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Sample records for birds quail pheasant

  1. Tests of pesticidal synergism with young pheasants and Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.; Spann, J.W.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen pairs of chemicals involving 18 pesticides and two polychlorinated biphenyl preparations were each fed for 5 days to Japanese quail or ring-necked pheasant chicks 7 to 16 days of age. Malathion + EPN, and malathion + trichlorofon were moderately synergistic in tests with both species, whereas joint toxicities of the other chemicals tended to be additive. Comparisons with other studies of joint action of pesticides against mammals and insects suggest that the two species of birds tested are less susceptible to synergism than are mammals or insects. The results also suggest that the likelihood of a factor of synergism greater than three in birds is not great.

  2. 7 CFR 70.14 - Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. 70.14... Products General § 70.14 Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. Squabs and domesticated game birds (including, but not being limited to, quail, pheasants, and wild species of ducks and geese raised...

  3. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Teixeira

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue samples were collected from commercial farms and were examined for oocysts, gross and microscopic lesions or endogenous stages. From this examination, it was found that partridges raised in Brazil did not have any visible infection. However, grey quails presented mild infection and two Eimeria species that had previously been described in other birds were identified.

  4. Genetic diversity of pheasants from natural habitat and farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The original source of the pheasants living in the natural habitat is the farm, and the present genetic variation between the two groups of birds can be interpreted as an effect of natural selection. Keywords: Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), genetic distance, genetic polymorphism, genetic similarities, genetic ...

  5. Cytochrome P450 1 Genes in Birds: Evolutionary Relationships and Transcription Profiles in Chicken and Japanese Quail Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.; Brunström, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) genes are biomarkers for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists and may be involved in some of their toxic effects. CYP1s other than the CYP1As are poorly studied in birds. Here we characterize avian CYP1B and CYP1C genes and the expression of the identified CYP1 genes and AHR1, comparing basal and induced levels in chicken and quail embryos. Methodology/Principal Findings We cloned cDNAs of chicken CYP1C1 and quail CYP1B1 and AHR1. CYP1Cs occur in several bird genomes, but we found no CYP1C gene in quail. The CYP1C genomic region is highly conserved among vertebrates. This region also shares some synteny with the CYP1B region, consistent with CYP1B and CYP1C genes deriving from duplication of a common ancestor gene. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed similar tissue distribution patterns for CYP1A4, CYP1A5, CYP1B1, and AHR1 mRNA in chicken and quail embryos, with the highest basal expression of the CYP1As in liver, and of CYP1B1 in eye, brain, and heart. Chicken CYP1C1 mRNA levels were appreciable in eye and heart but relatively low in other organs. Basal transcript levels of the CYP1As were higher in quail than in chicken, while CYP1B1 levels were similar in the two species. 3,3′,4,5,5′-Pentachlorobiphenyl induced all CYP1s in chicken; in quail a 1000-fold higher dose induced the CYP1As, but not CYP1B1. Conclusions/Significance The apparent absence of CYP1C1 in quail, and weak expression and induction of CYP1C1 in chicken suggest that CYP1Cs have diminishing roles in tetrapods; similar tissue expression suggests that such roles may be met by CYP1B1. Tissue distribution of CYP1B and CYP1C transcripts in birds resembles that previously found in zebrafish, suggesting that these genes serve similar functions in diverse vertebrates. Determining CYP1 catalytic functions in different species should indicate the evolving roles of these duplicated genes in physiological and toxicological processes. PMID:22164255

  6. A novel TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the authenticity of meat and commercial meat products from game birds

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using TaqMan probes have been developed for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds including quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock and song thrush species. The method combines the use of species-specific primers and TaqMan probes that amplify small fragments (amplicons - 28040 - Madrid - SPAIN (Martin, Rosario) SPAIN

  7. Birds and Dutch elm disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1958-01-01

    Brief, factual review of information on effect of DDT and other insecticides on birds. One program for control of elm disease caused 22% decrease in number of adult birds and 56% mortality of nestlings. Quail fed 3 oz. of DDT per ton of food had 16% reduction in young hatched and 500% increase in defective chicks. Quail fed same dosage during winter and breeding seasons had 30% decrease in fertile eggs and 800% increase in defective chicks. More than 90% of their chicks died in first 6 weeks although fed no insecticide. Almost equally bad results came from feeding Pheasants diets with about 1 oz. DDT per ton. Other common insecticides (chlorinated hydrocarbons) also caused lowered chick survival and higher percentages of crippled chicks. From field data we know that 2 lbs. DDT/acre can affect birds and has even worse effects on cold-blooded animals. Efforts to control elm disease have left as much as 196 lbs. DDT/acre in top 3 inches of soil. Earthworms concentrate DDT in their tissues. Thus the treated areas can be traps for birds and other animals. What can be done? 1) In control of elm disease, use minimum effective amount of insecticide; mist blowers use less than sprayers. 2) Avoid applications during migration and nesting seasons. It has been reported that adequate control can be obtained with dormant sprays and that foliar applications may not be required. Tables of this paper show effects of DDT on reproduction of Quail, relative toxicity to quail of 8 insecticides, and amounts of 7 insecticides required to cause 40% or more decrease in Quail reproduction. These comparisons demonstrate that Aldrin, Endrin, and Dieldrin are 20 to 200 times as toxic as DDT and that Heptachlor and Chlordane are only slightly less toxic than Dieldrin. Methoxychlor and Strobane are less toxic to Quail than is DDT.

  8. An outbreak of Newcastle disease in free-living pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt; Ahrens, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiology of an outbreak of Newcastle disease in a population of approximately 12 000 free-living pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) on the island of Faeno in Denmark in 1996 is described. The mortality epizootic demonstrated over an observation period of 3 weeks. A total of 70 avian paramyxo...... to the pheasants by feral birds....

  9. Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus hens of different origin. Dispersion and habitat use after release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassare Fronte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of pheasants as a game bird species in many European Countries, information on the success of the restocking programs is interesting for evaluation. For this reason the survival, behaviour and habitat selection of 10 wild translocated and 20 released ring-necked pheasants (10 offspring of wild captured and 10 from the farmed strain, both farm-reared was studied using radio-telemetry during March-August (fixes were grouped in 3 categorized periods: March 2 - April 18; April 19 - May 28; May 29 - August 16. All the captive reared pheasants were reared according to the new disciplinary rules set forth by the Toscana region for the production of pheasants destined to be released in the wild as part of a game repopulation program. The study was carried out in a hilly area of the Tuscany characterised by 18.1% woodland (core: 1654895E, 4850468N. Results showed that live weights were higher in the farm-reared pheasants (either directly captured or offspring of the captured, P<0.05. The tarsus length statistically differed between the farmed offspring of the captured pheasants and the farm strain (P<0.05. The survival rates and breeding success of the surviving subjects were very high and did not differ between groups (survival rates: 50.0%, 70.0% and 80.0%, and breeding success: 60.0%, 28.6% and 50.0%, for the captive-reared offspring of captured wild pheasants, the captive-reared farm pheasants and the captured wild pheasants, respectively. The dispersion increased with time in the wild translocated pheasants (576 m, 889 m and 1209 m while the offspring of the captured wild pheasants and the farm strain remained in the vicinity of the releasing site. The wild pheasants showed an increasing distance from the country houses, contrary to the offspring of captured wild pheasants and the farm strain. Artificial feeding stations were better used by the farmreared pheasants, which remained in the vicinity of the artificial feeding

  10. Genetically modified crops in a 10-generation feeding trial on Japanese quails--Evaluation of its influence on birds' performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartowska, K E; Korwin-Kossakowska, A; Sender, G

    2015-12-01

    The effect of genetically modified (GM) feed components comprising soya bean meal and maize on the performance indices (reproduction, survival rate, growth, egg production, relative weight of chosen internal organs, and basic chemical composition of breast muscle and egg yolk) of Japanese quails was investigated during a 10-generation trial. A total number of 8,438 healthy quail chicks were used in the course of the trial. In each generation, birds were maintained in 3 experimental groups differing in the main feed components, i.e. 1) GM soya (Roundup Ready) and non-GM maize, 2) GM maize (MON810) and non-GM soya, and 3) non-GM soya and maize. The different feeds used did not influence any of the biological hatch indices, survival rate, or BW of young or adult quails. With regard to egg-laying performance, the GM maize group showed a better laying percentage and a higher egg mass production compared to the other groups; the GM soya group showed reduced average egg mass compared to the other groups, whereas the overall egg production level was the same as in the control group. Results showed a higher relative weight of breast muscle and gizzard in birds fed GM maize compared to the control group, whereas live BW and the relative weights of liver and heart were not different among groups. Meat from the GM soya group showed higher protein and lower fat levels compared to the control group. In the case of egg yolk, its chemical composition in the experimental groups did not differ from the control group. Even though some differences were found among the feeding groups, none could be judged as a negative influence of GM maize or GM soya in feed on the birds or final consumer products over 10 generations of Japanese quails.

  11. Are farm-reared quails for game restocking really common quails (Coturnix coturnix?: a genetic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Sanchez-Donoso

    Full Text Available The common quail (Coturnix coturnix is a popular game species for which restocking with farm-reared individuals is a common practice. In some areas, the number of released quails greatly surpasses the number of wild breeding common quail. However, common quail are difficult to raise in captivity and this casts suspicion about a possible hybrid origin of the farmed individuals from crosses with domestic Japanese quail (C. japonica. In this study we used a panel of autosomal microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic origin of quails reared for hunting purposes in game farms in Spain and of quails from an experimental game farm which was founded with hybrids that have been systematically backcrossed with wild common quails. The genotypes of these quail were compared to those of wild common quail and domestic strains of Japanese quail. Our results show that more than 85% of the game farm birds were not common quail but had domestic Japanese quail ancestry. In the experimental farm a larger proportion of individuals could not be clearly separated from pure common quails. We conclude that the majority of quail sold for restocking purposes were not common quail. Genetic monitoring of individuals raised for restocking is indispensable as the massive release of farm-reared hybrids could represent a severe threat for the long term survival of the native species.

  12. Studies on combined effects of organophosphates or carbamates and morsodren in birds. II. Plasma and cholinesterase in quail fed morsodren and orally dosed with parathion or carbofuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.; Ludke, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The degree of interaction between mercury and cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides was determined by comparing enzyme responses to sublethal dosages of parathion or carbofuran in quail fed 0.05, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm morsodren for 18 weeks. A statistically significant interaction was defined as greater brain cholinesterase inhibition in morsodren-fed than in clean-fed birds following pesticide dosage. The tissue residues of mercury that accumulated before significant mercury-parathion interactions occurred were higher than levels that might be expected in natural populations, but significant mercury-carbofuran interactions occurred in birds that had only accumulated 1.0 ppm liver mercury. The results indicate that indiscriminate usage of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides are dangerous, since natural populations of fish-eating birds oftentimes contain this magnitude of mercury.

  13. Comparison of learning ability and memory retention in altricial (Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata var. domestica) and precocial (blue-breasted quail, Coturnix chinensis) birds using a color discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Aki; Suzuki, Kaoru

    2014-02-01

    The present study sought to assess the potential application of avian models with different developmental modes to studies on cognition and neuroscience. Six altricial Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica), and eight precocial blue-breasted quails (Coturnix chinensis) were presented with color discrimination tasks to compare their respective faculties for learning and memory retention within the context of the two developmental modes. Tasks consisted of presenting birds with discriminative cues in the form of colored feeder lids, and birds were considered to have learned a task when 80% of their attempts at selecting the correctly colored lid in two consecutive blocks of 10 trials were successful. All of the finches successfully performed the required experimental tasks, whereas only half of the quails were able to execute the same tasks. In the learning test, finches required significantly fewer trials than quails to learn the task (finches: 13.5 ± 9.14 trials, quails: 45.8 ± 4.35 trials, P memory retention tests, which were conducted 45 days after the learning test, finches retained the ability to discriminate between colors correctly (95.0 ± 4.47%), whereas quails did not retain any memory of the experimental procedure and so could not be tested. These results suggested that altricial and precocial birds both possess the faculty for learning and retaining discrimination-type tasks, but that altricial birds perform better than precocial birds in both faculties. The present findings imply that developmental mode is an important consideration for assessing the suitability of bird species for particular experiments. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Structural Differences of the Harderian Gland between Common Pheasants (Phasianus Colchicus Talischensis and Hybrids of Italian Amber and Common Pheasants

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    J Klećkowska-Nawrot

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the histological and histochemical structure of the Harderian gland in wild and hybrid of wild and domestic birds. The samples were stained with haematoxylin-eosin, methyl green-pyronin Y, periodic acid-Schiff, alcian blue pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin and Hale's dialyzed iron staining's. In both species, the glands had multilobar tubuloacinar structure type I. The Harderian gland was located in the orbit near the inter-orbital septum, between the medial rectus muscle, the pyramidal muscle of the third eyelid, and the ventral oblique muscle. In the common pheasant, the gland was wider in the proximal and distal part. The common pheasant had more elongated lobes of the Harderian gland than in the hybrid. In the common pheasant, the glandular cells presented darkly-stained serous secretion and lightly-stained mucous secretion. In the hybrid, the glandular cells presented seromucous secretion. The central lobar space, interacinar space, and apical parts of the acini of the Harderian glands were filled with many lymphocytes and plasma cells, particularly in the common pheasant, where centers of all large lobes were abundantly filled with plasma cells. The plasma cells dominated in common pheasant's Harderian gland, while in the hybrid, lymphocytes and plasma cells were present at similar quantities. The cells positive for periodic acid of Schiff staining were dominant in hybrid. Periodic acid-Schiff, Hale's dialyzed iron and alcian blue pH 2.5 stainings demonstrated acid-carboxylated mucopolysaccharides in the glandular cells cytoplasm of the examined birds.

  15. Increased pathogenicity and shedding in chickens of a wild bird-origin low pathogenicity avian influenza virus of the H7N3 subtype following multiple in vivo passages in quail and turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilloni, Filippo; Toffan, Anna; Giannecchini, Simone; Clausi, Valeria; Azzi, Alberta; Capua, Ilaria; Terregino, Calogero

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate viral adaptation mechanisms to poultry, we performed serial in vivo passages of a wild bird low pathogenicity avian influenza isolate of the H7N3 subtype (A/mallard/Italy/33/01) in three different domestic species (chicken, turkey, and Japanese quail). The virus under study was administered via natural routes at the dose of 10(6) egg infective dose50/ 0.1 ml to chickens, turkeys, and quails in order to investigate the clinical susceptibility and the shedding levels after infection. Multiple in vivo passages of the virus were performed by serially infecting groups of five naive birds of each species, with samples collected from a previously infected group. Quails and turkeys were susceptible to infection for 10 serial passages, whereas chickens were susceptible to two cycles of infection only. Infection of chicken with the quail- and turkey-adapted viruses showed an increased pathogenicity and/or shedding, causing more severe clinical signs and/or higher levels of viral excretion compared to the original strain. The data obtained herein suggest that infection of selected avian species may facilitate the adaptation of avian influenza viruses originating from the wild bird reservoir to chicken. This is the first time turkey has been shown to act as a species in which a virus from the wild reservoir can increase its replication activity in other domestic species.

  16. THE EFFECT OF ADDING WHOLE WHEAT GRAIN TO FEED MIXTURE ON SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS COMPOSITION IN GAME PHEASANTS

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    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mean body weight of pheasant cocks (1226 g and hens (946.9 g receiving feed mixtures was lower than that of birds fed diets with wheat (♂ 1421.4 g, ♀ 953.2 g. The dressing percentage of both sexes pheasants fed wheat grain also (69.9% was only 0.3% lower than in birds receiving feed mixtures only (70.2%. The carcasses of birds (♂♀ fed the diet with whole wheat grain contained more breast muscles (251.2 g, leg muscles (198.8 g and other carcass components. The carcass percentage of breast muscles, leg muscles, wings and skin with fat was lower, and that of remainders of carcass higher in pheasants receiving wheat grain. In addition, the carcasses of pheasants (♂♀ fed the wheat diets were characterized by a higher weight of meat and fat and lower carcass meat and fat percentage.

  17. Humoral and Cellular Response of Pheasants Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease and Haemorrhagic Enteritis

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    S. Graczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to define whether and to what extent can prophylactic vaccinations against Newcastle disease (ND and haemorrhagic enteritis (HE affect the humoral and cellular response in pheasants. The evaluation of humoral response was performed on a basis of agglutinin titre after administered antigen and the cellular immunity index was the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction. The pheasants were prophylactically vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND on the 1st, 28th and 56th day of life. Moreover, on the 49th day of life, part of the birds was given in the drinking water a vaccine containing the HEV (Haemorrhagic Enteritis Virus. Fourteen days after the HEV vaccination, the birds were intravenously given 0.5 ml of the 10% SRBC (sheep red blood cells suspension. Simultaneously with the SRBC administration the delayed hypersensitivity test was performed by intradermal administration of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA. It was shown that in pheasants vaccinated with NDV and additionally with HEV, the specific agglutinin anti-SRBC titre was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than in birds vaccinated against ND only. It also appeared that, the antibodies resistant to 2-mercaptoethanol were 43% of the total pool of specific anti-SRBC antibodies in the NDV vaccinated birds, whereas in birds vaccinated also with HEV they were 75%. No significant differences were found in the DTH test. Only in the HEV vaccinated pheasants the tendency to increase the wing index value was noted. The results confirm the observations concerning immunosuppressive effects of simultaneous vaccinations. They also indicate that overloading the pheasants with many antigens (ND and HEV vaccination may weaken the humoral response to administered SRBC.

  18. [Susceptibility of birds other than chickens to infectious laryngotracheitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbink, F W

    1985-06-01

    Susceptibility to infectious laryngotracheitis virus was studied in peafowl (Pavo cristatus), various species of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, Lophura swinhoeii, Lophophorus impejanus), guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris), canaries (Serinus canaria), budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnic japonica). Apart from clinical observations, experiments were evaluated in terms of histopathology, immunofluorescence, serology and recovery of virus. Only peafowl and pheasants were found to be susceptible, pheasants responding more strongly than chickens to ocular vaccination and intratracheal inoculation. The other species were found to be refractory.

  19. Photostimulation of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, A B; Garcia, E A; Santos, G C; Vieira Filho, J A; Baldo, G A A; Almeida Paz, I C L

    2015-02-01

    To adapt commercial poultry production to a new scenario of energy savings and to develop specific practices for quail production aimed at reducing costs while maintaining or improving productivity, four experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, birds were allocated to four treatments (photoperiod duration): T1: 14 L:10 D; T2: 15 L:9 D; T3: 16 L:8 D; and T4: 17 L:7 D. In the second experiment, birds were subjected to four levels of brightness: T1: 5 lux; T2: 10 lux; T3:15 lux; and T4: 22 lux (control). In the third experiment, four types of lamps were evaluated: T1: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 6,500 K); T2: compact fluorescent lamp (color temperature: 2,700 K); T3: incandescent lamp; and T4: yellow LED. In the last experiment, four lighting programs were compared: T1: continuous program (control), in which there was a single photoperiod of 15 h; the other treatments consisted of intermittent lighting programs, as follows: T2: 1 h of light provided 1 h after dusk; T3: 1 h of light provided 2 h before dawn; T4: half an hour of light provided 1 h after dusk and half an hour of light provided 1.5 h before dawn. In each experiment, 1,296 Japanese quail were evaluated for four 28-d cycles, totaling 112 experimental days. A completely randomized experimental design of 4 treatments with 12 replicates of 27 birds each was applied in all trials. Performance and egg quality were evaluated in each experiment. Higher egg production and adequate egg quality, as well as energy savings, can be obtained with Japanese quail using compact fluorescent lamps or LEDs and a photoperiod of 15 h/d supplied using an intermittent lighting program, with 1 h of artificial light 2 h before dawn at a brightness of 5 lux. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Long?term and widespread changes in agricultural practices influence ring?necked pheasant abundance in California

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Howe, Kristy B.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Dwight, Ian A.; Connelly, Daniel P.; Meshriy, Matt G.; Gardner, Scott C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Declines in bird populations in agricultural regions of North America and Europe have been attributed to agricultural industrialization, increases in use of agrochemical application, and increased predation related to habitat modification. Based on count data compiled from Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) from 1974 to 2012, Christmas Bird Count (CBC) collected from 1914 to 2013, and hunter data from Annual Game Take Survey (AGTS) for years 1948?2010, ring?necked pheasants (Phasianus colchi...

  1. Behaviour patterns of the cage-housed breeding flock of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zapletal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the behaviour patterns of a cage-housed breeding flock of pheasants during the day in the early stage of laying period, and evaluate the differences in behaviour patterns between male and female pheasants. Observations were carried out with a flock of common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus consisting of 1 male and 5 female pheasants aged 2 years that showed a minimum rate of aggression in the previous laying. Behaviour patterns of birds were studied using a 15-minute video recording taken at each hour during the day (from 7 a.m. until 7 p.m.. The rates of activities such as feeding, movement, resting, scratching, preening, mating and aggression in female pheasants differed significantly from those in the male, as observed throughout the day. The rate of feeding had 2 peaks in hens (in early morning and late evening. Generally, the feed intake in females was observed throughout the day whereas the male received feed less frequently but at a higher rate, particularly in the afternoon. The highest rate of movement was observed for both male and female pheasants in morning hours followed by a decline in movement activities which was slow in hens and rapid in the cock, with the subsequent second peak before dark. Except for 7 a.m., resting was among behaviour patterns with the highest rate in both genders throughout day, with lower rates in females as compared to the male. The stereotype behaviour was observed in hens more frequently, with a peak in a period from 9 a.m. to 12 a.m. The highest frequency of mating was observed in the evening after 7 p.m.

  2. Coronavirus–associated enteritis in a quail farm

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    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An enteric syndrome observed in semi-intensively reared quails is described. The affected birds showed depression, severe diarrhoea and dehydration. The mortality occurred particularly in young birds. At necropsy, the prominent lesion was catarrhal enteritis. Laboratory investigations demonstrated the presence of coronavirus in the gut of dead animals. No additional pathogens were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for the presence of CoVs in quail with enteritis.

  3. Comparative study of {sup 137}Cs distribution in broilers and pheasants and possibilities for protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, Branislava M.; Vitorovic, Gordana; Lazarevic-Macanovic, Mirjana [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Radiology and Radiation Hygiene, Belgrade (Serbia); Vicentijevic, Mihajlo [Insititute of Veterinary Medicine Serbia, Laboratory of Radiation Hygiene, Belgrade (Serbia); Vitorovic, Dusko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Belgrade (Serbia); Pantelic, Gordana [Institute of Nuclear Sciences-Vinca, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate distribution of {sup 137}Cs in leg and breast meat of broilers and pheasants following single alimentary contamination and administration of two protectors (AFCF and clinoptilolite). The birds were administered a single dose of {sup 137}CsCl, with an activity of 750 Bq. Protectors were given via gastric tube or mixed in the forage pellets. AFCF given via gastric tube decreased the {sup 137}Cs concentration by a factor of 7.8 in broilers leg meat and 7.4 in broilers breast meat. When AFCF was mixed in pellets, the {sup 137}Cs concentration was 19.5 times lower in broilers leg meat and 22.1 times lower in broilers breast meat, than in the control group. In pheasants, AFCF administered via gastric tube decreased the {sup 137}Cs concentration by a factor of 12.4 in leg meat and by a factor of 13.7 in breast meat, respectively. In group 4, where pheasants were administered AFCF mixed in pellets, the {sup 137}Cs concentration was 3.7 times lower in leg and breast meat, than in the control group. For comparison, clinoptilolite administered via gastric tube decreased the {sup 137}Cs concentration 1.8 times in broilers leg meat and 2.0 times in breast meat, compared to the control group. In pheasants, {sup 137}Cs concentration was 2.9 times lower in leg meat and 2.6 times lower in breast meat. Clinoptilolite mixed in the feed had relatively low efficiency of protection in broilers ({sup 137}Cs concentration was 1.4 times lower in leg meat and 1.6 lower in breast meat). A similar trend was observed in pheasants ({sup 137}Cs concentration was 1.6 lower in leg and breast meat). (orig.)

  4. An unusual case of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared pheasants resulting from a breach in biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; Williams, S M; Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

    2010-09-01

    An outbreak of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) resulted in high morbidity and moderate mortality. The outbreak was associated with a breach in biosecurity caused by the cleaning of a sewer line with a mechanical device, resulting in extensive splattering of fecal material throughout the "clean room" where birds were held prior to use in coccidiosis experiments. Mortality and morbidity in the affected birds were seen exactly 5 days after the incident, after birds had been moved to another room for experimental use, corresponding closely with the known prepatent or preclinical period of Eimeria phasiani and Eimeria colchici. Gross lesions in the affected birds varied from dehydration to intestinal and ventricular hemorrhage. Microscopic examination confirmed a diagnosis of severe intestinal coccidiosis. This report underscores the ease of contamination of experimental birds leading to coccidiosis outbreaks during breaches of management and biosecurity.

  5. Coccidia of Japanese Quail: From Identification, Prevalence, Infection, and Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Nagah; Abbas, Ibrahim

    2018-02-01

    A systematic study was undertaken to identify the species, characterize the pathogenicity, and assess the immunization of Eimeria bateri in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica). In total, 107 Japanese quail farms were examined. The samples were processed and oocyst shape indices of sporulated oocysts were determined. Out of 107 examined farms, 34 (31.78%) farms were positive. Four Eimeria spp. were morphologically identified. For characterization of the pathogenicity, Japanese quail were orally inoculated with various doses of sporulated oocysts of Eimeria bateri. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, severity of diarrhea, and intestinal lesion scores were examined. The birds inoculated with high doses displayed significantly lower weight gain and poorer FCR, increased mortality, and more intestinal and fecal lesions scores. To quantify the immunization of Japanese quail against coccidiosis, 2-day-old quail were orally inoculated with either 100 or 1,000 sporulated oocysts of E. bateri. At 30 days of age, the immunized and non-immunized challenged birds were orally inoculated with 1 × 10 5 sporulated oocysts of E. bateri. After challenge, birds immunized with 100 or 1,000 oocysts had better weight gain, FCR, minimal diarrhea, fewer intestinal lesions, and lesser oocyst production compared to non-immunized challenged birds. We concluded that vaccination is a viable method for controlling coccidiosis in Japanese quail.

  6. The effect of feed additives in pheasants fattening: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin GAŠPAROVIČ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fattening pheasants for the production of quality meat is a relatively recent development. With its high protein and low fat content, meat of pheasant is a highly nutritious food whose value exceeds that of broiler chickens meat. Despite the fact that the intensive rearing of pheasants has developed relatively quickly in recent years, information on the fattening capabilities and slaughter values of pheasants is often insufficient in the current literature. The length of the fattening period also differs in the literature and reported from 13 to 20 weeks while highest weight gains of pheasants to occur between 4 and 12 weeks of age. Growth of pheasants is also reflected in the weight and dimensions of internal organs, crop, oesophagus, gizzard and intestine grow up to 12 weeks of age, after which they develop their physiological ability. The structure, weight and length of the digestive tract and other internal organs of pheasants depend on housing system, gender and nutrition. Relatively few investigations were conducted to determine the influence of feed additives on fattening performance of pheasants. One of the possibilities is the use of humic acids in nutrition pheasant. Humic acids are organic compounds naturally present in soil and they positively affected growth ability, feed conversion and reducing mortality.

  7. Crop diversity loss as primary cause of grey partridge and common pheasant decline in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnenberg, Katrin; Strauß, Egbert; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-09-09

    The grey partridge (Perdix perdix) and the common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are galliform birds typical of arable lands in Central Europe and exhibit a partly dramatic negative population trend. In order to understand general habitat preferences we modelled grey partridge and common pheasant densities over the entire range of Lower Saxony. Spatially explicit developments in bird densities were modelled using spatially explicit trends of crop cultivation. Pheasant and grey partridge densities counted annually by over 8000 hunting district holders over 10 years in a range of 3.7 Mio ha constitute a unique dataset (wildlife survey of Lower Saxony). Data on main landscape groups, functional groups of agricultural crops (consisting of 9.5 million fields compiled by the Integrated Administration and Control System) and landscape features were aggregated to 420 municipalities. To model linear 8 or 10 year population trends (for common pheasant and grey partridge respectively) we use rho correlation coefficients of densities, but also rho coefficients of agricultural crops. All models confirm a dramatic decline in population densities. The habitat model for the grey partridge shows avoidance of municipalities with a high proportion of woodland and water areas, but a preference for areas with a high proportion of winter grains and high crop diversity. The trend model confirms these findings with a linear positive effect of diversity on grey partridge population development. Similarly, the pheasant avoids wooded areas but showed some preference for municipalities with open water. The effect of maize was found to be positive at medium densities, but negative at very high proportions. Winter grains, landscape features and high crop diversity are favorable. The positive effect of winter grains and higher crop diversity is also supported by the trend model. The results show the strong importance of diverse crop cultivation. Most incentives favor the cultivation of

  8. Molecular study for the sex identification in Japanese quails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many birds' species such as Japanese quail, sex determination in young and many adult birds is very difficult. Nowadays, sex identification of animals throughout their lives is possible by molecular genetic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim of this study was to determine the sex of Japanese ...

  9. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD TO QUAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contami...

  10. Response of Japanese Breeder Quails to Varying Dietary Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three months feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of feeding varying levels of dietary protein on productive performance, egg quality characteristics and hatchability using 930 six weeks breeders quails. The birds were randomly divided into five dietary treatment groups of 186 birds, and were further replicated ...

  11. [Determination of 10 elements in the feather of brown-eared pheasant by ICP and AAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Meng-Ben; Zhao, Gen-Gui

    2008-03-01

    Crossoptilon mantchuricum (brown-eared pheasant) is an endemic to northern China and one of the state first-protection animals, which is now confined to scattered localities in Guandi Mountains, Guancen Mountains, Luliang Ranges of western Shanxi, and the mountains of north-western Hebei, western Beijing and central Shaanxi. Its range is fragmented by habitat loss because of human activity and other intervention, and isolated populations are resulting in facing the extinction risk from further forest destroyed and other pressures. The trace elements are very important to the growth and development of brown-eared pheasant, and these elements in the feather are closely correlated to the contents in the organs of the bird. By research on the elements contents in the feather, the authors are able to get more information about the growth, development, reproduction, immunity and metabolism function for this bird. The aim of this study is to try providing scientific basis for further enhancing the protection and the artificial breeding. Ten elements including Mo, Zn, Ni, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, K, Pb and Cd were determined in the feather of brown-eared pheasant by ICP and AAS, respectively. For the analysis two samples were from Luya Mountain Natural Reserve and Pangquangou Natural Reserve, and one was from Taiyuan Zoo, Shanxi. The contents of the elements in the feather of wild and captive brown-eared pheasants were compared each other. The results showed that the contents of the eight elements the feather from the Zoo were lower than those from Luya Mountain Natural Reserve and Pangquangou Natural Reserve. Moreover, Fe is the highest among those ten elements, Cd was not found, and Mo and Cr were much lower than the others. It is suggested that varying habitats have obvious effects on the elements contents of wild bird body, and wild habitant is more beneficial to the bird growth and development. Applying the results to wild animal management would be favorable to the protection

  12. Association of Tyrosinase (TYR and Tyrosinase-related Protein 1 (TYRP1 with Melanic Plumage Color in Korean Quails (

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    Ying Xu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available TYR (Tyrosinase and TYRP1 (Tyrosinase-related protein 1 play crucial roles in determining the coat color of birds. In this paper, we aimed to characterize the relationship of TYR and TYRP1 genes with plumage colors in Korean quails. The SNPs were searched by cDNA sequencing and PCR-SSCP in three plumage color Korean quails (maroon, white and black plumage. Two SNPs (367T→C and 1153C→T were found in the coding region of TYRP1 gene, but had no significant association with plumage phenotype in Korean quails. The expression of TYR was higher in black plumage quails than that in maroon plumage quails. In contrast, the expression of TYRP1 was lower in black plumage quails than that in maroon plumage quails. This study suggested that the melanic plumage color in Korean quails may be associated with either increased production of TYR or decreased production of TYRP1.

  13. The quail anatomy portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123).

  14. Characteristics of reared game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.

  15. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  16. Effect of Led Lighting Colors for Laying Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KC Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Time of exposure and light intensity rearing house may affect the performance and egg quality of laying quails. This research aimed at evaluating the live performance, egg quality, biometry of the reproductive system, and the gastrointestinal tract of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica exposed to artificial light-emitting diodes (LED of different colors in comparison with fluorescent lamps. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed in completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (fluorescent lamp, and green, red, or blue LED lamps with six replicates of 10 birds each. Average egg weight and eggshell thickness were different (p0.05. The oviduct of 64-d-old hens exposed to green LED lighting was shorter (p<0.05 than those exposed to the fluorescent lamp. Red LED can be used to replace the fluorescent lamps, as they promote the same live performance, egg quality, and morphological development of the reproductive tract of laying Japanese quails.

  17. Genetic researches on growth traits of Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Sertaç

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of the poultry industry is to increase genetic capacity of animals. Growth is one of the most important economic trait in poultry production. Thus, to obtain genetically superior animals related to growth traits is one of the most important issues of poultry breeding programs. Japanese quail is one of the most productive animals in poultry species. Although Japanese quail is small body size, It has high meat and egg production yield. Japanese quail has also important breeding advantages such as short time generation interval, capacity to have a great number of birds per unit area, great reproductive performance, high resistance to diseases and low breeding cost. Therefore, Japanese quail has great advantages for genetic researches and can be used as model animal for major poultry species.

  18. Spontaneous, Experimentally Induced, and Transmissible AA Amyloidosis in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Watanabe, Gen; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki

    2017-11-01

    The authors describe a spontaneous case of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in an adult female Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica). The bird developed AA amyloidosis secondary to chronic peritonitis caused by a Gram-negative bacillus infection. Mild amyloid deposition was also identified in the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adult individuals, suggesting that quail may develop intestinal amyloidosis with age. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that quail can develop AA amyloidosis following inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, adult quail were repeatedly injected with LPS and the development of AA amyloidosis was confirmed. The amyloid deposition in this model increased when quail amyloid was intravenously injected as an amyloid-enhancing factor. The experiments were repeated with young quail, but amyloid deposits were not observed following LPS injections. However, AA amyloidosis did develop when quail amyloid was injected in addition to LPS. These results indicated that adult quail develop AA amyloidosis after inflammatory stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, quail AA amyloidosis was shown to have transmissibility regardless of age. Interestingly, the authors found that administration of chicken amyloid fibrils also induced AA amyloidosis in young quail. This is the first report of cross-species transmission of avian AA amyloidosis.

  19. Semi-purified glycerin in the meat quails feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Junior Pasquetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional value of semi-purified glycerin (SG, and its economic feasibility for use in meat quail feed. Its effect on the performance, body chemical composition, and carcass yield were assessed. In experiment 1, 22-day-old quails, were housed in metabolic cages, distributed in a completely randomized design (CRD, with three treatments, five replicates, and five birds per repetition, using 75 quails in total. Treatments consisted of a reference diet (RD and two test diets (RT in which 8% and 12% SG replaced the RD. The estimated value of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn for SG was 2,476 kcal/kg. In experiment 2, 1320 quails (55 quails in each box were distributed in a CRD with six treatments and four replicates. The treatments consisted of six diets containing increasing levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% of SG. There were no effects of SG on the performance variables. The cost per kilogram of live weight produced increased linearly (P<0.05 with the percentage of SG in the diet. The performance data suggest that SG may be included in up to 15% of the diet in 1- to 14-day-old quails. In experiment 3, 1032 quail (43 quails in each box were distributed under the same conditions as in experiment 2. SG was positively associated with (P<0.05 litter moisture and body biomass accumulated (BBA weight. A quadratic effect on feed conversion and BBA (P<0.05 was observed. The cost per kilogram of live weight produced increased linearly (P<0.05 with the percentage of SG in the diet. Therefore, SG may be used to make-up 10% of the diet of 15–35-day-old quail.

  20. Surveillance for Pasteurella multocida in Ring-Necked Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) After an Outbreak of Avian Cholera and Apparently Successful Antibiotic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D; Dunn, Patricia; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Schriner, Timothy; Hofacre, Charles; Johnson, Joshua; Boyd, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Avian cholera is a significant disease of domestic and wild birds caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida (PM). In poultry, a major source of PM infection is chronic carriers, domestic birds that have become infected and recovered or had subclinical infections. Although outbreaks of avian cholera in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) have been reported, the potential for chronic carriers is unknown. To address this, we conducted surveillance for PM in a flock of captive ring-necked pheasants after an outbreak of avian cholera that responded positively to antibiotic treatment based on resolution of morbidity and mortality. At approximately 1 mo after antibiotic treatment, oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 300 pheasants (out of a total population of ~2300) in a single winter holding pen. All samples were tested for PM through routine aerobic bacterial culture, but none of the samples were positive. In addition, there were no additional outbreaks within this infected pen over the subsequent months. These data provide preliminary evidence to suggest that pheasants that respond to antibiotic therapy may be less likely to become chronic carriers of PM than other poultry species, such as chickens (Gallus domesticus). However, due to marked phenotypic and biologic differences between PM strains, additional studies are needed to further support or refute these findings and better understand avian cholera in this species.

  1. Trichurid nematodes in ring-necked pheasants from backyard flocks of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: frequency and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is related to the frequency of infection and to the gross and microscopic lesions associated to the presence of trichurid worms in 50 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus from backyard flocks in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the investigated birds, the overall infection rate was of 74%, with the presence of Eucoleus perforans with 72% of prevalence and 21.2 of mean intensity, in the esophageal and crop mucosa and rarely in the junction of the proventriculus and esophagus, E. annulatus with 2% and 3 in the crop mucosa, Capillaria phasianina, with 12% and 4.3 in the cecum and small intestine and Baruscapillaria obsignata, for the first time referred in this host, with 2% and 1 in the small intestine. Clinical signs were absent. The gross lesions observed in the crop and esophagus of 14 (38.9% pheasants parasitized with E. perforans were thickening, small nodules, congestion, and petechial haemorrhages in the mucosa. These birds presented a mean infection of 37.5 and a range of infection of 10-82. The microscopic lesions revealed chronic esophagitis with diffuse inflammatory process in the lamina propria characterized mostly by a mononuclear cell infiltrate and also with the presence of granulocytes. In the case of the parasitism of pheasants with C. phasianina, the gross lesions were absent; microscopic lesions were characterized by chronic typhlitis with mononuclear infiltrate. Gross and microscopic lesions were absent in the pheasants parasitized with E. annulatus and B. obsignata.

  2. The Three Mile Island - 2 incident and damage to pheasants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1981-01-01

    In popular Austrian TV show deformed pheasants were shown hatched from eggs which were purchased by an Austrian pheasants breeder from a pheasantry about 60 miles from Harrisburg. The case was presented in such a way that the public could have correlated the deformed pheasants to the TMI-2 incident. As detailed investigations showed that the radiation dose after the TMI-2 incident was rather low even very close to the nuclear power plant such an effect seems highly unlikely. Analyses of the hatch percentages of other pheasants breeder using eggs from the very same flock showed no abnormal behaviour whatsoever. Therefore, the negative hatch result of the Austrian breeder must originate in other environmental effects either during transport or breeding. (author)

  3. Characterization of Rous sarcoma virus-related sequences in the Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J A; Cywinski, A; Chen, P J; Taylor, J M

    1986-08-01

    We detected sequences related to the avian retrovirus Rous sarcoma virus within the genome of the Japanese quail, a species previously considered to be free of endogenous avian leukosis virus elements. Using low-stringency conditions of hybridization, we screened a quail genomic library for clones containing retrovirus-related information. Of five clones so selected, one, lambda Q48, contained sequence information related to the gag, pol, and env genes of Rous sarcoma virus arranged in a contiguous fashion and spanning a distance of approximately 5.8 kilobases. This organization is consistent with the presence of an endogenous retroviral element within the Japanese quail genome. Use of this element as a high-stringency probe on Southern blots of genomic digests of several quail DNA demonstrated hybridization to a series of high-molecular-weight bands. By slot hybridization to quail DNA with a cloned probe, it was deduced that there were approximately 300 copies per diploid cell. In addition, the quail element also hybridized at low stringency to the DNA of the White Leghorn chicken and at high stringency to the DNAs of several species of jungle fowl and both true and ruffed pheasants. Limited nucleotide sequencing analysis of lambda Q48 revealed homologies of 65, 52, and 46% compared with the sequence of Rous sarcoma virus strain Prague C for the endonuclease domain of pol, the pol-env junction, and the 3'-terminal region of env, respectively. Comparisons at the amino acid level were also significant, thus confirming the retrovirus relatedness of the cloned quail element.

  4. An Investigation of beta-lactam antibiotics resistance in Escherichia coli isolates and molecular detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cage birds from Shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tahmasby

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cage birds can harbor human pathogens and contribute to the transmission and spread of drug resistant infectious agents to human. Since many people are interested in keeping cage birds, present study was conducted in cage birds from Shahrekord to investigate the beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and molecular detection of E. coli O157:H7 that is responsible for outbreaks of human intestinal diseases and fatal haemolytic-uraemic syndrome worldwide. Materials and methods: Altogether 256 samples of cage birds (lovebirds, quails, nightingales, parrots, mynahs, goldfinchs, finches, kingbirds, peacocks, and pheasants faeces were collected with sterile cotton swabs from different areas of Shahrekord, Iran. Swabs were placed directly into Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB. In the laboratory, samples were streaked onto MacConkey agar and also Sorbitol MacConkey agar as selective plating media. Then, antibiogram tests were performed using disc diffusion method. Suspected colonies to E. coli O157:H7 were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: E. coli was isolated from 31 (12.1% out of 256 the samples. Resistance of isolates to Imipenem, Cefotaxime, Cefixime, Cefalexin, Amoxicillin, Penicillin G and Oxacillin was 0, 3.2, 16.1, 90.3, 100, 100 and 100% respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was not found in any samples. Discussion and conclusion: Although cage birds were not sourcee or carriers of E. coli O157:H7 in the studied region, they harbored beta-lactam antibiotics resistant E. coli and could be an important component of drug-resistant infections transmission from cage-birds to human, especially to kids and can pose a potential risk to human health. For this reason, it is recommended to make pet birds owners and general public aware of potential dangers of cage bird keeping.

  5. Genetic variation and bottleneck in Japanese quail (Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... 11th century as a pet song bird (Howes, 1964; Crawford,. 1990), is valued for its eggs and meat. It is also a valuable laboratory species because of its small body size, rapid generation interval and high prolificacy (Mills et al., 1997). Japanese quail is phylogenetically closely related to the chicken (Stock and ...

  6. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER VALUE IN PHARAOH QUAIL OF DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WILKANOWSKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of age of Pharaoh quails on dressing percentage, carcass composition, and sensory and physicochemical properties of their meat was determined. Compared to 42-day-old birds, Pharaoh quail aged 33 days had lower body weight (169.1 vs 139.4 g, carcass weight (111.7 vs 88.8 g and dressing percentage (66.1 vs 63.7%. The carcasses of 42-day-old birds contained more breast muscles (30.9%, leg muscles (18.3%, skin with subcutaneous fat (6.5% and remainders of the carcass (31.0% compared to birds at 33 days of age (30.8; 16.7; 6.2 and 30.0%, respectively. Older birds showed higher values of pH15, redness (a* and yellowness (b* and lower values of sensory meat properties except aroma intensity.

  7. Cocaine-induced sensitization correlates with testosterone in male Japanese quail but not with estradiol in female Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karin E; Madison, Farrah N; Akins, Chana K

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that gonadal hormones may mediate behavioral and biological responses to cocaine. Estrogen, in particular, has been shown to increase behavioral responding to cocaine in female rats relative to male rats. The current study investigated the effect of cocaine on locomotor activity and hormonal correlates in male and female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). In Japanese quail, circulating hormone levels can be manipulated without surgical alterations via modifying the photoperiod. Male and female quail were housed on either 8L:16D (light:dark) or 16L:8D (light:dark) cycle for 21days. Blood samples were taken prior to the beginning of the experiment and assays were performed to determine the levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2). Quail were given injections of saline or cocaine (10 or 20mg/kg) once a day for 10days. Immediately after each injection, birds were placed in open field arenas and distance traveled was measured for 30min. Results showed that male quail housed under long-light conditions exhibited cocaine-induced sensitization to 10mg/kg cocaine which was correlated with the high levels of plasma T. Female quail housed under short-light conditions demonstrated sensitization to 10mg/kg cocaine, but this was not correlated with the levels of plasma E2. The current findings suggest that cocaine-induced locomotor activity was associated with T in males but not with E2 in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ngare; Hughes, Robert J; Aspden, William J; Chapman, James; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-05-01

    Microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an essential role in the health and well-being of the host. With the exception of chickens, this area has been poorly studied within birds. The avian GIT harbours unique microbial communities. Birds require rapid energy bursts to enable energy-intensive flying. The passage time of feed through the avian GIT is only 2-3.5 h, and thus requires the presence of microbiota that is extremely efficient in energy extraction. This investigation has used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the GIT microbiota of the flighted bird, the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). We are reporting, for the first time, the diversity of bacterial phylotypes inhabiting all major sections of the quail GIT including mouth, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, ileum, cecum, large intestine and feces. Nine phyla of bacteria were found in the quail GIT; however, their distribution varied significantly between GIT sections. Cecal microbiota was the most highly differentiated from all the other communities and showed highest richness at an OTU level but lowest richness at all other taxonomic levels being comprised of only 15 of total 57 families in the quail GIT. Differences were observed in the presence and absence of specific phylotypes between sexes in most sections.

  9. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  10. Microsatellite loci in Japanese quail and cross-species amplification in chicken and guinea fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani Makoto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In line with the Gifu University's initiative to map the Japanese quail genome, a total of 100 Japanese quail microsatellite markers isolated in our laboratory were evaluated in a population of 20 unrelated quails randomly sampled from a colony of wild quail origin. Ninety-eight markers were polymorphic with an average of 3.7 alleles per locus and a mean heterozygosity of 0.423. To determine the utility of these markers for comparative genome mapping in Phasianidae, cross-species amplification of all the markers was tested with chicken and guinea fowl DNA. Amplification products similar in size to the orthologous loci in quail were observed in 42 loci in chicken and 20 loci in guinea fowl. Of the cross-reactive markers, 57.1% in chicken and 55.0% in guinea fowl were polymorphic when tested in 20 birds from their respective populations. Five of 15 markers that could cross-amplify Japanese quail, chicken, and guinea fowl DNA were polymorphic in all three species. Amplification of orthologous loci was confirmed by sequencing 10 loci each from chicken and guinea fowl and comparing with them the corresponding quail sequence. The microsatellite markers reported would serve as a useful resource base for genetic mapping in quail and comparative mapping in Phasianidae.

  11. Pairing Behavior of the Monogamous King Quail, Coturnix chinensis.

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    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Animals with socially monogamous mating systems are valuable for discovering proximate mechanisms of prosocial behavior and close social relationships. Especially powerful are comparisons between related species that differ in monogamous tendency. Birds are the most socially monogamous vertebrates. Thus far most research on mechanisms of pairing has used zebra finches, which do not have a relative with a different mating system, however. The goal of the experiments reported here was to develop a new comparative avian system by studying the pairing behavior of a reportedly strongly monogamous quail, the king quail (Coturnix chinensis, a species in the same clade as the less monogamous Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, the subject of much prior research. In Experiment 1 male-female pairs of king quail housed together were initially avoidant or aggressive but most rapidly progressed to allopreening and huddling. A separation-reunion paradigm reliably elicited both of these behaviors in males that had cohabited for one week. In Experiment 2 the allopreening and huddling behavior of males in cohabiting pairs was highly selective, and a majority of the males were aggressive toward a familiar female that was not the cohabitation partner. In Experiment 3 males were separated from their female cohabitation partners for 9-10 weeks and then given two-choice tests. All but one male spent more time near an unfamiliar female, which may have reflected aggression and shows recognition of and memory for the past pairing experience. Thus king quail show robust, selective and easy to measure pairing behavior that can be reliably elicited with simple separation-reunion testing procedures. Copulation is rarely seen during tests. The behavior of king quail is a striking contrast to that of Japanese quail, providing a new comparative system for discovering mechanisms of behavior related to close social relationships and monogamy.

  12. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,PA dos; Ludke,MCMM; Ludke,JV; Rabello,CBV; Santos,MJB dos; Torres,TR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of fol...

  13. Effect of various probiotics on growth performance of Japanese quails

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    P. R. Sirsat

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of various probiotics on the performance of Japanese Quails. One hundred Japanese quail chicks were weighed individually and they were uniformly distributed equally to four dietary treatments consisting 25 birds in each. The starter and finisher diets were containing ME 2800 and 2600 Kcal/kg and protein 25 and 23 % respectively. The group T0(Controll fed standard quail diet and T1,T2 and T3 were fed probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus sporogenes and Saccharomyces boulardii @ 0.05 % in diet. The study was conducted for six weeks in the same managemental condition. Weekly live body weight and feed consumption were recorded. The group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in significantly higher growth rate and showed higher weight gain. The average feed efficiency and nitrogen retention were significantly higher in group supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cost of production /100gm of meat was found to be Rs.7.10, 6.84, 7.55 and 8.37 respectively in T0 to T3 groups. Thus, the study indicated that supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the diet of Japanese quails was effective in improving performance of the quails. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 321-322

  14. A molecular genome scan to identify DNA segments associated with live weight in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, M; Esmailizadeh, A; Mohammad Abadi, M R; Zand, Elmira; Mokhtari, M S; Wu, Dong-Dong

    2016-11-01

    Japanese quail is an animal model in biological studies and also a commercial bird for eggs and meat production. This study was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting live weight in Japanese quail. An F2 mapping population was developed by crossing two diverse lines (meat type and egg layer) of Japanese quail. A total number of 34 F1 and 422 F2 progeny were produced by reciprocal crossing of eight pairs of parental birds. All the birds from three generations were genotyped for SSR markers that were spread across all the autosomal linkage groups. The studied traits were hatching weight and live weights at 1-5 weeks of age. QTL analysis was conducted by the regression interval mapping. Significant QTL were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 3 (chromosome-wide significant) and 5 (genome-wide significant, P Japanese quail. Our results point out to candidate DNA regions affecting live weight, a trait of great economic relevance to the Japanese quail breeding. Although these results enhance our current knowledge about the genetic control of live weight in the Japanese quail, it should be noted that the initial QTL results from the experimental designs such as backcross or F2 cannot be applied directly to the breeding programs and require further validation within the commercial lines.

