species recorded, 17 were new for theprovince, among which several taxa of conservational importance, such as: Golden Pheasant Crysolophus pictus,Tawny Fish-Owl Ketupa flavipes, Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis, Fujian Flycatcher Niltava davidii, RedtailedLaughingthrush Garrulax milnei, and Slaty Bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni. These records provide the mostrecent insight into the current status of the habitats and the avian biodiversity of an important, yet sparsely surveyed andreported biogeographic region.

  3. Sexagem cirúrgica em aves silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raso T.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a utilização da laparoscopia na sexagem de 349 aves silvestres nacionais e exóticas, pertencentes a 61 espécies, de 11 famílias e seis ordens. Foram sexadas aves com idades entre quatro meses e 42 anos e peso corpóreo entre 55g e 3,4kg. Com essa técnica foi possível visualizar as gônadas, avaliar seu estágio de desenvolvimento e observar os órgãos adjacentes. A técnica cirúrgica utilizando endoscópio rígido para sexagem de aves silvestres foi considerada rápida e segura. Nenhum óbito foi verificado durante ou em conseqüência do procedimento cirúrgico.

  4. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  5. Incremental growth of therizinosaurian dental tissues: implications for dietary transitions in Theropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khai Button

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations document functional and phylogenetic signals in the histology of dinosaur teeth. In particular, incremental lines in dentin have been used to determine tooth growth and replacement rates in several dinosaurian clades. However, to date, few studies have investigated the dental microstructure of theropods in the omnivory/herbivory spectrum. Here we examine dental histology of Therizinosauria, a clade of large-bodied theropods bearing significant morphological evidence for herbivory, by examining the teeth of the early-diverging therizinosaurian Falcarius utahensis, and an isolated tooth referred to Suzhousaurus megatherioides, a highly specialized large-bodied representative. Despite attaining some of the largest body masses among maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs, therizinosaurian teeth are diminutive, measuring no more than 0.90 cm in crown height (CH and 0.38 cm in crown base length (CBL. Comparisons with other theropods and non-theropodan herbivorous dinosaurs reveals that when controlling for estimated body mass, crown volume in therizinosaurians plots most closely with dinosaurs of similar dietary strategy as opposed to phylogenetic heritage. Analysis of incremental growth lines in dentin, observed in thin sections of therizinosaurian teeth, demonstrates that tooth growth rates fall within the range of other archosaurs, conforming to hypothesized physiological limitations on the production of dental tissues. Despite dietary differences between therizinosaurians and hypercarnivorous theropods, the types of enamel crystallites present and their spatial distribution—i.e., the schmelzmuster of both taxa—is limited to parallel enamel crystallites, the simplest form of enamel and the plesiomorphic condition for Theropoda. This finding supports previous hypotheses that dental microstructure is strongly influenced by phylogeny, yet equally supports suggestions of reduced reliance on oral processing in omnivorous

  6. Incremental growth of therizinosaurian dental tissues: implications for dietary transitions in Theropoda

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hailu; Kirkland, James I.; Zanno, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Previous investigations document functional and phylogenetic signals in the histology of dinosaur teeth. In particular, incremental lines in dentin have been used to determine tooth growth and replacement rates in several dinosaurian clades. However, to date, few studies have investigated the dental microstructure of theropods in the omnivory/herbivory spectrum. Here we examine dental histology of Therizinosauria, a clade of large-bodied theropods bearing significant morphological evidence for herbivory, by examining the teeth of the early-diverging therizinosaurian Falcarius utahensis, and an isolated tooth referred to Suzhousaurus megatherioides, a highly specialized large-bodied representative. Despite attaining some of the largest body masses among maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs, therizinosaurian teeth are diminutive, measuring no more than 0.90 cm in crown height (CH) and 0.38 cm in crown base length (CBL). Comparisons with other theropods and non-theropodan herbivorous dinosaurs reveals that when controlling for estimated body mass, crown volume in therizinosaurians plots most closely with dinosaurs of similar dietary strategy as opposed to phylogenetic heritage. Analysis of incremental growth lines in dentin, observed in thin sections of therizinosaurian teeth, demonstrates that tooth growth rates fall within the range of other archosaurs, conforming to hypothesized physiological limitations on the production of dental tissues. Despite dietary differences between therizinosaurians and hypercarnivorous theropods, the types of enamel crystallites present and their spatial distribution—i.e., the schmelzmuster of both taxa—is limited to parallel enamel crystallites, the simplest form of enamel and the plesiomorphic condition for Theropoda. This finding supports previous hypotheses that dental microstructure is strongly influenced by phylogeny, yet equally supports suggestions of reduced reliance on oral processing in omnivorous/herbivorous theropods rather

  7. Diversidad de insectos y aves insectivoras de sotobosque en hábitats pertubados de selva lluviosa tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Luis Germán

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available To examine variation in species composition, stability and diversity of insectivorous birds and their prey in understory habitats of disturbed rainforest, from March 1993 to May 1994 we measured structural variables of the vegetation and quantified bird and insect species richness and diversity at eight plots ranging from 0 to over 10 years of secondary succesion. Of all the vegetation variables, only canopy cover tended. to increase with forest age. Variation of DBH classes and total density of plants among plots explained changes in both insect richness and diversity. While variation in bird species richness and diversity among plots did not show significant trends, the abundance of insectivores was related both to foliage height diversitv and DBH diversity. Insect abundance explained both bird abundance and species richness, and insect richness was an adequate predictor of abundance of insectivorous birds. The polar coordinates of the study plots (Bray-Curtis ordination based on the abundances of insectivorous birds were inversely related to forest age.Para examinar la variación en abundancia y diversidad de aves insectívoras y de sus presas en sotobosque de selva lluviosa tropical perturbada, entre marzo de 1993 y mayo de 1994 medimos variables estructurales de la vegetación y cuantificamos la  abundancia, riqueza y diversidad de insectos y aves en ocho parcelas de 0 a más de 10 años de sucesión secundaria. Exceptuando la cobertura del dosel, que aumentó con la madurez del bosque, la vegetación no presentó tendencias relacionadas con el tiempo de regeneración del bosque. La variación en cuanto a tamaños de tallos (clases de DAP y a la densidad total de plantas entre parcelas estuvo relacionada con las diferencias de riqueza y diversidad de insectos. Aunque la variación en riqueza y diversidad de aves insectívoras no presentó tendencias significativas, su abundancia estuvo relacionada tanto con la diversidad de estratos

  8. Ave Maria: A 'Seriously Catholic' Law School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the founding of Ave Maria School of Law (Michigan), opening in 2000, which plans to integrate Catholic teachings into every course. Focus is on the school's founder, Thomas S. Monaghan, and the school's first dean, Bernard Dobranski, who suggest that the new school can avoid difficulties with tenured liberal professors and attract top…

  9. Phylogeny mandalas of birds using the lithographs of John Gould's folio bird books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masami; Kuroda, Sayako

    2017-12-01

    The phylogeny mandala, which is a circular phylogeny with photos or drawings of species, is a suitable way to show visually how the biodiversity has developed in the course of evolution as clarified by the molecular phylogenetics. In this article, in order to demonstrate the recent progress of avian molecular phylogenetics, six phylogeny mandalas of various taxonomic groups of birds are presented with the lithographs of John Gould's folio bird books; i.e., (1) whole Aves, (2) Passeriformes, (3) Paradisaeidae in Corvoidea (Passeriformes), (4) Meliphagoidea (Passeriformes), (5) Trochili in Apodiformes, and (6) Galliformes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Open-Habitat Birds in Recently Burned Areas: the Role of the Fire Extent and Species’ Habitat Breadth = Aves de medios abiertos en áreas quemadas recientemente: la importancia de la extensión del fuego y la amplitud de hábitat de las especies

    OpenAIRE

    Pons Ferran, Pere; Bas Lay, Josep Maria

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of open-habitat and steppe-land bird species in Western Mediterranean burned areas and to assess the role of the extent and location of the fire on species richness and composition. At the species level, the relationship was explored between habitat breadth, distribution extent and the ability to occupy recently burned areas. Location: Iberia and Southern France Methods: Fieldwork and bibliography were assembled to obtain breeding bird inventories for 21 burned area...

  11. Apuntes sobre aves colombianas Apuntes sobre aves colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrero H. José Ignacio

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available This work includes miscellaneous notes on ten species of colombian birds. Three new subspecies are described, they are Thamnophilus multistriatus oecotonophilus, Campylorhynchus griseus zimmeri and Campylorhynchus zonatus imparilis. Basileuterus xantnophrys is redescribed, and Cyanocorax sclateri is accepted as a valid subspecies of C. affinis; also some descriptive or critical notes are given, including the description of some plumages and notes on extension of the range of one of the least known parrotlets, Touit stictoptera stictoptera, previously recorded only from Fusagasugá. near Bogotá, and by "Bogotá" trade-skins. Las notas, que se publican en esta ocasión han sido extractadas de los manuscritos en preparación, de dos trabajos de índole regional concernientes a la avifauna de la Alta Hoya Hidrográfica del Rio Bogotá y del Valle Medio del Río Magdalena, en Santander.  Para el estudio de las especies aquí tratadas se adelanto una revisión de la variación geográfica de las mismas en Colombia, teniendo como base principal la colección ornitologica del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales.  En este trabajo se incluyen diez especies. se redescribe Basileuterus xanthophrys; se describen tres nuevas subespecies. Thamnophilus multistriatus oecotonophilus, Campylorhynchus griseus zimmeri y C, zonatus imparilis; y se adicionan notas descriptivas o comentarios críticos de otras especies, incluso de algunos plumajes desconocidos en la literatura ornitológica.

  12. Experiência de manejo de aves em áreas antrópicas, com a utilização de caixas de madeira como locais para nidificação Experimental birds managment in anthropic areas, using nest-boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Octavio Marcondes-Machado

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of nest-boxes for management of cavity nesting birds in anthropic areas can give good results. In November 1987, data collection begun in UNICAMP, Campinas (São Paulo, with the objective of favouring establishment and increase in urban bird communities. The House Wren (Troglodytes aedon Viellot. 1807 and House Sparrow (Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 used the nest boxes for reproduction. Nests were collected and analysed (weight, used materials, incubation chamber materials, nest form. House Sparrow used thin materials, like straw, paper and plastic, while house wren used heavy materials, like sticks, wire and tabs of soff drink cans. The nest-boxes offered favorable conditions to bird reproduction and protection in disturbed areas, and showed signs of leading to increase in diversity of species, that might use this nest-boxes for reproduction in the future.

  13. Riqueza y abundancia de aves en bosques ribereños de diferentes anchos en la microcuenca del río Sesesmiles, Copán, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inty T Arcos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudió se realizó en la microcuenca del río Sesesmiles, Departamento de Copán, Honduras. El propósito fue explorar el efecto del ancho de franja de los bosques ribereños sobre la riqueza y abundancia de especies de aves que visitan estos bosques. Se encontraron 1 294 aves pertenecientes a 145 especies en bosques ribereños. La diversidad de aves estuvo ligada al ancho de franja de los bosques ribereños: se encontró mayor número de especies e individuos, en anchos iguales o mayores a 50 m. Las especies pertenecientes al grupo alimenticio de los insectívoros y nectarívoros fueron las más abundantes en las franjas ribereñas. Todas las especies de aves identificadas dependen de los bosques ribereños y responden al ancho del bosque; aún las especies más generalistas tienen algún grado de dependencia a las franjas ribereñas más anchas. Para conservar las poblaciones de aves en los paisajes agrícolas fragmentados es de suma importancia mantener franjas ribereñas que sean mayores a 50 m de ancho y que brinden suficientes habitas y recursos.Richness and abundance of birds in riparian forest belts of varied breadths at the Sesesmiles river microwatershed, Copan, Honduras. Riparian forests protect many species of plants and animals. We studied bird communities in riparian forest belts of the Sesesmiles river microwatershed, Copan, Honduras (140o 43’ 12" - 140o 58’ 35" N, 88o 53’ 23" - 89o 14’ 17" W. The main goal was to explore the effects of belt breadth on the richness and abundance of avian species visiting these forests. We selected 20 belts, and randomly established 30 observation points to monitor bird presence in the dry (March-April 2005 and rainy (June-July 2005 season (N= 60 observations. A total of 1 294 birds belonging to 145 species were recorded. Bird diversity was significantly correlated to the breadth of the riparian belts, with a greater number of species and individuals in belts 50 m wide or wider

  14. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  15. Aves y literatura. El vuelo de las aves por la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrés Manrique Granados

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de las aves en la literatura de Colombia puede rastrearse hasta sus inicios. Para todos es inmediata la imagen del ave negra de la María (1867, obra del vallecaucano Jorge Isaacs que cumple un papel figurativo fundamental similar al del poema El cuervo de 1845, del estadounidense Edgar Allan Poe, pues remite a la cercana muerte de la amada del protagonista [Isaacs, 1967, pág. 23; Poe, 1840, pág. 321]. La presencia de las aves en la escritura colombiana, así como en múltiples producciones literarias destacadas en los cánones occidentales, está provista de profundos simbolismos que trascienden funciones tan determinadas como la de la romántica ave negra. Retomando simbolismos que tienen sus bases en el islam y el cristianismo, las imágenes de las aves se vinculan esencialmente con el alma humana y con el tránsito que recorre entre la tierra y el cielo tras la muerte, lo cual les otorga a los pájaros funciones de mediadores entre los dos mundos: un papel que tiene múltiples gamas y matices de significación en diversas culturas [Roque, 2009, págs. 236-237]. En consecuencia, más que ahondar en los referentes modernos de una metáfora como la del ave negra de mal presagio, veremos gamas de significados que tienen los pájaros en la literatura colombiana, y las circulaciones regionales e históricas de estos referentes alados, en particular entre escritores del Eje Cafetero.

  16. Why Flightless Birds are 'Condemned' to Lay Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiros, João P.

    2017-01-01

    Letter To Editor Birds evolved very fast and are the only vertebrate group that never turned to ovoviviparity. While this is explainable as an evolutionary pressure for feathered flight and reduced size, their fast evolution apparently caused the disappearance of a significant proportion of genes. However posterior evolutionary trends of Aves to become flightless and with increased body sizes were not accompanied by an ‘expected’ turn to ovoviviparity, something known for a number of repti...

  17. AVE 0991 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuedong; Huang, Huiling; Jiang, Jingzhou; Wu, Lingling; Lin, Chunxi; Tang, Anli; Dai, Gang; He, Jiangui; Chen, Yili

    2016-06-10

    AVE 0991, the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) analog, is recognized as having beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AVE 0991 on cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanisms involved. Mice were underwent aortic banding to induce cardiac hypertrophy followed by the administration of AVE 0991 (20 mg kg·day (-1)) for 4 weeks. It was shown that AVE 0991 reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and improved heart function, characterized by decreases in left ventricular weight and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and increases in ejection fraction. Moreover, AVE 0991 significantly down-regulated mean myocyte diameter and attenuate the gene expression of the hypertrophic markers. Furthermore, AVE 0991 inhibited the expression of NOX 2 and NOX 4, meaning that AVE 0991 reduced oxidative stress of cardiac hypertrophy mice. Our data showed that AVE 0991 treatment could attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and improve heart function, which may be due to reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Técnica de Necropsia en Aves

    OpenAIRE

    L S Martínez-Acevedo

    2012-01-01

    En aves al igual que en otras especies, la necropsia hace parte integral de la medicina clínica. Esta se realiza con la finalidad de determinar la causa de enfermedad y muerte de un animal, confirmar un diagnóstico clínico o identificar la etiología de una enfermedad por medio de la toma de muestras complementarias. Siempre es indispensable tener en cuenta las diferencias anatómicas y biológicas de cada especie. El examen de necropsia es un procedimiento que debe realizarse de forma sistem...

  19. Histología de las aves

    OpenAIRE

    González, Norma; Barbeito, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    La obra que tengo el honor de prologar pretende ser un aporte bibliográfico importante que ayude a llenar este vacío [la falta de bibliografía sobre aves] en la literatura de habla hispana dedicada a la enseñanza de grado. Siguiendo los enfoques más modernos de la disciplina aborda el conocimiento específico no solamente desde el punto de vista descriptivo sino orientado a la interpretación funcional, lo que facilita la comprensión y el abordaje posterior de los contenidos propios de materias...

  20. Birds and hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae, with discussions about hypotheses on tick evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUGLIELMONE AA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between birds (Aves and hard ticks (Ixodidae was analyzed for the 386 of 725 tick extant species whose larva, nymph and adults are known as well as their natural hosts. A total of 136 (54 Prostriata= Ixodes, 82 Metastriata= all other genera are frequently found on Aves, but only 32 species (1 associated with Palaeognathae, 31 with Neognathae have all parasitic stages feeding on birds: 25 Ixodes (19% of the species analyzed for this genus, 6 Haemaphysalis (7% and 1 species of Amblyomma (2%. The species of Amblyomma feeds on marine birds (MB, the six Haemaphysalis are parasites of non-marine birds (NMB, and 14 of the 25 Ixodes feed on NMB, one feeds on NMB and MB, and ten on MB. The Australasian Ixodes + I. uriae clade probably originated at an uncertain time from the late Triassic to the early Cretaceous. It is speculated that Prostriata first hosts were Gondwanan theropod dinosaurs in an undetermined place before Pangaea break up; alternatively, if ancestral monotromes were involved in its evolution an Australasian origin of Prostriata seems plausible. As for Prostriata the Motherland of Ixodida is probably Gondwana. RESUMEN. Aves y garrapatas duras (Ixodidae, con discusión sobre hipótesis sobre evolución de las garrapatas. En esta revisión se analizó la relación entre aves y garrapatas duras (Ixodidae para las 386 de 725 especies de garrapatas que utilizan aves como hospedadores para larvas, ninfas y adultos. Un total de 136 especies (54 Prostriata= Ixodes, 82 Metastriata= restantes géneros son frecuentemente encontradas sobre aves, pero solo 32 especies (1 asociada con Palaeognathae, 31 con Neognathae tienen ciclos donde todos los estadios se alimentan sobre aves: 25 Ixodes (19% de las especies analizadas para este género, 6 Haemaphysalis (7% del total y 1 especie de Amblyomma (2% del total. Las especies de Amblyomma se alimentan sobre aves marinas (MB, las seis de Haemaphysalis son parásitas de aves no-marinas (NMB

  1. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  2. Extreme convergence in the body plans of an early suchian (Archosauria) and ornithomimid dinosaurs (Theropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Sterling J; Norell, Mark A

    2006-05-07

    Living archosaurs comprise birds (dinosaurs) and crocodylians (suchians). The morphological diversity of birds and stem group dinosaurs is tremendous and well-documented. Suchia, the archosaurian group including crocodylians, is generally considered more conservative. Here, we report a new Late Triassic suchian archosaur with unusual, highly specialized features that are convergent with ornithomimid dinosaurs. Several derived features of the skull and postcranial skeleton are identical to conditions in ornithomimids. Such cases of extreme convergence in multiple regions of the skeleton in two distantly related vertebrate taxa are rare. This suggests that these archosaurs show iterative patterns of morphological evolution. It also suggests that this group of suchians occupied the adaptive zone that was occupied by ornithomimosaurs later in the Mesozoic.

  3. Factores técnicos y ambientales implicados en la electrocución de aves en los tendidos eléctricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izquierdo Rosigue, A.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Technical and environmental factors responsible of bird electrocution have been analyzed in low and medium tension power lines in a bird important area placed in the south of Alicante province (SE Spain. One hundred eighty six dead birds (119 birds of prey have been located in 182 poles inspected. Most species are legally protected and some are in jeopardy. Some pole types with suspended insulators have caused the same number of victims than poles with rigid insulators. Poles with rigid insulators in two levels produce more accidents than poles with one level. A different pole use according to the habitat has been observed. Birds of prey avoid poles in cultures, in the vicinity of roads and in flatlands or in hill tops. Furthermore, more electrocutions occur near bath zones. Poles in high places and located near to human altered habitats, where feeding is easy, are preferred by remainder birds.

    Se analizan los factores técnicos y ambientales responsables de la electrocución de aves en tendidos de media y baja intensidad -situados en un área con una valiosa población de aves- en el sur de la provincia de Alicante. Se han localizado 186 aves muertas (119 rapaces en 182 postes visitados. La mayoría han sido especies protegidas, encontrándose, algunas de ellas, especialmente amenazadas. Los resultados muestran que algunos tipos de poste, con aisladores suspendidos, provocan un número de accidentes similar a otros tipos de postes con aisladores rígidos. Los postes con aisladores rígidos en dos planos producen más víctimas que los que presentan un único plano. Se observa que las aves realizan un uso diferente del poste en función del hábitat que lo rodea. Las rapaces evitan los postes situados sobre cultivos, los más próximos a las carreteras y los ubicados en zonas llanas o en las partes más altas de las laderas. Se encuentran más rapaces electrocutadas en aquellos postes próximos a zonas de baño. Para el resto de aves los

  4. Psammolestes arthuri NATURALMENTE INFECTADO CON Trypanosoma cruzi ENCONTRADO EN SIMPATRÍA CON Rhodnius prolixus Y Triatoma maculata EN NIDOS DE AVES EN EL ESTADO ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA I Psammolestes arthuri NATURALLY INFECTED WITH Trypanosoma cruzi FOUND IN SYMPATRY WITH Rhodnius prolixus AND Triatoma maculata ON BIRD NESTS IN ANZOÁTEGUI STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Cruz-Guzmán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, Chagas' disease is a public health problem with around 2 million people infected and more than 6 million under risk of infection. In this study the presence of the triatomid Psammolestes arthuri is reported in nests of different species of birds from rural communities of Anzoátegui State, some of them found naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi , in sympatry with other species of triatomines ( Rhodnius prolixus y Triatoma maculata . A total of 3,277 triatomine specimens were collected in 478 nests from 6 species of birds ( Phacellodomus rufifrons , Troglodytes aedon , Icterus icterus , I. nigrogularis , Cacicus cela y Psarocolius decumanus . It was found that 99.05% (3246/3277 of specimens were P. arthuri and 0.95% (31/3277 other triatomine species, from which 0.57% (19/3277 were R. prolixus and 0.37% (12/3277 T. mac ulata . Only 0.12% (4/3246 of P. arthuri were infected with T. cr u z i . The parasitological characterization of one T. cr u z i isolate in white male NMRI mice showed high affinity for cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle cells, with a peak parasitemia of 2.4 x 10 4 parasites/ mL blood stream forms of T. cr u z i and 100% mortality of inoculated mice. This isolate was molecularly typed as belonging to TcIII genotype. The results show that in Anzoátegui State, P. arthuri predominantly feed on blood of birds, representing a low risk for vector transmission of Chagas' disease to humans

  5. Aves de três remanescentes florestais do norte do Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil, com sugestões para a conservação e manejo Birds from three forest remnants in the North of Paraná State, South of Brazil, with suggestions for conservation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ricardo Bornschein

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available One hundred eighty species in a preliminary inventory were identified. From these, 166 were in an area of 832.5 ha (Mata São Francisco State Park, 84 in another of 9.7 ha (Manoel Júlio de Almeida Municipal Forest and 99 in the third remnant, briefly sampled, of 218 ha (Mata São Paulo. Comparing these numbers to inventories of nearby sites was considered that the larger area is poor in number of bird species, and believe this to be mainly due to the high degree of environmental degradation. Was considered that the smaller area is rich in birds, but its proximity (375 meters to the third remnant certainly exeits strong influence. This paper presents the list of birds by site and with their relative frequency of occurrence. A new record for Paraná (Scarlet-headed Blackbird Amblyramphus holosericeus, two new ones for the interior of the state (Uniform Crake Amaurolimnas concolor and Yellow-lored Tody-flycatcher Todirostrum poliocephalum and several other important records are commented (e.g. Red-legged Seriema Cariama cristata, Vinaceous Parrot Amazona vinacea, and Black-banded Owl Ciccaba huhula. Locally extinct species are discussed (e.g. Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja, as well as the ones that colonized landscapes created by men (e.g. pastures, agricultural areas. When discussing Atlantic Forest endemism, some species were shown not to be endemic to this biome. Because the north of Paraná is almost totally deforested, the presence of the forest remnants by itself conter them great importance for conservation, besides the existence of species endemic to the Atlantic Forest and considered to be under the threat of extinction. Conservation and management measures are also proposed.

  6. Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Sebaio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de

  7. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  8. A bizarre, humped Carcharodontosauria (Theropoda) from the lower cretaceous of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco; Escaso, Fernando; Sanz, José L

    2010-09-09

    Carcharodontosaurs were the largest predatory dinosaurs, and their early evolutionary history seems to be more intricate than was previously thought. Until recently, carcharodontosaurs were restricted to a group of large theropods inhabiting the Late Cretaceous Gondwanan land masses, but in the last few years Laurasian evidence has been causing a reevaluation of their initial diversification. Here we describe an almost complete and exquisitely preserved skeleton of a medium-sized (roughly six metres long) theropod from the Lower Cretaceous series (Barremian stage) Konservat-Lagerstätte of Las Hoyas in Cuenca, Spain. Cladistic analysis supports the idea that the new taxon Concavenator corcovatus is a primitive member of Carcharodontosauria, exhibiting two unusual features: elongation of the neurapophyses of two presacral vertebrae forming a pointed, hump-like structure and a series of small bumps on the ulna. We think that these bumps are homologous to quill knobs present on some modern birds; the knobs are related to the insertion area of follicular ligaments that anchor the roots of the flight feathers (remiges) to the arm. We propose that Concavenator has integumentary follicular structures inserted on the ulna, as in modern birds. Because scales do not have follicles, we consider the structures anchored to the Concavenator arms to be non-scale skin appendages homologous to the feathers of modern birds. If this is true, then the phylogenetic bracket for the presence of non-scale skin structures homologous to feathers in theropod dinosaurs would be extended to the Neotetanurae, enlarging the scope for explaining the origin of feathers in theropods.

  9. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pet birds. Because of the risk of avian influenza (bird flu), USDA restricts the importation of pet birds from ... or look dirty may be ill. Learn the signs of illness in a bird, which include appearing ...

  10. Human population, economic activities, and wild bird conservation in Mexico: factors influencing their relationships at two different geopolitical scales Población humana, actividades económicas y conservación de aves silvestres en México: factores que influencian sus relaciones en dos escalas geopolíticas diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier López-Medellín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Population growth poses threats to biodiversity, specifically to sensitive species. Therefore, an understanding of the conflict between biodiversity and human population is needed to enable long-term planning of development and conservation policies by state and federal governments and society based on limitations and potentials of environments. We used a geopolitical approach to analyze data on human demography, economic activities, natural vegetation, avian diversity, and protected areas of the 32 states of Mexico and the 30 districts of the state of Oaxaca. Using factor analysis, we identified the biodiversity-rich geopolitical units that have a large human population and are developing intense economic activities. We then carried out a series of linear regressions between the resulting factors to test whether they were related, suggesting areas where conservation conflicts may exist, and found that relations between human activities and natural resources vary from region to region. These results help us identify geopolitical units that require detailed studies of the interactions between population and natural resources, and also highlight the importance of using geopolitical scales as study units, where most conservation and development policies are determined, to inform local stakeholders and decision makers.El crecimiento humano representa amenazas para la biodiversidad, especialmente para especies sensibles. Se necesita conocer a fondo el conflicto que representa el crecimiento de la población para la biodiversidad y llevar a cabo políticas y acciones a largo plazo de actividades de desarrollo y conservación evaluadas por gobiernos federales y estatales, basándose en las limitaciones y potenciales de los ecosistemas. Utilizamos una aproximación geopolítica para analizar variables de demografía humana, actividades económicas, superficie de vegetación, diversidad de aves y áreas protegidas de los 32 estados de México y los 30

  11. Genetic structure of a bird-dispersed tropical tree (Dendropanax arboreus in a fragmented landscape in Mexico Estructura genética de un árbol tropical dispersado por aves (Dendropanax arboreus en un paisaje fragmentado en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Figueroa-Esquivel

    2010-12-01

    ética pre y postfragmentación, respectivamente. Dendropanax arboreus mostró altos niveles de variación genética (h = 0.253 y un nivel bajo de diferenciación entre poblaciones (= 0.062. Un análisis jerárquico de la estructura genética mostró que el 91.5% de la variación genética es atribuible a diferencias individuales dentro de las poblaciones. El promedio de las distancias genéticas de Nei entre las poblaciones fue bajo (D = 0.034, mientras que la distancia genética entre pares de poblaciones se incrementó con la distancia geográfica. En nivel poblacional, el efecto de la fragmentación no es evidente aún, lo cual podría deberse a una alta y efectiva dispersión de semillas por aves. Se sugiere que la dispersión de semillas ha mantenido la conectividad entre las poblaciones de selva continua y fragmentos. Las poblaciones juveniles muestran una diferenciación genética mayor ( o = 0.15 que las poblaciones de adultos, sugiriendo un papel de la deriva génica vía reducción en el tamaño poblacional.

  12. The influence of vegetation on bird distribution in dry forests and oak woodlands of western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Corcuera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The bird species distribution along a dry forest-oak woodland vegetation gradient was studied in autumn and spring in two consecutive years. Intra-seasonal comparisons showed that bird species had similar distributions in each of the two years. Inter-seasonal changes were mainly due to compositional differences even though resident species generally used similar habitats in both seasons. Ordination analyses, based on the first year bird species abundances, showed a clearly segregated distribution between forest and woodland birds. Within these two vegetation types, the distribution tended to be more individualistic. Nevertheless further habitats could be identified according to groups of birds having similar distributions. These habitats did not correspond to the plant associations which resulted from a previous classification of the vegetation. Observations of the plant use by the birds during the study period showed that, in most cases, the plant variables associated with ordination analyses are unlikely to be very important for the bird species life cycles. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 657-672. Epub 2005 Jun 01.Se estudió la distribución de especies de aves a lo largo de un gradiente de vegetación bosque seco - bosque de encino en el otoño y primavera de dos años consecutivos. Las comparaciones intra-estacionales mostraron distribuciones similares de las especies de aves en ambos años. Los cambios inter-estacionales se debieron principalmente a diferencias en la composición, aunque las especies residentes normalmente usan hábitats similares en ambas estaciones. Los análisis de ordenación, basados en las abundancias de las aves en el primer año de muestreo, mostraron una distribución claramente segregada entre aves del bosque seco y del bosque de encino. Aunque la distribución de las especies fue más azarosa dentro de cada tipo de vegetación, se pudieron identificar ciertos hábitats en base a grupos de aves con distribuciones

  13. South African red data book - Aves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siegfried, WR

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided on 101 South African bird species thought to be eligible for conservation attention. A list is also provided of 35 species which might qualify for inclusion in a revised South African Red Data Book....

  14. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva EN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas.

  15. New information on the braincase of the North American therizinosaurian (Theropoda, Maniraptora) Falcarius utahensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Zanno, Lindsay E.; Sanders, R. Kent; Deblieux, Donald D.; Kirkland, James I.

    2011-01-01

    Many disarticulated bones from multiple individuals of a primitive therizinosaurian, referred to Falcarius utahensis, were found in the paucispecific Crystal Geyser bonebed in the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah. To date, more than 2000 specimens from this species have been excavated. Included in this collection are two partial braincases, one of which is designated the holotype. Here we describe the braincase morphology ofFalcarius utahensis. These specimens help establish the primitive cranial condition for the Therizinosauria and further substantiate intraspecific and contralateral braincase pneumatic variation in theropods. When combined with new observations on the cranial remains of the therizinosaurid Nothronychus mckinleyi derived from computed tomographic (CT) scans, the braincase morphology of Falcarius clarifies several evolutionary trends within the Therizinosauria and establishes a suite of synapomorphies for the Therizinosauridae. Trends within the clade include increased basicranial pneumatization (the development of a basisphenoid bulla and loss of external subcondylar recesses), anterior deflection of the supraoccipital, and the reduction of points of origin of the craniocervical musculature, associated with the loss of discrete basipterygoid processes, probably due to incorporation of these structures into the expanded hyperpneumatic bone. Finally, CT scans reveal a complete, nearly avian, inner ear with bird-like semicircular canals and a long cochlea indicating broad frequency discrimination.

  16. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  17. Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi (Nematoda, Acuariidae in Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves, Anatidae in South America Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi (Nematoda, Acuariidae em Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves, Anatidae na América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. da Silveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of a species of Echinuria Soloviev, 1912, on anatid hosts in South America, causing granulomas. It is also the first detailed description and record of a species of Echinuria, for South America in the Rosy-billed Pochard, Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816. Fifty-two rosy-billed pochards were examined for helminths in the Municipalities of Santa Vitória do Palmar (locality of Fazenda Sossego and (locality of Ponta da Antena, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and Alvear, Province of Corrientes, northern Argentina. Samples were obtained from 2003 to 2004. After the catch each bird was immediately frozen with dry ice. Prior to necropsy birds were sexed, weighted, measured, and the state of maturity (juvenile or adult determined, based on the presence or absence of a bursa of Fabricius. The granulomas with the nematodes were found in the proximal esophagus at the junction with the proventriculus. Two birds had one (fistulated and two granulomas, respectively. One of the birds was from the wintering grounds along the coastal region in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The other, from one of the breeding grounds in northern Argentina, was captured before the trip to the wintering grounds along the migratory flyway. Prevalence was 3.8% while the mean intensity of infection was 7.2. Morphometry of males and females and the comparison with previous descriptions and illustrations allowed the identification of the present specimens as E. uncinata.Este é o primeiro registro de uma espécie do gênero Echinuria Soloviev, 1912, em hospedeiros anatídeos na América do Sul, causando granulomas. É, também, a primeira descrição detalhada e o primeiro registro de Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Soloviev, 1912, para a América do Sul, e o primeiro registro de um nematóide acuarióideo em Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816. Cinqüenta e dois marrecões foram examinados para helmintos nas localidades de Fazenda Sossego e

  18. New insights into the lifestyle of Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda based on another specimen with multiple pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Foth

    2015-05-01

    also related to the presence of non-endothermic metabolic rates that allow survival based on sporadic food consumption or scavenging behavior. Signs of pathologies consistent with infections are scarce and locally restricted, indicating a successful prevention of the spread of pathogens, as it is the case in extant reptiles (including birds.

  19. New insights into the lifestyle of Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) based on another specimen with multiple pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Christian; Evers, Serjoscha W; Pabst, Ben; Mateus, Octávio; Flisch, Alexander; Patthey, Mike; Rauhut, Oliver W M

    2015-01-01

    presence of non-endothermic metabolic rates that allow survival based on sporadic food consumption or scavenging behavior. Signs of pathologies consistent with infections are scarce and locally restricted, indicating a successful prevention of the spread of pathogens, as it is the case in extant reptiles (including birds).

  20. Neumonitis por Hipersensibilidad asociado al cuidado de aves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María González Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La neumonitis por hipersensibilidad asociada al cuidado de las aves, es uno de los tipos más frecuentes de neumonitis que se presentan. Aunque no se tienen datos epidemiológicos claros sobre su prevalencia, en los hospitales llegan casos de este tipo de neumonitis. No es una patología muy común, sin embargo, mucha de la población se encuentra expuesta a las aves y consecuentemente a los antígenos que causan la enfermedad. Su diagnóstico temprano puede significar para el paciente daños reversibles al dejar de exponerse al antígeno, contrario sino se realiza un diagnóstico temprano, puede generar un daño pulmonar irreversible. En este artículo, presentaremos un caso clínico de neumonitis por hipersensibilidad al cuidado de aves y hablaremos de la enfermedad.

  1. AVE-SESAME 1: 25-MB sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, M. L.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Williams, S. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seven atmospheric variability experiments (AVE), two atmospheric variability and severe storms experiments (AVSSE), and six atmospheric variability experiment-severe environmental storm and mesoscale experiments (AVE-SESAME) conducted by NASA are discussed. The dates, observation times, and data reports for each of the experiments for which data was processed are listed. The AVE experiments were conducted primarily to study atmospheric variability with emphasis on spatial and temporal in atmospheric structure that can be detected from soundings taken at 3 hr intervals but not seen in soundings taken at 12 hr intervals. The AVSSE experiments were conducted to study atmospheric structure and variability associated with severe storms combining both rawinsonde and aircraft data to provide information on near storm environments. The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, an example of contact data is given, and soundings are listed which exhibited abnormal characteristics.

  2. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    , these results have conservation as well as management implications. A decrease in bird species richness and bird abundance due to intrusive road noise could negatively affect the use of trails by visitors. Alternatives for noise attenuation in the affected forest area include the enforcement of speed limits and the planting of live barriers. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 969-980. Epub 2011 June 01.Las carreteras cerca de bosques alteran la función del ecosistema por fragmentación del hábitat y tienen otros efectos negativos como contaminación, mortalidad de animales y ruido excesivo; sobre todo en animales como ranas y aves que dependen del sonido para comunicarse. Se espera menos abundancia de aves cerca de la carretera donde el ruido es alto. Este estudio evalúa los efectos del ruido por carretera sobre las aves en un bosque tropical de Costa Rica. También realizamos censos de aves y medimos el ruido del 19 al 23 de abril y del 21 al 28 de noviembre 2008. Además, utilizamos redes de niebla para maximizar la detección de aves en la estimación de riqueza de especies. La abundancia de aves así como la riqueza de especies decrecieron significativamente con el incremento del ruido tanto en la estación seca como en la lluviosa. El ruido disminuyó en forma logarítmica con el aumento en la distancia a la carretera y fue más alto durante la estación seca. Nuestros resultados sugieren que las aves tienden generalmente a evitar el ruido del tráfico y tienen implicaciones en la conservación y manejo del área protegida

  3. Ectoparásitos del orden PHTHIRAPTERA en Aves Silvestres

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Saavedra-Orjuela; Sylvia Arévalo-Barreto; Diego Soler-Tovar

    2014-01-01

    Los ectoparásitos de las aves silvestres en Colombia han sido poco estudiados. Se tiene conocimiento que éstos animales pueden ser afectados por ácaros, pulgas, garrapatas y moscas. Sin embargo, los piojos juegan un papel protagónico en el ectoparasitismo de aves silvestres y tienden a ser altamente específicos con sus huéspedes; por lo tanto, hay muchas especies de Phthiraptera que se han registrado a partir de un solo huésped, mientras que algunas otras especies se han registrado en varias ...

  4. NASA's AVE 7 experiment: 25-mb sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. G.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The AVE 7 Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25 mb internals from the surface to 25 mb for the 24 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000GMT May 2 and 1200 GMT May 3, 1978. The methods of data processing and the accuracy are briefly discussed. Selected synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented as well as an example of contact data. A tabulation of adverse weather events that occured during the AVE 7 period, including freezing temperature, snow, tornadoes, damaging winds, and flooding, is presented.

  5. Nasal mites of Tyrannidae (Aves in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Mendes

    Full Text Available A total of 81 Tyraniidae birds were examined, 80 Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766 (Great kiscadee, and one Machetornis rixosa (Vieilot, 1819 (Cattle tyrant, for collection of nasal mites, which were identified as Ptilonyssus spinosus (Brooks & Strandtmann, 1960 and Sternostoma longisetosae (Hyland, 1961 (Rhinonyssidae. This finding characterises the first report of P. spinosus and S. longisetosae in P. sulphuratus, and the first record of P. spinosus in M. rixosa, and expands the geographic distribution of these species. It is the first occurrence of S. longisetosae in the Neotropics, and the first citation of P. spinosus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  6. Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae from Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae in Argentina Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae de Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae na Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Adelina Galeano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Necropsy on 15 specimens of white-tufted grebe, Rollandiarolland, caught in the Mar Chiquita and Chascomús lagoons (Buenos Aires province, revealed the presence of Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. This nematode shows a marked specificity for podicipediform birds. The specimens were identified from morphological study on features such as cephalic and esophageal structures and caudal papillae, using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first record of C. ovale parasitizing R. rolland in Argentina.Necropsia de 15 espécimes de mergulhão-de-orelha-branca, Rollandiarolland, coletados nas lagoas Mar Chiquita e Chascomús (Província de Buenos Aires, revelou a presença de Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. Esse nematóide tem uma marcada especificidade pelas aves podicipediformes. Os espécimes foram identificados a partir de características, tais como estruturas morfológicas cefálicas e esofágicas e papilas caudais, utilizando-se microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Esse é o primeiro registro de C. ovale parasito de R. rolland na Argentina.

  7. Cranial osteology of meiglyptini (aves: piciformes: picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelli, Reginaldo José

    2012-01-01

    THE MEIGLYPTINI COMPRISE EIGHT SPECIES GROUPED INTO THREE GENERA: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1) a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2) the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3) the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4) the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds' diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species.

  8. Nuevo examen de los grabados paleolíticos de El Pendo (Cantabria, España. Consideraciones sobre las aves del arte paleolítico de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Díez, Marcos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are very scarce in Palaeolithic rock art. Since 1907 figures of razorbill and raptors (probably vulture have been described at the end of the Pendo cave, both attributed to an Upper Palaeolithic origin (from Aurignacian to Lower Magdalenian, depending on the authors. The new revision of the group of engravings shows the presence of an unambiguous bird, but the morphology of the figure did not permit its precise taxonomic identification. The work also presents a revision of the birds known in Iberian Palaeolithic rock art.

    La presencia de aves en el repertorio iconográfico del arte rupestre paleolítico es muy escasa. Desde 1907 se vienen describiendo unas figuras de alca y de rapaz (probablemente buitre en la parte final de la cueva de El Pendo. Los autores las asignan a un momento antiguo, desde el Auriñaciense hasta el Magdaleniense inferior. Una nueva lectura del conjunto de grabados permite apuntar la presencia inequívoca de una imagen de ave, sin características que permitan su identificación taxonómica precisa. El trabajo revisa, además, las imágenes de aves conocidas en el arte rupestre paleolítico de la Península Ibérica.

  9. Torn Paper Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson for third-grade students that begins with an examination of bird prints done by John James Audubon and moves into the students creating their own torn paper birds. Introduces the students to the beauty of birds and focuses on the environmental issues that face birds and their habitats. (CMK)

  10. Arvab ka ehk mõtleb nii / Ave Alavainu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alavainu, Ave, 1942-

    2003-01-01

    Ave Alavainu arutleb selle üle, mida peale hakata laguneva Patareiga Hiiumaal. Vt. ka artikleid "Viimast päeva", Hiiumaa, 5. juuli 2003, lk. 1 ja "Kodukootud rahvahääletusest", Hiiu Leht, 8. juuli 2003, lk. 2

  11. Anatomy of the upper respiratory tract in domestic birds, with emphasis on vocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleyn, C; Cornillie, P; Van Cruchten, S; Van den Broeck, W; Van Ginneken, C; Simoens, P

    2018-04-01

    This work reviews the anatomy of the upper respiratory tract in domestic birds including the chicken and pigeon. Non-exhaustive additional information on other bird species, illustrating the extraordinary diversity in the biological class Aves, can be found in several footnotes. The described anatomical structures are functionally considered in view of avian sound production. In particular, the Syrinx is invaluable. Its most important structures are the Labia and the lateral and medial tympaniform membranes in non-songbirds and songbirds, respectively. These structures produce sound by vibrating during expiration and eventually inspiration. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Flexibility along the Neck of the Neogene Terror Bird Andalgalornis steulleti (Aves Phorusrhacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambussi, Claudia P.; de Mendoza, Ricardo; Degrange, Federico J.; Picasso, Mariana B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Andalgalornis steulleti from the upper Miocene–lower Pliocene (≈6 million years ago) of Argentina is a medium-sized patagornithine phorusrhacid. It was a member of the predominantly South American radiation of ‘terror birds’ (Phorusrhacidae) that were apex predators throughout much of the Cenozoic. A previous biomechanical study suggests that the skull would be prepared to make sudden movements in the sagittal plane to subdue prey. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyze the flexion patterns of the neck of Andalgalornis based on the neck vertebrae morphology and biometrics. The transitional cervical vertebrae 5th and 9th clearly separate regions 1–2 and 2–3 respectively. Bifurcate neural spines are developed in the cervical vertebrae 7th to 12th suggesting the presence of a very intricate ligamentary system and of a very well developed epaxial musculature. The presence of the lig. elasticum interespinale is inferred. High neural spines of R3 suggest that this region concentrates the major stresses during downstrokes. Conclusions/Significance The musculoskeletal system of Andalgalornis seems to be prepared (1) to support a particularly big head during normal stance, and (2) to help the neck (and the head) rising after the maximum ventroflexion during a strike. The study herein is the first interpretation of the potential performance of the neck of Andalgalornis in its entirety and we considered this an important starting point to understand and reconstruct the flexion pattern of other phorusrhacids from which the neck is unknown. PMID:22662194

  13. Phylogeny, Historical Biogeography and the Evolution of Migration in Accipitrid Birds of Prey (Aves: Accipitriformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Jenő

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A legtöbb mérsékelt övi madárfaj életciklusában alapvető szerepet tölt be a vonulás. A rendszeres, nagy kiterjedésű mozgások, melyek a mérsékelt övi vonulási rendszereket jellemzik, egyes feltételezések szerint a trópusi fajok poszt-glaciális, északi irányú terjeszkedésével párhuzamosan jelentek meg. Ezen felül a vonulás előfordulását számos ökológiai tényező is befolyásolhatja, mint például a környezet szezonalitásának mértéke vagy a téli túlélést befolyásoló tényezők. A vonulás eredete és evolúciója ezért csak úgy érthető meg, ha a madarak biogeográfiai történetiségét és ökológiáját filogenetikai kontextusban tanulmányozzuk. Jelen vizsgálatban a vágómadár-alakúak (Accipitriformes vonulásának evolúcióját elemeztük komparatív módszerekkel. Első lépésben létrehoztunk egy fosszilis adatok alapján datált molekuláris törzsfát, amelyen jellegrekonstrukciót végeztünk és rekonstruáltuk a fajok ősi elterjedési területét. Az elemzéseink alapján a vonulás többször alakult ki a ragadozók esetében, legkorábban a héjaformákon (Accipitrinae belül, vélhetően a Miocén közepén. A legtöbb esetben a vonuló leszármazási vonalak nem vonuló őseinél trópusi elterjedésre következtethetünk. A direkcionális evolúciós teszt alapján a vonulás a trópusokon jelent meg és megnövelte a mérsékelt égöv kolonizációjának rátáját. Eszerint tehát a mérsékelt övi ragadozómadár fajok vonuló trópusi fajok leszármazottainak tekinthetők, melyek az erősen szezonális, északi élőhelyek irányába terjeszkedtek. Végezetül negatív kapcsolatot találtunk a vonulás megjelenése és a táplálékspecializáció mértéke között.

  14. CRANIAL OSTEOLOGY OF CYCLARHIS GUJANENSIS (AVES: VIREONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO MATIUSSI PREVIATTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The small passerine Cyclaris gujanensis can tear into small pieces large or heavy-bodied preys that could not be swallowed whole such as frogs, snakes, bats and birds. However there are few studies on the cranial anatomy of this species. Thus, we focused on the description of the cranial osteology to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of this species and to make some assumptions about functional anatomy. The fossa temporalis is shallow but broad and the fossa of os palatinum is deepened. The os quadratum processes are long and thick. The os pterygoideum is enlarged and the upper jaw is strongly inclined ventrally (140° with reference to the skull. The rostral extremity of rhamphotheca is hooked with ventral concavity to fit the mandible (pincer form. The mandible fossae are deepened and broad and its bulky medial process probably provides mandible stability and strong support to the muscles attached on it. All these peculiar characteristics probably indicate a considerable force in the C. gujanensis jaws and partially explain its distinctive feeding habit compared with the other Vireonidae. Nevertheless, new studies with functional approaches to analysis the forces of the muscle fibers and the cranial kinesis are needed to prove the hypotheses mentioned above.

  15. Cranial Osteology of Meiglyptini (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo José Donatelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Meiglyptini comprise eight species grouped into three genera: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1 a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2 the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3 the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4 the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds’ diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species.

  16. Distribución de aves acuáticas y rapaces en un embalse dulceacuícola artificial de Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Castillo-Guerrero

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la composición taxonómica y la distribución espaciotemporal de aves acuáticas en el estanque de almacenamiento del ejido El Centenario, B.C.S., durante 24 censos quincenales (abril de 1998 a marzo de 1999. El estanque es particularmente atractivo para las aves por la variedad de alimento que ofrece. Se realizaron 25 563 registros de 69, entre las que se reporta por primera vez en la región a Chlidonias niger y Phalaropus tricolor. La riqueza y la abundancia fueron determinadas por el componente migratorio, principalmente anátidos (16 especies y 55.6 % del total observado, respectivamente y aves playeras (18 especies y 13.3 %. La zona que presentó el número mayor de especies e individuos fue la C, la más profunda y heterogénea. La especie más importante fue Oxyura jamaicensis (30 % del total observado, con los números más altos en la península. Este sitio presentó un componente aviar propio atípico, dada la aridez de la región, y funcionó como un sitio de escala e invernación para especies migratorias. Su componente incluye aves de afinidades costeras y dulceacuícolas, lo que se refleja en sus altas riquezas, contribuyendo notablemente a la biodiversidad localWe determined the taxonomic composition and spatial-temporal distribution of aquatic and raptor birds in a freshwater artificial pond of El Centenario, Baja California Sur, México, during 24 biweekly censuses (April, 1998 to March, 1999. The pond is particularly attractive for birds because of its variety of food items. A total 25 563 records of 69 species were done, among them the first report of Chlidonias niger and Phalaropus tricolor for the region. Species richness and abundance were determined for the migrant component, mostly Anatidae (16 species and 55.6 % of the total abundance and shorebirds (18 species and 13.3%. The greater number of species and individuals was in C the deepest and more heterogeneus section of the pond. The most important

  17. Molecular phylogeny of the spoonbills (Aves: Threskiornithidae) based on mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R. Terry; Yeung, Carol K.L.; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    Spoonbills (genus Platalea) are a small group of wading birds, generally considered to constitute the subfamily Plataleinae (Aves: Threskiornithidae). We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among the six species of spoonbills using variation in sequences of the mitochondrial genes ND2 and cytochrome b (total 1796 bp). Topologies of phylogenetic trees reconstructed using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses were virtually identical and supported monophyly of the spoonbills. Most relationships within Platalea received strong support: P. minor and P. regia were closely related sister species, P. leucorodia was sister to the minor-regia clade, and P. alba was sister to the minor-regia-leucorodia clade. Relationships of P. flavipes and P. ajaja were less well resolved: these species either formed a clade that was sister to the four-species clade, or were successive sisters to this clade. This phylogeny is consistent with ideas of relatedness derived from spoonbill morphology. Our limited sampling of the Threskiornithinae (ibises), the putative sister group to the spoonbills, indicated that this group is paraphyletic, in agreement with previous molecular data; this suggests that separation of the Threskiornithidae into subfamilies Plataleinae and Threskiornithinae may not be warranted.

  18. AVE/VAS experiment: Synoptic summary and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    The AVE/VAS ground truth field experiment was conducted during the Spring of 1982 severe storms and weather research program. The experiment consisted of acquiring correlative ground truth measurements of rawinsonde data, corresponding to the time and space resolutions of VAS sounding data. The objectives of the AVE/VAS experiment are: (1) to acquire four dimensional data sets of the actual atmospheric structure down to the mesoscale; (2) to provide measurements for quantitative comparisons between ground based and VAS-derived atmospheric parameters; (3) to evaluate the impact of VAS data on diagnostic analysis of structural features and dynamical processes important to the development of mesoscale phenomena; (4) to evaluate the impact of VAS data on numerical model simulations, nowcasting, and other mesoscale forecasting systems.

  19. Diversidad y distribución de las especies de Mallophaga (Insecta en Aves y Mamíferos de la Comunidad de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Mateo, M. P.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the entomological collection of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MNCN (Madrid, Spain and the literature, a total of 145 species of birds and 12 species of mammals that could be potential hosts of Mallophaga, are cited for Madrid. These species are potential hosts to 306 species of Mallophaga. Only 29 species of birds (20% and 2 species of mammals (14,3% have been searched for the presence of Mallophaga. These species could be potential hosts of 91 different Mallophaga species, but only 40 species (44% are recorded. Each species present in Madrid is indicated with its the host, the material known and respective references.

    Se presenta información general sobre la biodiversidad y distribución de los Mallophaga parásitos de aves y mamíferos en la Comunidad de Madrid. Con base en datos obtenidos en colecciones del MNCN (Madrid y revisión de la bibliografía de referencia, se obtienen un total de 145 especies de aves y 12 de mamíferos hospedadores potenciales de 306 especies de malófagos en la Comunidad de Madrid. De ésas, solo 29 especies de aves (20 % y 2 de mamíferos (14,3 % han sido exploradas, las cuales podrían estar parasitadas por, al menos, 91 especies diferentes de malófagos, pero solo se conocen citas de 40 especies (44 %. En cada especie indicada se señalan los hospedadores conocidos, material y referencia correspondiente para cada especie de Mallophaga citada en la Comunidad de Madrid.

  20. The primary feather lengths of early birds with respect to avian wing shape evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Nudds, R L; Dyke, G J

    2011-06-01

    We examine the relationships between primary feather length (f(prim)) and total arm length (ta) (sum of humerus, ulna and manus lengths) in Mesozoic fossil birds to address one aspect of avian wing shape evolution. Analyses show that there are significant differences in the composition of the wing between the known lineages of basal birds and that mean f(prim) (relative to ta length) is significantly shorter in Archaeopteryx and enantiornithines than it is in Confuciusornithidae and in living birds. Based on outgroup comparisons with nonavian theropods that preserve forelimb primary feathers, we show that the possession of a relatively shorter f(prim) (relative to ta length) must be the primitive condition for Aves. There is also a clear phylogenetic trend in relative primary feather length throughout bird evolution: our analyses demonstrate that the f(prim)/ta ratio increases among successive lineages of Mesozoic birds towards the crown of the tree ('modern birds'; Neornithes). Variance in this ratio also coincides with the enormous evolutionary radiation at the base of Neornithes. Because the f(prim)/ta ratio is linked to flight mode and performance in living birds, further comparisons of wing proportions among Mesozoic avians will prove informative and certainly imply that the aerial locomotion of the Early Cretaceous Confuciusornis was very different to other extinct and living birds. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Aves ocasionales en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrero José Ignacio

    1946-08-01

    Full Text Available La altiplanicie andina conocida con el nombre de Sabana de Bogotá, situada en la llamada "tierra fría" de los Andes Orientales de Colombia, a 2600 metros sobre el nivel del mar y con temperatura media de 13o C., esta bordeada en todo su derredor por montañas cuya altura en ningún sitio se eleva a menos de 2700 metros y esto solamente en el lado occidental, hacia el valle del Magdalena. Sin embargo, es visitada con alguna frecuencia por aves propias de pisos climáticos más cálidos y aun del llamado "Tropical" o "tierra caliente". Por lo que se ha podido averiguar, las aves visitantes observadas hasta ahora proceden de las vertientes occidentales y del valle del Magdalena; ninguna, con la única posible excepción de Elanoides forticatus yetapa, viene de las faldas orientales que descienden hasta los llanos del Meta pues hacia este lado de la Sabana se hallan las montañas más altas, cuya mayor depresión -la de Chipaque- es de 3150 metros en el sitio por donde pasa la carretera de Bogotá a Villavicencio. Parece por lo tanto que este ramal de la cordillera constituye una barrera infranqueable para las aves que habitan en el oriente de Cundinamarca, mientras que el ramal occidental, de menor altura, no lo es para las que habitan en las vertientes que conducen al Magdalena.

  2. Plantas usadas por aves en paisajes cafeteros de Nariño, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Yulieth Viviana Castillo R.; Jhon Jairo Calderón L.

    2017-01-01

    Las plantas son un importante recurso alimenticio para las aves presentes en los paisajes cafeteros, por lo que la heterogeneidad en las diferentes unidades de estos paisajes, garantizan la disponibilidad de alimento. Conocer este tipo de interacciones entre plantas y aves es importante para la conservación de la biodiversidad en paisajes cafeteros. En esta investigación, se presenta la lista inicial de especies de plantas usadas por las aves de paisajes cafeteros en zonas rurales de los muni...

  3. Effect of heat exposure on the thermoregulatory responses of selected naked neck chickens Efeito da exposição ao calor na resposta termorregulatória de aves de pescoço pelado selecionadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mazzi

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The variation in cloacal temperature, body weight loss and expression of the 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70 in three naked neck broiler genotypes during heat stress were studied. Twelve birds of each genotype (Na/Na, Na/na and na/na were reared to market weight (approximately 2.1kg at thermoneutral temperature. Six birds from each group served as controls and the remaining six underwent gradual heat stress (from 28ºC to 36ºC. Cloacal temperature and body weight were measured before and after exposure to heat. Liver samples were collected and Hsp70 levels were quantified using western blotting with monoclonal anti-chicken Hsp70 antibody. Heterozygous (Na/na birds had a significantly lower cloacal temperature variation and less body weight loss during heat stress than the other genotypes. There was no significant difference in the Hsp70 levels among the genotypes. Heterozygous birds (Na/na appeared to have a slight advantage over the other genotypes during gradual heat stress, perhaps because of a heterotic effect.Estudaram-se o efeito do estresse térmico sobre a temperatura cloacal, a perda de peso corporal e a expressão da proteína de estresse de 70 kDa (Hsp70 em três genótipos de galinhas de pescoço-pelado. Foram usadas 12 aves de cada genótipo (Na/Na, Na/na e na/na, com peso corporal médio de 2,100kg e criadas em temperatura termoneutra. Seis aves de cada grupo serviram como controle e as seis restantes foram submetidas a estresse térmico gradativo (28ºC - 36ºC. A temperatura cloacal e o peso das aves foram avaliados antes e depois do estresse. Amostras de fígado foram coletadas e os níveis de Hsp70 foram quantificados por "western blotting" com anticorpo monoclonal específico para Hsp70 de galinha. As aves heterozigotas (Na/na tiveram variação de temperatura cloacal significativamente menor e menor perda de peso corporal durante o estresse térmico do que as dos outros genótipos. Não foi observada diferen

  4. Vertebral Pneumaticity in the Ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus (Dinosauria: Theropoda Revealed by Computed Tomography Imaging and Reappraisal of Axial Pneumaticity in Ornithomimosauria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Watanabe

    Full Text Available Among extant vertebrates, pneumatization of postcranial bones is unique to birds, with few known exceptions in other groups. Through reduction in bone mass, this feature is thought to benefit flight capacity in modern birds, but its prevalence in non-avian dinosaurs of variable sizes has generated competing hypotheses on the initial adaptive significance of postcranial pneumaticity. To better understand the evolutionary history of postcranial pneumaticity, studies have surveyed its distribution among non-avian dinosaurs. Nevertheless, the degree of pneumaticity in the basal coelurosaurian group Ornithomimosauria remains poorly known, despite their potential to greatly enhance our understanding of the early evolution of pneumatic bones along the lineage leading to birds. Historically, the identification of postcranial pneumaticity in non-avian dinosaurs has been based on examination of external morphology, and few studies thus far have focused on the internal architecture of pneumatic structures inside the bones. Here, we describe the vertebral pneumaticity of the ornithomimosaur Archaeornithomimus with the aid of X-ray computed tomography (CT imaging. Complementary examination of external and internal osteology reveals (1 highly pneumatized cervical vertebrae with an elaborate configuration of interconnected chambers within the neural arch and the centrum; (2 anterior dorsal vertebrae with pneumatic chambers inside the neural arch; (3 apneumatic sacral vertebrae; and (4 a subset of proximal caudal vertebrae with limited pneumatic invasion into the neural arch. Comparisons with other theropod dinosaurs suggest that ornithomimosaurs primitively exhibited a plesiomorphic theropod condition for axial pneumaticity that was extended among later taxa, such as Archaeornithomimus and large bodied Deinocheirus. This finding corroborates the notion that evolutionary increases in vertebral pneumaticity occurred in parallel among independent lineages of bird

  5. The paranasal air sinuses of predatory and armored dinosaurs (archosauria: theropoda and ankylosauria) and their contribution to cephalic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Lawrence M; Ridgely, Ryan C

    2008-11-01

    The paranasal air sinuses and nasal cavities were studied along with other cephalic spaces (brain cavity, paratympanic sinuses) in certain dinosaurs via CT scanning and 3D visualization to document the anatomy and examine the contribution of the sinuses to the morphological organization of the head as a whole. Two representatives each of two dinosaur clades are compared: the theropod saurischians Majungasaurus and Tyrannosaurus and the ankylosaurian ornithischians Panoplosaurus and Euoplocephalus. Their extant archosaurian outgroups, birds and crocodilians (exemplified by ostrich and alligator), display a diversity of paranasal sinuses, yet they share only a single homologous antorbital sinus, which in birds has an important subsidiary diverticulum, the suborbital sinus. Both of the theropods had a large antorbital sinus that pneumatized many of the facial and palatal bones as well as a birdlike suborbital sinus. Given that the suborbital sinus interleaves with jaw muscles, the paranasal sinuses of at least some theropods (including birds) were actively ventilated rather than being dead-air spaces. Although many ankylosaurians have been thought to have had extensive paranasal sinuses, most of the snout is instead (and surprisingly) often occupied by a highly convoluted airway. Digital segmentation, coupled with 3D visualization and analysis, allows the positions of the sinuses to be viewed in place within both the skull and the head and then measured volumetrically. These quantitative data allow the first reliable estimates of dinosaur head mass and an assessment of the potential savings in mass afforded by the sinuses. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Aves acuáticas de la Laguna de Agua Dulce y el Estero El Ermitaño, Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández Vázquez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la presencia y número de aves acuáticas, así como la distribución estacional y espacial de los diferentes grupos en la laguna de Agua Dulce y el estero El Ermitaño, Jalisco, México, entre diciembre de 1997 a noviembre de 1998. Considerando únicamente el mes de máxima abundancia de cada especie hubo 86 471 aves en ambos humedales (29 686 en Agua Dulce y 56 785 en El ermitaño, y una abundancia acumulada (suma de las abundancias mensuales de 179 808 aves (66 976 en Agua Dulce y 112 832 en Ermitaño. Se identificaron 87 especies de aves, de las cuales 78 especies estuvieron presentes en Agua Dulce y 73 especies en El Ermitaño. La riqueza y abundancia fueron influenciados por la llegada de aves migratorias por lo que el mayor número de especies e individuos se presentó durante el invierno. En general las aves mostraron preferencia por áreas someras, excepto las marinas que prefirieron áreas arenosas y protegidas por dunas como las que se encuentran en Agua Dulce. Los demás grupos como los patos y afines prefirieron las áreas con salinidades bajas, como las que se encuentran al sureste del estero El Ermitaño. La mayor abundancia de aves playeras fue observada en niveles de agua bajos, y al igual que las garzas se les observó con mayor frecuencia en sitios con salinidades altas e influenciados por las variaciones en las mareas, como los que se encuentran cerca de la boca-barra del ErmitañoWater birds from Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary, Jalisco, Mexico. Waterbird abundance, and seasonal and spatial distribution, were studied in two natural water pools at Jalisco, México, from December 1997 through November 1998. Maximum monthly abundance in Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary was 86 471 birds (29 686 in Agua Dulce and 56 785 in Ermitaño, with a total cummulative abundance of 179 808 individuals (66 976 in Agua Dulce and 112 832 in Ermitaño. A total of 87 waterbirds species were recorded, 78 in Agua Dulce

  7. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  8. Birds of Sabaki Birds of Sabaki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CJ

    2005-02-25

    Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...

  9. A bird-like skull in a Triassic diapsid reptile increases heterogeneity of the morphological and phylogenetic radiation of Diapsida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Adam C.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.

    2017-10-01

    The Triassic Period saw the first appearance of numerous amniote lineages (e.g. Lepidosauria, Archosauria, Mammalia) that defined Mesozoic ecosystems following the end Permian Mass Extinction, as well as the first major morphological diversification of crown-group reptiles. Unfortunately, much of our understanding of this event comes from the record of large-bodied reptiles (total body length > 1 m). Here we present a new species of drepanosaurid (small-bodied, chameleon-like diapsids) from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of New Mexico. Using reconstructions of micro-computed tomography data, we reveal the three-dimensional skull osteology of this clade for the first time. The skull presents many archaic anatomical traits unknown in Triassic crown-group reptiles (e.g. absence of bony support for the external ear), whereas other traits (e.g. toothless rostrum, anteriorly directed orbits, inflated endocranium) resemble derived avian theropods. A phylogenetic analysis of Permo-Triassic diapsids supports the hypothesis that drepanosaurs are an archaic lineage that originated in the Permian, far removed from crown-group Reptilia. The phylogenetic position of drepanosaurids indicates the presence of archaic Permian clades among Triassic small reptile assemblages and that morphological convergence produced a remarkably bird-like skull nearly 100 Myr before one is known to have emerged in Theropoda.

  10. Angry Birds in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    When space computers first started listening into space radio, they noticed that there were radio noises that happened on the morning side of the Earth. Because these waves sounded like noises birds make in the morning, we named these waves after them. These bird sounding waves can move around the Earth, flying up and down, and sometimes move into an area where there is more stuff. This area is also much colder than where these bird noises are first made. When the waves move into this cold area where there is more stuff, they start to sound like angry birds instead of happy birds. Both of these waves, the happy and angry bird sounding waves, are very important to our understanding of how the tiny things in space move and change. Sometimes the waves which sound like birds can push these tiniest of things into the sky. The happy bird sounding waves can push the tiniest things quickly while the angry bird sounding waves push the tinest of things more slowly. When the tiny things fall into the sky, they create beautiful space lights and light that burns which can hurt people in up goers and not so up goers as well as our things like phones, and space computers. We study these waves that sound like birds to better understand when and where the tiny things will fall. That way we can be prepared and enjoy watching the pretty space lights at night with no worries.

  11. Parasitismo por malófagos (Insecta e ácaros (Acari em Turdus leucomelas (Aves nas estações reprodutiva e de muda de penas no Parque Estadual do Rio Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil Parasitism of chewing lice (Insecta and feather mites (Acari on Turdus leucomelas (Aves during reproductive and molt seasons at the State Park of Rio Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre M. J. Enout

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The rates of infestation by chewing lice and feather mites on Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, 1818 (Aves: Turdidae were used to test the hypothesis of that parasitism either increases or decreases according to, reproductive and molting seasons, respectively. Samples were obtained at the State Park of Rio Preto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in October and December of 2006 and in March of 2007. The dust-ruffling technique was used in to remove the parasites from the body of their hosts. Five species of chewing-lice were found on the birds, with Myrsidea sp. and Brueelia sp. being the most prevalent parasites, whereas Menacanthus eurysternus Burmeister, 1838 was the least prevalent. No statistically significant difference was found between the infestation rates in the reproductive and molt seasons. Two suborders and four families of Acari were found on the birds.

  12. Evolving nonapeptide mechanisms of gregariousness and social diversity in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, James L; Kelly, Aubrey M; Kingsbury, Marcy A

    2012-03-01

    Of the major vertebrate taxa, Class Aves is the most extensively studied in relation to the evolution of social systems and behavior, largely because birds exhibit an incomparable balance of tractability, diversity, and cognitive complexity. In addition, like humans, most bird species are socially monogamous, exhibit biparental care, and conduct most of their social interactions through auditory and visual modalities. These qualities make birds attractive as research subjects, and also make them valuable for comparative studies of neuroendocrine mechanisms. This value has become increasingly apparent as more and more evidence shows that social behavior circuits of the basal forebrain and midbrain are deeply conserved (from an evolutionary perspective), and particularly similar in birds and mammals. Among the strongest similarities are the basic structures and functions of avian and mammalian nonapeptide systems, which include mesotocin (MT) and arginine vasotocin (VT) systems in birds, and the homologous oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) systems, respectively, in mammals. We here summarize these basic properties, and then describe a research program that has leveraged the social diversity of estrildid finches to gain insights into the nonapeptide mechanisms of grouping, a behavioral dimension that is not experimentally tractable in most other taxa. These studies have used five monogamous, biparental finch species that exhibit group sizes ranging from territorial male-female pairs to large flocks containing hundreds or thousands of birds. The results provide novel insights into the history of nonapeptide functions in amniote vertebrates, and yield remarkable clarity on the nonapeptide biology of dinosaurs and ancient mammals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  14. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Eisermann

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2 000 and 2 400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus, the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus, the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens, the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzii, and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus. Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Sørensen similarity index 0.85, indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, ~27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson’s Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla. The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia, and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 577-594. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Las alturas del norte de Centroamérica han sido reconocidas como región de aves endémicas, pero se conoce poco sobre las comunidades de aves en bosques nubosos de Guatemala. De 1997 a 2001 se han detectado 142 especies de aves entre 2 000 y 2 400 msnm en el bosque nuboso y áreas agr

  15. Compost de ave de corral como componente de sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Alejandra Barbaro¹

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El sustrato para cultivo es un material que colocado en un contenedor permite el anclaje del sistema radicular, proporcionando agua y nutrientes. Entre los materiales empleados para formular sustratos se encuentran los compost. Entre ellos el compost de cama de ave de corral (CAC, elaborado en base al estiércol de aves mezclado con los materiales que forman su lecho. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar dos compost de CAC como componente de sustrato, mediante el desarrollo de plantas de Coral (Salvia splendens. Uno de los compost contenía cama de stud (CAC+S durante su compostaje. Se formularon sustratos con diferentes proporciones de compost de CAC, compost de corteza de pino y pinocha, luego fueron analizados física y químicamente. A las plantas cultivadas en cada sustrato se midió la longitud y el diámetro del tallo, peso fresco y seco de la parte aérea y radicular. La densidad, porosidad y capacidad de retención de agua de todos los sustratos fueron aceptables. El pH de ambos compost de CAC fue mayor a 6,3, y los valores de las mezclas se encontraron dentro del rango aceptable. Todos los sustratos superaron 1 dS m-1 (1+5 v/v, principalmente los formulados con compost de CAC+S, cuyo material puro contenía altos niveles salinos. Al disminuir el porcentaje de CAC en las mezclas, diminuyó la concentración de cada nutriente. Las plantas cultivadas en el sustrato comercial y en las mezclas con 20% de CAC fueron las que lograron los mayores pesos aéreos y radiculares, diámetro y longitud del tallo. Por lo tanto, el compost de ave de corral podría ser una alternativa viable como componente de sustrato si se lo utiliza hasta un 20%.

  16. Estacionalidad en las aves del Chaco Paraguayo central

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Daniel M.

    1997-01-01

    Registré la abundancia de especies de aves en el Chaco Paraguayo central, Agosto de 1989 hasta Agosto de 1990, para investigar la variación estacional al nivel de grupo funcional o gremio (guild). Las características usadas para definir grupos funcionales fueron la dependicia del agua o la dieta primaria. El numero de especies (abundancia: raro) por grupo funcional son: insectívoras (21 :35), granívoras and folívoras (20:6), faunívoras (14:13), especies asociadas al agua (4:28), detritívoras ...

  17. AVE-SESAME 6: 25-MB sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 6 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 15 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 h intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on June 7, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on June 8, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  18. AVE/VAS 1: 25 mb sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS I (shakedown) experiment is described. Tabulated data at 25-mb intervals for the 13 special rawinsonde stations and 1 National Weather Service station participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 1200 and 1800 GMT on February 6, 1982, and at 0000 GMT on February 7, 1982. The method of processing soundings is discussed briefly, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  19. AVE-SESAME 2: The 25-MB sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. F.; Gerhard, M. L.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME II experiment is described. Data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 19, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 20, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  20. The AVE/VAS 2: The 25 mb sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS II experiment is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals, was an 18 hour period. An additional sounding was taken at the normal synoptic observation time. The processing soundings method is discussed, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the meso-beta-scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  1. AVE-Sesame 3: 25-MB sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. T.; Gerhard, M. L.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 3 experiment is described and tabulated data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 19 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on April 25, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on April 26, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed briefly, estimates of the rms errors in the data presented, an example of contact data given, reasons given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  2. AVE-SESAME IV: 25 mb sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 4 experiment is descirbed and tabulated data at 25 mb for the 23 National Weather Service and 20 special stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken at 3 hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on May 9, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on May 10, 1979 (nine sounding times). The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Reasons are given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings are listed which exhibit abnormal characteristics.

  3. Sensitivity of understorey bird species in two different successional stages of the lowland Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Loures-Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest has a high destruction rate and there is little information available on some aspects of the neotropical bird biology. Changes in environment are important factors that affect the resources available to birds. We compared the species sensitivity level of understorey birds in two areas in distinct successional stages (primary and secondary sections. Two 100 ha plots of lowland Atlantic Forest were analysed between August and December 2006. Among 25 bird species recorded, thirteen had lower abundance in secondary forest, two in primary forest, and ten had not clear tendency. According to the criteria used, the percentages for species with low, and medium and high sensitivity to habitat change were 44% and 56%, respectively. The number of species was not associated with the endemism level or foraging strata. Results show the importance of knowing bird species' sensitivity level with regard to habitat modification, and not only forest fragmentation.A Floresta Atlântica apresenta uma alta taxa de destruição e pouca informação disponível de alguns aspectos da biologia da avifauna neotropical. Alterações do ambiente são fatores importantes que influenciam nos recursos disponíveis para as aves. Nós comparamos o nível de sensibilidade das espécies de aves do sub-bosque de dois trechos em diferentes estágios sucessionais (trechos de floresta primária e secundária. Dois trechos de 100 ha cada de Floresta Atlântica de baixada foram analisados entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Entre as 25 espécies de aves analisadas, treze tiveram menor abundância no trecho de floresta secundária, duas na floresta primária, e dez não mostraram qualquer tendência. De acordo com os critérios adotados, as porcentagens de espécies que apresentaram sensibilidades baixa, e média e alta às alterações de habitat foram de 44% e 56%, respectivamente. O número de espécies afetadas não esteve associado ao grau de endemismo ou estrato de

  4. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  5. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  6. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  7. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  8. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However, some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Top of Page Avian Influenza in Wild Birds Avian influenza A viruses have ... hours. Some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Avian influenza outbreaks are of concern in domesticated birds for ...

  9. Urban bird conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, Robbert P.H.; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kwak, Robert G.M.; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Parsons, Holly; Awasthy, Monica; Sierdsema, Henk L.K.; Marzluff, John M.; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Laet, de Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird

  10. Migratory Birds. Issue Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses why, how, where, and when birds migrate as well as problems birds encounter while migrating; the importance of research…

  11. The healing bird

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greek mythology it was a nondescript bird but in the medieval bestiaries it became pure white. The caladrius is used in the coats of arms of the South African Medical and Dental Council and also the Medical University of Soufhern Africa. These appear to be the first use of this medically significant bird in modern heraldry.

  12. Grupos avicaptores del Tardiglaciar : las aves de Berroberria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Diez Fernandez-Lomana

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos un estudio sobre marcas de cortes en aves de Berroberria. Los restos proceden de un nivel Magdaleniense superior final datable mediante C14 y con la ayuda de estudios palinológicos y arqueológicos. Los restos avianos pertenecen a la especie Lagopus mutus (perdiz nival y evidencian la caza de esta especie por grupos humanos. El estudio realizado plantea la existencia de poblaciones que recurrían a la caza de aves en épocas del año concretas, las cuales desarrollaron una estrategia de descuartizamiento primario en el lugar de caza y de descarnación en la cavidad. La ausencia de restos avianos quemados, y la minuciosidad en el desmembramiento y deshuesado, implican una búsqueda de carne aviar para un consumo no inmediato. Se postula un acopio de carne, con técnicas de secado y ahumado, para ulteriores necesidades alimenticias, ligadas al encarecimiento de los recursos durante el invierno. Las especies avianas presentes aportan algunas notas sobre las consiciones climáticas que imperaban en la zona.

  13. Inventario de las aves de un bosque altoandino: comparación de dos métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiles Hurd Frank Galfierd

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Capturing birds with mist-nets has been the sole method used or proposed for making species inventories of several Neotropical forests, but this method has rarely been evaluated relative to the use of visual and auditory observations in these forests. This study compares the effectiveness and efficiency of these two methods in the elaboration of the list of bird species on a 15 ha study plot of forest and subparamo vegetation in the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Over ten months we made 11 visits of 4-6 days each, observing and running nets along ca. 3 km of study trails. Of 102 total species recorded, 101 were observed and 50 captured; 52 were observed but not captured vs. only one that was only recorded with the nets. The observations were more efficient in accumulating species, with a mean of 68.4 per visit vs. 17.1 species captured. More than half of the species observed had been recorded after a single visit, and over 90% in six visits; the corresponding figures for mist-net captures were four and nine visits. Compared with the totallist, the mist net sample was biased towards small species « 50 g; some diet groups or foraging guilds were over- or underrepresented in this sample. We conclude that visual and auditory observations are more effective and efficient for making inventories of birds in these forests. Mist nets are a useful supplement to these observations, but not a substitute; their greatest utility lies in obtaining other sorts of data.La captura con redes de niebla ha sido utilizada o propuesta como método único para realizar inventarios de aves en varios bosques neotropicales, pero pocas veces ha sido evaluado en este medio en relación a otros métodos como el de las observaciones visuales y auditivas. Este estudio compara la efectividad y eficiencia de estos dos métodos en la elaboración de la lista de las especies de aves de una parcela de 15 ha de bosque altoandino y subpáramo en la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia

  14. Global warming and avian occupancy of hot deserts: a physiological and behavioral perspective Calentamiento global y ocupación de desiertos cálidos por aves: una perspectiva fisiológica y conductual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLAIR WOLF

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Avian adjustments to desert environments are characterized by an integration of behavior and physiology. These responses serve to maintain homeostasis and conserve vital resources such as water. The small size of birds confers a close coupling to the thermal environment and demands rapid adjustments to environmental challenges. Physiological responses to heat stress include hyperthermia, and increased evaporative cooling as environmental temperatures approach body temperature. Behaviorally, desert birds respond to heat stress by drastically reducing activity during the hottest parts of the day and selecting cool shaded microsites. This characteristic behavioral response presents a potential problem in the face of global warming. If birds totally forgo foraging during extremely hot periods, increased evaporative water loss rates due to higher environmental temperatures could lead to significant episodes of direct mortality for birds in these regions. A simple model is presented which integrates behavior and physiology to predict survival times based on dehydration tolerance, microsite selection and environmental temperature.Los ajustes de las aves a ambientes desérticos se caracterizan por la integración de la conducta y fisiología. Estas respuestas permiten mantener la homeostasis y conservar recursos vitales como el agua. El pequeño tamaño de las aves las acopla al ambiente térmico de un modo estrecho y demanda que ellas muestren respuestas rápidas a los desafíos del ambiente. Cuando la temperatura ambiente se aproxima a la temperatura corporal, las respuestas fisiológicas al estrés térmico incluyen hipertermia, así como un aumento en el enfriamiento por evaporación pulmo-cutánea. Conductualmente las aves responden al estrés calórico con la reducción de los patrones de actividad durante la parte mas calurosa del día, y seleccionando micro-sitios sombrados y más frescos. Frente al fenómeno de calentamiento global, estas

  15. Plantas usadas por aves en paisajes cafeteros de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulieth Viviana Castillo R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas son un importante recurso alimenticio para las aves presentes en los paisajes cafeteros, por lo que la heterogeneidad en las diferentes unidades de estos paisajes, garantizan la disponibilidad de alimento. Conocer este tipo de interacciones entre plantas y aves es importante para la conservación de la biodiversidad en paisajes cafeteros. En esta investigación, se presenta la lista inicial de especies de plantas usadas por las aves de paisajes cafeteros en zonas rurales de los municipios de Colón-Génova, La Unión, Arboleda y San Pedro de Cartago en el departamento de Nariño, Colombia. Las observaciones en campo y colectas generales de plantas muestran que 25 especies vegetales son consumidas por aves frugívoras, ocho especies son aprovechadas por aves nectarívoras y nueve especies son aprovechadas por aves insectívoras. Los resultados obtenidos permiten proponer un listado de especies de plantas potenciales como fuente de recursos para las aves, algunas nativas y otras introducidas, que pueden ser útiles para el manejo de paisajes cafeteros en la región a través de la implementación de estrategias de producción y propagación para la restauración.