  15. Spatial orientation in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica.

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    Tim Ruploh

    Full Text Available Finding a given location can be based on a variety of strategies, for example on the estimation of spatial relations between landmarks, called spatial orientation. In galliform birds, spatial orientation has been demonstrated convincingly in very young domestic chicks. We wanted to know whether adult Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica without food deprivation are also able to use spatial orientation. The quails had to learn the relation of a food location with four conspicuous landmarks which were placed in the corners of a square shaped arena. They were trained to find mealworms in three adjacent food cups in a circle of 20 such cups. The rewarded feeders were located during training between the same two landmarks each of which showed a distinct pattern. When the birds had learned the task, all landmarks were displaced clockwise by 90 degrees. When tested in the new situation, all birds redirected their choices with respect to the landmark shift. In subsequent tests, however, the previously correct position was also chosen. According to our results, quails are using conspicuous landmarks as a first choice for orientation. The orientation towards the previously rewarded location, however, indicates that the neuronal representation of space which is used by the birds also includes more fine grain, less conspicuous cues, which are probably also taken into account in uncertain situations. We also presume that the rare orientation towards never rewarded feeders may be due to a foraging strategy instead of being mistakes.

  16. Influence of different types of lamps on the reproductive development of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retes, Pâmela L; Espósito, Marcelo; das Neves, Danusa G; Viana, Arabela G A; Coelho, Louise M; Bobadilla-Mendez, Manuel F; Alvarenga, Renata R; Fassani, Edison J; Peixoto, Juliano V; Zangeronimo, Márcio G

    2017-05-01

    Reproductive tract development during puberty is critical to reproductive performance, and the light is crucial in this process in birds. However, in male quail, there is little information on the effects of types of lamps, more specifically the wavelength emitted. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the effects of types of lamps on the reproductive performance of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Two hundred and forty male quail were exposed to six different types of lamp (incandescent, white fluorescent, or blue, white, red or green LED). The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and five replicates of one quail. Quail were slaughtered on days 35, 47, 57, 71 and 123 to evaluate the development of testes. On day 117, semen samples were analyzed and fertilized eggs were incubated. Body weight of the quails was influenced (P quails but, at 57 days of age, higher testicular development was obtained (P  0.05) on the quality of semen nor on the fertility rates of quail. It is concluded that lamps can influence the histological reproductive characteristics of male quails, but without influencing the semen quality. Fluorescent bulbs and red LED seem to anticipate the sexual maturity, but the white LED results in higher testicular development at 57 days of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in our laboratory have focused on endocrine, neuroendocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction in the Japanese quail. These studies considered various stages in the life cycle, including embryonic development, sexual maturation, adult reproductive function, and aging. A major focus of our research has been the role of neuroendocrine systems that appear to synchronize both endocrine and behavioral responses. These studies provide the basis for our more recent research on the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproductive function in the Japanese quail. These endocrine active chemicals include pesticides, herbicides, industrial products, and plant phytoestrogens. Many of these chemicals appear to mimic vertebrate steroids, often by interacting with steroid receptors. However, most EDCs have relatively weak biological activity compared to native steroid hormones. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the mode and mechanism of action of classes of these chemicals and sensitive stages in the life history of various species. Precocial birds, such as the Japanese quail, are likely to be sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, because sexual differentiation occurs during this period. Accordingly, adult quail may be less impacted by EDC exposure. Because there are a great many data available on normal development and reproductive function in this species, the Japanese quail provides an excellent model for examining the effects of EDCs. Thus, we have begun studies using a Japanese quail model system to study the effects of EDCs on reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. In this review, we have two goals: first, to provide a summary of reproductive development and sexual differentiation in intact Japanese quail embryos, including ontogenetic patterns in steroid hormones in the embryonic and maturing quail. Second, we discuss some recent data from experiments in our laboratory in which EDCs have been tested in

  18. Wartime diet for growing bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.; Benner, M.

    1944-01-01

    Two experiments, using 784 bobwhite quail chicks, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to find a growing diet that would meet wartime restrictions. In 1941 a diet containing 14 per cent sardine fish meal was formulated and gave satisfactory results from the standpoints of survival and growth. Since fish meal now is scarce, search was made for a diet without war-restricted commodities yet equal to the above-mentioned diet in feeding value. Ten diets were compared.....In the present experiments, quail fed this same diet modified by the substitution of 0.12 per cent of D-activated sterol for vitamin A and D feeding oil fortified showed the highest survival and the best live weights at the end of both the sixth and tenth weeks. They also were among the top three groups in requiring the least quantity of feed per unit of gain in weight; however, they consumed the greatest quantity of feed.....Of the other nine diets, that which seemed most promising, considering survival, live weight, and efficiency of feed utilization, was as follows (parts by weight) : Yellow corn, ground 26.08...Millet, ground 10.00...Alfalfa leaf meal, dehydrated 7.50...Soybean oil meal, solvent-processed 50.00...Dried whey 3.00...Special steamed bonemeal 1.50...Limestone, ground 0.80...Salt mixture 1.OO...D-activated animal sterol 0.12....100.00.....At the end of ten weeks the results on this diet (Diet l l ) , as compared with that containing sardine meal (Diet 23), were as follows: Diet No. 11 Percentage survival 71, Average live weight per bird, grams 144,....Growing mash consumed, per bird-day, grams 6.8 Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams) 3.8......Diet 23....Percentage survival, 80,...Avg live weight per bird, grams....145,....Growing mash consumed , per bird-day, grams...7.4...Feed consumed per gram of gain in weight (grams)....3.9. Results were unsatisfactory when expeller-processed soybean oil meal was used in this diet to replace solvent

  19. Effect of thermal stress on fertility and egg quality of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S

    2016-10-01

    Heat stress is one of the major causes of a decreased performance of laying quail in tropical and subtropical countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature humidity index (THI) on fertility aspects, external and internal egg quality parameters in Japanese quail. One hundred and forty four (144) Japanese quail, 12 of weeks age, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, lower than 70), H 1 (at moderate THI, 70-75) and H 2 (at high THI, 76-80). Quail in the control and H 1 groups had significant greater fertility (p=0.021) and hatchability % (p=0.037), compared with H 2 group. Quail in the control group (at low THI) laid heavier egg weight with a higher external (egg weight (p=0.03), shell thickness, shell weight, eggshell ratio and eggshell density (p=0.001)) and internal egg quality score (albumin weight (p=0.026), yolk height (p=0.003), yolk index (p=0.039) and Haugh unit (p=0.001)). Otherwise, such quality traits were compromised in heat-stressed quail. At the high THI level, egg weight had a significant positive correlation with albumin weight (r=0.58, pJapanese quail exposed to heat stress (THI over 75) revealed drop in fertility indices and egg quality traits, indicating a detrimental policy of economic income. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of chamomile extract on the welfare of laying Japanese quail

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    Karine Isabela Tenório

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chamomile extract on Japanese quail on their performance, animal behavior, tonic immobility, body injuries, and surface temperature. The trial was conducted using 108 quail distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with three treatments (0, 2.5, and 5.0 g chamomile/kg of feed, six replicates, and six birds per treatment, evaluated in six measures repeated in time (14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84 days of trial. The inclusion of chamomile presented a quadratic effect on sitting behavior, estimating the inclusion of 1.8 g chamomile/kg to maximize this behavior. There was a decreasing linear effect for aggressive pecking, that is, the higher the inclusion of chamomile in the diet, the lower the expression of this behavior. The inclusion of 1.8-5.0 g chamomile/kg in a Japanese quail diet reduces the behavior of aggressive pecking, in addition to keeping the birds seated longer. These results are innovative because they show in the literature for the first time that chamomile supplemented in Japanese quail diets has the capacity to modulate the behavior of the quail, leading to an improvement in the welfare of quail raised in cages.

  1. A survey of neonicotinoid use and potential exposure to northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) in the Rolling Plains of Texas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Peper, Steven T; Dunham, Nicholas R; Kumar, Naveen; Kistler, Whitney; Almas, Sadia; Presley, Steven M; Kendall, Ronald J

    2016-06-01

    Northern bobwhite (quail) (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) populations have declined dramatically in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma (USA). There is rising concern about potential toxicity of neonicotinoids to birds. To investigate this concern, the authors examined crops of 81 northern bobwhite and 17 scaled quail to determine the presence or absence of seeds treated with 3 neonicotinoids (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam). No treated seeds were found in the 98 crops examined. Liver samples from all 98 quail were collected and analyzed for neonicotinoid residues. Analysis revealed very low concentrations of neonicotinoids within the quail liver samples. The results suggest there is little to no risk of direct toxicity to quail from neonicotinoids. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1511-1515. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Transgenic quail production by microinjection of lentiviral vector into the early embryo blood vessels.

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    Zifu Zhang

    Full Text Available Several strategies have been used to generate transgenic birds. The most successful method so far has been the injection of lentiviral vectors into the subgerminal cavity of a newly laid egg. We report here a new, easy and effective way to produce transgenic quails through direct injection of a lentiviral vector, containing an enhanced-green fluorescent protein (eGFP transgene, into the blood vessels of quail embryos at Hamburger-Hamilton stage 13-15 (HH13-15. A total of 80 embryos were injected and 48 G0 chimeras (60% were hatched. Most injected embryo organs and tissues of hatched quails were positive for eGFP. In five out of 21 mature G0 male quails, the semen was eGFP-positive, as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, indicating transgenic germ line chimeras. Testcross and genetic analyses revealed that the G0 quail produced transgenic G1 offspring; of 46 G1 hatchlings, 6 were transgenic (6/46, 13.0%. We also compared this new method with the conventional transgenesis using stage X subgerminal cavity injection. Total 240 quail embryos were injected by subgerminal cavity injection, of which 34 (14.1% were hatched, significantly lower than the new method. From these hatched quails semen samples were collected from 19 sexually matured males and tested for the transgene by PCR. The transgene was present in three G0 male quails and only 4/236 G1 offspring (1.7% were transgenic. In conclusion, we developed a novel bird transgenic method by injection of lentiviral vector into embryonic blood vessel at HH 13-15 stage, which result in significant higher transgenic efficiency than the conventional subgerminal cavity injection.

  3. Nicotine induces a conditioned place preference in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, B Levi; Cornett, Heather L; Barnes, Amanda F; Gill, Karin E; Akins, Chana K

    2012-10-10

    Visual stimuli may play an important role in the development and maintenance of addiction in humans. Research with a visually-oriented animal model such as Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) may provide insight into how visual cues contribute to the addiction process. The aim of the current study was to investigate the rewarding properties of nicotine in male Japanese quail using a biased conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Adult male quail (N=30) were allowed to freely explore the entire CPP apparatus during a place preference pre-test and time spent in each chamber was measured. During nicotine conditioning sessions, quail were administered nicotine (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0mg/kg) or saline and were then confined to their initially least preferred chamber. On alternating days, all quail received saline and were confined to their initially preferred chamber. Locomotor activity was assessed in both chambers. The conditioning chambers had yellow or green walls to enhance the visual salience of each context. Following 8 conditioning sessions (4 nicotine; 4 saline), quail were allowed to explore the entire apparatus during a CPP post-test and time spent in each chamber was measured. The results indicated that quail treated with 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg nicotine significantly increased the amount of time they spent in the nicotine-paired chamber compared to saline controls, suggesting that nicotine produced a CPP. Furthermore, quail treated with 0.5mg/kg nicotine showed a significant increase in locomotor activity with repeated treatments. The current findings suggest that nicotine may have a rewarding effect in quail and may tentatively suggest that the neuropharmacological mechanisms that mediate CPP for nicotine are conserved in birds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Lighting programs for male and female meat quails (Coturnix coturnix) raised in equatorial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, G C; Freitas, E R; Watanabe, P H; Figueiredo, C W S; Silva, L P; Nascimento, G A J; Lima, R C; Nepomuceno, R C; Sá, N L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lighting programs for male and female meat quails raised in an equatorial region on performance and carcass traits. A total of 1,500 sexed quails (Coturnix coturnix) was distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with 2 sexes (male and female) and 3 lighting programs (natural, intermittent, and continuous) with 5 replicates of 50 birds. The lighting programs were applied in the period from 7 to 49 d of age, being natural (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 11 h and 30 min of dark), intermittent (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 5 h and 30 min of artificial light, alternating lighting periods with one h and 06 min and periods of darkness with one h and 12 min), and continuous (23 h of natural + artificial light and one h of dark). Regardless of lighting program, female quails were heavier than males, and birds subjected to natural light weighed less than those exposed to continuous and intermittent lighting programs. Quails exposed to intermittent and continuous light presented higher weight gain and feed intake, and worse feed conversion ratio compared to birds under a natural light regimen. It is concluded that in an equatorial region, it is possible to use a lighting program with only natural light for raising male and female meat quails from 7 to 49 d of age. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. FATTENING CAPACITIES AND MEAT QUALITY OF JAPANESE QUAILS OF FARAON AND WHITE ENGLISH BREEDS

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    A Genchev

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the fatting capacity and the meat quality of the combined (meat+eggs White English breed and to compare with the same of the meat Faraon breed. Logically, the live weight of 31-day old male Faraon-birds was by 5,9 % higher and of the female ones – by 7,9 % compared to the birds of White English breed. Feed conversion ratio for the experimental period (3-31 days for the White English quails was to 9,95% less effective, compared to the Faraon birds. The meat of Faraon quails contained more dry matter and protein compared to the meat of White English breed. Fat content in the quail bodies of White English breed was signifi cantly lower compared to Faraon breed /Р≤0,05/. Quail meat of White English breed was characterized by its better capacity for technological processing due to the lower loss of moisture – by 18,8 % for breast and 22,4 % for leg muscles /Р≤0,05/. The established results characterize the combined White English breed as suitable for producing both of eggs and meat from quails.

  6. Transgenic quail as a model for research in the avian nervous system: a comparative study of the auditory brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Armin H; Sanchez, Jason Tait; Schecterson, Leslayann; Tabor, Kathryn M; Wang, Yuan; Kashima, Daniel T; Poynter, Greg; Huss, David; Fraser, Scott E; Lansford, Rusty; Rubel, Edwin W

    2013-01-01

    Research performed on transgenic animals has led to numerous advances in biological research. However, using traditional retroviral methods to generate transgenic avian research models has proved problematic. As a result, experiments aimed at genetic manipulations on birds have remained difficult for this popular research tool. Recently, lentiviral methods have allowed the production of transgenic birds, including a transgenic Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) line showing neuronal specificity and stable expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) across generations (termed here GFP quail). To test whether the GFP quail may serve as a viable alternative to the popular chicken model system, with the additional benefit of genetic manipulation, we compared the development, organization, structure, and function of a specific neuronal circuit in chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) with that of the GFP quail. This study focuses on a well-defined avian brain region, the principal nuclei of the sound localization circuit in the auditory brainstem, nucleus magnocellularis (NM), and nucleus laminaris (NL). Our results demonstrate that structural and functional properties of NM and NL neurons in the GFP quail, as well as their dynamic properties in response to changes in the environment, are nearly identical to those in chickens. These similarities demonstrate that the GFP quail, as well as other transgenic quail lines, can serve as an attractive avian model system, with the advantage of being able to build on the wealth of information already available from the chicken. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparison of nutritional values of pheasant and broiler chicken meats

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    Eva Straková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional and dietetic values of the meat of chickens of the common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. intensively fattened until 90 days of age to the meat of broiler chickens fattened until 40 days of age. Breast muscles in pheasants contained higher protein content on a dry matter basis (930.57 g·kg-1 in females, 937.23 g·kg-1 in males and lower fat content (29.58 g·kg-1 in females, 29.92 g·kg-1 in males as compared to thigh muscles (protein: 781.80 g·kg-1 in females, 810.07 g·kg-1 in males, fat: 163.74 g·kg-1 in females, 140.71 g·kg-1 in males. Breast muscles in both females and males contained less calcium (0.67 g·kg-1 in females, 0.57 g·kg-1 in males and more phosphorus (10.16 g·kg-1 in females, 9.72 g·kg-1 in males compared to the thigh muscles in which the mean calcium content was 1.28 g·kg-1 in females and 1.32 g·kg-1 in males, and the mean phosphorus content was 9.31 g·kg-1 in females and 9.23 g·kg-1 in males. Breast and thigh muscles in both female and male pheasants contained higher protein content and lower fat content compared to broiler meat. The calcium content in pheasant meat was lower whereas the phosphorus and magnesium contents were higher compared to broiler meat. Pheasant meat with high content of protein and low fat content is very valuable foodstuff and its dietetic value exceeds that of broiler meat. There is a lack of scientific literature on this subject which has not been studied in detail yet. This study extends the current scope of scientific knowledge in this field.

  8. The Effect of Eggshell Thickness on the Hatchability of Guinea Fowl and Pheasants

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    US Yamak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Successful incubation affects the number of healthy chicks in all poultry species. This study examined the effect of eggshell thickness on the hatching rates of guinea fowl and pheasant eggs. In total, 964 guinea fowl and 1,728 pheasant eggs were used in the study. Eggshell thickness was measured directly with an ultrasound gauge. Thicknesses ranged between 0.27-0.47 mm in guinea fowl and 0.24-0.49 mm in pheasant eggs. Incubation periods were 28 days for guinea fowl and 25 days for pheasant eggs. At the end of the incubation period, unhatched eggs were broken to identify the causes of embryonic mortality. Eggs were classified as thin-, medium- and thick-shelled, and hatching rates were calculated as a function of eggshell thickness. Differences in hatching rates of guinea fowl and pheasant eggs with different shell thicknesses were not statistically significant (p>0.05.

  9. Fat absorption and deposition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magubane, Mhlengi M; Lembede, Busisani W; Erlwanger, Kennedy H; Chivandi, Eliton; Donaldson, Janine

    2013-05-17

    Dietary fat contributes significantly to the energy requirements of poultry. Not all species are able to increase their absorptive capacity for fats in response to a high fat diet. The effects of a high fat diet (10% canola oil) on the lipid absorption and deposition in the liver, breast and thigh muscles of male and female Japanese quail were investigated. Thirty-eight Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly divided into a high fat diet (HFD) and a standard diet (STD) group. The birds were fed the diets for seven weeks after which half of the birds were subjected to oral fat loading tests (OFLT) with plant oils containing long-chain and medium-chain triglycerides. The remaining birds were included for the lipid deposition measurements. Thereafter the birds were euthanised, blood samples were collected and liver, breast and thigh muscle lipid deposition was determined. Female quail on both diets had significantly higher plasma triglyceride concentrations (p < 0.05) compared with their male counterparts. No significant differences in plasma triglyceride concentrations were observed after the OFLTs. Female quail had significantly heavier liver masses compared with the males but there was no significant difference in the liver lipid content per gram liver mass. Female quail on the HFD had higher lipid content (p < 0.05) in the breast muscle compared with their male counterparts whilst male quail on the HFD had higher lipid content (p < 0.05) in the thigh muscle in comparison with both males and females on the standard diet. Dietary supplementation with 10% canola oil did not alter gastrointestinal tract lipid absorption, but it caused differences between the sexes in muscle lipid accumulation, the physiological significance of which requires further investigation.

  10. Noradrenergic modulation of gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone gene expression in the brain of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobari, Y; Kansaku, N; Tsutsui, K

    2017-08-01

    Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotrophin synthesis and release in birds and mammals. In Japanese quail, GnIH neurones express the noradrenergic receptor and receive noradrenergic innervation. Treatment with noradrenaline (NA) stimulates GnIH release from diencephalic tissue blocks in vitro. However, the effects of NA on hypothalamic GnIH gene expression have not been determined. We investigated noradrenergic regulation of GnIH gene expression in the brain of male quail using the selective noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4). We first showed that DSP-4 reduced the number of noradrenergic (dopamine-β-hydroxylase immunoreactive) cells in the locus coeruleus (LoC) and specifically lowered the NA concentration in the hypothalamus of male quail. Other monoamines, such as dopamine and serotonin, were not affected by drug treatment. DSP-4 did not decrease the numbers of noradrenergic cells of the lateral tegmental cell group, nor the plasma NA concentration. Decreased hypothalamic NA levels after DSP-4 treatment did not change GnIH gene expression in the brains of quail during their interaction with conspecifics. On the other hand, GnIH gene expression increased in the brains of quail socially isolated for 1 hour after DSP-4 treatment. These results suggest that some noradrenergic neurones have inhibitory effects on GnIH gene expression of the hypothalamus in solitary quail. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  11. Humoral immunity of Japanese quail subjected to microwave radiation during embryogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, P.E.; McRee, D.I.; Thaxton, P.; Parkhurst, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Fertile Japanese quail eggs were exposed to continuous wave microwave radiation at an intensity of 5 mW/cm 2 (50 W/m 2 ) and a frequency of 2450 Mhz. The absorbed power density was determined to be 4.03 W/kg. The eggs were exposed throughout the first 12 days of the normal incubation period of 17.5 days. Non-exposed control eggs were incubated in a chamber identical to the exposure chamber. After hatching, exposed and control quail were reared in the conventional laboratory manner. Weekly body weight measurements were made to compare the growth patterns of exposed and control quail. The weights of the exposed male at the ages of 4 and 5 weeks were 12 and 7%, respectively, less than the control males. These differences approached statistical significance (P<=0.05). At 5 weeks of age the quail were challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the levels of the anti-SRBC antibodies were determined. The levels of specific anti-SRBC antibodies, determined 4 days after antigen challenges, were of the same magnitude for both the exposed and control quail. Following this assessment of humoral immunity, the quail were sacrificed and the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were removed and a comparison was made of exposed and control birds. The weights of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen were not altered significantly by the microwave exposure. (author)

  12. Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with japanese quail (coturnix japonica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, W.M.; Bijma, P.; schinckel, A.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting

  13. INCLUSION OF GUAVA WASTES IN THE DIET OF EUROPEAN QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Lemos Camelo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to analyze the performance and carcass characteristics of European quail fed agroindustry residue of guava in substitution of corn. 140 birds were used, distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of a control diet and four diets with levels of guava waste inclusion (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% to a diet based on corn and soybean meal. There were no significant differences (P> 0.05 for the variables: weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, feed efficiency, weight and carcass yield and prime cuts (breast, drumstick and thigh wings, back , neck, head, feet and foodstuffs organs (heart, liver and gizzard. The guava waste can be used as alternative ingredient in the diets of European quail in the period of 16-38 days of age, up to the level of 10% inclusion without depressing the performance and yield of poultry carcasses.

  14. Production, Characterization and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing IgY Epitopes Shared by Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant, Peafowl and Sparrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Biček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken antibodies are not only a part of immune defense but are more and more popular commercial products in form of chicken polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies. We produced and characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that recognize epitopes located on heavy or light chain of chicken immunoglobulin Y (chIgY shared also by some other Phasianidae birds. The use of mAbs 1F5 and 2F10 that recognize heavy chain on chIgY common epitopes was demonstrated on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and peafowl. Chicken IgY light chain specific mAb 3E10 revealed the presence of common epitopes on immunoglobulins of turkey, pheasant and sparrow. Monoclonal antibody clone 1F5/3G2 was used to prepare horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugate and immunoadsorbent column. Conjugated mAbs were demonstrated to be excellent secondary antibodies for diagnostics of certain infections in different avian species. Since they do not react with mammalian immunoglobulins using our mAbs as secondary antibodies in human serodiagnostics would minimize background staining that appears when using mouse detection system. In dot immunobinding assay (DIBA and immunoblot assay they recognized specific IgY antibodies against Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Newcastle disease virus in sera of infected or vaccinated birds. Immunoadsorption as a method for removal of IgY from samples in which Mycoplasma synoviae specific IgY was predominant immunoglobulin class enabled more exact demonstration of specific IgA and IgM antibodies. Herein we are presenting effective mAbs useful in diagnostics of avian and mammalian infections as well as in final steps of detection and purification of chicken antibodies and their subunits produced in vivo or in vitro as polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies.

  15. Male Japanese quails with female brains do not show male sexual behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Gahr, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    During embryonic development, gonadal steroid hormones (androgens and estrogens) are thought to organize the sexual differentiation of the brain in the heterogametic sexes of higher vertebrates (males in mammals, females in birds). Brain differentiation of the homogametic sexes is thought to proceed by default, not requiring sex hormones for sex-specific organization. In gallinaceous birds such as the Japanese quail, female brain organization is thought to develop via estrogen-dependent...

  16. Courtship display dynamics, iridescent structural color and nanostructural pattern formation in ocellated pheasants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Suzanne Amador; Dakin, Roslyn; Fang, Rui; Lu, Yabin

    Peacocks court females by tilting a fan-like array of feathers decorated with multicolored eyespots (ocelli). Previous research has shown that half of the variation in peacock mating success can be attributed to eyespot iridescence. Several closely-related pheasant species perform similar, but less complex, courtship displays using ocellated feathers with less complex coloration, patterns and underlying nanostructures. This study explores the relationship between the dynamics of male courtship behavior and optical properties and nanostructure of each species' iridescent feather ornaments. In particular, we examined videos of courting males and of individual feathers to measure how the angles used during displays compared to those corresponding to optimal eyespot reflected intensity and iridescent contrast. Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy was used to measure how the spectrum of reflected light depends on the characteristic angles used during displays, and hence how displays stimulate the four classes of cones found in the color vision systems of these birds. This work reveals a close correlation between the complexity of the angular dependence of iridescent feather reflectance properties and that of the motions used by males of each species.

  17. Captive rearing technologies and survival of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L. after release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bagliacca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have repeatedly emphasized the limited survival of pheasants reared using traditional methods compared to the wild one. For this reason we performed a field trial to compare survival rates, home ranges and habitat uses of pheasants artificial hatched and reared (traditional method with pheasants artificial hatched and reared by fostering mothers (hens. A total of 117 artificially hatched pheasants, 57 artificially brooded after hatch and 60 brooded by fostering hens, were equipped with a radio necklace tag or a poncho tag. Both groups were localized two-three times a week after their release in the wild. The survival rates of the brooded-by-hen pheasants showed an improvement of survival rates, either poncho or radio tagged (Pvs 57.1% and 35.0% vs 21.1%, respectively. The average maximum dispersion was 390 and 426 m and the home range were 12.0 and 11.6 ha in artificially brooded and brooded-by-hen pheasants, respectively. The land use showed that the woods were less represented than the available in the home range of every pheasant. For this reason the woods can be reduced in the agricultural areas interspersed with natural Mediterranean vegetation.

  18. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh

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    Abu Nasar Md. Aminoor Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Results: Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4% were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 14.5±0.12, 11.0±0.07, 12.0±0.22, and 12.8±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price

  19. A survey of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Abu; Rahman, Aminoor; Hoque, Nazmul; Kumar Talukder, Anup; Das, Ziban Chandra

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the status, problems and prospects of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) farming in selected areas of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in 14 districts of Bangladesh, viz., Dhaka, Narayanganj, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Netrakona, Faridpur, Jessore, Khulna, Satkhira, Kushtia, Bogra, Naogaon, Comilla, and Sylhet during the period from July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 52 quail farmers were interviewed for data collection using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also carried out with unsuccessful farmers and those want to start quail farming. Workers of quail farms, quail feeds and medicine suppliers, quail eggs and meat sellers were also interviewed regarding the issue. Out of 52 farms, 86.5% were operated by male, 67.3% farmers did not receive any training and 92.3% farmers had no earlier experience of quail farming although 58.0% farmers primary occupation was quail farming. Most of the farms (63.4%) were mixed in type having ≤5000 birds of two or three varieties. About 80.7% farms were operated separately round the year with no other poultry and 83.0% farmers wanted to expand their farming. The average pullet weight 145.0±0.12, 110.0±0.07, 120.0±0.22, and 128.0±0.17 g; age at the first lay 46.0±0.04, 42.0±0.31, 42.0±0.09, and 45.2±0.05 days; rearing period 15.0±0.01, 12.0±0.14, 15.0±0.32, and 15.2±0.18 months; culling period 15.5±0.14, 13.0±0.06, 15.0±0.03, and 15.4±0.26 months were for layer, parent stock, hatchery, and mixed farms, respectively. Most of the layer farms had an average egg production of ≤5000/day and net profit BDT 0.75/egg. However, an average number of birds, hatchability and net profit per day-old-chick were ≤5000, 76.8% and BDT 2.75, respectively, in the hatchery. Broiler quails were sold at 30 days with mean weight of 110.8 g and net profit BDT 9.02/bird. The major constraints of quail farming were higher feed price, outbreak of endemic diseases, lack of proper knowledge

  20. Japanese quail's genetic background modulates effects of chronic stress on emotional reactivity but not spatial learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Laurence

    Full Text Available Chronic stress is known to enhance mammals' emotional reactivity and alters several of their cognitive functions, especially spatial learning. Few studies have investigated such effects in birds. We investigated the impact of a two-week stress on Japanese quail's emotional reactivity and spatial learning. Quail is an avian model widely used in laboratory studies and for extrapolation of data to other poultry species. As sensitivity to chronic stress can be modulated by intrinsic factors, we tested juvenile female Japanese quail from three lines, two of them divergently selected on tonic immobility duration, an indicator of general fearfulness. The different emotional reactivity levels of quail belonging to these lines can be revealed by a large variety of tests. Half of the birds were submitted to repeated unpredictable aversive events for two weeks, whereas the other half were left undisturbed. After this procedure, two tests (open field and emergence tests evaluated the emotional reactivity of treated and control quails. They were then trained in a T-maze for seven days and their spatial learning was tested. The chronic stress protocol had an impact on resting, preening and foraging in the home cage. As predicted, the emotional reactivity of treated quails, especially those selected for long tonic immobility duration, was higher. Our spatial learning data showed that the treatment enhanced acquisition but not memorization. However, intrinsic fearfulness did not seem to interact with the treatment in this test. According to an inverted U-shaped relationship between stress and cognition, chronic stress can improve the adaptability of birds to a stressful environment. We discussed the mechanisms possibly implied in the increase of emotional reactivity and spatial abilities.

  1. Effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on mallard and northern bobwhite quail exposed chronically via the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsted, John L; Coady, Katherine K; Beach, Susan A; Butenhoff, John L; Gallagher, Sean; Giesy, John P

    2007-01-01

    Adult mallard ducks and northern bobwhite quail were exposed to 0, 10, 50, or 150mg perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)/kg in the diet for up to 21 weeks. Adult health, body and liver weight, feed consumption, gross morphology and histology of body organs, and reproduction were examined. Due to mortality, birds exposed to 50 or 150mg PFOS/kg feed were terminated by Week 7. In quail, the lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) was 10mg PFOS/kg feed based on decreased survivorship of 14-day-old quail offspring. For adult female quail fed 10mg/kg feed, there was a slight but statistically significantly PFOS-related increase in liver weight when compared to controls. When liver weight was normalized to body weight, the statistically significant differences were still observed indicating that PFOS affected liver size. However, no other pathological effects were observed livers of quail from this treatment group which suggests that this enlargement may have been an adaptive response. For adult mallards, no treatment-related effects on feed consumption, body or liver weight, growth, or reproductive performance were observed. There was a slightly greater incidence of small testes (length) in adult male mallards and quail exposed to 10mg PFOS/kg, feed when compared to controls. However, spermatogenesis was not affected and there was no effect on the rates of egg fertilization. Due to transfer to eggs, concentrations of PFOS measured in the liver and blood at study termination were greater in male birds than female birds. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DDT vs. wildlife: Relationships between quantities ingested, toxic effects and tissue storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Mangan, G.F.

    1955-01-01

    Symptoms appeared when quail and pheasants were fed diets containing 0.025-0.050% DDT. Symptoms appeared sooner as percentages increased. Young birds seemed more resistant than adults. Median lethal quantity for adult quail was about 1,200 mg./Kg. Young quail showed no ill-effects after ingesting 3,000 mg./Kg. during 10-week period. Adult pheasants died after ingesting 200-300 mg./Kg. Approximately 600 mg./Kg. were required to kill young pheasants. Quantities of DDT stored in tissues were not proportional to amounts administered or to duration of exposure, but were related to severity of symptoms. Concentration of DDT in breast muscles of birds killed by DDT was about 34 micrograms/Gm. in adult quail and 22 micrograms/Gm. in adult pheasants.

  3. Picking among pen-reared quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Coburn, D.R.; Titus, H.W.

    1945-01-01

    During five years (1939-43) of nutritional research on pen-reared bobwhite quail at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, observations on picking among birds of all ages showed the following results: 1. Picking occurred on all grains tested: corn, wheat, oats, oat groats, barley, millet, buckwheat, kaffir, and mixtures of cereals. The lowest incidence was with buckwheat as the sole grain in a growing diet....2. Picking occurred on all levels of fiber from one to 11per cent in a growing diet....3. Picking occurred on various grinds of corn, barley, and oats, but was least when these cereals were ground in a hammer mill with 3/32 inch mesh screen....4. The incidence was as high on diets containing animal protein as on those containing no animal protein. ....5. After picking began, the addition of one or two per cent of salt to the diet for several days was effective, in many instances, in checking the disorder. Results at the Refuge and the answers to questionnaires from 222 private propagators of gamebirds showed that in two-thirds. of the cases, treatment with an increased quantity of salt successfully stopped the trouble. As a preventative, however, salt was of little value. Picking occurred on both low and high levels of salt.....6. Supplementing the regular diet with certain feed concentrates such as fishmeal, soybean oil meal, liver meal, or chopped greens offered in a separate feeder for a day or two, was as efficacious as the addition of salt.....7. More picking occurred among quail chicks on a 22 per cent level of protein than on higher levels.....8. There was less picking on diets relished by the birds than on those seemingly unpalatable.....9. There was no correlation. between the amount of floor space per chick and the incidence of picking.....10. Increasing the feeding and drinking space seemed to have a marked beneficial effect.....11. Some adult birds on wire floors resorted to self-picking of their feet after the toes were frost-bitten.

  4. Characteristics of Skeletal Musculature of Pheasants Hatched from Eggs of Different Eggshell Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Zikic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine morphodinamics of development of skeletal musculature of pheasants hatched from eggs of different eggshell colour. Four groups of pheasant eggs (dark brown, light brown, brown/green and blue/green were incubated. Samples of skeletal musculature of leg and breast were taken during the embryonic and neonatal period of development. From taken samples histological preparations were made. In pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs the smaller diameter of leg and breast muscle cells and the higher volume density of connective tissue in leg and breast muscles were recorded. It was concluded that pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs had the weakest development of skeletal musculature, which can be related to structural differences of eggshell of various colour.

  5. Assessment of genetic diversity in Chinese eared pheasant using fluorescent-AFLP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujuan; Zhu, Yaohong; Liu, Panqi

    2010-01-01

    using Jaccard’s similarity coefficients (SC) and the corresponding dendrogram. It was found that there was a moderate genetic distance between the four species (SC = 0.674–0.832). Brown eared pheasant was genetically closely related to blue eared pheasant (SC = 0.832), while white eared pheasant...... on the list of the world’s threatened species. In this paper, 74 individuals from the four eared pheasant species were assessed for population genetic diversity by means of fluorescent-AFLP markers. A total of 429 AFLP peaks were amplified by 11 pairs of fluorescent EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations. Out of all...... markers, 329 AFLPs were polymorphic. Each primer combination produced in reactions from 19 to 72 fragments and the polymorphic peaks percentage ranged from 53.33% to 86.11% with an average of 74.36% polymorphic bands. Genetic distance between species and genetic diversity within species were evaluated...

  6. Production of Functional Gametes from Cryopreserved Primordial Germ Cells of the Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAMURA, Yoshiaki; TASAI, Mariko; TAKEDA, Kumiko; NIRASAWA, Keijiro; TAGAMI, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is a valuable bird as both an experimental animal, for a wide range of scientific disciplines, and an agricultural animal, for the production of eggs and meat. Cryopreservation of PGCs would be a feasible strategy for the conservation of both male and female fertility cells in Japanese quail. However, the effects of freeze-thaw treatment on viability, migration ability and germline transmission ability of quail PGCs still remain unclear. In the present study, male and female PGCs were isolated from the blood of 2-day-old embryos, which were cooled by slow freezing and then cryopreserved at –196 C for 77–185 days, respectively. The average recovery rate of PGCs after freeze-thawing was 47.0%. The viability of PGCs in the frozen group was significantly lower than that of the control group (Pquail. PMID:24077020

  7. Quail performance and egg quality at the end of production fed with varying levels of calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santos de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of dietary calcium on performance, egg quality, and the amount of calcium retained in the meat and excreted by Japanese quails at the final production. Four hundred 46-58-week-old Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of five calcium level treatments: T1 = 2.95%, T2 = 3.25%, T3 = 3.55%, T4 = 3.85% and T5 = 4.15% calcium. The performance variables included feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, egg production (%, feed conversion by egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg mass (g, and viability. For egg quality, we assessed egg weight, percentage of albumen, yolk weight, percentage of shell, and shell thickness. We also evaluated the amount of calcium present in the meat and the amount of calcium excreted by quails. Increasing levels of calcium linearly influenced feed conversion, weight of yolk, and percentage of eggshell. Shell thickness increased up to the 3.85% calcium treatment. Calcium content of the meat differed among the quails; the quails fed the lowest level of calcium (2.95% showed higher calcium content in meat, whereas calcium excretion increased with increasing levels of calcium in the diet. In conclusion, the addition of 3.85% of calcium in quail feed at the end of production improved eggshell quality, and maintained internal quality and performance within the recommended standards for the production phase tested in quails. Levels higher than 3.85% calcium negatively influenced the parameters analyzed.

  8. Multilocus DNA fingerprints in gallinaceous birds: general approach and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanotte, O; Bruford, M W; Burke, T

    1992-06-01

    Multilocus profiles were investigated in five different species of Galliformes (ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus, Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus, Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica, domestic chicken Gallus gallus, and red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus) using two human multilocus probes (33.6 and 33.15) in combination with each of four restriction enzymes (AluI, DdeI, HaeIII or HinfI). All the species show a DNA fingerprint-like pattern using at least one restriction enzyme in combination with each multilocus probe. The number of bands detected and the value of the index of similarity for each species differ significantly between the profiles obtained with each multilocus probe. Some enzyme/probe combinations reveal strong cross-hybridization of the multilocus probes with satellite or satellite-like DNA sequences in pheasant, peacock, quail and chicken, which partially or completely prevented scoring of the profile. The choice of restriction enzyme was found to influence the number of bands, the value of the index of similarity and the probability of obtaining an identical fingerprint between unrelated individuals. The Mendelian inheritance and independent segregation of the fragments detected using AluI was investigated in three species (ring-necked pheasant, Indian peafowl and red grouse). Some bands were shown to be tightly linked. An extreme case was encountered in the red grouse, where 12 of the 15 bands scored in one parent represented only two, apparently allelic, haplotypes and so derived from a single locus. However, fingerprint patterns will often be adequate for use in paternity analyses, such as in behavioural studies, despite the occurrence of haplotypic sets of bands. Identical DNA multilocus profiles were sometimes observed between captive-bred siblings in one species. These results emphasize the desirability of determining, in each new species, the optimal experimental conditions as a preliminary to any behavioural or population

  9. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM THREONINE REQUIREMENTS OF JAPANESE QUAIL (Coturnix coturnix japonica CHICKS REARED UNDER TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Samuel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Threonine, like most amino acids, is traditionally noted for its role in protein synthesis. However, dietary threonine concentration required for the maximum performance of Japanese quails is yet to be determined, therefore, a study was conducted to determine the optimum threonine requirement of Japanese quail chicks in the tropical environment. A total of four hundred and fifty, two weeks old quail chicks (mixed sexes were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments (0.67, 0.81, 0.95, 1.08 and 1.22 % total threonine and replicated thrice in a completely randomized design (CRD. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in average weight gain, average feed intake, feed conversion ratio and age at first lay of quails fed the dietary treatments. Weight of first egg laid was significantly (P0.05 similar for all treatments. There were significant differences (P0.05. It was concluded that the performance of birds were not influenced by the dietary treatments up to the highest dietary level of threonine studied (1.22%. Therefore, it is possible that the optimum dietary level of threonine may be above 1.22 %. Further studies will be necessary to establish higher doses of dietary threonine requirement of Japanese quails reared under tropical climatic environment.

  10. COMPARATIVE HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE THYMUS WITH REFERENCE TO ITS IMMUNOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE IN QUAIL, CHICKEN AND DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Senapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative histomorphological study was conducted on thymus of broiler chicken, duck and quail. The thymus of all three species of post-hatch (adult birds showed a thin connective tissue capsule. However, fine septa originating from the capsule divided the organ into incomplete but distinct lobules in chicken, whereas lobules were ill defined in both quail and duck. Each lobule, in turn, was composed of a peripheral cortex, densely studded with lymphocytes and a central medulla that was enriched with epithelial reticular cells. So, the cortex appeared more basophilic than that of medulla. But the concentration of lymphocyte, an immune competent cell was highest in chicken followed by duck and quail. Hassall’s corpuscles like structures were found inside the medulla as pale stained diffuse body. General histo-architecture was almost similar in all the birds.

  11. Effects of Divergent Selection Body Weight and the Quail Laying Eggs on some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mousareza baghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breeding quail and quail egg industrial production because of the high nutritional value of these products has been developing these years. Considering the high demand and economical production, further development in the future is predicted. In order to design and effective utilization of the equipment for transportation, separation, packaging and storage, the physical and mechanical properties of quail eggs are needed. It is of great importance to study the factors which are influencing these properties. Strength of the shell is an important factor in determination of quail egg quality. Quail egg shell strength depends on several variables including specific gravity, egg weight and volume, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, hardness, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface, farming conditions, type and species of birds, nutrition and geometric characteristics of eggs. Materials and Methods In this paper, initially in three phases, at 15 weeks, 19 weeks and 23 weeks, shell strength changes and physical properties of quail eggs on 90 quails during their first period of laying eggs were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface and some other properties. In the second part the effects of divergent selection for the bird’s body weight at four weeks of age on the quail eggs of fifth generation were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, breaking force, breaking energy and some factors for direct and indirect measurement of strength of quail eggs. For direct measurement of the strength of eggshell of quail, two methods were employed: The first method was quasi-static compression test between two parallel plates of the universal testing machine and the second method was measuring specific gravity. In the first method, eggs were compressed between

  12. Value of wild feedstuffs for pen-reared bobwhite quail in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.; Bailey, W.W.; Martin, A.C.; McClure, H.E.

    1945-01-01

    During the winters of 1939-40 and 1940-41, two experiments involving 456 bobwhite quail, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the palatability and comparative feeding value of 20 common wild quail-foods when offered as a part of a maintenance diet....2. Mortality was low on all diets, the highest occurring on that containing a mixture of bayberry and wax myrtle fruits. On all diets the birds showed increases in weight during the early winter. These gains were better maintained by birds on the wild foods than those on control diets composed entirely of cultivated feedstuffs.....3. There were statistically significant differences between the quantities of the various diets eaten.....4. For palatability and acceptability, seeds of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and of shrub lespedeza (Lespedeza bicolor) were the preferred wild foods.....5. It is concluded that pen-reared bobwhite quail can be maintained successfully through winters in the vicinity of Washington, D. C., on diets containing 50 per cent of any one of the wild foods listed and 50 per cent of a high-caloric commercial seed mixture with yellow corn as the principal cereal.....6. The results of these 'cafeteria' studies, although interesting and indicative of the preferences of quail in confinement, do not necessarily represent selections that might be. made by bobwhites in the wild.

  13. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced anorexia in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) likely involves the ventromedial hypothalamus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Taylor; Liu, Lingbin; O'Donnell, Madison; McConn, Betty R; Denbow, D Michael; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-10-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) reduces food intake in birds and mammals. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of α-MSH on food and water intake, and hypothalamic c-Fos immunoreactivity and appetite-associated factor mRNA in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a species that has not undergone the same artificial selection for growth-related traits as the chicken. At 7days post-hatch, 3-h-fasted quail were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected into the lateral ventricle with 0 (vehicle), 0.5, 5, or 50pmol of α-MSH and food and water intake were recorded at 30min intervals for 180min. In the second and third experiment, quail were injected with 50pmol α-MSH and hypothalami were collected at 1h to determine c-Fos immunoreactivity and mRNA abundance, respectively. At 30min, quail injected with 5 or 50pmol of α-MSH ate and drank less than vehicle-injected quail. Quail injected with 50pmol ate less for the entire duration of the experiment and drank less than vehicle-injected quail for 120min post-injection. Hypothalamic expression of agouti-related peptide and DOPA decarboxylase were greater in vehicle- than α-MSH-injected quail, whereas melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) mRNA was greater in α-MSH- than vehicle-injected birds. Alpha-MSH injection was associated with more c-Fos immunoreactive cells in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Results suggest that the anorexigenic effect of α-MSH is conserved among avians and that effects in quail are associated with the VMH and PVN and involve MC4R. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphism mining and nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene in exonic regions of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, Diwesh Kumar; Kumar, Pushpendra; Mishra, Chinmoy; Narayan, Raj; Bhattacharya, Tarun Kumar; Shrivastava, Kush; Bhushan, Bharat; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, Vishesh; Sahoo, Nihar Ranjan; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-12-01

    An attempt has been made to study the Myxovirus resistant (Mx1) gene polymorphism in Japanese quail. In the present, investigation four fragments viz. Fragment I of 185 bp (Exon 3 region), Fragment II of 148 bp (Exon 5 region), Fragment III of 161 bp (Exon 7 region), and Fragment IV of 176 bp (Exon 13 region) of Mx1 gene were amplified and screened for polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism technique in 170 Japanese quail birds. Out of the four fragments, one fragment (Fragment II) was found to be polymorphic. Remaining three fragments (Fragment I, III, and IV) were found to be monomorphic which was confirmed by custom sequencing. Overall nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene of Japanese quail showed 100% homology with common quail and more than 80% homology with reported sequence of chicken breeds. The Mx1 gene is mostly conserved in Japanese quail. There is an urgent need of comprehensive analysis of other regions of Mx1 gene along with its possible association with the traits of economic importance in Japanese quail.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphism mining and nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene in exonic regions of Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwesh Kumar Niraj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt has been made to study the Myxovirus resistant (Mx1 gene polymorphism in Japanese quail. Materials and Methods: In the present, investigation four fragments viz. Fragment I of 185 bp (Exon 3 region, Fragment II of 148 bp (Exon 5 region, Fragment III of 161 bp (Exon 7 region, and Fragment IV of 176 bp (Exon 13 region of Mx1 gene were amplified and screened for polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism technique in 170 Japanese quail birds. Results: Out of the four fragments, one fragment (Fragment II was found to be polymorphic. Remaining three fragments (Fragment I, III, and IV were found to be monomorphic which was confirmed by custom sequencing. Overall nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene of Japanese quail showed 100% homology with common quail and more than 80% homology with reported sequence of chicken breeds. Conclusion: The Mx1 gene is mostly conserved in Japanese quail. There is an urgent need of comprehensive analysis of other regions of Mx1 gene along with its possible association with the traits of economic importance in Japanese quail.

  16. Temporal dynamic of adrenocortical and gonadal photo-responsiveness in male Japanese quail exposed to short days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominchin, M F; Marin, R H; Palme, R; Busso, J M

    2014-10-01

    The study evaluated whether different short-term endocrine testicular and adrenocortical responses to short photoperiod exposure can persist over time and particularly when birds exhibit spontaneous cloacal gland recovery. At 11 wk of age, 33 male Japanese quail exposed to long photoperiod were switched to short photoperiod (8L:16D). Another group of males was kept under long photoperiod (n = 11; LD quail). After 5 wk of short photoperiod exposure, quail were classified as nonresponsive or responsive to short photoperiod, depending on whether the cloacal gland volume was above or below 1,000 mm(3) and with or without foam production, respectively. Since 11 wk of age and during a 20-wk period, droppings of all quail were collected to determine corticosterone and androgen metabolites (AM) by enzyme immunoassays. Cloacal gland volume was also determined weekly. Both short photoperiod nonresponsive (SD-NR) and responsive quail showed overall significantly lower (P SD-NR: 133.1 ± 15.5 > short photoperiod responsive: 61.6 ± 17.9 ng/g, respectively). Testicular and adrenocortical glands showed different degrees of activity associated with cloacal gland photoresponsiveness to short photoperiod manipulation. Our findings suggest long-term effects of short photoperiod, both in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity of quail, including males that exhibited spontaneous cloacal gland recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of induced molting methods on the livability and reproductive system regression of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RSC Teixeira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the alternative method of zinc oxide and fasting to induce molt in Japanese quails. A total number of 190 48-week-old quails was used. They were at end of laying cycle, and presented low egg production. Quails molted by zinc oxide (Z were fed a diet containing 25,000 ppm of zinc oxide, and received water ad libitum. Quails treated by fasting (F received no feed and a day of water restriction. The treatment period was determined by the experimental level of body weight loss (BWL. Birds were submitted to different levels of BWL in order to analyze reproductive system regression (ovary + oviduct, and livability. The following groups were established according to their BWL: Control (untreated quails; F25 (25% BWL by F; F35 (35% BWL by F; Z25 (25% BWL by Z, and Z35 (35% BWL by Z. Z25, Z35, and F35 presented no significant differences in reproductive system weights after molting; however, their weights were lower than F. Z, Z, and F presented the following livability: 97.5, 72.5, and 90%. Japanese quails treated by the alternative method of zinc oxide, presenting body weight loss of 25%, showed low mortality rate, and adequate regression of the reproductive organs.

  18. Effect of lantibiotic gallidermin against biogenic amine-producing faecal staphylococci from ostriches and pheasants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Andrea; Kandričáková, Anna; Pleva, Pavel; Buňková, Leona; Ščerbová, Jana

    2017-05-01

    In ostriches and pheasants, there is still limited information relating to staphylococci and their properties. Biogenic amines (BAs) are nitrogenous low-molecular-weight substances with biological functions in animals, plants and microorganisms. In this study, we focused on BA production by targeted faecal staphylococci from ostriches and pheasants and their sensitivity to lantibiotic bacteriocin gallidermin. Gallidermin belongs in a group of polycyclic proteinaceous antimicrobial substances. Thirty-six faecal staphylococci (24 strains from 140 ostriches, 12 from 60 pheasants) comprising different species were tested. Staphylococci from ostriches and pheasants did not produce tryptamine-TRYP, putrescine-PUT, cadaverine-CAD or histamine-HIS. Production of tyramine-TYM, phenylethylamine-PEA was high or very high (100-1000 mg/L). Production of spermine-SPM and spermidine-SPD by staphylococci was very low or low although in the case of staphylococci from pheasants medium production of SPM was found. Because of the risk posed by BAs for consumers, the control of BA-producing bacteria is important from the points of view not only of safety assessment of food-producing animals but also of human health safety. The sensitivity to gallidermin in biogenic amine-producing staphylococci from ostriches and pheasants detected here is the most promising indication for further application of gallidermin for veterinary purposes. The novelty of our study lies in testing the ability of faecal staphylococci from ostriches and pheasants to produce BAs and in their treatment with gallidermin which has so far not been tested in this way.

  19. Bird diversity in northern Myanmar and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Xia; Kyaw, Myint; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhao, Jiang-Bo; Zeng, Xiang-Le; Swa, Kyaw; Quan, Rui-Chang

    2017-01-01

    We conducted four bird biodiversity surveys in the Putao area of northern Myanmar from 2015 to 2017. Combined with anecdotal information collected between 2012 and 2015, we recorded 319 bird species, including two species (Arborophila mandellii and Lanius sphenocercus) previously unrecorded in Myanmar. Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae), babblers (Timaliidae), pigeons and doves (Columbidae), and pheasants and partridges (Phasianidae) were the most abundant groups of birds recorded. Species richness below 1 500 m a. s. l. was higher than species richness at higher elevations. Our results suggest that the current protected areas in this region should be expanded to lower elevations to cover critical conservation gaps. PMID:29181901

  20. Synergistic Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Deltamethrin on Lead Acetate Toxicity in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hamidipoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis weather the combination of lead acetate and deltamethrin can enhance avian toxic effects produced by lead exposure only. Overall, 48 Japanese quails, Coturnix coturnix Japonica (15 day old were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups of 12 birds each and sex ratio of 1:1. Experimental groups consisted of control Japanese quails, birds exposed to a single dose of lead acetate and lead acetate combined with sub-lethal doses of deltamethrin (0.25 and 0.50 mg. kg-1 diet for 21 days. We studied the effects of a single dose of lead acetate, combined with deltamethrin, on survival and blood biochemical parameters of Japanese quails. The results revealed a significant increase in plasma AST and ALT activities, glucose, uric acid and creatinine levels after feeding quails with contaminated diet (P <0.05. There was a significant increase in CPK and LDH activities and triglyceride levels in the blood of quails fed diets contaminated with a combination of lead acetate and deltamethrin (P <0.05. The decrease in AChE and ALP activities, total protein, and globulin was observed in plasma of quails fed contaminated diets. There were no significant changes in albumin levels. Although oral administration of lead acetate combined with 0.25 mg deltamethrin caused a significant increase in cholesterol levels, no significant differences were observed in triglyceride levels in other treatments. The synergic effects of deltamethrin on the alterations in the blood biochemical parameters of quails exposed to lead highly depend on the concentrations of this pesticide in feedstuffs.

  1. Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stouvenakers, N.; Kremers, P. [Univeriste de Liege, Liege (Belgium)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants such as PCBs and DDT on avian species is well documented. It is proven that chronic high level PCB intoxication perturbs calcium metabolism in birds, affecting eggshell thickness. PCBs have an impact on the liver. which accumulates high levels of toxicants. These induce drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in quail (Coturnix coturnix), herring gull (larus argentatus), and partridge (Prdix perdix). As these enzymes can degrade endogeneous molecules such as steroids, xenobiotics like PCBs can severely hinder birds` reproductive performance. PCBs induce damage such as regression of the testes, decreased sperm concentration, and altered embryonic development resulting in death or malformation of chicks. More ever, ultrastructural alterations linked with induction of these enzymes have been observed in the livers of PCB-contaminated chickens and ducks. This study examines the effects of Aroclor 1254 on liver morphology and glycogen content in quail, and related morphological modification to liver monoxygenase activities. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Biochemical parameters in Japanese quails Coturnix coturnix japonica infected with coccidia and treated with Toltrazuril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokól, R; Gesek, M; Raś-Noryńska, M; Michalczyk, M; Koziatek, S

    2015-01-01

    The activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin and cholesterol levels were determined in the blood serum of Japanese quails infected with coccidia and treated with Baycox (active ingredient: toltrazuril). Lower levels of AST and ALT activity were noted in treated birds regardless of the applied Baycox dose. The biochemical changes observed in the blood serum of Japanese quails point to coccidia-induced damage of digestive system tissues despite an absence of pronounced clinical symptoms. Significantly lower levels of AST activity and higher levels of LDH activity in treated birds indicate that coccidiosis treatment with toltrazuril contributed to the regeneration of digestive system tissues. An insignificant increase in cholesterol levels was noted, whereas the other serum biochemical parameters remained within the reference ranges.

  3. Experimental Assessment of the Pathogenicity of Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 Subtype in Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japanica

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    Asasi, K.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 avian influenza A viruses are endemic in poultry of many Eurasian countries and have caused repeated human infections in Asia since 1998. It has been also reported that H9N2 can cause high mortality in commercial broiler farms in Iran previously. However there was no report of H9N2 outbreak in any other species. In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of H9N2 virus in Japanese quail, 145 Japanese quail were randomly divided into 5 separate groups (116 quails in the treatment and 29 quails in the control groups. The experimental groups infected via oral rout, eye drop, intramuscular injection and spray method at the age of 32 days with 106.5 EID50/bird. The virus A/chicken/Iran/ZMT-101/98(H9N2 was kindly provided obtained from Razi vaccine& serum institute with EID50=108. The blood samples were experimented the day before use to show freedom from antibodies to influenza A and more specifically, the H9 subtype. The clinical signs and antibody titer of the infected chicks were also monitored. Five birds of each group were bled at 10 and 20 days post infection (DPI, and 20 birds of each group at 30 DPI were bled. The immune response to infection was measured by Haemmaglutination Inhibition (HI test using the H9N2 virus as antigen. Feed & water consumption were recorded on daily bases before and after inoculation. Body weight of each group was also recorded on weekly bases before and after inoculation. During the current study clinical signs such as sneezing, gasping, depression observed in challenged groups followed by decreasing in laying (1-17%. High HI antibody titers of AIV subtype H9 was seen in 10 DPI. The quails exhibited no decrease in food and water consumption and all quails were growing well and did not show any abnormality.

  4. The development of ovary in quail's embryo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-24

    Jan 24, 2011 ... The experiment was conducted to study the development of ovary in quails' embryos which were incubated for 4 to 17 days and incubated out for 1 day. The quails' embryos or gonads were cut out and. HE staining was carried out. The results showed that when embryo was hatched for 4 days, lots of.

  5. Short-term spatial memory responses in aged Japanese quail selected for divergent adrenocortical stress responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, C L; Schmidt, J B; Treese, S T; Satterlee, D G

    2010-04-01

    Stress-induced glucocorticoids can dampen learning and spatial memory via neuronal damage to the hippocampus. Cognition losses can be transient (associated with acute stress episodes) or permanent as in aged individuals who show chronic glucocorticoid-induced accelerated brain aging and neurodegeneration (dementia). Thus, chronic versus acute stress effects on spatial memory responses of quail selected for reduced (low stress, LS) or exaggerated (high stress, HS) plasma corticosterone (B) response to brief restraint were assessed. Aged food-motivated male LS and HS quail were tested for 10 min in a feed-baited 8-arm radial arm maze (RAM) 1) at 255 d of age (quail who had experienced lifelong management stressors but who were otherwise never intentionally stressed; that is, chronically stressed birds), 2) on the next day post-acute stressor treatment (5 min of restraint), and 3) on the next day without treatment (acute stress recovery). The RAM tests used the win-shift procedure in which visited arms were not rebaited. Radial arm maze performance was measured by determination of the total number of arm choices made, the number of correct entries made into baited arms out of the first 8 choices, the time required to make a choice, and the number of pellets eaten. Line effects (P LS), and number of pellets eaten (HS RAM testing nor its interaction with line further influenced these variables. Thus, although selection for divergent plasma B responsiveness to an acute stressor was found to be associated with severe impairment of spatial memory in aged male HS compared with LS quail, the observed spatial memory impairments (HS > LS) could not be further altered by acute stressor treatment. Line differences in cognition may reflect lifelong management-induced stress episodes that periodically produce higher plasma B responses in HS than LS quail, which underlie HS quail memory deficits, or other etiologies, or both.

  6. Effects of meloxicam on hematologic and plasma biochemical analysis variables and results of histologic examination of tissue specimens of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Kristin M; Church, Molly E; Farver, Thomas B; Lowenstine, Linda J; Owens, Sean D; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    To determine the effects of meloxicam on values of hematologic and plasma biochemical analysis variables and results of histologic examination of tissue specimens of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). 30 adult Japanese quail. 15 quail underwent laparoscopic examination of the left kidneys, and 15 quail underwent laparoscopic examination and biopsy of the left kidneys. Quail in each of these groups received meloxicam (2.0 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h; n = 10) or a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.05 mL, IM, q 12 h; control birds; 5) for 14 days. A CBC and plasma biochemical analyses were performed at the start of the study and within 3 hours after the last treatment. Birds were euthanized and necropsies were performed. No adverse effects of treatments were observed, and no significant changes in values of hematologic variables were detected during the study. Plasma uric acid concentrations and creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly different before versus after treatment for some groups of birds. Gross lesions identified during necropsy included lesions at renal biopsy sites and adjacent air sacs (attributed to the biopsy procedure) and pectoral muscle hemorrhage and discoloration (at sites of injection). Substantial histopathologic lesions were limited to pectoral muscle necrosis, and severity was greater for meloxicam-treated versus control birds. Meloxicam (2.0 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h for 14 days) did not cause substantial alterations in function of or histopathologic findings for the kidneys of Japanese quail but did induce muscle necrosis; repeated IM administration of meloxicam to quail may be contraindicated.

  7. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), with reference to other galliform species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) as a representative of the avian order Galliformes. The heads, bodies, wings, and pelvic limbs of four adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Nine xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal anatomy of these regions. A xeroradiograph of the tarsometatarsus of the domestic peacock (Pavo cristatus) was also included to demonstrate the metatarsal spur, which is not present in the quail

  8. Potency of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in chicken and Japanese quail embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Cynthia D; Aleksieva, Angelika; Boulanger, Emily; Brandenburg, Jonas; Johnston, Theresa; Malinova, Asya; Head, Jessica A

    2018-01-19

    Birds are receptors of concern for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and yet limited data describing the relative potency of PAH congeners are available for avian species. Here, we determine embryonic LD50 values for 5 PAH congeners in chicken (Gallus gallus) and one PAH congener in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Graded concentrations of each test compound were injected into the air cell of chicken or quail eggs before incubation. Embryos were monitored through development (quail) or hatching (chicken). All PAHs tested caused dose-dependent increases in embryo mortality but few other effects (e.g. weight changes, deformities) were observed. In chicken, windows of developmental sensitivity were identified between embryonic days 4-9 and 20-22. The rank order potency of benzo[k]fluoranthene (76 µg/kg) ≈ dibenz[ah]anthracene (83 µg/kg) > indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (325 µg/kg) > benzo[a]pyrene (461 µg/kg) > benz[a]anthracene (529 µg/kg) corresponded well with previous in vitro estimates in birds. Previously published ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) EC 50 values from cultured chicken embryo hepatocytes were highly predictive of our LD 50 values (p Japanese quail eggs were injected with the most potent PAH - benzo[k]fluoranthene. We found that chicken and quail were nearly equally sensitive to BkF. These results contribute to our developing understanding of variability in responses to PAHs among congeners and species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Ovarian radiographic and direct measurements of Japanese Quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica submitted to light restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Often, in pet birds, any stimulus to lay eggs is unwanted in order to reduce reproductive diseases and disorders. The objectives of this study were: to determine the time necessary to promote ovary involution after an eight hour photoperiod using laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica; to connect the ovarian radiographic measurements with egg production; and to compare these measurements with direct ovary data obtained at necropsy. Birds were separated into three groups: 12h/24d (control group - 12h photoperiod for 24 days, 8h/24d and 8h/36d (8h photoperiod for 24 and 36 days. After euthanasia, all cadavers were x-rayed to measure ovary length and height. Birds were necropsied to measure ovarian length and weight. Results: radiographic ovary length demonstrated strong and positive correlation (r=0.96 with direct ovary length of all three groups; laying quails showed higher ovary height (p=0.025 and length (p=0.009 than non-laying quails; eight hours of artificial light per day promotes ovary length (p=0.025 and weight (p=0.009 reduction. Conclusions: radiography can estimate the ovary measure and indicate posture; an eight hour photoperiod of 24 days is not enough to promote ovarian regression, while the use of reduced photoperiod for 36 days promotes significant ovary involution.

  10. Lipid sources in diets for egg-laying japanese quail: performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Abaker Bertipaglia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using lipid sources of plant and animal origin in diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica on production performance and internal egg quality. Japanese quails (n = 160 were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replications of five birds each. Lipid sources evaluated were: soybean oil, from poultry slaughterhouse, fish waste and grape seed. The characteristics of performance and internal egg quality were measured every 21 days for a total period of 84 days. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey’s test. There was no effect of treatments on the production performance of birds, except for feed intake, which was higher for birds fed grape seed oil in the diet. Lipid sources evaluated had no influence on the internal egg quality. It can be concluded that the lipid sources evaluated here in can be used as alternative energy in feed for laying quails, without affecting the performance and internal egg quality.

  11. Effects of storage temperature on biogenic amine concentrations in meat of uneviscerated pheasants (Phasianus colchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the hygienic quality of the pheasants reared for high-quality meat production by the biogenic amine concentrations in their meat. The content of biogenic amines was measured in the meat of sixty male pheasants killed by pithing and stored uneviscerated for 21 days under different storage temperatures (0 °C, 7 °C and 15 °C. The samples of breast and thigh muscles of pheasant were tested at weekly intervals. Biogenic amines were analysed by reverse phase liquid chromatography and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of biogenic amines (except spermin and spermidin in thigh muscle were higher than in breast muscle. Highly significant difference (P < 0.01 was found in tyramine (5.80 mg/kg and 1.38 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively, cadaverine (40.80 mg/kg and 14.43 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively, putrescine (13.42 mg/kg and 3.16 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively and histamine (5.51 mg/kg and 1.70 mg/kg for thigh and breast muscle, respectively concentrations after 21 days of storage at 15 °C. This study provides information on the dynamics of biogenic amine formation in pheasant meat during 21 days of storage at different temperatures. Based on our results, we can recommend storing pithed uneviscerated pheasants at 0–7°C for up to 21 days, or at 15 °C for up to 7 days. Concentrations of biogenic amines gained in our study can be helpful in evaluating freshness and hygienic quality of the pheasant game meat.

  12. Association of a Glu92Lys substitution in MC1R with extended brown in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, N J; Minvielle, F; Mundy, N I

    2006-06-01

    We investigated melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) as a candidate locus for the Extended brown phenotype in quail, in which there is a general darkening throughout the plumage. An initial screen of variation in MC1R in Extended brown and in wild-type quails revealed two polymorphic non-synonymous sites. One of these sites, a G-to-A substitution leading to a Glu92Lys mutation, was perfectly associated with plumage phenotype; all Extended brown birds were homozygous for Lys92. Co-segregation of the Glu92Lys mutation with the Extended brown phenotype was confirmed in 24 progeny of an E/e(+) x E/e(+) cross. Glu92Lys is likely to be the causative mutation for the increased melanism in Extended brown, given that the same mutation is associated with melanic plumage in many breeds of domestic chicken, as well as in a wild passerine bird (the bananaquit, Coereba flaveola) and laboratory mice. Interestingly, the increase in melanization with the Glu92Lys mutation is less marked in quails than in most other birds and mammals. Phylogenetic results indicate that the Glu92Lys mutation has independently occurred in quail and chicken lineages.

  13. Effect of feeding camphor (Eucalyptus Globules) levels on some immunity characteristics, growth and gut microflora of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Salah, H.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; El Barkouky, E.

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding Eucalyptus globules Egypt to Japanese quail diet on performance and some metabolic functions and immunity. Four hundred,one day old, unsexed japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups containing 100 birds in each. Each group contained 4 replicates of 25 birds. Group one was supplemented with 1% Egypt in basal diet, group two was supplemented with 2% Egypt in basal diet, group three was used as negative control (-ve)without any addition of antibiotic in diet or water, while group four represented the positive control (+ ve) by addition antibiotics (0.5 g neomycin sulphate +0.5 g oxytetracyclin) in drinking water for 5 days post hatching. The experimented diet contained 3200 Kcal ME/kg and 24% crude proteins. The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, mortality, some organs weighs and some blood parameters were measured and some microbial population of small intestines was counted. Results indicated that the addition of Egypt led to significant increase in quails body weights, spleen, bursa and ovary and the measures of total proteins, globulins, haemagglutination inhibition (HI)and triiodothyronine (T3). Decrease in mortality ratio and less counts of microflora and salmonella of gut were also achieved as a result of diet camphor addition

  14. Auxiliary effects of camphor on reproductive function of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Asghar; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, reproductive problems were raised alongside the continuous genetic selection for performance purposes in poultry. As such, a negative correlation was observed between reproductive and production performance, which may possibly imply that the high growth rate in poultry causes physiological disorders such as decreased libido and frequency of mating. A study was conducted to establish the efficacy of feeding graded levels of camphor on reproductive function of Japanese quail as a bird model. Two-hundred-and-eighty one-day-old quail chicks were randomly assigned to individual cages in 7 treatments (zero [control], 250, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, or 10,000 ppm of camphor). The results demonstrated that testosterone concentration displayed an uncertain attitude, as the lower dosages of camphor used (250, 500, and 750 ppm) had the highest values. Thyroxine (T 4 ) linearly increased with increasing camphor levels in male birds (P < 0.05). Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) also was increased in the groups receiving a camphor-containing diet in comparison with the control (P < 0.05). The male birds' libido behavior was linearly increased with the increase of camphor concentration (P < 0.05). Dietary camphor in 500 and 10,000 ppm caused the highest percentage of fertility (P < 0.0001) and hatchability (P = 0.0117), respectively. As well, the groups with 5,000 and 10,000 ppm of camphor accounted for the highest percentage of hatched-fertile eggs (P = 0.0055). The highest rate of sperm penetration in the yolk inner perivitelline layer (IPVL) was demonstrated by the group allotted with 10,000 ppm camphor (P < 0.05). This group also had the highest hole persistency in IPVL. Conclusively, the result indicated that camphor can be added in poultry diet for the improvement of reproductive functions. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. The importance of propolis in alleviating the negative physiological effects of heat stress in quail chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaisen, Gamal M K; Ibrahim, Rania M; Desoky, Adel A; Safaa, Hosam M; El-Sayed, Osama A; Abass, Ahmed O

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the most detrimental confrontations in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, causing considerable economic losses in poultry production. Propolis, a resinous product of worker honeybees, possesses several biological activities that could be used to alleviate the deleterious effects of high environmental temperature on poultry production. The current study was aimed at evaluating the effects of propolis supplementation to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) diets on the production performance, intestinal histomorphology, relative physiological and immunological parameters, and selected gene expression under heat stress conditions. Three hundred one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly distributed into 20 wired-cages. At 28 d of age, the birds were divided into 2 temperature treatment groups; a normal at 24°C (C group) and a heat stress at 35°C (HS group). The birds in each group were further assigned to 2 subgroups; one of them was fed on a basal diet without propolis supplementation (-Pr subgroup) while the other was supplemented with propolis (+Pr subgroup). Production performance including body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. The intestinal histomorphological measurements were also performed for all treatment groups. Relative physiological parameters including body temperature, corticosterone hormone level, malondialdehyde (MDA) and free triiodothyronine hormone (fT3), as well as the relative immunological parameters including the total white blood cells count (TWBC's), heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and lymphocyte proliferation index, were also measured. Furthermore, the mRNA expression for toll like receptor 5 (TLR5), cysteine-aspartic protease-6 (CASP6) and heat shock proteins 70 and 90 (Hsp70 and Hsp90) genes was quantified in this study. The quail production performance was significantly (Ppropolis significantly alleviated this negative effect. Moreover, quail of the HS

  16. P and Ca requirements for Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, C B L; Silva, J H V; Filho, J J; Lima, M R; Costa, F G P

    2017-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted to estimate the phosphorus and calcium requirements for weight maintenance and weight gain in Japanese quails during their growth phase from 16 to 36 days. Japanese quails aged 16 days were used for estimating the phosphorous and calcium requirements for weight maintenance or weight gain, with these quails composing each reference slaughter group and the others distributed in a completely randomized design, housed in cages of galvanized wire (33 × 33 × 16 cm) that were stored in acclimatized chambers with specific environmental temperatures. The light programme used during the 20-day experimental period was 24 h of artificial light. Analysis of the data showed that the prediction equations for estimating the phosphorus and calcium requirements for weight maintenance and weight gain of Japanese quails between 16 and 36 days of age were P (g/quail/day) = P 0.75 *(9.3695 + 7.7397*T) + 9.70*WG, in which P is the phosphorus requirement, and Ca (g/quail/day) = P 0.75 *(363.99 - 8.0262*T) + 28.15*WG, in which Ca is the calcium requirement, P is BW (kg), T is temperature (°C) and WG (g/quail/day). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Characterization of the cathelicidin cluster in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishige, Taichiro; Hara, Hiromi; Hirano, Takashi; Kono, Tomohiro; Hanzawa, Kei

    2017-09-01

    The Japanese quail has several advantages as a low-fat meat bird with high immunity against diseases. Cathelicidins (CATHs) are antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immunity. The aim of this study was to characterize the CATH cluster in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The Japanese quail CATH (CjCATH) cluster, contains four CATH genes, as in the chicken. The coding sequences of CjCATHs exhibited >85.3% identity to chicken CATHs. The predicted amino acid sequences of the four CjCATH genes contained the cathelin-like domain characteristic of CATH proteins. Polymorphisms were detected in the open reading frames (ORFs) of all CjCATH sequences. Two amino acid substitutions were observed in the antimicrobial region of the mature peptide of CjCATH2, and predicted to influence peptide function. CjCATH1 is expressed in lung, heart, bone marrow and bursa of Fabricius (BF). CjCATH2 is expressed in bone marrow. CjCATH3 is expressed in lung, heart, bone marrow, BF, tongue and duodenum. CjCATHB1 is expressed in bone marrow and BF. This study is the first to characterize CATH genes in the Japanese quail, and identifies novel antimicrobial peptide sequences belonging to the cathelicidin family, which may play a role in immunity in this species. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Corn replacement by broken rice in meat-type quail diets

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    TMB Filgueira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of broken rice inclusion as substitute for corn in the diet on the performance, carcass yield, and economic viability of meat-type quails between 7 and 49 days of age. A number of 288 quails was distributed according to a completely randomized design into six treatments with six replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of increasing levels of broken rice (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% in replacement of corn. Increasing levels of corn substitution by broken rice in the diet of 7- to 49-day-old meat-type quails did not affect feed intake, weight gain or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05. Relative to carcass traits, the inclusion of broken rice in the diets did not influence (p>0.05 dressing percentage or breast, leg (thigh+drumstick, liver, and gizzard yields. Moreover, feed cost per kilogram of live weight gain, cost index, and economic efficiency index were not influenced by the replacement of corn by broken rice in the diets. The performance, carcass traits and economic viability of broilers fed the different levels of broken rice inclusion were not different from the control group (p>0.05. These results indicate the economic viability of total replacement of corn by broken rice in the feeding of meat-type quails.

  19. INFLUENCE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT SUPPLEMENTATION ON LAYING PRODUCTIVITY AND EGGS QUALITY IN JAPANESE QUAILS

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    Martina Nickolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris –TT on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups – control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks; 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial; 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks for Ist, IInd , IIInd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The usе of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails’ eggs.

  20. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in the commercial turkey, quail flocks and domestic pigeons by bacteriological and molecular methods

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    Banani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT is a respiratory pathogen which has been isolated throughout the world from numerous bird species. The present study was designed to isolate and characterize the ORT from domestic turkeys, quails and pigeons. For this purpose, 250 samples from each bird species (turkey, quail and pigeon with or without respiratory signs were tested by taking of tracheal swabs. In addition, respiratory tissue samples (tracheal and lung, from 250 slaughtered turkeys, 50 slaughtered quails and 100dead pigeons were also subjected to culture for ORT as tracheal swabs. Respiratory tissues were also tested for bacterial DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In general, 30 isolates including 4 isolates from turkeys, 3 isolates from quails and 23 isolates from pigeons were identified as ORT by bacteriologicalmethod and then confirmed by PCR. Bacterial DNA was detected in 20%, 50% and 35% of respiratory tissues in turkeys, quails and pigeons respectively. Five ORT isolates from pigeon and all four isolates from turkey showed smaller colony size, while other isolates had larger colonies when cultured in blood agar. Fifty percent of the isolates with larger colony but none of the isolates with small colony size could agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs. All of the isolates were sensitive to danofloxacin and chloramphenicolwhile more than 90% of pigeon isolates were resistant to ampicillin. All of turkey and quail and 30% of pigeon isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Our ORT isolates showed high identity (98%- 100% insequence of 16S rRNA gene to related data in GeneBank.

  2. Analysis of various effects of abamectin on erythrocyte morphology in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Denise Braga Gomes; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; de Souza, Joyce Moreira; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Malafaia, Guilherme; Rodrigues, Aline Sueli de Lima

    2018-01-01

    Although previous studies have already confirmed the toxicological potential of abamectin (ABA) in different experimental models (from invertebrates to vertebrates), almost nothing is known about the impacts the exposure to this pesticide can cause on birds. Thus, the aim of our study is to investigate the cytotoxic effects on the erythrocytes of female Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) exposed to low abamectin concentrations. In order to do so, three experimental groups were proposed: "control," composed of quails exposed to abamectin-free drinking water; "ABA 1% median lethal dose (LD 50 )," comprising birds exposed to water containing 15.5 mg a.i./L of abamectin (via commercial formulation Kraft® 36EC), and "ABA 10% LD 50 ," composed by birds exposed to water containing 155.0 mg a.i./L of abamectin. The micronucleus test and the tests applied to other nuclear abnormalities in the peripheral blood of birds were conducted 40 days after exposure. Our study revealed significant physical abnormalities in nuclear shapes (erythrocytes with asymmetric constriction nuclei, notched nuclei, indented and moved nucleus) of those birds exposed to higher abamectin levels. When all nuclear abnormalities were tallied, a significant dose-dependent trend was noted. Therefore, our study presents initial imprints on determination of abamectin-mediated cellular toxicity in avifauna which can be instrumental in checking polluted ecosystems.

  3. Toxicity of DDT to Japanese quail as influenced by body weight, breeding condition, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, C.D.; Chura, N.J.

    1970-01-01

    Controlled experiments were utilized to simulate the stresses on wild birds of breeding condition and of weight loss due to migration. Light conditions in the laboratory were manipulated to produce Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in breeding condition and not in breeding condition. Within each of these groups, some birds were partially starved before dosage and some were fully fed. Birds were then fed dietary levels of 0, 700, 922, 1214, or 1600 ppm dry weight of p,p?-DDT for a period of 20 days or until death. Birds partially starved before dosage were more susceptible to DDT intoxication than nonstarved ones, and birds not in breeding condition were slightly more so than birds in breeding condition. Similarly, males died earlier than females, and the birds of the lighter weight strain used in the second half of the study died earlier than the birds of the heavier strain used in the first half. The heavier birds of each sex not only survived longer than lighter individuals receiving the same treatments, but they also lost a greater proportion of their weight before death. During the early portion of the dosage period, females in breeding condition were less sensitive to DDT than were females not in breeding condition and males. After 10 days on dosage, however, the cumulative mortality of females in breeding condition rapidly approached that of males and of females not in breeding condition. Food restriction prior to dosage, strains of quail, breeding conditions, and sexes resulted in weight differences and a corresponding accentuation or delay of the effects of the different levels of DDT.

  4. In Vitro Improvement of Quail Primordial Germ Cell Expansion through Activation of TGF-beta Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhkeshi, Saeed; Rahimi, Shaban; Sharafi, Mohsen; Hassani, Seyedeh-Nafiseh; Taleahmad, Sara; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Baharvand, Hossein

    2017-12-15

    Avian primordial germ cells (PGCs) have valuable potentials to cell-based approaches for transgenic bird production. In this regard, improvement of avian PGC expansion in vitro is necessary. Among experimental avian species, quail is a good model for transgenic technology, especially due to its short generation time. In the present study, we have examined the proliferative effects of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) on the quail PGCs. After isolation of quail PGCs from blood [Hamburger-Hamilton (HH stages 13-15)] and gonads (HH stages 28-30), these cells were cultured on quail embryonic fibroblasts (QEF). Our results indicated that cultured gonadal-derived PGCs proliferated 400 times in comparison to 100 times for blood PGCs over 40-50 days. Upon in vitro exposure to TGF-β inducers by Activin or the inducer of definitive endoderm 1 (IDE1) small molecule, the number of gonad PGCs significantly increased to 26% and 64%, respectively. In contrast, inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway by SB431542 resulted in a significant reduction in the numbers of PGCs (pPGCs migrated toward the embryonic gonads after transplantation into the heart of the recipient embryo at HH stages 13-15. Our results suggested that the application of IDE1 small molecule into the culture of quail PGCs represented a step toward achieving efficient expansion of the avian PGCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Interspecific hybridization as a tool to understand vocal divergence: the example of crowing in quail (Genus Coturnix.

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    Sébastien Derégnaucourt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that lead organisms to be separated into distinct species remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. Interspecific hybridization, which results from incomplete reproductive isolation, is a useful tool to investigate such mechanisms. In birds, interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent, despite the fact that closed species exhibit morphological and behavioural differences. Evolution of behaviour is difficult to investigate on a large timescale since it does not 'fossilize'. Here I propose that calls of hybrid non-songbirds that develop without the influence of learning may help in understanding the gradual process that leads to vocal divergence during speciation. I recorded crows produced by the European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix, the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica and their hybrids (F1, F2 and backcrosses. Most crowing patterns were intermediate to those of the parental species; some were similar to one or the other parental species, or not present in either parental species. I also observed vocal changes in hybrid crows during the breeding season and from one year to the other. This vocal variability resembles those observed during the ontogeny of the crow in quails. It is likely that similar mechanisms involved in vocal changes during ontogeny might have driven vocal divergence in the species of Palearctic quails. I suggest that hybrid crows might have resembled those produced by intermediary forms of quails during speciation.

  6. In ovo Technology and newcastle disease resistance in Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzat, I.E.; Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ali, I.E.; Shabana, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    A total number of 1600 fertile eggs from japanese quail birds were used in this study. The eggs were divided into eight groups then incubated. NDV and vite were administered to the groups of eggs in Ovo injection at day 14 from incubation. Hatchability, body weight, egg production and mortality were recorded weekly for each group. Five blood samples were collected weekly from each group to measure total serum proteins, albumin, globulin, T3, T4 and HI titre. The results of this work revealed an increase in total serum proteins, globulin, and a decrease in t3, T4 and albumin values of the in ove vaccinating groups. Also HI titre recorded higher values due to ovo vaccination alone or combined with vit. E. It was noticed that the group injected by inactive vaccine plus vit. E registered high increases in hatchability, body weight and egg production beside a decrease in mortality

  7. Effects of exposure to clothianidin on the reproductive system of male quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Junko; Danjo, Megumi; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Omotehara, Takuya; Tatsumi, Atsutoshi; Hashiguchi, Mineo; Sekijima, Tsuneo; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Clothianidin (CTD) is a neonicotinoid developed in the 1990s as an insecticide having selective toxicity, but it was later found to cause reproductive abnormalities in rats through oxidative stress. There is an attempt to preserve endangered animals, including the Japanese crested ibis, in Japan. However, there is a concern that neonicotinoid affects the reproduction of this bird, since it is used in its habitat. CTD toxicity in the birds is poorly understood, so we investigated whether or not the daily oral administration of CTD has any deleterious effects on the reproductive functions of mature male quails as experimental animals. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 or 7 quails each, treated orally with 0, 0.02, 1 or 50 mg CTD/kg body weight (Control, CTD0.02, CTD1 and CTD50). After that the males bred with untreated females to estimate the egg weights, and rates of fertilization and normal development, the testes, liver and spleen were examined histologically. Vacuolization and the number of germ cells having fragmented DNA in seminiferous tubules, and the number and size of vacuoles in hepatocytes increased dose-dependently. There were no significant differences in egg weights and fertilization rates between the groups, but some eggs of the CTD1 and CTD50 groups failed to develop, and embryonic length decreased dose-dependently. Thus, it was found that CTD affected the reproduction of the male quail through the fragmentation of germ cells and the inhibition or delay of embryonic development.

  8. Vitamin K supplementation for meat quail in growth of 1 to 14 days old

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    Caroline Espejo Stanquevis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried outto determine the levels of vitamin K for meat quails (Coturnixcoturnixsp from 1 to 14 days of age. Atotal of 2200 birds were used, complete by random experimental design, with 8 treatments, 5 repetitions and 55 meat quails per experimental unit. The levels of vitamin K supplementation were 0; 0.7; 1.0; 1.3; 1.6; 1.9; 2.2; 2.5 mg/kg diets. The performance was measured through weighing weekly from the birds and feed, and at the end of the experiment was carried out collects blood and bones for the assessment of bone quality parameters. The levels of vitamin K supplementation had no influence on performance orbone quality, except thatthe bone density and calcium concentration of the femur and the bone density of the tibia showeda quadratic effect, with estimates of 0.98; 0.92 and 1.18 respectively. The length of the tibia showed a linear increase according to the levels of vitamin K. There was no effect in the concentration of serum calcium, but there was a quadratic effect in the concentration of alkaline phosphatase. The vitamin K supplementation did not affect the performance of the meat quails from 1 to 14 days of age, showing that the amount of vitamin K present in ground corn and soybean meal-based diets is sufficient to meet the needs of the birds’ performance.

  9. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Basta, Nicholas T; Chaney, Rufus L.; Henry, Paula F.; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Sprague, Dan; Weber, John

    2016-01-01

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with phosphorus significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite and tertiary Pb phosphate), and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb.

  10. EFFECT OF USING SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS (ANISE, CHAMOMILE AND GINGER) ON PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; HAMODI, S.J.; EL AFIFI, SH.F.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding medicinal plants to Japanese quail diet on their performance and some metabolic functions. Four hundred, one day old, unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups of 100 birds each according to medicinal plant additives. Group one was control (without additives, and the other groups contained 0.3% from anise (group 2), chamomile (group 3) and ginger (group 4). The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, feed intake, some organs weight and some blood parameters were measured.The results indicated that addition of medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) improved growth rate, carcass and the relative weights of spleen, ovary and testis. Also, significant increases were observed in RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, total protein and globulin. There was reduction in cholesterol in treated groups as compared to the control.The present results confirmed the beneficial effects of dietary medicinal plants (anise, chamomile and ginger) to improve the health condition as well as the productive and physiological characteristics of quails

  11. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Sajjad Mohebali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4 received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively and test groups (No. 5, 6 and 7 received FeSO4 (1%-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15% FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions: We concluded that up to 10% FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  12. Bioaccumulation of Lead in the Tissues of Japanese Quails and Its Effects on Blood Biochemical Factors

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    Fatemeh Hamidipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead is the oldest known toxic metal, physiologically and biologically harmful to living creatures. This study aimed to evaluate the lead accumulation in the liver and breast muscles of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica and to compare concentrations in both sexes and its effect on blood biochemical factors. Methods: Twenty-four young farm Japanese quails (25 day old prepared from local breeders in December 2014 and randomly divided into control and treatment group. Treatment group were exposed to 0.4 mg per kg diet of “Lead Acetate” for 21 days. We studied the effects of lead on survival and blood biochemical factors. The lead accumulation in the liver and breast muscles of Japanese quail was determined using atomic absorption. Results: Exposure to lead caused a significant increase in the activity of enzymes (AST, (ALT, (LDH, glucose, creatinine and uric acid in poultry treated with lead compared with the control group (P<0.05. In addition, significant decrease in the activity of ALP, AChE, total protein, albumin, globulin, and triglycerides was found (P<0.05. The treated group had no significant change in the activity of CPK and cholesterol. Lead accumulation was more in the liver rather than the breast muscle. There was no significant difference between males and females as for concentration of lead in muscle and liver of quail. Conclusion: Quail have capabilities to accumulate lead in their tissues. In addition, it can lead to apparent changes in enzymes and blood biochemical factors, which show adverse effects of heavy metals on the immune and physiological system of birds.

  13. Effect of organic selenium and zinc on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails

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    VC Cruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the dietary inclusion of organic trace minerals selenium and zinc on the performance and internal and external egg quality of Japanese quails submitted to heat stress. Data on egg production, feed conversion (kg feed intake/kg eggs and dozen eggs, egg weight, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (% of 144 quails were evaluated for 112 days, divided in eight cycles of 14 days. Birds were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design into four treatments (control; 0.3ppm Se; 60ppm Zn and 0.3ppm Se + 60ppm Zn with six replicates each. There were no differences (p> 0.05 in egg production (%, egg mass (g/hen/day, feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg, feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dz, average egg weight (g, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness and weight (g, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen index and mortality (%. However, quails fed the combination of Se and Zn presented higher (p < 0.05 feed intake (28.73 g/hen/day. Those fed only organic selenium had higher average daily egg production (30.17 eggs/day, and those fed the diet only supplemented with zinc presented higher mortality (p < 0.05. The results of the present study suggest that the supplementation of organic trace minerals in Japanese quails diets submitted to heat stress does not significantly influence quail performance and internal egg quality, whereas the supplementation of the combination of organic Zn and Se increases feed intake.

  14. Assessment of toxicity and coagulopathy of brodifacoum in Japanese quail and testing in wild owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Kirstin H; Harr, Kendal E; Bennett, Darin C; Williams, Tony D; Cheng, Kimberly M; Maisonneuve, France; Elliott, John E

    2015-07-01

    Based on detection of hepatic residues, scavenging and predatory non-target raptors are widely exposed to second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs). A small proportion, generally Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) with the SGAR, brodifacoum, at 0, 0.8, 1.4, 1.9, and 2.5 mg/kg and sampled birds at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-dosing. Prothrombin time (PT), which measures the extrinsic coagulation pathway, was significantly prolonged in 98% of brodifacoum-exposed quail in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 50-fold prolongation of PT occurred at higher brodifacoum dosages and correlated to hemorrhage found at necropsy. Activated clotting time (ACT), a measure of the intrinsic pathway also increased with dose and time. Hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) decreased dose- and time-dependently at doses ≥1.4 mg/kg with no significant change at 0.8 mg/kg. Reference intervals for PT (10.0-16.2 s), ACT (30-180 s), Hb (9.6-18.4 g/dl), and Hct (34-55%) were established in Japanese quail. Species-specific reference intervals are required as barn owl PT (17-29 s) and quail PT were different. The proportion of brodifacoum-exposed quail with hemorrhage was not correlated with liver residues, but was correlated with PT, suggesting that this assay is a useful indicator of avian anticoagulant rodenticide exposure. PTs measured in free-living barn owls sampled between April 2009 and August 2010 in the lower Fraser Valley of BC do not suggest significant exposure to SGARs.

  15. Effect of using different levels of Nigella sativa meal on the growth performance and meat quality of Japanese quails

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    Tayebeh Mousapour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Nigella sativa meal (NSM on the growth performance, blood parameters, carcass characteristics, egg yolk cholesterol and meat quality in Japanese quail. For this purpose 300 one-day old Japanese quail chicks in a completely randomized design was used with five treatments in four replicates containing 15 birds each(. The experimental diets were control group (without NSM and diets containing 5, 10, 15 and 20% of NSM. Feed intake of birds fed diets with 5 and 15% of NSM were statistically higher than control group. Weight gain in birds fed with 15% of NSM was significantly higher than control group. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed diets with 20% of NSM was statistically higher than control. No significant treatment effect was observed on egg yolk cholesterol, blood parameters (including triglyceride, HDL and total cholesterol concentrations and meat quality parameters (TBA, WHC, Dripping loss, Cooking loss. And also the use of different levels of NSM had no any significant effect on internal organs weight, except gizzard. NSM significantly decreased feed costs compared to control group. So, by using NSM up to 15% in Japanese quails diets, can improve weight gain and feed conversion ratio and decrease feed and meat production costs.

  16. Apoptotic mechanism behind the testicular atrophy in photorefractory and scotosensitive quail: Involvement of GnIH induced p-53 dependent Bax-Caspase-3 mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Somanshu; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2017-11-01

    In most of the avian species, daylength or photoperiod is the main environmental factor regulating reproduction. During their annual gonadal cycle, birds once sensitive to short or long day effect develop refractoriness to the same daylength and gonad develop or regress accordingly. The present study investigated the effects of photoperiodic alterations on apoptosis mediated testicular responses of photosensitive/photorefractory and scotosensitive/scotorefractory quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Testicular apoptosis in the quail of different photoperiodic conditions was assessed by monitoring the alterations in the local testicular expression of GnRH-I, GnIH, pro-apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax), inactive caspase (pro-Caspase-3), executioner active-Caspase-3 and inactive/uncleaved PARP-1 (DNA repair enzyme) and TUNEL analysis. Alterations in these parameters indicate that testicular quiescence/regression in scotosensitive and photorefractory quail is mediated by apoptosis of testicular cells and hence apoptosis appears to be the key mechanism of testicular regression in Japanese quail. Present findings demonstrated the underlying molecular mechanism of how avian testes respond differentially to same photoperiodic conditions and exhibit scoto-/photo-sensitivity and refractoriness. It is concluded that photoperiod induced testicular stimulation in photosensitive/scotorefractory quail may be due to apoptotic inhibition and testicular regression in scotosensitive/photorefractory quail is guided by apoptosis, an effect invariably regulated by local action of GnRH and GnIH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls as inducers of hepatic porphyria in Japanese quail, with special reference to δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase activity, fluorescence, and residues in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Strik, J.T.W.A.; Holsteyn, C.W.M. van; Pennings, J.H.

    1971-01-01

    Male Japanese quail were orally dosed, daily for 7 days, with 1000, 500, 250, 100, 50, and 0 mg PCB (Aroclor 1260) per kg body weight. The birds receiving 1000 mg/kg died. A dose-related increase in liver and liver: body weight ratio was found. Macroscopic and microscopic examination under

  18. Validation of the doubly labeled water method in Japanese Quail Coturnix c. japonica chicks : is there an effect of growth rate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, GH; Boon, PE; Meijer, HAJ

    The Doubly Labeled Water (DLW) method was validated against respiration gas analysis in growing Japanese Quail chicks (between 1 week and 3 weeks of age) as well as in birds after having achieved sexual maturity (7 weeks of age). A comparison was made between a strain selected for high growth rates

  19. Age, photoperiod and estrogen dependent variations in the shell gland and the expression of AVT in the ovary of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rashmi; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2012-05-01

    Present work was undertaken to describe (i) age dependent (prepuberal-3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks old, puberal and actively laying 8 and 12 weeks old and aged 78 weeks old) (ii) photoperiodic response dependent (photosensitive and photorefractory) and sex steroid dependent (estradiol benzoate and its antagonist tamoxifen treated) variation in the ovary and shell gland activity of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Further, in view of the role of neurohypophysial peptide arginine vasotocin (AVT) in many physiological processes including age/reproduction related oviposition, expression of ir-AVT was also monitored in the ovary of quail. All the parameters associated with histodifferentiation increased rapidly during the developing stages followed by a decrease in old age, which also increased in reproductively quiescent photorefractory birds following estradiol treatment and decreased in reproductively active photosensitive quail following tamoxifen treatment. Using AVT-specific antibody, expression of immunoreactive AVT (ir-AVT) observed in the ovary of photosensitive quail was not detected in the photorefractory quail. However, administration of estrogen in the photorefractory quail stimulated the growth and activity of ovary and shell gland also resulted in the expression of ovarian ir-AVT. On the other hand, tamoxifen eliminated the localization of ir-AVT in the ovary of photosensitive quail in addition to a decrease in the shell gland protein and alkaline phosphatase activity. It is concluded that estrogen not only affects the growth and differentiation of ovary and oviduct including shell gland but also regulates the expression of ovarian AVT. It is also suggested that in addition to reported paracrine effect of AVT in the shell gland of Japanese quail for oviposition, ovarian AVT may also affect ovarian function (ovulation), and in part, this regulation is estrogen dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Use of Sweet Almond Meal as a Protein Source in Japanese Quails Diets

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    Arjomandi MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment, the chemical composition, apparent metabolizable energy (AME, AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME, TME corrected for nitrogen (TMEn values of the sweet almond meal were determined in adult Leghorn cockerels. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet almond meal at 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg on Japanese quail's growth performance, some blood metabolites, relative weight of different organs, meat quality and egg yolk cholesterol in a completely randomized design with 288 Japanese quails including 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 18 birds per replicate. The metabolizable energy values of sweet almond meal were following: AME = 3734, AMEn = 3648, TME = 3908, TMEn = 3746 kcal/kg as fed basis. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and live weight gain and relative weight of different organs in the birds fed diets with different levels of the sweet almond meal were not statistically different from control. A sweet almond meal at 300 g/kg level showed the lower serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05 compared to control and 100 g/kg sweet almond meal. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on the total cholesterol content of quail's eggs. Malondialdehyde concentration in breast meat samples after 40 days freezing decreased, whereas the level of sweet almond meal increased (P < 0.01. In general, a sweet almond meal without any adverse effect on growth performance is a good source of energy and protein and can be used up to 300 g/kg of the Japanese quail diets.

  1. Nutritional requirements of digestible threonine for growing meat-type quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Ton

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the nutrient requirements of digestible threonine for meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix sp in the growth phase. A total of 1350 not sexed meat-type quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with six threonine levels (10.80, 11.50, 12.20, 12.90, 13.60 and 14.30 g/kg as fed, five replications and 45 quails per experimental unit, from 1 to 14 days of age. The threonine levels in the diet had a quadratic effect on body weight, feed intake and weight gain. Estimates for highest body weight (79.41 g, feed intake (128.96 g/bird and weight gain (70.73 g were observed with diets containing 12.60 g/kg of digestible threonine. According to the LRP model, the threonine intake was estimated at 13.40 g/kg of digestible threonine. Protein deposition rate and energy retained in the carcass showed quadratic effect, with estimated digestible threonine levels of 11.80 and 12.00 g/kg in the diet for maximum protein deposition rate (2.00 g/bird and retained energy in the carcass (15.88 kcal/g, respectively. There was a linear effect on feed cost per kg of live weight gain as threonine levels were increased. Nutritional requirement of digestible threonine for meat-type quails for maximum growth is 12.60 g/kg, corresponding to a digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of 67.02.

  2. Genetic variation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II B gene in the threatened Hume's pheasant, Syrmaticus humiae.

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    Weicai Chen

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates and encode molecules that play a crucial role in pathogen resistance. As a result of their diversity, they have received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology. Here, we described the genetic variation of MHC class II B (MHCIIB exon 2 in a wild population of Hume's pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae, which has suffered a dramatic decline in population over the last three decades across its ranges in the face of heavy exploitation and habitat loss. Twenty-four distinct alleles were found in 73 S. humiae specimens. We found seven shared alleles among four geographical groups as well as six rare MHCIIB alleles. Most individuals displayed between one to five alleles, suggesting that there are at least three MHCIIB loci of the Hume's pheasant. The dN ⁄ dS ratio at putative antigen-binding sites (ABS was significantly greater than one, indicating balancing selection is acting on MHCIIB exon 2. Additionally, recombination and gene conversion contributed to generating MHCIIB diversity in the Hume's pheasant. One to three recombination events and seventy-five significant gene conversion events were observed within the Hume's pheasant MHCIIB loci. The phylogenetic tree and network analysis revealed that the Hume's pheasant alleles do not cluster together, but are scattered through the tree or network indicating a trans-species evolutionary mode. These findings revealed the evolution of the Hume's pheasant MHC after suffering extreme habitat fragmentation.

  3. Impact of cage stocking density on egg laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails in subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, M S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different cage stocking densities on egg production parameters, as well as related stress and immunity indices in Japanese quails under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Two hundred and sixteen birds of Japanese quail at 14th week of age were used in this experiment. The birds were divided randomly into three groups: 60, 72 and 84. Each group subdivided into 4 replicates, where the cages' floor spaces were 200 (S1 ), 167 (S2 ) and 143 (S3 ) cm(2) /bird, respectively. Birds housed at 200 cm(2) /bird (S1 ) had superior fertility (fertility % (p = 0.013) and hatchability % (p = 0.041)), egg production (egg weight (p = 0.034) and egg mass (p = 0.001)) and immunity parameters (higher geometric mean of antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus, p = 0.024). Furthermore, they had higher internal egg quality score: albumen height (p = 0.003), yolk height (p = 0.023), yolk index (p = 0.006) and Haugh unit (p = 0.035). Birds housed at 143 cm(2) /bird (S3 ) had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte % (p = 0.022), but the highest H/L ratio (p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in S1 group (p = 0.031) than that in groups housed at higher densities. Japanese quail housed at high densities revealed drop in fertility, hatchability, production and immunity parameters, indicating a detrimental effects on both welfare and economic income. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. 76 FR 41284 - Cold Springs and McKay Creek National Wildlife Refuges, Umatilla County, OR; Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... pursuit of pheasant and quail. Other visitors simply enjoy bird watching, wildlife photography, or nature... nesting birds, like great blue herons and egrets, stand still, waiting for prey. The surrounding upland... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2011-N089; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Cold...

  5. Public health significance of Campylobacter spp. colonisation of wild game pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguino, Alessandro; Chintoan-Uta, Cosmin; Smith, Sionagh H; Shaw, Darren J

    2018-09-01

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. Chicken meat is considered the main source of human infection; however, C. jejuni and C. coli have also been reported in a range of livestock and wildlife species, including pheasants. Wild pheasant meat reaches the consumer's table because of hunting but there is a lack of information concerning the risk of Campylobacter infection in humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in wild game pheasants in Scotland, to identify the main sequence types (STs) present and to evaluate their impact on public health. A total of 287 caecal samples from five Scottish regions were collected during the hunting season 2013/2014. Campylobacter was detected and enumerated using standard culture methods. PCR and High Throughput Multi Locus Sequence Typing (HiMLST) were used for species identification and sequence typing. In total, 36.6% of 287 caecal samples (n = 105; 95% CI: 14-59.2) were Campylobacter positive. Using PCR, 62.6% of samples (n = 99) were identified as C. coli and 37.4% as C. jejuni. HiMLST (n = 80) identified 19 different STs. ST-828 (n = 19) was the most common, followed by ST-827 (n = 12) and ST19 (n = 7). Sixteen of the 19 STs isolated are present in humans and eight are C. coli STs that account for 6.96% of human infections, although the overall risk to public health from pheasant meat is still considered to be low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of Caliciviruses in young pheasants (Phasianus colchicus with enteritis in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Capua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 2004 a severe enteritis was reported in a farm of 21-28 day old pheasants reared in intensive conditions in North-Eastern Italy. Mortality in the flock had reached 25%. Virological investigations on cell culture of the gut content yielded reoviruses while electron microscopy examination revealed viral particles morphologically related to calicivirus in association with parvovirus-like and rod shaped virus-like particles.