  16. Bone cells in birds show exceptional surface area, a characteristic tracing back to saurischian dinosaurs of the late Triassic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensberger, John M; Martínez, Ricardo N

    2015-01-01

    Dinosaurs are unique among terrestrial tetrapods in their body sizes, which range from less than 3 gm in hummingbirds to 70,000 kg or more in sauropods. Studies of the microstructure of bone tissue have indicated that large dinosaurs, once believed to be slow growing, attained maturity at rates comparable to or greater than those of large mammals. A number of structural criteria in bone tissue have been used to assess differences in rates of osteogenesis in extinct taxa, including counts of lines of arrested growth and the density of vascular canals. Here, we examine the density of the cytoplasmic surface of bone-producing cells, a feature which may set an upper limit to the rate of osteogenesis. Osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi, the cavities in bone containing osteocytes and their extensions, were measured in thin-sections of primary (woven and parallel fibered) bone in a diversity of tetrapods. The results indicate that bone cell surfaces are more densely organized in the Saurischia (extant birds, extinct Mesozoic Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha) than in other tetrapods, a result of denser branching of the cell extensions. The highest postnatal growth rates among extant tetrapods occur in modern birds, the only surviving saurischians, and the finding of exceptional cytoplasmic surface area of the cells that produce bone in this group suggests a relationship with bone growth rate. In support of this relationship is finding the lowest cell surface density among the saurischians examined in Dinornis, a member of a group of ratites that evolved in New Zealand in isolation from mammalian predators and show other evidence of lowered maturation rates.

  17. Bone cells in birds show exceptional surface area, a characteristic tracing back to saurischian dinosaurs of the late Triassic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Rensberger

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are unique among terrestrial tetrapods in their body sizes, which range from less than 3 gm in hummingbirds to 70,000 kg or more in sauropods. Studies of the microstructure of bone tissue have indicated that large dinosaurs, once believed to be slow growing, attained maturity at rates comparable to or greater than those of large mammals. A number of structural criteria in bone tissue have been used to assess differences in rates of osteogenesis in extinct taxa, including counts of lines of arrested growth and the density of vascular canals.Here, we examine the density of the cytoplasmic surface of bone-producing cells, a feature which may set an upper limit to the rate of osteogenesis. Osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi, the cavities in bone containing osteocytes and their extensions, were measured in thin-sections of primary (woven and parallel fibered bone in a diversity of tetrapods. The results indicate that bone cell surfaces are more densely organized in the Saurischia (extant birds, extinct Mesozoic Theropoda and Sauropodomorpha than in other tetrapods, a result of denser branching of the cell extensions. The highest postnatal growth rates among extant tetrapods occur in modern birds, the only surviving saurischians, and the finding of exceptional cytoplasmic surface area of the cells that produce bone in this group suggests a relationship with bone growth rate. In support of this relationship is finding the lowest cell surface density among the saurischians examined in Dinornis, a member of a group of ratites that evolved in New Zealand in isolation from mammalian predators and show other evidence of lowered maturation rates.

  18. Coos, booms, and hoots: The evolution of closed-mouth vocal behavior in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias; Eliason, Chad M; Miller, Edward H; Goller, Franz; Clarke, Julia A

    2016-08-01

    Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in nonavian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct nonavian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory . The analysis of the ...

  20. mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory. The analysis of the ...

  1. Variation, variability, and the origin of the avian endocranium: insights from the anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabe S Bever

    Full Text Available The internal braincase anatomy of the holotype of Alioramus altai, a relatively small-bodied tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, was studied using high-resolution computed tomography. A number of derived characters strengthen the diagnosis of this taxon as both a tyrannosauroid and a unique, new species (e.g., endocranial position of the gasserian ganglion, internal ramification of the facial nerve. Also present are features intermediate between the basal theropod and avialan conditions that optimize as the ancestral condition for Coelurosauria--a diverse group of derived theropods that includes modern birds. The expression of several primitive theropod features as derived character states within Tyrannosauroidea establishes previously unrecognized evolutionary complexity and morphological plasticity at the base of Coelurosauria. It also demonstrates the critical role heterochrony may have played in driving patterns of endocranial variability within the group and potentially reveals stages in the evolution of neuroanatomical development that could not be inferred based solely on developmental observations of the major archosaurian crown clades. We discuss the integration of paleontology with variability studies, especially as applied to the nature of morphological transformations along the phylogenetically long branches that tend to separate the crown clades of major vertebrate groups.

  2. Variation, Variability, and the Origin of the Avian Endocranium: Insights from the Anatomy of Alioramus altai (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Gabe S.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Norell, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The internal braincase anatomy of the holotype of Alioramus altai, a relatively small-bodied tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia, was studied using high-resolution computed tomography. A number of derived characters strengthen the diagnosis of this taxon as both a tyrannosauroid and a unique, new species (e.g., endocranial position of the gasserian ganglion, internal ramification of the facial nerve). Also present are features intermediate between the basal theropod and avialan conditions that optimize as the ancestral condition for Coelurosauria—a diverse group of derived theropods that includes modern birds. The expression of several primitive theropod features as derived character states within Tyrannosauroidea establishes previously unrecognized evolutionary complexity and morphological plasticity at the base of Coelurosauria. It also demonstrates the critical role heterochrony may have played in driving patterns of endocranial variability within the group and potentially reveals stages in the evolution of neuroanatomical development that could not be inferred based solely on developmental observations of the major archosaurian crown clades. We discuss the integration of paleontology with variability studies, especially as applied to the nature of morphological transformations along the phylogenetically long branches that tend to separate the crown clades of major vertebrate groups. PMID:21853125

  3. The pes of Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda: Megaraptoridae: analysis of the pedal range of motion and biological restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt A. White

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The pedal range of motion in Australovenator wintonensis is investigated to determine what influence soft tissue had on range of motion in the foot. Fortunately, the theropod pes shares a close morphology with extant large cursorial birds. Therefore, to better understand the pedal range of motion of Australovenator, the pedal range of motion of Dromaius novaehollandiae (commonly known as the emu was analysed with and without soft tissue. We used a variety of innovative digital techniques to analyse the range of motion and biologically restore the Australovenator pes. Computed tomography scans of Dromaius pes in fully flexed and fully extended positions provided the soft tissue range of motion limits. The bone on bone range of motion of the same specimen was replicated following the removal of soft tissue. It was identified that there was an increase in range of motion potential with the removal of soft tissue. This variation provided a guide to develop the potential range of motion of a fully fleshed Australovenator pes. Additionally, the dissection of the Dromaius pes provided a guide enabling the replication of the corresponding soft tissue and keratin sheaths of the Australovenator pes.

  4. Bird brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Martin

    2013-10-21

    For many animals, the effort to rear their young is considerable. In birds, this often includes building nests, incubating eggs, feeding the chicks, and protecting them from predators. Perhaps for this reason, about 1% of birds (around 100 species) save themselves the effort and cheat instead. They are obligate brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species and leaving the hosts or foster parents to rear the foreign chicks for them. Some birds also cheat on individuals of the same species (intraspecific brood parasitism). Intraspecific brood parasitism has been reported in around 200 species, but is likely to be higher, as it can often only be detected by genetic analyses.

  5. Hatching synchrony in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Tippeltová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about hatching synchrony in birds. Generally, among birds there are two types of hatching - asynchronous and synchronous- and the type of hatching is primarily determined by the time of the onset of incubation. In many bird species, including most precocial ones, incubation does not begin until the last egg has been laid, which results in hatching of all the eggs within a few hours. In synchronously-hatched broods, all the chicks are about the same age. Thus no single ...

  6. The T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin is essential for AVE induction in the mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotschin, Sonja; Costello, Ita; Piliszek, Anna; Kwon, Gloria S; Mao, Chai-an; Klein, William H; Robertson, Elizabeth J; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2013-05-01

    Reciprocal inductive interactions between the embryonic and extraembryonic tissues establish the anterior-posterior (AP) axis of the early mouse embryo. The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) signaling center emerges at the distal tip of the embryo at embryonic day 5.5 and translocates to the prospective anterior side of the embryo. The process of AVE induction and migration are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the T-box gene Eomesodermin (Eomes) plays an essential role in AVE recruitment, in part by directly activating the homeobox transcription factor Lhx1. Thus, Eomes function in the visceral endoderm (VE) initiates an instructive transcriptional program controlling AP identity.

  7. Notas sobre aves de la Amazonia y Orinoquia Colombianas Notas sobre aves de la Amazonia y Orinoquia Colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrero H. José Ignacio

    1960-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a report is given concerning the distribution of some birds in the Colombian Amazonian and Orinoco drainages; also, some previous identifications are amended having at the present time more and better material recently collected and better facilities for studying. In addition, five new species. are recorded for the first time in the fauna of these regions and four new species and subespecies are added to the previous known list of Colombian birds. In this paper a report is given concerning the distribution of some birds in the Colombian Amazonian and Orinoco drainages; also, some previous identifications are amended having at the present time more and better material recently collected and better facilities for studying. In addition, five new species. are recorded for the first time in the fauna of these regions and four new species and subespecies are added to the previous known list of Colombian birds.

  8. AVE/VAS 3: 25-mb sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program for the AVE/VAS 3 experiment is described. Tabulated data are presented at 25-mb intervals for the 24 National Weather Service stations and 14 special stations participating in the experiment. Soundings were taken at 3-hr intervals, beginning at 1200 GMT on March 27, 1982, and ending at 0600 GMT on March 28, 1982 (7 sounding times). An additional sounding was taken at the National Weather Service stations at 1200 GMT on March 28, 1982, at the normal synoptic observation time. The method of processing soundings is briefly discussed, estimates of the RMS errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Termination pressures of soundings taken in the mesos-beta-scale network are tabulated, as are observations of ground temperature at a depth of 2 cm.

  9. AVE-SEASAME 5: 25-mb sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Gilchrist, L. P.; Turner, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The rewinsonde sounding program for the AVE-SESAME 5 experiment is described and tubulated data at 25 mb intervals are presented for the 23 National Weather Service stations and 20 special stations participating in the experiment. Soundings were taken at 3-hr intervals beginning at 1200 GMT on May 20, 1979, and ending at 1200 GMT on may 21, 1979 (nine sounding times). A tenth sounding was teken at many special stations between 2100 and 0000 GMT on May 20. The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, and an example of contact data is given. Reasons are given for the termination of soundings below 100 mb, and soundings with abnormal characteristics are listed.

  10. Nuisance Birds Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.

  11. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  12. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  13. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Subtypes Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Related Links Research Glossary of Influenza (Flu) Terms ...

  14. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  15. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  16. Birds in portuguese literature

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Soares, Filipa

    2016-01-01

    UID/ELT/00657/2013 WOS:000374914600004 IF/00222/2013 Birds are emblematic natural elements of landscapes. Readily noticeable and appreciated due to their songs and flight, they have been thoroughly used as components of literary scenarios. This paper analyses their representations in a broad corpus (144 writings by 67 writers) since the nineteenth century, divided in three time-periods. It aims to understand which wild birds are represented in Portuguese literature, how those represe...

  17. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Variación temporal y espacial de aves playeras en la laguna Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, en tres temporadas no reproductivas Temporal and spatial variation of shorebirds in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Jalisco, during three non-breeding seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hay un escaso conocimiento de las aves playeras en los humedales costeros de Jalisco, y en particular en la laguna Barra de Navidad. El presente trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de este grupo de aves y describe su distribución temporal y espacial en la laguna Barra de Navidad durante tres temporadas no reproductivas (1999-2000, 2006-2007 y 2008-2009. Se realizaron censos mensuales de noviembre-abril en las tres temporadas con el fin de registrar todas las especies de aves playeras. Se identificaron 19 especies (tres residentes y 16 visitantes de invierno, de las cuales Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa y Tringa semipalmata presentaron la mayor abundancia. Doce especies son consideradas como prioritarias en la “Estrategia para la Conservación y Manejo de las Aves Playeras y su Hábitat en México”. El mayor número de especies fue registrado en noviembre, diciembre y marzo en la primera y tercera temporada. El mayor número de individuos fue registrado alimentándose en marea baja, principalmente en diciembre, enero y febrero de la primera y tercera temporada. En marea baja hubo un mayor número de especies e individuos alimentándose en la zona C. Esta zona se caracterizó por tener sustratos lodosos expuestos durante marea baja y que fueron aprovechados por las aves para alimentarse. La laguna Barra de Navidad proporcionó hábitats de alimentación y descanso para las aves residentes y migratorias. Sin embargo, estos hábitats se ven amenazados por las actividades humanas realizadas dentro de la laguna, que sin duda tendrán consecuencias negativas para la distribución y abundancia de las aves playeras.Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation

  19. Nonpeptide AVE 0991 is an angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas agonist in the mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Sérgio Veloso Brant; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; Sampaio, Walkyria Oliveira; de Paula, Renata Dutra; Mendes, Elizabeth Pereira; Bontempo, Elizabete Dias; Pesquero, João Bosco; Walther, Thomas; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Bleich, Markus; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2004-10-01

    It has been described recently that the nonpeptide AVE 0991 (AVE) mimics the effects of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] in bovine endothelial cells. In this study, we tested the possibility that AVE is an agonist of the Ang-(1-7) receptor Mas, in vitro and in vivo. In water-loaded C57BL/6 mice, AVE (0.58 nmol/g body weight) produced a significant reduction in urinary volume (0.06+/-0.03 mL/60 min [n=9] versus 0.27+/-0.05 [n=9]; PAVE. As observed previously for Ang-(1-7), the antidiuretic effect of AVE after water load was blunted in Mas-knockout mice (0.37+/-0.10 mL/60 min [n=9] versus 0.27+/-0.03 mL/60 min [n=11] AVE-treated mice). In vitro receptor autoradiography in C57BL/6 mice showed that the specific binding of 125I-Ang-(1-7) to mouse kidney slices was displaced by AVE, whereas no effects were observed in the binding of 125I-angiotensin II or 125I-angiotensin IV. Furthermore, AVE displaced the binding of 125I-Ang-(1-7) in Mas-transfected monkey kidney cells (COS) cells (IC50=4.75x10(-8) mol/L) and of rhodamine-Ang-(1-7) in Mas-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. It also produced NO release in Mas-transfected CHO cells blocked by A-779 but not by angiotensin II type-1 (AT1) and AT2 antagonists. Contrasting with these data, the antidiuretic effect of AVE was totally blocked by AT2 antagonists and partially blocked (approximately 60%) by AT1 antagonists. The binding data, the results obtained in Mas-knockout mice and in Mas-transfected cells, show that AVE is a Mas receptor agonist. Our data also suggest the involvement of AT2/AT1-related mechanisms, including functional antagonism, oligomerization or cross-talk, in the renal responses to AVE.

  20. La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. Tercera parte: Feekaje “Pava” (Penelope jacquacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniceto Nejedeka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Texto bilingüe muinane-español sobre el ave feekaje, “pava” (Penelope jacquacu, elaborado por Aniceto Nejedeka a partir del conocimiento de los mayores de la etnia muinane. Este texto es la tercera parte de un libro que hemos venido publicando por fascículos, titulado La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. El muinane es una lengua de la familia lingüística bora.

  1. Ritmos circadianos en el metabolismo del calcio en aves de postura.

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Cardona Héctor Jairo

    1999-01-01

    Se revisó literatura relacionada con las variaciones circadianas en el metabolismo del calcio en aves de postura y se concluye que la información analizada y discutida suministra evidencia suficiente que demuestra la existencia de ritmos circadianos en diferentes procesos relacionados con el metabolismo y la alimentación del calcio en las aves de postura. Esto demuestra la necesidad de ajustar el momento y la cantidad de calcio a suministrar...

  2. The relative contribution of fruits and arthropods to the diet of three trogon species (Aves, Trogonidae in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest A contribuição relativa de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta de três espécies de surucuás (Aves, Trogonidae na Mata Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Pizo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Trogons are pan-tropical forest birds that eat a mix of fruits and arthropods. With direct observations of wild feeding birds, I assessed the relative contribution of fruits and arthropods to the diet of three trogon species (Trogonviridis, T.surrucura, and T.rufus at Parque Estadual Intervales, southeast Brazil. Fruits and arthropods made the bulk of the food items recorded, with a tendency of frugivory increasing with body mass. The Trogon species differed in the proportion of fruits and arthropods taken, with T.viridis being the most frugivorous species (66% of feeding bouts, n = 47. The relative contribution of fruits and arthropods did not differ between the wet and dry seasons for any species. In the omnivorous gradient, T.viridis is close to the frugivorous extreme, whereas T.surrucura and T.rufus is next to the insectivorous end. Such a distinction may have important consequences for the territoriality and social behavior of these birds.Os surucuás são aves florestais pantropicais que se alimentam de frutos e artrópodes. Com observações diretas de aves forrageando na natureza, estudei a contribuição relativa de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta de três espécies de surucuás (Trogonviridis, T.surrucura, and T.rufus no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil. Frutos e artrópodes foram os itens mais registrados, com uma tendência do grau de frugivoria aumentar com o aumento da massa corporal da ave. As três espécies diferiram em relação à proporção de frutos e artrópodes de que se alimentam; T.viridisfoi a espécie mais frugívora (66% dos registros, n = 47. As contribuições relativas de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta não diferiram entre as estações seca e úmida para nenhuma das três espécies. A diferença no grau de frugivoria aqui revelada pode ter conseqüências importantes para a territorialidade e organização social dos surucuás.

  3. The oldest Archaeopteryx (Theropoda: Avialiae: a new specimen from the Kimmeridgian/Tithonian boundary of Schamhaupten, Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver W.M. Rauhut

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The iconic primeval bird Archaeopteryx was so far mainly known from the Altmühltal Formation (early Tithonian of Bavaria, southern Germany, with one specimen having been found in the overlying Mörnsheim Formation. A new specimen (the 12th skeletal specimen from the earliest Tithonian Painten Formation of Schamhaupten (Bavaria represents the so far oldest representative of the genus. The new specimen shows several interesting anatomical details, including the presence of a postorbital in contact with the jugal, the presence of a separate prefrontal and coronoid, and opisthocoelous mid-cervical vertebrae. Based on observations on the new specimen, we discuss several problematic issues concerning Archaeopteryx, including the monophyly and diagnosis of the genus, the absence/presence of the sternum, the position of the gastralia, and variation in morphometrics and dental morphology in that genus. Based on a new diagnosis for the genus Archaeopteryx, the Berlin, Eichstätt, Solnhofen, Munich, Daiting, Thermopolis, 11th, and 12th specimens can be referred to this genus with high certainty. The Maxberg specimen is very probably also an Archaeopteryx, based on overall similarity, although none of the diagnostic characters can be evaluated with certainty. The ninth specimen (‘chicken wing’ might be Archaeopteryx, but cannot be referred to the genus with any certainty. In comparison with other paravians, the presence of distally thickened anterior pectoral ribs indicates that a rather large cartilagenous sternum was present in this taxon. In contrast to non-opisthopubic theropods, opisthopubic taxa, such as Archaeopteryx and many other paravians, have the posterior end of the gastral basket preserved at about half-length of the pubis, which might reflect the post-mortem collapse of enlarged abdominal air sacs in these taxa. Specimens that can be referred to Archaeopteryx show a high amount of variation, both in the morphometrics of the limb bones as

  4. AVE 0991, a non-peptide Mas-receptor agonist, facilitates penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Gonçalves, Andrey C; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Leite, Romulo; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in erectile function. It has been shown that elevated levels of angiotensin II contribute to the development of erectile dysfunction both in humans and in aminals. On the contrary, the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) appears to mediate penile erection by activation of the Mas receptor. Recently, we have shown that the erectile function of Mas gene-deleted mice was substantially reduced, which was associated with a marked increase in fibrous tissue in the corpus cavernosum. We have hypothesized that the synthetic non-peptide Mas agonist, AVE 0991, would potentiate penile erectile function. We showed that intracavernosal injection of AVE 0991 potentiated the erectile response of anaesthetized Wistar rats, measured as the ratio between corpus cavernosum pressure and mean arterial pressure, upon electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion. The facilitatory effect of AVE 0991 on erectile function was dose dependent and completely blunted by the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, l-NAME. Importantly, concomitant intracavernosal infusion of the specific Mas receptor blocker, A-779, abolished the effect of AVE 0991. We demonstrated that AVE 0991 potentiates the penile erectile response through Mas in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, these results suggest that Mas agonists, such as AVE 0991, might have significant therapeutic benefits for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  5. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  6. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A Large Ornithurine Bird (Tingmiatornis arctica) from the Turonian High Arctic: Climatic and Evolutionary Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Richard K.; Clarke, Julia; Tarduno, John A.; Brinkman, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Bird fossils from Turonian (ca. 90 Ma) sediments of Axel Heiberg Island (High Canadian Arctic) are among the earliest North American records. The morphology of a large well-preserved humerus supports identification of a new volant, possibly diving, ornithurine species (Tingmiatornis arctica). The new bird fossils are part of a freshwater vertebrate fossil assemblage that documents a period of extreme climatic warmth without seasonal ice, with minimum mean annual temperatures of 14 °C. The extreme warmth allowed species expansion and establishment of an ecosystem more easily able to support large birds, especially in fresh water bodies such as those present in the Turonian High Arctic. Review of the high latitude distribution of Northern Hemisphere Mesozoic birds shows only ornithurine birds are known to have occupied these regions. We propose physiological differences in ornithurines such as growth rate may explain their latitudinal distribution especially as temperatures decline later in the Cretaceous. Distribution and physiology merit consideration as factors in their preferential survival of parts of one ornithurine lineage, Aves, through the K/Pg boundary.

  8. Una guía sobre las aves de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Orejuela G.

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available A guide to the birds of Colombia. Steven L. Hilty y William L. Browm. Ilustrador principal: Guy Tudor, con planchas de H. W. Trimm. J. Gwynne, J. Yrizarry y P. Prall. Dibujos de M. Kleinbaunm. Princenton University Press, Princenton (Nueva Jersey, 1986.

  9. Biology of larks (Aves: Alaudidae) in the central Namib Desert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biology of six species of larks in the Namib Desert near Walvis Bay, South West Africa, was studied in 1964, 1965 and 1966. 2. All species reproduced following rainfall in summer and autumn months, with the appearance of green grass and abundant insects on which the birds fed. 3. The primarily insectivorous species ...

  10. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... appeal. However, some studies have found birds to perform relatively poorly as indicators. We therefore ask how the effectiveness of this approach can be improved by supplementing data on birds with information on other taxa. 2. Here, we explore two strategies using (i) species data for other taxa...... and (ii) genus- and family-level data for invertebrates (when available). We used three distinct species data sets for sub-Saharan Africa, Denmark and Uganda, which cover different spatial scales, biogeographic regions and taxa (vertebrates, invertebrates and plants). 3. We found that networks of priority...

  11. Aves marinas de las costas e islas colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available La lista de aves marinas que presento en este artículo se refiere en su mayor parte a especies que varios autores (véase Obras citadas han señalado en las costas e islas marítimas de Colombia o en las aguas extraterritoriales del Mar Caribe y del Océano Pacífico inmediatamente próximas a este país. Los ejemplares examinados que menciono fuera de tales referencias pertenecen casi todos a la colección ornitológica del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales y se señalan con las siglas ICN. Unos pocos son del museo de historia natural del Colegio Biffi, en Barranquilla, a cuyo custodio, el Hermano Hildeberto María, doy las gracias por haberme permitido examinarlos. Los que señalo con las palabras Exped. Askoy, seguidas de un numero (de la serie del American Museum of Natural History, forman parte de una interesante colección que nos envió en 1942 el doctor Robert Cushman Murphy, actual Director del Departamento de Aves del American Museum of Natural History, Nueva York. Estos fueron obtenidos por la expedición oceanográfica que, bajo la dirección del doctor Murphy, realizaron en la goleta "Askoy" varios miembros de aquel museo, acompañados por el Comandante Eduardo Fallon, de la Marina Colombiana, en aguas del Pacifico desde Panamá hasta el Ecuador. La Expedición de la "Askoy", que duró de febrero a mayo de 1941, exploró varias bahías y ensenadas en el litoral del Chocó y del Departamento del Valle, así como las islas de Gorgona y Gorgonilla al norte de la costa de Nariño, y el peñón inhabitado de Malpelo, posesión oceánica colombiana situada a unos 500 kilómetros al occidente de Buenaventura, en la latitud de 3° 59' 07" N. y la longitud de 81° 34' 27" W. de Greenwich, según posición determinada por Murphy (1936, I, p. 319, fig. 49 .

  12. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  13. BIRD ATTACK OCULAR INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabbarvand

    2017-03-29

    To report 30 patients with bird attack-related eye injuries. This study was performed among patients coming to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2015 with a history of bird attack causing eye injury. The inclusion criteria were a history of bird attack by pecking causing eye injury and having treatment and follow-up record for at least 6 months after treatment. The primary eye examinations included a full ophthalmic examination including evaluation of uncorrected visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment slit lamp biomicroscopy, and photography. For all patients with penetrating injury, primary repair was undertaken. Thirty patients (10 females and 20 males) with a mean age of 23.3 ± 18.5 years entered the study. The most common zone of injury was zone 1 (P < 0.001), and lensectomy was not needed in majority of patients (P < 0.001). The most common bird causing the injury was mynah (P < 0.001). Those patients with baseline BCVA of less than 20/200 or those with endophthalmitis had statistically worse final BCVA after treatment. Patients attacked by mynah bird had significantly better pretreatment uncorrected visual acuity and BCVA. The most common bird causing the eye injury among the sample of patients from Iran was mynah, which differs with previous studies indicating the rooster attack as the most common cause of eye injury. The authors also found that the most common zone of injury was zone 1, and the presence of endophthalmitis and lower baseline BCVA were significant risk factors for worse visual outcomes.

  14. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  15. Wind power and bird kills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

  16. Rahvusvahelise kogemusega personalijuht Ave Kareda: Personalijuhi koostöö juhiga peaks rajanema aususel ja usaldusel / Ave Kareda ; interv. Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kareda, Ave

    2009-01-01

    Logistikaettevõtte DHL Baltikumi personalijuht Ave Kareda vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ettevõtete personalipoliitikat, personalijuhi rolli, personaliosakonna võimalusi juhi ja inimeste vahel, rahvusvahelisuse osatähtsust personalitöös, mentorlust ning juhi ebaeetilisi otsuseid raskes olukorras

  17. AVE 0991, a nonpeptide mimic of the effects of angiotensin-(1-7) on the endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, Gabriele; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Louka, Febee R; Malinski, Tadeusz; Heitsch, Holger

    2002-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-[1-7]) exhibits a favorable kinetic of nitric oxide (NO) release accompanied by extremely low superoxide (O2-) production. In this report we describe AVE 0991, a novel nonpeptide compound that evoked effects similar to Ang-(1-7) on the endothelium. AVE 0991 and unlabeled Ang-(1-7) competed for high-affinity binding of [125I]-Ang-(1-7) to bovine aortic endothelial cell membranes with IC50 values of 21+/-35 and 220+/-280 nmol/L, respectively. Stimulated NO and O2- release from bovine aortic endothelial cells was directly and simultaneously measured on the cell surface by selective electrochemical nanosensors. Peak concentrations of NO and O2- release by AVE 0991 and Ang-(1-7) (both 10 micromol/L) were not significantly different (NO: 295+/-20 and 270+/-25 nmol/L; O2-: 18+/-2 and 20+/-4 nmol/L). However, the released amount of bioactive NO was approximately 5 times higher for AVE 0991 in comparison to Ang-(1-7). The selective Ang-(1-7) antagonist [D-Ala(7)]-Ang-(1-7) inhibited the AVE 0991-induced NO and O2- production by approximately 50%. A similar inhibition level was observed for the Ang II AT1 receptor antagonist EXP 3174. In contrast, the Ang II AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123,177 inhibited the AVE 0991-stimulated NO production by approximately 90% but without any inhibitory effect on O2- production. Both NO and O2- production were inhibited by NO synthase inhibition ( approximately 70%) and by bradykinin B2 receptor blockade (approximately 80%). AVE 0991 efficiently mimics the effects of Ang-(1-7) on the endothelium, most probably through stimulation of a specific, endothelial Ang-(1-7)-sensitive binding site causing kinin-mediated activation of endothelial NO synthase.

  18. Comportamento associativo de Fregata magnificens (Fregatidae, aves e Sula lecogaster (sulidae, aves no litoral centro-norte do estado de São Paulo Associative behaviour of the Fregata magnificiens (fregatidae, Aves and Sula leucogaster (Sulidae, Aves in the São Paulo State littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareio Amaral Rezende

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available O habito da fregata (Fregata magnificiens de roubar peixes do atobã marrom (Sula lecogaster é bem conhecido na literatura, comportamento este que tem nos levado a classificar a primeira espécie como sendo cleptoparasita da segunda. Este trabalho, no entanto, mostra que a relação entre estas duas espécies é mais complexa e que o comportamento cleptoparasitãrio pode ser interpretado como sendo apenas parte de todo um processo de exploração mutua. Quando estas aves voam no encalço de embarcações pesqueiras, as fregatas localizam a fonte de alimento, sendo então seguidas pelos atobas que aparecem logo apos, apanhando os peixes mortos com muito mais eficiencia, de tal maneira que as fregatas não conseguem mais pescar, tendo que abandonar a atividade, Quando os atobas terminam sua atividade pesqueira, ou mesmo apos um numero deste ciclo, sugere-se que a fregata venha a procurar os atobas, roubando-lhes parte do pescado, fenomeno este bem descrito na literatura. Esta observação conduz a uma revisão da interpretação acerca da relação entre estas espécies, até então, considerada como cleptoparasitismo para a de exploração mutua.The frigatebird (Fregata magnificiens often is referred to as a kleptoparasite of the brown booby (Sula lecogaster. This paper however, shows that the relationship between these species is more complex and that kleptoparasitism can be interpreted as just a part of a whole process of mutual exploration. When these birds fly behind fishing boats, F. magnificens locates the food source first and S. lecogaster then moves in and catches fish more efficiently in such a way that the frigatebird can no longer fish and has to fly away. When the fishing period is over then the frigatebird is thought to approach the brown boobies in order to get fish from them, as described in the literature, This leads to a revision on the interpretation about the relation between these species, from that of kleptoparasitism to

  19. AveBoost2: Boosting for Noisy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    AdaBoost is a well-known ensemble learning algorithm that constructs its constituent or base models in sequence. A key step in AdaBoost is constructing a distribution over the training examples to create each base model. This distribution, represented as a vector, is constructed to be orthogonal to the vector of mistakes made by the pre- vious base model in the sequence. The idea is to make the next base model's errors uncorrelated with those of the previous model. In previous work, we developed an algorithm, AveBoost, that constructed distributions orthogonal to the mistake vectors of all the previous models, and then averaged them to create the next base model s distribution. Our experiments demonstrated the superior accuracy of our approach. In this paper, we slightly revise our algorithm to allow us to obtain non-trivial theoretical results: bounds on the training error and generalization error (difference between training and test error). Our averaging process has a regularizing effect which, as expected, leads us to a worse training error bound for our algorithm than for AdaBoost but a superior generalization error bound. For this paper, we experimented with the data that we used in both as originally supplied and with added label noise-a small fraction of the data has its original label changed. Noisy data are notoriously difficult for AdaBoost to learn. Our algorithm's performance improvement over AdaBoost is even greater on the noisy data than the original data.

  20. Climate change impacts: birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomotani, B.M.; Ramakers, J.J.C.; Gienapp, P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change can affect populations and species in various ways. Rising temperatures can shift geographical distributions and lead to (phenotypic or genetic) changes in traits, mostly phenology, which may affect demography. Most of these effects are well documented in birds. For example, the

  1. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  2. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... domesticated birds. If possible, avoid rural areas, small farms and open-air markets. Wash your hands. This is one of the simplest and best ways to prevent infections of all kinds. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer containing at least 60 percent alcohol ...

  3. Breeding Ecology of Birds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0022-0032. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory; coloniality; heronries. ecology; nesting strategies. Author Affiliations. Abdul Jamil Urfi1. Department of Environmental Biology, School of Environmental Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007. Resonance – Journal of Science ...

  4. Europe's last Mesozoic bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W.; Mulder, Eric W. A.; Schulp, Anne S.; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2002-01-01

    Birds known from more than isolated skeletal elements are rare in the fossil record, especially from the European Mesozoic. This paucity has hindered interpretations of avian evolution immediately prior to, and in the aftermath of, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event. We report on a

  5. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not

  6. Birds of Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Harriet

    Introducing students to different hawks and owls found in Wisconsin and building a basis for appreciation of these birds in their own environment is the purpose of this teacher's guide. Primarily geared for upper elementary and junior high grades, the concepts presented could be used in conjunction with the study of ecology. A filmstrip is…

  7. Long migration flights of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight. (paper)

  8. Birding--Fun and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This feature article presents the basics of birding, or bird watching, and discusses its appeal, especially to serious birders. A section on "citizen scientists" explains organizations that collect data on birds and describes projects they organize. Other sections discuss the legacy of John James Audubon and the bald eagle.

  9. Birds of Prey of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerstrom, Frances

    This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…

  10. Long migration flights of birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight.

  11. ASOCIACIONES ENTRE AVES MARINAS Y SOTALIA GUIANENSIS EN EL SUR DEL GOLFO DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÍNIVE ESPINOZA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las asociaciones entre aves marinas y mamíferos marinos es un evento común en todos los mares y océanos del mundo. Muchos autores han denominado estas asociaciones como relaciones comensalistas, oportunistas o parasitarias, según el efecto que dicha interacción resulte sobre una o ambas especies relacionadas. Con la finalidad de describir la existencia de agrupaciones entre Sotalia guianensis y aves marinas en la porción sur del Golfo de Venezuela, desde junio 2011 a junio 2012 se realizaron observaciones en plataformas móviles de grupos de este cetáceo y aves marinas, utilizando el protocolo "group-follow" bajo la metodología de "Ad libitum sampling". Todos los avistamientos fueron georreferenciados, realizándose anotaciones de la ocurrencia o no-asociación con aves marinas, de igual forma, se registró la especie y el número de aves presentes al momento de la interacción. Se realizaron 721 avistamientos, de los cuales en 197 eventos se registró asociación entre aves marinas y Sotalia guianensis. Las especies de aves marinas residentes que presentaron mayor frecuencia en eventos de asociación con S. guianensis fueron: Fregata magnificens (49%; n=98, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (29,5%; n=59 y Pelecanus occidentalis (22,5%; n=45; siendo Thalasseus maxima (71%; n=142 la única especie migratoria. Durante las observaciones realizadas en el período de muestreo se notó la presencia de una especie de golondrina (Riparia riparia en un solo evento de agrupación con Sotalia guianensis. Dichas asociaciones aves-delfines, sólo fueron observadas cuando notables congregaciones de peces fueron registrados, donde el o los grupos de delfines realizaban alguna actividad con grandes movimientos de agua, lo que pudiese permitir a las aves realizar un menor gasto energético en la ubicación y la captura de la presa.

  12. ANÁLISES COPROPARASITOLÓGICAS DE AVES SILVESTRES CATIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Snak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In most instances of parasitism in captive birds there is no expression of clinical signs. This fact underscores the importance of performing frequent parasitological examinations in these animals. The aim of this study was to do a coproparasitological analysis to monitor parasitic infections in captive birds in Danilo Galafassi Municipal Park (Municipal Zoo of Cascavel-PR, project approved by the Committee of Ethics and Animal Welfare (CEBEA Campus Palotina-UFPR, protocol nº 29/2010. A total of 228 fecal samples were analyzed from 37 species of captive birds from 22 enclosures in the period from August 2010 to July 2012. Chilled feces were analyzed through flotation methods of Willis-Mollay and simple sedimentation of Hoffmann, Pons and Janer. Out of the analyzed samples, 127 (55.7% were positive and among these 55 (43.3% presented mixed infection. The parasites that were found belonged to the genus Strongyloides, Eimeria, Capillaria, Deletrocephalus and Isospora, the superfamilies Strongyloidea, Ascaroidea and Spiruroidea, the order Trichurida and the class Cestoda. The examinations results of the enclosure of Jabiru mycteia (tuiuiú and Cariama cristata (seriema were negative throughout the study period. Hygienic-sanitary measures and movement control measures of animals and people circulation were introduced to minimize bird’s infection, but it requires further analysis to assess their impact.

  13. Eocene diversification of crown group rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C García-R

    Full Text Available Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves.

  14. Aprendizaje vocal y dialectos de canto en las aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo L. Tubaro

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird song díalects, that Is the existence of particular types of song shared by birds which inhabit a local area, have been functionally explained in terms of a mechanism which reduces gene flow between neighbouring populatíons, manipulation of territorial competítors, or adaptation of a signal to long range communícation in a partieular habitat. However, no one of these hypotheses has successfully accounted for the díalect diversity present in the species studied. In terms proximal causes, dialects are the product of vocal learning that take place during different stages of bird Iífe, in the context of a partieular life history. In this paper. we show the need of acomparative study of vocal learning processes, using species which are phylogeneticaly close but ecologically distinct, and unrelated species which occupy similar ecological niches, to understand the selective condítíons which have shaped the vocal ontogeny and, in turn, make clear the origin of Intraspecific vocal diversity

  15. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...