  7. Effect of using garlic or curcumin or parsley on the growth performance, meat and egg quality of Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Fahmy, M.O.; Wakwak, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Two grams of powdered garlic or curcumin or parsley were added separately to each kg of the diet of unsexed Japanese quail aged one day old in an attempt to evaluate growth performance, serum cholesterol, triiodothyronine hormone, small intestine thickness and caecal microbial count to improve meat quality and egg production. The quails were hold in equal 4 groups; each group contained three replicates of 30 birds. Birds were watered and fed ad libitum for 7 weeks then 69 chicks from each group (6 males and 17 females for each replicate) were transferred into laying cages for another 6 weeks while 3 birds from each replicate were slaughtered for serum cholesterol, triiodothyronine, small intestine thickness, microbial count and carcass fatty acid determination. The data revealed that addition of each of the tested herb supplements caused significant increase in body weight, while there was non-significant changes in serum cholesterol, T3, small intestine thickness and total bacterial count. In addition, there was significant increase in unsaturated fatty acids and significant decrease in saturated fatty acids of carcass. The three additives caused remarkable increases in egg production and hatch ability %, besides augmenting the fertility % and number of ovarian follicles. It may be concluded that addition of 2g garlic or curcumin or parsley powder to each kg of the diet of Japanese quail favored consumer expectation in relation to meat quality and egg production and prolonged feed preservation

  8. Biogenic amines in the meat of hunted pheasant and hare during the course of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venison is becoming more and more interesting for consumers. Although treatment procedures of hunted game differ from slaughtered livestock, the hygienic quality of game meat must still be ensured. Potential indicators of meat hygienic quality include the content of biogenic amines. The aim of the present study was to assess the content and changes of biogenic amines in the muscles of selected kinds of small game (common pheasant and brown hare during storage, and based on the obtained results, to assess the hygienic quality of the meat. Biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, and tryptamine in the breast and thigh muscles separated by reverse phase liquid chromatography and consequently were detected using tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the determined content of biogenic amines, both pheasant and hare meats complied with values of high quality meat. The sum of biogenic amines did not exceed the value of 5 mg/kg after 7 days at 0 °C or 7 °C in pheasant meat, and after 21 days at 0 °C or after 14 days at 7 °C in brown hare meat. The biogenic amine content and the speed of their formation in venison can be very helpful for the evaluation of both meat hygienic quality and safety of these foods during storage.

  9. Natural Bagaza virus infection in game birds in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamino Virginia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In late summer 2010 a mosquito born flavivirus not previously reported in Europe called Bagaza virus (BAGV caused high mortality in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus. We studied clinical findings, lesions and viral antigen distribution in naturally BAGV infected game birds in order to understand the apparently higher impact on red-legged partridges. The disease induced neurologic signs in the two galliform species and, to a lesser extent, in common wood pigeons (Columba palumbus. In red-legged partridges infection by BAGV caused severe haemosiderosis in the liver and spleen that was absent in pheasants and less evident in common wood pigeons. Also, BAGV antigen was present in vascular endothelium in multiple organs in red-legged partridges, and in the spleen in common wood pigeons, while in ring-necked pheasants it was only detected in neurons and glial cells in the brain. These findings indicate tropism of BAGV for endothelial cells and a severe haemolytic process in red-legged partridges in addition to the central nervous lesions that were found in all three species.

  10. Immunomodulation and hormonal disruption without compromised disease resistance in perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposed Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Judit E.G.; Nain, Sukhbir

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of oral perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on Japanese quail at concentrations found in American and Belgian workers at PFOA manufacturing facilities. Three arms of the immune system were tested; T cell, B cell, and innate immunity. After 6 weeks exposure, quail were challenged with E. coli infection to test the ultimate measure of immunotoxicity, disease resistance. The T cell response was lower in the high exposure groups. Antibody mediated, and innate immune responses were not different. Growth rate was higher, whereas thyroid hormone levels were lower in PFOA-exposed birds. Morbidity/mortality from disease challenge was not different among the control and PFOA-exposed groups, and no overt PFOA toxicity was observed pre-disease challenge. Although PFOA at ‘worst case scenario’ levels caused T cell immunosuppression, this did not translate into increased disease susceptibility, demonstrating that immunotoxicity testing must be interpreted with caution since disease resistance is the ultimate concern. -- Highlights: •Birds orally exposed to high levels of PFOA for 8 wks showed no signs of toxicity. •PFOA exposure caused immunotoxicity by suppressing the T cell mediated response. •PFOA exposure did not affect antibody mediated, or innate immunity. •PFOA exposure did not cause increased morbidity/mortality after E. coli infection. •PFOA exposed birds showed endocrinological changes that may warrant further study. -- Oral exposure of quail to the pollutant, PFOA, resulted in hormonal and immunological changes, but did not compromise disease resistance after challenge by a common avian pathogen

  11. Electrolyte balance and crude protein requirement of laying Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Vargas Gonçalves Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two levels of crude protein and five levels of electrolyte balance on the performance and egg-quality of laying Japanese quail. Six hundred 45-day-oldquails were distributed in a randomized-block design with a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement comprising ten treatments, five replicates, and 12 birds per experimental unit. The electrolyte balance levels were 50, 125, 200, 275, and 350 mEq kg–1of diet, and crude protein (CP levels were 210 and 240 g kg-1. The performance and egg-quality variables assessed were: feed intake, feed conversion, egg-laying percentage, egg weight and mass, and albumin, yolk and shell weight. There were no interactions among the studied factors. The electrolyte balance and crude protein levels did not significantly affect the performance variables. However, increased shell weight of eggs stored for seven days was observed at an electrolyte balance level of 200 mEq kg–1. With regard to the CP levels, increased egg weight was observed at 28 days at a level of 210 g kg-1, whereas increased albumin weight was observed at 35 days of storage at a level of 240 g kg-1. A tendency toward an increase in egg albumin weight during the storage period of 14 days was observed. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the diet for Japanese quails in the laying phase be formulated with an electrolyte balance of 50 mEq kg–1and 240 g kg-1 of crude protein This diet did not have a negative effect on productive performance, and by increasing the weight of egg albumin, eggs can be stored for a longer duration, thus demonstrating an alternative method to increase the shelf life of eggs.

  12. Effect of Adding Different Vegetable Oils to Quail Diets On Some Blood Parameters and Immune System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Wakwak, M.; Sabek, E.M.; Elaroussi, M.A.; El-Gendy, H.M.; Hammad, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    A total number of 1400 one-day old Japanese quail birds were used in this study, the birds were divided into seven equal groups, six treated while the 7 t h served as the control. The diet of the six treated groups was supplemented with 8 % of either one of the following tested oils: soybean (SBO), sunflower (SFO), corn (CO), cottonseed (CSO), olive (OO) or palm (PO). At the end of the 4 t hand 8 t h weeks of age blood samples were collected for blood picture, proteins and cortisol determination. Antibody titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and NewCastle disease virus (NDV) were determined at 7 and 8 weeks of age respectively. The results showed significant increase in relative lymphoid organ weights, RBCs, WBCs, Hb and PCV, total protein, globulin and cortisol hormone in treated groups compared to the control. The immunological parameters showed a significant increase in (HA) and (HI) against (SRBCs) and (NDV), respectively, in all treated groups compared to the control group. The present results confirm the beneficial effects of dietary oil supplementation to quail birds and in particular olive oil.

  13. Infectivity of Blastocystis isolates from chickens, quails and geese in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Aya; Yoshikawa, Hisao; Iwatani, Satoru; Kimata, Isao

    2005-04-01

    The infectivity of six Blastocystis isolates obtained from two domestic chickens, two Japanese quails and two domestic geese, were examined in 1-week-old male chicks. All six isolates were able to infect the chicks via the intracecal inoculation of 1x10(6) cells of cultured organisms. Since the infected chicks discharged many cysts in their feces, the infectivity of the concentrated cysts in chicks was compared among three isolates from different bird species. The CK86-1 and QQ93-3 isolates, which were obtained from a chicken and a quail, respectively, were successfully infected in chicks by orally inoculating with 1x10(2)-1x10(6) cysts. On the other hand, the AC03-1 isolate from a goose required more cysts to infect the chicks, from 1x10(3) cysts to 1x10(6) cysts. In addition, when an uninfected normal chick was housed with five experimentally inoculated chicks with cysts of the QQ93-3 isolate, the normal chick became infected, indicating the fecal-oral transmission of the cyst form among the birds. These results show that the transmission of Blastocystis infection occurs easily between the same or different bird species. Therefore, the proposal of new Blastocystis species on the basis of different avian host species is problematic.

  14. Diet selection by Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in relation to ambient temperature and metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, M G; Dabutha, L A

    1997-12-01

    1. A choice between a high-energy, wheat-based, low protein mixture and a lower-energy, soya-based, high protein mixture offered to growing Japanese quail at ambient temperatures of 20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees and 35 degrees C. 2. the quail were kept in open-circuit respiration calorimeters, so that diet selection could be related to energy requirement. 3. Increasing ambient temperature had no significant effect on food intake by weight, but the proportion of the high energy choice decreased and, conversely, the proportion of the lower-energy but higher-protein choice increased. 4. Energy intake was therefore negatively correlated with ambient temperature, but protein intake per unit of energy intake increased, allowing the birds to gain weight at about the same rate at all temperatures. 5. Heat production decreased as ambient temperature increased. Respiratory quotient decreased with increasing temperature, which indicates a reduced utilisation of carbohydrate as an energy source. 6. Water intake increased with temperature but there were no overt signs of heat stress and there was no significant change in body temperature. 7. Japanese quail selected a dietary mixture which maintained similar growth rates over a wide range of ambient temperature, by sustaining protein intake but altering energy intake in line with thermoregulatory energy demands.

  15. USE OF SACCHROMYCES CERVISIAE TO SUPPRESS THE EFFECTS OF FUMONISIN MYCOTOXICOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 400 unsexed Japanese quail chicks (1 day old) were used. The quail chicks were randomly assigned into four groups of 100 birds in each. The first group was served as control. The other experimental groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 0.5% yeast/kg diet (G2), 0.5% yeast/kg diet ± 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G3) and 200 mg fumonicin-B1/kg diet (G4). The results showed significant increases in mortality rate, GPT (ALT), GOT (AST), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and decreases in body weight, hatchability, fertility and hatching weight, serum total proteins, globulin and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in group of quails received fumonisin (G4) in comparison with the control group (G1) and all treatments. Yeast led to partial improvement in the parameters in group two (G2). Also, yeast suppressed the toxic effect of fumonisin B-1 (G3)

  16. Metabolizable energy levels for meat quails from 15 to 35 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cunha Lima Muniz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietetic metabolizable energy levels on performance and carcass traits of meat quails from 15 to 35 days old. Five hundred sixty, 15-d old, meat quails were randomly assigned to five treatments (2.850; 2.950; 3.050; 3.150 e 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 of diet, with eight replicates and fourteen birds per experimental unit. Feed intake, protein and lysine intake and feed conversion decreased linearly as the metabolizable energy content of diets increased (P0.05 by the treatments. Diets did not influence (P>0.05 carcass traits as dry matter, moisture and protein content in carcass. However a quadratic effect (P<0.04 were observed on carcass fat content. Based on these results, the adequate metabolizable energy level to ensure better meat quails' growth is 3.250kcal of ME kg-1 diet, that corresponds to a metabolizable energy: crude protein ratio of 139,24.

  17. Behavioral response and gene expression changes in fipronil-administered male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Awad, Ashraf; Mohammed, Hesham H

    2017-04-01

    Fipronil is an important member of the phenylpyrazole group of insecticides and is widely used for various crops and vegetables to control insects, thereby exposing birds, animals, and humans to fipronil. Currently, there is limited information on the effects of fipronil exposure in Japanese quail. Therefore, our aim was to assess the reproductive toxicological effects of fipronil in the Japanese quail in a 15-day gavage study and then its recovery over a period of 60 days. Fipronil-administration led to significant losses in both feed intake and body weight. Whereas, the gonadosomatic index was not affected, and histological changes observed in the testes were reversible, particularly by day 45 and day 60 of recovery. Cloacal gland atrophy, reduced foam quantity and a reduction in fertility, sexual and aggressive behaviors, and serum testosterone with elevated estradiol (E2) hormone levels were also observed. All these changes gradually reversed during various recovery periods. Further, alterations in hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene expression, assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, were also observed. Specifically, ERα1 was induced after fipronil administration, while the Vtg transcript was elevated during both exposure and recovery periods. Our results showed that fipronil exposure has a profound negative influence on reproductive traits in the male Japanese quail and exhibits an estrogenic activity that can raise the incidence of infertility in males. Nevertheless, most of the changes could be reversed after a recovery period of 30-45 days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of Japanese quails fed diets with low-protein and isoleucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene Conceição Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to assess isoleucine levels in low protein diets for laying Japanese quails, 648 quails of 182 days of age were distributed in experimental block design with six treatments and six replicates of 18 birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal level corresponding to 0.672% isoleucine and supplemented with isoleucine to the levels of 0.816, 0.960; 1.104; 1.248%. The experimental diets were compared to a control diet containing 20% CP. The parameters studied were: performance, egg quality, total solids and nitrogen in the excreta. There was a linear increase only for isoleucine intake with increasing levels of isoleucine in the diets. The comparison of mean values of each combination of isoleucine levels for diets with 16% CP with the control with 20% CP showed that the intake of CP and isoleucine, egg weight, nitrogen excretion and yolk color were significantly affected. For Japanese quail fed diets with 16% CP, with isoleucine level at 0.672%, meets the requirements for obtaining satisfactory performance and egg quality and promoted a reduction in nitrogen excretion.

  19. Toltrazuril (Baycox) treatment against coccidiosis caused by Eimeria sp. in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokół, R; Gesek, M; Raś-Noryńska, M; Michalczyk, M

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the most predominant parasitic disease affecting Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in commercial farms. Coccidiosis as a subclinical infection is difficult to diagnose without parasitological examinations. Oocysts of two Eimeria species, E. bateri and E. tsunodai, were determined in the analysed quail flock. Infected birds were administered Baycox 2.5% at the dose of: group I--7 mg toltrazuril/kg BW per day provided in drinking water (1.5 ml/0.5 1 H2O) that was available 24 h for 2 days, group II--14 mg/kg BW (3 ml/0.5 1 H2O), and group III-- 24.5 mg/kg BW (5 ml/0.5 1 H2O); in groups II and III, the solutions were available 8 h/24 h for 2 days. After the first day of the treatment, the number of excreted oocysts (OPG - oocysts per gram) increased, a steady decrease in oocyst counts began on the second day of Baycox administration and lasted until a three-day period when no oocyst were determined in faecal samples. Regardless of the dose applied, toltrazuril (Baycox) completely eliminated E. bateri coccidia and led to a highly significant reduction in the number of E. tsunodai oocysts. The results suggest that the effectiveness of toltrazuril varies depending on coccidia species and developmental stages of the parasite. From the clinical point of view, the treatment applied significantly reduces the number of coccidia oocysts in commercial flocks of Japanese quails.

  20. Sex Determination of Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica using with Zoometric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Çiçek Rathert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty of sex determination in most poultry species causes significant financial losses for poultry production as birds cannot be separated at early stages of growth for meat or egg production. Therefore it is important to determine bird’s sex with zoometric parameters. This study was carried out to determine the sex of Japanese quails with zoometric measurements, such as live weight, body length, chest depth and chest width. Eighty-eight male and female Japanese quail chicks were used individually for live weight, chest depth (mm, chest width (mm and body length (mm with using digital scaled balance and caliper for every week over a period of six weeks. The weekly collected data were applied to t test for estimating the sex discrimination. The Pearson’s correlation was applied for examining the interrelationship between sex and biometric traits. The results indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between live weight and body length beginning with the 2nd week. Therefore, zoometric measurement of these body traits is suitable for discriminating the sex of Japanese quails in early phase of life.

  1. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  2. Comparison between the effects of animal and plant basal diets on productivity of Japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) disease in cattle, known as m ad cow disease , make the European commission to take an action for preventing the spread of such disease by banning the feeding ruminant tissue and animal by-products to farm animals. This study suggested to compare between two basal diets originated from either plants or animal and their effects on some physiological parameters related to the bird growth. A total number of 800 one day old unsexed Japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into two groups containing 400 birds each. Each group contained 4 replicates of 100 birds. Group one the birds were fed on animal diet and group two fed on plant diet. The two diets contained 24% crude protein (CP) and 4% fat and contains 3200 Kcal/kg diet in starter, while the layer diet contained 21% CP and 4% fat and contains 3000 Kcal/kg diet. Growth data were obtained by weighing the quails individually every week until 6 th weeks, 6 th months and 1 2th months. Eggs were collected daily and weighed for eight months starting from the onset of first egg lying. At 8 th month, a sample of 8 quails was sacrificed, organ weighted and blood samples were collected. Carcass composition was performed to determine % fat, % protein, % ash and total moisture. Hematological and histological parameters, liver and kidney functions, total protein, albumin, globulin, estradiol, testosterone, cholesterol and total lipids were evaluated. The results showed significant increase in body weights gain in one and three weeks only in animal protein diet but no difference were shown between animal and plant diet after 4 weeks and until 12 month. No difference between animal and plant diets were noted in total dry solids (TDS), fat %, ash and protein of TDS and egg production. Levels of serum estradiol, testosterone, total protein, albumin, hematological parameters and total lipids showed non-significant values. The histological parameters

  3. MULTILEVEL SELECTION WITH KIN AND NON-KIN GROUPS, EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS WITH JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX JAPONICA)

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, William M; Bijma, P; Schinckel, A

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting in response an order of magnitude greater with Kin than Random. Thus, multilevel selection was effective in reducing detrimental social interactions, which contributed to improved weight gain. The...

  4. Growth performance, meat quality traits, and genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci in 3 generations of Japanese quail populations (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaniello, S; Maiorano, G; Siwek, M; Knaga, S; Witkowski, A; Di Memmo, D; Bednarczyk, M

    2014-08-01

    The current research was conducted to compare growth, carcass traits, pH, intramuscular collagen (IMC) properties, and genetic bases of IMC and carcasses (breast-muscle weight) of different lines and generations of adult males and females of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Forty-four quails (generation F0), 22 Pharaoh (F-33) meat-type males and 22 Standard (S-22) laying-type females, were crossed to produce the F1 hybrids generation. The F2 generation was created by mating one F1 male with one F1 female, full siblings. The birds, randomly chosen from F0 (22 males and 22 females), F1 (22 males and 22 females), and F2 (84 males and 152 females) were raised to 20 wk of age in collective cages. Quails were fed ad libitum commercial diets. At slaughter, all birds were individually weighed (after a fasting period of 12 h) and dressing yield (without giblets) was calculated. The carcasses were then dissected. Genomic DNA was extracted from all of the blood, and 30 microsatellite markers located on 2 quail chromosomes were genotyped. The F -: 33 quails had higher in vivo and postmortem performances and a higher abdominal fat percentage than those of the egg line. Meat from S -: 22 quails had a slower collagen maturation (hydroxylysylpyridinoline crosslink/collagen) and a higher ultimate pH. The F1 and F2 generations showed an evident sexual dimorphism, and an additional effect could be due to hybrid heterosis evident in F2. Meat from quails of F1 and F2 generations had a lower IMC amount with a higher degree of collagen maturation compared with parental lines. Two statistically significant QTL have been detected on quail chromosome 2 (CJA02): a QTL with an additive effect (0.50) for IMC in the marker bracket GUJ0037 and GUJ0093; a second QTL with additive (1.32) and dominant (1.91) effects for breast-muscle weight in the marker bracket GUJ0084 and GUJ0073. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a QTL associated with breast-muscle weight and IMC in quail and

  5. Performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Ali, El-Shimaa M R; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Poultry production is considered one of the prospective opportunities to accomplish sustainable and quick production of superior protein to challenge the growing mandate for animal protein. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore the difference on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acid profile of different Japanese quails strains. A total of 480 quail chicks of four different plumage colors (120 of each white, golden, gray and brown) were collected after hatching. At 6 week of age, birds were stunned and decapitated to determine the physical meat quality, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and amino acid profile. White quails had the highest weight of slaughter, carcass, dressing, carcass yield, liver, gizzard, heart and spleen (197.27 g, 169.27 g, 91%, 82%, 6.63 g, 6.53 g, 2.27 g and 0.40 g, respectively). Also, they had the highest Ph U , lightness, yellowness and water holding capacity with the lowest level of redness, cooking losses and thiobarbituric acid in pectoral (6.28, 46.40, 12,46, 22.17, 9.20, 19.21 and 0.44, respectively) and thigh muscles (6.37, 42.30, 11.51, 26.01, 10.12 and 0.93, respectively). Moreover, they possessed the highest level of all essential (11.68 and 10.16 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively) and non essential amino acids (13.27 and 12.54 g/100 g protein in pectoral and thigh muscles, respectively). Therefore, the current study revealed that white quails had the heaviest body weight with the best carcass traits and meat quality.

  6. Cocaine induces state-dependent learning of sexual conditioning in male Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karin E; Rice, Beth Ann; Akins, Chana K

    2015-01-01

    State dependent learning effects have been widely studied in a variety of drugs of abuse. However, they have yet to be studied in relation to sexual motivation. The current study investigated state-dependent learning effects of cocaine in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) using a sexual conditioning paradigm. Cocaine-induced state-dependent learning effects were investigated using a 2×2 factorial design with training state as one factor and test state as the other factor. During a 14-day training phase, male quail were injected once daily with 10mg/kg cocaine or saline and then placed in a test chamber after 15min. In the test chamber, sexual conditioning trials consisted of presentation of a light conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by sexual reinforcement. During the state dependent test, half of the birds received a shift in drug state from training to testing (Coc→Sal or Sal→Coc) while the other half remained in the same drug state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal). Results showed that male quail that were trained and tested in the same state (Coc→Coc or Sal→Sal) showed greater sexual conditioning than male quail that were trained and tested in different states (Sal→Coc) except when cocaine was administered chronically prior to the test (Coc→Sal). For the latter condition, sexual conditioning persisted from cocaine training to the saline test. The findings suggest that state dependent effects may alter sexual motivation and that repeated exposure to cocaine during sexual activity may increase sexual motivation which, in turn, may lead to high risk sexual activities. An alternative explanation for the findings is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serologic surveillance of wild and pen-reared ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) as a method of understanding disease reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Ian; Coates, Peter S.; Stoute, Simone T.; Senties-Cue, C. Gabriel; Gharpure, Radhika V.; Pitesky, Maurice E.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated exposure to infectious diseases in wild (n=33) and pen-reared (n=12) Ring-necked Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in the Central Valley of California during 2014 and 2015. Serologic tests were positive for antibodies against hemorrhagic enteritis (HE), infectious bursal disease (IBD), and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in both wild and pen-reared pheasants.

  8. Partial altitudinal migration of a Himalayan Forest pheasant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbu, Nawang; Wikelski, Martin C; Wilcove, David S; Partecke, Jesko; Ugyen; Tenzin, Ugyen; Sherub; Tempa, Tshering

    2013-01-01

    Altitudinal migration systems are poorly understood. Recent advances in animal telemetry which enables tracking of migrants across their annual cycles will help illustrate unknown migration patterns and test existing hypotheses. Using telemetry, we show the existence of a complex partial altitudinal migration system in the Himalayas and discuss our findings to help better understand partial and altitudinal migration. We used GPS/accelerometer tags to monitor the migration of Satyr tragopan (Tragopan satyra) in the Bhutan Himalayas. We tagged 38 birds from 2009 - 2011 and found that tragopans are partially migratory. Fall migration lasted from the 3(rd) week of September till the 3(rd) week of November with migrants traveling distances ranging from 1.25 km to 13.5 km over 1 to 32 days. Snowfall did not influence the onset of migration. Return migration started by the 1(st) week of March and lasted until the 1(st) week of April. Individuals returned within 4 to 10 days and displayed site fidelity. One bird switched from being a migrant to a non-migrant. Tragopans displayed three main migration patterns: 1) crossing multiple mountains; 2) descending/ascending longitudinally; 3) moving higher up in winter and lower down in summer. More females migrated than males; but, within males, body size was not a factor for predicting migrants. Our observations of migrants traversing over multiple mountain ridges and even of others climbing to higher elevations is novel. We support the need for existing hypotheses to consider how best to explain inter- as well as intra-sexual differences. Most importantly, having shown that the patterns of an altitudinal migration system are complex and not a simple up and down slope movement, we hope our findings will influence the way altitudinal migrations are perceived and thereby contribute to a better understanding of how species may respond to climate change.

  9. Partial altitudinal migration of a Himalayan Forest pheasant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawang Norbu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altitudinal migration systems are poorly understood. Recent advances in animal telemetry which enables tracking of migrants across their annual cycles will help illustrate unknown migration patterns and test existing hypotheses. Using telemetry, we show the existence of a complex partial altitudinal migration system in the Himalayas and discuss our findings to help better understand partial and altitudinal migration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used GPS/accelerometer tags to monitor the migration of Satyr tragopan (Tragopan satyra in the Bhutan Himalayas. We tagged 38 birds from 2009 - 2011 and found that tragopans are partially migratory. Fall migration lasted from the 3(rd week of September till the 3(rd week of November with migrants traveling distances ranging from 1.25 km to 13.5 km over 1 to 32 days. Snowfall did not influence the onset of migration. Return migration started by the 1(st week of March and lasted until the 1(st week of April. Individuals returned within 4 to 10 days and displayed site fidelity. One bird switched from being a migrant to a non-migrant. Tragopans displayed three main migration patterns: 1 crossing multiple mountains; 2 descending/ascending longitudinally; 3 moving higher up in winter and lower down in summer. More females migrated than males; but, within males, body size was not a factor for predicting migrants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our observations of migrants traversing over multiple mountain ridges and even of others climbing to higher elevations is novel. We support the need for existing hypotheses to consider how best to explain inter- as well as intra-sexual differences. Most importantly, having shown that the patterns of an altitudinal migration system are complex and not a simple up and down slope movement, we hope our findings will influence the way altitudinal migrations are perceived and thereby contribute to a better understanding of how species may respond to climate change.

  10. Probiotics intake from proximal or distal gastrointestinal tract: The investigation on intestinal morphology and performance of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, K; Karimi-Torshizi, M A; Deldar, H

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of early single-dose probiotics administered from proximal or distal gastrointestinal tract on quails' performance and small intestinal morphology. A total of 120 Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) 1-d-old chicks were divided into the following experimental groups before being transferred to the raising room: (i) control (no probiotic administered); (ii) oral group (received probiotics via oesophageal gavage); and (iii) vent lip group (received probiotics directly into vent). Four replicates of 10 chicks per cage were considered for each treatment and birds were raised up to 35 days in the same conditions with ad libitum access to feed and water. A commercial probiotics (Protexin, Somerset, UK) used in this study contained 2 × 10 9  cfu/g of nine different micro-organisms. On day 35, all birds were weighed and then three birds in every pen were killed via cervical dislocation. Two cm of mid-point of duodenum and ileum were cut for histomorphology assays. Both probiotics-treated groups had higher body weight and body weight gain than control (p probiotics-treated groups than in the control (p probiotics than control birds (p probiotics entrance into gut, some intestinal histomorphometric parameters were improved in ileum of the birds receiving probiotics through distal gut that is cloaca (p < .01). © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Is gastrointestinal plasticity in king quail (Coturnix chinensis) elicited by diet-fibre or diet-energy dilution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean A; Jones, Stephanie K Courtney; Munn, Adam J

    2014-06-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of organ size allows some animals to manage fluctuations of resource quality or availability. Here, we examined the phenotypic plasticity of the gastrointestinal tract of king quail (Coturnix chinensis) in a diet-fibre manipulation study. Quail were offered either a control low-fibre (high-quality) food (8.5% neutral-detergent fibre; NDF), or one of two experimental diets of higher fibre contents of 16% NDF (i.e. low-quality food). To examine whether phenotypic plasticity of organ size was associated with the fibre content per se, or as a consequence of diluting the diet energy contents by adding fibre, one of the high-fibre feeds was 'balanced' with additional energy to match that of the low-fibre control diet. Total empty dry mass of the gastrointestinal tract was significantly heavier among birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet as compared with those offered the control diet, with birds offered the fibrous but energy-balanced diet having guts of intermediate size. The heavier entire-gut mass (dry) of quail offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated mainly with these birds having significantly heavier gizzards. Notably, the larger gizzard in the birds offered the unbalanced high-fibre diet was associated with marked increases in their metabolisability (digestion) of diet fibre. Our findings suggest that the available energy in the diet may be more important for eliciting phenotypic changes in the gut of these herbivorous birds rather than simple physical effects of diet fibre on feed intakes or on muscular compensation to fibrous ingesta. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Comparative toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Kennedy, S W; Lorenzen, A

    1997-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related halogenated hydrocarbons bioaccumulate to high concentrations in top predators, such as raptorial birds, yet little is known of PCB toxicity to such species. This study explored several aspects of both the acute and chronic response of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to three purified PCB congeners and a commercial mixture, Aroclor 1254, and compared the response to that of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), a more studied species known to be PCB sensitive. In one experiment, adult female birds were given single oral doses of either Aroclor 1254, 3,3',4,4'-TCB (PCB 77, IUPAC nomenclature), 3,3',4,4',5-PCB (PCB 126) or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-HCB (PCB 153) and sacrificed after 5 d. In kestrels, neither the pure compounds nor the mixture affected hepatic or renal porphyrin levels. There was slight but significant hepatic and renal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction in birds dosed with PCBs 77 and 126. A cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in liver and kidney of kestrels given PCBs 77 and 126, but not in Aroclor 1254-dosed birds. In quail, an acute dose of Aroclor 1254 caused significant liver weight increases, hepatic and renal EROD and aminopyrine n-demethylase (APND) induction, and dose-related hepatic and renal porphyria. Quail treated with PCB 126 developed hepatic and renal porphyria; EROD and APND were also induced. Administration of PCB 77 caused only slight induction of hepatic EROD activity. PCB 153 caused some hepatic and renal porphyria and induced EROD to the same degree as PCB 126. A hepatic CYP1A cross-reactive protein was induced about 200-fold in all individual quail that exhibited significant EROD induction and was also induced in kidney of 1 quail given Aroclor 1254. A second experiment examined chronic exposure to Aroclor 1254 by feeding adult females of both species a daily dose of 7 mg/kg/d for 4-, 8-, and 12-wk periods. There were no effects on hepatic

  13. Trunk orientation causes asymmetries in leg function in small bird terrestrial locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Sutedja, Yefta; Nyakatura, John A; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-12-22

    In contrast to the upright trunk in humans, trunk orientation in most birds is almost horizontal (pronograde). It is conceivable that the orientation of the heavy trunk strongly influences the dynamics of bipedal terrestrial locomotion. Here, we analyse for the first time the effects of a pronograde trunk orientation on leg function and stability during bipedal locomotion. For this, we first inferred the leg function and trunk control strategy applied by a generalized small bird during terrestrial locomotion by analysing synchronously recorded kinematic (three-dimensional X-ray videography) and kinetic (three-dimensional force measurement) quail locomotion data. Then, by simulating quail gaits using a simplistic bioinspired numerical model which made use of parameters obtained in in vivo experiments with real quail, we show that the observed asymmetric leg function (left-skewed ground reaction force and longer leg at touchdown than at lift-off) is necessary for pronograde steady-state locomotion. In addition, steady-state locomotion becomes stable for specific morphological parameters. For quail-like parameters, the most common stable solution is grounded running, a gait preferred by quail and most of the other small birds. We hypothesize that stability of bipedal locomotion is a functional demand that, depending on trunk orientation and centre of mass location, constrains basic hind limb morphology and function, such as leg length, leg stiffness and leg damping. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Pathology and Tissue Distribution of an LPAI H5N8 of North American Lineage Isolated from an Outbreak in Commercial Japanese Quail (Coturnix c. japonica) in the Central Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaccini, S; Stoute, S T; Bickford, A A; Shivaprasad, H L

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the pathology and tissue distribution of avian influenza (AI) antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the tissues of commercial layer quail from a natural outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N8. LPAI virus H5N8 of North American lineage was diagnosed in commercial Japanese quail hens ( Coturnix coturnix japonica) in California based on serology, reverse-transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and sequencing. The sudden increase in mortality in a flock of laying quail hens had prompted the submission of 15 live and 5 dead, 10- to 15-wk-old quail to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, Turlock branch in the beginning of April 2014. There was mild bilateral swelling of the eyelids and greenish diarrhea in 4/15 live quail submitted. On postmortem examination, there were severe, extensive hemorrhages and multifocal, confluent pale foci in the pancreas in 10/20 birds. Liver gross lesions in five birds ranged from a few pale areas to numerous disseminated foci. Histology revealed moderate to severe necrosis of acinar cells in the pancreas with little or no inflammation in most of the birds. Livers had acute multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes with fibrin exudation and infiltration of few to large numbers of heterophils and lymphocytes randomly scattered throughout. The AI virus was detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm of pancreatic acinar cells and hepatocytes by IHC targeting the nucleoprotein of the AI virus. A few birds had AI antigen in the reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen, endothelial cells of the lungs, epithelium of the respiratory mucosa, and lamina propria of the intestine. The severity of the lesions observed in this natural outbreak of LPAI in quail was higher than that expected for the pathotypic presentation in this species.

  15. Effects of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. Leaf Meal and Vitamin E on Productive Performance, Intestinal Microflora and Morphology in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadi F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240, one-day-old quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica were used to study the effects of Artichoke leaf meal (ALM and vitamin E in diet on growth performance, ileal microbial populations and intestinal morphology in a 42-d trial. This experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with 4 replicates of 15 quails each, using a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement with diet and gender as the main effects. Four dietary treatments were formulated by addition of 2 levels (1.5 and 3 percent of ALM and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E to the basal diet. Supplementing basal diet with ALM did not improve growth performance at different rearing periods, whereas dietary vitamin E increased feed intake and body weight gain at day 21 of age (P. The ileal populations of lactobacillus and coliforms was not affected by dietary ALM treatments, whereas vitamin E increased the population of total aerobic bacteria (P≤0.04. The ileal villus height (P≤0.01 and crypt depth (P≤0.008 were reduced in quails fed on diets with ALM and vitamin E. The quails fed diets containing 3 percent ALM and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E had higher villus height:crypt depth ratio. The thickness of muscularies (P≤0.04 and mucosa (P≤0.0007 layers were decreased in birds fed diets containing ALM than control birds. Birds treated with ALM and vitamin E showed a shorter intestinal length (P≤0.02 and a lower pancereas relative weight. The results of this study showed that supplementing diet by ALM (1.5 and 3% and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E did not improve growth performance, ileal microbiota pupolations and intestinal morphometric indices in Japanese quail.

  16. Morphological analysis of Japanese quail embryos developed onboard orbital station "Mir" during NASA-"Mir" research program experiments (1990-1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, O.; Gyrieva, T.; Dadasheva, O.; Pahomov, A.; Pirt, C.

    From 1990 to 1996, 5 experiments onboard "MIR" space station which allowed to receive important data dynamics of embryonic development of birds in micro gravitational conditions was carried out by NASA-"MIR" research program, using fertilized eggs of Japanese quail, as convenient object for space experiments. Here we represent the comparative morphomethrical analysis of incubation modes influence on a morphogenesis of Japanese quail. The data allowed us to make the conclusion that the embryonic development of Japanese quail in weightlessness conditions results in authentic decrease of length and body mass parameters in comparison with the embryos, developed in the ground laboratory conditions. The development of a skeleton and extremities, in general developing in normal way, demonstrates decreasing of legs length (10-12%) and body mass (8-12%), but there are no differences in wings length. At the same time we didn't find any significant differences in extremities length in laboratory and synchronic experimental groups of embryos. Analysis didn't show any significant influence of location of eggs in the incubator on mortality of the embryos. The main results of experiments have shown presence of morphometrical changes connected first of all with presence of weightlessness in the surrounded environment. In general, the data a alysis oncen again confirms the assumption that the changed gravity is not an interrupt factor for development of Japanese quail nestlings from fertilized eggs, but further experiments are required for detailed understanding of weightless influence on birds development.

  17. The effect of different high-fat diets on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum lipid concentrations in male, Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, J; Pillay, K; Madziva, M T; Erlwanger, K H

    2015-04-01

    Poultry diets are formulated with additional animal fat or vegetable oils to improve growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. High-fat diet feeding in rats and fish has been shown to result in alterations in the phospholipid composition and cholesterol content of the erythrocyte membrane, in turn affecting erythrocyte osmotic fragility. In contrast, the few studies performed using high-fat diet feeding in avian species show no changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility. This study made use of the Japanese quail as no data exists on investigation of this species with respect to high-fat diet feeding and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Fifty-seven male quail were randomly divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet (commercial poultry feed) or one of five high-fat diets (commercial poultry feed with 22% of either coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soya bean oil or sunflower oil on a weight/weight basis) for 12 weeks. All birds on the high-fat diets were significantly heavier (p quail erythrocytes. Feeding quail high-energy diets of varying degrees of fatty acid saturation was well tolerated and did not seem to affect the overall health status of the birds. Resistance of avian erythrocytes to modification by excess dietary fat may be a general characteristic of avian erythrocytes. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Parboiled rice bran in japanese quail diets at growing phase and residual effect at laying period

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    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the second largest cereal crop in the world and the by-products resulting from rice processing for human consumption are potential feedstuffs to compose poultry diets. In this sense, it was evaluated the influence of parboiled rice bran (PRB in diets for Japanese quails in growing phase on the performance and digestibility, besides of residual effects and characteristics of egg quality in laying phase. A total of 324 Japanese quails with 7 days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 6 treatments and 6 replicates of 9 birds. The treatments consisted of 6 isonutritives diets, being a control diet without PRB and the others containing 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. At the end of growing phase the birds were allotted in cages and fed the same diet without PRB at laying phase. At growing phase, the inclusion of PRB up to 5% promoted linear reduction in dry matter and gross energy digestibilities of diet; however a linear increase in metabolizable energy was noted. Feed intake, weight gain and final weight were reduced but not altering feed:gain ratio and body composition. At laying phase, the inclusion of PRB increased the age at first egg production but no influence was verified at age to reach 50% of egg production. No effect was verified at laying percentage, feed intake, weight and egg mass and feed:gain ratio. In economical evaluation, the inclusion of up to 25% of parboiled rice bran provided best economical indexes. The inclusion of PRB Japanese quails diets at growing phase can be recommended in levels up to 25%, without incurring future losses at laying phase.

  19. Parthenogenesis in birds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Reshma; McDaniel, Cd

    2018-03-20

    Parthenogenesis or "virgin birth" is embryonic development in unfertilized eggs. It is a routine means of reproduction in many invertebrates. However even though parthenogenesis occurs naturally in even more advanced vertebrates, like birds, it is mostly abortive in nature. In fact, multiple limiting factors, such as delayed and unorganized development as well as unfavorable conditions developing within the unfertilized egg upon incubation, are associated with termination of progressive development of parthenogenetic embryos. In birds, diploid parthenogenesis is automictic and facultative producing only males. However, the mechanisms controlling parthenogenesis in birds are not clearly elucidated. Additionally, it appears from even very recent research that these mechanisms may hinder the normal fertilization process and subsequent embryonic development. For instance, virgin quail and turkey hens exhibiting parthenogenesis have reduced reproductive performance following mating. Also, genetic selection and environmental factors, such as live virus vaccinations, are known to trigger the process of parthenogenesis in birds. Therefore, parthenogenesis has a plausible negative impact on the poultry industry. Hence, a better understanding of parthenogenesis and the mechanisms that control it could benefit commercial poultry production. In this context, the aim of this review is to provide a complete overview of the process of parthenogenesis in birds.

  20. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  1. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Pasteurella multocida isolated from chickens and japanese quails in Brazil

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    Everlon Cid Rigobelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed to verify the presence of Pasteurella multocida in eight different poultry groups of 90 birds each. Groups I to IV were chickens (I being > 6 weeks of age with a history of respiratory illness, II > 6 weeks of age and free of respiratory illness, III < 6 weeks of age with respiratory illness and IV being < 6 weeks of age and with no respiratory illness. Groups V to VIII had the matching characteristics of Groups I to V but consisted of Japanese Quails. The P. multocida isolation rate from the groups was as follows; Group I 56/90 (62.3% Group II 18/90 (20.0%, Group III 12/90 (13.3%, Group IV 3/90 (3.33%, Group V 8/90 (8.88%, Group VI 2/90 (2.22% Group VII 2/90 (2.22% and Group VIII 1/90 (1.11%. These isolation rates were not significantly different within the groups of a bird type but the overall chicken isolation rate was significantly higher than the quail isolation rate (p < 0.01. All isolates were examined for their sensitivity to four antimicrobial agents. The results showed only low levels of resistance to the agents tested. The highest level of resistance detected was to cephalothin (5.1% of isolates followed by amikacin (3.4%.

  2. Identification of a putatively novel trichomonad species in the intestine of a common quail (Coturnix coturnix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostegl, Meike M; Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Maderner, Anton; Dinhopl, Nora; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2012-02-10

    A common quail (Coturnix coturnix) from a private keeping died unexpectedly and showed a moderate lymphocytic infiltration of the colonic mucosa associated with numerous protozoa-like objects at the pathological examination. These organisms were further identified using chromogenic in situ hybridization (ISH) and gene sequencing. ISH was performed on paraffin embedded tissue sections and produced a positive signal using a probe specific for the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the order Trichomonadida, but remained negative with probes specific for the 18S rRNA gene of the common bird parasites Histomonas meleagridis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum or Trichomonas gallinae. The trichomonads were found on the mucosal surface, inside the crypts and also immigrating into the lamina propria mucosae. DNA was extracted from the paraffin embedded tissue and the entire 18S rRNA gene, ITS-1 region, 5.8S rRNA gene, ITS-2 region and a part of the 28S rRNA gene were sequenced using primer walking. The acquired sequence showed 95% homology with Tritrichomonas foetus, a trichomonad never described in birds. A phylogenetic analysis of a part of the 18S rRNA gene or of the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 region clearly placed this nucleotide sequence within the family of Tritrichomonadidae. Therefore, the authors propose the detection of a putative new Tritrichomonas sp. in the intestine of a common quail. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. RADIOIODINATION OF OCHRATOXIN TO STUDY THE ROLE OF YEAST IN COUNTERACTING ITS EFFECT ON JAPANESE QUAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU TALEB, A.M.; EL-BARKOUKY, E.E.; AYYOUB, S.M.; EL-KOLALY, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    The radioiodination of ochratoxin using iodogen as an oxidizing agent was studied. The factors affecting the radioiodination yield, such as reaction time, concentration of substrate and oxidizing agent, pH, stability of iodogen coated tubes have been investigated. Separation and purification of the labelled product using thin layer chromatography and gel chromatography on sephadex G-25 column were described.A total number of 80 quail chicks at eight weeks age were divided into two groups 40 birds each. The first group (control) feed basal diet and the second group was supplemented with 0.5% active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in basal diet. All groups were given orally labelled ochratoxin. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours from oral feeding, the quails (5 birds from every group) were slaughtered and blood samples were collected when slaughtering. The organs; liver, heart, spleen lung, proventriculus, gizzard, intestine content, kidney, testis, ovary, oviduct, breast and thigh, were removed and weighed individually and their weights related to body weight have been calculated. Also, manure and eggs were collected. The radioactivity levels in the second group that supplemented yeast in diet was lower than the first group (control) except manure

  4. Dietary fatty acid composition influences tissue lipid profiles and regulation of body temperature in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hamo, Miriam; McCue, Marshall D; McWilliams, Scott R; Pinshow, Berry

    2011-08-01

    Many avian species reduce their body temperature (T(b)) to conserve energy during periods of inactivity, and we recently characterized how ambient temperature (T(a)) and nutritional stress interact with one another to influence physiologically controlled hypothermic responses in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). In the present study, we examined how the fatty acid (FA) composition of the diet influences the FA composition of phospholipids in major organs and how these affect controlled hypothermic responses and metabolic rates in fasted birds. For 5 weeks prior to fasting, quail were fed a standard diet and gavaged each morning with 0.7 ml of water (control), or a vegetable oil comprising saturated fatty acids (SFA; coconut oil), or unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; canola oil). Birds were then fasted for 4 days at a T(a) of 15°C. We found that, while fasting, both photophase and scotophase T(b) decreased significantly more in the SFA treatment group than in the control group; apparently the former down-regulated their T(b) set point. This deeper hypothermic response was correlated with changes in the phospholipid composition of the skeletal muscle and liver, which contained significantly more oleic acid (18:1) and less arachidonic acid (20:4), respectively. Our data imply that these two FAs may be associated with thermoregulation.

  5. Effect of boiled oil as dietary supplements for Japanese Quail on serum protein fractions and intestinal and hepatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faramawy, A.A.; Soliman, S.M.; Fahmy, Y.M.O.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the levels of serum protein fractions and testosterone, in addition to histopathological changes of small intestine and liver of Japanese quail following feeding with diets containing different concentrations of boiled oil (BO). Male Japanese quails (n=120), arranged into four groups each of three replicates, were supplemented with BO at 1%, 2% and 4% at the expense of 4% cotton seed oil (CSO). At the end of the experiment (10 weeks), three birds from each replicate were slaughtered and serum, small intestine and liver were collected for the determination of total testosterone, total protein, albumin and globulin fractions and fat studying the histology of small intestine and liver. The data revealed that feeding with BO led to decrease of total proteins and β-globulins in addition to cellular damages of small intestine and liver. This effect was increased with increasing the BO concentration in the diet

  6. Reproductivity of Japanese quail fed mercuric chloride in the absence of vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) was tested at 16 p.p.m. Hg for vitamin D sparing activity by presenting it dietarily in the presence and absence of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-HCC) to Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) for 25 days. No gross signs characteristic of mercury poisoning were observed, but some predictable effects of vitamin D deficiency on avian reproduction were manifested within 10 days. Rate of lay, egg shell thickness, and hatchability of fertile eggs decreased markedly for birds on vitamin D-deficient diets. Shell-less eggs were laid by these birds after 20 days and laying stopped entirely on the 23rd day. Laying resumed within 5 days after diets were refortified with 25-HCC. There was no detectable interaction between HgCl2 and vitamin D.

  7. Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: apparent digestibility, excreta microbial load, feed choice, performance, carcass and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullere, M; Tasoniero, G; Giaccone, V; Miotti-Scapin, R; Claeys, E; De Smet, S; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-12-01

    In order to expand with validated scientific data the limited knowledge regarding the potential application of insects as innovative feed ingredients for poultry, the present study tested a partial substitution of soya bean meal and soya bean oil with defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (H) in the diet for growing broiler quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on growth performance, mortality, nutrients apparent digestibility, microbiological composition of excreta, feed choice, carcass and meat traits. With this purpose, a total of 450 10-day-old birds were allocated to 15 cages (30 birds/cage) and received three dietary treatments: a Control diet (C) and two diets (H1 and H2) corresponding to 10% and 15% H inclusion levels, respectively (H substituted 28.4% soya bean oil and 16.1% soya bean meal for H1, and 100% soya bean oil and 24.8% soya bean meal for H2, respectively). At 28 days of age, quails were slaughtered, carcasses were weighed, breast muscles were then excised from 50 quails/treatment, weighed, and ultimate pH (pHu) and L*, a*, b* colour values were measured. Breast muscles were then cooked to assess cooking loss and meat toughness. For the digestibility trial, a total of 15 28-day-old quails were assigned to the three feeding groups. The excreta samples were subjected to chemical and microbiological analysis. The same 15 quails were then simultaneously provided with C and H2 diets for a 10-day feed choice trial. Productive performance, mortality and carcass traits were in line with commercial standards and similar in all experimental groups. With the exception of ether extract digestibility, which was lower in H1 group compared with C and H2 (P=0.0001), apparent digestibility of dry matter, CP, starch and energy did not differ among treatments. Microbial composition of excreta was also comparable among the three groups. Feed choice trial showed that quails did not express a preference toward C or H2 diets. Breast meat weight and

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of single administration of 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implants on egg production and plasma sex hormones in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritz, Olivia A; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Fecteau, Kellie; Mete, Aslı; Kass, Philip H; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implants on egg production and plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and androstenedione in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) over 180 days and assess safety of the implants in quail via gross and histologic examination. 20 female Japanese quail. Following a 7-day period of consistent egg laying, quail were anesthetized and received a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant (treatment group; n = 10) or identical placebo implant (control group; 10) SC between the scapulae. Egg production was monitored daily. Plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and androstenedione were measured on days 0 (immediately prior to implant injection), 14, 29, 62, 90, 120, 150, and 180 via radioimmunoassay. Birds were weighed periodically and euthanized at day 180 for complete necropsy. Egg production was significantly decreased in the treatment group, compared with the control group, from 2 to 12 weeks after implant injection. Egg production ceased in 6 of 10 quail in the treatment group (mean duration of cessation, 70 days). Plasma androstenedione and 17β -estradiol concentrations were significantly lower on day 29 in the treatment group than in the control group. On day 180, 17β -estradiol concentration was lower in control than in treated birds.No clinically relevant lesions were detected in either group at necropsy [corrected]. 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implants reversibly decreased egg laying for approximately 70 days in most of the Japanese quail evaluated. Further studies evaluating implants containing different concentrations of the drug are needed in quail and other avian species.

  9. Restricted nutrition-induced low birth weight, low number of nephrons and glomerular mesangium injury in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, H; Yaoita, E; Nameta, M; Yamaguchi, K; Sato, M; Ihoriya, C; Zhao, L; Kawachi, H; Sasaki, T; Ikezumi, Y; Ouchi, Y; Kashihara, N; Yamamoto, T

    2017-06-01

    Insufficient nutrition during the perinatal period causes structural alterations in humans and experimental animals, leading to increased vulnerability to diseases in later life. Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, in which partial (8-10%) egg white was withdrawn (EwW) from eggs before incubation had lower birth weights than controls (CTs). EwW birds also had reduced hatching rates, smaller glomeruli and lower embryo weight. In EwW embryos, the surface condensate area containing mesenchymal cells was larger, suggesting that delayed but active nephrogenesis takes place. In mature EwW quail, the number of glomeruli in the cortical region (mm2) was significantly lower (CT 34.7±1.4, EwW 21.0±1.2); capillary loops showed focal ballooning, and mesangial areas were distinctly expanded. Immunoreactive cell junction proteins, N-cadherin and podocin, and slit diaphragms were clearly seen. With aging, the mesangial area and glomerular size continued to increase and were significantly larger in EwW quail, suggesting compensatory hypertrophy. Furthermore, apoptosis measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling analysis was higher in EwWs than in CTs on embryonic day 15 and postnatal day 4 (D4). Similarly, plasma glucocorticoid (corticosterone) was higher (Pquail. These results suggest that although nephrogenic activity is high in low-nutrition quail during the perinatal period, delayed development and increased apoptosis may result in a lower number of mature nephrons. Damaged or incompletely mature mesangium may trigger glomerular injury, leading in later life to nephrosclerosis. The present study shows that birds serve as a model for 'fetal programming,' which appears to have evolved phylogenetically early.