  16. Deposição diária e sazonal de gordura subcutânea em Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied (Aves, Furnariidae Daily and seasonal deposition of subcutaneous fat in Phacellodomus rufifrons, a Neotropical ovenbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando F. Goulart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aves que habitam regiões temperadas acumulam gordura a fim de sobreviver às condições extremas da noite. Níveis de deposição de gordura nessas aves aumentam ao longo do dia e atingem um pico no entardecer e diminuem ao longo da noite, quando a alimentação não é possível. Aliado a isso, existe o aumento estacional dos depósitos de lipídeos assim que o inverno se aproxima, e permite que a ave sobreviva naquela estação. Pouco se conhece sobre esses padrões em aves tropicais. O presente trabalho verifica a dinâmica de deposição de gordura de Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied, 1821, um furnarídeo (Passeriformes, Furnariidae endêmico da região Neotropical, em um ambiente tropical bastante sazonal, o cerrado do sudeste do Brasil. O trabalho de campo foi realizado entre agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, município de Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais. Os dados de gordura subcutânea foram classificados visualmente em aves capturadas. Foram estabelecidas quatro categorias para a variação da gordura subcutânea depositada na cavidade da fúrcula. Foi encontrado um aumento significativo nos níveis de gordura ao longo do dia, como para espécies de regiões temperadas, mas não ouve variação ao longo das estações do ano. A massa corporal média não variou ao longo do ano e nem ao longo do dia. Os resultados mostram que variações diárias no cerrado podem atuar como fator de estresse que pode desencadear a adaptações fisiológicas para atravessar a noite. Por outro lado, variações estacionais podem ser balanceadas pelo habito dos indivíduos de P. rufifrons pernoitarem durante todo o ano dentro do ninho, um comportamento relativamente raro entre os Passeriformes.It is known that birds inhabiting temperate regions accumulate fat in order to survive a night of extreme conditions. Levels of fat depots arise as the day goes by, reaching its pick at dusk and decreasing along the night hours when no

  17. AVE 3085, a novel endothelial nitric oxide synthase enhancer, attenuates cardiac remodeling in mice through the Smad signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yili; Chen, Cong; Feng, Cong; Tang, Anli; Ma, Yuedong; He, Xin; Li, Yanhui; He, Jiangui; Dong, Yugang

    2015-03-15

    AVE 3085 is a novel endothelial nitric oxide synthase enhancer. Although AVE 3085 treatment has been shown to be effective in spontaneously restoring endothelial function in hypertensive rats, little is known about the effects and mechanisms of AVE 3085 with respect to cardiac remodeling. The present study was designed to examine the effects of AVE 3085 on cardiac remodeling and the mechanisms underlying the effects of this compound. Mice were subjected to aortic banding to induce cardiac remodeling and were then administered AVE 3085 (10 mg kg day(-1), orally) for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the aortic banding-treated mice exhibited significant elevations in cardiac remodeling, characterized by an increase in left ventricular weight relative to body weight, an increase in the area of collagen deposition, an increase in the mean myocyte diameter, and increases in the gene expressions of the hypertrophic markers atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and β-MHC. These indexes were significantly decreased in the AVE 3085-treated mice. Furthermore, AVE 3085 treatment reduced the expression and activation of the Smad signaling pathway in the aortic banding-treated mice. Our data showed that AVE 3085 attenuated cardiac remodeling, and this effect was possibly mediated through the inhibition of Smad signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Algunas de las aves emblemáticas del Eje Cafetero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Uribe Restrepo

    2016-12-01

    La región del Eje Cafetero no es una excepción, por el contrario, su variedad de climas, paisajes y ecosistemas albergan un gran número de especies de aves. Es difícil estimar la cantidad exacta de especies de aves en esta región, pero dicho número con seguridad supera las seiscientas cincuenta especies. Las aves conquistaron con éxito la geografía montañosa de las cordilleras Central y Occidental, y los humedales del valle interandino del río Cauca, irradiando sus múltiples formas, tamaños, colores, cantos y adaptaciones hasta conformar un caleidoscopio de indescriptible belleza.

  19. Pressure Contact Sounding Data for NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.; Long, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    The basic rawinsonde data are described at each pressure contact from the surface to sounding termination for the 41 stations participating in the AVE III measurement program that began at 0000 GMT on February 6 and ended at 1200 GMT on February 7, 1975. Soundings were taken at 3-hour intervals during a large period of the experiment from most stations within the United States east of about 105 degrees west longitude. Methods of data processing, change in reduction scheme since the AVE II pilot experiment, and data accuracy are briefly discussed. An example of contact data is presented, and microfiche cards of all the contact data are included in the appendix. The AVE III project was conducted to better understand and establish the extent of applications for meteorological satellite sensor data through correlative ground truth experiments and to provide basic experimental data for use in studies of atmospheric scales of-motion interrelationships.

  20. AVE 0991-angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist, inhibits atherogenesis in apoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toton-Zuranska, J; Gajda, M; Pyka-Fosciak, G; Kus, K; Pawlowska, M; Niepsuj, A; Wolkow, P; Olszanecki, R; Jawien, J; Korbut, R

    2010-04-01

    Recent evidence shows that the renin-angiotensin system is a crucial player in atherosclerotic processes. It was also proved that Ang II promotes atherogenesis. Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] opposites Ang II action. Therefore, we would like to find out whether Ang-(1-7) receptor agonist: AVE 0991, could ameliorate atherosclerosis progression in an experimental model of atherosclerosis: apolipoprotein E (apoE) - knockout mice. AVE 0991 inhibited atherogenesis, measured both by "en face" method (7.63+/-1.6% vs. 14.6+/-2.1%) and "cross-section" method (47 235+/-7 546 microm(2) vs. 91 416+/-8 357 microm(2)). This is the first report showing the effect of AVE 0991 on atherogenesis in gene-targeted mice.

  1. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements......, and conclude that the currently believed theoretical framework is insufficient to explain the observed performance. The other study investigates the ability of a displaced experienced migrant to navigate back to the normal migration route. It documents the capability, but also finds interesting patterns...

  2. ENFERMEDAD DE NEWCASTLE EN AVES DE TRASPATIO DEL EJE CAFETERO COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlyn Romero P

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la circulación del virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle (ENC en aves de traspatio de siete municipios del eje cafetero por medio de la técnica ELISA. Materiales y métodos. Fueron encuestados 465 predios para evaluar las normas de bioseguridad de las aves de traspatio de los municipios de Armenia, Circasia, Quimbaya, Montenegro, Filandia, Calarcá y La Tebaida del Departamento del Quindío. Se analizaron 662 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos IgG contra el virus de la ENC por ELISA. Resultados. La seroprevalencia de la ENC en la población de aves evaluada fue del 30.7%.(203/662, que corresponde al 38.5% de los predios encuestados. No se encontró asociación entre la especie y la seroreactividad (p=0.21, ni entre la distribución de los anticuerpos por grupos productivos y la edad (p>0.05. Los predios de traspatio son manejados de forma extensiva, albergan en las mismas instalaciones aves de diferentes especies y edades en el 64.3% (299/465, con edades en intervalos entre tres meses y cinco años. Fueron detectadas malas prácticas de manejo de la gallinaza y la mortalidad, sin encontrar asociación estadísticamente significativa entre las variables evaluadas y la presencia de anticuerpos anti-virus de ENC (p>0.05. Conclusiones. Es necesario el establecimiento de planes adecuados de vacunación de las aves de traspatio, la vigilancia epidemiológica activa, la observación de los casos sospechosos, sin dejar de lado la educación y capacitación, sobre el adecuado manejo de los animales, dirigida a los propietarios de las aves como medidas de control de la enfermedad.

  3. Building a SuAVE browse interface to R2R's Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Stocks, K. I.; Arko, R. A.; Zaslavsky, I.; Whitenack, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository program (R2R) is creating and evaluating a new browse portal based on the SuAVE platform and the R2R linked data graph. R2R manages the underway sensor data collected by the fleet of US academic research vessels, and provides a discovery and access point to those data at its website, www.rvdata.us. R2R has a database-driven search interface, but seeks a more capable and extensible browse interface that could be built off of the substantial R2R linked data resources. R2R's Linked Data graph organizes its data holdings around key concepts (e.g. cruise, vessel, device type, operator, award, organization, publication), anchored by persistent identifiers where feasible. The "Survey Analysis via Visual Exploration" or SuAVE platform (suave.sdsc.edu) is a system for online publication, sharing, and analysis of images and metadata. It has been implemented as an interface to diverse data collections, but has not been driven off of linked data in the past. SuAVE supports several features of interest to R2R, including faceted searching, collaborative annotations, efficient subsetting, Google maps-like navigation over an image gallery, and several types of data analysis. Our initial SuAVE-based implementation was through a CSV export from the R2R PostGIS-enabled PostgreSQL database. This served to demonstrate the utility of SuAVE but was static and required reloading as R2R data holdings grew. We are now working to implement a SPARQL-based ("RDF Query Language") service that directly leverages the R2R Linked Data graph and offers the ability to subset and/or customize output.We will show examples of SuAVE faceted searches on R2R linked data concepts, and discuss our experience to date with this work in progress.

  4. Seasonal changes in the use of marine food resources by Cinclodes nigrofumosus (furnariidae, aves: carbon isotopes and osmoregulatory physiology Cambios estacionales en el uso de recursos alimenticios marinos en Cinclodes nigrofumosus (furnariidae, aves: isótopos de carbono y fisiología osmoregulatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Passerines lack functional salt glands and to a large extent avoid feeding on marine invertebrates. An exception is Cinclodes nigrofumosus. Previous studies reported that the contents of its gastrointestinal tract had a lower osmolality than seawater suggesting that birds were supplementing their marine invertebrate diet with terrestrial invertebrates and fresh water at certain periods of the year. We report seasonal changes in the diet of C. nigrofumosus at two contrasting coastal localities in Central Chile and document the potential correlation between weather and feeding habits with osmoregulatory features in this species. We expected that C. nigrofumosus would increase its use of osmotically challenging marine dietary sources when fresh water is available. Animals were collected at El Quisco and Los Vilos from central Chile during the mist cool winter and during the hot and dry summer. Immediatly after capture several physiological and morphological variables were determined at the field. We used stable isotope analysis as a proxy variable to measure the relative contribution of marine and terrestrial sources to the diet of Cinclodes nigrofumosus. Our results support the notion that osmoregulatory factors constraint dietary selection: in both localities birds consumed more marine prey when environmental conditions were less stressing, i.e., when lower environment temperatures, higher humidity and more fresh water was available. Our results also indicate that osmoregulatory physiology does not respond in a similar fashion in both seasons and suggest that osmoregulatory physiology of birds is affected by environmental variables in a complex fashionLas aves paseriformes no poseen glándula de la sal funcional y en gran medida evitan el consumo de invertebrados marinos. Una excepción es Cinclodes nigrofumosus. Estudios previos han documentado que el contenido del tracto gastrointestinal posee una osmolalidad menor que el agua de mar, lo que

  5. Eye Morphology and Retinal Topography in Hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisney, Thomas J; Wylie, Douglas R; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are a group of small, highly specialized birds that display a range of adaptations to their nectarivorous lifestyle. Vision plays a key role in hummingbird feeding and hovering behaviours, yet very little is known about the visual systems of these birds. In this study, we measured eye morphology in 5 hummingbird species. For 2 of these species, we used stereology and retinal whole mounts to study the topographic distribution of neurons in the ganglion cell layer. Eye morphology (expressed as the ratio of corneal diameter to eye transverse diameter) was similar among all 5 species and was within the range previously documented for diurnal birds. Retinal topography was similar in Amazilia tzacatl and Calypte anna. Both species had 2 specialized retinal regions of high neuron density: a central region located slightly dorso-nasal to the superior pole of the pecten, where densities reached ∼ 45,000 cells · mm(-2), and a temporal area with lower densities (38,000-39,000 cells · mm(-2)). A weak visual streak bridged the two high-density areas. A retina from Phaethornis superciliosus also had a central high-density area with a similar peak neuron density. Estimates of spatial resolving power for all 3 species were similar, at approximately 5-6 cycles · degree(-1). Retinal cross sections confirmed that the central high-density region in C. anna contains a fovea, but not the temporal area. We found no evidence of a second, less well-developed fovea located close to the temporal retina margin. The central and temporal areas of high neuron density allow for increased spatial resolution in the lateral and frontal visual fields, respectively. Increased resolution in the frontal field in particular may be important for mediating feeding behaviors such as aerial docking with flowers and catching small insects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Funcionalidade nos pacientes com AVE com e sem programa de fisioterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Ndamenaposy, Altina Mwetuhanga

    2015-01-01

    Projeto de Graduação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Licenciada em Fisioterapia Introdução: O Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE), resulta da suspensão do aporte sanguíneo ao Encéfalo,acarretando alterações motoras, da linguagem, da percepção e cognitivas.O objectivo deste estudo,foi identificar e analisar a funcionalidade em pacientes com AVE, com e sem programa de fisioterapia. O estudo foi composto por 17 sujeitos, 70,6% do se...

  7. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Souza da Mota Gomes

    2008-03-01

    present study, we confirmed that the tested effect of restinga frugivorous birds on seed germination was generally null. Although there is a need for more detailed studies on specific animal-plant interactions on this habitat, the overall effect of the birds on seed dispersal in restinga is probably positive. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 205-216. Epub 2008 March 31.Las restingas se consideran hábitats estresantes asociados al bosque del Atlántico brasileño y sus ecológicas se conocen poco. El objetivo principal del presente trabajo fue determinar el papel potencial de las aves frugívoras como dispersores de plantas en un hábitat de restinga. La información se recolectó en el Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, Brasil. Las aves se capturaron con redes de niebla y sus muestras fecales y de regurgitación se inspeccionaron en busca de semillas. Estudiamos seis especies de plantas de estas muestras. En general, el efecto del paso por el sistema digestivo de las aves sobre el porcentaje de germinación fue nulo (y negativo en la velocidad de germinación. Todas las especies de plantas estudiadas son numéricamente importantes a la comunidad y algunas de ellas tienen papeles principales en la sucesión de parches de vegetación. Entre las aves, Mimus gilvus es una especie residente importante, endémica de tales hábitats en Brasil, mientras que Turdus amaurochalinus es una especie visitante y puede ser importante para las plantas que fructifican durante su paso por el sitio del estudio. El efecto general de los pájaros en la dispersión de semillas en la restinga es probablemente positivo.

  8. Threatened bird valuation in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K Zander

    Full Text Available Threatened species programs need a social license to justify public funding. A contingent valuation survey of a broadly representative sample of the Australian public found that almost two thirds (63% supported funding of threatened bird conservation. These included 45% of a sample of 645 respondents willing to pay into a fund for threatened bird conservation, 3% who already supported bird conservation in another form, and 15% who could not afford to pay into a conservation fund but who nevertheless thought that humans have a moral obligation to protect threatened birds. Only 6% explicitly opposed such payments. Respondents were willing to pay about AUD 11 annually into a conservation fund (median value, including those who would pay nothing. Highest values were offered by young or middle aged men, and those with knowledge of birds and those with an emotional response to encountering an endangered bird. However, the prospect of a bird going extinct alarmed almost everybody, even most of those inclined to put the interests of people ahead of birds and those who resent the way threatened species sometimes hold up development. The results suggest that funding for threatened birds has widespread popular support among the Australian population. Conservatively they would be willing to pay about AUD 14 million per year, and realistically about AUD 70 million, which is substantially more than the AUD 10 million currently thought to be required to prevent Australian bird extinctions.

  9. Los cuidados de las aves de caza. Estudio de la medicina de las aves a partir de los tratados castellanos de cetrería (siglos XIII - XVI)

    OpenAIRE

    Olmos de León, Ricardo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    La caza con aves de presa fue una actividad muy difundida en la Europa Occidental, especialmente durante la baja Edad Media, y una prueba de ello son los numerosos tratados de cetrería –escritos en latín y en las diferentes lenguas vernáculas– que han llegado hasta nuestros días en más de cuatrocientos manuscritos. Una gran parte del contenido de estas obras –cuando no todo– es de carácter médico y recoge instrucciones para la cura de las enfermedades de las aves de caza, así como regímenes p...

  10. Biologia reprodutiva e uso de habitat por Cantorchilus Leucotis (Lafresnaye, 1845 (aves, Troglodytidae no Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernanda Albonette de Nóbrega

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento atual sobre o sucesso reprodutivo e características da história de vida da maioria das espécies de aves neotropicais é deficiente. A qualidade do habitat onde o ninho é construído é um dos fatores que influenciam o sucesso reprodutivo das aves. Este estudo objetivou determinar atributos da história de vida, assim como o padrão de uso de habitat a fim de compreender a dinâmica reprodutiva de Cantorchilus leucotis no Pantanal de Poconé, entre o rio Bento Gomes e Cuiabá, o qual é sujeito a alagamento de janeiro à abril. Cantorchilus leucotis foi registrado pelos métodos de captura com rede de neblina (1.560 horas, observação por censo auditivo (5.600 horas e procura por ninhos (234 horas, durante os anos de 2001, 2002 e 2006. Foram encontrados 87 ninhos de C. leucotis durante as estações reprodutivas dos anos pesquisados, destes, 58 foram abandonados na fase de construção, quatro foram destruídos por intempéries climáticas, e apenas 25 ninhos chegaram à fase de postura de ovos. A porcentagem simples de sucesso reprodutivos foi de 12% (n = 25. A predação foi a maior causa de perda de ninhos ativos (76%. Desses ninhos, 94,7% encontrava-se em fase de ovo e 5,2% em fase de filhote. Dos 87 ninhos encontrados, 52 (59.8% foram encontrados no Cambarazal, 26 ninhos (29.8% no Brejo e nove ninhos (10.4% no Landi. O parasitismo de ninho não foi observado. A espécie foi registrada ao longo de todos os anos de pesquisa, o que lhe conferiu o status de residente. O cambarazal, por se tratar de uma floresta úmida, apresentou locais ideais para confecção do ninho e a disponibilidade de alimento requerido pela espécie.The existing knowledge on the reproductive success and characteristics of the life history of most species of Neotropical birds is scarce. The quality of the habitat where the nest is built is one of the factors that may or may not favor the reproductive success of birds. This study aimed to determine life

  11. Radar studies of bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  12. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  13. Tropical birds take small risks

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Pape Møller; Wei Liang

    2013-01-01

    The life history of tropical birds differs from that of their temperate counterparts by late start of reproduction, small clutch sizes, and high rates of adult survival. Thus, tropical species should have greater residual reproductive value than temperate species. Therefore, tropical birds can be predicted to take smaller risks than closely related temperate birds in order not to jeopardize their prospects of survival, which is the single most important component of fitness, and which is grea...

  14. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  18. Distribución espacial y temporal de aves playeras (Orden: Charadriiformes en Laguna San Ignacio, Baja California Sur, México Temporal and spatial distribution of shorebirds (Charadriiformes at San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Francisco Mendoza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la pérdida o degradación de humedales han declinado las poblaciones de algunas especies tales como las aves playeras. En vista de que ha crecido el interés internacional por los estudios ecológicos sobre estas especies, se determinó la abundancia, distribución y riqueza espacio-temporal de las aves playeras en Laguna San Ignacio, Península de Baja California. Se realizaron 12 censos mensuales (octubre 2007-septiembre 2008 en el perímetro interno de la laguna; la cual se dividió en cuatro zonas, dos al norte y dos al sur. Temporalmente las abundancias menores se presentaron en mayo (1 585 aves y las mayores en octubre (47 410. Las especies más abundantes fueron: el picopando canelo (Limosa fedoa; 55% de los registros totales, el playero occidental (Calidris mauri; 23% y el playero pihuiuí (Tringa semipalmata; 10%. Estas especies fueron más abundantes en otoño. El picopando canelo y el playero pihuiuí estabilizaron sus números en invierno y primavera y estuvieron presentes en verano en bajos números, el playero occidental mostró oscilaciones notorias. Se presentan los primeros reportes del playero rojizo del Pacifico (Calidris canutus roselaari para la zona. La riqueza y abundancia estuvieron influenciadas temporal y espacialmente por las aves migratorias. Las mayores abundancias se presentaron al sur de la laguna, probablemente por la disponibilidad del alimento. Los resultados presentes permitieron incluir al área en la Red Hemisférica de Reservas para las Aves Playeras como sitio de importancia internacional.Baja California Peninsula has several wetlands that represent important ecosystems for shorebirds. San Ignacio Lagoon is one of these sites, and supports 10% of the total abundance of shorebirds reported in this Peninsula. Since there is few information about this group in this area, we studied spatial and temporal changes in abundance and distribution of shorebirds in San Ignacio Lagoon. For this, we conducted twelve

  19. Homology and Potential Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms for the Development of Unique Feather Morphologies in Early Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Bottjer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least two lineages of Mesozoic birds are known to have possessed a distinct feather morphotype for which there is no neornithine (modern equivalent. The early stepwise evolution of apparently modern feathers occurred within Maniraptora, basal to the avian transition, with asymmetrical pennaceous feathers suited for flight present in the most basal recognized avian, Archaeopteryx lithographica. The number of extinct primitive feather morphotypes recognized among non-avian dinosaurs continues to increase with new discoveries; some of these resemble feathers present in basal birds. As a result, feathers between phylogenetically widely separated taxa have been described as homologous. Here we examine the extinct feather morphotypes recognized within Aves and compare these structures with those found in non-avian dinosaurs. We conclude that the “rachis dominated” tail feathers of Confuciusornis sanctus and some enantiornithines are not equivalent to the “proximally ribbon-like” pennaceous feathers of the juvenile oviraptorosaur Similicaudipteryx yixianensis. Close morphological analysis of these unusual rectrices in basal birds supports the interpretation that they are modified pennaceous feathers. Because this feather morphotype is not seen in living birds, we build on current understanding of modern feather molecular morphogenesis to suggest a hypothetical molecular developmental model for the formation of the rachis dominated feathers of extinct basal birds.

  20. Restos de aves en los yacimientos prehistóricos vascos. Estudios realizados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Elorza

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se indican los estudios realizados, hasta el momento, de arqueozoología de aves en el País Vasco. Se hace especial referencia a los trabajos más antiguos y se presentan varias avifaunas, algunas inéditas, de forma cualitativa.

  1. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  2. Mis motiveerib Eesti, Soome ja Tšehhi õpetajaid? / Ave Abroi ; kommenteerinud Kertu Laanesoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Abroi, Ave

    2009-01-01

    Artikkel on ilmunud Ave Abroi Tartu Ülikooli Euroopa Kolledžis 2008. aastal kaitstud magistritöö "Õpetajate motiveerimise võimalused Euroopa Liidus Eesti, Tšehhi ja Soome näitel" põhjal. Kommenteerib Audentese erakooli inglise keele õpetaja Kertu Laanesoo

  3. Estudio de la fauna de aves de la cueva de Pico Ramos (Muskiz, Bizkaia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Castaños

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian los restos de Aves de la cuenca de Pico Ramos. Destaca entre las especies halladas la presencia de Alca Gigante (Pinguinus impennis a cuya extinción y hallazgos holocenos se dedica especial atención. Se ofrecen datos osteométricos y biogeográficos de las restantes especies.

  4. Muuseumihoone autorid : minevikuga tuleb silmitsi seista / Tsuyoshi Tane, Lina Ghotmeh, Dan Dorell ; interv. Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tane, Tsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Rahva Muuseumi arhitektuurivõistluse võiduprojekti autorid Tsuyoshi Tane, Lina Ghometh ja Dan Dorell omavahelisest koostööst, võistlustööst, vastuseid kriitikale. Teistest premeeritud projektidest. Ave Randviiru kommentaar "Võidutöö teeb ajaloole psühhoanalüüsi"

  5. Data for NASA's AVE 5 experiment: 25 mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, M. E.; Hill, K.

    1977-01-01

    The AVE V Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 23 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, June 11, and 1200 GMT, June 12, 1976. The methods of data processing and accuracy are briefly discussed. An example of contact data is also included.

  6. Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) em aves domésticas e em aves exóticas mantidas em cativeiro no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Akira Nakamura

    2008-01-01

    A criptosporidiose é considerada uma das principais infecções por protozoários em aves, e já foi descrita em mais de 30 espécies de aves de várias Ordens, como Anseriformes, Charadriformes, Columbiformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes, Psitaciformes e Struthioniformes. Três espécies de Cryptosporidium infectam aves: Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium galli e Cryptosporidium meleagridis. Além dessas espécies, há vários genótipos distintos geneticamente das espécies de Cryptosporidium já des...

  7. Spatial distribution and diversity of bird community in an urban area of Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Manhães

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the campus of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has different landscapes, it turns up to be a useful ecological model to evaluate the influence of habitat heterogeneity on bird communities. Our research goals were to know the local avifauna and compare its composition and bird diversity within the different landscapes. Species were identified in point counts without distance estimation, in four habitats: secondary woodlot, lake and surroundings, scrub/abandoned grazing areas and urban areas. One hundred and twenty-one species were identified, but no difference in diversity among the habitats was found. However, analyses indicated the existence of greater similarities among the sampling points belonging to the same kind of habitat. Results suggests that small and isolated forest fragments in urban areas fail to sustain a greater diversity than the adjacent areas, even though the environment's heterogeneous aspect favours local bird richness.O Campus da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora possui diferentes paisagens e pode representar um modelo ecológico útil para avaliar a influência da heterogeneidade de hábitats sobre a diversidade de aves. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram conhecer a avifauna local e comparar a composição e diversidade de aves nas distintas paisagens existentes. As espécies foram identificadas em pontos de contagem, em quatro hábitats: mata secundária, lago e arredores, capoeira/pastagem abandonada e urbanizada/jardinada. Foram identificadas 121 espécies, mas não houve diferença de diversidade entre os hábitats. Entretanto, as análises indicaram a existência de maiores similaridades entre os pontos amostrais pertencentes ao mesmo tipo de hábitat. Os resultados sugerem que pequenos fragmentos de mata fortemente isolados em áreas urbanas não sustentam uma diversidade maior do que as áreas adjacentes mas o aspecto heterogêneo do ambiente pode favorecer a riqueza de aves

  8. As aves do rio Peixoto de Azevedo, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Novaes

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of the birds of the rio Peixoto de Azevedo, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10º 10' S, 54º 50' W is presented, based on collections prepared by Werner Bokermann and Emílio Dente during the months of July and August, 1976; June through August, 1977; August of 1978; March, May, June, August and October, 1979; August of 1980 and only sporadically after these dates. Each species account includes the date that specimens were collected, gonad development, weight, color of the soft parts (iris, bill and tarsus, and, when necessary, notes on systematics. Measurements are presented in millimeters and weights in grams, with the mean of the sample expressed between parentheses. Theses data are yet scanty in brazilian ornithological literature.

  9. Taxonomy and biogeography of Stephanoxis Simon, 1897 (Aves: Trochilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the description in the 19th century of two hummingbird species currently allocated to the genus Stephanoxis, Peters (1945 merged both taxa into a single species without providing any rationale. Here we re-evaluate the taxonomy and species limits of the representatives of this genus based on an extensive number of specimens. We demonstrate these taxa are better treated as full species under both the Biological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts due to their well-defined range and plumage patterns and reciprocally diagnosability. They have distinct, allopatric distributions segregated by a 160 km gap between the Serra do Mar, to the east, and Serra de Paranapiacaba, to the west, in the state of São Paulo. Stephanoxis species have ranges which are congruent with other montane bird species’ suggesting shared vicariance events during preterit interglacial periods.

  10. East Africa's diminishing bird habitats and bird species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resultant intensive agricultural projects that follow. Such impacts have resulted in a decline in both bird habitats and biodiversity. Of particular concern are the areas important to all our endemic bird species, and already we are witnessing a series of very worrying developments. Taking each. Scopus 32: 27–34, June 2013 ...

  11. The BIRD payload platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ingo; Briess, Klaus; Baerwald, Wolfgang; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Schrandt, Fredrich

    2003-04-01

    For hot spot events as forest fires, volcanic activity or burning oil spills and coal seams a dedicate dspace instrumentation does not exist. With its successful launch end of October 2001 with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle the German Aerospace Center starts closing this gap with the micro-satellite mission BIRD. As space segment serves a three-axis stabilized satellite of 92 kg including a contingent of over 30% for the scientific instruments. The main payload of the BIRD micro-satellite is the newly developed Hot Spot Recognition System. It's a dual-channel instrument for middle and thermal IR imagery based on cooled MCT line detectors. The miniaturization by integrated detector/cooler assemblies provides a highly efficient design. A complement for the hot spot detection is the wide-angle stereo-scanner WAOSS-B. It is a hardware re-use dedicated to vegetation and cloud assessment in the visible spectral range. Besides the main objective of hot spot detection the mission has to answer several technological questions of the operation of cooled detectors in space, special aspects of their adaptation to the satellite platform as well as their calibration.

  12. Avaliação de diferentes vias vacinais para vacinação contra o vírus da doença de Newcastle em aves de fundo de quintal Assessment of different vaccination approaches against Newcastle disease virus in domestic backyard poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Câmara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas três vias de aplicação vacinal contra o vírus da doença de Newcastle em aves de criatório de fundo de quintal (AFQ jovens e adultas. Um total de 135 AFQ foram distribuídas em tratamentos distintos de acordo com a via vacinal: via ocular (VO, água de bebida (VAB e alimentar (VA. Cada tratamento foi representado por 40 aves (20 jovens e 20 adultas e utilizou-se um grupo-controle de 15 aves não vacinadas. O programa de vacinação estabelecido constou de uma primovacinação e dois reforços vacinais, utilizando-se a cepa La Sota. Para aves jovens, os títulos obtidos pelas VO e VAB não diferiram aos 15, 45 e 140 dias, mas houve diferenças nos títulos das aves vacinadas pela VA. Nas aves adultas, a vacinação pela VO apresentou resultados mais elevados que as vacinações pelas VAB e VA na primeira resposta, aos 15 dias. Aos 45 dias, os títulos obtidos pela VAB foram mais baixos que os obtidos pela VO, e, aos 140 dias, não houve diferença entre as três vias avaliadas. Concluiu-se que as vacinações pelas VO e VAB constituem alternativas eficazes para vacinação de AFQ jovens e adultas.Three ways of vaccination against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV were evaluated in young and adults domestic backyard poultry (DBP. A total of 135 DBP was submitted to three different administration routes of ND vaccine: eye-drop, drinking water, and feed. Each treatment consisted of 40 birds (20 young and 20 adult and a control group of 15 unvaccinated birds. The treatment consisted of a first vaccination and two boosters, using La Sota strain. For young birds, the eye-drop and drinking water vaccinations presented no differences at 15, 45, and 140 days, differing from the titers obtained by birds treated by feed vaccination method. In the adult birds, the eye-drop administration presented higher titers than by drinking water and feed approaches in the first response to the vaccination at 15 days. At 45 days, the results obtained by

  13. Diet and prey availability of terrestrial insectivorous birds prone to extinction in amazonian forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared niche breath, prey size, and diet variability in two pairs of sympatric species of terrestrial insectivorous birds, each pair containing one species that can persist in small forest fragments and one that does not. The pairs were Myrmeciza ferruginea and Sclerurus rufigularis; and Formicarius colma and F. analis, respectively. The prey availability in forest fragments was also sampled and compared to the availability in continuous forests. Niche breath indices did not differ between pair members, but diet variability differed in the opposite direction from that hypothesized. Although the two bird species most vulnerable to fragmentation fed on larger prey than less vulnerable species, prey availability, including that based on prey size did not differ among fragmented versus continuous forest sites. Thus, diet per se appeared not to be an important cause of extinction-proneness in these species. The simplest explanation proposed, that vulnerability to fragmentation was directly related to territory size, requires testing. However, it was consistent with observations that the bird species feeding on larger prey also need larger territories.Dieta e disponibilidade de presas de aves insetívoras terrestres em fragmentos florestais amazônicos. As aves insetívoras terrestres são um dos grupos mais vulneráveis à fragmentação de florestas tropicais; no entanto algumas espécies desta guilda ainda sobrevivem em fragmentos florestais e em florestas secundárias. Se a sensibilidade destas aves à fragmentação de florestas estivesse associada à dieta, então espécies com a dieta relativamente flexível teriam maior propensão em persistir nos fragmentos florestais. Este estudo comparou sobreposição trófica, amplitude de nicho, tamanho de presas e variabilidade de dieta de dois pares de espécies de aves insetívoras terrestres, onde cada par foi composto por uma espécie que persiste nos fragmentos e outra que n

  14. Studies of vorticity imbalance and stability, moisture budget, atmospheric energetics, and gradients of meteorological parameters during AVE 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoggins, J. R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Four diagnostic studies of AVE 3. are presented. AVE 3 represents a high wind speed wintertime situation, while most AVE's analyzed previously represented springtime conditions with rather low wind speeds. The general areas of analysis include the examination of budgets of vorticity, moisture, kinetic energy, and potential energy and a synoptic and statistical study of the horizontal gradients of meteorological parameters. Conclusions are integrated with and compared to those obtained in previously analyzed experiments (mostly springtime weather situations) so as to establish a more definitive understanding of the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere under a wide range of synoptic conditions.

  15. Bird Migration Echoes Observed by Polarimetric Radar

    OpenAIRE

    MINDA, Haruya; FURUZAWA, Fumie A.; SATOH, Shinsuke; NAKAMURA, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A C-band polarimetric radar on Okinawa Island successfully observed large-scale bird migrations over the western Pacific Ocean. The birds generated interesting polarimetric signatures. This paper describes the signatures and speculates bird behavior.

  16. Migration in birds and fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, J.

    1949-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the periodical movements in animals called migrations is chiefly based on observations on birds. By and by, however, a number of facts concerning migration in other animal groups have been assembled and it seems worth while to compare them with those known for birds. There

  17. Bird diversity and conservation of Alto Balsas (Southwestern Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Ramírez-Albores

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the composition of the bird community in Alto Balsas (southwestern Puebla, Central Mexico is needed for management programs aiming at protection and conservation of bird species and their habitats I studied sites with tropical deciduous forest. Data were obtained during 1666 hours of field work in 238 days from March 1998 to September 2000. Six permanent transect (3.5 km long and 100 m wide; 30 to 40 ha in each transect were used to determine species richness in the study sites. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for each site and Sorensen’s index was used to assess similarity between sites. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between sites in species richness and diversity values. A total of 128 species were recorded, Tepexco (n = 75, H´= 3.76 and Puente Márquez (n = 61, H´= 3.62 were the sites that showed the greatest specific richness and diversity. However, species richness and diversity seasonally patterns were similar among sites (ANOVA p > 0.05, with highest diversity during the rainy season. Most species were resident; 42 were migrants. The avifauna was represented by 30 species associated with tropical deciduous forest and 12 from open habitats or heavily altered habitats. Insectivores were the best represented trophic category, followed by carnivores and omnivores. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 287-300. Epub 2007 March. 31.Este estudio describe la diversidad avifaunística en sitios del Alto Balsas (suroeste de Puebla en el Centro de México y examina la variación en la diversidad de las especies de aves. El estudio fue llevado a cabo en sitios con presencia de bosque tropical caducifolio. Los datos fueron obtenidos durante 1666 horas de trabajo de campo en 238 días de Marzo 1998 a Septiembre 2000. Se realizaron seis transectos permanentes (de 3.5 km de longitud y 100 m de ancho; de 30 a 40 ha en cada transecto para determinar la riqueza de especies en los sitios de estudio. Se

  18. Understanding the migratory orientation program of birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Holland, Richard A.; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    2010-01-01

    orient during migration. Despite the difficulties associated with following free-flying birds over long distances, a number of possibilities currently exist for tracking the long distance, sometimes even globe-spanning, journeys undertaken by migrating birds. Birds fitted with radio transmitters can......For many years, orientation in migratory birds has primarily been studied in the laboratory. Although a laboratory-based setting enables greater control over environmental cues, the laboratory-based findings must be confirmed in the wild in free-flying birds to be able to fully understand how birds...... system that enables experienced birds to navigate and guide inexperienced, young birds to their species-specific winter grounds...

  19. Unzipping bird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-03-06

    The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments.

  20. Conservation of wading birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushlan, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

  1. A global analysis of bird plumage patterns reveals no association between habitat and camouflage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that animal patterns (motifs function in camouflage. Irregular mottled patterns can facilitate concealment when stationary in cluttered habitats, whereas regular patterns typically prevent capture during movement in open habitats. Bird plumage patterns have predominantly converged on just four types—mottled (irregular, scales, bars and spots (regular—and habitat could be driving convergent evolution in avian patterning. Based on sensory ecology, we therefore predict that irregular patterns would be associated with visually noisy closed habitats and that regular patterns would be associated with open habitats. Regular patterns have also been shown to function in communication for sexually competing males to stand-out and attract females, so we predict that male breeding plumage patterns evolved in both open and closed habitats. Here, taking phylogenetic relatedness into account, we investigate ecological selection for bird plumage patterns across the class Aves. We surveyed plumage patterns in 80% of all avian species worldwide. Of these, 2,756 bird species have regular and irregular plumage patterns as well as habitat information. In this subset, we tested whether adult breeding/non-breeding plumages in each sex, and juvenile plumages, were associated with the habitat types found within the species’ geographical distributions. We found no evidence for an association between habitat and plumage patterns across the world’s birds and little phylogenetic signal. We also found that species with regular and irregular plumage patterns were distributed randomly across the world’s eco-regions without being affected by habitat type. These results indicate that at the global spatial and taxonomic scale, habitat does not predict convergent evolution in bird plumage patterns, contrary to the camouflage hypothesis.

  2. The nonpeptide ANG-(1-7) mimic AVE 0991 attenuates cardiac remodeling and improves baroreflex sensitivity in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Thelma Maria Bedeti; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Souza Santos, Robson Augusto; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José; Alzamora, Andréia Carvalho

    2013-03-12

    The nonpeptide Ang-(1-7) analog, AVE 0991, is recognized as having beneficial cardiovascular effects similar to those induced by Ang-(1-7). In this study, we evaluated the effects of AVE 0991 on cardiovascular functions and on cardiac and renal remodeling in rats with 2K1C renovascular hypertension. Fisher rats underwent surgery to induce 2K1C renovascular hypertension and were then treated with AVE 0991 (1 or 3mg/kg) for 28days. At the end of treatment, the blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated, in conscious animals. The rats were then euthanized and the heart and kidneys removed for subsequent histological analysis. Treatment with AVE 0991 in 2K1C rats restored the baroreflex sensitivity of both bradycardic and tachycardic components to levels comparable to those of normotensive SHAM rats. At a higher dose (3mg/kg), AVE 0991 was also anti-hypertensive in 2K1C rats. Furthermore, AVE 0991 reduced the heart weight, thickness of myocardial fibers, number of inflammatory cells, and area of collagen deposition in the hearts of 2K1C rats compared to SHAM rats. The inflammatory process and tissue area of collagen deposition were decreased in the clipped kidney of AVE 0091-treated 2K1C rats. Our data showed that oral treatment with AVE 0991 reduces blood-pressure cardiac remodeling and improves baroreflex sensitivity in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  4. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  5. Introduction to Avian Medicine: Companion Birds and Wild Birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction to Avian Medicine: Companion Birds and Wild Birds. T W deMaar. Abstract. No abstract. The Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 21 2001: pp. 20-22. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/kenvet.v21i1.39504 · AJOL African Journals ...

  6. Análises coproparasitológicas de aves silvestres cativas

    OpenAIRE

    Snak, Alessandra; Lenzi, Paola Fernanda; Agostini, Kira Maria; Delgado, Luis Eduardo; Montanucci, Cleuza Rocha; Zabott, Marivone Valentim

    2014-01-01

    Na maioria dos casos de parasitismo em aves cativas não há expressão de sinais clínicos. Esse fato aponta a importância da realização de exames parasitológicos frequentes nesses animais. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar exames coproparasitológicos para monitorar as infecções parasitárias nas aves cativas no Parque Municipal Danilo Galafassi (Zoológico Municipal de Cascavel-PR), projeto aprovado pela Comissão de Ética e Bem-estar Animal (CEBEA) do Campus Palotina-UFPR, protocolo nº...

  7. A advertência poética de Hilda Hilst em As aves da noite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens da Cunha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1967 y 1969, Hilda Hilst escribió ocho piezas de teatro, entre ellas, As aves da noite, en la cual relata los últimos momentos de seis prisioneros en la celda del hambre, en un campo de concentración nazi. En este artículo, analizamos As aves da noite como una pieza de advertencia sobre el terror impuesto por cualquier estado totalitario, no solamente el instaurado por el nacionalsocialismo alemán. El análisis fue fundamentado, entre otros pensadores, en Alain Badiou, para quien el siglo XX no ha cumplido la promesa de la modernidad y la vida y por el contrario solamente he cumplido su destino y su designio positivo a través del terror. Nos apoyamos en las ideas de Hannah Arendt para analizar el odio y la violencia de los estados totalitarios.

  8. Pressure contact sounding data for NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 2). [rawinsondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The basic rawinsonde data are described at each pressure contact from the surface to sounding termination for the 54 stations participating in the AVE 2 pilot experiment. Soundings were taken at three-hour intervals from stations within the United States east of about 105 degrees west longitude. Methods of data reduction and estimates of data accuracy are discussed. Examples of the data records produced are shown. The AVE 2 pilot experiment was conducted as part of NASA's program to better understand and establish the extent of applications for meteorological satellite sensor data through correlative ground truth experiments and to provide basic experimental data for use in studies of atmospheric scales-of-motion interrelationships.

  9. Vírus da doença de Newcastle em aves não vacinadas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Junior,Jorge Granja de; Portz,Cristiana; Loureiro,Bernardo Oliveira; Schiavo,Paula Amorin; Fedullo,Luiz Paulo das Luzes; Mazur,Carlos; Andrade,Cláudio de Moraes

    2003-01-01

    O vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN) tem sido isolado na maioria das espécies de aves de vida livre e doméstica em todo o mundo. O comércio internacional de aves deve ser considerado como um fator importante na disseminação da doença. Infecções naturais e experimentais já foram demonstradas em, pelo menos, 236 espécies de aves. Portanto, aves silvestres livres ou cativas, e aves domésticas não vacinadas, podem atuar como reservatório para o VDN. Para analisar esta hipótese, aves do Zoológico ...

  10. 21 CFR 1240.65 - Psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food and... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican double...

  11. Record of Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lohmann Arend

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the first record of the Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae for Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. One individual was observed on 10 September 2006 in an open area (cattle pasture and shrubby vegetation in the town of Anita Garibaldi (center-south of the state. We suggest that this punctual encounter is a result of the recent expansion of this species’ distribution due to landscape modification in the region.

  12. Factors influencing codon usage of mitochondrial ND1 gene in pisces, aves and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Arif; Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-11-01

    Animal mitochondrial genome harbours 13 protein coding genes which regulate the process of respiration. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1 (MT-ND1) gene, one of the 13 protein-coding genes, encodes the NADH dehydrogenase 1 enzyme of the respiratory chain. Analysis of codon usage bias (CUB) acquires importance for better understanding of the molecular biology, new gene discovery, design of transgenes and gene evolution. The MT-ND1 gene seems to be a good candidate for analyzing codon usage pattern, since no work has yet been reported. Moreover, it is still not clear which factors significantly influence the codon usage pattern. In the present study, comparative analysis of codon usage pattern, expression level and influencing factors for MT-ND1 gene from 100 different species each of pisces, aves and mammals were used for CUB analysis. Our result suggests that the gene is AT rich in pisces, aves and mammals and most of the nucleotides significantly differ among them as revealed from t-test. CUB was not remarkable as reflected by high value of effective number of codons and it also significantly differs among pisces, aves and mammals. Although we found that CUB is mainly influenced by natural selection and mutation pressure for MT-ND1 gene as suggested by correlation and correspondence analysis but neutrality plot further revealed that natural selection played a major role and mutation pressure played a minor role in codon usage pattern. Additionally, t-test analysis showed that the MT-ND1 gene has a wide significant discrepancy in codon choices in pisces, aves and mammals. This study has contributed to boost our understanding about the mechanism of distribution of the codons and the factors that may influence the evolution of the MT-ND1 gene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Data for NASA's AVE 4 experiment: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucik, N. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The AVE 4 Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 42 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, April 24 and 1200 GMT, April 25, 1975. The methods of data processing and accuracy are discussed. Synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented, as well as an example of contact data.

  14. Data for NASA's AVE 4 experiment: 25 mb sounding data and synoptic charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucik, N. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The AVE IV Experiment is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25 mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 42 stations participating in the experiment are presented. Soundings were taken between 0000 GMT, April 24, and 1,200 GMT, April 25, 1975. The methods of data processing and accuracy are briefly discussed. Synoptic charts prepared from the data are presented, as well as an example of contact data.

  15. Millipedes (Diplopoda) in birds' nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Krumpál, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 321-323 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : birds nests * microsites * millipedes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  16. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).

  18. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... resources including migratory birds and their habitats. Large-scale efforts to influence bird migration and... timing and speed of bird migrations. It is possible that re-distribution of birds at smaller scales could...-0040; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season...

  19. 76 FR 54675 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting...

  20. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off...

  1. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting...] RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for...

  2. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off...

  3. Trypanosomes of some Fennoscandian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Bennett

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear measurements and derived indices of trypanosomes from species of Fennoscandian birds were compared to those reported form Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, T. ontarioensis and T. paddae. The trypanosomes encountered in the Fennoscandian birds were identified as T. avium from Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, T. everetti from the great tit Parus major and collared flycatcher F. albicollis and T. ontarioensis from the collared flycatcher; T. paddae was not seen.

  4. Neurogenic contraction induced by the antiarrhythmic compound, AVE 0118, in rat small mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Attila; Seprényi, György; Varró, András; Papp, Julius Gy; Pataricza, János

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the vasoactivity of two inhibitors of potassium ion (K(+) ) channels, a potential antiarrhythmic compound, AVE 0118, and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Basal and stimulated tones of rat small mesenteric arteries as well as the possible involvement of KV 1.5 ion channel in the mechanism of vascular effect induced by the compounds were analysed. The standard organ bath technique for vascular tone and immunohistochemistry for the localization of ion channels in the arterial tissue were performed. Third- or fourth-order branch of arterial segments was mounted in myographs for recording the isometric tension. AVE 0118 (10(-5) M) and 4-AP (10(-5) M) modulated neither the basal tone nor the contraction induced by noradrenaline but increased the contraction evoked by electrical field stimulation, sensitive to the block of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. KV 1.5 ion channel-specific immunostaining demonstrated the presence of immunoreactive nerves, and Schwann-cell-specific (S100) immunostaining confirmed the presence of myelin sheath in rat small mesenteric arteries. The study supports an indirect, sympathetic effect of AVE 0118 similar to that of 4-AP, which is mediated, at least in part, by blocking neuronal KV 1.5 type potassium ion channels in the medio-adventitial layer of rat small mesenteric artery. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  5. Bone histology in extant and fossil penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Werning, Sarah; Sclafani, Michelle; Boles, Zachary M

    2015-11-01

    Substantial changes in bone histology accompany the secondary adaptation to life in the water. This transition is well documented in several lineages of mammals and non-avian reptiles, but has received relatively little attention in birds. This study presents new observations on the long bone microstructure of penguins, based on histological sections from two extant taxa (Spheniscus and Aptenodytes) and eight fossil specimens belonging to stem lineages (†Palaeospheniscus and several indeterminate Eocene taxa). High bone density in penguins results from compaction of the internal cortical tissues, and thus penguin bones are best considered osteosclerotic rather than pachyostotic. Although the oldest specimens sampled in this study represent stages of penguin evolution that occurred at least 25 million years after the loss of flight, major differences in humeral structure were observed between these Eocene stem taxa and extant taxa. This indicates that the modification of flipper bone microstructure continued long after the initial loss of flight in penguins. It is proposed that two key transitions occurred during the shift from the typical hollow avian humerus to the dense osteosclerotic humerus in penguins. First, a reduction of the medullary cavity occurred due to a decrease in the amount of perimedullary osteoclastic activity. Second, a more solid cortex was achieved by compaction. In extant penguins and †Palaeospheniscus, most of the inner cortex is formed by rapid osteogenesis, resulting an initial latticework of woven-fibered bone. Subsequently, open spaces are filled by slower, centripetal deposition of parallel-fibered bone. Eocene stem penguins formed the initial latticework, but the subsequent round of compaction was less complete, and thus open spaces remained in the adult bone. In contrast to the humerus, hindlimb bones from Eocene stem penguins had smaller medullary cavities and thus higher compactness values compared with extant taxa. Although

  6. MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES AND ENZYMES IN CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL BASED-DIETS FOR BROILERS MANANOLIGOSSACARÍDEOS E ENZIMAS EM DIETAS À BASE DE MILHO E FARELO DE SOJA PARA AVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Barbosa de Moraes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Mannan oligosaccharides, as an alternative to an-tibiotics, show promising results related to bird perfor-mance, immunity stimulus and improvement of intestinal mucosa. Enzyme inclusion in diets containing mannan oli-gosaccharides could improve these results. Poultry diets consist of corn and soybean meal, and approximately 30% of the phosphorus (P in these ingredients is bound to phytic acid. Phytase is capable of release not only the P but also other nutrients that can be better used by the birds while corn is relatively free of viscosous nonstarch poly-saccharides (NSP, soybean has about 20% of NSP, whose digestibility is almost null. NSP`s insoluble component of corn and soybean encapsulate nutrients and are responsive to exogenous enzymes. Negative environmental and nutri-tional consequences of dietary phytic acid are reduced by phytase inclusion in monogastric diets. Additionally, the enzymatic complex supplementation improves the nutri-tional value of feedstuffs through higher digestibility in birds. Finally, the use of exogenous enzymes allows re-duction in feed costs.

    KEY-WORDS: Animal nutrition, enzymatic supplementation, prebiotic.

    Os mananoligossacarídeos, como alternativa aos antibióticos, têm apresentado resultados promissores no que se refere tanto ao desempenho das aves quanto ao estímulo da imunidade e à melhora da mucosa intestinal. A inclusão de enzimas nas dietas contendo mananoligossacarídeos poderia melhorar ainda mais esses resultados. As dietas para aves são compostas de milho e farelo de soja, principalmente, e cerca de 30% do fósforo (P desses in-gredientes estão ligados ao ácido fítico. A fitase libera não só o P, mas também outros nutrientes para que sejam me-lhor utilizados pelas aves. O milho é relativamente isento de polissacarídeos não-amiláceos (PNAs viscosos e a soja apresenta cerca de 20% de PNAs, com digestibilidade praticamente nula. Os componentes insolúveis dos PNAs do

  7. A polar system of intercontinental bird migration

    OpenAIRE

    Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A; Hedenström, Anders; Henningsson, Sara S; Karlsson, Håkan; Rosén, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine

    2007-01-01

    Studies of bird migration in the Beringia region of Alaska and eastern Siberia are of special interest for revealing the importance of bird migration between Eurasia and North America, for evaluating orientation principles used by the birds at polar latitudes and for understanding the evolutionary implications of intercontinental migratory connectivity among birds as well as their parasites. We used tracking radar placed onboard the ice-breaker Oden to register bird migratory flights from 30 ...

  8. Tamaño relativo encefálico e índices cerebrales en Vanellus c. chilensis (Aves: Charadriidae Relative encephalic size and cerebral indices of Vanellus c. chilensis (Aves: Charadriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTELA PISTONE

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la composición cuantitativa encefálica y se estimaron índices cerebrales en Vanellus c. chilensis (tero o queltehue. Se estimó el volumen porcentual e índices cerebrales del encéfalo total y de siete de sus componentes, como así también los núcleos de relevo de las vías trigeminal, visual y acústica. El telencéfalo es el componente de mayor volumen relativo, siendo el neoestriado la estructura telencefálica de tamaño superior. El desarrollo del estriado propiamente dicho, tecto óptico y los núcleos de relevo de las vías visual y trigeminal concuerdan con la dieta carnívora de Vanellus c. chilensis. El tamaño relativo del Wulst y de los núcleos de la vía acústica se asocia a las complicadas tácticas que utiliza esta especie en la defensa del nido. Los índices cerebrales de las estructuras encefálicas analizadas indican que Vanellus c. chilensis es un ave progresivaThe quantitative encephalic composition and cerebral indices of Vanellus c. chilensis (southern lapwing were analyzed. The percentual volumes and cerebral indices for the whole encephalon and for seven components were calculated as well as relevous nuclei of the trigeminal, visual and acoustic pathways. The component of greater relative volume is the telencephalon. The neostriatum is the most developed encephalic structure. Developing of bulbus olfactorius, striatum, tectum opticum and relevous nuclei of visual and trigeminal pathways are according with the carnivorous diet of Vanellus c. chilensis. The relative size of Wulst and relevous nuclei of acoustic pathway appears associated with the complex tactics used by this species in the defense of nest. Cerebral indices of all the analyzed structures suggest that Vanellus c. chilensis is a progresive bird

  9. Impairment of cardiac function and remodeling induced by myocardial infarction in rats are attenuated by the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) analog AVE 0991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wu-tao; Chen, Wei-yan; Leng, Xiu-yu; Tang, Li-long; Sun, Xiu-ting; Li, Cui-ling; Dai, Gang

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated effects of the nonpeptide angiotensin (ANG)-(1-7) analog AVE 0991 (AVE) on cardiac function and remodeling as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1)/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression in myocardial infarction rat models. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either sham surgery or coronary ligation. They were divided into four groups: sham, control, AVE, and AVE+A-779 [[D-Ala(7) ]-ANG-(1-7), a selective antagonist for the ANG-(1-7)] group. After 4 weeks of treatment, the AVE group displayed a significant elevation in left ventricular fractional shorting (LVFS) (25.5 ± 7.3% vs. 18.4 ± 3.3%, P AVE group when compared to the control group. There were no differences in LVFS, LVEF, myocyte diameter, and infarct size between the control and AVE+A-779 groups. AVE also markedly attenuated the increased mRNA expression of collagen I (P AVE could improve cardiac function and attenuate ventricular remodeling in MI rat models. It may involve the inhibition of inflammatory factors TGF-β1/TNF-α overexpression and the action on the specific receptor Mas of ANG-(1-7). © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Abdurrahman; Lee, Seoho; Ahsan, Syed S; Karlsson, Kolbeinn; Gabrielson, Richard; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Winkler, David W; Erickson, David

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  13. Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Short, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    .... This annotated bibliography of bird hazards to aircraft, termed ABBHA, is a compilation of citations with abstracts on a wide range of related topics such as bird strike tolerance engineering, bird...

  14. French citizens monitoring ordinary birds provide tools for conservation and ecological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent; Julliard, Romain; Couvet, Denis

    2012-10-01

    Volunteer-based standardized monitoring of birds has been widely implemented in Europe and North America. In France, a breeding bird survey is running since 1989 and offers keen birdwatchers to count spring birds annually during 5 min exactly on 10 fix points within a randomly selected square. The first goal of such breeding bird surveys is to measure temporal trends in order to detect possible species declines. Combining annual indices of species sharing ecological affinities or a protected/red list status further provides biodiversity indicators for policy makers. Because the sampling effort is similar among sites, and because the initial selection of monitored sites is random, the temporal trends can be considered representative of national trends, and spatial comparisons of the obtained metrics are possible. Species abundance, community richness but also community specialization and average trophic level can be estimated for each site and each year and further related to the wide range of habitat and landscape characteristics and to agricultural or forestry practices. The large number of sites allows overcoming the opposition between adaptive and passive monitoring, making such schemes fitted to adaptive monitoring. This provides opportunities to determine which type of management or practices favour biodiversity. The comparison of population fate or community dynamics across a wide range of climates and temperatures, e.g. from southern to northern Europe, revealed how European birds are already affected by climate change. Bird communities are shifting northwards, but at a slower rate than temperatures, while bird populations have larger growth rates away from their hot thermal limit. Finally, such large-scale long-term monitoring data on a complete taxonomic group (Aves) is original and offers the opportunity to compare different measures of biological diversity, such as taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity. Such a citizen science scheme is an

  15. Depredación de aves marinas nocturnas en islotes de isla Guadalupe, México Predation of nocturnal seabirds on islets of Isla Guadalupe, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mellink

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A principios de junio de 2000, se realizó una prospección biológica de 3 islotes en el extremo sur de isla Guadalupe: islote de Afuera (o islote Zapato, islote de Adentro (o islote Toro e islote Negro, para documentar aves marinas anidantes. Se detectaron despojos de más de 100 paíños de Leach (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, 31 mérgulos de Xantus (Synthliboramphus hypoleuca y un alcuela de Cassin (Ptychoramphus aleuticus depredados. Las evidencias indican como el depredador de los paíños al tecolote llanero (Athene cunicularia, pero debido a su tamaño posiblemente no lo haya sido de los mérgulos, ni de la alcuela. Las características de los restos de los individuos depredados indican que eran de la población de paíños que anidó el invierno inmediato anterior. La información no es suficiente para determinar si dicha depredación representa un problema de conservación de aves marinas pequeñas en los islotes de la isla Guadalupe, pero sí sugiere que se debe estudiar más a fondo.In early June 2000 we surveyed 3 islets at the southern end of Isla Guadalupe, Mexico: Islote de Afuera (or Islote Zapato, Islote de Adentro (or islote Toro, and Islote Negro, to document nesting seabirds. We found vestiges of over 100 Leach's Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, 31 Xantus Murrelets (Synthliboramphus hypoleuca, and 1 Cassin's Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus that had been depredated. The evidences point to Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia as the predator of the storm-petrels, but, because of its size, probably other birds were involved in murrelet and auklet predation. Based on the characteristics of the remains, the depredated Leach Storm-petrels belonged to the population that had nested during the previous winter. The information is not sufficient to determine whether such predation represents a conservation problem for small seabirds on Isla Guadalupe, but suggest that the issue should be studied further.

  16. Anticipatory Manoeuvres in Bird Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Hong D.; Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2016-01-01

    It is essential for birds to be agile and aware of their immediate environment, especially when flying through dense foliage. To investigate the type of visual signals and strategies used by birds while negotiating cluttered environments, we presented budgerigars with vertically oriented apertures of different widths. We find that, when flying through narrow apertures, birds execute their maneuvers in an anticipatory fashion, with wing closures, if necessary, occurring well in advance of the aperture. When passing through an aperture that is narrower than the wingspan, the birds close their wings at a specific, constant distance before the aperture, which is independent of aperture width. In these cases, the birds also fly significantly higher, possibly pre-compensating for the drop in altitude. The speed of approach is largely constant, and independent of the width of the aperture. The constancy of the approach speed suggests a simple means by which optic flow can be used to gauge the distance and width of the aperture, and guide wing closure. PMID:27270506

  17. Book review: Birds of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2001-01-01

    Located along Delaware Bay and the Atlantic coast, the state of Delaware’s significance for bird conservation has been well established for decades. The extensive tidal habitats and marshes bordering Delaware Bay host shorebird and waterbird populations of hemispheric importance, and protecting these populations has become an urgent conservation priority in recent years. Other habitats found in the state vary from barrier beaches to dry coniferous woods on the coastal plain and mesophytic communities along the Piedmont in the north, allowing a diverse avifauna to prosper within a small geographic area. Ornithologists and birders have actively studied birds within the state for more than a century, but surprisingly, no single reference has provided a complete summary of the status and distribution of the state’s birds until publication of the Birds of Delaware.Review info: Birds of Delaware. By Gene K. Hess, Richard L. West, Maurice V. Barnhill III, and Lorraine M. Fleming, 2000. ISBN: 0-8229-4069-8, 635 pp.

  18. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  19. Parthenogenesis in birds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Reshma; McDaniel, Cd

    2018-03-20

    Parthenogenesis or "virgin birth" is embryonic development in unfertilized eggs. It is a routine means of reproduction in many invertebrates. However even though parthenogenesis occurs naturally in even more advanced vertebrates, like birds, it is mostly abortive in nature. In fact, multiple limiting factors, such as delayed and unorganized development as well as unfavorable conditions developing within the unfertilized egg upon incubation, are associated with termination of progressive development of parthenogenetic embryos. In birds, diploid parthenogenesis is automictic and facultative producing only males. However, the mechanisms controlling parthenogenesis in birds are not clearly elucidated. Additionally, it appears from even very recent research that these mechanisms may hinder the normal fertilization process and subsequent embryonic development. For instance, virgin quail and turkey hens exhibiting parthenogenesis have reduced reproductive performance following mating. Also, genetic selection and environmental factors, such as live virus vaccinations, are known to trigger the process of parthenogenesis in birds. Therefore, parthenogenesis has a plausible negative impact on the poultry industry. Hence, a better understanding of parthenogenesis and the mechanisms that control it could benefit commercial poultry production. In this context, the aim of this review is to provide a complete overview of the process of parthenogenesis in birds.

  20. Anticipatory Manoeuvres in Bird Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Hong D; Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-08

    It is essential for birds to be agile and aware of their immediate environment, especially when flying through dense foliage. To investigate the type of visual signals and strategies used by birds while negotiating cluttered environments, we presented budgerigars with vertically oriented apertures of different widths. We find that, when flying through narrow apertures, birds execute their maneuvers in an anticipatory fashion, with wing closures, if necessary, occurring well in advance of the aperture. When passing through an aperture that is narrower than the wingspan, the birds close their wings at a specific, constant distance before the aperture, which is independent of aperture width. In these cases, the birds also fly significantly higher, possibly pre-compensating for the drop in altitude. The speed of approach is largely constant, and independent of the width of the aperture. The constancy of the approach speed suggests a simple means by which optic flow can be used to gauge the distance and width of the aperture, and guide wing closure.

  1. The Aerodynamics of Bird Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedding, Geoffrey

    2002-11-01

    The manifest success of birds in flight over small and large distances, in confined quarters and also in gusty conditions has inspired admiration, investigation and sometimes imitation from the earthbound human. Birds occupy a range of scales (2 g - 12 kg in mass, and 0.05 - 3 m in wingspan) that overlaps certain micro air vehicle (MAV) designs and there is interest in whether some bird-like properties (flapping wings, deformable feathers, movable tails) might be useful or even necessary for successful MAVs. A bird with 5 cm mean chord flying at 8 m/s has a nominal Reynolds number of 2 - 3 x 10^4. This is an extremely inconvenient range for design, operation and analysis of lifting surfaces, even in steady motion, because their properties are very sensitive to boundary layer separation. The moderate- to high-amplitude flapping motions, together with the complex surface geometry and mechanical properties of the wings themselves lead to yet further challenges. This talk will review some of the theoretical and practical approaches towards understanding and analyzing the aerodynamics of various types of bird flight, including some recent research results that suggest that this effort is far from complete.

  2. Effects of human disturbance on a burrow nesting seabird Efectos de la presencia de humanos en aves marinas que anidan en madrigueras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Albores-Barajas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2004, we followed 72 natural burrows to determine the effects of disturbance on breeding success of Cassin's auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus. We used distance from a human settlement or path in the analysis of disturbance. Birds whose burrows were closer to the path or the village had a higher rate of nest abandonment and lower breeding success compared to birds nesting further away from the path or the village. Also, older and more experienced individuals represented a larger proportion of the breeding population on less disturbed areas than on highly disturbed ones, probably as older individuals tend to arrive earlier at the breeding grounds, and failed breeders may change burrow sites to move away from disturbance. P. aleuticus are adversely affected by human activity at colonies even if birds are not handled and burrows are not opened, and this has implications for conservation, and planning of ecotourism. On the long term, this can have negative consequences for this species and others with similar characteristics.Durante el 2004 seguimos 72 nidos de la alcuela (Ptychoramphus aleuticus para determinar los efectos de disturbio en el éxito reproductivo. Utilizamos la distancia del nido a áreas asentamientos humanos o al camino como medidas de disturbio. Los nidos que estaban más cerca de los asentamientos o del camino tuvieron una tasa de abandono mayor y un éxito reproductivo menor en comparación con los nidos que estaban más alejados de las fuentes de disturbio. También observamos que en las zonas menos expuestas la proporción de adultos, con mayor experiencia, era más alta, posiblemente porque los individuos con mayor experiencia llegan antes a la zona de anidación. Las alcuelas son afectadas negativamente por la presencia de los humanos y sus actividades, aunque las aves no entren en contacto directo con los humanos. A largo plazo, esto puede acarrear consecuencias graves para esta especie y otras con caracter

  3. Diploposthe laevis (Bloch Jacobi (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae from Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves: Anatidae: first record for the Neotropical Region and a new host Diploposthe laevis (Bloch Jacobi (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae em Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves, Anatidae: primeiro registro para Região Neotropical e novo hospedeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. da Silveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One hundred eight rosy-billed pochards, Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816, collected in Brazil and Argentina were examined for endoparasites. Collection sites included the municipalities of Santa Vitória do Palmar and Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil (wintering site and Alvear, Corrientes Province, northern Argentina (nesting site. Birds were frozen in dry ice after collection. During necropsy they were categorized according to sex and maturation, either adult or juvenile. The cestode Diploposthe laevis (Bloch Jacobi, 1896 was found (prevalence 68.5%, mean infection was 2. The mean prevalence of D. laevis in Alvear (25.9% was higher than found in Jaguarão and Santa Vitória do Palmar, Rio Grande do Sul (19%, and could be related to the nesting site and to the period when the birds may ingest a higher amount of food. This is the first record of a species of the genus Diploposthe in anatideans from South America, and the first record of the species in N. peposaca. Details of the cirrus pouch and vagina were described based on histological sections.Com o objetivo de conhecer a helmintofauna do marrecão, Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816, na América do Sul, 108 aves foram amostradas. Os pontos de captura foram os municípios de Santa Vitória do Palmar e Jaguarão, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil (pólo de invernia, e em Alvear, Província de Corrientes, região norte da Argentina (pólo de nidificação, entre 2002 e 2004. As aves foram congeladas em gelo seco logo após o abate. Durante o procedimento de necropsia tiveram o sexo identificado, e foram classificadas de acordo com estado de maturação sexual, em juvenil e adulto. O cestóide Diploposthe laevis (Bloch Jacobi, 1896 foi encontrado com prevalência média de 68,5% e intensidade média de infecção de dois espécimes por hospedeiro. A prevalência média de D. laevis em Alvear (25,9% foi maior do que a encontrada em Jaguarão e Santa Vitória do Palmar, Rio Grande

  4. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  5. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  6. Abundance of two Dendrocincla woodcreepers (aves: Dendrocolaptidae in relation to forest structure in Central Amazonia O uso do habitat por duas espécies de arapaçus Dendrocincla (aves: Dendrocolaptidae em relação a estrutura da floresta na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cintra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to verify how the structure of the forest affects the occurence and abundance of neotropical birds. Our research was undertaken between January 2002 and July 2004 at the Reserva Ducke, near Manaus (02º55',03º01'S; 59º53',59º59'W in central Amazonia, to verify how the forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of two bird species: the Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa and the White-chinned Woodcreeper Dendrocincla merula. Bird species occurrence was recorded using lines of 20 mist-nets (one sample unit, along 51 1-km transects distributed along 9 pararel 8 km trails covering an area of 6400 ha. Along these transects, we placed 50 x 50m plots where we recorded forest structure components (tree abundance, canopy openness, leaf litter, standing dead trees, logs, proximity to streams, and altitude. We then related these variables to bird occurence and abundance using multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models, respectively. We found that D. fuliginosa frequently used plateau areas; being more abundant in areas with more trees. On the other hand, D. merula occurred more frequently and was more abundant in areas with low tree abundance. Our results suggest that although both species overlap in the reserve (both were recorded in at least 68% of the sampled sites, they differ in the way they use the forest microhabitats. Therefore, local variation in the forest structure may contribute to the coexistence of congeneric species and may help to maintain local alpha diversity.Em florestas neotropicais, poucos estudos tem sido conduzidos para verificar como a estrutura da floresta afeta o uso desse ambiente por aves. Este estudo foi realizado entre Janeiro de 2002 e Julho de 2004 na Reserva Ducke próximo a Manaus (02º55',03º01'S; 59º53',59º59'W, para verificar como a estrutura da floresta afeta a ocorrência e abundância de duas espécies de aves: o Arapaçu-pardo, Dendrocincla

  7. Bird watching and estimation of bird diversity – not always ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some occurrences of rare or unusual bird species reported by us in a previous paper (Ostrich 86(3): 267–276, 2015) are considered to be doubtful by Hogg and Vande weghe (Ostrich 88(1): 83–88, 2017). We believe that some of the problems raised are taxonomic. The main objective of our study was to obtain reliable ...

  8. AVE5026, a new hemisynthetic ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients after total knee replacement surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Dahl, O E; Mismetti, P

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AVE5026 is a new hemisynthetic ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin, with a novel anti-thrombotic profile resulting from high anti-factor (F)Xa activity and residual anti-FIIa activity. AVE5026 is in clinical development for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention, a frequent complication...

  9. Diversidad de aves en el Centro Agropecuario Cotové, Santa Fe de Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caty Milena Martínez-Bravo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Agropecuario Cotové, en el municipio de Santa Fe de Antioquia (Colombia, se estudió la diversidad de aves utilizando las metodologías de puntos fijos de conteo y redes de niebla en cinco usos del suelo (Frutales, Sistema silvopastoril, Bosque secundario, Pastoreo con baja densidad de árboles y Pastos de corte, para analizar la influencia sobre la composición, riqueza y abundancia de la avifauna. Se registraron 6 633 individuos de 101 especies, de las cuales 11 especies son migratorias. En términos de abundancia, la mayoría de las especies fueron raras y pocas comunes. Los gremios alimenticios mejor representados fueron insectívoros y frugívoros. El índice de Shannon indica que el Sistema silvopastoril presenta los valores de diversidad alfa más altos y los frutales los más bajos. Los usos del suelo que compartieron más especies fueron sistema Silvopastoril y Pastoreo con baja densidad de árboles. La heterogeneidad ambiental del centro actúa de forma diferente para las especies, beneficia en su mayoría aves de baja y media especificidad de hábitat, y con preferencia de hábitats de borde y áreas abiertas, por lo que se deben implementar acciones de manejo dirigidas a la conservación de áreas de regeneración natural y conectividad entre usos del suelo, para que las poblaciones de especies de aves presentes en la zona puedan ser mantenidas en el tiempo.

  10. Population trends and survival of nesting green sea turtles Chelonia mydas on Aves Island, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cruz, Marco A.; Lampo, Margarita; Peñaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William L.; Solé, Genaro; Rodriguez-Clark, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term demographic data are valuable for assessing the effect of anthropogenic impacts on endangered species and evaluating recovery programs. Using a 2-state open robust design model, we analyzed mark-recapture data from green turtles Chelonia mydas sighted between 1979 and 2009 on Aves Island, Venezuela, a rookery heavily impacted by human activities before it was declared a wildlife refuge in 1972. Based on the encounter histories of 7689 nesting females, we estimated the abundance, annual survival, and remigration intervals for this population. Female survival varied from 0.14-0.91, with a mean of 0.79, which is low compared to survival of other populations from the Caribbean (mean = 0.84) and Australia (mean = 0.95), even though we partially corrected for tag loss, which is known to negatively bias survival estimates. This supports prior suggestions that Caribbean populations in general, and the Aves Island population in particular, may be more strongly impacted than populations elsewhere. It is likely that nesters from this rookery are extracted while foraging in remote feeding grounds where hunting still occurs. Despite its relatively low survival, the nesting population at Aves Island increased during the past 30 years from approx. 500 to >1000 nesting females in 2009. Thus, this population, like others in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, seems to be slowly recovering following protective management. Although these findings support the importance of long-term conservation programs aimed at protecting nesting grounds, they also highlight the need to extend management actions to foraging grounds where human activities may still impact green turtle populations.

  11. La pájara vida: breve historia de la observación de aves en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Germán Naranjo

    2016-12-01

    Colombia tiene una larga tradición ornitológica, pero a pesar de ello la observación de aves como pasatiempo solo en años recientes se hizo popular, lo cual no deja de ser curioso en un país que se enorgullece de tener la máxima riqueza de especies de aves silvestres en su territorio. Si bien la gran mayoría de los estudiosos de las aves son verdaderos apasionados por su oficio, la línea divisoria entre sus afanes y los de quienes se consideran primariamente pajareros apenas se empieza a trazar ya bien entrado el siglo XXI.

  12. Po poteh oblasti in boja: kritika države prek latinskoameriške izkušnje upiranja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Ploštajner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Namen prispevka je pokazati na težave, s katerimi se sooča boj za spremembo sveta preko boja za oblast. Izhajajoč iz teze, da so sredstva enaka cilju in da so v sam mehanizem zavzetja države vpisne specifične forme zatiranja, je potrebno kritiko ob- stoječih razmerij moči razširiti tudi na kritiko države. Prispevek želi pokazati, da vsi mehanizmi, ki moč in politično organiziranje trgajo iz skupnosti, v sebi nosijo kali lastne korupcije, odtujenosti in avtoritarnosti. Pri tej analizi se opiram predvsem na primere iz Latinske Amerike, kjer je napetost med gibanji in državno politiko najbolj zaostrena.

  13. Important Bird Areas California Audubon [ds485

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The objective of this project was to digitally map the boundaries of Audubon California's Important Bird Areas (IBA). Existing Important Bird Areas identify critical...

  14. Habilidades científicas a través del conocimiento de las aves colombianas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabria Totaitive, Inés Andrea

    2017-01-01

    La función del docente de Ciencias Naturales debe ser entre otras la de propiciar el conocimiento y valoración del entorno, el proyecto buscó que 40 estudiantes de primaria del Municipio de Samacá (Boyacá - Colombia), se integraran al desarrollo de diferentes actividades que buscaban, estimular la capacidad de asombro y habilidades significativas en Ciencias Naturales, promoviendo el conocimiento de las aves de la región y la construcción de valores y actitudes guiadas hacia su conservación. ...

  15. LOS TANINOS EN LA ALIMENTACIÓN DE LAS AVES COMERCIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Coello

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de revisión aborda la importancia de los ácidos fenólicos, flavonoides, taninos y sus compuestos derivados en la nutrición y alimentación de las aves. Los sorgos café presentan altos tenores de taninos, lo cual les proporciona como ventajas la resistencia a pájaros y a algunas plagas, sin embargo, reducen el valor nutricional del grano para las aves. Las informaciones sobre el contenido de estos compuestos es aún incierta, principalmente en la literatura, donde los sorgos café tienen sólo estimaciones sobre su contenido de taninos. Estos compuestos afectan también la ganancia de peso y la conversión de alimentos. En el aspecto nutricional, los taninos reducen la disponibilidad de metionina, This review article discusses the effects of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins and derivatives in poultry feeding and nutrition. The high tannin sorghum is advantageous for grain producers because of its resistance to birds’ attacks and insects, as compared to low tannin cultivar, but the nutritional value is reduced. The information about the amont of these compounds is really uncertain in scientific literature, and the high tannin sorghum has only estimated values for its tannin percentage. It’s clear that tannins affect weight gain and feed efficiency. The tannin can affect necesitando de la suplementación de este aminoácido, mientras para las proteínas los valores de digestibilidad varian de 45.5 a 66.7% en comparación con 89.9% de los sorgos bajos en taninos. Por otro lado, la presencia de taninos combinada con micotoxinas pueden determinar reducciones significativas del comportamiento de las aves. Se sugiere, por tanto, como forma de disminuir los efectos perjudiciales de estos compuestos en raciones formuladas con sorgo café, la suplementación de metionina, no obstante, la utilización de niveles suplementarios de vitaminas y el uso de calentamiento en horno microondas, no mostró resultados positivos

  16. Simulaton of the Avedøreværket Unit 1 Cogeneration Plant with DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The simulator contest proposed for the ECOS 2003 conference has been solved using the DNA energy system simulator. The contest concerns the steam process of the Avedøreværket Unit 1 (AVV1) power plant. The plant is a 250 MWCHP plant with a maximum district heat production of 330 MJ/s. The plant has...... a net electric efficiency of 42% and a maximum energy utilization of 92%. In this paper it is demonstrated, that the DNA model of AVV1 can calculate the whole flow sheet balance at any load point, i.e., any possible combination of power production and district heat production. The paper also contains...

  17. Parasitos de aves e mamíferos silvestres em cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Marie de Souza Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Os animais silvestres são hospedeiros de uma grande variedade de parasitos que podem interferir em sua conservação ex situ. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os parasitos gastrointestinais (PGI e ectoparasitos dos animais do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (CETAS do Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA de Recife, Pernambuco, além de determinar os aspectos do manejo em cativeiro que possam estar relacionados com os parasitos identificados. Foram coletados ectoparasitos e amostras fecais de 223 aves e mamíferos, as quais foram processadas pelos métodos: microscopia direta, flutuação e sedimentação. Helmintos e/ou protozoários foram detectados em 91 (40,8% amostras fecais, sendo 64 (70,3% de aves e 27 (29,7% de mamíferos. Ovos de Capillaria sp., Ascaridida, Spirurida e oocistos de Eimeria sp. foram detectados nas amostras fecais das aves, enquanto ovos de Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides sp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Strongylida e oocistos de Coccídios foram encontrados nas amostras fecais de mamíferos. Os ectoparasitos identificados em aves foram Colpocephalum turbinatum, Kurodaia (Kurodaia fulvofasciata, Halipeurus sp., Naubates sp., Saemundssonia sp., Austromenopon sp., Paragoniocotes sp., Brueelia sp., Myrsidea sp. and Pseudolynchia sp., enquanto em mamíferos os ectoparasitos identificados foram Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma varium, A. calcaratum, A. nodosum, Ornithodoros talaje e Ctenocephalides felis felis. A. calcaratum e O. talaje são registrados pela primeira vez em Pernambuco e T. tetradactyla é apresentado como novo hospedeiro de O. talaje. Nenhum dos animais estudados apresentou sinais clínicos em decorrência da infecção/infestação parasitária. Parasitos com potencial zoonótico como T. trichiura, Strongyloides sp., T. canis e Ancylostoma sp. foram identificados em primatas não humanos e carnívoros. Precárias condições estruturais

  18. Manual de métodos de campo para el monitoreo de aves terrestres

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. John Ralph; Geoffrey R. Geupel; Peter Pyle; Thomas E. Martin; David F DeSante; Borja Milá

    1996-01-01

    El presente manual es una recopilación de métodos de campo para la determinación de índices de abundancia y datos demográficos de poblaciones de aves terrestres en una amplia variedad de hábitats. Está dirigido a biólogos, técnicos de campo, e investigadores de cualquier parte del Continente Americano. Los métodos descritos incluyen cuatro tipos de censos...

  19. Ilepatril (AVE-7688), a vasopeptidase inhibitor for the treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizchi, Reza

    2008-03-01

    sanofi-aventis (formerly Aventis Pharma AG) is developing ilepatril (AVE-7688), a dual angiotensin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, for the potential treatment of hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. Ilepatril is currently in phase IIb/III clinical trials for hypertension and phase II trials for diabetic nephropathy. The company had planned to file for approval for the use of ilepatril for hypertension in 2010. Ilepatril was previously being developed for cardiac failure; however, the compound was not listed on Aventis's 2003 pipeline.