  10. Effects of Cottonseed Meal on Hematological, Biochemical and Behavioral Alterations in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moazam Jalees, M. Zargham Khan*, M. Kashif Saleemi and Ahrar Khan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to find toxico-pathological effects of cottonseed meal (CSM in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica. Male birds (n=48 were equally divided into four groups (A to D. Three isonitric and isocaloric experimental feeds were formulated by replacing soybean meal with three levels of CSM i.e., 13, 27 and 41%. The respective feed was offered to the birds ad libitum for the duration of experiment (42 days. Clinical signs, behavioral alterations, feed consumption, body weight, absolute and relative organ weight, hematological and biochemical parameters along with gross and histopathological lesions were studied. In group B and C, birds were temporarily depressed but later on became active. In group D, birds remained dull and depressed and 66.7% mortality was recorded. Body weight, absolute and relative organ weight was non-significantly different in treatment groups compared with control. Feed intake at week 1 was significantly low in group D while during remaining experiment; it differed non-significantly in all the treatment groups compared with control. Testicular volume at day 21 was significantly (P<0.05 low in group D. Significantly low serum total proteins and albumin in groups B and C and hematocrit values in all the groups and hemoglobin concentration in group D were recorded at day 42 of experiment. It was concluded that CSM 13% level did not have any deleterious effect on the feed conversion and body weight but the reproductive performance of the male Japanese quail was affected.

  11. Impact of temperature-humidity index on egg-laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) level on productive parameters, welfare, and immunity in Japanese quails. One hundred and eighty (180) birds of Japanese quail, 14 weeks old, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, less than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75), and H2 (at high THI, 76-80). Birds in the control group had higher body weight (281.2 g, p = 0.001), egg mass (745 g, p = 0.001), fertility (85.4 %, p = 0.039), hatchability (80.4 %, p = 0.001), and immune response titer to Newcastle disease virus ( p = 0.031), compared with H2 group. Furthermore, the thermoneutral group had higher internal egg quality score [albumen height (5.14 mm, p = 0.001), yolk height (10.88 mm, p = 0.015), yolk index (42.32 %, p = 0.039), and Haugh unit (92.67, p = 0.001)]. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in fertility percentage, immune response, and corticosterone concentration between control and H1 group. Birds in the H2 group had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte percentage ( p = 0.001 and 0.020, respectively) but the highest H/L ratio (0.83, p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in control and H1 groups (5.49 and 6.41 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.024) than that in H2 group. Japanese quail exposed to heat stress revealed drop in production and immunological parameters, as well as a detrimental effects on welfare. Thus, practical approaches might be used to reduce the detrimental effects of greater THI level.

  12. The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.

    1949-01-01

    In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

  13. Fearfulness affects quail maternal care and subsequent offspring development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Pittet

    Full Text Available Our study investigated relationships between a precocial bird's fearfulness and maternal care, and the implication of maternal care as a vector for non-genomic transmission of fearfulness to chicks. We compared care given to chicks between two sets of female Japanese quail selected to present either high (LTI or low fearfulness (STI. Chicks, from a broiler line, were adopted by these females following a sensitization procedure. Chicks' fearfulness after separation from their mother was assessed by well-established procedures. LTIs took longer to present maternal responses, pecked chicks more during the first days post-hatch, presented impaired maternal vocal behaviour and were globally less active than STI females. Chicks mothered by LTIs presented more fearful reactions than did chicks mothered by STIs, supporting the hypothesis of a non-genetic maternal transmission of fearfulness. We suggest that the longer latencies required by LTIs to become maternal are a consequence of their greater fear of chicks, and that their lower general and vocal activity could be components of a heightened antipredatory strategy. We discuss the transmission of maternal fearfulness to fostered chicks, taking into account the possible implication of several well-known mechanisms underlying maternal effects.

  14. The role of cinnamon as a modulator of the expression of genes related to antioxidant activity and lipid metabolism of laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Marisa Silva; Del Vesco, Ana Paula; Santana, Thaís Pacheco; Santos, Thailine Santana; de Oliveira Junior, Gregório Murilo; Fernandes, Roberta Pereira Miranda; Barbosa, Leandro Teixeira; Gasparino, Eliane

    2017-01-01

    Since cinnamon has vitamins and minerals in addition to antioxidants compounds in its chemical composition studies have shown the potential of cinnamon supplementation on some important characteristics in the performance of birds. Thus, this study was conducted under the hypothesis that the inclusion of cinnamon in the laying quail diet could influence the performance of the birds through the expression of genes related to antioxidant activity and lipid metabolism. To test this hypothesis, 144 Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) with an initial age of 18 weeks and average weight of 133g were distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments: no cinnamon supplementation (NCS-control group) and with supplementation of 9g/kg of cinnamon powder (CPS). The experiment lasted for 84 days. At the end of the experimental period, six animals from each treatment were euthanized by cervical dislocation, blood was collected and organs weighed. Liver tissue was collected for gene expression and biochemical analyses. We observed a significant effect of cinnamon inclusion on the weight of the pancreas (P = 0.0418), intestine (P = 0.0209) and ovary (P = 0.0389). Lower weights of the pancreas and intestine, and a higher ovary weight was observed in birds receiving the CPS diet. Quails fed with cinnamon supplementation also had better feed conversion per egg mass (2.426 g /g, P = 0.0126), and higher triglyceride (1516.60 mg/dL, P = 0.0207), uric acid (7.40 mg/dL, P = 0.0003) and VLDL (300.40 mg/dL, P = 0.0252) contents. A decreased content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lower catalase activity was observed in the liver of quails from the CPS diet (0.086 nmoles/mg PTN, and 2.304 H2O2/min/mg PTN, respectively). Quails from the CPS group presented significantly greater expression of FAS (fatty acid synthase, 36,03 AU), ACC (Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase, 31.33 AU), APOAI (apolipoprotein A-I, 803,9 AU), ESR2 (estrogen receptor 2, 0.73 AU) SOD (superoxide

  15. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hrabčáková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P<0.05 in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P<0.05. At the end of the laying period, an increase (P<0.05 was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P<0.05 were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period.

  16. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  17. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  18. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  19. Distribution, density and biological breeding of white wing pheasant (Phasianus colchicus principalis, Sclater, 1885 in Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Kayvanfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, Linnaeus, 1758 is an endemic naturally distributed in the Palearctic regions. White wing pheasant (P. c. principalis is distributed from Turkmenistan and north of Afghanistan along to Harir-Rud river in northeast of Iran. This study was the first attempt to determine the geographical range, density and breeding biology of white wing pheasant populations in northeast of Iran. To do so, 36 stations were defined in the breeding range of the species in two cities, namely Sarakhs and Dargaz in northeast of Iran. The breeding behaviors including egg lying, hatching and feeding behavior of chicks' were monitored and photographed using camera traps in 14 active nests in 10 stations. Collected data showed that white wing pheasant had a simple nest shape breeding season started in early April hatching began end of May and lasted 24±1 days (based on 14 active nests and finally enjoiyed little parental caring, particularly for the males. Comparative morphometrical data for eggs (length and width, nest and clutch size showed that there was a significant variation between the studied populations (P<0.05, ANOVA, in which the populations could be separated based on discriminant function analysis and the euclidean eendrogram. Comparision of morphometrical data of eggs in captive and wild nests showed that there was a significant length variation between them (P<0.05.

  20. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old Japanese quail ...

  1. Extension needs in quail farming in Imo State, Nigeria | Iwuchukwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to information on how to rear quail” (M= 2.71).The study recommended the need to boost research on quail production so that extension workers, farmers and consumers will appreciate the importance of this livestock and enjoy it”s nutritional and economic benefits. Key words: extension needs quail farming Imo State ...

  2. The development of ovary in quail's embryo | Rong | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to study the development of ovary in quails' embryos which were incubated for 4 to 17 days and incubated out for 1 day. The quails' embryos or gonads were cut out and HE staining was carried out. The results showed that when embryo was hatched for 4 days, lots of primordial germ cells ...

  3. (Monodora myristica) on the egg qualities of Japanese quails

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the influence of toasted Monodora myrisica spice as feed additive in egg qualities of quail. The study took a duration of eight weeks in a Completely Randomized Design. A total of 120 quails were allocated to 4 dietary treatments having 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% Monodora myristica respectively.

  4. Clinical chemistry and haematological assessment of quail egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the possible hepatoprotective effect of quail egg solution on acetaminophen intoxicated rats. Thirty adult rats of mixed sexes were assigned into five groups of six per group. The rats in groups 2, 3, and 4 were pretreated with 30, 15, 7.5 mg/ml ad lib respectively of quail egg solution for 7 days before ...

  5. Testicular atrophy and reproductive quiescence in photorefractory and scotosensitive quail: Involvement of hypothalamic deep brain photoreceptors and GnRH-GnIH system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Somanshu; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2017-10-01

    Birds time their daily and seasonal activities in synchronization with circadian and annual periodicities in the environment, which is mainly provided by changes in photoperiod/day length conditions. Photoperiod appears to act at the level of eye, pineal and encephalic/deep brain photoperception and thus entrain the hypothalamic clock as well as reproductive circuitry in different avian species. In this article our focus of study is to elucidate out the underlying molecular mechanism of modulation of the hypothalamic reproductive circuitry following the photoperception through the hypothalamic photoreceptor cells and the subsequent alteration in the reproductive responses in quail, kept under different simulated photoperiodic conditions. Present study investigated the different simulated photoperiodic conditions induced hypothalamic DBP-GnRH-GnIH system mediated translation of photoperiodic information and subsequent exhibition of differential photosexual responses (scoto-/photo-sensitivity and refractoriness) in Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Paired testes weight and paired testicular volume increased 15.9 and 22.6-fold respectively in scotorefractory quail compare to that of scotosensitive phase and 12.8 and 24.3-fold in photosensitive quail compare to that of photorefractory phase. The pineal/eye melatonin (through melatonin receptor subtype Mel 1c R) and hypothalamic deep brain photoreceptor (DBPs) cells directly modulate the hypothalamic GnRH-I/II and GnIH system and thus exhibit testicular stimulation or regression in response to different photoperiodic conditions (PS, PR, SS and SR). The hypothalamic alteration of DBP(s) and GnRH-GnIH system thus may induce the testicular stimulation in PS and SR quail and testicular regression in SS and PR quail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vasotocin mRNA expression is sensitive to testosterone and oestradiol in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in female Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aste, N; Sakamoto, E; Kagami, M; Saito, N

    2013-09-01

    Vasotocin-producing parvocellular neurones in the medial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM) of many species of birds and mammals show sexual dimorphism and great plasticity in response to hormonal and environmental stimuli. In the BSTM of Japanese quail, vasotocin-immunoreactive neurones are visible and sensitive to testosterone exclusively in males. In males, gonadectomy decreases and testosterone restores vasotocin-immunoreactive cells and fibres by acting on vasotocin mRNA transcription. The insensitivity of female vasotocin-immunoreactive neurones to the activating effects of testosterone is the result of organisational effects of early exposure to oestradiol. Female quail also show vasotocin mRNA-expressing neurones in the BSTM, although it is not known whether the insensitivity of the vasotocinergic neurones to testosterone originates at the level of vasotocin gene transcription in this sex. Therefore, initially, the present study analysed the effects of acute treatment with testosterone on vasotocin mRNA expression in the BSTM of gonadectomised male and female quail using in situ hybridisation. Gonadectomy decreased (and a single injection of testosterone increased) the number of vasotocin mRNA-expressing neurones and intensity of the vasotocin mRNA hybridisation signal similarly in both sexes. Notably, testosterone increased vasotocin mRNA expression in ovariectomised females over that shown by intact quail. However, this treatment had no effect on vasotocin immunoreactivity. A second experiment analysed the effects of testosterone metabolites, oestradiol and 5α-dihydrotestosterone, on vasotocin mRNA expression in female quail. Oestradiol (but not 5α-dihydrotestosterone) fully mimicked the effects of testosterone on the number of vasotocin mRNA-expressing neurones and the intensity of the vasotocin mRNA hybridisation signal. Taken together, these results show, for the first time, that gonadal steroids strongly activate vasotocin m

  7. Establishing appropriate measures for monitoring aging in birds: comparing short and long lived species

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    Ottinger, M.A.; Reed, E.; Wu, J.; Thompson, N.; French, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reveal patterns of reproductive aging in birds we focus on a short lived species, the Japanese quail and the American kestrel, which has a life span of medium length. Quail have been studied extensively in the laboratory as models for understanding avian endocrinology and behavior, and as a subject for toxicological research and testing. In the lab, Japanese quail show age-related deterioration in endocrine, behavioral, and sensory system responses; the American kestrel is relatively long lived and shows moderate evidence of senescence in the oldest birds. Using data collected from captive kestrels at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a database was designed to document selected parameters over the life cycle of the kestrels. Life table data collated from many species indicate that longer lived species of birds show senescence in survival ability but this pattern has not been established for reproductive function. We suggest that useful comparisons among species can be made by identifying stages in reproductive life history, organized on a relative time scale. Preliminary data from quail and kestrels, admittedly only two species, do not yet indicate a pattern of greater reproductive senescence in longer-lived birds.

  8. Comparative analysis of NADPH-diaphorase positive neurons in the rat, rabbit and pheasant thoracic spinal cord. A histochemical study

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    D Kluchová

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd activity was investigated and compared in the rat, rabbit and pheasant thoracic spinal cord. The investigation of all spinal cord regions (laminae in three experimental species revealed marked differences in the distribution of NADPH-d activity. Cross sectional analysis of the spinal cord of the rat, rabbit and pheasant confirmed differences in the shape of the gray matter in all examined species. More detailed investigation of Rexed´s laminas showed similar distribution of NADPH-d activity in the spinal cord of the rat and rabbit, which were different when compared with the spinal cord of the pheasant. Ventral horn of the rat and rabbit showed no labelling whereas in pheasant this area possessed a number of scattered, intensively stained neurons. In the location of autonomic preganglionic neurons, differences were found as well. In the rat there was seen a number of densely packed, clearly dark blue coloured neurons. Similarly, these neurons were present in the rabbit spinal cord but they were less numerous. No staining was found in this region of pheasant. Pericentral area (lamina X and intermediate zone (laminaVII revealed the presence of NADPH-d positive neurons in all examined species although they differed in number and shape of their bodies. The dorsal horn showed the presence of NADPH-d staining in all three animals but its distribution was different in medio - lateral direction. It can be suggested that observed differencies in the presence and distribution of NADPH-d activity across the examined species may reflect different fylogenetic development

  9. Acidulants for japanese quails housed at high stocking rates at finishing phase

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    Ana Paula de Oliveira Saccomani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quail for being an alternative species will be able to supply a new market niche due to its fast growth, high laying rate, low feed intake, in addition to the increase of the acceptance of its products by the consumer. A growing interest in raising the stocking rates in the cages as an alternative to increase the performance of the stock is noticed; although studies demonstrate that high densities can result into unfavorable environment to the birds’ welfare with alterations in the performance of the flocks and as a stressing factor being able to alter the production and profitability of the flock. At high stocking rates, the birds become predisposed to aggressiveness reactions, presenting cannibalism behavior, besides the combination of factors such as pH, temperature, ventilation and humidity deficiency which create environmental conditions favorable for certain benign bacteria which utilize uric acid of the manure through their enzymatic complexes and produce ammonia, causing stress to birds and which can cause damages to performance with significant economic losses to the producer.  The experiment with 112-day duration was conducted with the objective of evaluating the inclusion of acidulants in the Japanese quails’ drinking water and verifying the effect on the stocking rate in cages. A completely randomized design with four treatments (2 stocking rates of quails x 2 additions of and 5 replications of 24 and 36 birds per cage, corresponding to the stocking rates of 141.67 and 94.44 cm2/bird, respectively, receiving or not acidulant in the water (acetic, lactic and phosphoric acid was utilized. Performance was evaluated through egg weight (EWg, egg yield (%Laying., egg mass (EMg/bird/day, feed intake (FIg/bird/day, feed conversion (FCkg/dz and FCkg/kg and mortality (%Mort. No significant statistical differences about the performance (P>0.05 were found. There was a significant effect (P<0.05 of the density for daily feed intake with

  10. Prediction equations to estimate the demand of energy and crude protein for maintenance, gain and egg production for laying Japanese quails

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    José Jordão Filho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to estimate requirements of energy and crude protein for maintenance, weight gain and egg production of Japanese quails in the period of 67 to 107 days of age. Two experiments were performed: one, to determine the requirements for maintenance of protein, and the other, for energy. Experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with four dietary levels of offer and four replicates of six birds. The diets offered were: ad libitum (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% consumption ad libitum (below maintenance. The methodology used to estimate the demand for maintenance was the comparative slaughter. For estimation of the requirement for weight gain, eight groups of 15 quails were reared separately, fed ad libitum and housed under 22 ºC controlled temperature. From these poultry, three groups were slaughtered at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 days of the trial. The requirement for egg production was obtained by taking the ratio of energy content, egg protein, efficiency of energy use and protein for egg production. Prediction equations that estimate maintenance requirement, weight gain and egg production in energy and crude protein of Japanese quail include: metabolizable energy (kcal/bird/day = 92.34*body weight0.75 + 6.23*weight gain + 4.19*egg mass; crude protein (g/bird/day = 6.71*body weight0.75 + 0.615*weight gain + 0.258*egg mass.

  11. Immune responsiveness of Japanese quail selected for egg yolk testosterone content under severe protein restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankova, Zuzana; Okuliarova, Monika; Zeman, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Yolk testosterone concentrations vary in response to environmental conditions and different testosterone contents can subsequently modify the phenotypic traits of offspring. Apart from effects on growth, proactive behaviour and secondary sexual characteristics, the possible negative impacts of maternal testosterone on the immune system are often considered a limitation for its deposition. The effects of maternal testosterone can be modulated by postnatal environmental conditions, such as the availability of food resources. However, the majority of studies considering the effects of maternal testosterone on the immune system have been conducted under optimum conditions. We evaluated the influence of genetic selection for high (HET) and low (LET) egg testosterone content in Japanese quail on immune responsiveness of offspring to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation under severe protein restriction. Protein restriction negatively influenced body weight and performance in the PHA-test. We observed an increase in Cort (corticosterone) and He/Ly (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) after LPS, while no changes occurred in total IgY levels in the protein-restricted group. HET quails showed higher body mass and total IgY levels and lower He/Ly ratio than LET quails, while the PHA index and Cort concentration did not differ between lines. No interactions were found between protein restriction and genetic line. In conclusion, the immune response was not compromised under conditions of severe protein restriction in the faster growing HET line compared with the LET line. We hypothesise that the immune responsiveness of birds with higher yolk testosterone may be linked with other maternally-derived substances in a context-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

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    PA dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of following detoxification methods of castor oil meal: Castor oil meal A (CMA - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 20 minutes and drying at 80 °C; castor oil meal B (CMB and C (CMC - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 6 minutes, neutralization with 5% NaOH, and drying under direct sunlight sun for two days (CMB or pelleted (CMC; castor oil meal D (CMD - recovery in alcohol at 110 °C for 15 minutes and drying at 110 °C. Castor oil meal was added replacing 20% of the reference diet. There was slight chemical composition variation (1.21% in crude protein, 6% in dry matter, 2.2% in ether extract and 64 kcal/kg in gross energy among the castor oil meals submitted to the different treatments. The castor oil meal submitted to treatment C showed the highest amino acid values. In the cytotoxicity test, treatment D presented lower ricin activity. Castor oil meals A, C, and D may be included in Japanese quail diets; however, castor oil meal D is recommended due to the simplicity its industrial process, its low toxicity, and metabolizability coefficients obtained.

  13. Fermented soybean meal exhibits probiotic properties when included in Japanese quail diet in replacement of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazi, V; Ashayerizadeh, A; Toghyani, M; Shabani, A; Tellez, G; Toghyani, M

    2018-03-15

    This study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of dietary probiotic mixture (PM) and organic acid (OA) mixture with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on performance, crop, and ceca microbiota, small intestine morphology, and serum lipid profile in Japanese quails. A total of 800 day-old Japanese quails was randomly allotted to 5 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 20 birds each, for 35 days. The experimental diets consisted of a control corn-soybean meal diet and 4 test diets: 1) control diet + 0.1% PM; 2) control diet + 0.2% OA mixture; 3) control diet + the combination of both PM and OA; and 4) an additives-free diet in which the soybean meal in the control diet was replaced with FSBM. The results indicated that in starter and the entire rearing periods, FSBM, PM, and PM+OA diets had significantly lower FCR compared to control or OA diets (P < 0.05). Birds in the FSBM group gained higher weight than control and OA birds (P < 0.05; 1 to 35 d). At d 21 and 35, birds fed the control diet showed significantly lower numbers of lactic acid bacteria in the crop, while coliforms were higher in the cecal content compared to the other diets (P < 0.05). At d 21, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed PM, PM+OA, and FSBM diets were greater than in other treatments (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of birds fed PM, PM+OA, and FSBM diets were significantly lower than birds in control and AO groups (P < 0.05). The results obtained herein suggest that FSBM exhibits probiotic properties and, when used in substitution of SBM in Japanese quail diet, can improve growth performance, balance of desirable gastrointestinal microbiota in crop and ceca, small intestinal morphology, and serum lipid profile-likewise, a probiotic supplement.

  14. Traceability of animal meals in Japanese quail eggs using the technique of 13C e 15N* stable isotopes

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    C Mori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to trace the inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails by analyzing eggs and egg fractions (yolk and albumen by the technique of carbon-13 (13C and nitrogen-15 (15N stable isotopes. In the trial, 120 Japanese quails were distributed in six treatments with four replicates of five birds each. The following treatments were applied: feed based on corn and soybean meal, containing graded BMBM inclusions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5%. After 42 days, 20 eggs per treatment were randomly collected for three consecutive days. Ten eggs were used for yolk and albumen sample collection, and ten for total egg sample collection. It was possible to detect the dietary inclusion of 1% BMBM in the egg and its fractions. Therefore, the technique of isotopes 13C and 15N is able of tracing since 1% inclusion level of BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails in eggs and their fractions.

  15. Effect of different levels of selenium and vitamin E on blood biochemical parameters in the Japanese quail

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    hossein zadeh adamnejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Co-administration of vitamin E and selenium has positive effects on growth performance of avian species, but their effect is not fully elicited in the Japanese quail. Also, controversial reports exist for the effect of vitamin E and selenium on avian performance. This study was designed to investigate the effect of different levels of selenium (0, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg and vitamin E (0, 150 and 300 mg/kg in the diet of the Japanese quail. Birds received mesh diet from the start of the study, then selenium and vitamin E were added on day 17. At the end of the study, after food deprivation for 6 hours, Japanese quail (1 male and 1 female were selected and blood samples collected for biochemical investigations and determination of glucose, albumin, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels. There was significant decrease in cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels and significant decrease in albumin and total protein levels on day 35 (p

  16. Sexual maturation, serum steroid concentrations, and mRNA expression of IGF-1, luteinizing and progesterone hormone receptors and survivin gene in Japanese quail hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shit, N; Sastry, K V H; Singh, R P; Pandey, N K; Mohan, J

    2014-03-15

    In avian species, sexual maturation represents the evidence of start laying, which is a consequence of the development of ovarian follicles. These follicles are the functional reproductive unit whose maturation and viability critically depends on endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors beyond the signals from the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation of sexual maturity with tissue growth, mRNA expression of certain genes, and serum steroid concentrations in Japanese quail hens. To carry out the present study, a total of forty Japanese quail hens (5 weeks) were housed individually under uniform husbandry condition with ad libitum quail layer ration and water at 14-hour photo schedule. On sixth week onwards, four birds were sacrificed at each time on 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28 days. Serum was extracted aseptically to analyze the gonadal steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and corticosterone to investigate the liaison with sexual maturation of the species. Expression analyses of four genes i.e., insulin-like growth factor-1, luteinizing hormone receptor, progesterone receptor, and survivin were carried out in the three largest ovarian yellow follicles. A significant (P Japanese quail may be completed by the time of 8 weeks after its birth in support of the analyzed information studied in the current investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nesfatin-1: Localization and expression in avian gonads and its modulation by temporal phase relation of neural oscillations in female Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Somanshu; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2015-12-01

    In a search for new appetite-controlling signals, the peptide nesfatin-1, expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues of rodents and humans has been reported to regulate feeding by reducing food intake. Recently it has also been reported that nesfatin-1 might be involved in regulating the reproductive axis in fishes and mammals, but its expression and physiological role if any, is not yet known in birds. In the present study, localization and expression of nesfatin-1 was observed in the testis, ovary and shell gland of poultry species Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Our earlier studies have reported that serotonin precursor 5-HTP and dopamine precursor l-DOPA given 8h apart induces gonadal suppression, when given 12h apart leads to gonadal stimulation while other relationships were found ineffective. In the present study intense ir-nesfatin-1 was observed in the regressed ovary (stromal cells) and shell gland (endometrium) of 8-h Japanese quail while in 12-h quail, weak and scarce immunostaining for nesfatin-1 was detected in the hyperactive ovary and shell gland compared to control. These findings led us to conclude that, an inverse relationship exists between ovarian activity (both in the control and simulated conditions) and nesfatin-1 expression. Present avian study, first of its kind, also suggests the role of nesfatin-1 in reproductive regulation possibly via appetite control and energy balance in female Japanese quail and needs to be investigated further in relation to food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Change of Colour and pH-value in Pheasant Meat after Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

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    P. Dvořák

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study the impact of ionizing radiation on the changes of colour and the pH-value of pectoral and femoral musculature in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus. The parameters of colour L*, a* and b* were observed before irradiation (24 hours post mortem and after irradiation (60Co source, doses of 2.5 and 5 kGy. Reduction of the L* parameter, i.e. darkening, for all exposed samples was not significant. On the other hand, a significantly higher b* parameters for both exposed groups shown rather remarkably yellow colouring of pectoral musculature. Due to irradiation with a dose of 5 kGy a significant reduction (α = 0.05 of the average a* parameter from 8.99 to 7.10 was observed. However, the above-mentioned changes would not have any negative impact on the consumer.

  19. The role of vitamin E or clay in growing Japanese quail fed diets polluted by cadmium at various levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Kassem, D E; Mahrose, Kh M; Alagawany, M

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether vitamin (Vit) E or natural clay as feed additives has the potential to modulate the deleterious effects resulting from exposure to cadmium (Cd) in growing Japanese quail. 648 Japanese quail chicks (1 week old) were used to evaluate the effects of dietary Cd (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg diet) and two levels of Vit E (0, 250 mg/kg diet) or two levels of natural clay (0 and 100 mg/kg diet) to study the influences of Cd, Vit E, clay or their different combinations on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood biochemical components and Cd residues in muscles and liver. Live BW and weight gain of quails were linearly decreased with increasing dietary Cd levels. Moreover, feed conversion was significantly worsened with increasing Cd level. Mortality percentage was linearly increased as dietary Cd level increased up to 120 mg/kg diet. Carcass percentage was linearly decreased as dietary Cd level increased. While, giblets percentage were linearly and quadratically differed as dietary Cd level increased. Cd caused significant changes in total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, creatinine, urea-N and uric acid concentrations as well as ALT, AST and ALP activities. Increasing dietary Cd level was associated with its increase in the muscles and liver. Dietary supplementation with 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet or 100 mg clay/kg improved live BW, BW gain and feed conversion when compared with the un-supplemented diet. Quails fed diet contained 250 mg Vit E/kg and those fed 100 mg clay/kg had the highest percentages of carcass and dressing than those fed the un-supplemented diet. Blood plasma biochemical components studied were better when birds received 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet and those received 100 mg clay/kg. Cd residues in the muscles and liver were significantly less in the birds had 250 mg of Vit E/kg or those received 100 mg clay/kg diet than those un-supplemented with Vit E. Growth performance traits and blood plasma

  20. Towards the conservation of endangered avian species: a recombinant West Nile Virus vaccine results in increased humoral and cellular immune responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica.

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    Jay A Young

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV arrived in North America in 1999 and is now endemic. Many families of birds, especially corvids, are highly susceptible to WNV and infection often results in fatality. Avian species susceptible to WNV infection also include endangered species, such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropbasianuts and the Eastern Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans. The virus has been shown to contribute towards the likelihood of their extinction. Although a clear and present threat, there exists no avian WNV vaccine available to combat this lethal menace. As a first step in establishing an avian model for testing candidate WNV vaccines, avian antibody based reagents were assessed for cross-reactivity with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica T cell markers CD4 and CD8; the most reactive were found to be the anti-duck CD8 antibody, clone Du-CD8-1, and the anti-chicken/turkey CD4 antibody, clone CT4. These reagents were then used to assess vaccine performance as well as to establish T cell populations in quail, with a novel population of CD4/CD8 double positive T cells being identified in Japanese quail. Concurrently, non-replicating recombinant adenoviruses, expressing either the WNV envelope or NS3 'genes' were constructed and assessed for effectiveness as avian vaccines. Japanese Quail were selected for testing the vaccines, as they provide an avian model that parallels the population diversity of bird species in the wild. Both the level of WNV specific antibodies and the number of T cells in vaccinated birds were increased compared to unvaccinated controls. The results indicate the vaccines to be effective in increasing both humoral and cellular immune responses. These recombinant vaccines therefore may find utility as tools to protect and maintain domestic and wild avian populations. Their implementation may also arrest the progression towards extinction of endangered avian species and reduce the viral reservoir that

  1. Towards the Conservation of Endangered Avian Species: A Recombinant West Nile Virus Vaccine Results in Increased Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joanne A.; Jefferies, Wilfred

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) arrived in North America in 1999 and is now endemic. Many families of birds, especially corvids, are highly susceptible to WNV and infection often results in fatality. Avian species susceptible to WNV infection also include endangered species, such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropbasianuts) and the Eastern Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans). The virus has been shown to contribute towards the likelihood of their extinction. Although a clear and present threat, there exists no avian WNV vaccine available to combat this lethal menace. As a first step in establishing an avian model for testing candidate WNV vaccines, avian antibody based reagents were assessed for cross-reactivity with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) T cell markers CD4 and CD8; the most reactive were found to be the anti-duck CD8 antibody, clone Du-CD8-1, and the anti-chicken/turkey CD4 antibody, clone CT4. These reagents were then used to assess vaccine performance as well as to establish T cell populations in quail, with a novel population of CD4/CD8 double positive T cells being identified in Japanese quail. Concurrently, non-replicating recombinant adenoviruses, expressing either the WNV envelope or NS3 ‘genes’ were constructed and assessed for effectiveness as avian vaccines. Japanese Quail were selected for testing the vaccines, as they provide an avian model that parallels the population diversity of bird species in the wild. Both the level of WNV specific antibodies and the number of T cells in vaccinated birds were increased compared to unvaccinated controls. The results indicate the vaccines to be effective in increasing both humoral and cellular immune responses. These recombinant vaccines therefore may find utility as tools to protect and maintain domestic and wild avian populations. Their implementation may also arrest the progression towards extinction of endangered avian species and reduce the viral reservoir that potentiates

  2. Effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance, jejunum morphology, liver health, and serum metabolites of Japanese quails fed sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal-based diets containing graded levels of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeipour, Vahid; Barsalani, Alireza; Abdullahpour, Rohullah

    2016-08-01

    A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of two levels of dietary crude protein (200 or 240 g kg(-1)) and two inclusion rates of phytase enzyme supplementation (with or without) on performance, jejunum morphology, and some hematological parameters of Japanese quails fed diets based on three graded levels of sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal (0, 120, and 240 g kg(-1) of the diet). A total of 480 Japanese quail chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments with 4 replicates of 10 Japanese quails. The results showed that feed intake was decreased in quails fed diets containing 240 g kg(-1) of sesame meal (P morphology showed that diets containing 120 and 240 g kg(-1) sesame meal increased villus height and the ratio of VH to CD and decreased crypt depth (P liver weight was greater in Japanese quails fed diets containing 200 g kg(-1) crude protein and 120 g kg(-1) sesame meal (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of uric acid was increased in birds that received 240 g kg(-1) protein (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of sesame meal improved growth performance (FCR) of Japanese quails. Moreover, serum concentration of calcium and phosphorous was greater in quails with phytase supplementation included in their diet.

  3. Effect of immobilized lipase supplementation of diets on the performance of the Japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; Saleh, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, lipase was immobilized onto two different supports, agarose and gelatin. Some physico-chemical properties of the free and immobilized lipase such as optimum temperature, optimum ph and storage stability were studied. Storage of the enzymes for 2 months showed that the free enzyme lost its activity, while the immobilized on the gelatin showed better resistance towards ph and temperature variations than that immobilized onto agarose. Four experiments were conducted to test the effect of the immobilized lipase supplementation on the productive performance of the Japanese quails. During the first 3 weeks, the addition of lipase to poultry diets caused an increase in the body weight gain of birds than the enzyme-free diet. An obvious improvement in quail day egg production during the laying period was observed with the groups fed on a diet supplemented with 3000 and 2000 I U of immobilized lipase per kilogram feed. Blood cholesterol was not affected with lipase addition, while total lipids were significantly increased. Significant reduction was also observed in thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) as compared with the control group

  4. Effects of Storage Methods and Lenght of Storage on some Quality Parameters of Japanese Quail Eggs

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    Dudusola, IO.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters of Japanese quail eggs, as affected by storage method and length in 21days, were assessed using 140 eggs collected from 7-week old birds. Eggs were stored using refrigeration, oiling, black polythene bag or on a tray at room temperature (30 oc as a control. This study determines the best storage condition and optimum storage length storage for quail eggs. Egg quality parameters measured included egg weight, shell weight, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, haugh unit and egg weight loss. Effects on the chemical composition of eggs were determined with proximate analysis. Data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA with storage method and duration as the two main effects. There were progressive increases in weight losses with increased length of storage for all storage methods. Haugh units decreased progressively per storage method as length of storage increased (P< 0.05. Control and refrigeration methods do not differ significantly in all proximate composition except for protein. There were significant differences (P< 0.05 in length of storage for all proximate composition. Eggs maintained desired internal quality when stored for 4 days at room temperature. Refrigeration could be used for storage of eggs up to 7 days; where it is unavailable oiling could be used.

  5. Effect of sesame seeds or oil supplementation to the feed on some physiological parameters in Japanese Quail

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    N.E. Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total No. of 200 three weeks old Japanese quail from the breeding flock in the Poultry Research Farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt, were used in this study. The quail chicks were randomly allotted equally to five groups (40 birds per each. For 4 weeks experimental period birds were kept in battery cages and water and feed were provided ad libitum. A basal diet of 24% protein and 3000 kcal M.E./Kg was formulated to cover all nutrients needed. The experimental design included five tested groups as follows: group (1: birds fed on the basal diet and served as control. Group (2: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 2% sesame seeds. Group (3: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 4% sesame seeds. Group (4: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 2%sesame oil. Group (5: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 4% sesame oil. The effect of sesame seeds or oil supplementations in feed on some physiological parameters in Japanese quails was investigated. It was observed that the groups of quails supplemented with 4% sesame seeds or 4%oil recorded the lowest body weight. Female and male carcass weight had significant increase in group supplemented with 4% oil as compared to the control group. Total lipids in the eggs significantly decreased in group supplemented with 4% oil as compared to the control group. Cholesterol content in the eggs significantly decreased in group supplemented with 4% sesame seeds while triglycerides in the eggs recorded significant decrease in the group supplemented with 2% sesame seeds. Eggs weight did not significantly change due to the feeding on sesame seeds or oil but, the group supplemented with 4%seeds laid higher number of eggs than other groups. Serum total protein, albumin, alanine transferase, aspartate transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, urea, creastinine, total triiodothyronine (T3 and total thyroxin(T4 concentrations were

  6. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  7. The lavender plumage colour in Japanese quail is associated with a complex mutation in the region of MLPH that is related to differences in growth, feed consumption and body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The lavender phenotype in quail is a dilution of both eumelanin and phaeomelanin in feathers that produces a blue-grey colour on a wild-type feather pattern background. It has been previously demonstrated by intergeneric hybridization that the lavender mutation in quail is homologous to the same phenotype in chicken, which is caused by a single base-pair change in exon 1 of MLPH. Results In this study, we have shown that a mutation of MLPH is also associated with feather colour dilution in quail, but that the mutational event is extremely different. In this species, the lavender phenotype is associated with a non-lethal complex mutation involving three consecutive overlapping chromosomal changes (two inversions and one deletion) that have consequences on the genomic organization of four genes (MLPH and the neighbouring PRLH, RAB17 and LRRFIP1). The deletion of PRLH has no effect on the level of circulating prolactin. Lavender birds have lighter body weight, lower body temperature and increased feed consumption and residual feed intake than wild-type plumage quail, indicating that this complex mutation is affecting the metabolism and the regulation of homeothermy. Conclusions An extensive overlapping chromosome rearrangement was associated with a non-pathological Mendelian trait and minor, non deleterious effects in the lavender Japanese quail which is a natural knockout for PRLH. PMID:22937744

  8. Effect of Hypodynamy on Structure and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Kidney in Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Almášiová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to observe the effect of experimental hypodynamy simulating weightlessness in space on the structure, ultrastructure and alkaline phosphatase activity of kidney in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Two days after hatching, the quails were suspended in special shirts below the cage ceiling so their feet did not touch the floor. They could consume food and water ad libitum. Experimental animals were sacrificed after 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days of hypodynamy. Birds of the same age, hatched at the same time, and fed the same diet were used as a control. Samples of kidney were processed for light (LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and alkaline phosphatase (AP analysis. Short-term (14–28 days hypodynamy caused no marked damage to the structure and ultrastructure of kidneys. However, after long-term (35–59 days hypodynamy, morphological changes were observed in some cells of the proximal and distal tubules. The dying cells in proximal tubules, observed in semi-thin sections by LM, were dark and contained a nucleus of irregular shape. Observation by TEM showed that their nucleus was dark and shrivelled and the electron-dense cytoplasm contained long, dense, rod-shaped mitochondria with thin mitochondrial cristae. Microvilli were present on the apical surface of cells and formed a brush border. Sporadic dying cells were also observed in distal tubules. Large, light vacuoles were found in the cytoplasm of cells of collecting tubules, however, the structure of renal corpuscles and medullary loops remained undisturbed. Microscopical analysis by means of a direct TUNEL reaction on days 35 to 59 of hypodynamy showed a moderate occurrence of cellular apoptosis in the proximal and distal tubules of experimental Japanese quail. The activity of AP in the brush border of the proximal tubules on days 14–29 of hypodynamy was normal in experimental animals and showed no significant differences in

  9. Kisspeptin-10 Enhanced Egg Production in Quails Associated with the Increase of Triglyceride Synthesis in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous results showed that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10 injections via intraperitoneal (i.p. once daily for three weeks notably promoted the egg laying rate in quails. In order to investigate the mechanism behind the effects of Kp-10 on enhancing the egg laying rate in birds, this study focused on the alternations of lipids synthesis in liver after Kp-10 injections. 75 female quails (22 d of age were allocated to three groups randomly, and subjected to 0 (control, Con, 10 nmol (low dosage, L and 100 nmol (high dosage, H Kp-10 injections via i.p. once daily for three weeks, respectively. At d 52, quails were sacrificed and sampled for further analyses. Serum E2 concentration was increased by Kp-10 injections, and reached statistical significance in H group. Serum triglyceride (TG concentrations were increased by 46.7% in L group and 36.8% in H group, respectively, but did not reach statistical significance, and TG contents in liver were significantly elevated by Kp-10 injections in a dose-dependent manner. Serum total cholesterol (Tch concentrations significantly decreased in H group, while in H group the hepatic Tch content was markedly increased. The level of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, apolipoprotein A1 and B (apoA1 and apoB were not altered by Kp-10 injections. The genes expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, fatty acid synthetase (FAS, apolipoprotein VLDL-II (apoVLDL-II, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 and vitellogenin II (VTG-II were significantly up-regulated by high but not low dosage of Kp-10 injection compared to the control group. However, the expression of SREBP-2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCα, malic enzyme (ME, stearoyl-CoA (Δ9 desaturase 1 (SCD1, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1, fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2, 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductases (HMGCR, estrogen receptor α, β (ERα and β mRNA were not affected by Kp-10 treatment. In line with hepatic mRNA abundance, hepatic SREBP

  10. Wild Birds, a Source of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Infection for the Endangered Attwater's Prairie-Chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido attwateri)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Pamela J; Morrow, Michael E; Flanagan, Joseph P; Ortego, Brent; Chester, Rebecca E; Mueller, James M; Lupiani, Blanca

    2017-07-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infects a wide range of avian species. Since 1998, when it was first reported in a captive flock of the endangered Attwater's Prairie-chicken ( Tympanuchus cupido attwateri; APC), REV has plagued APC recovery efforts. While REV frequently occurs in captive bird flocks throughout the world, including commercial poultry, the reservoir for initial infection of flocks is poorly understood. From 2008-16, 412 blood samples and 216 liver samples collected from 32 species of birds on or near Attwater Prairie Chicken National Wildlife Refuge in Colorado County, Texas, US, and 89 blood samples obtained from a Texas game farm that provides thousands of Northern Bobwhites ( Colinus virginianus ) and Ring-necked Pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) for hunting throughout Texas, were tested for REV by real-time PCR. Of the 717 samples, one liver sample from a Savannah Sparrow ( Passerculus sandwichensis ) and three blood samples from game farm Ring-necked Pheasants tested positive for REV. These data, although limited, indicate a low prevalence of REV in birds sharing or in close proximity to APC habitat. More-extensive surveillance testing is warranted to determine the spatial and temporal dynamics of REV in wild bird populations and the relative role these birds may play as potential reservoirs for maintaining REV infections in both the wild and captive setting.

  11. QUAIL: A Quantitative Security Analyzer for Imperative Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Wasowski, Andrzej; Traonouez, Louis-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative security analysis evaluates and compares how effectively a system protects its secret data. We introduce QUAIL, the first tool able to perform an arbitrary-precision quantitative analysis of the security of a system depending on private information. QUAIL builds a Markov Chain model ...... the safety of randomized protocols depending on secret data, allowing to verify a security protocol’s effectiveness. We experiment with a few examples and show that QUAIL’s security analysis is more accurate and revealing than results of other tools......Quantitative security analysis evaluates and compares how effectively a system protects its secret data. We introduce QUAIL, the first tool able to perform an arbitrary-precision quantitative analysis of the security of a system depending on private information. QUAIL builds a Markov Chain model...

  12. Pb Speciation Data to Estimate Lead Bioavailability to Quail

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear combination fitting data for lead speciation of soil samples evaluated through an in-vivo/in-vitro correlation for quail exposure. This dataset is associated...

  13. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  14. Comparative toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to Japanese quail (Conturnix c. japonica) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.E.; Kennedy, S.W.; Lorenzen, A. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related halogenated hydrocarbons bioaccumulate to high concentrations in top predators, such as raptorial birds, yet little is known of PCB toxicity to such species. This study explored several aspects of both the acute and chronic response of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to three purified PCB congeners and a commercial mixture, Aroclor 1254, and compared the response to that of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), known to be PCB sensitive. In both studies, Aroclor 1254 residues accumulated in tissues of both species, but there was no significant relationship between residue levels and effects. In conclusion, adult American kestrels were relatively insensitive to the effects of PCBs, from both acute and chronic exposure, on hepatic and renal porphyrin levels. Although concentrations of a CYP1A-like protein were increased in some kestrels given PCBs, EROD activity was only marginally increased, suggesting that catalytic activity of this protein differed among the two species. 52 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Short barb: a feather structure mutation in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Roberts, C W; Nichols, C R; Cheng, K M

    1982-12-01

    A type of feather structure abnormality in Japanese quail resulting in shortened barbs on contour feathers was found to be controlled by a single autosomal recessive gene, sh (short barb). The mutation was first identified in a full-sib family from the University of British Columbia wild type line. Unlike other feather structure mutations in Japanese quail reported previously in literature, the short barb mutation is not associated with poor reproduction.

  16. Avian thermoregulation in the heat: resting metabolism, evaporative cooling and heat tolerance in Sonoran Desert doves and quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric Krabbe; O'Neill, Jacqueline; Gerson, Alexander R; Wolf, Blair O

    2015-11-01

    Birds in subtropical deserts face significant thermoregulatory challenges because environmental temperatures regularly exceed avian body temperature. To understand the differing susceptibility of desert birds to increasing temperatures, we examined thermoregulatory performance and estimated heat tolerance limits (HTLs) for three Sonoran Desert nesting bird species - Gambel's quail, mourning doves and white-winged doves. Using flow-through respirometry we measured daytime resting metabolism, evaporative water loss and real-time body temperature at air temperatures (T(air)) from 30°C to 66°C. We found marked increases in resting metabolism at the upper critical temperature (T(uc)), which was significantly lower in the quail (T(air)=41.1°C) than in both dove species (T(air)=45.9-46.5°C). Gambel's quail maintained low resting metabolic rates and low rates of evaporative water loss at their T(uc) (0.71 W and 1.20 g H2O h(-1), respectively), but were more sensitive to increasing air temperature, reaching their HTL at T(air) of 52°C. Mourning doves and white-winged doves maintained low resting metabolic rates (0.66 and 0.94 W), but higher rates of evaporative water loss (1.91 and 2.99 g H2O h(-1)) at their T(uc) and reached their HTL at T(air) of 58-60°C. Mass-specific evaporative water loss in white-winged doves (147 g) and mourning doves (104 g) was 45% and 30% greater, respectively, than the rate observed in Gambel's quail (161 g) at Tair of 48°C. Higher rates of evaporation and higher T(uc) made the doves exceptionally heat tolerant, allowing them to maintain body temperatures at least 14°C below air temperatures as high as 60°C (140°F). © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Influence of long-term hypodynamy on spongy bone tissue in Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tarabová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weightlessness can cause various damages especially on the musculoskeletal system both in animals and humans. The aim of our study was to observe the influence of simulated, long-term microgravity on the spongy bone tissue of the femur in Japanese quails. A total of 80 cockerels at the age of 2 days were exposed to simulated microgravity – hypodynamy. After days 56, 63, 90 and 180, six birds from the experimental group and six birds from the control group were euthanised. Samples for histological examination were collected from femur epiphysis. The whole femur of the other limb was used for the analysis of the calcium content. Microscopic examination showed differences between experimental and control animals in the spongy bone tissue after every day of the experiment. In the experimental animals, there were numerous, big, multinucleated cells osteoclasts, lying on the bone trabeculae surface, which were damaged. The highest difference in the calcium content in femurs between the control and experimental animals was found after 90 days of hypodynamy. This study builds on short-term hypodynamy experiments; such long periods had never been studied before in birds. Because our findings are similar to those found in osteoporotic bone tissue, it could by useful in the development of countermeasures against the negative influence of microgravity and immobilization.

  18. Habitat Suitability analysis of Koklass (Pucrasia macrolopha) Pheasant in Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary of Himachal Pradesh, India using Geospatial Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliza, K.; Sarma, K.

    2014-12-01

    Pheasants are at the brink of destruction due to degradation of forests, environmental pollution, climatic changes and extensive hunting of wild floras and faunas.The problem is more acute in the developing countries where wildlife and biodiversity conservation are often less prioritized due to more pressing demands of food security and poverty alleviation. Koklass Pheasant (Pucrasia macrolopha) species is distributed from Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east along the Himalayas to southeastern Tibet, western China and southeastern Mongolia.This species is grouped under endangered species in Red Data Book of Zoological Survey of India and also classified as least concern species according to IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.Conservation biologists and managers need a range of both classical analyses and specific modern tools to face the increasing threats to biodiversity. Among these tools, habitat-suitability modeling has recently emerged as a relevant technique to assess global impacts to define wide conservation priorities.The present study is carried out using remote sensing satellite imagery and GIS modeling technique for assessing habitat suitability of Koklass Pheasants and finding out the habitat factors influencing the Koklass distribution in Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary, India. Effective management and conservation of wildlife populations and their habitats largely depend on our ability to understand and predict species-habitat interactions. Different thematic maps viz., land use/cover, forest types, drainage buffer, multiple ring buffers of sighting locations and multiple ring buffers of roads have been prepared to support the objective of the study. The Weighted Overlay Analysis model is used for identifying different potential areas of habitat for this endangered species. The most suitable area for Koklass Pheasant within the Wildlife Sanctuary is found to be about 23.8 percent of the total area which is due to favourable habitat conditions for the

  19. Effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomy and physiology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-Mendez, M F; Rojas-Granados, C P; Andrade, E F; Retes, P L; Ferreira, L G; Alvarenga, R R; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Fassani, E J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2016-05-01

    Artificial lights are essential for controlling the reproductive tract development of birds during puberty and therefore influence reproductive quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomic and physiological characteristics of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 270 birds from one day of age were housed in a masonry shed divided into six rooms with light isolation. Each room was equipped with a different type of light bulb and contained seven cages with five birds in each. The light bulbs tested were: incandescent; compact fluorescent; and light-emitting diode (LED) in the colors white, blue, red and green. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and seven replications of individual birds each. The anatomic and physiological condition of the birds was evaluated at four, eight and 12 weeks of age. The white LED bulb advanced (P<0.05) the sexual maturity by one week, resulted (P<0.05) in higher live weights and greater weight and relative percentage of ovarian stroma, oviduct and ovarian tissue at eight weeks of age. Higher plasma concentrations of estradiol and lipids were also observed (P<0.05) at eight weeks under the white LED bulb. At 12 weeks of age, the magnum and isthmus folding characteristics were better (P<0.05) with the red LED bulb. In conclusion, the photostimulation with the white LED bulb was more efficient at activating the reproductive cycle, hastening the onset of sexual maturity and increasing the development of reproductive organs after puberty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Catch-up growth in Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica): relationships with food intake, metabolic rate and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eunice H; Storm-Suke, Andrea L; Kelly, Ryan J; Burness, Gary

    2013-08-01

    The effects of early environmental conditions can profoundly affect individual development and adult phenotype. In birds, limiting resources can affect growth as nestlings, but also fitness and survival as adults. Following periods of food restriction, individuals may accelerate development, undergoing a period of rapid "catch-up" growth, in an attempt to reach the appropriate size at adulthood. Previous studies of altricial birds have shown that catch-up growth can have negative consequences in adulthood, although this has not been explored in species with different developmental strategies. Here, we investigated the effects of resource limitation and the subsequent period of catch-up growth, on the morphological and metabolic phenotype of adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), a species with a precocial developmental strategy. Because males and females differ in adult body size, we also test whether food restriction had sex-specific effects. Birds that underwent food restriction early in development had muscles of similar size and functional maturity, but lower adult body mass than controls. There was no evidence of sex-specific sensitivity of food restriction on adult body mass; however, there was evidence for body size. Females fed ad lib were larger than males fed ad lib, while females subjected to food restriction were of similar size to males. Adults that had previously experienced food restriction did not have an elevated metabolic rate, suggesting that in contrast to altricial nestlings, there was no metabolic carry-over effect of catch-up growth into adulthood. While Japanese quail can undergo accelerated growth after re-feeding, timing of food restriction may be important to adult size, particularly in females. However, greater developmental flexibility compared to altricial birds may contribute to the lack of metabolic carryover effects at adulthood.