  20. AVE3085, an enhancer of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, restores endothelial function and reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Xue, Hong-Mei; Wong, Wing-Tak; Tian, Xiao-Yu; Huang, Yu; Tsui, Stephen KW; Ng, Patrick KS; Wohlfart, Paulus; Li, Huige; Xia, Ning; Tobias, Silke; Underwood, Malcolm John; He, Guo-Wei

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in endothelial function, and impaired NO production is involved in hypertension. Therefore, compounds that regulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) may be of therapeutic benefit. A novel, low molecular weight compound AVE3085 is a recently developed compound with the ability to enhance eNOS transcription. The present study investigated the effects of AVE3085 in endothelial dysfunction associated with hypertension. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with AVE 3085 (10 mg·kg·day−1, orally) for 4 weeks. Isometric force measurement was performed on rings of isolated aortae in organ baths. Protein expression of eNOS, phosphorylated-eNOS and nitrotyrosine in the aortae were examined by Western blotting. mRNA for eNOS in rat aortae were examined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). KEY RESULTS AVE3085 greatly improved endothelium-dependent relaxations in the aortae of SHRs. This functional change was accompanied by up-regulated expression of eNOS protein and mRNA, enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and decreased formation of nitrotyrosine. Furthermore, AVE3085 treatment reduced the blood pressure in SHR without affecting that of hypertensive eNOS−/− mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The eNOS-transcription enhancer AVE3085 restored impaired endothelial function in a hypertensive model. The present study provides a solid basis for the potential development of eNOS-targeting drugs to restore down-regulated eNOS, as a new strategy in hypertension. PMID:21385179

  1. Managing mainland salt marshes for breeding birds

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Wadden Sea region is one of the most important breeding areas in Western Europe for coastal breeding bird species. It is expected that management of salt marshes is important for successful conservation of breeding bird populations but the impact of management on the habitat quality for breeding birds is still not fully understood. In this study the effects of management on the three crucial habitat characteristics for breeding birds were studied on mainland salt marshes: effects of manag...

  2. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  3. 75 FR 29917 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ...-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX09 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird... governing migratory bird rehabilitation in the United States. Before creation of those regulations.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. George T. Allen, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish...

  4. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird... 50 CFR Part 20 [Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2011-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird...

  5. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by... Forces to incidentally take migratory birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA). The Authorization Act provided this interim authority to...

  6. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  7. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  8. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nesting in colonies.· Some field tests of the model are discussed in Box 2. Some interesting ideas have been advanced by ecologists to explore the advantages which birds could derive from nesting in colonies and the most persuasive of these is the geometric model. Box 2. Field Tests of the Economic Defendability Model.

  9. Notes on some Sumatran birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1948-01-01

    During the war I was able to identify some collections of birds from Sumatra, present in the Leiden Museum. These collections were brought together by E. Jacobson and W. C. van Heurn in the Padang Highlands in 1013; by W. Groeneveldt in the same area in 1914 and 1915; bij L. P. Cosquino de Bussy and

  10. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One day out of the great wilderness of the water there came an albatross. Circling the ship on .... and mathematicians. Conventional aerodynamic ... suspended in air has inspired over a dozen aerodynamic models. GENERAL I ARTICLE scaling concepts fail to explain subtle features of bird flight, as debated by over fifty ...

  11. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  12. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    business opportunities for universities, laboratories and corpo- rations. Modern scientists seem to be getting increasingly ob- sessed with seasonal and sensational .... around SHAR and the Nelapattu Sanctuary, Professor Dhawan distilled the essence of bird flight for the expert and the neo- phyte alike. The sheer biometric ...

  13. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...

  14. 14 CFR 35.36 - Bird impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird impact. 35.36 Section 35.36... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.36 Bird impact. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests or... 4-pound bird at the critical location(s) and critical flight condition(s) of a typical installation...

  15. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of the...

  16. Simulating the Risk of Bird Strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Ellerbroek, J.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Kügler, D.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fast-time simulation environment for assessing the risk of bird strikes in aviation. An existing air traffic simulator was enhanced in order to simulate air and bird traffic simultaneously and to recognize collisions between birds and aircraft. Furthermore, a method was

  17. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  18. Valores energéticos de diferentes alimentos de origem animal para aves Energetic values of different feedstuffs of animal origin for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vianna Nunes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar, utilizando-se o método tradicional de coleta total, os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, aparente corrigida (EMAn, verdadeira (EMV e verdadeira corrigida (EMVn, bem como os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade da EB, de 11 alimentos. Avaliaram-se amostras de três farinhas de vísceras de aves (FVA, três farinhas de penas (FP, duas farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO, duas farinhas de vísceras suínas (FVS e uma farinha de penas e vísceras (FPV de diferentes procedências. Foram utilizados 360 frangos de corte machos Ross com 21 dias de idade, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso em 11 tratamentos e uma ração-referência, com duas repetições por bloco e cinco aves por unidade experimental. Cada alimento substituiu em 20% a ração-referência. As aves receberam ração à vontade por 12 dias, sendo os cinco dias finais destinados à coleta total de excretas. Durante os cinco dias de coleta, 30 aves (distribuídas em seis gaiolas foram mantidas em jejum por 72 horas, sendo as 24 horas iniciais para esvaziamento do trato gastrointestinal e as 48 horas restantes para coleta das excretas, que foram quantificadas e extrapoladas para cinco dias. Os valores de EMA e EMAn, expressos em kcal/kg de MS, foram em média de 1.647 e 1.422 para a FCO, de 2.143 e 1.875 para a FP, de 3.062 e 2.844 para a FVA, de 1.889 e 1.779 para a FVS e de 2.497 a 2.209 para a FPV. Os valores de EMV e EMVn, expressos em kcal/kg de MS, foram em média de 1.753 e 1.462 para a FCO, de 2.269 e 1.452 para a FP, de 3.211 e 2.740 para a FVA, de 2.002 e 1.562 para a FVS e de 2.615 e 1.944 para a FPV.The traditional method of total collection was used to determine the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, corrected apparent energy (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME and corrected true energy (TMEn of eleven feedstuffs and the respective coefficients of metabolizability of GE. The feedstuffs were as follows: three samples of poultry by

  19. Aves acuáticas del estero El Salado, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Germán Cupul Magaña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El estero El Salado es un cuerpo costero único en la región de Bahía de Banderas, México, que se encuentra sometido a la fuerte presión del crecimiento urbano de la ciudad de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. Su evaluación como hábitat para la avifauna acuática puede contribuir al establecimiento de las bases técnicas para la toma de decisiones acertadas en el diseño de estrategias de conservación y explotación de sus hábitats. Con este fin, de junio de 1996 a mayo de 1997, se realizó una visita mensual al estero. En cada visita se realizaron dos transectos de 250 m de largo, de la boca a la cabeza del estero, de acuerdo al método modificado del censo de transecto en banda. Se determinaron 28 especies de aves acuáticas y se contabilizaron 1,304 individuos. De acuerdo con su presencia a lo largo del año, se registraron 16 especies residentes, 11 residentes de invierno y una migratoria. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la importancia de la zona como espacio de sustentación alimenticia, de descanso y de anidación para aves acuáticas temporales y residentes.

  20. Hormonas y reproduccion en aves: la influencia de factores ambientales y sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Gutiérrez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parle de este artículo se presenta una revisión de los mecanismos fisiológicos responsables por la reproducción y los principales efectos de organización y activación que cumplen las hormonas en el desarrollo de la conducta sexual de las aves. Luego se examinan en detalle los principales factores ambientales y sociales que influyen en la iniciación de la temporada reproductiva en aves. El papel del fotoperiodo en la activación de la conducta sexual se discute a la luz del extenso cuerpo de literatura en el área. Otros factores ambientales tales como temperatura, humedad y disponibilidad de recursos también son evaluados. Finalmente, se presentan las investigaciones más relevantes sobre el papel de factores sociales en el desarrollo de la conducta sexual. Sugerencias para investigaciones futuras y problemas en el área, son discutidos a lo largo del artículo y en forma suscinta al final del mismo.

  1. Rectification of radiation-induced damage in swiss albino mice by aloe vera leaf extracts (AVE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, P.; Goyal, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    From the time immemorial man has been exposed to ionizing radiation from the environment in which he lives. Radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. Materials and Methods: The radioprotective of effect of Aloe vera leaf extract (1000 mg/kg b.wt. orally for 15 consecutive days) has been studied against 6 Gy of gamma radiation in the intestine of Swiss albino mice at various post irradiation intervals viz. 12 hours, 24 hours. and 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Results: Crypt survival, villus length, apoptic cells, mitotic figures and goblet cells in jejunum were studied after irradiation. Irradiation produced a significant decrease in crypt survival, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas goblet and apoptic cells showed a significant increase from sham irradiated animals. The major changes were observed on day 3 after irradiation. AVE pre-treated irradiated animals resulted in a significant increase in the number of crypt cells, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas the counts of apoptic and goblet cells showed a significant decrease from respective control group at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiated animals resulted in the elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione activity. On contrary, AVE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione activity. Conclusion: The present study suggests the possible radioprotective ability of Aloe vera leaf extract

  2. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  3. Primer registro de cráneos asignados a Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae procedentes de la Formación Bahía Inglesa (Mioceno Medio-tardío, Chile First record of skulls assigned to Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae from the Bahía Inglesa formation (middle-late Miocene, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los cráneos de los Spheniscidae (como los de todas las aves, aunque escasos en el registro paleontológico, muestran importantes caracteres a nivel taxonómico. Hasta el momento se conocían solo seis cráneos en todo el mundo: Paraptenodytes antarctica y una nueva especie de Spheniscidae procedentes de las formaciones Gaiman (Mioceno temprano y Puerto Madryn (Mioceno tardío de Argentina, respectivamente; Spheniscus megaramphus y 3S. urbinai de la formación Pisco (Mioceno tardío de Perú, Marplesornis novaezealandiae del Plioceno de Nueva Zelanda y un resto de Sphenicidae cf Spheniscus procedente de la formación Bahía Inglesa (Mioceno medio-tardío. De esta última unidad provienen cinco restos craneanos recientemente descubiertos en la localidad de Caldera (Región de Atacama, Chile, los cuales fueron descritos y asignados preliminarmente a Palaeospheniscus. Estos materiales constituyen el primer registro de cráneos para la especie y significan un importante aporte al conocimiento de la avifauna fósil de Chile y en particular de la formación Bahía InglesaAlthough the skulls of the Spheniscidae are unusual in the paleontologic record, they show important features useful in the systematics of the group, as well as in the rest of the birds. Until now, fossil occurrences were restricted to six skulls: Paraptenodytes antarctica and one new species from the Gaiman formation (Early Miocene and Puerto Madryn formation (late Miocene of Argentina, respectively; Spheniscus megaramphus and S. urbinai from the Pisco Formation (Late Miocene, Perú; Marplesornis novaezealandiae from New Zealand (Pliocene; and Spheniscidae cf. Spheniscus from the Bahía Inglesa Formation (Middle-Late Miocene, Chile. Five new materials have been exhumed from this last unit. These skulls, which come from the Caldera locality (Region of Atacama, Chile, have been preliminarily assigned to Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae, constituting the first skulls described for

  4. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  5. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  6. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  7. Oxidação lipídica do óleo de vísceras de aves para redução de seu conteúdo de energia metabolizável para frangos de corte na fase de crescimento Lipid oxidation decreases metabolizable energy value of dietary poultry fat for growing broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mondini Calil Racanicci

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de determinar os teores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida para o nitrogênio (EMAn do óleo de vísceras de aves fresco e oxidado, foi conduzido um ensaio metabólico utilizando-se 48 machos AgRoss com 31 dias de idade. As aves foram alojadas em gaiolas metabólicas e o método utilizado foi o de coleta total de excretas. Foi fornecida uma dieta-referência com ou sem substituição de 10% pelo óleo de vísceras de aves fresco ou oxidado, sendo que cada dieta foi oferecida a quatro repetições de quatro aves. O período de coleta foi de quatro dias após três dias de adaptação às dietas e às gaiolas. O óleo de vísceras de aves foi adquirido de um produtor local e armazenado sob congelamento a -18ºC (óleo fresco. O óleo oxidado foi obtido por aquecimento em banho-maria com temperatura entre 80 e 90ºC. Durante o período de aquecimento, a qualidade deste óleo foi controlada por avaliações periódicas da absorbância específica, que indica o acúmulo de compostos de ranço. Os valores de absorbância específica, medidos a 232 e 270 nm, foram, respectivamente, de 4,64 e 0,47 para o óleo fresco e de 18,54 e 3,76 para o óleo oxidado. Os resultados obtidos, expressos na matéria original, para EMA e EMAn foram de 9.240 e 9.150 kcal/kg para o óleo de vísceras fresco e 7.700 e 7.595 kcal/kg para o óleo oxidado, comprovando estatisticamente grande redução no conteúdo de energia metabolizável do óleo decorrente do processo oxidativo.In order to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and N-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of fresh and oxidized poultry fat a metabolism assay with 48 AgRoss male broilers from 31 to 34 days of age was conducted. The birds were fed a basal diet or this diet replaced by 10% of fresh or oxidized fat and the total excreta collection method was applied. The birds were housed in metabolic cages and each diet was

  8. Nasal mites (Mesostigmata, Rhinonyssidae in Sternidae (Aves: Charadriiformes on the southern Coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Six species of birds of the family Sternidae are often found on the southern coast of South America. Sterna trudeaui, S. hirundinacea, Thalasseus maximus, T. acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris are South American residents and Sterna hirundo, a Nearctic migrant. At least 500 species of nasal mites have been described around the world, and Rhinonyssidae is the most diverse family. These mites are bloodsucking endoparasites that inhabit the respiratory system of birds. This study aimed to report on occurrences of nasal mites in Sternidae on the southern coast of Brazil. Of the 106 birds analyzed, 8.5% (9 birds were parasitized by nasal mites. This report provides the first record in the Neotropical region for two mite species, Sternostoma boydi and Larinyssus orbicularis parasitizing Thalasseus acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris. No nasal mites were found in Sterna trudeaui or Thalasseus maximus. One host individual (T. acuflavidus was parasitized by two species of nasal mites, S. boydi and L. orbicularis.

  9. Nasal mites (Mesostigmata, Rhinonyssidae) in Sternidae (Aves: Charadriiformes) on the southern Coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Silva da; Scheer, Simone; Muller, Gertrud

    2018-02-19

    Six species of birds of the family Sternidae are often found on the southern coast of South America. Sterna trudeaui, S. hirundinacea, Thalasseus maximus, T. acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris are South American residents and Sterna hirundo, a Nearctic migrant. At least 500 species of nasal mites have been described around the world, and Rhinonyssidae is the most diverse family. These mites are bloodsucking endoparasites that inhabit the respiratory system of birds. This study aimed to report on occurrences of nasal mites in Sternidae on the southern coast of Brazil. Of the 106 birds analyzed, 8.5% (9 birds) were parasitized by nasal mites. This report provides the first record in the Neotropical region for two mite species, Sternostoma boydi and Larinyssus orbicularis parasitizing Thalasseus acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris. No nasal mites were found in Sterna trudeaui or Thalasseus maximus. One host individual (T. acuflavidus) was parasitized by two species of nasal mites, S. boydi and L. orbicularis.

  10. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  11. Inquérito epidemiológico de doenças respiratórias em aves de subsistência e modelagem de espalhamento de influenza aviária no Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Simone Marks

    2014-01-01

    Patógenos associados a aves migratórias podem causar doenças em aves domésticas. As aves de subsistência são possíveis fontes de disseminação destes patógenos pela ausência de biossegurança na criação e pelo contato com aves silvestres. A região do Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe (PNLP), no Rio Grande do Sul, se caracteriza como um importante sítio de aves migratórias. Devido a isto, é possível uma interface entre aves migratórias e aves de subsistência criadas na região. A influenza aviári...

  12. Potencial de árvores frutíferas para a atração de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ribeiro Góes-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o potencial atrativo de aves presente em oito espécies de árvores frutíferas: Callicarpa reevesii Wall.ex Walp., Ficus microcarpa L.f., Ficus tomentella Miq., Michelia champaca L., Morus nigra L., Nectandra nitidula Nees, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham. A interação de aves-plantas foi observada no município de Ouro Fino (MG, nos domínios da Serra da Mantiqueira. As referentes árvores foram observadas durante 24 horas nos períodos em que estavam frutificando, entre julho de 2007 a abril de 2008. Com o uso de ferramentas de análise de diversidade biológica, pode-se constatar que as espécies com maiores potenciais de atração de aves foram Ficus microcarpa, Ficus tomentella, Morus nigra, Nectandra nitidula e Schinus terebinthifolius e as espécies de aves que apresentaram alto índice de interação com as árvores foram Dacnis cayana, Elaenia flavogaster, Tangara cayana, Tersina viridis, Thraupis sayaca, Turdus amaurochalinus e Turdus rufiventris.

  13. On the breeding of the Slaty-legged Crake (Aves: Rallidae: Rallina eurizonoides in Nilambur, Kerala, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Divin Murukesh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The first sighting and breeding of the rare Slaty-legged Crake Rallina eurizonoides (Aves: Rallidae from Nilambur, Kerala, southern India is provided. The clutch size was seven eggs and three chicks fledged out of it. The total incubation period was 20 days, a first report for this species.  

  14. Clinical comparison between AVED patients with 744 del A mutation and Friedreich ataxia with GAA expansion in 15 Moroccan families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benomar, Ali; Yahyaoui, Mohammed; Meggouh, Farid; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Boutchich, Mohammed; Bouslam, Naima; Zaim, Abdelhaq; Schmitt, Michèle; Belaidi, Halima; Ouazzani, Reda; Chkili, Taïb; Koenig, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Fifteen Moroccan families with a phenotype resembling Friedreich Ataxia (FA) were studied. Seven families (13 patients) had the 744 del A mutation in the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) gene, characteristic of ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED). The other eight families (16

  15. New feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acari: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mironov, S. V.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1947, - (2008), s. 1-38 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acari * Astigmata * feather mites * systematics * Brazil * Proctophyllodidae * Aves * Passeriformes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.740, year: 2008 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2008/f/zt01947p038.pdf

  16. Naised käsu korras firmade juhatusse! Jah või ei? / Kairi Alt, Aveli Kippari, Karl Koort... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Columbus IT Partner Eesti AS personalijuht Kairi Alt, Stele ja Riveli omanik Aveli Kippari, AS Panaviatic'i turundusjuht Karl Koort, OÜ Tarkvara Tehnoloogia Arenduskeskuse tegevjuht Indrek Vainu, AS PricewaterhouseCoopers auditiosakonna direktor Eva Jansen, Kalev Chocolate Factory tootmisjuht Hardo Reinike

  17. Parasitismo em aves silvestres residentes e migratórias da Ilha da Marambaia, Estado do Rio de Janeiro1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie M. Brum

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi buscar a presença de microrganismos em esfregaços sanguíneos de aves silvestres residentes ou migratórias da Ilha da Marambaia, município de Mangaratiba, estado do Rio de Janeiro, durante o ano de 2009. Para execução da pesquisa, 86 indivíduos referentes a 22 espécies foram capturados através de rede de neblina e após manuseio liberados ao seu habitat natural. Foi coletado sangue periférico das aves e realizado esfregaços sanguíneos. Como resultados foi diagnosticado a ocorrência de 11 (12,80% indivíduos positivos para Plasmodium sp., um (1,16% para microfilária e 16 (18,60% para Borrelia sp. Foram encontrados carrapatos Amblyomma sp. (Família Ixodidae parasitando as aves amostradas, o que sugere existir uma interação parasito-vetor-hospedeiro entre esse e o gênero Borrelia. Este estudo deve ser ampliado para outras regiões e o seu conhecimento dará maiores subsídios para outras pesquisas, voltadas principalmente para a preservação de aves em ambiente por elas escolhidos como seu habitat.

  18. Nodal signaling from the visceral endoderm is required to maintain Nodal gene expression in the epiblast and drive AVE migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Lualdi, Margaret; Lyozin, George T.; Sharma, Prashant; Loncarek, Jadranka; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Kuehn, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    In the early mouse embryo, a specialized population of extraembryonic visceral endoderm (VE) cells called the anterior VE (AVE) establishes the anterior posterior (AP) axis by restricting gastrulation-inducing signals to the opposite pole. These cells arise at the distal tip of the egg cylinder stage embryo and then asymmetrically migrate to the prospective anterior following the path of an earlier arising and migrating population called the distal VE (DVE). The Nodal-signaling pathway has been shown to have a critical role in the generation of the DVE and AVE and in their migration. The Nodal gene is expressed in both the VE and in the pluripotent epiblast, which gives rise to the germ layers. Previous findings have provided conflicting evidence as to the relative importance of Nodal signaling from the epiblast vs. VE for AP patterning. Here we show that conditional mutagenesis of the Nodal gene specifically within the VE leads to reduced Nodal expression levels in the epiblast and incomplete or failed AVE migration. These results support a required role for VE Nodal to maintain normal levels of expression in the epiblast, and suggest signaling from both VE and epiblast is important for AVE migration. PMID:25536399

  19. Isoproterenol-induced impairment of heart function and remodeling are attenuated by the nonpeptide angiotensin-(1-7) analogue AVE 0991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Anderson J; Oliveira, Thauana L; Castro, Maria Carolina M; Almeida, Alvair P; Castro, Carlos H; Caliari, Marcelo V; Gava, Elisandra; Kitten, Gregory T; Santos, Robson A S

    2007-08-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AVE 0991 (AVE), a nonpeptide compound that mimics Ang-(1-7) actions, on cardiac remodeling. Heart hypertrophy and heart dysfunction were induced by isoproterenol (ISO) (2 mg/kg i.p./day for 7 days) in male Wistar rats. At the end of the 7-day period, the hearts were perfused according to the Langendorff method to evaluate cardiac function. The hearts, atria, and right and left ventricles wet weights were recorded, normalized for body weight and then expressed as muscle mass index (mg/g). In addition, serial sections from left ventricle were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for cell morphometry and with collagen-specific Masson's trichrome for detection of fibrosis. Immunofluorescence-labeling and confocal microscopy were used to investigate the distribution and deposition of collagen types I, III, VI, and fibronectin. AVE reduced the ISO-induced hypertrophy as quantified by myocyte diameter measurements (Control: 10.60+/-0.08 microm; ISO: 14.60+/-0.11 mum; ISO+AVE: 11.22+/-0.08 microm, n = 5). In addition, AVE markedly attenuated the increase of extracellular matrix proteins induced by ISO. AVE treatment also attenuated the decrease in systolic tension and +/-dT/dt and exacerbated the vasodilatation induced by ISO. These results show that AVE has a cardioprotective effect on ISO-induced cardiac remodeling.

  20. Riqueza e densidade de aves que nidificam em cavidades em plantações abandonadas de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo de Siqueira Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monoculturas de árvores, como as de espécies de eucalipto, têm substituído florestas naturais, impactando a fauna pela perda de habitat e recursos. Diversas espécies de aves necessitam de ocos em árvores para nidificar. A falta de recursos como cavidades formadas pela degradação da árvore ou locais apropriados para serem criadas cavidades leva a diminuição na abundância das populações destas espécies. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de comparar a riqueza e a densidade de aves que nidificam em ocos em áreas de plantação de eucalipto abandonadas com áreas de vegetação nativa em duas unidades de conservação em Minas Gerais. Em cada tipo de vegetação de cada reserva foram estabelecidos 25 pontos, nas quais foi utilizado o método de contagem por remoção para o levantamento das espécies de aves. A riqueza de espécies de aves de cada área foi estimada por Jackniffe e a densidade foi estimada através do método de máxima verossimilhança; modelos candidatos que poderiam influenciar a abundância das aves foram avaliados utilizando-se o Critério de Informação Akaike (AIC. Os resultados mostraram que a riqueza de espécies foi maior nas áreas de florestas nativas e que a densidade foi significantemente mais alta nas áreas de florestas nativas, e que o tipo de vegetação e a hora do dia influenciam na abundância e detecção das aves. Esses resultados indicam que as plantações de eucaliptos influenciam negativamente a comunidade de aves que nidificam em ocos, provavelmente por causa da falta de cavidades ou de sub-bosque. Plantações de eucaliptos normalmente não substituem as florestas nativas e seu uso deve ser controlado em áreas de conservação.

  1. Birds and people in semiarid northeastern Brazil: symbolic and medicinal relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background At least 511 species of birds occur in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil and many of them interact with human populations in a number of different ways, including their use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs. Objective The present work examined these types of birds/human interactions (use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs) in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte State in northeastern Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through semi-structured interviews with 120 local residents. Results A total of 16 wild bird species distributed among 11 families were found to interact directly with humans, with Columbidae being the best represented family. Seven species were identified in the medicinal category, five were related to symbolic aspects, while four species were identified as being related to both categories (medicinal and symbolic). Conclusion The accumulated folk knowledge, beliefs, and practices involving the avifauna in the semiarid region of Brazil, whether symbolic or medicinal, demonstrated the cultural importance of this vertebrate group to local human populations and revealed a belief system intrinsically related to cynegetic practices in the region. Portuguese abstract Introdução No semiárido do Brasil ocorrem 511 espécies de aves, algumas das quais interagem frequentemente com as populações humanas locais de diferentes formas, incluindo o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças. Objetivo Esta pesquisa registrou as aves diretamente associadas a essas formas de interação (o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças) na região semiárida do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos As informações foram obtidas através de entrevistas semiestruturadas aplicadas a 120 moradores locais. Resultados Foram registradas 16 espécies de aves silvestres distribuídas em 11 famílias, sendo Columbidae a que apresentou o maior número de

  2. AVES: FRINGILLIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bully seedeater (S. suJphllTlltw), at 31 study areas in the southwestern Cape during January 1974-. October 1976. The data used here were obtained incidentally during a study (Milewski 1976) of the feeding ecology and habitat of the protea seedeater, a rare and threatened species whose biology is virtually unknown ...

  3. Aves Struthiones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, H.

    1873-01-01

    Ordre parfaitement circonscrit, et s’éloignant de tous les autres oiseaux par les traits suivants. Plumes à barbes libres. Point de pennes. Queue nulle, ou remplacée par de larges plumes à barbes libres. Ailes formées, soit par des plumes semblables, grandes ou petites, soit par 5 ou 6 tiges

  4. AVES; SULIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energetic requirements for growth and maintenance of the Cape gannet (Sula capellJis) were studied by hand-rearing captive chicks and keeping juveniles in captivity at constant mass. Daily gain in mass was linear until 60 days of age; after 82 days the chicks lost mass prior to attaining fledging age (97 days).

  5. Ave Maria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imer, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    På nationalmuseerne i Grønland og i Danmark ligger en guldgrube af indskrifter, som giver os en enestående mulighed for at beskrive skriftkulturen hos landbefolkningen i middelalderen. Fra nordbotidens Grønland (ca. 985-1450) stammer omkring 150 genstande med runer og latinske bogstaver, som vise...

  6. Rede de interações ave-planta: um estudo sobre frugivoria em áreas urbanas do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva Freitas Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n4p83 No Brasil, poucos trabalhos comparam o consumo de frutos nativos e exóticos, especialmente em ambiente urbano. A Teoria de Redes pode ser útil nestes estudos, pois permite avaliar várias espécies de aves e plantas envolvidas em interações. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar uma rede de interações de frugivoria por aves em ambiente urbano; verificar o papel de plantas nativas e exóticas na rede e comparar as assembleias de consumidores destes dois grupos de plantas. Foi conduzida uma revisão da literatura sobre frugivoria por aves em áreas urbanas brasileiras e uma análise foi realizada para criar uma rede de interações em escala regional. Foram incluídos 15 trabalhos na análise com 70 espécies de aves consumindo frutos de 15 espécies de plantas (seis exóticas e nove nativas. Os consumidores de frutos exóticos e nativos não formaram grupos distintos e a rede de interações foi significativamente aninhada (NODF=0,30; p < 0,01 e não modular (M= 0,36; p= 0,16. Duas plantas exóticas fazem parte do núcleo de generalistas da rede de frugivoria (Ficus microcarpa e Michelia champaca. Os resultados indicam que um grupo relativamente diversificado de aves consome frutos em áreas urbanas no Brasil de maneira oportunista, sem preferência por nativos ou exóticos.

  7. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  8. Comunidades de aves y lepidopteros diurnos y las relaciones entre ellas en bosque nuboso y cafetal de Finca Santa Maura, Jinotega

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Torrez; W. Arendt; J. M. Maes

    2013-01-01

    Para evaluar la diversidad de aves y mariposas ninfálidas visitamos la Estación Biológica Juan Roberto Zarruk en Jinotega, donde colectamos datos en todos los hábitats presentes en la finca. Obtuvimos 123 especies de aves y 29 especies de ninfálidos. El hábitat con mayor riqueza para aves fue el cafetal y para ninfálidos el tacotal. Entre las especies más comunes...

  9. Variación temporal y espacial de aves playeras en la laguna Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, en tres temporadas no reproductivas

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Hernández; Sergio Serrano; Xóchitl A. Hernández; María Isabel Robles

    2012-01-01

    Hay un escaso conocimiento de las aves playeras en los humedales costeros de Jalisco, y en particular en la laguna Barra de Navidad. El presente trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de este grupo de aves y describe su distribución temporal y espacial en la laguna Barra de Navidad durante tres temporadas no reproductivas (1999-2000, 2006-2007 y 2008-2009). Se realizaron censos mensuales de noviembre-abril en las tres temporadas con el fin de registrar todas las especies de aves playeras. Se iden...

  10. Comunidade de corujas (Aves: Strigiformes na RPPN Bugerkopf, Blumenau, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n2p75 A Ordem Strigiformes carece de estudos no país e especialmente no Estado de Santa Catarina. São raras as pesquisas que envolvem aspectos básicos como presença e ausência em áreas de Floresta Atlântica. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi caracterizar a comunidade de corujas (Aves: Strigiformes na RPPN Bugerkopf, sul do município de Blumenau, Santa Catarina. O estudo foi realizado entre fevereiro de 2005 e maio de 2006, sendo os trabalhos de campo realizados em visitas mensais de duas a três noites, entre as 18:00 e 23:00 horas, somente com lua crescente ou cheia. Foram registradas as seguintes espécies de coruja: Tyto alba, Megascops choliba, Megascops sanctaecatarinae, Glaucidium minutissimum, Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana e Asio stygius.

  11. A megafauna's microfauna: gastrointestinal parasites of New Zealand's extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R Wood

    Full Text Available WE PERFORM THE FIRST MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF PARASITES FROM AN EXTINCT MEGAFAUNAL CLADE USING COPROLITES FROM THE NEW ZEALAND MOA (AVES: Dinornithiformes. Ancient DNA and microscopic analyses of 84 coprolites deposited by four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; little bush moa, Anomalopteryx didiformis; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus; and upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus reveal an array of gastrointestinal parasites including coccidians (Cryptosporidium and members of the suborder Eimeriorina, nematodes (Heterakoidea, Trichostrongylidae, Trichinellidae and a trematode (Echinostomida. Parasite eggs were most prevalent and diverse in coprolites from lowland sites, where multiple sympatric moa species occurred and host density was therefore probably higher. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence supports a possible vicariant Gondwanan origin for some of the moa parasites. The discovery of apparently host-specific parasite taxa suggests paleoparasitological studies of megafauna coprolites may provide useful case-studies of coextinction.

  12. Characteristics of ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of a severe weather outbreak - AVE-SESAME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    GOES satellite data was used to examine the ageostrophic flow in the vicinity of severe weather outbreaks along the Red River between Texas and Oklahoma in April 1979. The observations were part of the NASA AVE-SESAME I data on atmospheric states close to severe weather conditions. The Barnes Objective Analysis Technique was employed to analyze the data on a 100 km grid. The ageostrophic wind was defined on a regional scale from satellite data on different levels of cloud wind vectors, with a height change signalling a short-wave system in a long-wave trough. The percentage of deviation of the subgeostrophic winds from the geostrophic wind was calculated, and maximum departure corresponded with the region of greatest storm development. Time cross sections of additions to the ageostrophic flow were made as a function of pressure at 100 mb intervals from 900-100 mb. The ageostrophic acceleration was consistently twice the geostrophic acceleration.

  13. Shifts in composition of avian communities related to temperate-grassland afforestation in southeastern South America Alterações na composição de comunidades de aves relacionadas ao florestamento de campos temperados no sudeste da América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation of temperate grasslands with fast-growing trees for industrial pulpwood production is spreading in South America. Despite high afforestation rates resulting from governmental policies that stimulate pulpwood production in grasslands of southern Brazil and Uruguay, the impact of this activity on biodiversity remains to be properly assessed. We used an Impact-Reference study design to evaluate how grassland afforestation affects the composition of grassland bird assemblages. We sampled eucalyptus plantations and neighboring natural grasslands in southern Brazil from 2006-2009, and relied on nested sampling and analysis to separate the effects of afforestation from the natural variability of grasslands. We recorded a significant difference in composition between assemblages from grasslands and tree plantations. Species adapted to open, treeless areas tended to be negatively affected in relation to edge or forest birds in eucalyptus plantations. Afforestation is systematically replacing the bird assemblage of hilltop grasslands by a collection of common edge and forest species that occur in nearby riverine and hillside forests. Although most grassland birds negatively affected by tree plantations are common and widespread, observed and predicted afforestation rates in southeastern South America may result in regional population reductions in the near future.O florestamento de campos temperados com árvores de crescimento rápido para a produção industrial de celulose está aumentando na América do Sul. Apesar das elevadas taxas de florestamento resultantes de políticas governamentais que estimulam o plantio de árvores para celulose em campos do sul do Brasil e Uruguai, o impacto dessa atividade sobre a biodiversidade ainda carece de avaliação adequada. Utilizamos um delineamento experimental do tipo impacto-referência para avaliar como o florestamento dos campos afeta a composição da assembleia de aves campestres. Amostramos

  14. Motion Rehab AVE 3D: A VR-based exergame for post-stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Mateus; Bazzanello Henrique, Patrícia Paula; Brum, Manoela Rogofski; Colussi, Eliane Lucia; De Marchi, Ana Carolina Bertoletti; Rieder, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    Recent researches about games for post-stroke rehabilitation have been increasing, focusing in upper limb, lower limb and balance situations, and showing good experiences and results. With this in mind, this paper presents Motion Rehab AVE 3D, a serious game for post-stroke rehabilitation of patients with mild stroke. The aim is offer a new technology in order to assist the traditional therapy and motivate the patient to execute his/her rehabilitation program, under health professional supervision. The game was developed with Unity game engine, supporting Kinect motion sensing input device and display devices like Smart TV 3D and Oculus Rift. It contemplates six activities considering exercises in a tridimensional space: flexion, abduction, shoulder adduction, horizontal shoulder adduction and abduction, elbow extension, wrist extension, knee flexion, and hip flexion and abduction. Motion Rehab AVE 3D also report about hits and errors to the physiotherapist evaluate the patient's progress. A pilot study with 10 healthy participants (61-75 years old) tested one of the game levels. They experienced the 3D user interface in third-person. Our initial goal was to map a basic and comfortable setup of equipment in order to adopt later. All the participants (100%) classified the interaction process as interesting and amazing for the age, presenting a good acceptance. Our evaluation showed that the game could be used as a useful tool to motivate the patients during rehabilitation sessions. Next step is to evaluate its effectiveness for stroke patients, in order to verify if the interface and game exercises contribute into the motor rehabilitation treatment progress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efeito de diferentes tratamentos químicos em cama para aves de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lucca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar diferentes tratamentos químicos em cama aviária para frango de corte. Foram 2 utilizadas 500 aves, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos: Hidróxido de cálcio (500g/m ; Sulfato de Alumínio (500g/m ; Sulfato de cálcio (1000g/m ; Sulfato de cálcio 48% + Filosilicato Expandido 28% (500g/m e testemunha com quatro repetições. As amostras de cama aviária foram coletadas a cada sete dias para determinação do pH, umidade e contagem bacteriana nos meios de cultura Ágar MacConkey, Plate Count Agar (PCA. O peso das aves não se diferenciaram estatisticamente aos 42 dias, porém se observou significância na mortalidade e a conversão alimentar, entretanto em relação ao pH da cama o ideal seria após o término da segunda semana fazer nova aplicação dos produtos químicos. Todos os tratamentos foram eficazes quanto à umidade. Na contagem bacteriana com o meio PCA para mesófilas totais houve redução do desenvolvimento bacteriano, porém com o meio Ágar MacConkey para Enterobactérias totais somente o tratamento a base de Sulfato de cálcio (48% + Filosilicato expandido (28% se mostrou significativo (P < 0,05. Para a análise estatística utilizou-se sistema SISVAR (Sistema de Analise Estatístico e Planejamento de Sistemas, 2006.

  16. Codon usage bias and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND1 gene in pisces, aves, and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Arif; Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1 (MT-ND1) gene is a subunit of the respiratory chain complex I and involved in the first step of the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). To understand the pattern of compositional properties, codon usage and expression level of mitochondrial ND1 genes in pisces, aves, and mammals, we used bioinformatic approaches as no work was reported earlier. In this study, a perl script was used for calculating nucleotide contents and different codon usage bias parameters. The codon usage bias of MT-ND1 was low but the expression level was high as revealed from high ENC and CAI value. Correspondence analysis (COA) suggests that the pattern of codon usage for MT-ND1 gene is not same across species and that compositional constraint played an important role in codon usage pattern of this gene among pisces, aves, and mammals. From the regression equation of GC12 on GC3, it can be inferred that the natural selection might have played a dominant role while mutation pressure played a minor role in influencing the codon usage patterns. Further, ND1 gene has a discrepancy with cytochrome B (CYB) gene in preference of codons as evident from COA. The codon usage bias was low. It is influenced by nucleotide composition, natural selection, mutation pressure, length (number) of amino acids, and relative dinucleotide composition. This study helps in understanding the molecular biology, genetics, evolution of MT-ND1 gene, and also for designing a synthetic gene.

  17. The eNOS enhancer AVE 9488: a novel cardioprotectant against ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, S; Adamek, A; Fraccarollo, D; Tillmanns, J; Widder, J D; Dienesch, C; Schäfer, A; Podolskaya, A; Held, M; Ruetten, H; Ertl, G; Bauersachs, J

    2009-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of vascular and myocardial function. Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury is reduced in mice overexpressing endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) suggesting cardioprotection by eNOS. Novel pharmacological substances, so called eNOS enhancers, upregulate eNOS expression and thereby increase NO production. We tested the effects of the eNOS enhancer AVE 9488 on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo in mice. After treatment with the eNOS enhancer AVE 9488 (30 mg/kg/day) or placebo for one week mice underwent 30 min of coronary artery ligation and 24 h of reperfusion in vivo. Ischemia-reperfusion damage was significantly reduced in mice treated with the eNOS enhancer when compared to placebo treated mice (infarct/area at risk 65.4 +/- 4.1 vs. 36.9 +/- 4.0%, placebo vs. eNOS enhancer, P = 0.0002). The protective effect was blunted in eNOS knockout mice treated with the eNOS enhancer (infarct/area at risk 64.1 +/- 6.2%, eNOS knockout + eNOS enhancer vs. WT + eNOS enhancer, P = ns). Reactive oxygen species were significantly reduced in mice treated with the eNOS enhancer as indicated by significantly lower malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid levels (placebo vs. eNOS enhancer, 3.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.07 micromol/l, P = 0.0003). Thus pharmacological interventions addressed to increase eNOS-derived NO production constitute a promising therapeutic approach to prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  18. 76 FR 69223 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... birds in those parts of the United States adapted thereto where the same have become scarce or extinct, and also to regulate the introduction of American or foreign birds or animals in localities where they...

  19. Estructura de la comunidad y asociación de las aves acuáticas con la heterogeneidad espacial del complejo lagunar Bahía Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmara Zárate-Ovando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Para probar la hipótesis que la heterogeneidad espacial determina la diversidad de aves acuáticas en un humedal costero, comparamos la densidad, diversidad y composición de especies de aves acuáticas entre habitats y otras unidades de paisaje del complejo Bahía Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur, México. Se realizaron censos de aves acuáticas en 329 segmentos de habitat de la línea de costa interna del complejo lagunar, desde febrero 2002 hasta febrero 2003. La densidad de aves fue mayor en invierno y otoño en las tres lagunas del área de estudio; de las zonas, la densidad fue mayor en la costa insular; y de los habitats en playa arenosa y dunas pero en los pocos segmentos de sustrato antrópico la densidad fue alta. La diversidad fue significativamente mayor en otoño; en Canal Santo Domingo; en la costa peninsular; y de los habitats en manglar-dunas y manglar. La modificación del habitat natural costero y el disturbio por tránsito de embarcaciones no tuvieron influencia en la densidad o diversidad de aves acuáticas, pero la riqueza acumulada mayor ocurrió en las costas bien conservadas y sin disturbio. El análisis de la composición de especies mostró diferencias entre las asociaciones de Canal Santo Domingo y Bahía Magdalena. El ambiente pelágico y el manglar tuvieron diferencia mayor en la composición de especies con respecto a las asociaciones de los demás habitats, tales diferencias en elencos de especies por habitat sugieren que la comunidad de aves está estructurada de acuerdo a los recursos naturales disponibles de las lagunas, zonas y habitats, en relación con la complejidad estructural de las unidades de paisaje. Las condiciones ecológicas del complejo lagunar ocasionan que las aves acuáticas piscívoras sean el grupo dominante de esta comunidad.Community structure and association of waterbirds with spatial heterogeneity in the Bahía Magdalena-Almejas wetland complex, Baja California Sur, Mexico. To test

  20. Multiple lineages of Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium) in the Galapagos Islands and evidence for arrival via migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, I I; Zwiers, P; Deem, S L; Geest, E A; Higashiguchi, J M; Iezhova, T A; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G; Kim, D H; Morton, J P; Perlut, N G; Renfrew, R B; Sari, E H R; Valkiunas, G; Parker, P G

    2013-12-01

    Haemosporidian parasites in the genus Plasmodium were recently detected through molecular screening in the Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). We summarized results of an archipelago-wide screen of 3726 endemic birds representing 22 species for Plasmodium spp. through a combination of molecular and microscopy techniques. Three additional Plasmodium lineages were present in Galapagos. Lineage A-infected penguins, Yellow Warblers (Setophaga petechia aureola), and one Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis) and was detected at multiple sites in multiple years [corrected]. The other 3 lineages were each detected at one site and at one time; apparently, they were transient infections of parasites not established on the archipelago. No gametocytes were found in blood smears of infected individuals; thus, endemic Galapagos birds may be dead-end hosts for these Plasmodium lineages. Determining when and how parasites and pathogens arrive in Galapagos is key to developing conservation strategies to prevent and mitigate the effects of introduced diseases. To assess the potential for Plasmodium parasites to arrive via migratory birds, we analyzed blood samples from 438 North American breeding Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), the only songbird that regularly migrates through Galapagos. Two of the ephemeral Plasmodium lineages (B and C) found in Galapagos birds matched parasite sequences from Bobolinks. Although this is not confirmation that Bobolinks are responsible for introducing these lineages, evidence points to higher potential arrival rates of avian pathogens than previously thought. Linajes Múltiples de Parásitos de Malaria Aviar (Plasmodium) en las Islas Galápagos y Evidencia de su Arribo por Medio de Aves Migratorias. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Birds and bird habitats: guidelines for wind power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    Established in 2009, the Green Energy Act aims to increase the use of renewable energy sources including wind, water, solar and bioenergy in Ontario. The development of these resources is a major component of the province's plan, which aims to mitigate the contribution to climate change and to involve the Ontario's economy in the improvement of the quality of the environment. The Green Energy Act also considers as important the implementation of a coordinated provincial approval process, suggesting the integration of all Ministry requirements into a unique process during the evaluation of newly proposed renewable energy projects. The Ministry of the Environment's Renewable Energy Approval Regulation details the requirements for wind power projects involving significant natural features. Birds are an important part of Ontario's biodiversity and, according to the Ministry of Natural Resources, their habitats are considered as significant wildlife habitat (SWH). The Renewable Energy Approval Regulation and this guideline are meant to provide elements and guidance in order to protect bird SWH during the selection of a location of wind power facilities. . 27 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. Standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Courtney J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the population status of many marsh-dependent birds in North America but recent efforts have focused on collecting more reliable information and estimates of population trends. As part of that effort, a standardized survey protocol was developed in 1999 that provided guidance for conducting marsh bird surveys throughout North America such that data would be consistent among locations. The original survey protocol has been revised to provide greater clarification on many issues as the number of individuals using the protocol has grown. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol instructs surveyors to conduct an initial 5-minute passive point-count survey followed by a series of 1-minute segments during which marsh bird calls are broadcast into the marsh following a standardized approach. Surveyors are instructed to record each individual bird from the suite of 26 focal species that are present in their local area on separate lines of a datasheet and estimate the distance to each bird. Also, surveyors are required to record whether each individual bird was detected within each 1-minute subsegment of the survey. These data allow analysts to use several different approaches for estimating detection probability. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol provides detailed instructions that explain the field methods used to monitor marsh birds in North America.

  3. Bird sexing by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Birds are traditionally classified as male or female based on their anatomy and plumage color as judged by the human eye. Knowledge of a bird's gender is important for the veterinary practitioner, the owner and the breeder. The accurate gender determination is essential for proper pairing of birds, and knowing the gender of a bird will allow the veterinarian to rule in or out gender-specific diseases. Several biochemical methods of gender determination have been developed for avian species where otherwise the gender of the birds cannot be determined by their physical appearances or characteristics. In this contribution, we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a suitable tool for a quick and objective determination of the bird's gender. The method is based on differences in chromosome size. Male birds have two Z chromosomes and female birds have a W-chromosome and a Z-chromosome. Each Z-chromosome has approx. 75.000.000 bps whereas the W-chromosome has approx. 260.00 bps. This difference can be detected by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded from germ cells obtained from the feather pulp of chicks as well as from the germinal disk of fertilized but non-bred eggs. Significant changes between cells of male and female birds occur in the region of phosphate vibrations around 1080 and 1120 cm-1.

  4. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Niemi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.

  5. Some Ectoparasites of the Birds of Asia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIRDS, PARASITES, CLASSIFICATION, ARTHROPODA , DISTRIBUTION, FLIGHT, MITES, ECOLOGY, LICE, INDIA, JAPAN, TAIWAN, CHINA, PHILIPPINES, THAILAND, BORNEO, INDONESIA, SINGAPORE, ASIA, TABLES(DATA), HANDBOOKS, ARMY RESEARCH, DIPTERA.

  6. Bird strike incidence at Addis Ababa Bole International Airport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The time and rate of bird strike incidences, species composition and number of birds involved in strikes, and the behaviour of birds were recorded at Bole International Airport from December 1994 to December 1995. The gut contents of the birds struck by aircraft were analyzed. A total of 33 bird strikes were recorded during ...

  7. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... is now owned by the Royal Library. The acquisition of the Danish set by the Classen’s Library is examined by analyzing previously unpublished letters and is described for the first time, although not comprehensively, in this article. The provenance of this work, as described by Waldemar Fries in 1973...

  8. О группе "AveNue" сняли фильм

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    4. novemril esilinastusus Tallinna kinos "Sõprus" kinofestivali "Eesti lood" raames muusikaline dokumentaalfilm Narva venekeelsest rokkgrupist AveNue "Võõras omade seas", režissöörid Aleksandr Kheyfets ja Karin Reinberg. Tootja Revolver Film, Eesti 2009

  9. Monitoramento do maçarico-branco, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, através de recuperações de anilhas coloridas, na Coroa do Avião, Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil Monitoring of the sanderling, Calidris alba (Pallas (Aves, Scolopacidae, across recuperations of color band, in the Coroa do Avião, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. de Lyra-Neves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Programas de marcação de espécies migratórias vêm sendo desenvolvidos desde a década de 1980, dentre eles o PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs, o qual, consistia na marcação de aves migratórias neárticas com anéis e bandeirolas coloridas possibilitando formação de códigos individuais permitindo a observação das aves marcadas sem que necessitasse capturar. Esta pesquisa objetivou a recuperação de códigos do PASP de indivíduos de Calidris alba (Pallas 1764 entre os anos de 1993 a 1995 na Coroa do Avião. Essas recuperações visuais demonstraram a fidelidade de Calidris alba ao seu sítio de invernada, a Coroa do Avião. O alto percentual de recuperações de Calidris alba, bem como, as recuperações de indivíduos anilhados na Lagoa do Peixe e em algumas áreas de invernada nos Estados Unidos, demonstram a utilização da rota do Atlântico e reforça a idéia de que bandos provenientes da costa leste do Alaska migram por esta rota. A idade máxima estimada para Calidris alba durante esta pesquisa foi de 11 anos, nada se tem sobre a idade desta espécie em bibliografias específicas no estudo de Scolopacidae.Marking programs for migratory species have been developed since the 1980 decade, among them the PASP Pan-American Shorebirds Programs which consisted in the marking of nearctic migratory birds with color bands and flags, enabling the development of individual codes, allowing the observation of the marked birds without the need of capture. The purpose of this study was the recuperation of PASP codes of individuals of Calidris alba (Pallas, 1764 between 1993 and 1995 in the Coroa do Avião. These visual recuperations demonstrated the fidelity of this specie to its winter site, the Coroa do Avião. The high percentual of recuperations of Calidris alba, as well as the recuperations of marked individuals in the Lagoa do Peixe and in some wintering areas in the United States, demonstrated the use of the Atlantic route and

  10. La dieta de la lechuza (Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes en hábitats naturales y antropogénicos de la región central de Cuba Diet of Barn Owl (Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes in natural and anthropogenic habitat in central Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Hernández-Muñoz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar los hábitos tróficos de la lechuza, Tyto alba, se analizaron 1232 egagrópilas recolectadas entre 1994 y 2001 en 24 localidades de la región central de Cuba. Se encontraron 3943 presas; los roedores exóticos (Mus musculus y Rattus spp. fueron las presas dominantes y representaron 80% del total. Otros tipos de presas fueron de menor frecuencia; por ejemplo, insectos (6.1%, murciélagos (5%, anfibios (4.8%, aves (3.6% y reptiles (0.2%. Se agruparon las localidades de recolecta de egagrópilas en 2 categorías de hábitat: antropogénicos y naturales, para explorar el efecto de los disturbios antrópicos en la dieta de la lechuza. Contrario a lo esperado, no se encontró variación significativa en el índice de amplitud trófica de Levins (Bantropogénicos= 1.32 ± 0.3 vs Bnaturales = 1.38 ± 0.4. La composición de la dieta en ambos hábitats no difiere, al menos en la proporción de las diferentes clases, aunque existe la tendencia a depredar más aves en hábitats naturales que en sitios perturbados donde los insectos son más frecuentes. Los resultados sugieren que tanto en hábitats antropogénicos como naturales, las lechuzas se comportan como depredadores efectivos de las poblaciones de roedores múridos introducidos.To determine food habits of Barn Owl, Tyto alba, we analyzed 1232 pellets collected from 24 localities in central Cuba from 1994 to 2001. The pellets yielded 3943 prey items, with introduced rodents (Mus musculus and Rattus spp. being the primary prey, accounting for 80% of items in the diet. Other prey classes were of minor frequency; e.g., insects (6.1%, bats (5%, amphibians (4.8%, birds (3.6%, and reptiles (0.2%.We grouped pellet collection localities into 2 habitat categories: "anthropogenic" and "natural," to explore the effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the diet Barn Owl. Contrary to our expectation, we found no significant difference in the Levin's niche-breadth index (B, calculated for the

  11. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  12. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2011-12 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY: Fish and... migratory game birds for the 2011-12 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed rule provides the...

  13. 78 FR 65576 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-0060; FF09M21200-134-XMB123199BPP0] RIN 1018-AX90 Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of ``Hybrid'' Migratory Bird AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), revise the definition of ``hybrid'' as it relates to birds protected under...

  14. 78 FR 67183 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...-91200 FF09M26000] Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird Surveys AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments...) or 703- 358-2482 (telephone). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Migratory Bird Treaty Act...

  15. 75 FR 27143 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Part III Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2011 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Proposals in...

  16. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...-0082; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...

  17. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  18. AVE 0991, a non-peptide mimic of angiotensin-(1–7) effects, attenuates pulmonary remodelling in a model of chronic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Machado, M G; Magalhães, G S; Cardoso, J A; Kangussu, L M; Murari, A; Caliari, M V; Oliveira, M L; Cara, D C; Noviello, M L M; Marques, F D; Pereira, J M; Lautner, R Q; Santos, R A S; Campagnole-Santos, M J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE AVE 0991 (AVE) is a non-peptide compound, mimic of the angiotensin (Ang)-(1–7) actions in many tissues and pathophysiological states. Here, we have investigated the effect of AVE on pulmonary remodelling in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic allergic lung inflammation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We used BALB/c mice (6–8 weeks old) and induced chronic allergic lung inflammation by OVA sensitization (20 μg·mouse−1, i.p., four times, 14 days apart) and OVA challenge (1%, nebulised during 30 min, three times per·week, for 4 weeks). Control and AVE groups were given saline i.p and challenged with saline. AVE treatment (1 mg·kg−1·per day, s.c.) or saline (100 μL·kg−1·per day, s.c.) was given during the challenge period. Mice were anaesthetized 72 h after the last challenge and blood and lungs collected. In some animals, primary bronchi were isolated to test contractile responses. Cytokines were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung homogenates. KEY RESULTS Treatment with AVE of OVA sensitised and challenged mice attenuated the altered contractile response to carbachol in bronchial rings and reversed the increased airway wall and pulmonary vasculature thickness and right ventricular hypertrophy. Furthermore, AVE reduced IL-5 and increased IL-10 levels in the BAL, accompanied by decreased Ang II levels in lungs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS AVE treatment prevented pulmonary remodelling, inflammation and right ventricular hypertrophy in OVA mice, suggesting that Ang-(1–7) receptor agonists are a new possibility for the treatment of pulmonary remodelling induced by chronic asthma. PMID:23889691

  19. Data for NASA's AVE 3 experiment: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts. [investigation of atmospheric parameters detected from satellite data under conditions of heavy snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The atmospheric variability experiment (AVE 3) is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 41 stations is presented. The experiment was conducted between February 6 and February 7, 1975. Brief discussions are given on methods of data processing, changes in the reduction scheme since the AVE 2 pilot experiment, and data accuracy. An example of contact data is presented as well as synoptic charts prepared from the data.

  20. AVE 0991, a non-peptide mimic of angiotensin-(1-7) effects, attenuates pulmonary remodelling in a model of chronic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Machado, M G; Magalhães, G S; Cardoso, J A; Kangussu, L M; Murari, A; Caliari, M V; Oliveira, M L; Cara, D C; Noviello, M L M; Marques, F D; Pereira, J M; Lautner, R Q; Santos, R A S; Campagnole-Santos, M J

    2013-10-01

    AVE 0991 (AVE) is a non-peptide compound, mimic of the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) actions in many tissues and pathophysiological states. Here, we have investigated the effect of AVE on pulmonary remodelling in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic allergic lung inflammation. We used BALB/c mice (6-8 weeks old) and induced chronic allergic lung inflammation by OVA sensitization (20 μg·mouse(-1) , i.p., four times, 14 days apart) and OVA challenge (1%, nebulised during 30 min, three times per·week, for 4 weeks). Control and AVE groups were given saline i.p and challenged with saline. AVE treatment (1 mg·kg(-1) ·per day, s.c.) or saline (100 μL·kg(-1) ·per day, s.c.) was given during the challenge period. Mice were anaesthetized 72 h after the last challenge and blood and lungs collected. In some animals, primary bronchi were isolated to test contractile responses. Cytokines were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung homogenates. Treatment with AVE of OVA sensitised and challenged mice attenuated the altered contractile response to carbachol in bronchial rings and reversed the increased airway wall and pulmonary vasculature thickness and right ventricular hypertrophy. Furthermore, AVE reduced IL-5 and increased IL-10 levels in the BAL, accompanied by decreased Ang II levels in lungs. AVE treatment prevented pulmonary remodelling, inflammation and right ventricular hypertrophy in OVA mice, suggesting that Ang-(1-7) receptor agonists are a new possibility for the treatment of pulmonary remodelling induced by chronic asthma. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Do Birds Experience Sensory Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabanac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To answer the question of whether sensory pleasure exists in birds, I trained an African-gray parrot (Psittacus erythacus named Aristote to speak. Stage 1 of the study consisted in gaining Aristote's affection. In Stage 2 Aristote was taught to speak, following Irene Pepperberg's triangular method: another person and I would talk together and look at Aristote only when it used understandable French words. Thus Aristote learned to say a few words for obtaining toys or getting my attention; e.g. “donne bouchon” (give cork or “donne gratte” (give scratch/tickle, with the appropriate reward. In Stage 3, the word bon (good was added to the short list of words used by Aristote. I said “bon” when giving Aristote the stimuli it requested and which would, presumably, be pleasurable; e.g. gratte bon. Aristote started to use short sentences such as “yaourt bon” (good yogurt. Eventually, Aristote transferred the word bon to new stimuli such as raisin (grape, an association I myself had never made. Such a use of vocabulary, and moreover its transfer, likely shows that this bird experienced sensory pleasure.

  2. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  3. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.

  4. Local equilibrium in bird flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.

  5. Effects of bird-feeding activities on the health of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcoxen, Travis E; Horn, David J; Hogan, Brianna M; Hubble, Cody N; Huber, Sarah J; Flamm, Joseph; Knott, Madeline; Lundstrom, Lisa; Salik, Faaria; Wassenhove, Samantha J; Wrobel, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Among the most popular reasons that people feed wild birds is that they want to help birds. The extent to which supplemental food helps birds, however, is not well established. From spring 2011 to spring 2014, we examined how feeding of wild birds influences the health of individual birds at forested sites in central Illinois, USA. Specifically, we compared three forested sites where we provided supplemental food with three forested sites for which no supplemental food was available and monitored changes in the individual health of birds. In addition, we determined whether any changes in bird health had occurred after feeders had been removed from sites 10 months before. Generally, the individual health of birds improved with supplemental feeding, including increased antioxidant levels, reduced stress (heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) and more rapid feather growth. In some species, we also found improved body condition index scores and innate immune defense. The difference among sites was not present 10 months after feeders were removed, suggesting that the impact on health was indeed related to supplemental feeding. Potential negative effects of supplemental feeding were also found, including an increase in infectious disease prevalence among individual birds at forested sites where supplemental food was offered. Birds with clear signs of pathology showed deficits in most of the physiological metrics in which birds at feeder sites typically showed improved health condition. At the peak of prevalence of infectious disease, 8.3% of all birds at feeders exhibited symptoms of conjunctivitis, pox, dermal disease or cloacal disease. We found both positive and negative impacts of wild bird feeding, and that, in general, birds that had access to supplemental food were in better physiological condition. Moreover, the negative effects we found may be mitigated by hobbyists engaging in safer bird-feeding practices.

  6. Assessment of bird response to the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative using weather-surveillance radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieges, Mason L.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Randall, Lori A.; Buler, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in spring 2010, the Natural Resources Conservation Service implemented the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI) to provide temporary wetland habitat for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other birds along the northern Gulf of Mexico via managed flooding of agricultural lands. We used weather-surveillance radar to conduct broad regional assessments of bird response to MBHI activities within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Across both regions, birds responded positively to MBHI management by exhibiting greater relative bird densities within sites relative to pre-management conditions in prior years and relative to surrounding non-flooded agricultural lands. Bird density at MBHI sites was generally greatest during winter for both regions. Unusually high flooding in the years prior to implementation of the MBHI confounded detection of overall changes in remotely sensed soil wetness across sites. The magnitude of bird response at MBHI sites compared to prior years and to non-flooded agricultural lands was generally related to the surrounding landscape context: proximity to areas of high bird density, amount of forested wetlands, emergent marsh, non-flooded agriculture, or permanent open water. However, these relationships varied in strength and direction between regions and seasons, a finding which we attribute to differences in seasonal bird composition and broad regional differences in landscape configuration and composition. We detected greater increases in relative bird use at sites in closer proximity to areas of high bird density during winter in both regions. Additionally, bird density was greater during winter at sites with more emergent marsh in the surrounding landscape. Thus, bird use of managed wetlands could be maximized by enrolling lands located near areas of known bird concentration and within a mosaic of existing wetlands. Weather-radar observations

  7. Valores energéticos de subprodutos de origem animal para aves Energy values of animal by-products for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vianna Nunes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn e os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade aparente (CMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (CMAn de cinco alimentos. Cento e vinte pintos de corte com 21 dias de idade foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em seis tratamentos (uma ração-referência e cinco rações-teste e quatro repetições de cinco aves. Os alimentos avaliados foram: resíduo de incubatório (RI, farinha de penas (FP, farinha de vísceras de aves (FVA e duas farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO 1 e FCO 2. Os alimentos substituíram em 20% a ração-referência. Para determinação dos valores de EMA e EMAn, foi utilizado o método tradicional de coleta total de excretas. Os valores de EMA, expressos em kcal/kg de matéria natural (MN, para os alimentos RI, FP, FVA, FCO 1 e FCO 2, foram de 1.495, 2.774, 2.676, 2.537 e 1.652 e os de EMAn, de 1.301, 2.758, 2.384, 2.307 e 1.488, respectivamente. De acordo com os valores de EMA, EMAn e energia bruta (EB, foram calculados os CMA e o CMAn para os alimentos RI, FP, FVA, FCO 1 e FCO 2, que foram, respectivamente, de 60,09; 55,49; 69,31; 67,71 e 51,14, para o CMA, e de 52,26; 55,18; 61,75; 60,85 e 46,07, para o CMAn.The apparent metabolizable energy (AME, nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable (AMEn, apparent metabolizability coefficient (AMC and nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizability coefficient (AMCn of five feedstuffs were determined. The feedstuffs investigated were: hatchery by-product meal (HM, feather meal (FM, poultry viscera meal (PVM and two meat and bone meal (MBM 1 and MBM 2 of different origin. The values of AME and AMEn were determined by the total excreta collection method. One hundred and twenty broiler chicks at 21 days old were randomly allotted to six treatments (one basal reference diet and five test diets, with four replications with five birds per

  8. Modelación matemática del consumo de presas y el flujo de energía asociado a la reproducción de Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves, Falconiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis, D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of prey consumption and energy flow associated with breeding in Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves, Falconiformes The snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis is a bird of prey that has permanent populations and is fairly common in Cuba. It is classified as High Concern in the North American Water Bird Conservation Plan, partially due to a highly specialized diet, preying only on water snail of the genus i>Pomacea. In the current paper we developed a mathematical model in Stella software to analyze consumption and mobilization of energy during reproduction of this species. The model was calibrated with reproductive parameters determined in a nesting colony of the Great Wetland of North Ciego de Ávila, Cuba. Variables included in the basic model were adults, eggs and nestling morphometry, behavioral aspects, trophic elements and other reproductive parameters; some were measured in the field and the rest were taken from literature sources. The main outcomes of the model were: energy consumption per individual, daily and total season consumption, and the number of prey it represented. To test the model we simulated the behaviour of a 100–nest colony that resulted in the production of an average of 158 ± 7.1 eggs and between 106 and 125 nestlings. Daily adult energy consumption was estimated between 110.32 and 118.47 kcal, which can be achieved by consuming around 28 snails each day. A colony of this size has an estimated requirement of 1,893,103 kcal of total energy per season, driven by 5,933 ± 59 kg of snail biomass, equivalent to between 419 and 552 thousand snails in three and half months. Sensitivity analysis of the model showed that the variables that most influenced energy consumption were those related to reproductive success, adult body size and flying behavior. The resulting model will allow to simulate and assess the potential impact of future habitat modifications on the species breeding.

  9. Helmintos gastrointestinales en aves acuáticas de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, México Gastrointestinal helminth in waterfowl of the upper Lerma river sub-basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Martínez-Haro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se calcularon los parámetros de infección de los helmintos gastrointestinales de 36 ejemplares de aves acuáticas pertenecientes a las familias Anatidae, Rallidae y Threskiornithidae, procedentes de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, Estado de México, identificándose 20 especies: 9 tremátodos, 8 céstodos, 2 nemátodos y 1 acantocéfalo. De las 8 especies de céstodos, 6 son registros nuevos para el país y Pseudocorynosoma constrictum se registra por primera vez en Anas crecca, Anas discors, Oxyura jamaicensis y Fulica americana. Los helmintos que presentaron las prevalencias más altas fueron los céstodos Hymenolepis megalops y Sobolevicanthus krabbeella en Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Anas cyanoptera y Anas crecca.A survey of helminth parasites in 36 waterfowl species from the upper Lerma River, in central Mexico was conducted. A total of 20 helminth species were recorded, including 9 trematodes, 8 cestodes, 2 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan. Six of the cestode species are recorded for the fisrt time from Mexican birds; the acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma constrictum is reported for the first time in Anas crecca, A. discors, Oxyura jamaicensis and Fulica americana. The highest prevalences were recorded for the cestodes Hymenolepis megalops and Sobolevicanthus krabbeella in Anas acuta, A. clypeata, A. cyanoptera and A. crecca.

  10. The Netherlands Bird Avoidance Model, Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to

  11. Endogenous timing factors in bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    Several species of warbler birds were observed in an effort to determine what initiates and terminates migration. Environmental and endogenous timing mechanisms were analyzed. The results indicate that endogenous stimuli are dominant factors for bird migration especially for long distances. It was concluded that environmental factors act as an assist mechanism.

  12. An integrative approach to understanding bird origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Zhou, Zhonghe; Dudley, Robert; Mackem, Susan; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Erickson, Gregory M; Varricchio, David J

    2014-12-12

    Recent discoveries of spectacular dinosaur fossils overwhelmingly support the hypothesis that birds are descended from maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs, and furthermore, demonstrate that distinctive bird characteristics such as feathers, flight, endothermic physiology, unique strategies for reproduction and growth, and a novel pulmonary system originated among Mesozoic terrestrial dinosaurs. The transition from ground-living to flight-capable theropod dinosaurs now probably represents one of the best-documented major evolutionary transitions in life history. Recent studies in developmental biology and other disciplines provide additional insights into how bird characteristics originated and evolved. The iconic features of extant birds for the most part evolved in a gradual and stepwise fashion throughout archosaur evolution. However, new data also highlight occasional bursts of morphological novelty at certain stages particularly close to the origin of birds and an unavoidable complex, mosaic evolutionary distribution of major bird characteristics on the theropod tree. Research into bird origins provides a premier example of how paleontological and neontological data can interact to reveal the complexity of major innovations, to answer key evolutionary questions, and to lead to new research directions. A better understanding of bird origins requires multifaceted and integrative approaches, yet fossils necessarily provide the final test of any evolutionary model. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, S.P.; Balthazart, J.

    2010-01-01

    Birds are anosmic or at best microsmatic… This misbelief persisted until very recently and has strongly influenced the outcome of communication studies in birds, with olfaction remaining neglected as compared to acoustic and visual channels. However, there is now clear empirical evidence showing

  14. Current perspectives on the evolution of birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ericson, P.G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current understanding of the evolution and diversification of birds. New insights into this field have mainly come from two fundamentally different, but complementary sources of information: the many newly discovered Mesozoic bird fossils and the wealth of genetic analyses

  15. Fire and bird communities in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2002-01-01

    Fire has long been a natural and anthropogenic force shaping southern forests and their fauna. Some species are attracted to recent burns. There is little direct mortality of adult birds by fire, but growing season fires may consume some nests. Fire affects bird communities mainly through effects on vegetation. Fires effective enough to limit understory hardwood...

  16. PREVALENCE OF BIRD LOUSE, MENACANTHUS CORNUTUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Keywords: Bird Louse, Kano Sub-urb areas, Menacanthus cornutus, Poultry, Prevalence ... including retarded growth, low egg production and ..... Bush, S. E. and Clayton, D. H.. (2005). Correlated evolution of host and parasite body size: Tests of Harrison's rule using birds and lice. Evolution, 59: 1744-.

  17. Prevalence of Bird Louse, Menacanthus Cornutus (Pthiraptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the prevalence of bird lice in four selected farms in Kano metropolis was conducted to determine the lice species richness, lice abundance and percent prevalence in the four poultry farms. Two hundred and forty (240) birds were examined from four poultry farms within Kano in Tofa, Fagge, Brigade and Gwarzo ...

  18. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  19. Ácaros de penas e carrapatos (Acari associados a Turdus albicollis Vieillot (Aves, Muscicapidae em uma área de Mata Atlântica da Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Feather mites and ticks (Acari associated to Turdus albicollis Vieillot (Aves, Muscicapidae in an area of Atlantic Forest at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alline Storni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O parasitismo é um importante mecanismo que afeta populações e comunidades. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a fauna de ectoparasitos que habita o corpo do sabiá-de-coleira, Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818 e avaliar se a massa corporal do hospedeiro é afetada por estes parasitos. Os indivíduos de T. albicollis foram mensalmente capturados na Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, no período de julho de 1999 a junho de 2000, em uma área de Floresta Atlântica. As aves foram individualmente marcadas, pesadas e examinadas para registrar e quantificar a presença de ectoparasitos. A abundância e a localização dos parasitos no corpo do hospedeiro foram registradas. Em 54 indivíduos de T. albicollis amostrados, foram encontrados duas espécies de ectoparasitos. A prevalência de ácaros de penas, Pterodectes turdinus Berla, 1959, foi de 72,2% enquanto que a de carrapatos, Amblyomma longirostre Koch, 1844, foi de 27,8%. A abundância mensal de P. turdinus foi significativamente relacionada com os meses do ano, sendo maior nos meses com menor freqüência de chuva. Não houve relação estatisticamente significativa entre a massa corporal do hospedeiro (g e a abundância total de ácaros de penas e carrapatos.Parasitism is an important mechanism affecting populations and communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ectoparasites fauna living on the body of the white-necked trush, Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818, and to evaluate if the host body mass is affected by these parasites. Turdus albicollis were monthly captured at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, from July 1999 to June 2000 in an area of Atlantic Forest. The birds were individualy marked, weighed and carefully checked to record and quantify the presence of ectoparasites. Parasite abundance and location on the bird's body were recorded. In 54 individuals of T. albicollis sampled, two ectoparasite species were found. The prevalence of the feather mite Pterodectes turdinus

  20. Prevalência, diversidade e estrutura da comunidade de hemoparasitos (Haemoproteus e Plasmodium) em aves do Cerrado do Brasil Central

    OpenAIRE

    Fecchio, Aan

    2011-01-01

    Hemoparasitos têm fundamental importância na ecologia e evolução de aves, uma vez que são capazes de afetar a sobrevivência e reprodução de seus hospedeiros. A prevalência (porcentagem de indivíduos infectados na população de hospedeiros) dos parasitos da malária aviária (Plasmodium e Haemoproteus) varia de zero a 100% entre diferentes espécies na comunidade de aves, embora as causas ecológicas e evolutivas dessa variação não sejam bem entendidas. Diante desse contexto, a proposta da presente...

  1. Bird feeders and their effects on bird-window collisions at residential houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding wild birds creates an important link between homeowners and conservation. The effects of bird feeders and year-round feeding on birds have not been well studied, however, particularly in relationship to bird-window collisions. We determined effects of bird feeder presence and placement on bird-window collisions at residential homes. Paired month-long trials in which a feeder was either present or absent for one month and then removed or added for the second month were completed at 55 windows at 43 houses. In each trial, homeowners were asked to search their study window daily for evidence of a bird-window collision. During the study there were 51 collisions when there was no bird feeder and 94 when the feeder was present. The season when each trial was set up was the best individual predictor of bird-window collisions. The largest number of collisions was observed during fall migration and the lowest during the winter months. There were no collisions at 26 of the study windows. High variance was observed in the number of collisions at different houses, indicating that effects of bird feeders are context dependent. Changing the occurrence, timing, and placement of feeders can alter collision rates but is only one of many factors that influence whether a residential house is likely to have a bird window-collision or not.

  2. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Boscolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.A técnica de play-back é muito útil para a detecção de aves, mas este método geralmente não é padronizado. Sua eficiência em atestar a ocorrência de cinco espécies de aves da Mata Atlântica (Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Batará Batara cinerea, Tangará Chiroxiphia caudata, Olho-de-fogo Pyriglena leucoptera e Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha Trogon surrucura foi analisada de acordo com o horário do dia, estação do ano e abundância das espécies na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande (São Paulo, Brasil e em treze fragmentos florestais de uma paisagem adjacente

  3. Molecular phylogeny and diversification of a widespread Neotropical rainforest bird group: The Buff-throated Woodcreeper complex, Xiphorhynchus guttatus/susurrans (Aves: Dendrocolaptidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Tainá C; Sequeira, Fernando; Aleixo, Alexandre; Rêgo, Péricles S; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Vallinoto, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    The genus Xiphorhynchus is a species rich avian group widely distributed in Neotropical forests of Central and South America. Although recent molecular studies have improved our understanding of the spatial patterns of genetic diversity in some species of this genus, most are still poorly known, including their taxonomy. Here, we address the historical diversification and phylogenetic relationships of the X. guttatus/susurrans complex, using data from two mitochondrial (cyt b and ND2) and one nuclear (β-fibint7) genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred with both gene trees and a Bayesian-based species tree under a coalescent framework (∗BEAST). With exception of the nuclear β-fibint7 gene that produced an unresolved tree, both mtDNA and the species tree showed a similar topology and were congruent in recovering five main clades with high statistical support. These clades, however, are not fully concordant with traditional delimitation of some X. guttatus subspecies, since X. g. polystictus, X. g. guttatus, and X. g. connectens are not supported as distinct clades. Interestingly, these three taxa are more closely related to the mostly trans-Andean X. susurrans than the other southern and western Amazonian subspecies of X. guttatus, which constitutes a paraphyletic species. Timing estimates based on the species tree indicated that diversification in X. guttatus occurred between the end of the Pliocene and early Pleistocene, likely associated with the formation of the modern Amazon River and its main southern tributaries (Xingu, Tocantins, and Madeira), in addition to climate-induced changes in the distribution of rainforest biomes. Our study supports with an enlarged dataset a previous proposal for recognizing at least three species level taxa in the X. guttatus/susurrans complex: X. susurrans, X. guttatus, and X. guttatoides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylogenetic and morphologic evidence confirm the presence of a new montane cloud forest associated bird species in Mexico, the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii; Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R. Hanna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide evidence to support an extension of the recognized distributional range of the Mountain Elaenia (Elaenia frantzii to include southern Mexico. We collected two specimens in breeding condition in northwestern Sierra Norte de Chiapas, Mexico. Morphologic and genetic evidence support their identity as Elaenia frantzii. We compared environmental parameters of records across the entire geographic range of the species to those at the northern Chiapas survey site and found no climatic differences among localities.

  5. NOTES ON TAXONOMY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MYRSIDEA SERINI (SÉGUY, 1944 (PHTHIRAPTERA: AMBLYCERA: MENOPONIDAE ON SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICAN PASSERINE BIRDS (AVES: PASSERIFORMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMANDO C. CICCHINO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myrsidea serini (Séguy, 1944 is recorded from three different passerine hosts from Argentina and Chile: Carduelis barbata (Molina, 1782 (Fringillidae, Chrysomus thilius petersi (Laubmann, 1934 and Agelaioides badius badius (Vieillot, 1819 (Icteridae. Somatic features and body measurements from available specimens belonging to these host-populations are compared with those recorded from Old World hosts, finding only some slight differences in certain body measurements (here interpreted as correlated to differences in host sizes, but none in chaetotaxy. This species was synoxenic with Myrsidea psittaci Carriker, 1955 on C. t. petersi in at least two localities in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Comparative studies of external chorionic architecture of the eggs, preferential sites of oviposition, prevalence has been carried out for both species, along with some remarks concerning the still problematic species, Myrsidea argentina (Kellogg, 1906, originally recorded off Carduelis magellanica (Vieillot, 1805.

  6. Malófagos (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera em aves cativas no sudeste do Brasil Chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera on captive birds in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Oliveira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae e Heptapsogaster sp. em Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus em Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus em Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. em Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae e Colpocephalum pectinatum em Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. As relações parasito hospedeiros em Strigiformes são novas no Brasil.Twelve chewing lice species were identified in Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba and Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. The parasites found were: Ciconiphilus pectiniventris in Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. in Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. in Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. and Goniocotes parviceps in Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis in Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae and Heptapsogaster sp. in Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus in Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus in Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. in Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae and Colpocephalum pectinatum in Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. The host-lice relationships are new in Strigiformes in Brazil.

  7. Multi-scale habitat selection in highly territorial bird species: Exploring the contribution of nest, territory and landscape levels to site choice in breeding rallids (Aves: Rallidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Chibowski, Piotr; Karasek, Tomasz; Brambilla, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection often involves choices made at different spatial scales, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, and studies that investigate the relative importance of individual scales are rare. We investigated the effect of three spatial scales (landscape, territory, nest-site) on the occurrence pattern of little crake Zapornia parva and water rail Rallus aquaticus at 74 ponds in the Masurian Lakeland, Poland. Habitat structure, food abundance and water chemical parameters were measured at nests and random points within landscape plots (from 300-m to 50-m radius), territory (14-m) and nest-site plots (3-m). Regression analyses suggested that the most relevant scale was territory level, followed by landscape, and finally by nest-site for both species. Variation partitioning confirmed this pattern for water rail, but also highlighted the importance of nest-site (the level explaining the highest share of unique variation) for little crake. The most important variables determining the occurrence of both species were water body fragmentation (landscape), vegetation density (territory) and water depth (at territory level for little crake, and at nest-site level for water rail). Finally, for both species multi-scale models including factors from different levels were more parsimonious than single-scale ones, i.e. habitat selection was likely a multi-scale process. The importance of particular spatial scales seemed more related to life-history traits than to the extent of the scales considered. In the case of our study species, the territory level was highly important likely because both rallids have to obtain all the resources they need (nest site, food and mates) in relatively small areas, the multi-purpose territories they defend.

  8. The Origin and Diversification of Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-10-05

    Birds are one of the most recognizable and diverse groups of modern vertebrates. Over the past two decades, a wealth of new fossil discoveries and phylogenetic and macroevolutionary studies has transformed our understanding of how birds originated and became so successful. Birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic (around 165-150 million years ago) and their classic small, lightweight, feathered, and winged body plan was pieced together gradually over tens of millions of years of evolution rather than in one burst of innovation. Early birds diversified throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous, becoming capable fliers with supercharged growth rates, but were decimated at the end-Cretaceous extinction alongside their close dinosaurian relatives. After the mass extinction, modern birds (members of the avian crown group) explosively diversified, culminating in more than 10,000 species distributed worldwide today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood parasites in birds from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarino, M; Vaschetti, G; Boano, G

    2007-06-01

    This study aims at evaluating the prevalence and density of haemoparasites in a native population of immature and adult male and female birds of Burkina Faso. Protists from the orders Eucoccidiorida, Kinetoplastida, as well as microfilaria were found. During the period from the 27th to the 29th of November 2003, we trapped 110 birds: on 101 sampled birds, 47 harboured blood parasites, with an overall prevalence of infection of 46.5%; 15 birds (14.8%) harboured mixed infections. Haemoproteus (prevalence of infection 30.7%), Plasmodium (13.9%), Trypanosoma (10.9%), microfilaria (8.9%) and Leucocytozoon (5.9%) were most frequently recorded. Occurrence of blood parasites was very high in comparison to that seen in birds from other areas of Africa.