  1. Isolation, identification, and serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum from quails in Indonesia with typical infectious coryza disease symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnesia Endang Tri Hastuti Wahyuni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Infectious coryza (IC or snot is an infectious upper respiratory disease affecting chickens and birds, including quails, and it is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. The symptoms of IC are facial swelling, malodorous nasal discharge, and lacrimation. This study aimed to isolate, identify, and serotype the A. paragallinarum of snot in quails and to determine the sensitivity and resistance to several antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Nine quails from Yogyakarta, Indonesia with typical snot disease symptoms were used in this study. The nasal swab was obtained and directly streaked onto a chocolate agar plate and blood agar plate (BAP, then incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24-48 h. Staphylococcus spp. was cross-streaked onto the BAP to show the satellite growth. The observation of the morphology of the suspected colony, Gram staining, and biochemical tests (catalase test, oxidase test, urease test, peptone test, and carbohydrate fermentation such as maltose, mannitol, lactose, and sorbitol are done to identify the species of bacteria. This research also detects the serovar of A. paragallinarum using hemagglutination inhibition test. The antibiotic sensitivity tests were also performed using several antibiotics against five A. paragallinarum isolates that were cultured on Mueller-Hinton Agar and added with antibiotic discs, then incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24-48 h. Results: Five isolates out of nine suspected isolates (55.5% were A. paragallinarum. The growth of isolates from quails did not depend on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD (NAD-independent. Sensitivity test was done using the five identified A. paragallinarum isolates, results showed that they were 100% sensitive to amoxicillin (AMC and ampicillin (AMP; 100% resistant toward amikacin (AK, erythromycin (E, gentamycin (CN, and tetracycline (TE; 80% resistant toward kanamycin (K and trimethoprim (W; 60% resistant toward chloramphenicol (C; and 20

  2. Digestible tryptophan requirements of meat quails in the growth phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva Ton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to estimate the digestible tryptophan (DTrp requirements for growing meat quails. In the first experiment (1-14 days of age, 1,950 quails were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six levels of DTrp (0.27; 0.30; 0.33; 0.36; 0.39 and 0.42% of diet, five replications and 65 quails per experimental unit. There was a linear increase of feed intake, tryptophan intake, weight gain and body weight with the DTrp levels increase. In the second experiment (15-35 days of age, 1,350 quails were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six levels of DTrp (0.22; 0.25; 0.28; 0.31; 0.34 and 0.37% of diet, five replications and 45 quails per experimental unit. There was a linear increase for tryptophan intake, carcass yield, ash levels and protein deposition rate with the DTrp levels increase. In the third experiment (28-35 days of age, conducted to determine the nitrogen balance, 150 males were housed in galvanized wire cages featuring drinker, feeder and individual metal tray lined with plastic to collect the excreta. The design was completely randomized, with six levels of DTrp (0.22; 0.25; 0.28; 0.31; 0.34 and 0.37% of diet, five replicates and five quails per experimental unit. Linear decrease was observed on the nitrogen balance and metabolization coefficient with the DTrp levels increase. The nutritional requirement of digestible tryptophan for maximum growing of meat quail, in the period from 1 to 14 days of age, is higher or equal to 0.42%; in the period from 15 to 35 days, it is 0.22%.

  3. Factors influencing methionine toxicity in young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were fed low and adequate protein purified diets with and without excess methionine to evaluate factors affecting methionine toxicity. Growth of quail fed an adequate protein (27%) diet, without supplemental glycine, was depressed by 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine. Supplemental glycine (.3%) alleviated growth depression caused by 2.25% excess methionine. Quail fed 1.75% and 2.25% excess methionine developed signs of toxicity characterized by weakness, a lowered, outstretched neck when moving, and ataxia. In addition, quail would fall on their sides when disturbed and spin with their heads retracted. These conditions were transient in nature. Growth of quail fed a low protein (18.9%) diet was depressed by 1% and 1.5% excess methionine and DL-homocystine. Quail fed 1% and 1.5% excess methionine in this diet also developed signs of toxicity, the incidence of which was greater and the duration longer than occurred with quail fed adequate protein. Supplementing a low protein (20.15%) diet with .3% or .6% glycine or threonine or a combination of these amino acids did not alleviate growth depression caused by 1.5% excess methionine; however, 2% and 3% supplemental glycine were somewhat effective. Supplements of glycine (2%, 3%) and threonine (1%) completely reversed growth depression from 1% excess methionine but did not influence growth of controls, indicating that both amino acids counteract methionine toxicity. Both glycine and threonine alone improved growth by about the same extent in diets with 1% or 1.5% excess methionine; however, these amino acids alleviated less than 30% of the growth depression resulting from 1.5% excess methionine. The effectiveness of glycine in alleviating methionine toxicity in a low protein diet was decreased, and hemoglobin levels were depressed with 1.5% excess methionine compared to less amounts.

  4. Effects of egg testosterone on female mate choice and male sexual behavior in the pheasant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Matteo, Angelo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Baratti, Mariella; Saino, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sex steroids in the eggs, besides affecting progeny phenotype and behavior in the short term, also have enduring effects until adulthood, when they may translate into differences in reproductive strategies and success. Maternal steroids transfer may therefore affect both agonistic behavior and mate choice decisions, either through the promotion of body size and condition or through a priming effect on the neuroendocrine system. However, owing to the prevalence of a short-term perspective, relevance of maternal transfer of sex steroids to sexual selection processes has been seldom studied. Here we investigate the effects of an experimental increase in egg testosterone on male dominance and copulation success in the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, a polygynous galliform with multiple male ornamental traits, in captivity. We found that females from testosterone (T) injected eggs copulated less than control females. Males from T-injected eggs obtained more copulations than control males, specifically with control females. The effect of male 'ordinary' and secondary sexual traits on either dominance or copulation frequency did not depend on early exposure to T, nor did T treatment affect male dominance. Present results demonstrate that variation in the early hormonal environment set up by mothers affects sexual behavior of the offspring, which might translate into fitness differences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  6. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Fed Radiation Processed Aflatoxin-Contaminated Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.; Abdalla, E.A.; Abd El-Azeem, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) contamination of foods and live-stock feeds is an ongoing problem. In this research, the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in Japanese quails was examined by the radiation processing of their contaminated-diets, as a physical detoxifying method. Diets contaminated with two different levels of AFB 1 (2 or 5 mg kg -1 diet) were subjected to 10, 20, or 30 kGy and fed to growing Japanese quails for 5 weeks. The physiological and biochemical responses were evaluated for irradiation ability to reduce the deleterious effects of 2 and 5 mg AFB 1 kg -1 diet. A total of 270 seven-day-old Japanese quail chicks were assigned to 2 factorial arrangements of nine treatments (level of toxin and radiation dose) each consisted of three replicates with 10 quails per pen. The significant adverse effect of AFB 1 on the food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, mortality rate and internal organ weights, from the first week onwards, were determined. Radiation processing reduced concentration of AFB 1 in all experimental diets and significantly reduced the deleterious effects of AFB 1 on food consumption, body-weight gain, food conversion ratio, and the relative weights of most observed organs, as a function of radiation dose. Muscles, liver, kidneys and heart tissues were analyzed for aflatoxin (AF) residues. The residual level of AFB 1 was significantly higher in liver than in kidneys, muscles or heart. The level in the observed organs and the muscles was lower in those received irradiated diet at high 30 kGy. Plasma samples were tested for glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine. They were significantly increased in AF treated groups in comparison with those received AF-containing diet and irradiated up to 30 kGy. Birds ate contaminated diet with both level of toxin were suffered from the lower level of total proteins, albumin, globulin, phosphorus and

  7. Lead in game birds in Denmark - levels and sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    In June 2008, the National Food Agency contacted Bjarne Frost Vildt against the background that the Danish surveillance of heavy metals in food (EU Directive 96/23 of 29 April 1996) had, for several years, shown elevated lead levels in game meat. These elevated levels exceeded the official...... threshold limits for food, with a significant prevalence in game bird species, in particular pheasant and, sporadically, venison. As a result, Bjarne Frost Vildt submitted an action plan, including a campaign to raise awareness of the Danish regulations on lead shot, and the establishment of a research...... project to identify the source of lead in game meat. In July 2008, the Danish Academy of Hunting was tasked to design and carry out the investigation, in cooperation with the Veterinary Institute (Technical University of Denmark) and Food Region North (Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries...

  8. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP.

  9. Effects of 2 G hypergravity exposure on Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Everett, Erin M.; Shaughnessey, Rebecca; Foushee, Rebecca E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared reproductive fitness and early postnatal growth of Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and Japanese (Coturnix coturnix japonica) quail incubated and hatched during 2 G centrifugation. Fertilized Bobwhite and Japanese quail eggs were placed in portable incubators on the 8-ft International Space Station Test Bed (ISSTB) Centrifuge at NASA Ames Research Center. The quail eggs were incubated throughout hatching and reared until Postnatal day (P)4 at either 1.0, 1.2 or 2.0 G. Two days before hatching, candling revealed significantly greater numbers of viable Bobwhite than Japanese quail eggs at all g-loads. Bobwhite quail exhibited significantly better hatching success at all g-loads than did Japanese quail. Bobwhite hatchlings were sensitive to gravitational loading as evidenced by reduced postnatal body mass and length of 2 G hatchlings relative to 1 G control hatchlings. In contrast, mass and length of Japanese quail hatchlings were unaffected by 1.2 or 2 G exposure. Together, our findings provide evidence for superior viability and hatching success in Bobwhite quail relative to Japanese quail, coupled with greater sensitivity of postnatal body growth and development to 2 G loading. Bobwhite quail may be better suited than Japanese quail for scientific studies on space biology platforms.

  10. Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying hens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

  11. QUAIL: A Quantitative Security Analyzer for Imperative Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Wasowski, Andrzej; Traonouez, Louis-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative security analysis evaluates and compares how effectively a system protects its secret data. We introduce QUAIL, the first tool able to perform an arbitrary-precision quantitative analysis of the security of a system depending on private information. QUAIL builds a Markov Chain model...... of the system’s behavior as observed by an attacker, and computes the correlation between the system’s observable output and the behavior depending on the private information, obtaining the expected amount of bits of the secret that the attacker will infer by observing the system. QUAIL is able to evaluate...... the safety of randomized protocols depending on secret data, allowing to verify a security protocol’s effectiveness. We experiment with a few examples and show that QUAIL’s security analysis is more accurate and revealing than results of other tools...

  12. Regulation of Vascular Growth in the Chorioallantoic Membrane of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Idoreyin P.

    2004-01-01

    The Microgravity Research Program is part of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). The mission of the Microgravity Fluid Physics research program is to facilitate and conduct the best possible fluid physics research using the space environment and make this knowledge available to the scientific community and the public at large. During the summer of 2004, I worked in this division with Dr. Patricia Parsons-Wingerter. Dr. Parsons was working on several projects that used the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of Japanese quail eggs. The CAM develops in the eggs of birds and reptiles and is a very vascular fetal membrane composed of the fused chorion and adjacent wall of the allantois. The CAM is formed on day 4 of incubation and its primary job is to mediate gas exchanges with the extra embryonic environment. The CAM of our Japanese quail eggs is easily identifiable to us because it is transparent and it sits on top of the yolk with the embryo in the center. The CAM is of interest because of its many applications in the field of medicine as it relates to vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is simply the growth or formation of new blood vessels and anti-angiogenesis is the inhibition of said vessels. Angiogenesis occurs naturally in a healthy body for healing wounds and for restoring blood flow to tissues after injury and in females during the monthly reproductive cycle. In many serious diseases, like several types of cancer and those that affect the heart and cardiovascular system, the body loses control over angiogenesis. These diseases, which are dependent on angiogenesis, result when new blood vessels either grow excessively or insufficiently. The chorioallantoic membrane of our Japanese quail eggs gives a good model of angiogenesis. We used angiogenic regulators to inhibit or stimulate vascular growth in the CAM in a healthy manner and they induced distinct vascular patterns in vivo. Certain dominant regulators can be recognized by

  13. Evaluating endocrine endpoints relative to reproductive success in Japanese quail exposed to estrogenic chemicals [poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P.F.P.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Casey, C.S.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The standard US EPA guidelines for avian reproductive testing may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect effects of sublethal and chronic exposure to endocrine disrupting toxins. There is a need to evaluate endocrine endpoints as potential markers for contaminant effects, and to determine their effectiveness and sensitivity when applied to wildlife. To this end, a three generational test was conducted using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and a proven estrogenic PCB. Birds were exposed during embryonic development via maternal deposition and/or direct egg injection at day 4. Standard measures of reproductive success and productivity used in toxicological studies, as well as multiple measures of physiological and behavioral responses used in endocrine studies were collected. Long term effects on growth and apparent development were similar between treated and control offspring. Fertility of treated eggs decreased from 75%+ 4.4 (x + se) for P1, to 59% + 12.5 for F1 and 54% + 14.2 for F2. All paired control birds mated to produce viable eggs, whereas 27 % of the F1 and 41 % of the F2 treated pairs failed to produce at least 1 viable egg. Although some decreases in productivity can be related to direct toxic exposure, the response from one generation to the next was not linear with treatment, indicating a potential effect from behavioral or other endocrine alterations.

  14. Hit or Miss: Fertilization Outcomes of Natural Inseminations by Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Variation in fertilization success underlies sexual selection, yet mating does not guarantee fertilization. The relationship between natural inseminations and fertilization success is essential for understanding sexual selection, yet that relationship and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in sperm-storing vertebrates such as birds. Here the relationship is analyzed in mating trials using Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), which show striking variation in the fertilizing success of inseminations. Failures of males’ inseminations to fertilize eggs were mainly due to failures prior to sperm-egg contact. Fertilization probabilities on any given day were unrelated to whether the female had laid an egg the previous day, arguing against stimulation of sperm release from sperm storage tubules by the events of the daily egg-laying cycle. Instead, an unfertilized egg laid between two fertilized eggs predicted a longer sperm storage interval. Both sexes gained similar numbers of fertilized eggs by mating with a second partner the next day, but males, unlike females in a previous study, did not gain by having two females to mate with at the same time. Instead, they were both behaviorally and sperm limited, whereas females gain by mating twice in quick succession. Even double inseminations often failed to fertilize any eggs, and multiple matings would be needed for an entire clutch to be fertilized with high certainty. Paradoxically, this low and probabilistic fertilization success co-occurs with other notable characteristics of male quail suggestive of past sexual selection for increased success, including vigorous copulatory behavior, forced copulations, foamy secretion aiding in sperm competition, large testes and unusual sperm morphology. PMID:26222780

  15. In ovo exposure quail assay for risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Ryo; Takahashi, Shinji; Shimizu, Akira; Morita, Masatoshi; Shiraishi, Fujio

    2006-12-01

    Although there are in vivo assays using various organisms for the risk assessment of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties, effective experimental methods for avian species are still under debate. We have developed an in ovo exposure assay using Japanese quail eggs, aimed at assessing disrupting effects on avian reproductive development and function. Hybrid eggs from Brazilian Brown male and White Egg female quails, which can be genetically sexed by their plumage color after hatching, were prepared, and test materials dissolved in olive oil were injected into the air-chamber on day 10 of incubation. After sexual maturation of hatched chicks, we observed egg production by females and the egg quality and male-typical reproductive behavior, and then examined reproductive system morphology and serum steroid concentrations in both sexes. Treatment with a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.5-50 ng/g egg), dose-dependently reduced the eggshell thickness and strength of eggs. A few females treated with 5 ng/g DES per egg produced soft-shelled/ unmarked eggs, and all laying females treated with 50 ng/g egg produced eggs completely lacking shells. DES also induced shortening of the left oviduct and abnormal development of the right oviduct in a dose-dependent manner, while testis weight was reduced symmetrically. In addition, 2,2',4',6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol (10-1,000 ng/g egg), which previously showed relatively high estrogenic activity in vitro, caused dose-dependent shortening of the left oviduct and reduction in testis weight. The methods for evaluating endocrine disrupting effects and preparing experimental birds proposed in the present study are expected to facilitate assays for avian reproductive toxicology.

  16. Hit or Miss: Fertilization Outcomes of Natural Inseminations by Japanese Quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Adkins-Regan

    Full Text Available Variation in fertilization success underlies sexual selection, yet mating does not guarantee fertilization. The relationship between natural inseminations and fertilization success is essential for understanding sexual selection, yet that relationship and its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood in sperm-storing vertebrates such as birds. Here the relationship is analyzed in mating trials using Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, which show striking variation in the fertilizing success of inseminations. Failures of males' inseminations to fertilize eggs were mainly due to failures prior to sperm-egg contact. Fertilization probabilities on any given day were unrelated to whether the female had laid an egg the previous day, arguing against stimulation of sperm release from sperm storage tubules by the events of the daily egg-laying cycle. Instead, an unfertilized egg laid between two fertilized eggs predicted a longer sperm storage interval. Both sexes gained similar numbers of fertilized eggs by mating with a second partner the next day, but males, unlike females in a previous study, did not gain by having two females to mate with at the same time. Instead, they were both behaviorally and sperm limited, whereas females gain by mating twice in quick succession. Even double inseminations often failed to fertilize any eggs, and multiple matings would be needed for an entire clutch to be fertilized with high certainty. Paradoxically, this low and probabilistic fertilization success co-occurs with other notable characteristics of male quail suggestive of past sexual selection for increased success, including vigorous copulatory behavior, forced copulations, foamy secretion aiding in sperm competition, large testes and unusual sperm morphology.

  17. Birth of neural progenitors during the embryonic period of sexual differentiation in the Japanese quail brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Sylvia M.; Mouriec, Karen; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Several brain areas in the diencephalon are involved in the activation and expression of sexual behavior, including in quail, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM). However, the ontogeny of these diencephalic brain nuclei has not to this date been examined in detail. We investigated the ontogeny of POM and other steroid-sensitive brain regions by injecting quail eggs with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at various stages between E3 and E16 and killing animals at postnatal (PN) days 3 or 56. In the POM, large numbers of BrdU-positive cells were observed in subjects injected from E3 to E10, the numbers of these cells was intermediate in birds injected on E12, and most cells were post-mitotic in both sexes on E14-E16. Injections on E3-E4 labeled large numbers of Hu positive cells in POM. In contrast, injections performed at a later stage labeled cells that do not express aromatase nor neuronal markers such as Hu or NeuN in the POM and other steroid-sensitive nuclei and thus do not have a neuronal phenotype in these locations contrary to what is observed in the telencephalon and cerebellum. No evidence could also be collected to demonstrate that these cells have a glial nature. Converging data, including the facts that these cells divide in the brain mantle and express PCNA, a cell cycling marker, indicate that cells labeled by BrdU during the second half of embryonic life are slow cycling progenitors born and residing in the brain mantle. Future research should now identify their functional significance. PMID:22628012

  18. Study on levels of Kluai Hin Banana (Musa sapientum peel meal in Japanese quail ration: 2. Laying period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanasit, S.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Kluai Hin banana peel meal (KHBPM contained 92.70% dry matter, 5.61% crude protein, 6.66% crude fat, 9.32% crude fiber, 10.90% ash, 60.21% NFE, 0.37% Ca, 0.22% P and 1.25% tannin on dry basis and 4,362 Kcal GE/kg. It was incorporated into 8 Japanese quail diets at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35%. Three hundred and thirty head of 5-weeks-old birds were randomly allotted to 8 treatments each with 4 replicates (10 quails/ replicate, fed with the above mentioned diets until 20 weeks of age. The results showed no significant (p> 0.05 difference among treatments in terms of their ages at first laying, egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency and feed consumption and feed cost when KHBPM was included up to 25% of the diet. However, treatment at the higher levels (>25% KHBPM, gave significantly (p<0.01 lower egg production and quality, feed efficiency and egg shell thickness. In addition it also gave higher feed cost (p<0.05. The average mortality rate was 0.86% and no significant difference was found among groups. Egg quality and egg yolk color-score appeared to decrease with increasing KHBPM level. From these results, it is concluded that 20- 25% KHBPM or 50.5% substation to ground corn was the optimum level for laying quails. It should be used as animal feed to reduce pollution problem.

  19. Semen characteristics and biochemical composition of cloacal foam of male Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) fed diet incorporated with selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A; Mohan, J; Mandal, A B; Lal, N

    2017-04-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) on physical and cloacal gland size, foam production, biochemical composition of foam and semen biochemical characteristics of male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). Two hundred twenty-five (225)-day-old male Japanese quail were randomly distributed to three dietary treatment groups for a period of 20 weeks. Each treatment comprised of three replicates, each containing 25 chicks. Three experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg Se/kg (T 1 , T 2 and T 3, respectively), and diet T 1 was considered as control. Sodium selenite was used as the source of selenium. All the birds were provided with feed and water ad libitum. Cloacal foam characteristics, that is cloacal gland index and foam weight, were significantly higher in T 2 group. However, body weight, frequency of foam discharge and testes weight (left and right) did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Physical characteristics of semen, that is semen volume and sperm concentration, did not differ (p > 0.05) among the Se-treated groups. The sperm motility, live-dead count and abnormality improved significantly (p foam in terms of total protein, acid phosphatase (ACP) and nitric oxide did not differ (p > 0.05), while the concentration of glucose was higher (p foam variables, biochemical composition of foam, semen characteristics and fertility in male Japanese quail. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. The Japanese Quail as an avian model for testing endocrine disrupting chemicals: endocrine and behavioral end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.; Henry, K.; Humphries, E.; Henry, P.F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Birds have extremely varied reproductive strategies. As such, the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can greatly differ across avian species. Precocial species, such as Japanese quail appear to be most sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, particularly sexual differentiation. A great deal is known about the ontogeny of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) relative to endocrine, neuro-endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction. Therefore, this species provides an excellent model for understanding effects of EDCs on reproductive biology with exposure at specific stages of the life cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to conduct a 1- or 2- generation experiment with positive or negative control chemicals and to determine changes in selected end points. Japanese quail embryos were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; positive control) in a 2-generation design or to fadrozole (FAD; negative control) in a 1-generation design. Embryonic EB treatment resulted in significant reductions (p< 0.5) in hen day production (90.2 vs 54.1; control vs EB, resp.) and fertility (85.3 vs 33.4%, control vs EB, resp.). Males showed sharply reduced courtship and mating behaviors as well as increased lag time (26 vs 148 sec; control vs EB) in behavioral tests. Fadrozole exposure resulted in reduced hatchability of fertile eggs, particularly at higher doses. There were no significant effects on courtship and mating behavior of males although males showed an increased lag time in their responses, nally, a behavioral test for studying motor and fear responses in young chicks was used; chicks exposed to an estrogenic pesticide (methoxychlor) showed some deficits. In summary, the use of appropriate and reliable end points that are responsive to endocrine disruption are critical for assessment of EDCs. Supported in part by EPA grant R826134.

  1. Effects of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kanyinji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing maize in quail diets with graded levels of rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal (FCM on growth and egg production performances. Cassava meal (CM was mixed with dried manure of layer at 75 g/kg CM, which was mixed with freshly collected rumen filtrate (at 1 L/5 kg CM, and finally fermented in sealed bags for 14 days. It was then sun-dried and added in grower or finisher diets at 0, 50, 75 and 100%. Then, 84 three weeks-old Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica were divided into four equal groups; the birds were randomly assigned to 0, 50, 75 and 100% FCM grower/layers diets, and were reared until 56 days of age. Daily feed consumption, weekly body weights, weight gains, feed conversion ratios (FCR, hen-day, and egg weights were monitored. The quails fed with 75% FCM were found to be superior (p0.05 effect on feed intake, body weight, and weight gain, as compared to those of fed control diets. Thus, replacing maize with FCM had no deleterious effects on growth performance, but depressed hen-day. However, better growth performance was obtained when maize was replaced at 75% FCM.

  2. Effect of different levels of alpha tocopherol on performance traits, serum antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assar Ali Shah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was designed to find the effect of vitamin E supplementation on growth, serum antioxidant enzymes, and some trace elements in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica under low ambient temperature. A total of 180 day-old Japanese quails were randomly divided into four groups and provided with 0 (group A, 50 (group B, 100 (group C, and 150 IU/kg (group D vitamin E (dl-α-tocopherol acetate under an average temperature of 9±0.5 °C for an experimental period of 42 days. The result showed that feed intake per day, body weight, weight gain per day, and feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly between the groups. Serum concentrations of superoxide and glutathione peroxidase were significantly high in birds supplemented with 150 mg/kg of vitamin E. The concentration of aspartate aminotransferase was not significantly affected between the control and treated groups; however, alanine transaminase concentration significantly reduced in group D. Zinc concentration in the blood increased significantly in group D, with no significant effect on copper and manganese between the control and treated groups. Vitamin E at the level of 150 IU/kg of feed improves the blood antioxidant status and zinc concentration, with no effect on the performance traits of quail reared under low ambient temperature.

  3. Effect of nanosilicon dioxide on growth performance, egg quality, liver histopathology and concentration of calcium, phosphorus and silicon in egg, liver and bone in laying quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Samira; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir

    2017-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of nanosilicon dioxide (nSiO2) on performance, egg quality, liver histopathology and concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus and silicon (Si) in egg, liver and bone in laying quails. The experiment was administered using 60 laying quails at 16-26 weeks of age with five treatments [0 (control), 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg nSiO2 per kg of diet] and four replicates in a completely randomized design. During the experiment, the amount of feed intake was recorded weekly and performance parameters were measured. During the last 3 days of the experiment, all of the eggs in each replicate were collected and egg quality parameters were measured. At the end of 26 weeks of age, the birds were sacrificed and blood samples were collected. Liver samples from each treatment were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological assessment. The right thigh bone and a portion of liver were inserted in plastic bags and stored at - 20. The results showed that nSiO2 supplementation significantly affected egg weight and egg mass ( P liver enzymes in plasma and the liver tissue histopathology were not significantly affected ( P > 0.05) by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary supplementation of nSiO2 could improve bone density and performance without any adverse effect on the health of laying quails.

  4. Altered embryonic development in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) induced by pre-incubation oscillatory thermal stresses mimicking global warming predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Kelly S; Burggren, Warren W

    2017-01-01

    Global warming is likely to alter reproductive success of ground-nesting birds that lay eggs normally left unattended for days or even weeks before actual parental incubation, especially in already warm climates. The native North American bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) is such a species, and pre-incubation quail eggs may experience temperatures ≥45°C. Yet, almost nothing is known about embryonic survival after such high pre-incubation temperatures. Freshly laid bobwhite quail eggs were exposed during a 12 day pre-incubation period to one of five thermal regimes: low oscillating temperatures (25-40°C, mean = 28.9°C), high oscillating temperatures (30-45°C, mean = 33.9°C), low constant temperatures (28.85°C), high constant temperatures (mean = 33.9°C), or commercially employed pre-incubation temperatures (20°C). After treatment, eggs were then incubated at a standard 37.5°C to determine subsequent effects on embryonic development rate, survival, water loss, hatching, and embryonic oxygen consumption. Both quantity of heating degree hours during pre-incubation and specific thermal regime (oscillating vs. non-oscillating) profoundly affected important aspects of embryo survival and indices of development and growth Pre-incubation quail eggs showed a remarkable tolerance to constant high temperatures (up to 45°C), surviving for 4.5±0.3 days of subsequent incubation, but high oscillating pre-incubation temperature increased embryo survival (mean survival 12.2±1.8 days) and led to more rapid development than high constant temperature (maximum 38.5°C), even though both groups experienced the same total heating degree-hours. Oxygen consumption was ~200-300 μl O2.egg.min-1 at hatching in all groups, and was not affected by pre-incubation conditions. Oscillating temperatures, which are the norm for pre-incubation quail eggs in their natural habitat, thus enhanced survival at higher temperatures. However, a 5°C increase in pre-incubation temperature

  5. Dietary Supplementation of Chromium Can Alleviate Negative Impacts of Heat Stress on Performance, Carcass Yield, and Some Blood Hematology and Chemistry Indices of Growing Japanese Quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholy, Mohamed Soliman; El-Hindawy, Mohamed Mohamed; Alagawany, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hack, Mohamed Ezzat; El-Sayed, Sabry Abd El-Gawad Abd El-Halim

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the impact of dietary chromium supplementation on growth indices, carcass yield, and some hematological and biochemical blood parameters of growing Japanese quails subjected to heat stress. A total of 360 unsexed 2-week-old Japanese quail chicks were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement that had two ambient temperatures (23 ± 2 and 33 ± 2 °C) and three dietary chromium (0.00, 500, and 1000 μg Cr/kg diet as chromium picolinate). For induction of heat stress, the room temperature was set at 33 ± 2 °C from 2 to 6 weeks of age. Results showed that body weight, body weight gain, and feed intake were decreased for birds subjected to heat stress condition during 2 to 4 and 2 to 6 weeks of age. Feed conversion was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by high ambient temperature throughout the experiment. Carcass, dressing, liver, and heart percentages were not influenced by the ambient temperature or dietary chromium or their combinations. Significant temperature × chromium combinations were observed for hemoglobin value (P = 0.025) and packed cell volume (P = 0.001). Cholesterol and glucose in plasma were increased (P = 0.004 or 0.022) in quails subjected to heat stress condition. Plasma measurements of total proteins, albumin, globulin, lipids, glucose, and A/G ratio of quail chicks were not influenced (P > 0.05) by chromium, while cholesterol was increased with increasing chromium level (P = 0.033). High ambient temperature or dietary chromium levels or their interactions did not (P > 0.05) affect plasma levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), or T3/T4 ratio of growing quails. From these observations, it can be concluded that dietary chromium supplementation of growing Japanese quail subjected to heat stress condition could beneficially affect growth performance and carcasses, as well as modulate the hematological

  6. Altered embryonic development in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus induced by pre-incubation oscillatory thermal stresses mimicking global warming predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S Reyna

    Full Text Available Global warming is likely to alter reproductive success of ground-nesting birds that lay eggs normally left unattended for days or even weeks before actual parental incubation, especially in already warm climates. The native North American bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus is such a species, and pre-incubation quail eggs may experience temperatures ≥45°C. Yet, almost nothing is known about embryonic survival after such high pre-incubation temperatures. Freshly laid bobwhite quail eggs were exposed during a 12 day pre-incubation period to one of five thermal regimes: low oscillating temperatures (25-40°C, mean = 28.9°C, high oscillating temperatures (30-45°C, mean = 33.9°C, low constant temperatures (28.85°C, high constant temperatures (mean = 33.9°C, or commercially employed pre-incubation temperatures (20°C. After treatment, eggs were then incubated at a standard 37.5°C to determine subsequent effects on embryonic development rate, survival, water loss, hatching, and embryonic oxygen consumption. Both quantity of heating degree hours during pre-incubation and specific thermal regime (oscillating vs. non-oscillating profoundly affected important aspects of embryo survival and indices of development and growth Pre-incubation quail eggs showed a remarkable tolerance to constant high temperatures (up to 45°C, surviving for 4.5±0.3 days of subsequent incubation, but high oscillating pre-incubation temperature increased embryo survival (mean survival 12.2±1.8 days and led to more rapid development than high constant temperature (maximum 38.5°C, even though both groups experienced the same total heating degree-hours. Oxygen consumption was ~200-300 μl O2.egg.min-1 at hatching in all groups, and was not affected by pre-incubation conditions. Oscillating temperatures, which are the norm for pre-incubation quail eggs in their natural habitat, thus enhanced survival at higher temperatures. However, a 5°C increase in pre

  7. Effects of dietary combination of chromium and biotin on egg production, serum metabolites, and egg yolk mineral and cholesterol concentrations in heat-distressed laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Gursu, M F; Vijaya, J; Kucuk, O

    2004-11-01

    Chromium picolinate is used in the poultry diet because of its antistress effects in addition to the fact that the requirement for it is increased during stress. This study was conducted to determine if the negative effects of high ambient temperature (34 degrees C) on egg production, egg quality, antioxidant status, and cholesterol and mineral content of egg yolk could be alleviated by combination of chromium picolinate and biotin (0.6/2.0; Diachrome, as formulated by Nutrition 21 Inc.), in laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japanica). Quails (n= 240; 50 d old) were divided into 8 groups, 30 birds per group. The quails were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2, 4, or 8 mg of Diachrome/kg diet. Birds were kept at 22 degrees C and 53% relative humidity (RH). At 14 wk of age, the thermoneutral (TN) group remained in the same temperature as at the beginning of experiment, whereas the heat stress (HS) group was kept in an environment-controlled room (34 degrees C and 41% RH) for 3 wk. Heat exposure decreased performance when the basal diet was fed (p = 0.001). Diachrome supplementation at 4 and 8 mg/kg diet, increased feed intake (p = 0.05), egg production (p = 0.05), feed efficiency (p = 0.01), egg weight (p = 0.05), and Haugh unit (p = 0.01) in quails reared under heat stress conditions. Heat exposure increased concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.001), glucose, and cholesterol (p = 0.01), which were elevated by supplemental Diachrome (p Egg yolk Cr, Zn, and Fe (p = 0.01) concentrations increased linearly, whereas MDA and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.05) as dietary Diachrome supplementation increased in HS groups. Similar effects of supplementation on serum levels of glucose and cholesterol (p = 0.05) and egg yolk concentrations of cholesterol (p = 0.05) and Cr (p = 0.01) were observed in TN groups. No significant differences in other values were observed in the TN groups. Results of the present study

  8. Alterações hepáticas em codornas japonesas submetidas à intoxicação prolongada por aflatoxina B1 Hepatic changes in japanese quail after long term intoxication by aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Fernandes Oliveira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da aflatoxina B1 (AFB1 sobre as vísceras (fígado, baço e moela de codornas poedeiras japonesas, em condições de exposição a baixas doses, tendo em vista que são poucos os dados de toxicidade de longa duração nesta espécie. Assim, foram constituídos 4 grupos formados, cada um, por 6 codornas de linhagem comercial, as quais receberam rações contendo AFB1 nas concentrações de 0 (controle, 25, 50 e 100mg.kg-1, durante 168 dias. As aves do grupo 100mg kg_1 apresentaram fígados com peso relativo médio menor (p The aim of the present record was to study the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on selected viscera (liver, spleen and gizzard of laying Japanese quail under conditions of low level exposure, in view of the little information regarding the long term toxicity on this specie. Thus, four experimental groups of six commercial quails were constituted and given rations containing either 0 (controls, 25, 50 or 100mg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1/kg feed, during 168 days. When compared to controls, birds from group 100mg.kg-1 presented low relative liver weight (p < 0.05. Histological changes were observed only in the livers, and all samples from quail exposed to AFB1 revealed moderate to severe hepatic cell vacuolation with fatty change, particularly in birds from groups receiving highest levels of toxin (50 and 100mg.kg-1. Bile duct hyperplasia occurred only in the birds exposed to 100mg.kg-1 of AFB1. The results indicated that long term administration of AFB1 at levels above 50mg.kg-1 can cause significant hepatic lesions in Japanese quail.

  9. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  10. RESEARCH REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL QUALITY VALUES OF JAPANESE QUAIL EGGS OBTAINED AT THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA TEUŞAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail is one of the smallest bird subspecies which has been tamed by man, being industrially raised in our days in many states over the world. This avian subspecies produces over 300 eggs, and though there are about 6 races and different varieties, there are very little data in the scientific literature regarding the quality values for eggs of Japanese quail hatching eggs collected from hens at the end of the laying – physical values (pH value of the eggs components, albumen index, yolk index The present paper wants to bring a series of data regarding some of these indicators. The pH values was determined with an portable pH-oximeter, and to establish the other two quality indexes we used a device fitted with callipers taking into account: height of the dense egg white (albumen, minimum and maximum diameter of the dense and fluid egg white, height and the diameter of the yolk. The albumen pH recorded values of 8.90, and the yolk pH values of 6.07. The statistical mean for the 130 values of albumen index taken in study was 0.048. The mean value of yolk index was 0.399. The obtained results are normal for the period of quail’s life.

  11. Thymol feed supplementation in quail alters the percentages of nutritionally relevant egg yolk fatty acids: effects throughout incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria E; Marin, Raul H; Luna, Agustin; Zunino, Maria P; Labaque, Maria C

    2017-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are crucial components of egg yolk and particularly prone to oxidative damage, generating losses of nutrients for embryonic development and influencing the quality of eggs for human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary thymol (a natural antioxidant) is related to changes in quail egg yolk total (T), triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition at different stages of embryo development. Thus female Japanese quail (100 days of age) were assigned to one of two dietary treatments (12 individuals each): CON (basal diet) or THY (0.0016 mol thymol day -1 per bird). After 2 weeks of supplementation, eggs were incubated and samples were obtained at 0, 4 and 16 days of embryonic development. In 0 day THY eggs, α-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFA in T and TG, docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA in T and arachidonic acid in TG were increased, while saturated fatty acids (SFA) in T were reduced. From 4 days on, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and SFA from T and TG in THY eggs were found to be similar to those of CON eggs. The changes in PL throughout incubation were similar in both dietary treatments. Thymol would provide the embryo with PUFA for synthesis/deposition in membranes and/or assign to supply energy. Additionally, thymol supplementation would be advisable for the production of healthier table eggs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Salmonella spp. in meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    OC de Freitas Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Salmonella spp. was surveyed in four flocks of meat-type quails reared in a farm that also had processing plant on site, located in the region of Bastos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Meconium samples of one-day-old quail chicks were collected from transport cardboard boxes. Cecal content was collected on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of rearing. At 36 days of age, birds were slaughtered in the farm's processing plant, where two samples of water from the scalding and the chilling tanks and four carcasses per flock were collected. All samples were examined for Salmonella spp. using traditional bacteriological methods. Salmonella spp. was present in meconium samples of three flocks and in cecal feces of the four flocks. This bacterium was also isolated in the chiller water and in the carcasses of three of the evaluated flocks and in the scalding water of one flock. In this study, S. enterica subspecies enterica 4, 5, 12; S. Corvalis; S. Give; S. Lexington; S. Minnesota; S. Schwarzengrund; S. Rissen and S. Typhimurium were the eight serovars identified.

  13. Comprehensive Identification of Sexual Dimorphism-Associated Differentially Expressed Genes in Two-Way Factorial Designed RNA-Seq Data on Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Seo, Minseok; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Oh, Jae-Don; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon; Park, Tae Sub; Shin, Sangsu; Jiao Jiao, Zhang; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Jeong, Dong Kee; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reach sexual maturity earlier, breed rapidly and successfully, and cost less and require less space than other birds raised commercially. Given the value of this species for food production and experimental use, more studies are necessary to determine chromosomal regions and genes associated with gender and breed-differentiation. This study employed Trinity and edgeR for transcriptome analysis of next-generation RNA-seq data, which included 4 tissues obtained from 3 different breeding lines of Japanese quail (random bred control, heavy weight, low weight). Differentially expressed genes shared between female and male tissue contrast groups were analyzed to identify genes related to sexual dimorphism as well as potential novel candidate genes for molecular sexing. Several of the genes identified in the present study as significant sex-related genes have been previously found in avian gene expression analyses (NIPBL, UBAP2), and other genes found differentially expressed in this study and not previously associated with sex-related differences may be considered potential candidates for molecular sexing (TERA, MYP0, PPR17, CASQ2). Additionally, other genes likely associated with neuronal and brain development (CHKA, NYAP), as well as body development and size differentiation (ANKRD26, GRP87) in quail were identified. Expression of homeobox protein regulating genes (HXC4, ISL1) shared between our two sex-related contrast groups (Female Brain vs. Male Brain and Ovary vs. Testis) indicates that these genes may regulate sex-specific anatomical development. Results reveal genetic features of the quail breed and could allow for more effective molecular sexing as well as selective breeding for traits important in commercial production.

  14. Diet complexity in early life affects survival in released pheasants by altering foraging efficiency, food choice, handling skills and gut morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Mark A; Sage, Rufus; Madden, Joah R

    2015-11-01

    Behavioural and physiological deficiencies are major reasons why reintroduction programmes suffer from high mortality when captive animals are used. Mitigation of these deficiencies is essential for successful reintroduction programmes. Our study manipulated early developmental diet to better replicate foraging behaviour in the wild. Over 2 years, we hand-reared 1800 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), from 1 day old, for 7 weeks under different dietary conditions. In year one, 900 pheasants were divided into three groups and reared with (i) commercial chick crumb, (ii) crumb plus 1% live mealworm or (iii) crumb plus 5% mixed seed and fruit. In year two, a further 900 pheasants were divided into two groups and reared with (i) commercial chick crumb or (ii) crumb plus a combination of 1% mealworm and 5% mixed seed and fruit. In both years, the commercial chick crumb acted as a control treatment, whilst those with live prey and mixed seeds and fruits mimicking a more naturalistic diet. After 7 weeks reared on these diets, pheasants were released into the wild. Postrelease survival was improved with exposure to more naturalistic diets prior to release. We identified four mechanisms to explain this. Pheasants reared with more naturalistic diets (i) foraged for less time and had a higher likelihood of performing vigilance behaviours, (ii) were quicker at handling live prey items, (iii) were less reliant on supplementary feed which could be withdrawn and (iv) developed different gut morphologies. These mechanisms allowed the pheasants to (i) reduce the risk of predation by reducing exposure time whilst foraging and allowing more time to be vigilant; (ii) be better at handling and discriminating natural food items and not be solely reliant on supplementary feed; and (iii) have a better gut system to cope with the natural forage after the cessation of supplementary feeding in the spring. Learning food discrimination, preference and handling skills by the provision of a more

  15. An updated checklist of birds of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sultana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveys were carried out at 10 sites in the buffer and core zones of Sariska Tiger Reserve during 2007-2011. MacKinnon species listing method was used to compile a checklist of birds. A total of 224 bird species was recorded including 36 new records. Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus, Marshall Iora Aegithina nigrolutea, Eurasian Eagle Owl Bubo bubo, Brown-headed Barbet Megalaima zeylanica, Indian Nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus, Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus, Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis, Red-necked Falcon Falco chicquera, Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus, Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus, White-capped Water Redstart Chaimarrornis leucocephalus were some new records. Some important observations are given in detail.

  16. Human disturbance provides foraging opportunities for birds in primary subalpine forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DuBay, Shane G.; Hart Reeve, Andrew; Wu, Yongjie

    2017-01-01

    or Cettia major, and Heteroxenicus stellatus. This behavior is likely a modification of pre-existing interspecific foraging associations with pheasants and large mammals in the region. These larger animals disturb the earth and lower vegetation layers upon passage and while foraging, exposing previously......Interspecific foraging associations are well-documented phenomena, characterized by one or more species exploiting the behavior of another species to decrease predation or increase foraging success. In rare cases, birds directly exploit human behavior, but examples of these interactions are limited...... to species that naturally occur in edge, open, or disturbed habitats. With observations and experiments we provide evidence of insectivorous birds exploiting human disturbance in primary subalpine forest in the mountains of southern China, displaying behavioral flexibility to gain novel foraging...

  17. Genetic variation and bottleneck in Japanese quail ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic structure of four strains of Japanese quail (Pharach, Panda, Tuxedo and Golden) was investigated by 12 microsatellite markers in Iran. Whole blood samples were collected from 200 individuals belonging to four strains and genomic DNA was extracted by salting out procedure. The 12 microsatellite markers ...

  18. Genetic evaluation of European quails by random regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Miranda Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare different random regression models, defined from different classes of heterogeneity of variance combined with different Legendre polynomial orders for the estimate of (covariance of quails. The data came from 28,076 observations of 4,507 female meat quails of the LF1 lineage. Quail body weights were determined at birth and 1, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Six different classes of residual variance were fitted to Legendre polynomial functions (orders ranging from 2 to 6 to determine which model had the best fit to describe the (covariance structures as a function of time. According to the evaluated criteria (AIC, BIC and LRT, the model with six classes of residual variances and of sixth-order Legendre polynomial was the best fit. The estimated additive genetic variance increased from birth to 28 days of age, and dropped slightly from 35 to 42 days. The heritability estimates decreased along the growth curve and changed from 0.51 (1 day to 0.16 (42 days. Animal genetic and permanent environmental correlation estimates between weights and age classes were always high and positive, except for birth weight. The sixth order Legendre polynomial, along with the residual variance divided into six classes was the best fit for the growth rate curve of meat quails; therefore, they should be considered for breeding evaluation processes by random regression models.

  19. Genetic parameters for quail body weights using a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model including fixed and random linear regressions is described for analyzing body weights at different ages. In this study, (co)variance components, heritabilities for quail weekly weights and genetic correlations among these weights were estimated using a random regression model by DFREML under DXMRR option.

  20. Economics of Quail Production in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the economics of quail production in Ilorin, Kwara State. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from 53 farmers that were selected with the use of a snow-ball sampling technique. Major tools of analysis for the study were descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis and stochastic ...

  1. Intersensory Redundancy Educates Selective Attention in Bobwhite Quail Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Markham, Rebecca G.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed whether exposure to amodal properties in bimodal stimulation (e.g. rhythm, rate, duration) could educate attention to amodal properties in subsequent unimodal stimulation during prenatal development. Bobwhite quail embryos were exposed to an individual bobwhite maternal call under several experimental and control conditions during the…

  2. Fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs under semi arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some factors affecting the fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs were studied at the Poultry Unit of the University of Maiduguri Livestock Teaching and Research Farm. A total of 1850 eggs were used for the study and data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance. The mean values of fertility, hatchability of ...

  3. Economics of Quail Production in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria https ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    development of the farm household and nation as a whole as it is important as a source of agricultural diversification and income enhancement. Quail farming is an important aspect of the livestock sub-sector of the economy. It is .... is an important factor among the socioeconomic characteristics in agricultural business as it.

  4. Lambda-cyhalothrin toxicity in quails ( Cortunix japonica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary congestion and edema in air spaces of the lungs. Severe diffuse vacuolation of hepatocytes in the liver and neuronal necrosis and vascular edema in the brain. LCT induced moderate toxicity and garlic increased cellular response in the quails. There is need for policy and research in areas of ecotoxicology and ...

  5. Estimation of genetic parameters for carcass traits in Japanese quail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of some carcass characteristics in the Japanese quail. For this aim, carcass weight (Cw), breast weight (Bw), leg weight (Lw), abdominal fat weight (AFw), carcass yield (CP), breast percentage (BP), leg percentage (LP) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP) were ...

  6. Growth and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails ( Coturnix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The values of other primal cuts were statistically similar (P>0.05). Therefore, it is concluded that substituting synthetic vitamin mineral premixes with natural vitamin mineral premixes in diets is possible with no adverse effects on performance and carcass characteristics of growing Japanese quail. Key words: Proprietary ...

  7. Behaviour of Japanese Quail Eggs Under Mechanical Compression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchar, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Strnková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2015), s. 1110-1118 ISSN 1094-2912 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : quail egg * compression * rupture force Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.586, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10942912.2013.862634#.VNI0aC7z_PM

  8. Relationships among egg quality traits in Japanese quails over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the relationships among egg quality traits over three generations of selection for egg production. Eggs were obtained at the 9th week from 300, 450 and 320 adult quails in Generation zero (G0), one (G1) and two (G2), respectively. There were significant (p<0.05-0.01) positive and ...

  9. Molecular study for the sex identification in Japanese quails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... screened by agarose gel electrophoresis. These results show single (ZW) amplified fragments, about. 320 bp for female, and no amplified PCR product for male (ZZ) Japanese quails. These results of this study show that CHD gene amplification is a convenient, inexpensive, safe, and simple technique for.

  10. Hypogravity's Effect on the Life Cycle of Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Patricia Y.

    1999-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the effect of activities preceding space-flight and during space-flight on quail embryonic development. While the overall development of the quail embryos was evaluated, the report presented herein, focused on calcium utilization or uptake from eggshells by developing embryos during incubation in space and on earth. In the pre-space trials, fertilized quail eggs were subjected to pre-night dynamics including forces of centrifugation, vibration, or a combination of vibration and centrifugation prior to incubation for 6 or 16 days. In another trial, fertile quail eggs were tested for survivability in a refrigerator stowage kit for eggs (RSKE) which was subsequently used to transport the eggs to space. Eggs in the RSKE were subjected to shuttle launch dynamics including G force and random vibration profiles. In the space- flight trials, 48 fertile quail eggs were launched on space shuttle Flight STS-76 and were subsequently incubated in a Slovakian incubator onboard space station, MIR. Two sets of ground controls each with 48 fertile eggs with and without exposure to launch dynamics were initiated 5 days post-launch. There was a laboratory control (incubated in Lyon RX2 incubator at 37.5 C) and a synchronous control (incubated in Lyon RX2 incubator at 39 - 400 C), which simulated the temperature of the space-flight incubator. Following space-flight trials, post-flight trials were conducted where quail eggs were incubated in Lyon RX2 or Slovakian incubators under various temperatures with or without launch dynamics. Eggshells from all study trials were retrieved and analyzed for calcium content to determine if its utilization by developing quail embryos was affected by activities preceding space-flight or during incubation in space under microgravity. Results from the pre-flight and post-flight showed that pre-flight activities and shuttle launch dynamics had no effect on calcium uptake from the eggshell by developing

  11. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  12. COMPARISON OF TWO 4.7-MILLIGRAM TO ONE 9.4-MILLIGRAM DESLORELIN ACETATE IMPLANTS ON EGG PRODUCTION AND PLASMA PROGESTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JAPANESE QUAIL (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petritz, Olivia A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Hawkins, Michelle G; Kass, Philip H; Conley, Alan J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive disease in captive avian species is common, and medical management is often chosen over surgical removal of the reproductive tract. In a previous study with Japanese quail, a single 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant reversibly decreased egg production in 6 out 10 birds for 70 days. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implants versus one 9.4-mg implant on egg production and plasma progesterone concentrations in Japanese quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica). Following a 10-day period of consistent egg laying, 30 adult female Japanese quail were anesthetized and received two 4.7-mg deslorelin implants (n = 10), one 9.4-mg deslorelin implant (n = 10), or a single, identical placebo implant (n = 10) s.c. between the scapulae. Egg production was monitored daily, and plasma progesterone concentrations were measured on days 0, 14, 29, 120, 148, and 182 via enzyme-linked immunoassay. All birds were weighed periodically and euthanized at day 182, after which their reproductive tracts were evaluated at gross necropsy. Seven out of 10 birds treated with two 4.7-mg implants ceased egg laying 1 wk after implantation and remained nonovulatory for approximately 100 days. Cessation of egg laying for the 9.4-mg treatment group occurred in 7 out of 10 birds; onset was variable (weeks 5-12) and continued for the remainder of the study period. Plasma progesterone concentrations for deslorelin treatment groups were not significantly different compared to the placebo group at any time point. In conclusion, the two 4.7-mg and the one 9.4-mg implant treatments ceased egg laying in a similar number of birds, but the 9.4-mg implant had a slower onset of action and the effects on egg laying were inconsistent throughout the study period. Further studies evaluating use of deslorelin acetate in other avian species are needed.