  10. Principais caracteres da osteologia craniana de Milvago chimango (Vieillot, 1816 e Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 (Aves: Falconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Guzzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p107 O detalhamento da osteologia craniana de Milvago chimango e M. chimachima, contribui para assegurar a monofilia do gênero quando comparado a outras aves e a outros falconídeos. O estudo foi realizado com os crânios de três espécimes de Milvago chimango e três de Milvago chimachima, pertencentes a Divisão de Aves do Museu de História Natural Smithsonian Institution. A descrição craniana foi comparativa e ilustrada por fotos nas vistas: dorsal, ventral, caudal e lateral; sendo as espécies estudas comparados com Falconideos e algumas outras aves. Os caracteres exclusivos de M. chimango são: razão entre a distância da porção distal do osso lacrimal ao arco da órbita e deste até a arco jugal é de 1/5; ausência dos processos transpalatinos; ausência do processo dorsal do osso pterigoide; crânio mais robusto; osso paraoccipital mais desenvolvido laterolateralmente; osso lacrimal menor e mais rostral; osso palatino aproximadamente duas vezes mais largo; osso ectetmoide mais robusto e longo. Em M. chimachima são: presença de projeções na extremidade caudal do osso palatino; desenvolvido processo dorsal do osso pterigoide; fossa temporal mais afilada dorsoventralmente; crista nucal transversa delineada e visível; narina mais próxima à sutura frontonasal. A osteologia craniana forneceu caracteres diagnósticos de cada uma das espécies e do gênero, quando comparados a outras aves e aos falconídeos.

  11. Notas de plumaje correspondientes a aves capturadas en Valladolid entre el 25 y el 27 de septiembre de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Notas sobre el plumaje de las siguientes aves, capturadas con liga y cepos entre el 25 y el 27 de septiembre de 1952 en Valladolid (probablemente, capital o cercanías):Carduelis carduelis (Jilguero), Ficedula hypoleuca (Papamoscas cerrojillo, llamado Muscicapa hypoleuca por el autor), Muscicapa striata (Papamoscas gris), Passer montanus (Gorrión molinero), Serinus serinus (Verdecillo), Sylvia borin (Curruca mosquitera) y Sylvia communis (Curruca zarcera). Notes about the plumage of the fol...

  12. A polar system of intercontinental bird migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A; Hedenström, Anders; Henningsson, Sara S; Karlsson, Håkan; Rosén, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine

    2007-10-22

    Studies of bird migration in the Beringia region of Alaska and eastern Siberia are of special interest for revealing the importance of bird migration between Eurasia and North America, for evaluating orientation principles used by the birds at polar latitudes and for understanding the evolutionary implications of intercontinental migratory connectivity among birds as well as their parasites. We used tracking radar placed onboard the ice-breaker Oden to register bird migratory flights from 30 July to 19 August 2005 and we encountered extensive bird migration in the whole Beringia range from latitude 64 degrees N in Bering Strait up to latitude 75 degrees N far north of Wrangel Island, with eastward flights making up 79% of all track directions. The results from Beringia were used in combination with radar studies from the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia and in the Beaufort Sea to make a reconstruction of a major Siberian-American bird migration system in a wide Arctic sector between longitudes 110 degrees E and 130 degrees W, spanning one-third of the entire circumpolar circle. This system was estimated to involve more than 2 million birds, mainly shorebirds, terns and skuas, flying across the Arctic Ocean at mean altitudes exceeding 1 km (maximum altitudes 3-5 km). Great circle orientation provided a significantly better fit with observed flight directions at 20 different sites and areas than constant geographical compass orientation. The long flights over the sea spanned 40-80 degrees of longitude, corresponding to distances and durations of 1400-2600 km and 26-48 hours, respectively. The birds continued from this eastward migration system over the Arctic Ocean into several different flyway systems at the American continents and the Pacific Ocean. Minimization of distances between tundra breeding sectors and northerly stopover sites, in combination with the Beringia glacial refugium and colonization history, seemed to be important for the evolution of this major

  13. Estudo retrospectivo de afecções cirúrgicas em aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia F. Castro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se retrospectivamente as cirurgias realizadas em aves no Serviço de Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais do Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, durante período de oito anos. De um total de 90 intervenções cirúrgicas para diagnóstico e/ou tratamento de afecções, 27 foram ortopédicas e 63 de tecidos moles. Quanto ao percentual de cirurgias ortopédicas realizadas segundo as diferentes ordens, observou-se: Psittaciformes 85,19%, Piciformes 7,41%, Anseriformes 3,70% e Falconiformes 3,70%. Para as de tecidos moles os Psittaciformes representaram 92,06%, Columbiformes 3,17%, Passeriformes 3,17% e Anseriformes 1,60%. Entre os tipos de afecções ortopédicas encontradas as fraturas apresentaram a maior ocorrência (88,90%, seguidas de luxação (3,70%, avulsão traumática de extremidade (3,70% e artrite/osteomielite (3,70%. Dentre as afecções cirúrgicas de tecidos moles as neoplasias apresentaram a maior ocorrência (30,15%, seguidas das neoformações cutâneas ou de anexos não neoplásicos (17,46%, neoformações cutâneas sem diagnóstico (7,94%, distocia (7,94%, fístula de papo (7,94%, hérnia abdominal (4,76%, sinusite (4,76%, gangrena de extremidade de membros (3,17%, perfuração de esôfago (3,17%, prolapso de cloaca (3,17%, "Necrose avascular de dígito" (1,59%, ferida na região da quilha (1,59%, perfuração de cavidade celomática (1,59%, neoformação em cavidade celomática sem diagnóstico (1,59%, corpo estranho em trato gastrointestinal (1,59% e otite (1,59%. A distribuição das afecções cirúrgicas segundo as espécies acometidas mostrou o "grupo dos papagaios", representado em sua maioria por espécies do gênero Amazona, como prevalente. O conhecimento das afecções cirúrgicas e espécies de aves mais acometidas acrescentam informações para aqueles que já atuam nesta área e servem como indicador de estudo para futuros cirurgiões de aves.

  14. Cativeiro de aves como fonte de Cryptococcus neoformans na cidade de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiú Wander Fernando de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans é a levedura capsulada causadora de criptococose em humanos e animais. A variedade neoformans, encontrada em diversas fontes ambientais, inclusive habitats de aves, é importante causa de mortalidade em indivíduos com AIDS em todo o Mundo. Contudo, ainda não há estudos sobre a sua ecologia na região Centro Oeste brasileira, onde há registro da ocorrência de casos humanos da micose. Para estudar fontes saprofíticas de C. neoformans, na cidade de Campo Grande, foram coletadas 20 amostras de excretas de aves em distintos ambientes. Suspensão das amostras em salina estéril foram semeadas em placas com meio ágar níger. Após 5 dias, colônias mucóides marrom-escuro foram subcultivadas para identificação através de provas morfofisiológicas, determinação da variedade e sorotipagem. C. neoformans var. neoformans sorotipo A foi isolado de 10 (50% das amostras, comprovando a ocorrência saprofítica de C. neoformans na cidade de Campo Grande, relacionada a habitat de aves em cativeiro.

  15. Aves de la confluencia del Caquetá y Orteguaza (Base aérea de Tres Esquinas Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1948-06-01

    Full Text Available Los autores enumeran 156 especies y subespecies de aves coleccionadas (410 ejemplares y 24 adicionales observadas entre el 11 de agosto y el 18 de septiembre de 1947 alrededor de la base aérea militar de Tres Esquinas, cerca de la confluencia de los ríos Caquetá y Orteguaza, en la Amazonia colombiana. Entre ellas, 10 se registran por primera vez en la avifauna de Colombia.  La introducción comprende una breve reseña geográfica (un mapa y ecológica (tres fotografías de la región, y algunos datos de interes ornitogeográfico acerca de la presencia allá de tres migratorias (2 del sur y 1 del norte y otras 28 aves que muy raras veces han sido señaladas en Colombia. Además de las diez aves nuevas para este país, se extiende hasta el Alto Caquetá el área de dispersión geográfica de otras 22 (12 colecionadas y 10 observadas que son mas o menos comunes en otras partes del territorio colombiano, pero que hasta ahora no habían sido señaladas en aquella región.

  16. Candidate genes for migration do not distinguish migratory and non-migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Ramos, Juan S; Delmore, Kira E; Liedvogel, Miriam

    2017-07-01

    Migratory traits in birds have been shown to have a strong heritable component and several candidate genes have been suggested to control these migratory traits. To investigate if the genetic makeup of one or a set of these candidate genes can be used to identify a general pattern between migratory and non-migratory birds, we extracted genomic sequence data for 25 hypothesised candidate genes for migration from 70 available genomes across all orders of Aves and characterised sequence divergence between migratory and non-migratory phenotypes. When examining each gene separately across all species, we did not identify any genetic variants in candidate genes that distinguished migrants from non-migrants; any resulting pattern was driven by the phylogenetic signal. This was true for each gene analysed independently, but also for concatenated sequence alignments of all candidate genes combined. We also attempted to distinguish between migrant and non-migrants using structural features at four candidate genes that have previously been reported to show associated with migratory behaviour but did not pick up a signal for migratory phenotype here either. Finally, a screen for dN/dS ratio across all focal candidate genes to probe for putative features of selection did not uncover a pattern, though this might not be expected given the broad phylogenetic scale used here. Our study demonstrates the potential of public genomic data to test for general patterns of migratory gene candidates in a cross-species comparative context, and raise questions on the applicability of candidate gene approaches in a macro-evolutionary context to understand the genetic architecture of migratory behaviour.

  17. Spider, bee, and bird communities in cities are shaped by environmental control and high stochasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, T; Borcard, D; Arlettaz, R; Bontadina, F; Legendre, P; Obrist, M K; Moretti, M

    2010-11-01

    Spatially organized distribution patterns of species and communities are shaped by both autogenic processes (neutral mechanism theory) and exogenous processes (niche theory). In the latter, environmental variables that are themselves spatially organized induce spatial structure in the response variables. The relative importance of these processes has not yet been investigated in urban habitats. We compared the variance explained by purely spatial, spatially structured environmental, and purely environmental components for the community composition of spiders (Araneae), bees (Apidae), and birds (Aves) at 96 locations in three Swiss cities. Environmental variables (topography, climate, land cover, urban green management) were measured on four different radii around sampling points (maps (MEMs) acted as spatial variables. All three taxonomic groups showed weak spatial structure. Spider communities reacted to very fine-scaled environmental changes of lawn and meadow management and climate. Bird community composition was determined by woody plants as well as solar radiation at all radii, the scale of the influence varying among species. Bee communities were weakly explained by isolated variables only. Our results suggest that the anthropogenic structuring of urban areas has disrupted the spatial organization of environmental variables and inhibited the development of biotic spatial processes. The near absence of spatial structure may therefore be a feature typical of urban species assemblages, resulting in urban community composition mainly influenced by local environmental variables. Urban environments represent a close-knit mosaic of habitats that are regularly disturbed. Species communities in urban areas are far from equilibrium. Our analysis also suggests that urban communities need to be considered as being in constant change to adapt to disturbances and changes imposed by human activities.

  18. A molecular mechanism for the origin of a key evolutionary innovation, the bird beak and palate, revealed by an integrative approach to major transitions in vertebrate history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Morris, Zachary S; Sefton, Elizabeth M; Tok, Atalay; Tokita, Masayoshi; Namkoong, Bumjin; Camacho, Jasmin; Burnham, David A; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2015-07-01

    The avian beak is a key evolutionary innovation whose flexibility has permitted birds to diversify into a range of disparate ecological niches. We approached the problem of the mechanism behind this innovation using an approach bridging paleontology, comparative anatomy, and experimental developmental biology. First, we used fossil and extant data to show the beak is distinctive in consisting of fused premaxillae that are geometrically distinct from those of ancestral archosaurs. To elucidate underlying developmental mechanisms, we examined candidate gene expression domains in the embryonic face: the earlier frontonasal ectodermal zone (FEZ) and the later midfacial WNT-responsive region, in birds and several reptiles. This permitted the identification of an autapomorphic median gene expression region in Aves. To test the mechanism, we used inhibitors of both pathways to replicate in chicken the ancestral amniote expression. Altering the FEZ altered later WNT responsiveness to the ancestral pattern. Skeletal phenotypes from both types of experiments had premaxillae that clustered geometrically with ancestral fossil forms instead of beaked birds. The palatal region was also altered to a more ancestral phenotype. This is consistent with the fossil record and with the tight functional association of avian premaxillae and palate in forming a kinetic beak. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. A Large Accumulation of Avian Eggs from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia (Argentina) Reveals a Novel Nesting Strategy in Mesozoic Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariela S.; García, Rodolfo A.; Fiorelli, Lucas; Scolaro, Alejandro; Salvador, Rodrigo B.; Cotaro, Carlos N.; Kaiser, Gary W.; Dyke, Gareth J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first evidence for a nesting colony of Mesozoic birds on Gondwana: a fossil accumulation in Late Cretaceous rocks mapped and collected from within the campus of the National University of Comahue, Neuquén City, Patagonia (Argentina). Here, Cretaceous ornithothoracine birds, almost certainly Enanthiornithes, nested in an arid, shallow basinal environment among sand dunes close to an ephemeral water-course. We mapped and collected 65 complete, near-complete, and broken eggs across an area of more than 55 m2. These eggs were laid either singly, or occasionally in pairs, onto a sandy substrate. All eggs were found apparently in, or close to, their original nest site; they all occur within the same bedding plane and may represent the product of a single nesting season or a short series of nesting attempts. Although there is no evidence for nesting structures, all but one of the Comahue eggs were half-buried upright in the sand with their pointed end downwards, a position that would have exposed the pole containing the air cell and precluded egg turning. This egg position is not seen in living birds, with the exception of the basal galliform megapodes who place their eggs within mounds of vegetation or burrows. This accumulation reveals a novel nesting behaviour in Mesozoic Aves that was perhaps shared with the non-avian and phylogenetically more basal troodontid theropods. PMID:23613776

  20. Aves da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brasil: uma síntese histórica do conhecimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Esteves Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada uma revisão histórica dos inventários ornitológicos conduzidos na Chapada dos Guimarães, centro-oeste do Brasil. A avifauna da região é caracterizada a partir de uma revisão crítica de todas as listas de espécies produzidas por várias gerações de ornitólogos, espécimes depositados em museus e meticulosos trabalhos de campo. Especial atenção foi dada às publicações de J.A. Allen, baseadas na monumental coleção preparada por H.H. Smith e sua esposa no final do século XIX. A avifauna da região é típica do Cerrado, abrigando também espécies amazônicas. Um total de 393 espécies de aves é listado para a região, sendo outras 52 espécies citadas pela literatura consideradas de ocorrência improvável baseado nos critérios restritivos adotados. Vinte e quatro espécies coletadas pelos Smith não foram mais registradas para a região. Seis destas espécies são campestres e bastante sensíveis a alterações antrópicas, enquanto que outras três são perseguidas pelo comércio ilegal de aves. Estas espécies provavelmente se encontram extintas na região. Sete outras espécies associadas a corpos hídricos, e duas de distribuição predominantemente Amazônica, eram provavelmente raras na região, mesmo em tempos históricos, principalmente devido à falta de hábitat adequado. Seis outras são normalmente raras, podendo ter passado despercebidas. São apresentados o primeiro registro documentado de Caprimulgus longirostris para o Mato Grosso e o segundo registro de Pipraeidea melanonota para o estado. Também são discutidos os registros de outras espécies raras na região, tais como Ictinia mississipensis, Buteo melanoleucus, Harpia harpyja, Megascops usta, Asio flammeus, Berlepschia rikeri, Euscarthmus rufomarginatus, Xenopsaris albinucha e Poospiza cinerea.Here we present a historical review of all known ornithological surveys carried out at Chapada dos Guimarães, central-western Brazil. We

  1. Uso estructural del hábitat por una comunidad de aves en bosques de rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica, Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo, Jesús M.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence on the bird community of 9 structural zones in two plots of Iberian oak-woodland (Quercus pyrenaica with differences in vegetation structure was studied. Bird utilization of vegetation was measured by taking samples of each observed individual every 30 seconds, specifying the zone used as a food resource. Existence of a preferential selection in tree top and shrub was verified in the "Monte" plot, whereas tree top and ground in "Dehesa" plot were the preferential zones. The incidence of the seasons in the utilization of some zones (tree top, shrub and air was proven, while others zones (ground and trunks maintained an uniform level of utilization all year round. Shrub is used more in Iberian-oak forest than in other evergreen Quercus woods, while the opposite happens for the ground. The hardest period for birds in the study forest in the winter, while in other evergreen Mediterranean woods It is the summer.

    Depto. de Biología Animal, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Salamanca, 37071- Salamanca, España [es] Se estudia la influencia que ejercen sobre la comunidad de aves, las 9 zonas estructurales definidas dentro de dos parcelas de rebollar que presentan diferente estructura de su vegetación. La utilización del medio se midió observando cada individuo a intervalos de 30 segundos, anotando la zona sobre la que se encontraba buscando alimento. Se comprueba la selección preferencial de la copa de los árboles y del matorral en la parcela "Monte" y de la copa y el suelo en la parcela "Dehesa". Se pone de manifiesto la incidencia de la estacionalidad sobre la selección de algunos sustratos (copa de árboles, matorral y aire, mientras que otros mantienen una utilización más uniforme durante todo el año (suelo y troncos. El matorral es más ampliamente empleado en el rebollar que en bosques de Quercus perennes ibéricos, mientras que sucede lo contrario respecto al empleo del suelo. El invierno

  2. Asymmetric Grenada Basin and its Relation with Aves Ridge and Lesser Antilles Arc : Preliminary Results from Cruise GARANTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, S.; Lebrun, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Grenada Basin is a crescent-shape basin in a back-arc position relative to the Lesser Antilles arc. About 140 km wide, 3000 m deep and with a flat topography in its southern part, the basin shallows, narrows and becomes rougher northward. Its structural and genetic relations with the N-S-trending, ca.1000 m deep, Aves Ridge to the west, previously interpreted as the ante-Eocene remnant arc and the Lesser Antilles modern volcanic arc are debated. The GARANTI deep-seismic survey across the Grenada Basin (May-June 2017 French R/V L'Atalante), acquired two transverse (E-W) and one longitudinal (N-S), ca. 300 km long, wide-angle seismic lines shot using a 6473 in3 seismic source array, and recorded by 40 ocean bottom seismometers together with ca. 3500 km of 720-traces seismic reflection lines. This data set revealed a clear asymmetry along both N-S and E-W directions. To the North and to the West, the crust beneath the basin is rather thick and non-oceanic, whereas it is probably oceanic to the southeast. We pay special attention to structural relations between the basin itself and the Aves Ridge in one hand and the Antilles Arc in the other hand. The basin is filled by up to 7km of flat-lying sediments, thickening eastward and showing no apparent deformation. The Lesser Antilles arc margin is abrupt and does not appear to be the conjugate of the Aves Ridge margin. Fourteen dredges were collected, half of them were taken along the east flank of the Aves Ridge facing the deep Grenada basin. Evidences of past Cenozoic emersion of the Aves Ridge were found from drowned reef seamounts lying down to 1100 m bsl. Further analyses should better portrait the tectonic evolution of the Lesser Antilles back-arc area. GARANTI Scientific Team : A. Agranier, D. Arcay, F. Audemard, M.-A. Bassetti, M.-O. Beslier, M. Boucard, J.-J. Cornée, M. Fabre, A. Gay, D. Graindorge, A. Heuret, F. Klingelhoefer, M. Laigle, J.-L. Léticée, D. Malengros, B. Marcaillou, B. Mercier de Lépinay, P

  3. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Impact of estuarine pollution on birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Kerwin, J.A.; Stendell, R.C.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Stickel, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    Pollution of estuaries affects bird populations indirectly through changes in habitat and food supply. The multi-factor pollution of Chesapeake Bay has resulted in diminution of submerged aquatic plants and consequent change in food habits of the canvasback duck. Although dredge-spoil operations can improve wildlife habitat, they often result in its demise. Pollution of estuaries also affects birds directly, through chemical toxication, which may result in outright mortality or in reproductive impairment. Lead from industrial sources and roadways enters the estuaries and is accumulated in tissues of birds. Lead pellets deposited in estuaries as a result of hunting are consumed by ducks with sufficient frequency .to result m large annual die-offs from lead poisoning. Fish in certain areas, usually near industrial sources, may contain levels of mercury high enough to be hazardous to birds that consume them. Other heavy metals are present in estuarine birds, but their significance is poorly known. Oil exerts lethal or sublethal effects on birds by oiling their feathers, oiling eggs and young by contaminated parents, and by ingestion of oil-contaminated food. Organochlorine chemicals, of both agricultural and industrial origin, travel through the food chains and reach harmful levels in susceptible species of birds in certain estuarine ecosystems. Both outright mortality and reproductive impairment have occurred.

  5. Variación temporal y espacial de aves playeras en la laguna Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, en tres temporadas no reproductivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hay un escaso conocimiento de las aves playeras en los humedales costeros de Jalisco, y en particular en la laguna Barra de Navidad. El presente trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de este grupo de aves y describe su distribución temporal y espacial en la laguna Barra de Navidad durante tres temporadas no reproductivas (1999-2000, 2006-2007 y 2008-2009. Se realizaron censos mensuales de noviembre-abril en las tres temporadas con el fin de registrar todas las especies de aves playeras. Se identificaron 19 especies (tres residentes y 16 visitantes de invierno, de las cuales Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa y Tringa semipalmata presentaron la mayor abundancia. Doce especies son consideradas como prioritarias en la “Estrategia para la Conservación y Manejo de las Aves Playeras y su Hábitat en México”. El mayor número de especies fue registrado en noviembre, diciembre y marzo en la primera y tercera temporada. El mayor número de individuos fue registrado alimentándose en marea baja, principalmente en diciembre, enero y febrero de la primera y tercera temporada. En marea baja hubo un mayor número de especies e individuos alimentándose en la zona C. Esta zona se caracterizó por tener sustratos lodosos expuestos durante marea baja y que fueron aprovechados por las aves para alimentarse. La laguna Barra de Navidad proporcionó hábitats de alimentación y descanso para las aves residentes y migratorias. Sin embargo, estos hábitats se ven amenazados por las actividades humanas realizadas dentro de la laguna, que sin duda tendrán consecuencias negativas para la distribución y abundancia de las aves playeras.

  6. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Comportamento alimentar de beija-flores e Passeriformes nas flores de Erytrhina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae em uma área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (Trochilidae and two Passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of Londrina State University, Paraná State, Brazil. Nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. Birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers further declined, apparently following the pattern of nectar availability. The manner to which birds probed the flowers and, in consequence, their role on pollination were greatly determined by morphological traits and approaching behavior of birds. E. speciosa seemed best suited for pollination by long-billed hummingbirds but some short to medium-billed species may play some role on its pollination.Nove espécies de aves - sete beija-flores (Trochilidae e duas aves Passeriformes - foram observados visitando as flores de Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, uma espécie polinizada por beija-flores presente no campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. O néctar em flores ensacadas apresentou pouca relação com aquele em flores expostas aos visitantes, tanto em termos de quantidade como em temos de padrão diurno de disponibilidade. As aves foram mais freqüentes de manhã e sua atividade nas flores diminuiu no transcorrer do dia, coincidindo com o padrão de disponibilidade de néctar. O comportamento de visita das aves e, em conseqüência, sua atuação na polinização da espécie foram em grande parte determinadas por características morfológicas e comportamentais destas. E. speciosa parece ser adaptada para polinização por beija-flores de bicos longos, embora espécies com bicos de comprimento curto a médio possam ter algum papel em sua polinização.

  7. Molecular systematics and species limits in the Philippine fantails (Aves: Rhipidura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Luis A; Moyle, Robert G

    2011-11-01

    Islands have long-attracted scientists because of their relatively simple biotas and stark geographic boundaries. However, for many islands and archipelagos, this simplicity may be overstated because of methodological and conceptual limitations when these biotas were described. One archipelago that has received relatively little recent attention is the Philippine islands. Although much of its biota was documented long ago, taxonomic revision and evolutionary study has been surprisingly scarce, and only a few molecular phylogenetic studies are beginning to appear. We present a molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision for the Philippine fantails (Aves: Rhipidura) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Our results suggest that current taxonomy underestimates diversity in the group. Some morphologically distinct subspecies warrant species status, whereas one was indistinguishable genetically and morphologically and should not be retained. A few taxa require additional sampling for thorough taxonomic assessment. Patterns of diversity within Philippine Rhipidura mostly corroborate predictions of the Pleistocene aggregate island complex (PAIC) hypothesis, in which diversity is expected to be partitioned by deep water channels separating Pleistocene aggregate islands rather than by current islands. Substantial structure within PAIC clades indicates that additional drivers of diversification should be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Presencia de campylobacter jejuni en aves de corral y sus manipuladores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carmona

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available En una granja procesadora de aves en la ciudad de Cali, donde se sacrifican 12.000 animales diarios, se escogió para buscar Campylobacter jejuni una muestra de 120 pollos tomando como base una prevalencia del 80% y empleando un muestreo sistemático para dar una mayor cobertura teniendo en cuenta que la procedencia de los animales variaba diariamente. El porcentaje de positividad en materia fecal fue de 98.33% (118/120. Con la finalidad de averiguar el grado de higiene empleado en la manipulación de las canales, se frotó la superficie de ellos antes y después de introducirle las vísceras que es sabido van dentro del pollo al llegar al consumidor; se encontró que las canales con vísceras estaban contaminadas en un 18.33% (11/60 mientras que antes de este procedimiento la contaminación tan solo fue del 8.33% (5/60. También fueron examinadas 62 personas para buscar en ellas el C. jejuni encontrhndose en 5 (8.06% la bacteria. A todas las cepas aisladas se les probó la sensibilidad a la eritromicina usando disco de 15 Ug observándose un 100% de sensibilidad a la droga.

  9. A high-precision chronology for the rapid extinction of New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George L. W.; Wheeler, Andrew B.; Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-12-01

    Megafaunal extinction followed the prehistoric human settlement of islands across the globe, but the exact duration and dynamics of the extinction processes are difficult to determine. The New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes) are a prime example, where, despite an extensive fossil and archaeological record, debate continues about their extinction chronology and how extinction timings varied among regions and species. We apply probabilistic sightings methods to 111 high-quality radiocarbon dates (from a pool of 653 dates) on moa remains from natural and archaeological sites to provide a high-resolution spatio-temporal chronology of moa extinction. We interpret this alongside an estimated time for the onset of hunting pressure, obtained by applying the same methods to the most reliable proxies for initial human settlement of New Zealand: coprolites of and seeds gnawed by the commensal Pacific rat (Rattus exulans). By comparing local and national extinction times, we discriminate between the point at which hunting stopped (economic extinction) and the total extinction of moa (ca 150 and 200 years after settlement, respectively). Extinction occurred contemporaneously at sites separated by hundreds of kilometres. There was little difference between the extinction times of the smallest (20-50 kg) and largest (200+ kg) moa species. Our results demonstrate how rapidly megafauna were exterminated from even large, topographically- and ecologically-diverse islands such as New Zealand, and highlight the fragility of such ecosystems in the face of human impacts.

  10. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA HOMOGENEITY IN THE PHENOTYPICALLY DIVERSE REDPOLL FINCH COMPLEX (AVES: CARDUELINAE: CARDUELIS FLAMMEA-HORNEMANNI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seutin, Gilles; Ratcliffe, Laurene M; Boag, Peter T

    1995-10-01

    Breeding redpoll finches (Aves: Carduelinae) show extensive plumage and size variability and, in many cases, a plumage polymorphism that is not related to age or sex. This has been ascribed to extreme phenotypic variation within a single taxon or to moderate variability within distinct taxa coupled with hybridization. The predominant view favors the recognition of two largely sympatric species: Carduelis flammea, comprised of four well-marked subspecies-flammea, cabaret, islandica, and rostrata; and C. hornemanni, comprised of two subspecies-hornemanni and exilipes. We studied representative samples of these putative subspecies (except islandica) for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Using 20 informative restriction enzymes that recognized 124 sites (642 base pairs [bp] of sequence or ≈ 3.7% of the molecule), we identified 17 RFLP haplotypes in the 31 individuals surveyed. The haplotypes formed a simple phylogenetic network with most clones diverging by a single site difference from a common haplotype found in almost half of the individuals. Within populations and taxa, levels of mtDNA diversity were similar to those observed in other avian species. The pattern of mtDNA divergence among populations was statistically unrelated to their geographic or traditional taxonomic relationships, and the estimated distance between the two traditionally recognized species was very small relative to those typically observed among avian sister species. © 1995 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Evidence for Bird Mafia! Threat Pays

    OpenAIRE

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Kolatkar, Milind

    1996-01-01

    Birds are remarkable for their extraordinary efforts at nest building and brood care. Given that so many species of birds spend so much time and effort at these activities, there is plenty of room for some species to take it easy, lay their eggs in the nests of other species and hitch-hike on their hosts. The cuckoo that lays its eggs in the nests of a variety of host species is well known. Indeed, over 80 species, i.e., over 1% of bird species are known to be such obligate inter-specific bro...

  12. In-flight turbulence benefits soaring birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Julie M.; Bildstein, Keith L.; Katzner, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Birds use atmospheric updrafts to subsidize soaring flight. We observed highly variable soaring flight by Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) in Virginia, USA, that was inconsistent with published descriptions of terrestrial avian flight. Birds engaging in this behavior regularly deviated vertically and horizontally from linear flight paths. We observed the soaring flight behavior of these 2 species to understand why they soar in this manner and when this behavior occurs. Vultures used this type of soaring mainly at low altitudes (birds because it permits continuous subsidized flight when other types of updraft are not available.

  13. Modelos matemáticos para estimar as exigências de lisina digestível para aves de corte ISA Label Mathematical models to estimate digestible lysine of ISA Label broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Costa de Siqueira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar diferentes modelos ajustados às respostas de ganho de peso obtidas em experimento com aves da linhagem ISA Label no período de 1 a 28 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 480 pintos de ambos os sexos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4 X 2 (níveis de lisina X sexo, com três repetições, com 20 aves por unidade experimental. Uma ração basal foi formulada para atender às exigências das aves, exceto em lisina. Essa ração foi suplementada com L-lisina HCl em substituição ao ácido L-glutâmico, resultando em rações experimentais isonitrogênicas e isoenergéticas contendo 0,85; 0,97; 1,09 e 1,21% de lisina digestível. As respostas de ganho de peso foram ajustadas de acordo com os níveis de lisina da ração pelos modelos Linear Reponse Plateau (LRP, segmentado de duas inclinações, polinomial quadrático e exponencial. A primeira intersecção da equação quadrática com o platô do LRP também foi utilizado para estimar o nível ótimo. Os níveis de lisina digestível estimados pelos modelos LRP, segmentado e quadrático, foram 0,999; 1,010 e 1,116%, respectivamente. Na combinação do modelo quadrático com o LRP, a estimativa da exigência de lisina digestível foi de 1,041%. O modelo exponencial proporcionou estimativa de 1,066%, considerando 95% da resposta assintótica. Com base nos custos com alimentação, esse mesmo modelo gerou estimativas de 1,000 e 1,030% quando o custo do quilograma de L-lisina HCl foi R$ 8,50 e R$ 6,50, respectivamente. Considerando as limitações de cada um dos modelos propostos, o procedimento para estimar as exigências de lisina digestível pela primeira intersecção da equação quadrática com o platô do LRP foi o mais adequado para melhorar o ganho de peso das aves quando variáveis econômicas não foram consideradas.The objective of this study was to evaluate different models in the adjustment of weight gain (WG

  14. Dental Disparity and Ecological Stability in Bird-like Dinosaurs prior to the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Derek W; Brown, Caleb M; Evans, David C

    2016-05-23

    The causes, rate, and selectivity of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction continue to be highly debated [1-5]. Extinction patterns in small, feathered maniraptoran dinosaurs (including birds) are important for understanding extant biodiversity and present an enigma considering the survival of crown group birds (Neornithes) and the extinction of their close kin across the end-Cretaceous boundary [6]. Because of the patchy Cretaceous fossil record of small maniraptorans [7-12], this important transition has not been closely examined in this group. Here, we test the hypothesis that morphological disparity in bird-like dinosaurs was decreasing leading up to the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, as has been hypothesized in some dinosaurs [13, 14]. To test this, we examined tooth morphology, an ecological indicator in fossil reptiles [15-19], from over 3,100 maniraptoran teeth from four groups (Troodontidae, Dromaeosauridae, Richardoestesia, and cf. Aves) across the last 18 million years of the Cretaceous. We demonstrate that tooth disparity, a proxy for variation in feeding ecology, shows no significant decline leading up to the extinction event within any of the groups. Tooth morphospace occupation also remains static over this time interval except for increased size during the early Maastrichtian. Our data provide strong support that extinction within this group occurred suddenly after a prolonged period of ecological stability. To explain this sudden extinction of toothed maniraptorans and the survival of Neornithes, we propose that diet may have been an extinction filter and suggest that granivory associated with an edentulous beak was a key ecological trait in the survival of some lineages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Avian influenza: Eco-epidemiological aspects of the virus in its natural hosts, the migratory waterfowls Influenza aviar: Aspectos ecoepidemiológicos del virus en su hospedero natural, las aves acuáticas migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARICELA MONTALVO-CORRAL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses produce mainly respiratory and intestinal diseases. Their relevance in the generation of pandemic strains has led to a large amount of research to understand their distribution in nature, as well as the relations that become established for the effective transmission among different hosts. Waterfowl have been recognized as their natural reservoir and they play an important role in the propagation and generation of the diversity of these viruses. The emergence of new influenza viruses with pandemic potential among the human population (H5N1 of avian origin or recombinant H1N1 with avian segments point our lack of information on many aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of these viruses in their natural hosts to enable the implementation of more effective prevention and control measures. In this review, we attempt to make a critical essay on the current state of knowledge on the biotic and abiotic factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of the influenza A viruses in wild birds.Los virus influenza ocasionan enfermedades respiratorias e intestinales. Su importancia en la generación de cepas pandémicas ha conducido a la realización de intensa investigación científica para entender y conocer su distribución en la naturaleza, así como las relaciones que se establecen para la transmisión efectiva entre diferentes hospederos. Las aves acuáticas principalmente del orden Anseriformes, se han reconocido como el reservorio de estos virus y tienen una participación crucial en la propagación y generación de diversidad de estos virus. La emergencia de nuevos virus influenza con potencial pandémico entre la población humana (H5N1 de origen aviar y el actual virus pandémico H1N1 que presenta segmentos aviares, resalta la falta de información sobre muchos aspectos de la ecología y epidemiología de estos virus en sus hospederos naturales, que permitan la implementación de medidas más efectivas de prevenci

  16. Nucleolar organizer regions in Sittasomus griseicapillus and Lepidocolaptes angustirostris (Aves, Dendrocolaptidae: evidence of a chromosome inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Oliveira Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies in birds are still scarce compared to other vertebrates. Woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptidae are part of a highly specialized group within the Suboscines of the New World. They are forest birds exclusive to the Neotropical region and similar to woodpeckers, at a comparable evolutionary stage. This paper describes for the first time the karyotypes of the Olivaceous and the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper using conventional staining with Giemsa and silver nitrate staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs. Metaphases were obtained by fibular bone marrow culture. The chromosome number of the Olivaceous Woodcreeper was 2n = 82 and of the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, 2n = 82. Ag-NORs in the largest macrochromosome pair and evidence of a chromosome inversion are described herein for the first time for this group.

  17. Acuariidae (Nematoda) in Procellariiformes (Aves) on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Camila Costa; Mascarenhas, Carolina Silveira; Gastal, Silvia Bainy; Scheer, Simone; Müller, Gertrud; Robaldo, Ricardo Berteaux

    2018-03-05

    Acuariidae nematodes are normally found in the digestive tract of aquatic birds, including Procellariiformes. Were examined Calonectris borealis (n = 4), Diomedea exulans (n = 1), Macronectes giganteus (n = 8), Thalassarche chlororhynchos (n = 5), Thalassarche melanophrys (n = 15), Procellaria aequinoctialis (n = 4), Puffinus gravis (n = 2) and Puffinus puffinus (n = 6), collected on the southern coast of RS, Brazil. A total of 16 birds (35.5%) were parasitized by two species of Acuariidae. Stegophorus diomedeae and Seuratia shipleyi were identified, with prevalences of 26.1% and 21.7%, respectively. Few studies on nematodes in Procellariiformes have been conducted. Here, the acuariids Seuratia shipleyi in Calonectris borealis and Procellaria aequinoctialis and Stegophorus diomedeae in Diomedea exulans, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Thalassarche chlororhynchos were reported for the first time.

  18. Exotic birds increase generalization and compensate for native bird decline in plant-frugivore assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Daniel; Martínez, Daniel; Stouffer, Daniel B; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2014-11-01

    Exotic species are thought to alter the structure of natural communities and disrupt ecosystem functioning through invasion. Nevertheless, exotic species may also provide ecological insurance when they contribute to maintain ecosystem functions after the decline of native species following anthropogenic disturbance. Here, this hypothesis is tested with the assemblage of frugivorous birds and fleshy-fruited plants of New Zealand, which has suffered strong historical declines in native birds while simultaneously gaining new frugivores introduced by European settlers. We studied the plant-frugivore assemblage from measures of fruit and bird abundances and fruit consumption in nine forest patches, and tested how this changed across a gradient of relative abundance of exotic birds. We then examined how each bird species' role in the assemblage (the proportion of fruits and the number of plant species consumed) varied with their relative abundance, body size and native/exotic status. The more abundant and, to a lesser extent, larger birds species consumed a higher proportion of fruits from more plant species. Exotic birds consumed fruits less selectively and more proportionate to the local availability than did native species. Interaction networks in which exotic birds had a stronger role as frugivores had higher generalization, higher nestedness and higher redundancy of plants. Exotic birds maintained frugivory when native birds became rarer, and diversified the local spectrum of frugivores for co-occurring native plants. These effects seemed related to the fact that species abundances, rather than trait-matching constraints, ultimately determined the patterns of interactions between birds and plants. By altering the structure of plant-frugivore assemblages, exotic birds likely enhance the stability of the community-wide seed dispersal in the face of continued anthropogenic impact. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  19. Birds and bird-lore in the literature of Anglo-Saxon England

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, M. E. R.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an interdisciplinary approach towards understanding the ways in which Anglo-Saxons perceived the birds around them and the cultural associations with which we find them endowed in the literature. It focuses on closely examining the entire range of primary sources available to us in order to build as accurate and as complete a picture of Anglo-Saxon bird-lore as possible, and it stresses the indivisibility of observational experiences of birds and their cultural associatio...

  20. Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    the establishment of long grass aisles at both sides of the main runway and a weekly record of the distribution of lapwings. Virtually no birds were...an exhibition was organized in the Air France Communication Showroom to inform aircrews about birdstrike hazards. This exhibition was supported by a...sensors, Virtual (computerized) and artificial birds, and detailed analyses of existing data bases to detect and explain "non-randomness" in bird strikes