  13. Next-generation sequencing reveals genomic features in the Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Sano, Satoshi; Nunome, Mitsuo; Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Kuwayama, Takehito; Takahashi, Shinji; Kawashima, Takaharu; Matsuda, Yoichi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Kono, Tomohiro

    2013-06-01

    The Japanese quail has several advantages as a laboratory animal for biological and biomedical investigations. In this study, the draft genome of the Japanese quail was sequenced and assembled using next-generation sequencing technology. To improve the quality of the assembly, the sequence reads from the Japanese quail were aligned against the reference genome of the chicken. The final draft assembly consisted of 1.75 Gbp with an N50 contig length of 11,409 bp. On the basis of the draft genome sequence obtained, we developed 100 microsatellite markers and used these markers to evaluate the genetic variability and diversity of 11 lines of Japanese quail. Furthermore, we identified Japanese quail orthologs of spermatogenesis markers and analyzed their expression using in situ hybridization. The Japanese quail genome sequence obtained in the present study could enhance the value of this species as a model animal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in Serum Acute Phase Reactants, Inflammatory Mediators and Gangliosides in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica with Retained Yolk Sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mosleh, S. Nazifi* and A. Alaeddini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two 2-week-old Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica with retained yolk sac have been assessed using validated standard procedures to quantify the serum concentration of the acute phase reactants (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, gamma interferon and gangliosides (total sialic acid, lipid bound sialic acid and protein bound sialic acid. The present findings show that the concentrations of all measured parameters in diseased birds were significantly higher than the control group. Inflammation following yolk sac infection/retention leads to stimulation of the synthesis of inflammatory mediators, acute phase reactants and gangliosides. Among the study variables, lipid bound sialic acid had the most obvious change, so it is the most sensitive parameter.

  15. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  16. Differential Expression Levels of Genes Related to Myogenesis During Embryogenesis of Quail and Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ban, Yaowei Liang, Zongsheng Zhao§*, Xiaojun Liu§ and Qingfeng Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the expression dynamics of genes during myogenesis in quail and chicken. Real-time PCR was used to detect mRNA expressions of MyoD, MyoG, MLP and MSTN in breast muscle of quail and chicken embryos during the period of embryonic days E7-17. Results showed that expression profiles of each gene displayed similar trend in the experiment period between quail and chicken, however, the expression concentration between the two species differed at the same time detected. MyoD mRNA expression in quail was significantly lower in the early phase of the experiment period (E7-9 (P<0.01 on E7; P<0.05 on both E8 and E9. For MyoG and MLP, the mRNA expressions were both lower in quail than that in chicken during the experiment period. Additionally, the embryonic day when quail reached its peak expression was earlier than that in chicken (MyoG: quail E12 vs. chicken E13; MLP: quail E14 vs. chicken E15, and the peak expression for both in quail was significantly lower than that in chicken (P<0.01 for both. For MSTN, expression in quail was significantly higher in quail than that in chicken at each time detected (P<0.01. It is concluded that differential expression of these genes might or at least partially contributed to the different development of muscle development in quail and chicken.

  17. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pet birds. Because of the risk of avian influenza (bird flu), USDA restricts the importation of pet birds from ... or look dirty may be ill. Learn the signs of illness in a bird, which include appearing ...

  18. Eggshell appearance does not signal maternal corticosterone exposure in Japanese quail: an experimental study with brown-spotted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Camille; Cassey, Phillip; Lovell, Paul G; Mikšík, Ivan; Reynolds, S James; Spencer, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown) is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green) is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control) or corticosterone (treatment). We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an avian visual

  19. Effects of diet, time since defecation, and drying process of the droppings on corticosterone metabolite measurements in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, S; Busso, J M; Lèche, A; Marin, R H

    2015-05-01

    The use of noninvasive methods for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites is a useful tool for endocrine assessment particularly in studies where animals cannot be captured, when they should be sampled without disturbing their activities, and/or when welfare needs to be maximized. However, still no complete standardization exists for the methodology, and some confounding variables may play an important role affecting measurements and interpretation of results. The present study focused on whether two different diets (laying feed or seed mixture), the time since defecation (0, 4, 24, or 48 h) and the drying method of those samples (oven-dried or naturally nonoven-dried) may affect concentrations of corticosterone metabolites (CM) measured in male Japanese quail. Half of the birds were provided with plain water (control) and the other half received a corticosterone solution. Birds fed with a seed mixture exhibited higher values of CM (nanogram/gram) in droppings than quail that received a laying feed diet suggesting that diet should be carefully considered as a potential source of variation. As expected both groups exhibited higher CM concentration after corticosterone treatment. While CM concentrations increased significantly in nonoven-dried samples over time (0 < 4 < 24 = 48 h), oven-dried samples exhibited similar high CM values. At 24 and 48 h postdefecation, nonoven-dried samples had similar CM concentrations as all oven-dried samples. Drying of samples may be considered a reliable method to reduce variations due to water loss over time, facilitating comparisons up to 48 h postdefecation. This finding would allow to enhance the range of application of this noninvasive and welfare friendly method to situations where samples cannot be collected or frozen shortly after defecation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Eggshell appearance does not signal maternal corticosterone exposure in Japanese quail: an experimental study with brown-spotted eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Duval

    Full Text Available Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control or corticosterone (treatment. We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an

  1. A low dose of an organophosphate insecticide causes dysbiosis and sex-dependent responses in the intestinal microbiota of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Crisol-Martínez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate insecticides have been directly or indirectly implicated in avian populations declining worldwide. Birds in agricultural environments are commonly exposed to these insecticides, mainly through ingestion of invertebrates after insecticide application. Despite insecticide exposure in birds occurring mostly by ingestion, the impact of organophosphates on the avian digestive system has been poorly researched. In this work we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica as an avian model to study short-term microbial community responses to a single dose of trichlorfon at low concentration in three sample origins of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT: caecum, large intestine and faeces. Using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons as bacterial markers, the study showed that ingestion of insecticide caused significant changes in the GIT microbiome. Specifically, microbiota composition and diversity differed between treated and untreated quail. Insecticide-associated responses in the caecum showed differences between sexes which did not occur with the other sample types. In caecal microbiota, only treated females showed significant shifts in a number of genera within the Lachnospiraceae and the Enterobacteriaceae families. The major responses in the large intestine were a significant reduction in the genus Lactobacillus and increases in abundance of a number of Proteobacteria genera. All microbial shifts in faeces occurred in phylotypes that were represented at low relative abundances. In general, changes in microbiota possibly resulted from contrasting responses towards the insecticide, either positive (e.g., biodegrading bacteria or negative (e.g., insecticide-susceptible bacteria. This study demonstrates the significant impact that organophosphate insecticides have on the avian gut microbiota; showing that a single small dose of trichlorfon caused dysbiosis in the GIT of the Japanese quail. Further research is necessary to

  2. Influence of protein level and supplemental methionine in practical rations for young endangered masked bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the protein requirement of young endangered masked Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Five practical starting rations containing 24 to 32% protein were fed alone and supplemented with methionine for 5 weeks. Supplemental methionine significantly improved growth of quail fed diets containing 24 and 26% protein. Increasing the protein level improved growth of quail fed unsupplemented diets but did not do so when diets contained supplemental methionine. A methionine-supplemented ration containing 24% protein appeared adequate for supporting rapid growth of masked Bobwhite quail.

  3. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  4. Plasma Concentrations of Itraconazole, Voriconazole, and Terbinafine When Delivered by an Impregnated, Subcutaneous Implant in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Redig, Patrick; Cox, Sherry K

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillosis is a common fungal infection in both wild and pet birds. Although effective antifungal medications are available, treatment of aspergillosis can require months of medication administration, which entails stressful handling one or more times per day. This study examined the delivery of the antifungal drugs itraconazole, voriconazole, and terbinafine to Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica ) via an impregnated implant. Implants contained 0.5, 3, 8, or 24 mg of itraconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine. The implants were administered subcutaneously over the dorsum and between the scapulae. Blood was collected from birds before and 2, 7, 21, 42, and 56 days after implant placement. Plasma was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for concentrations of itraconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine, as appropriate. During the course of the study, targeted terbinafine concentrations were achieved in some birds at various time points, but concentrations were inconsistent. Itraconazole and voriconazole concentrations were also inconsistent and did not reach targeted concentrations. Currently, the implant examined in this study cannot be recommended for treatment of aspergillosis in avian species.

  5. The Effect of Different Dietary Purslane Seed (Portulaca Oleracea L. Levels on Carcass, Blood Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity in Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Konca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary purslane seed (Portulaca oleracea L. diets on the carcass, serum lipid profile and antioxidant activity in quails. A total of 140 one-day-old quail chicks allocated into 4 treatment groups with 5 replicates. The treatment groups as follows: (1 Control (C, without purslane seed addition, (2 2.5% purslane seed addition to the control diet, (3 5% purslane seed addition to the control diet, (4 10% purslane seed addition to the control diet. The treatments did not affect the slaughter weight, carcass, and carcass part yields (p>0.05 of the birds in the treatment groups. However, the total intestinal weights of the birds in the 2.5% purslane supplemented group were lower than those of the other groups (p0.05. The dietary inclusion of 10% purslane seed caused an increase to MDA level compared to C and 2.5% purslane seed supplemented groups (p

  6. Changes in plasma gonadotrophins, testosterone, prolactin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations in male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) of a heavy body weight line during photo-induced testicular growth and regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henare, S J; Kikuchi, M; Talbot, R T; Cockrem, J F

    2011-12-01

    1. Simultaneous changes of cloacal gland area (CGA) and plasma luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) during photo-induced testicular growth and regression were measured in commercially bred Japanese quail from a heavy body weight line. 2. Somatically mature male Japanese quail were transferred from short days (light:dark 8L:16D) at 10°C, to long days (16L:8D) at 20°C; and sexually mature male Japanese quail were transferred from long to short days. All variables were measured at transfer and every 5 d thereafter for 35 d. 3. Transfer from short to long days caused significant increases in LH, FSH, T and testis weight (TW) after 5 d, and in CGA after 10 d. T(3) decreased after 5 d, whereas T(4) increased significantly after 25 long days and PRL did not undergo any consistent change. The testicular growth rate was k = 0·1146. 4. Transferring quail from long to short days caused significant decreases in LH and FSH after 5 d, and decreases in T, TW and CGA after 10 d. T(4) decreased after 5 d whilst T(3) increased significantly by day 15. PRL decreased significantly after 10 d then rose before declining again. The testicular regression rate was k = 0·0582. 5. The rates of photo-induced testicular development and regression in a strain of large Japanese quail did not differ from rates reported for other strains of quail. CGA was a better indicator of TW than plasma T concentrations during growth and regression. The role of PRL in photo-induced reproductive cycles in male Japanese quail remains to be determined. 6. The photoperiod-induced changes in gonad size and hormone concentrations, together provide valuable information that can be used in future studies of the endocrinology and neuroendocrinology of photoperiodism in birds.

  7. Quail egg yield and quality of the Coturnix coturnix response to the addition level of agave inulin to the drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jorge Pérez de la Mora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effect of agave inulin addition to drinking water, one hundred (65 days old Coturnix coturnix japonica hens were divided randomly into four groups with five birds per cage. Twenty five birds were assigned to each of the following treatments: i control; addition of agave inulin in the drinking water at; ii 2.0% (w/w, iii 4.0%; and iv 6%. The feeding trial lasted for six weeks. Inulin increased (P0.05. The egg weight was similar among treatments (average 12.70 g and varied slightly with the inulin level (P=0.0537. The egg shell (percentage of the egg was not influenced by the inulin. But, the calcium concentration in the eggshell of the present trial varied with the level on the agave inulin in the drinking water (P0.05. Then, the agave inulin addition to the drinking water increases the egg yield of Japanese quails.

  8. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  9. An application of CART algorithm in genetics: IGFs and cGH polymorphisms in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Selçuk

    2017-04-01

    The avian insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGFs) and avian growth hormone (cGH) genes are the most important genes that can affect bird performance traits because of its important function in growth and metabolism. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of variation in growth-related traits is of importance for continued improvement and increased rates of genetic gain. The objective of the present study was to identify polymorphisms of cGH and IGFs genes in Japanese quail using conventional least square method (LSM) and CART algorithm. Therefore, this study was aimed to demonstrate at determining the polymorphisms of two genes related growth characteristics via CART algorithm. A simulated data set was generated to analyze by adhering the results of some poultry genetic studies which it includes live weights at 5 weeks of age, 3 alleles and 6 genotypes of cGH and 2 alleles and 3 genotypes of IGFs. As a result, it has been determined that the CART algorithm has some advantages as for that LSM.

  10. Sexual maturation and productivity of Japanese quail fed graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) were fed 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 p.p.m. Hg as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) from the time of hatching up to the age of 1 year. None of the birds manifested any gross signs of mercury poisioning. Food consumption, growth rate, and weight maintenance were unaffected. Initial oviposition tended to occur at a younger age as dietary mercuric chloride increased, e.g., the median age at which egg laying began among hens fed 32 p.p.m. Hg was 6 days younger than for controls. The average rate of egg production was positively related to the concentration of mercuric chloride with the most pronounced differences between treatments occurring among young (less than 9-week-old) hens. Beyond 9 weeks of age production was more uniform among the treatments, but even after 1 year hens on 32 p.p.m. Hg were laying an average of 13.5% more eggs than controls. Rate of egg fertilization was generally depressed for all Hg-treatments above 4 p.p.m. Hatchability of fertilized eggs and eggshell thickness appeared unaffected by mercuric chloride.

  11. Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, William M; Bijma, P; Schinckel, A

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting in response an order of magnitude greater with Kin than Random. Thus, multilevel selection was effective in reducing detrimental social interactions, which contributed to improved weight gain. The observed rates of response did not differ significantly from expected, demonstrating that current theory is adequate to explain multilevel selection response. Based on estimated genetic parameters, group selection would always be superior to any other combination of multilevel selection. Further, near optimal results could be attained using multilevel selection if 20% of the weight was on the group component regardless of group composition. Thus, in nature the conditions for multilevel selection to be effective in bringing about social change maybe common. In terms of a sustainability of breeding programs, multilevel selection is easy to implement and is expected to give near optimal responses with reduced rates of inbreeding as compared to group selection, the only requirement is that animals be housed in kin groups. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Oviposition pattern of Japanese quail following hypothalamic lesioning with super-absorbent polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, M; Homma, K

    1988-12-01

    The functions of two hypothalamic areas in controlling the female reproductive cycle were investigated by the intracerebral injection of a new type of water-absorbent polymer of high capacity (super-absorbent polymer). After injection of a minute amount of the polymer into the brain tissue, bulging of the polymer produces a discrete lesion at the site of injection. Two lines (T- and J-lines) of Japanese quail were used; T-line, having a characteristic free-running oviposition pattern irrespective of the environmental 14L10D, and J-line, having a regular oviposition pattern which synchronized with 14L10D. Lesions at the preoptic area were without effect in birds of J-line, but the oviposition of T-line was changed from free-running to regular. Lesions at the posterodorsal part of the infundibular complex were without effect in T-line, but the regular oviposition pattern of J-line became free-running. These results suggest that relative dominancy between the two hypothalamic areas may determine basic pattern of oviposition through modification of the ovulation cycle.

  13. Cholinesterase activity in Japanese quail dusted with carbaryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were dusted with 5% carbaryl to determine if this topical treatment would alter plasma and brain cholinesterase activities. Within 6 hours after dusting, plasma cholinesterase activity was depressed compared with controls, the depression averaging 20% for females and 27% for males. By 24 hours the cholinesterase activity of females had returned to normal, but the cholinesterase activity of males remained depressed. Brain cholinesterase activity was not affected by the treatment, and there were no overt toxic signs.

  14. Synthetic pigments for Japanese quail fed diets with sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, A.M.A.; Melo, T.V.; Miranda, D.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Corn is the major energy ingredient in diets, and many ingredients have been tested aiming to replace it. In this regard, sorghum stands out for its chemical profile similar to that of corn. However, because it is low in carotenoids, its inclusion in diets reduces the egg yolk color pigmentation, which can be corrected by the addition of synthetic pigments. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and egg quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) supplemented with red (cantha...

  15. Production performance of quails given chromium organic in ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deden Sudrajat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg production of quails depends on quality of ration. Nutrient manipulation by chromiun inclusion in ration is a possible way to improve production. It is known that chromium mineral in form of GTF in blood has a role not only in enhancement of glucose entering cells through improvement of insulin activity but also in metabolism of lipid and synthesis of protein and elimination of heat stress to improve egg production. This study aimed at assessing egg production of quails fed ration containing chromium-yeast. Sixty-four quails aged 40 days were used. A completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replication was applied in this study. Treatment consisted of commercial ration + Cr 0 ppm (R1, commercial ration + Cr 0.5 ppm (R2, commercial ration + Cr 1 ppm (R3, and commercial ration+ Cr 1.5 ppm (R4. Measurements were taken on feed intake, egg weight, egg mass production, hen day, feed conversion rate, egg index, and egg shell thickness. Results showed that A ration containing organic chromium as much as 1,5 ppm did not affect feed intake, egg production, egg weight, and eggshell thickness, however lowered feed conversion rate by up to 32.25% from that of control. Supplementation of 0,5 ppm chromium in the ration lowered the value of eggs index in the fourth week.

  16. Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Cornil

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.

  17. Detection of Marek's disease virus DNA in Japanese quail susceptible to atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrzak, R.; Shih, J.C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) was demonstrated as an etiological agent which causes atherosclerosis in the chicken. Since herpes viruses are ubiquitous, incidences of viral atherogenesis in humans and other animals were speculated. In this laboratory, the atherosclerosis susceptible (SUS) and resistant (RES) Japanese quail were developed as the animal model for atherosclerosis research. The susceptibility of the animal might be due to an infection of MDV or a related quail herpes virus (QHV). An initial attempt to isolate viruses from quail and an agar gel precipitin test for MDC were not positive. A DNA hybridization technique was used to determine whether the MDC-DNA existed in the quail cell. The gene library of MDV EcoRl DNA fragments was used to prepare the DNA probe, labeled with [ 32 P] by nick translation. Dot hybridizations were carried out by mixing the MDV-DNA probe with DNAs isolated from quail tissues. A high stringent condition was used. From this experiment it was found that the tissues from the SUS quail were hybridization positive, but most of them from RES quail were negative. When aortas were compared, the severe atherosclerotic had a strong hybridization (3-4 cop. of genome/cell) whereas the others hybridized moderately (1 cop./cell). It was concluded that genes from MDV or a QHV indeed existed in Japanese quail

  18. Feeding and growth of Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) chicks with unpredictable food access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of unpredictable feeding times on feeding activity and body mass gain in fast growing Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) from 7 to 31 d of age. Quail chicks were subjected to a long day length (18L:6D) with ad libitum food during (1) 17.5 h of the light period, starting

  19. Predation on Japanese quail vs. house sparrow eggs in artificial nests: small eggs reveal small predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Maier; Richard M. DeGraaf

    2000-01-01

    Nest predation studies frequently use eggs such as Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) to identify potential predators of Neotropical migrants' eggs, but such eggs may be too large or thick-shelled to identify the full complement of potential predators. We compared predation events and predators of Japanese Quail and smaller House Sparrow (

  20. Detection of botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F activity using the quail embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently demonstrated an effective new model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A using quail embryos in place of the mouse model. These experiments demonstrated that the Japanese quail embryo at 15 days of incubation was an effective vertebrate animal model to detect the activity of botu...

  1. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  2. Influence of hydrocolloidal silver nanoparticles on gastrointestinal microflora and morphology of enterocytes of quails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Binek, Marian; Grodzik, Marta

    2007-01-01

    divided into four groups (15 quails each) and located into four cages for 12 days. Quails were fed with granulated diets given ad libitum and had free access to drinking water. Ag-nano were added to drinking water at concentrations of 0, 5, 15 and 25 mg/kg. At the end of the experiment, the animals were...

  3. Short- and long-term effects of unpredictable repeated negative stimuli on Japanese quail's fear of humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Laurence

    Full Text Available Numerous aversive events occur in poultry production, and if repeated and unpredictable, can result in an impaired welfare. Some events such as handling can be perceived negatively and it is of interest to understand how humans' behaviour could affect poultry's behaviours and especially its avoidance of humans. Our aim was to evaluate short- and long-lasting effects of a 3-week procedure involving unpredictable repeated negative stimuli (URNS applied during the post-juvenile period on quail's reactivity to humans. We compared the reactions of two sets of quail: URNS was applied to one set (treated quail and the other set was left undisturbed (control quail. When two weeks old, treated quail were exposed to a variety of negative stimuli, either applied automatically or involving human presence. One and seven weeks after the termination of the procedure, the reactivity of control and treated quail to a passive human being was evaluated. Furthermore, the experimenter with her hand on a trough containing a mealworm assessed the propensity of quail of both groups to habituate to feed close to a human being. In the presence of a seated observer, treated quail were more inhibited and more alert than control quail. Likewise, seven weeks after the end of the URNS procedure, more treated than control quail adopted a fear posture. Moreover, whereas control quail spent as much time in the different areas of their cages, treated quail spent more time in the rear part of their cages. Finally, whereas control quail habituated gradually to feed near the experimenter's hand, treated quail did not. All these tests evidence negative short- and long-term effects on treated quail's reactivity to a passive human being and on their habituation to a human being when her presence is positively reinforced. This highlights the importance of young poultry's experience with humans in production.

  4. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Unpredictable Repeated Negative Stimuli on Japanese Quail's Fear of Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Agathe; Lumineau, Sophie; Calandreau, Ludovic; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Boissy, Alain; Houdelier, Cécilia

    2014-01-01

    Numerous aversive events occur in poultry production, and if repeated and unpredictable, can result in an impaired welfare. Some events such as handling can be perceived negatively and it is of interest to understand how humans' behaviour could affect poultry's behaviours and especially its avoidance of humans. Our aim was to evaluate short- and long-lasting effects of a 3-week procedure involving unpredictable repeated negative stimuli (URNS) applied during the post-juvenile period on quail's reactivity to humans. We compared the reactions of two sets of quail: URNS was applied to one set (treated quail) and the other set was left undisturbed (control quail). When two weeks old, treated quail were exposed to a variety of negative stimuli, either applied automatically or involving human presence. One and seven weeks after the termination of the procedure, the reactivity of control and treated quail to a passive human being was evaluated. Furthermore, the experimenter with her hand on a trough containing a mealworm assessed the propensity of quail of both groups to habituate to feed close to a human being. In the presence of a seated observer, treated quail were more inhibited and more alert than control quail. Likewise, seven weeks after the end of the URNS procedure, more treated than control quail adopted a fear posture. Moreover, whereas control quail spent as much time in the different areas of their cages, treated quail spent more time in the rear part of their cages. Finally, whereas control quail habituated gradually to feed near the experimenter's hand, treated quail did not. All these tests evidence negative short- and long-term effects on treated quail's reactivity to a passive human being and on their habituation to a human being when her presence is positively reinforced. This highlights the importance of young poultry's experience with humans in production. PMID:24668017

  5. Níveis de cloro para codornas japonesas na fase de postura Chlorine levels for Japanese quails during the egg-laying period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Madeira Bezerra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de quatro níveis de cloro sobre o desempenho e a qualidade de ovos de codornas japonesas na fase de produção, 288 codornas com 17 semanas de idade foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos, oito repetições e seis aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de cloro avaliados foram 0,07; 0,12; 0,17; 0,22; 0,27 e 0,32% e os parâmetros de desempenho e qualidade dos ovos foram: consumos de ração e água, porcentagem de postura, peso e massa de ovos, conversão alimentar, umidade das excretas, coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CDMS, nitrogênio (CDN e energia bruta (CDEB, energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e aparente corrigida (EMAn, unidade Haugh, porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca. Os níveis de cloro não influenciaram significativamente nenhuma dessas variáveis, entretanto, a gravidade específica aumentou linearmente com o acréscimo de cloro na ração. Pode-se recomendar que rações para codornas japonesas na fase de produção sejam formuladas com níveis de cloro de até 0,32%.In order to evaluate the effects of chlorine levels on performance and egg quality of Japanese quails during the production phase, 288 quails with seventeen weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, eight replicates and six birds experimental unit. Chlorine levels were: 0.07, 0.12, 0.17, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.32%. Performance and egg quality parameters evaluated were: feed intake (g/bird/day, water consumption (mL/bird/day, production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion (g/g, moisture of excreta, digestibility of dry matter, coefficient of nitrogen, coefficient of gross energy, apparent metabolizable energy, corrected apparent metabolizable energy, Haugh unit, percentages of albumen, yolk and shell. Chlorine levels did not significantly influence any of those variables; however, the specific gravity

  6. Management reference for nature reserve networks based on MaxEnt modeling and gap analysis: a case study of the brown–eared pheasant in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Cui, B.; Qiu, X.; Ding, C.; Batool, I.

    2016-07-01

    Nature reserve designs and networks are important for wildlife and habitat conservation. Gap analyses are efficient and reliable tools for prioritizing habitat conservation efforts, especially when considering endangered species. We propose a conservation plan for the brown–eared pheasant, Crossoptilon mantchuricum, by identifying protection gap areas based on 14 existing nature reserves. A total of 45 locality sites and 11 environmental variables were selected according to the characteristics of habitat use of the brown–eared pheasant and applied to a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model to obtain the species distribution. The MaxEnt model results showed a high prediction accuracy. The gap analysis results revealed that the Luliang Mountains in Shanxi and the Xiaowutai Mountains in Hebei had protection gaps. We found 458 km2 of optimum habitat and 1,390 km2 of moderately suitable habitat within the national nature reserve range. However, almost 1,861 km2 of the optimum habitat and 17,035 km2 of the moderately suitable habitat were unprotected, equivalent to 9.0% and 82.1%, respectively, of the total suitable habitat. Most of the unprotected area comprised moderately suitable habitat for brown–eared pheasant and should be prioritized in future conservation efforts. There are nine nature reserves along a north–to–south range in the Luliang Mountains that form a wildlife habitat corridor. To maintain the integrity, originality, and continuity of these habitats and thus protect brown–eared pheasants, local conservation departments should be strengthened to improve provincial nature reserve management and successfully carry out conservation efforts. (Author)

  7. Management reference for nature reserve networks based on MaxEnt modeling and gap analysis: a case study of the brown–eared pheasant in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature reserve designs and networks are important for wildlife and habitat conservation. Gap analyses are efficient and reliable tools for prioritizing habitat conservation efforts, especially when considering endangered species. We propose a conservation plan for the brown–eared pheasant, Crossoptilon mantchuricum, by identifying protection gap areas based on 14 existing nature reserves. A total of 45 locality sites and 11 environmental variables were selected according to the characteristics of habitat use of the brown–eared pheasant and applied to a maximum entropy (MaxEnt model to obtain the species distribution. The MaxEnt model results showed a high prediction accuracy. The gap analysis results revealed that the Luliang Mountains in Shanxi and the Xiaowutai Mountains in Hebei had protection gaps. We found 458 km2 of optimum habitat and 1,390 km2 of moderately suitable habitat within the national nature reserve range. However, almost 1,861 km2 of the optimum habitat and 17,035 km2 of the moderately suitable habitat were unprotected, equivalent to 9.0% and 82.1%, respectively, of the total suitable habitat. Most of the unprotected area comprised moderately suitable habitat for brown–eared pheasant and should be prioritized in future conservation efforts. There are nine nature reserves along a north–to–south range in the Luliang Mountains that form a wildlife habitat corridor. To maintain the integrity, originality, and continuity of these habitats and thus protect brown–eared pheasants, local conservation departments should be strengthened to improve provincial nature reserve management and successfully carry out conservation efforts.

  8. Stimulation of Egg Production in Japanese Quails by Enriching Feed with Residual Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia Oprean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quail eggs are more and more approved for consumers because they bring many benefits to the human body. Therefore, quails breeding for eggs production have become a very profitable business. Residual yeast may be a nutritional supplement, especially rich in vitamins and proteins. This article studies the influence of residual beer yeast on egg laying in Japanese quails. In order to be integrated into the diet of quails the yeast has undergone a process of autolysis; its influence has been examined on separate groups. The results were reported as a percentage compared with the control group, where the feed does not contain this supplement. Due to its content rich in vitamins and proteins, the residual beer yeast used in feeding the quails bred for eggs stimulates egg laying.

  9. Amino acid sequence of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, John; Beckstead, Robert B; Payne, Jason; Singh, Rakesh K; Mohan, Anand

    2015-08-15

    Myoglobin has an important physiological role in vertebrates, and as the primary sarcoplasmic pigment in meat, influences quality perception and consumer acceptability. In this study, the amino acid sequences of Japanese quail and northern bobwhite myoglobin were deduced by cDNA cloning of the coding sequence from mRNA. Japanese quail myoglobin was isolated from quail cardiac muscles, purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel-filtration, and subjected to multiple enzymatic digestions. Mass spectrometry corroborated the deduced protein amino acid sequence at the protein level. Sequence analysis revealed both species' myoglobin structures consist of 153 amino acids, differing at only three positions. When compared with chicken myoglobin, Japanese quail showed 98% sequence identity, and northern bobwhite 97% sequence identity. The myoglobin in both quail species contained eight histidine residues instead of the nine present in chicken and turkey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of 4-nonylphenol in drinking water on the reproductive capacity of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Shan, Zhengjun; Zhou, Junying; Bu, Yuanqing; Li, Pengfu; Lu, Shan

    2017-05-01

    4-nonylphenol (4-NP), a major degradation product of Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), is widespread in environment. In this study, the effects of long-term 4-NP exposure in drinking water on Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) were investigated. A total of 45 quails were evenly divided into 15 groups and administrated with various doses (0.1 μg L -1 , 1.0 μg L -1 , 10 μg L -1 and 100 μg L -1 , which reflected the environmental concentrations of 4-NP) of 4-NP in drinking water. The results showed that 4-NP in drinking water had no effect on quails' food intake, but significantly decreased the quails' body weights (P water impaired the reproductive ability of Japanese quails, and led to pathological lesions in the male gonads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Variation in extinction risk among birds: chance or evolutionary predisposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P. M.; Owens, I. P. F.

    1997-01-01

    Collar et al. (1994) estimate that of the 9,672 extant species of bird, 1,111 are threatened by extinction. Here, we test whether these threatened species are simply a random sample of birds, or whether there is something about their biology that predisposes them to extinction. We ask three specific questions. First, is extinction risk randomly distributed among families? Second, which families, if any, contain more, or less, threatened species than would be expected by chance? Third, is variation between taxa in extinction risk associated with variation in either body size or fecundity? Extinction risk is not randomly distributed among families. The families which contain significantly more threatened species than expected are the parrots (Psittacidae), pheasants and allies (Phasianidae), albatrosses and allies (Procellariidae), rails (Rallidae), cranes (Gruidae), cracids (Cracidae), megapodes (Megapodidae) and pigeons (Columbidae). The only family which contains significantly fewer threatened species than expected is the woodpeckers (Picidae). Extinction risk is also not distributed randomly with respect to fecundity or body size. Once phylogeny has been controlled for, increases in extinction risk are independently associated with increases in body size and decreases in fecundity. We suggest that this is because low rates of fecundity, which evolved many tens of millions of years ago, predisposed certain lineages to extinction. Low-fecundity populations take longer to recover if they are reduced to small sizes and are, therefore, more likely to go extinct if an external force causes an increase in the rate of mortality, thereby perturbing the natural balance between fecundity and mortality.

  12. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  13. Evaluation of the effects of Middleton's stormwater-management activities on streamflow and water-quality characteristics of Pheasant Branch, Dane County, Wisconsin 1975-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Warren A.; Rose, William J.; Garn, Herbert S.

    2012-01-01

    Few long-term data sets are available for evaluating the effects of urban stormwater-management practices. Over 30 years of data are available for evaluating the effectiveness of such practices by the city of Middleton, Wis. Analysis of streamflow and water-quality data collected on Pheasant Branch, demonstrates the relation between the changes in the watershed to the structural and nonstructural best management practices put in place during 1975-2008. A comparison of the data from Pheasant Branch with streamflow and water-quality data (suspended sediment and total phosphorus) collected at other nearby streams was made to assist in the determination of the possible causes of the changes in Pheasant Branch. Based on 34 years of streamflow data collected at the Pheasant Branch at Middleton streamflow-gaging station, flood peak discharges increased 37 percent for the 2-year flood and 83 percent for the 100-year flood. A comparison of data for the same period from an adjacent rural stream, Black Earth at Black Earth had a 43 percent increase in the 2-year flood peak discharge and a 140-percent increase in the 100-year flood peak discharge. Because the flood peak discharges on Pheasant Branch have not increased as much as Black Earth Creek it appears that the stormwater management practices have been successful in mitigating the effects of urbanization. Generally urbanization results in increased flood peak discharges. The overall increase in flood peak discharges seen in both streams probably is the result of the substantial increase in precipitation during the study period. Average annual runoff in Pheasant Branch has also been increasing due to increasing average annual precipitation and urbanization. The stormwater-management practices in Middleton have been successful in decreasing the suspended-sediment and total phosphorus loads to Lake Mendota from the Pheasant Branch watershed. These loads decreased in spite of increased annual runoff and flood peaks, which are

  14. Exigência de lisina para codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica na fase de cria Lysine requirement for growing japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolpho Marlon Antoniol de Moura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 400 codornas fêmeas com peso médio de 7,3g + 0,3g no período de um a 42 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições com 20 aves por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em cinco níveis de lisina total na ração (0,90%; 1,05%; 1,20%; 1,35%; 1,50%. As características avaliadas foram: consumo de ração médio diário (g/ave/dia e acumulado (g/ave/período; peso médio das aves (g, ganho em massa corporal acumulado (g/ave/período, conversão alimentar (g de ração consumida/g de ganho de peso, mortalidade (%/período e uniformidade (%/período. Também foi descrita a curva de crescimento das codornas para cada nível de lisina total utilizado. Não foi verificado efeito significativo para nenhuma das características avaliadas (P>0,05. O nível de 0,90% de lisina total em rações com 20,70% de proteína bruta atendeu às exigências de codornas japonesas durante o período de crescimento, correspondendo a um consumo diário, por ave, de 96,9 mg de lisina total.In a study to establish total lysine requirement for growing japanese quails, 400 female quails 7.3 g + 0.3 g mean body weight were used from one to 42 days of age. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with five treatments and four replicates, with 20 birds per experimental unit. The treatments were five total lysine levels in the diet (0.90 %; 1.05%; 1.20%; 1.35% and 1.50%. The evaluated data were: daily feed intake (g/ bird/ day; total feed intake (g/ bird/ period; body weight (g/ bird; total body weight gain (g/ bird/ period; feed conversion rate (g of feed intake / g of weight gain; mortality (% / period and uniformity (% / period. The growing curve of the quails fed each total lysine level studied was also described. There was no statistical significant effect for all the evaluated data (P > 0.05. The level of 0.90% total lysine in 20.70% crude protein diet

  15. Energia metabolizável de ingredientes determinada com codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica Metabolizable energy of feedstuffs determined in japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2003-12-01

    with AMEn determined in growing (22 days of age and adult quails (65 days of age. In the experiment one, 400 growing quails were fed a basal diet (BD and nine test diets (70% BD + 30% feedstuffs test, with a total of ten diets with four replicates of ten birds each. In the experiment two, 160 European quails were randomized allotted to three treatments, with twelve replicates of five birds, and fed during three periods of fifteen days. The AME and AMEn values (kcal/kg for vegetal feedstuffs were: 3,340 and 3,354 for corn, 2,718 and 2,456 for soybean meal, 3,453 and 3,084 for integral soybean extruded, 1,624 and 1,593 for wheat bran, 4,558 and 3,992 for corn gluten meal, 3,329 and 3,378 for cassava flour and 1,238 and 1,223 to integral mesquite pods meal. The animal feedstuffs had 2,874 and 2,453 for fish meal and 3,090 and 2,791 for poultry meal. The AMEn of corn and soybean meal estimated for quail did not improve feed intake, egg production, egg weight and feed egg mass ratio, supporting the validity of use of energy those ingredients obtained with broiler and laying hens for formulated quail diets.

  16. Inclusão da camomila no desempenho, comportamento e estresse em codornas durante a fase de recria Chamomile inclusion on performance, behavior and stress in immature quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Henrique Marques

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da Matricaria chamomila sobre o estresse de codornas japonesas na fase de recria (28 a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizadas 192 codornas com 28 dias de idades, distribuídas em blocos casualizados e submetidas às dietas com 0, 250, 500 e 750mg de camomila/kg de ração, totalizando quatro tratamentos, com oito repetições e seis aves por parcela. Foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho (consumo diário de ração, conversão alimentar e ganho de peso, comportamentais (tempo em imobilidade tônica, ferimentos corporais e agressividade e fisiológicos (concentração plasmática de corticosterona e relação heterófilo:linfócito. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a camomila adicionada na dieta não foi capaz de alterar os parâmetros de desempenho, bem como os de comportamento e fisiológicos.The objective of this study was to test the effect of Matricaria chamomila on the stress of the Japanese quails in the rearing period. In the rearing phase, from 28 to 42 days old, 192 quails were lodged to cages and allotted to completely randomized blocks design, with four diets (0; 250; 500 and 750mg of chamomile/kg of ration, with eight replicates and six birds per cage. Performance (feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio, behavior (body injury, tonic immobility and focal observation and physiological parameters (corticosterone plasmatic and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were evaluated. The tested chamomile levels did not affect performance, behavior and physiological parameters of quails in the rearing phase.

  17. Supplementation of a Blend of Beneficial Bacteria and Antibodies on Growth Performance, Intestinal Mucosa Morphology and Right Heart Failure of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Mehraei Hamzekolaei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early nutrition of chicks with beneficial bacteria might help in occupying the inner surface of the intestinal tract. Interference of pathogens in intestinal microbiota is well known as barrier effect, bacterial interference, and competitive exclusion. Objectives: It was hypothesized that competitive exclusion in Japanese quails with a blend of beneficial bacteria (Aquablend Avian® probiotic would enhance quails’ growth performance and intestinal mucosal morphology. Furthermore, the study was performed at 2100 m above sea level at Shahrekord University, so another hypothesis was the capability of the probiotic for inhibiting right heart failure. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-six Japanese quails were divided into 4 groups: 2 groups (Aquablend and control at standard environmental temperature and 2 (Aqua-stress and Cont-stress at cold-hypoxic environmental situation. Aquablend groups received the probiotic in the first 3 days of life in drinking water (0.5 g/100 birds/day. Results: Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly reduced at the end of the experiment (day 35 in both Aquablend and aqua-stress groups compared to control and cont-stress groups, respectively (P 0.05. Cont-stress group had higher RV: TV ratio (0.28 and heterophil: lymphocyte (H: L ratio (1.22 than aqua-stress group: (0.25 and (1.20, respectively (P > 0.05. Data regarding to intestinal mucosa morphology was controversial but the probiotic was able to elevate duodenum villi surface (P < 0.05 and also jejunum and ileum lamina propria thickness. Conclusion: Obtained data suggests that addition of Aquablend Avian® probiotic in the first 3 days of life may improve growth performance and some intestinal mucosa characteristics of Japanese quails. Moreover, the probiotic might reduce right heart failure and stress induced by cold-hypoxic situation.

  18. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma-testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  19. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma–testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values.

  20. Immunohistochemistry of the cytoskeleton in the excurrent ducts of the testis in birds of the Galloanserae monophyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aire, T A; Ozegbe, P C

    2008-08-01

    The presence, location and degree of immunoexpression of various microfilament (MF) and intermediate filament (IF) systems (actin, cytokeratins, desmin, vimentin) were studied in the excurrent ducts of the testis in sexually mature and active galliform (Japanese quail, domestic fowl, turkey) and anseriform (duck) birds. These proteins were variably expressed between the epithelia and periductal tissue (periductal smooth muscle cell layer and interductal connective tissue) types and between species. Variable heterogeneous co-expression of filament systems was also found in the various duct epithelia and periductal tissue types: co-expression of filament systems was the rule rather than the exception. In the duck, neither vimentin nor cytokeratin was present in any of the tissues, whereas actin and desmin (absent in the rete testis) were co-expressed in the efferent ducts and epididymal duct unit (comprising the ductus conjugens, ductus epididymidis and ductus deferens). Actin, desmin and vimentin were generally co-expressed in the rete testis, efferent ducts and epididymal duct unit of the quail, domestic fowl and turkey, with vimentin being more strongly immunoreactive than actin and desmin in the epididymal duct unit, but more weakly immunoexpressed in the efferent ducts. Cytokeratin was present and co-expressed with actin, desmin and vimentin in the rete testis, efferent ducts and epididymal duct unit of the domestic fowl and turkey, but not in the quail and duck. The periductal smooth muscle cell layer and interductal tissue co-expressed actin, desmin and vimentin variably in all birds. Luminal spermatozoa of both the turkey and duck were immunonegative for all protein systems, whereas those of the quail and domestic fowl co-expressed actin, desmin and vimentin moderately or strongly. The tissues of the reproductive tract of male birds thus contain cytoskeletal protein systems that are variably but mostly co-expressed and whose contractile ability appears

  1. Studies for Improving Productive Efficiency and Immune System Response of Aged Female Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabek, E.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed in animal house Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas. The objective of this study was to overcome decrease productive efficiency and immune system response as a result of advanced of female Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix japonica) and multiple the production period of females studying the effect of three methods of force rest and their effect on physiological and endocrinological changes associated with each of procedure used. Three hundred birds were used, 240 female and 120 males (50 weeks of age). Females were at 44% hen day (HD) egg production. The birds randomly divided into four groups, 60 females and 30 males in each treatment which divided into three replicate of 20 females and 10 males in each. The first group was fed a layer diet, plus 2% zinc oxide (20,000 ppm) for 14 days. The second group was fed a commercial layer diet containing 8 mg / birds / day tamoxifen for 14 days. The third group was force molted by the California method (fed withdrawal by removing the diet 10 days then feed for 7 days corn). The fourth group fed the layer diet and served as the control. The results obtained showed significant increase in body weight, egg production, egg weight, shell weight, hatchability percent, fertility percent, embryonic mortality percent, hatching weight percent mortality percent, carcass relative weight, kidney relative weight, intestine relative weight, intestine length, proventriculus relative weight, ovary relative weight, oviduct relative weight, oviduct length, femur breaking strength, tibia breaking strength, packed cell volume, globulin, phosphorus concentration, triglyceride, estrogen hormone, aldosterone hormone and significant decrease in heart relative weight, albumin to globulin ratio, GOT, testosterone hormone, T 3 , T 4 , Heamaglutination inhibition test in treated groups than control group. While gizzard relative weight, femur relative weight, tibia relative weight, femur ash, tibia

  2. Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition between Female and Male Japanese Quail Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Gecgel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the proximate analysis, fatty acids composition, omega fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFAs, and ratio of the total poly unsaturated fatty acid (ΣPUFA and total saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA of female and male quail meats. Significant differences were not observed between pH, crude fat, moisture, and ash content of female and male quail meats (p>0.05. The male quail meat had higher fat and ash contents and lower moisture content than those of the female quail meat. The pHs of male and female quail meat were found to be 6.22 and 6.21, respectively. The results of the fatty acid composition analysis showed that C18:1 (42.14–41.23%, C16:0 (24.31–25.76%, C18:2 (13.82–13.42%, and C18:0 (7.49–7.32% were found as the major fatty acids in the female and male quail meats. Total TFAs, ΣSFA, monounsaturated fatty acids (ΣMUFA, and ΣPUFA content of the female and male quail meats were found to be 2.79–2.82%, 33.22–34.65%, 49.70–48.72%, and 14.29–13.81%, respectively.

  3. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  4. PRODUCTIVE AND EGG QUALITY TRAITS OF LAYING QUAIL SUBMITTED TO FORCED MOLTING ASPECTOS PRODUTIVOS E QUALIDADE DE OVOS DE CODORNAS JAPONESAS SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES MÉTODOS DE MUDA FORÇADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claúdio Cabral Campello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed to verify egg production of Japanese quails submitted to induced molt by zinc oxide method (MZ and fasting (MC. A total number of 160 Japanese quails with 48 weeks of age were evaluated for post-molt egg production, percentage of egg contents and the viability rate of eggs for 12 weeks. According to the applied methods (fasting or zinc oxide, the birds were submitted to different body weight losses (BWL: 25 or 35%. The quails were separated into different treatment groups, according to their body weight loss during molt: Control group (unmolted quails, MC (induced by MC with 35% of BWL; MZ25 (induced by MZ with 25% of BWL; MZ35 (induced by MZ with 35% of BWL. Each treatment has 8 replicates with five birds each. The quails were evaluated for egg-laying production, egg weight, yolk and shell weight and their ratio. Between the second and fourth weeks of egg laying production, the MZ25 group had the best egg laying performance. There wasn’t significant improvements for egg characteristics and feed conversion of molted quails compared to the ones of control group. The forced molt by zinc oxide was able just to improve, numerically, egg production during the first weeks when the quails were submitted to a 25% body weight loss.

    KEY WORDS: Coturnix japonica, eggs, fasting, forced molting, quail, zinc oxide.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de observar o desempenho produtivo obtido por codornas induzidas à muda pelo método alternativo do óxido de zinco (MZ e método convencional ou do jejum (MC. Foram utilizadas 160 codornas japonesas, com 48 semanas de idade, para avaliação do desempenho, do percentual dos constituintes dos ovos, bem como da taxa de ovos viáveis, durante doze semanas. De acordo com o método utilizado, a fome forçada ou a anorexia parcial provocou perda de peso corporal (PPC nas aves, sendo formados os seguintes grupos: Controle (codornas não tratadas; MC (indução pelo MC com

  5. Genetic selection increases parthenogenesis in Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; Wells, J B; Young, K M; Rowe, D; McDaniel, C D

    2010-07-01

    Parthenogenesis, embryonic development of an unfertilized egg, occurs naturally in turkey, chicken, and quail species. In fact, parthenogenesis in turkeys and chickens can be increased by genetic selection. However, it is unknown if genetic selection for parthenogenesis is effective in quail or if selection for parthenogenesis affects egg production. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if the incidence of parthenogenesis in quail could be increased by genetic selection and if selection for this trait affects egg production. To prevent fertilization, 1,090 females were caged separately from males at 4 wk of age and then caged individually at 6 wk of age to monitor egg production. Eggs were collected daily, labeled, and stored for 0 to 3 d. After 10 d of incubation, 20 unfertilized eggs from each hen were examined for the occurrence of parthenogenesis and embryonic growth. In the parent (P) generation and subsequent generations (1 to 4), hens laying eggs containing parthenogenetic development and males whose sisters or mothers exhibited parthenogenesis were used for breeding. There was a linear increase in the percentage of hens exhibiting parthenogenesis as generation of selection increased. With each successive generation, there was a quadratic response in the percentage of eggs positive for parthenogenesis. When compared with the P generation, parthenogenesis was almost 3 times greater for eggs laid by the fourth generation (4.6 to 12.5%, respectively). Even when only hens exhibiting parthenogenesis were examined, the percentage of eggs demonstrating embryonic development responded quadratically with generation of selection. The embryonic size at 10 d of incubation was greater for each subsequent generation when compared with the P generation. There was a linear decrease in both egg production and the average position of an egg in a clutch as generation of selection increased. In conclusion, genetic selection for parthenogenesis increased the

  6. Quality of quail eggs at different times of storage

    OpenAIRE

    Nepomuceno, Rafael Carlos; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique; Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; Cruz, Carlos Eduardo Braga; Peixoto, Maria Simone Mendes; Sousa, Mayara Lemos de

    2014-01-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate quality of quail eggs from two companies (A and B) at two storage times (5 and 15 days after packing). A total of 480 eggs were kept at room temperature and distributed in a completely randomized design in 2x2factorial arrangement (companies and storage time). The results indicated that trays from company B presented higher weight, as well as mean egg weight. However, the eggs in trays from company A showed greater uniformity. Evaluating the external quality,...

  7. Evaluation of demonstration technologies: Quail creek water supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The U.S. EPA is currently demonstrating central and household treatment units at several sites in the U.S. The Quail Creek System near Spicewood, Texas is one of these sites where the technology demonstration program is scheduled to be completed soon as part of the EPA's Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water demonstration initiative. The report provides a summary of the small system demonstration project and presents an evaluation of the information collected during the operation, and by the EPA in September 1992

  8. Conservation of Migration and Differentiation Circuits in Primordial Germ Cells Between Avian Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARK, Tae Sub; HAN, Jae Yong

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Germ cell differentiation in reverse-sexed reproductive organs and interspecies germ line chimeras provides insight into the mechanism of germ cell development and represents a useful tool for conservation of endangered birds. We investigated the migration and survival capacity of male chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) in female chicken embryos and in quail and Korean ring-necked pheasant embryos of both sexes. Interestingly, the PGCs were successfully reintroduced in all cases. Furthermore, the cells survived in the recipient gonads until hatching regardless of sex and species of the recipient. In the case of male recipient chickens, PGC-derived offspring were produced. However, the reverse-sexed female chickens, quails and pheasants of both sexes did not generate any male donor PGC-derived progeny. These results suggest that migration and survival circuits in chicken PGCs are conserved in both sexes and between avian species during embryonic development. PMID:23386102

  9. Mass spectrometric identification and quantification of 5-methoxytryptophol in quail retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.W.; Chan, S.F.; Lee, P.P.; Pang, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of 5-methoxytryptophol (5-MTL) in the quail retina was investigated by capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/selected ion monitoring using a deuterated internal standard. Based on ion intensity ratios in the mass spectra of pentafluoropropionyl and heptafluorobutyryl derivatives of 5-MTL and deuterated 5-MTL, 5-MTL was unequivocally identified in the quail retina. Similar to the circadian rhythm of retinal melatonin, retinal 5-MTL also exhibited a diurnal variation with high levels at mid-dark. However, no significant correlation between the diurnal levels of 5-MTL and melatonin was observed in the quail retina at mid-light or mid-dark

  10. Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition between Female and Male Japanese Quail Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Gecgel, Umit; Yilmaz, Ismail; Gurcan, Eser Kemal; Karasu, Salih; Dulger, Gizem Cagla

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the proximate analysis, fatty acids composition, omega fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFAs), and ratio of the total poly unsaturated fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and total saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) of female and male quail meats. Significant differences were not observed between pH, crude fat, moisture, and ash content of female and male quail meats (p>0.05). The male quail meat had higher fat and ash contents and lower moisture content than those of...

  11. Effects on circulating steroid hormones and gene expression along the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis in adult Japanese quail exposed to 17β-trenbolone across multiple generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula F.; Maddox, Catherine M.; Sprague, Dan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17β-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured. In males, testosterone levels did not differ in any generation from those in controls. Estradiol was significantly elevated in 17βTB treated F0 and F1 males. In F0 and F1 females, testosterone was suppressed by 17βTB, whereas estradiol was significantly higher at 40 ppm in F0 and at 10 ppm in F1 females. CYP19A1 expression in F1 males and females increased suggesting a compensatory response to the androgenic effects of 17βTB. Few significant effects were observed in the F2 birds indicating that in ovo exposure had limited effects on the monitored endpoints. Overall, our results confirmed endocrine disrupting effects of dietary 17βTB in Japanese quail but the response was dependent on sex, developmental stage at initiation of exposure, and dose.

  12. The Effects of Silymarin on Oxidative Status and Bone Characteristics in Japanese Quail Subjected to Oxidative Stress Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Silymarin on oxidative status, bone characteristics, and some blood parameters in Japanese quail subjected to oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4. The experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with four replicates, each with 30 birds, using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two doses of Silymarin (0 and 1 mL/kg BW and CCl4 (0 and 1 mL/kg BW. Results revealed that the interaction between Silymarin and CCl4on concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, albumin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were significant (P < 0.05. In contrast, concentrations of phosphorus, total protein, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in blood serum did not differ between experimental treatments. Experimental treatments had a significant effect on superoxide dismutase activity in blood serum (P < 0.05, but not on glutathione peroxide activity and malondialdehyde concentration. Experimental treatments significantly affected the weight, thickness, and external and internal diameters of tibia bone (P < 0.05, but not its length, ash, volume, and density. This study shows that Silymarin has potential to attenuate adverse effects of oxidative stress induced by CCl4 in Japanese quail.

  13. Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail ( at Low Ambient Temperature

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    N. Shit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body’s homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks were equally divided into three groups (20/group based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1 obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05 in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01 to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail.

  14. Efeito da ingestão de fumonisina B1 no peso corporal e na histopatologia de codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica Effect of fumonisin B1 on body weight and histopathology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Fernandes Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar o efeito da fumonisina B1 (FB1 sobre o peso corpóreo e as vísceras (fígado, rim e coração de codorna poedeira japonesa (Coturnix coturnix japonica, devido ao escasso dado toxicológico nesta espécie. Quatro grupos, sendo cada um constituído de 32 codornas de linhagem comercial, receberam ração contendo FB1 nas concentrações de 0 (controle, 10, 50 e 250mg kg-1, durante 28 dias. Observou-se uma redução (P0,05, porém as aves do grupo 50 e 250mg kg-1 apresentaram aumento no peso relativo de fígado (PThis research was aimed at evaluating the effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1 on body weight and viscera (liver, kidney and heart of laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, due to the little toxicological data on this species. Four experimental groups of 32 commercial quails were designed and exposed to ingestion test with feed containing 0 (controls, 10, 50 or 250mg FB1 kg-1 feed, during 28 days. Birds of group 250mg FB1 kg-1 showed lower body weight (P0.05 among treatments. However, the relative weight of liver increased (P<0.05 in quail of groups received 50 and 250mg FB1/kg. Histological changes were observed only in the liver of groups receiving 50 and 250mgFB1 kg-1, which caused moderate biliary duct hyperplasia and multiple foci of hepatic necrosis. The data indicated that AFB1 at levels above 50mg kg-1 in laying Japanese quail.

  15. Torn Paper Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson for third-grade students that begins with an examination of bird prints done by John James Audubon and moves into the students creating their own torn paper birds. Introduces the students to the beauty of birds and focuses on the environmental issues that face birds and their habitats. (CMK)

  16. Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eGarcia-Calero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs, segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+ MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird: the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order. We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail, but also between close vocal learner bird families.

  17. THE IMPACT OF THE BioR REMEDY ON THE MARKER INDICES OF ENDOTOXICOSIS AND HISTIDINE-DIPEPTIDES IN BLOOD SERUM IN QUAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana MACARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was the study of the marker indices of endotoxicosis and histidine - dipeptides dynamics in the blood serum of quails treated with the BioR remedy. The study involved five groups of quails, in the process of reconditioning, (one control group and 4 experimental groups, 40 birds each group. BioR was administered twice: in different doses (0,5-1,5 ml/head of 0,05% BioR sol., while the control group received saline. The BioR remedy is well tolerated by adult quails, reduces the necrotic substances level, the average molecular weight substances levels, and induces a truthful histidine - dipeptides level increase, which explains the reduction of the catabolic processes and anabolism enhancement in quails.IMPACTUL REMEDIULUI BioR ASUPRA INDICILOR MARKERI AI ENDOTOXICOZEI ŞI DIPEPTIDELOR HISTIDINICE ÎN SERUL SANGUIN LA PREPELIŢENe-am propus ca scop să urmărim manifestările indicilor markeri ai endotoxicozei şi ai dipeptidelor histidinice în serul sanguin la prepeliţele tratate cu remediul BioR. Studiul a inclus 5 loturi de prepeliţe, puse la recondiţionare (1 lot martor şi 4 loturi experimentale, a câte 40 păsări. BioR-ul a fost administrat de 2 ori: în doze diferite (0,5-1,5 ml/cap sol. 0,05% BioR, în timp ce la lotul martor s-a administrat ser fiziologic. Remediul BioR este bine tolerat de prepeliţele adulte, reduce nivelul substanţelor necrotice, al substanţelor cu masă moleculară medie şi induce o creştere veridică a dipeptidelor histidinice, fapt ce demonstrează reducerea proceselor catabolice şi intensificarea anabolismului în organismul prepeliţelor.

  18. Insights into thermal stress in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix): dynamics of immunoendocrine and biochemical responses during and after chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Franco Nicolas; Videla, Emiliano Ariel; Fernandez, Maria Emilia; Labaque, Maria Carla; Marin, Raul Hector

    2018-05-01

    Avian require comfortable temperatures for optimal development and heat stress is a high concern in warm weather countries. We aimed to assess the dynamics of immunoendocrine and biochemical variables responses of birds exposed to a heat stressor applied during daylight hours, during the chronic stress and the recovery periods. We hypothesize that variables involved in the birds response will be differentially and gradually modified during those periods. Female quail (n = 210) were housed in six rearing boxes. At 29 days of age, the temperature in three boxes was increased from 24 to 34 °C during the light period throughout the nine days (Stress Treatment). The other three boxes remained at 24 °C and were used as controls. The subsequent 12 days were considered as recovery period. Different sets of 12 birds/treatment were blood-sampled at 29 (basal), 32, 35, 38 (stress), 41, 44, 47, and 50 (recovery) days of age, respectively. Immunoendocrine (corticosterone, lymphoproliferation, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L), and antibody response) and biochemical (glucose, total proteins, globulins, and albumin) variables were assessed. During stress, progressive corticosterone and H/L increments, and antibody titers and lymphoproliferation decreases were detected. No clear pattern of changes was found in biochemical variables. During recovery, while corticosterone and lymphoproliferation had recovered three days after the stressor ended, H/L and antibody responses required respectively nine and 12 days to recover to their basal levels, respectively. Findings suggest that immunity is already threatened when heat stress is sustained for three or more days. However, the system appears resilient, needing six to 12 days to recover to their basal responses.

  19. Effects of Microgravity on Embryonic Quail Eye Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Wells, Diane C.; Paulsen, Avelina Q.; Conrad, Gary W.

    1997-01-01

    Immunohistochemical methods were used to stain neurofilament protein in corneal nerves of Embryonic Day 16 (E16) quail eyes that had been fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at room temperature for several months. Fixation was according to the methods used by the Mir 21/NASA 2 Avian Developmental Biology Flight Experiments for quail embryos incubated on the Mir Space Station. After fixation, corneas were pretreated to improve immunohistochemical visualization of neurofilaments. A sequential combination of three pretreatments [microwave heating in saline G, followed by extraction with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 37 C, followed by digestion with hyaluronidase at 37 C], produced increased antibody staining of corneal nerve neurofilament proteins, compared with corneas subjected to no prior pretreatments. Darker nerve staining and increased numbers of fine branches were observed, together with lower background staining after such pretreatments. In contrast, use of any single pretreatment or pair of pretreatments resulted in only slight and inconsistent enhancement of nerve staining. Only the sequential combination of all three pretreatments resulted in consistently better nerve staining.

  20. [Characteristics of morphogenesis of the Japanese quail embryos during microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadasheva, O. A.; Gur'eva, T. S.; Sychev, V. N.; Jehns, G.; Jahns, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Experiments performed in the period of 1995-1996 cooperatively with US investigators within the MIR/SHUTTLE and MIR/NASA space science projects continued exploration of avian embryogenesis in microgravity. Evaluation of Japanese quail embryos incubated in spaceflight microgravity showed that for the most part they were normally developed and compliant with duration of incubation. One of the major morphometric characteristics of embryo are its mass and size. Comparative analysis of body mass values in the space and laboratory and synchronous control groups pointed to a slight retardation. Body length of space embryos mimicked their mass curve. Data on the dynamics of mass and length of Japanese quail embryos support the well-known theory according to which growth and formation are distinguished by equifinality. No differences were revealed by the investigations of individual parts of embryonic bodies in the space and control groups. However, this finding was true only with regard to the embryos that had no developmental abnormalities. A part of embryos had defective eyes (microphtalmia), limbs (twisted fingers), and beaks.

  1. Angiogenic Effect of Leptin in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Výboh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, the product of ob gene, beside its key role in the control of body weight and food consumption, can be involved in the control of embryonic development. Leptin administration in ovo accelerated the embryonic and post-embryonic development in Japanese quail. Although the mechanisms of leptin effects on growth and development acceleration are not clear, stimulation of angiogenesis represents one of plausible explanations. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the pro-angiogenic effect of leptin in vivo in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM. The recombinant murine leptin (10, 100, and 1000 ng was applied either ex ovo on the CAM surface of ex ovo incubated embryos at embryonic day 7 (ED7 or in ovo into the egg albumen at ED5. Changes in blood vessels were quantified by the fractal analysis providing the fractal dimension (Df estimate. Leptin administered in ovo was more efficient in stimulation of angiogenesis than the ex ovo treatment, since 10 ng dose elicited significantly higher (P ex ovo cultivation. Our study confirmed that exogenously applied leptin was able to stimulate angiogenesis in CAM. Leptin-mediated stimulation of angiogenesis may improve nutrient utilization from the yolk and explain at least partially the accelerating effect of leptin on avian embryo growth and development.

  2. Osteoclast cell-surface specializations and nuclear kinetics during egg-laying in Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    Medullary bone deposits serve as a reservoir of labile calcium for egg-shell calcification in birds. Quantitative transmission-electron-microscope methods and light-microscope autoradiographic cell-population-kinetic analyses were used to determine changes in cell-surface specializations and population dynamics of medullary bone osteoclasts during egg-laying in Japanese quail. Prior to egg-shell formation, from 0 to about 8 hours after the previous oviposition, very few osteoclast profiles had ruffled borders. The appearance of ruffled borders coincided with the beginning of egg-shell calcification, about 9-10 hours after the previous oviposition. During egg-shell calcification, about 10-21 hours after the previous oviposition, most osteoclast profiles had ruffled borders. Ruffled borders disappeared at the completion of egg-shell calcification and commencement of egg-shell pigmentation. Thus, functional activities of medullary bone osteoclasts appear to be closely synchronized with egg-shell calcification during egg-laying. From 1 to 48 hours after a single injection of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR), very few labeled osteoclast nuclei were seen during egg-laying. Following multiple injections of 3H-TdR, the percentage of labeled nuclei reached a peak at about 170 hours after the first injection. At this peak-labeling time, relatively few of the osteoclast profiles that had labeled nuclei had two or more; although the average number of nuclei per osteoclast profile was about 3.6. These kinetic data suggest that the medullary bone osteoclast population has a prolonged rate of turnover compared to rapid changes in cell activities associated with each 24-hour egg-laying cycle; and collectively they would suggest that rapid changes in osteoclast functions occur independently of changes in cell-population dynamics

  3. Evidence of Phenotypic and Genetic Relationships between Sociality, Emotional Reactivity and Production Traits in Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recoquillay, Julien; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic; Bertin, Aline; Pitel, Frédérique; Gourichon, David; Vignal, Alain; Beaumont, Catherine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Arnould, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    The social behavior of animals, which is partially controlled by genetics, is one of the factors involved in their adaptation to large breeding groups. To understand better the relationships between different social behaviors, fear behaviors and production traits, we analyzed the phenotypic and genetic correlations of these traits in Japanese quail by a second generation crossing of two lines divergently selected for their social reinstatement behavior. Analyses of results for 900 individuals showed that the phenotypic correlations between behavioral traits were low with the exception of significant correlations between sexual behavior and aggressive pecks both at phenotypic (0.51) and genetic (0.90) levels. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between emotional reactivity toward a novel object and sexual (0.89) or aggressive (0.63) behaviors. The other genetic correlations were observed mainly between behavioral and production traits. Thus, the level of emotional reactivity, estimated by the duration of tonic immobility, was positively correlated with weight at 17 and 65 days of age (0.76 and 0.79, respectively) and with delayed egg laying onset (0.74). In contrast, a higher level of social reinstatement behavior was associated with an earlier egg laying onset (-0.71). In addition, a strong sexual motivation was correlated with an earlier laying onset (-0.68) and a higher number of eggs laid (0.82). A low level of emotional reactivity toward a novel object and also a higher aggressive behavior were genetically correlated with a higher number of eggs laid (0.61 and 0.58, respectively). These results bring new insights into the complex determinism of social and emotional reactivity behaviors in birds and their relationships with production traits. Furthermore, they highlight the need to combine animal welfare and production traits in selection programs by taking into account traits of sociability and emotional reactivity. PMID:24324761

  4. Exigências nutricionais de cálcio e fósforo de codornas de corte em crescimento Calcium and phosphorus requirements of finishing meat quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Martins da Silva

    2009-08-01

    .22, 0.32, 0.42 and 0.52%, totaling 25 treatments, with two replications of 25 birds per experimental unit. The different calcium levels did not affect bird performance. Body weight, weight gain and optic density were influenced in a quadratic form by phosphorus levels and the phosphorus requirement was estimated at 0.41%. The levels of 0.65% calcium and 0.41% phosphorus in diet were enough to meet the requirement of initial phase meat quail. In the second experiment (15-35 days of age, 1,500 meat quails were placed in a 5 × 5 factorial arrangement (calcium levels = 0.61, 0.71, 0.81, 0.91 and 1.01% × phosphorus levels = 0.29, 0.34, 0.39, 0.44 and 0.49%, totaling 25 treatments, with two replications of 30 birds per experimental unit. Differences were not observed of the calcium and phosphorus levels on bird performance. Optic density was influenced in a quadratic form by phosphorus levels and the phosphorus requirement was estimated at 0.41%. In the third experiment, to assess the calcium and phosphorus balance (28-35 days of age, a linear effect was observed on the calcium intake and excretion with the increase in the calcium levels in the diets. The levels of 0.61% calcium and 0.41% phosphorus in the diet were enough to meet the requirement of finishing meat quail. The calcium levels did not affect bird performance at 1-14 and 15-35 days of age, showing, respectively, 0.65 and 0.61% calcium levels were enough to meet the of meat quail requirement. The estimate of 0.41% phosphorus promoted performance of finishing meat quail.

  5. Parental sex effect of parthenogenesis on hatchability and sperm-egg penetration in mated Chinese Painted quail (Coturnix chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, H M; Ramachandran, R; Nascimento Dos Santos, M; Kawaoku, A J; Wade, C R; Lott, K D; McDaniel, C D

    2017-04-01

    Selecting quail for an increased incidence of parthenogenesis also impacts egg weight and albumen pH as well as reduces hatchability and fertility due to decreased sperm-egg penetration (SEP). However, it is unknown which parental sex is responsible for these changes in quail selected for parthenogenesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine which sex influences egg weight, albumen pH, hatchability, and SEP in birds selected for parthenogenesis. In this study, 2 lines of birds were used: 1 line that was selected for parthenogenesis and 1 line not selected for parthenogenesis (control). Treatments were as follows: control females w/control males, control females w/parthenogenetic line males, parthenogenetic line females w/control males, and parthenogenetic line females w/parthenogenetic line males. Fresh eggs were collected daily, labeled and analyzed for albumen pH and SEP or incubated at 37.5 °C for 20 d of incubation. Eggs were candled at 10 days of incubation (DOI) and eggs exhibiting little or no embryonic development were removed and broken open to determine hatching failure. This was repeated at 20 DOI for eggs that did not hatch. A dam main effect for egg set weight existed with parthenogenetic line dams exhibiting heavier eggs than control dams. The parthenogenetic line dams and sires exhibited lower albumen pH and hatch but a higher incidence of parthenogenesis than control line dams or sires. However, only a sire main effect existed for fertility and SEP. Sires from the parthenogenetic line yielded the highest infertility due to lower SEP. In conclusion, both the parthenogenetic line dams and sires contribute to reduced reproductive performance. However, it appears that the sire from the parthenogenetic line is responsible for lower fertility due to a reduction in SEP. Because the sire has a negative impact on overall fertility, it is possible that males selected for parthenogenesis have poorer semen quality resulting in fewer sperm

  6. Comparison of Muscle Fiber and Meat Quality Characteristics in Different Japanese Quail Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance, fiber characteristics of the pectoralis major muscle, and meat quality characteristics in the heavy weight (HW and random bred control (RBC quail lines and genders. The HW male exhibited more than two times greater body (245.7 vs 96.1 g, p0.05 and cooking loss (21.9% vs 20.4%, p>0.05 between the HW and RBC lines. Therefore, the HW quail line developed by selection from the RBC quail, was slightly different in the meat quality characteristics compared to the RBC line, and a marked difference was found in growth performance between the two quail lines.

  7. Detoxification and oxidative stress responses along with microcystins accumulation in Japanese quail exposed to cyanobacterial biomass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pašková, Veronika; Adamovský, Ondřej; Pikula, J.; Skočovská, B.; Bandouchová, H.; Horáková, J.; Babica, Pavel; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Hilscherová, Klára

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 398, 1-3 (2008), s. 34-47 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanobacteria * detoxification * quails Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2008

  8. Strain differences in intermale aggression and possible factors regulating increased aggression in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Nagino, Koki; Yang, Jiaxin; Htike, Nang T T; Tsukahara, Shinji; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kawashima, Takaharu

    2018-01-15

    The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan established a strain of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) known as NIES-L by rotation breeding in a closed colony for over 35years; accordingly, the strain has highly inbred-like characteristics. Another strain called NIES-Brn has been maintained by randomized breeding in a closed colony to produce outbred-like characteristics. The current study aimed to characterize intermale aggressive behaviors in both strains and to identify possible factors regulating higher aggression in the hypothalamus, such as sex hormone and neuropeptide expression. Both strains displayed a common set of intermale aggressive behaviors that included pecking, grabbing, mounting, and cloacal contact behavior, although NIES-Brn quail showed significantly more grabbing, mounting, and cloacal contact behavior than did NIES-L quail. We examined sex hormone levels in the blood and diencephalon in both strains. Testosterone concentrations were significantly higher in the blood and diencephalon of NIES-Brn quail compared to NIES-L quail. We next examined gene expression in the hypothalamus of both strains using an Agilent gene expression microarray and real-time RT-PCR and found that gene expression of mesotocin (an oxytocin homologue) was significantly higher in the hypothalamus of NIES-Brn quail compared to NIES-L quail. Immunohistochemistry of the hypothalamus revealed that numbers of large cells (cell area>500μm 2 ) expressing mesotocin were significantly higher in the NIES-Brn strain compared to the NIES-L strain. Taken together, our findings suggest that higher testosterone and mesotocin levels in the hypothalamus may be responsible for higher aggression in the NIES-Brn quail strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced mortality among young endangered masked bobwhite quail fed oxytetracycline-supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of oxytetracycline-supplemented diets on mortality of young endangered masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Inclusion of oxytetracycline at 200 g per ton in the feed for 6 weeks resulted in a marked, significant reduction in mortality of young masked bobwhite quail raised in captivity. Including the antibiotic in feed during the first week of life reduced mortality as effectively as feeding it for a longer period.

  10. A Morphological Investigation of the Postnatal Development of the Syrinx in the Quail

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAM, Güner

    2014-01-01

    The morphological and structural development of the syrinx was studied with a light microscope in 100 female and male Japanese quails from 1 to 60 days old and adults. The quails had a tracheobronchial syrinx since it was based on both tracheal and bronchial elements. Two tracheal syringeal cartilages were attached at both ends to the pessulus in the tympanum. In this species the tympanum had a slightly increased diameter. The pessulus was a wedge-shaped cartilage, its blade lying dorsoven...

  11. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of eight avian influenza A viruses of H5 subtype for chickens, turkeys, ducks and quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D J; Parsons, G; Manvell, R J

    1986-01-01

    Clinical signs, death, virus excretion and immune response were measured in 2-week-old chickens, turkeys, quail and ducks infected by intramuscular, intranasal and contact routes with eight influenza viruses of H5 subtype. Six of the viruses: A/chicken/Scotland/59 (H5N1), ck/Scot; A/tern/South Africa/61 (H5N3), tern/SA; A/turkey/Ontario/ 7732/66 (H5N9); ty/Ont; A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 (H5N2); Pa/1370; A/turkey/Ireland/83 (H5N8); ty/Ireland, and A/duck/Ireland/ 113/84 (HSN8); dk/Ireland, were highly pathogenic for chickens and turkeys. Two viruses, A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1/83 (H5N2), Pa/1 and A/turkey/Italy/ZA/80 (H5N2), ty/Italy, were of low pathogenicity. Ck/Scot was more pathogenic for chickens than turkeys while ty/Ont was more pathogenic for turkeys than chickens. Other viruses showed little difference in their pathogenicity for these two hosts. No clinical signs or deaths were seen in any of the infected ducks. Only two viruses, dk/Ireland and ty/Ireland, produced consistent serological responses in ducks, although intramuscular infection with tern/SA and ty/Italy resulted in some ducks with positive HI titres. These four were the only viruses reisolated from ducks. Quail showed some resistance to viruses which were highly pathogenic for chickens and turkeys, most notably to ck/Scot and ty/Ont and to a lesser extent tern/SA and Pa/1370. Transmission of virus from intranasally infected birds to birds placed in contact varied considerably with both host and infecting virus and the various combinations of these.

  12. Isolation, Characterization, and In Vitro Culturing of Spermatogonial Stem Cells in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, Ravindran Kumar; Lee, Bo Ram; Kim, Young Min; Lee, Hong Jo; Park, Young Hyun; Ono, Tamao; Lim, Jeong Mook; Han, Jae Yong

    2017-01-01

    We reported previously testis-mediated germline chimera production and characterization of germline stem cell-like cells from chicken testes. The present study aimed to establish an in vitro system for culture of quail spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) for practical applications in germline preservation and transgenesis. Testicular cells (TCs) from juvenile (4 weeks old) or adult (8 weeks old) quail testis were isolated using sequential enzymatic digestion. The percentages of viability of isolated TCs were 91.00% ± 2.12% and 88.00% ± 1.87% in juvenile and adult testes, respectively, and immunohistochemical evaluation indicated the expression of integrin alpha-6 (ITGA6), GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRA1), and Deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL) in specific TCs. SSCs were purified by differential plating of TCs and then subjected to quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, which showed differential expression of SSC-specific, and germness and stemness-related genes. Coculture of quail SSCs with mouse embryonic fibroblasts and Sertoli cells as a feeder layer resulted in the generation of stable SSC colonies and short-term cultivation, and the expression of SSC and germ cell markers was maintained during several passages of culture. Collectively, these results demonstrate the efficient isolation and characterization of quail SSCs and the suitability of Sertoli cells as a feeder layer for in vitro culture of quail SSCs. Quail SSCs will facilitate the production of germline chimeras and transgenesis.

  13. Caecal worm, Aulonocephalus pennula, infection in the northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Dunham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes that infect quail have been understudied and long been dismissed as a problem in quail management. Within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, an area that has experienced quail population “boom and bust” cycles and ultimately a general decline, the need to determine why Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus populations are diminishing has increased in priority. Previously, caecal parasites have been documented to cause inactivity, weight loss, reduced growth, inflammation to the caecal mucosa, and even death. The caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula is an intestinal nematode parasite that is commonly found within the caecum of quail, as well as many other avian species. In the Rolling Plains ecoregion, A. pennula has been documented to have as high as a 98% prevalence in bobwhite quail samples; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. The present study documents A. pennula causes no pathological changes within the caeca of the Northern bobwhite. However, there is concern for disruption of digestion and the possible implications of infection for wild bobwhite quail survival are discussed.

  14. Soja integral processada em dietas para codornas japonesas em postura Processed whole soybean in diets for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz de Toledo Barreto

    2010-09-01

    female quails at 29 weeks of age with an average weight of 186.1 ± 4.0 g distributed in a complete randomized experimental design, with 8 replicates, each one with 10 quails per experimental unit. Diets were isocaloric and isonutritives for crude protein, digestible lysine, digestible methionine + cystine, calcium, available phosphorus and sodium. Thus, it was evaluated a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, and three other diets with partial substitution of the soybean meal for roasted whole soybean, extruded or micronized, so the whole soybean supplied 50% of the crude protein provided by soybean meal in control diet. No differences were observed on egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, viability of the birds, percentage of commercial eggs, egg specific weight, percentage of yolk and albumen neither on egg shell percentage. Substitution of soybean meal for roasted whole soybean reduced feed intake. It was not observed any differences in the studied parameters when soybean meal was replaced by extruded whole soybean. Substitution of soybean meal for micronized whole soybean reduced body weight variation of the quails, resulting in weight loss of the birds. Soybean meal can be substituted, in 50% of the protein, by roasted or extruded whole soybean in diets for laying Japanese quails. However, substitution of the soybean meal for micronized whole soybean, in 50% of the protein, is not recommended, because it worsens the performance results, mainly causing weight loss of the birds.

  15. Variance components for body weight in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RO Resende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the variance components for body weight in Japanese quails by Bayesian procedures. The body weight at hatch (BWH and at 7 (BW07, 14 (BW14, 21 (BW21 and 28 days of age (BW28 of 3,520 quails was recorded from August 2001 to June 2002. A multiple-trait animal model with additive genetic, maternal environment and residual effects was implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. A single Gibbs sampling with 80,000 rounds was generated by the program MTGSAM (Multiple Trait Gibbs Sampling in Animal Model. Normal and inverted Wishart distributions were used as prior distributions for the random effects and the variance components, respectively. Variance components were estimated based on the 500 samples that were left after elimination of 30,000 rounds in the burn-in period and 100 rounds of each thinning interval. The posterior means of additive genetic variance components were 0.15; 4.18; 14.62; 27.18 and 32.68; the posterior means of maternal environment variance components were 0.23; 1.29; 2.76; 4.12 and 5.16; and the posterior means of residual variance components were 0.084; 6.43; 22.66; 31.21 and 30.85, at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. The posterior means of heritability were 0.33; 0.35; 0.36; 0.43 and 0.47 at hatch, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days old, respectively. These results indicate that heritability increased with age. On the other hand, after hatch there was a marked reduction in the maternal environment variance proportion of the phenotypic variance, whose estimates were 0.50; 0.11; 0.07; 0.07 and 0.08 for BWH, BW07, BW14, BW21 and BW28, respectively. The genetic correlation between weights at different ages was high, except for those estimates between BWH and weight at other ages. Changes in body weight of quails can be efficiently achieved by selection.

  16. Central and peripheral metabolism of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone in the male Japanese quail: biochemical characterization and relationship with reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviche, P; Delville, Y; Balthazart, J

    1987-09-22

    An in vitro radioenzymatic assay and purification procedure by thin-layer chromatography were used to study the metabolism of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) into 3 alpha- and 3 beta-androstanediols by the brain and cloacal gland of Japanese quail. Kinetic studies showed that these 2 metabolites are produced in a linear fashion with respect to time of incubation for up to 15 min but that they continue to accumulate for up to 4 h. The maximum velocity of these reactions is high (nmol/mg protein/15 min), but the affinities of the enzymes for DHT are low (in the microM range). The enzymatic activities are not evenly distributed in the brain: they are high in the tuberal hypothalamus and lobus parolfactorius but low in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus. Enzyme activities are not markedly affected by treatment of the birds with either testosterone or DHT. The activity of these enzymes is lower in the preoptic area and tuberal hypothalamus of DHT-treated birds which display female-directed sexual behavior than in the same brain areas of birds which are sexually inactive. We discuss the relationships between this reductive metabolism of DHT and the activational effects of the steroid on sexual behavior.

  17. Effect of breeder age and storage conditions of Japanese quail eggs on hatchability, quail neonate quality, and Bursa of Fabricius characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itallo Conrado Sousa de Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to evaluate combinations of different storage periods and temperature of hatching eggs of breeder quails in two stages of the production cycle (24 and 43 weeks on hatchability, quail neonate quality, and Bursa of Fabricius characteristics. In each experiment, a total of 1.050 Japanese quail eggs were incubated in a randomized block design in a factorial arrangement of 2 × 5 × 2, with two breeder ages (24 and 43 weeks, five storage periods (one, three, six, nine, and twelve days, and two storage temperatures (28 and 14 °C, totaling 20 treatments with 52 eggs each. Quantitative data were subjected to ANOVA and means were compared by Tukey's test. Qualitative data were subjected to Friedman's test. Polynomial regression analysis was performed in relation to the storage period of the eggs. Hatchability of 43-week-old breeders worsened as the storage period increased at 28 °C, while at 14 °C, hatchability was not affected. Yolk-free body weight was influenced only by storage period; therefore, the group stored for 12 days had the lowest yolk-free body weight. Twelve days of storage reduced the absorption of yolk residue and physical quality score and also affected neonate quail immunity. Fertile eggs from Japanese quails that are destined for incubation should be stored at 14 °C to maintain physical and immunological quality of the progeny. Moreover, eggs from older breeders originate lower-quality quails when eggs are not stored in a refrigerated environment.

  18. Oxidative stress and liver damage in birds exposed to diclofenac and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Osičková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Responses of wildlife to multiple stressors fit in the ecological concept of trade-off. While toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and heavy metals for free-ranging birds has been shown in single exposures, the present study aims to evaluate oxidative stress, and liver and kidney damage caused by single and combined effects of diclofenac and lead in the Japanese quail. Forty Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica were divided into equal groups of controls, diclofenac, Pb, and Pb+diclofenac exposures. The birds were exposed to the respective chemicals through insertion of lead shots (1.5 g into the crop on day 0 of the experiment and/or administration of 5 mg/kg of diclofenac intramuscularly in two treatments on days 0 and 5. Groups in liver and kidney tissues of birds were then compared after 10 days using histopathology and biochemistry markers such as glutathione reductase (GR, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and lipid peroxidation measured as total thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS. The liver damage score gradient was Pb+diclofenac exposure group > Pb exposure group > diclofenac exposure group and hepatic TBARS values were significantly increased in the group of birds exposed to a combination of diclofenac and lead compared to the healthy control group. The study has shown that, apart from the reported nephrotoxicity of diclofenac, hepatic toxicity should also be considered. Avian clinicians should be cautious when selecting drugs for therapy of wild birds with unknown history of exposure to toxic substances.

  19. Quail FMO3 gene cloning, tissue expression profiling, polymorphism detection and association analysis with fishy taint in eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengtao Mo

    Full Text Available Quail eggs comprise a significant and favourable part of table eggs in certain countries. Some quail eggs, however, present fishy off-flavor which directly influences their quality. It is reported that flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3 is associated with fish-odour trait in human and animal products. FMO3 is responsible for the degradation of trimethylamine (TMA in vivo. Loss-of-function mutations in FMO3 gene can result in defective TMA N-oxygenation, giving rise to disorder known as "fish-odour syndrome" in human, as well as the fishy off-flavor in cow milk and chicken eggs. In order to reveal the genetic factor of fishy taint in quail eggs, we cloned the cDNA sequence of quail FMO3 gene, investigated FMO3 mRNA expression level in various tissues, detected SNPs in the coding region of the gene and conducted association analysis between a mutation and the TMA content in quail egg yolks. The 1888 bp cDNA sequence of quail FMO3 gene encoding 532 amino acids was obtained and characterized. The phylogenetic analysis revealed quail FMO3 had a closer relationship with chicken FMO3. The FMO3 mRNA was highly expressed in liver and kidney of quail. Nine SNPs were detected in the coding sequence of quail FMO3 gene, including a nonsense mutation (Q319X which was significantly associated with the elevated TMA content in quail egg yolks. Genotype TT at Q319X mutation loci was sensitive to choline. With addition of choline in the feed, the quails with homozygote TT at the Q319X mutation loci laid fish-odour eggs, indicating an interaction between genotype and diet. The results indicated that Q319X mutation was associated with the fishy off-flavor in quail eggs. Identification of the unfavorable allele T of quail FMO3 gene can be applied in future quail breeding to eliminate fishy off-flavor trait in quail eggs.

  20. Prenatal sensory experience affects hatching behavior in domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) and Japanese quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, Merry J; Casey, Michael B

    2014-07-01

    Species-typical developmental outcomes result from organismic and environmental constraints and experiences shared by members of a species. We examined the effects of enhanced prenatal sensory experience on hatching behaviors by exposing domestic chicks (n = 95) and Japanese quail (n = 125) to one of four prenatal conditions: enhanced visual stimulation, enhanced auditory stimulation, enhanced auditory and visual stimulation, or no enhanced sensory experience (control condition). In general, across species, control embryos had slower hatching behaviors than all other embryos. Embryos in the auditory condition had faster hatching behaviors than embryos in the visual and control conditions. Auditory-visual condition embryos showed similarities to embryos exposed to either auditory or visual stimulation. These results suggest that prenatal sensory experience can influence hatching behavior of precocial birds, with the type of stimulation being a critical variable. These results also provide further evidence that species-typical outcomes are the result of species-typical prenatal experiences. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effect of dietary heated oil and garlic supplementation on the meat and egg quality of Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    A total number of 360 Japanese quail (14 days old) were used to study the effect of using 2% garlic as a supplement in order to overcome the adverse effect of adding 4% heated oil on their meat and egg quality. The chicks were equally and randomly arranged into 4 groups, each of three replicates. The first and second groups were supplemented with 4% cotton seed oil and 4% cotton seed oil + 2% garlic, respectively, while in both third and forth groups, cotton seed oil was replaced by 4% heated oil. The body weight and mortality rate were examined weekly. At 42 day of age, 9 birds from each group were slaughtered. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, T3 and T4 were determined by RIA besides to cholesterol and fatty acid in meat. The experiment was completed with the remaining chicks for another 6 weeks for analysis of egg cholesterol, triglyceride and fatty acids. The data revealed that addition of 2% garlic to both cotton seed and heated oil significantly decreased serum and egg cholesterol and triglycerides and meat cholesterol. In addition, total unsaturated fatty acid showed improvement in both meat and egg

  2. Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Ana, M.G.; Moraes, R.; Bernardi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is able to alter the immune function. Previous studies have shown that, in mammals, chronic exposure to Cd decreases the release of macrophagic cytokines such as IL1 and TNα and decreases phagocytosis activity. On the other hand contradictory results showed an increase in the humoral response. The cellular response could be decreased by exposure to Cd. These alterations were observed in mammals. The present study aimed to investigate some of the toxic effects of Cd exposure in birds. In particular, the main objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of exposure to this pollutant on the cellular immune function of the Japanese quail as a model for the study of toxicity in animals exposed in nature. The animals were exposed to the metal (100 ppm, per os) during development, i.e., from 1 to 28 days old. Body weight, biochemical parameters, and cellular immune response were measured during and at the end of treatment. The results showed that the exposure to Cd for 28 days significantly reduced the body weight and induced hepatic toxicity. The kidney function and cellular immune response were not affected by the Cd exposure

  3. Use of a watershed-modeling approach to assess hydrologic effects of urbanization, North Fork Pheasant Branch basin near Middleton, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.; Hunt, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The North Fork Pheasant Branch Basin in Dane County, Wisconsin is expected to undergo development. There are concerns that development will adversely affect water resources with increased flood peaks, increased runoff volumes, and increased pollutant loads. To provide a scientific basis for evaluating the hydrologic system response to development the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to model the upper Pheasant Branch Creek watershed with an emphasis on the North Fork Basin. The upper Pheasant Branch Creek (18.3 mi2; 11,700 acres) Basin was represented with 21 Hydrologic Response Units (daily time step) and 50 flow planes (5-minute time steps). Precipitation data from the basin outlet streamflow-gaging station located at Highway 12 and temperature data from a nearby airport were used to drive the model. Continuous discharge records at three gaging stations were used for model calibration. To qualitatively assess model representation of small subbasins, periodic reconnaissance, often including a depth measurement, was made after precipitation to determine the occurrence of flow in ditches and channels from small subbasins. As a further effort to verify the model on a small subbasin scale, continuous-stage sensors (15-minute intervals) measured depth at the outlets of three small subbasins (500 to 1,200 acres). Average annual precipitation for the simulation period from 1993 to 1998 was 35.2 inches. The model simulations showed that, on average, 23.9 inches were intercepted by vegetation, or lost to evapotranspiration, 6.0 inches were infiltrated and moved to the regional ground-water system, and 4.8 inches contributed to the upper Pheasant Branch streamflow. The largest runoff event during the calibration interval was in July 1993 (746 ft3/sec; with a recurrence interval of approximately 25 years). Resulting recharge rates from the calibrated model were subsequently used as input into a ground-water-flow model. Average annual recharge varied

  4. Detection of Bordetella avium by TaqMan real-time PCR in tracheal swabs from wildlife birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, T; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A; Bancerz-Kisiel, A

    2017-03-28

    Bordetella avium, the causing agent of bordetellosis, a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract in young poultry, causes significant losses in poultry farming throughout the world. Wildlife birds can be a reservoir of various pathogens that infect farm animals. For this reason the studies were conducted to estimate the prevalence of Bordetella avium in wildlife birds in Poland. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 650 birds representing 27 species. The bacterial DNA was isolated directly from the swabs and screened for Bordetella avium by TaqMan real-time PCR. The assay specificity was evaluated by testing DNA isolated from 8 other bacteria that can be present in avian respiratory tract, and there was no amplification from non-Bordetella avium agents. Test sensitivity was determined by preparing standard tenfold serial dilutions of DNA isolated from positive control. The assay revealed to be sensitive, with detection limit of approximately 4.07x10^2 copies of Bordetella avium DNA. The genetic material of Bordetella avium was found in 54.54% of common pheasants, in 9.09% of Eurasian coots, in 3.22% of black-headed gulls and in 2.77% of mallard ducks. The results of this study point to low prevalence of Bordetella avium infections in wildlife birds. The results also show that described molecular assay proved to be suitable for the rapid diagnosis of bordetellosis in the routine diagnostic laboratory.

  5. Comparison of the characteristics in hen and quail corneas as experimental models of refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, G C; Pérez-Merino, P; Martínez-García, M C; Barcía, A; Merayo-Loves, J

    2016-07-01

    To compare the histological, morphological and the biophysical measurements between hen and quail corneas, in order to determine which of them were better suited for use as an animal model for research into corneal refractive surgery. A study was performed using the biophysical measurements of the cornea (curvature, thickness, refraction, and axial length) of 20 animals (10 hens and 10 quails). The corneas were then prepared for histological analysis under microscopy light. The analysis showed that both groups have the same number of corneal layers as the human cornea and with an evident Bowman's layer. The thickness of the hen cornea and axial length of the eye, 225.3±18.4μm and 12.8±0.25mm, respectively, were larger than that of the quail (Phen central cornea, 3.65±0.08mm, was greater than that for the quail (Ppower of each cornea was similar. The proportion of total corneal thickness of the hen stroma, 82.6%, was more similar to that of the human than was the quail stroma, 72.5%. Within the hen stroma, the density of keratocytes, 8.57±1.49 per 5,000μm(2), was about half that in the quail stroma (Phen cornea, the stromal thickness and proportional similarity of the corneal layers with human cornea, the hen maybe better than the quail as an alternative species suitable for use in studies of corneal refractive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A pilot study of the genetic variation of phosphorus utilization in young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P; Rodehutscord, M; Bennewitz, J; Bessei, W

    2014-08-01

    This study estimated the genetic variance components of P utilization in Japanese quail. A parental generation was assembled from an unselected random-bred Japanese fattening quail line. Seven sires and 14 dams were randomly selected, and each sire was paired with 2 dams to produce full and half sibs. A total of 200 unsexed 1-d-old quail with known pedigree were wing-banded and raised during the first 4 d posthatch in groups in floor pens on wood shavings and fed a preexperimental diet that was adequate in all nutrients. Starting on d 5, quail were individually housed in metabolic compartments on P-free filter paper. This started a balance trial with 5 d of adaption and 5 d of total excreta collection. During this balance period, all quail were fed a low-P (3.9 g/kg of DM) corn-soybean meal-based diet with a Ca:P ratio of 1.6:1.0. Phosphorus and Ca utilization were determined individually using the difference in P or Ca intake and the total P or Ca excretion. The average P utilization was 72% and the average Ca utilization was 63%, each with very high variation. Heritabilities were estimated to be 0.09 (SE = 0.09) for P utilization and 0.09 (SE = 0.09) for Ca utilization. Heritabilities were close to the values reported in the literature for broilers and suggest that quail are suitable as a model animal. The SE of the heritability estimates were large. This implies that further studies with a larger sample size are needed to identify genetic and physiological mechanisms that influence P and Ca utilization in Japanese quail. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Response of restraint stress-selected lines of Japanese quail to heat stress and Escherichia coli challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japanese quail selected for divergent corticosterone (Cort) response to restraint stress were evaluated for their susceptibility to heat stress and challenge with Escherichia coli. These quail lines are designated as the high stress (HS), low stress (LS), and the random-bred control (CS) lines. Hea...

  8. Distribution of orally administered and chronically fed sup(95m)Tc in Japanese quail tissues and eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Cadwell, L.L.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, male and female Japanese quail were chronically fed alfalfa grown on solutions containing TcO 4 which was mixed into a commercial turkey starter. The objective was to estimate concentration ratios and transfer coefficients from Tc incorporated into alfalfa tissue to quail eggs, edible tissues and other organs. (author)

  9. Genetic Divergence in Domestic Japanese Quail Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop and Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunome, Mitsuo; Nakano, Mikiharu; Tadano, Ryo; Kawahara-Miki, Ryoka; Kono, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Shinji; Kawashima, Takaharu; Fujiwara, Akira; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Mizutani, Makoto; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    To assess the genetic diversity of domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) populations, and their genetic relationships, we examined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and microsatellite markers for 19 Japanese quail populations. The populations included nine laboratory lines established in Japan (LWC, Quv, RWN, WE, AWE, AMRP, rb-TKP, NIES-L, and W), six meat-type quail lines reimported from Western countries (JD, JW, Estonia, NIES-Br, NIES-Fr, and NIES-Hn), one commercial population in Japan, and three wild quail populations collected from three Asian areas. The phylogenetic tree of mtDNA D-loop sequences revealed two distinct haplotype groups, Dloop-Group1 and Dloop-Group2. Dloop-Group1 included a dominant haplotype representing most of the quail populations, including wild quail. Dloop-Group2 was composed of minor haplotypes found in several laboratory lines, two meat-type lines, and a few individuals in commercial and wild quail populations. Taking the breeding histories of domestic populations into consideration, these results suggest that domestic quail populations may have derived from two sources, i.e., domestic populations established before and after World War II in Japan. A discriminant analysis of principal components and a Bayesian clustering analysis with microsatellite markers indicated that the domestic populations are clustered into four genetic groups. The two major groups were Microsat-Group1, which contained WE, and four WE-derived laboratory lines (LWC, Quv, RWN, and AWE), and Microsat-Group2 consisting of NIES-L, JD, JW, Estonia, NIES-Br, NIES-Fr, NIES-Hn, W, and commercial and wild populations. The remaining two lines (AMRP and rb-TKP) were each clustered into a separate clade. This hierarchical genetic difference between domestic quail populations is attributed to the genetic background derived from two different genetic sources-the pre-war and post-war populations-which is well supported by their breeding histories.

  10. Determining population trends and conservation status of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix in Western Europe

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    Puigcerver, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the conservation status and population trends of the common quail (Coturnix coturnix from 1900 to the present. Data are sometimes contradictory with regard to the status of this species as it has some features that make it difficult to produce reliable population estimates. Recent data clearly suggest, either at a local scale or at a trans–national scale, that the Atlantic common quail populations have remained stable in the last two decades, and that restocking practices with farm–reared quails (hybrids with the Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica do not affect our estimates. The complex movement patterns showed by this species require special attention. Analysis of ring recoveries can give important information, especially about the nomadic movement of quails in search of suitable habitats after the destruction of winter cereal crops due to harvesting. Thus, when developing a breeding distribution model for this species, continuously updated information on seasonal habitat and weather must be included for optimal prediction. Including fortnightly data of vegetation indices in distribution models, for example, has shown good results. Obtaining reliable predictions about changes in species distribution and movements during the breeding period could provide useful knowledge about the conservation status and population trends and would help in the design of future management measures.

  11. Effect of Transient Treatment with Propylthiouracil on Some Reproduction Traits and Live Weight of Japanese Quails

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    B Sogut

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of transient treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU on some reproduction traits and live weight of quails. The trial lasted 8 weeks. To accomplish this goal, 700 1-day-old quail chicks were used, randomly divided into 8 groups. PTU was added to feed by 0.1% and 0.5% /wt. The first 4 groups had 0.5% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 2-8 wk., respectively. The 5 th, 6 th and 7 th groups had 0.1% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 wk., respectively, and the 8 th group was the control with no PTU. Quails were bled at 60 days of age. Then right and left testes were taken out and weighed. At the end of the trail, least square means of the live weight of the treatment groups were higher than the control (p<0.05. Similar results (p<0.05 were observed for testis weight, testis diameter and fertility rate. As a result, it can be said that the inclusion of PTU in quail rations positively affects the live weight and reproduction traits of quails.

  12. Effect of Quail Egg Administration on Some Liver Function Related Parameters

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    Patrick E. ABA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of testimonies on the therapeutic efficacies of quail egg on diabetics and on liver disorders. This study investigated synthetic and conjugatory states of the liver in diabetic rats administered varying concentrations of quail egg solution. Thirty (30 adult male albino Wistar rats were assigned to 5 groups of 6 rats each. Groups 2-5 of rats were injected with alloxan monohydrate intraperitoneally at the dose of 160 mg/kg, while rats in group 1 served as normal control. Upon establishment of fasting blood glucose level above 126 mg/dl, the rats in groups 2-4 were administered 30, 15 and 7.5 mg/ml of quail egg solution respectively for 7 days. Rats in groups 1 and 5 received distilled water (10 ml/kg each. All treatments were through the oral route. At the end of the 7 days duration of the study, blood samples for serum protein and bilirubin assays were collected. Results indicated that the quail egg administration to alloxanized rats did not alter total serum protein and albumin values, but improved significantly (p<0.5 the conjugated bilirubin values compared to that of the negative control group (group 5. It was concluded that administration of quail egg solution to alloxanized rats aided hepatic conjugatory ability with little or no effect on its synthetic function.

  13. Studies on the protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with purified diets to examine the influence of protein level and to estimate the sulfur amino acid (S.A.A.) requirement of young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). These studies demonstrated (I) that 26% protein was sufficient for rapid growth when the diet was supplemented with methionine; (2) that diets containing higher levels of protein (29.3% and 31.3%) failed to support satisfactory growth unless they contained supplemental methionine; and (3) that young Bobwhite quail require no more than 1.0% sulfur-containing amino acids for optimal growth and efficiency of feed utilization. A fifth experiment was conducted to examine the protein and S.A.A. requirements of young Bobwhite quail using practical rations and to compare results with those obtained with purified diets. Diets containing 24%, 26% and 28% protein were supplied with and without supplemental methionine in a five week study. Results showed significant growth responses to protein and supplemental methionine. Responses showed that Bobwhite quail require no more than 26% protein for maximum growth and efficiency of feed utilization when the S.A.A. level of the diet was approximately 1.0%. The results were in close agreement with those obtained with purified diets. These findings define more precisely than had been known the quantitative requirements of young Bobwhite quail for protein and for the S.A.A. necessary for optimal growth.

  14. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  15. Effect of enrichment of organic selenium, inorganic selenium and vitamin E in quail ration on the performances and potency of quail egg as a source of antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrir Akil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of life style influences human health and it contributes to many human diseases outbreak, therefore nutrition of antioxidant is required. This study was aimed to get an optimum level of combined organic selenium, inorganic selenium and vitamin E in obtaining the best production and reproduction of quails and the highest antioxidant level in quail eggs. This study was conducted from January to August 2008. Numbers of observed quails were 720 individuals (360 female and 360 male quails. The treatments were applied when the quails were six weeks old. Nine treatment diets were: To (commercial diet, T1 (0.46 ppm inorganic Se + 43.50 ppm vitamin E, T2 (0.46 ppm inorganic Se + 87.00 ppm vitamin E, T3 (0.92 ppm inorganic Se + 43.50 ppm vitamin E, T4 (0.92 ppm inorganic Se +87.00 ppm vitamin E, T5 (0.46 ppm organic Se + 43.50 ppm vitamin E, T6 (0.46 ppm organic Se + 87.00 ppm vitamin E, T7 (0.92 ppm organic Se + 43.50 vitamin E and T8 (0.92 ppm organic Se 0.92 + 87.00 ppm vitamin E. The design of the experimental applied was a factorial – nested design. Any significant differences among the treatment diets were analysed using Duncan's test. The result of this study indicated that treatment T7 (0.92 ppm organic selenium + 43.50 ppm vitamin E in general gave the highest content of selenium in meat, in egg albumin, egg yolk, vitamin E in egg yolk, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, activity of antioxidant, hatchability and low mortality.

  16. Birds of Sabaki Birds of Sabaki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CJ

    2005-02-25

    Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...

  17. Angry Birds in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    When space computers first started listening into space radio, they noticed that there were radio noises that happened on the morning side of the Earth. Because these waves sounded like noises birds make in the morning, we named these waves after them. These bird sounding waves can move around the Earth, flying up and down, and sometimes move into an area where there is more stuff. This area is also much colder than where these bird noises are first made. When the waves move into this cold area where there is more stuff, they start to sound like angry birds instead of happy birds. Both of these waves, the happy and angry bird sounding waves, are very important to our understanding of how the tiny things in space move and change. Sometimes the waves which sound like birds can push these tiniest of things into the sky. The happy bird sounding waves can push the tiniest things quickly while the angry bird sounding waves push the tinest of things more slowly. When the tiny things fall into the sky, they create beautiful space lights and light that burns which can hurt people in up goers and not so up goers as well as our things like phones, and space computers. We study these waves that sound like birds to better understand when and where the tiny things will fall. That way we can be prepared and enjoy watching the pretty space lights at night with no worries.

  18. Search for QTL affecting the shape of the egg laying curve of the Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourichon David

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Egg production is of critical importance in birds not only for their reproduction but also for human consumption as the egg is a highly nutritive and balanced food. Consequently, laying in poultry has been improved through selection to increase the total number of eggs laid per hen. This number is the cumulative result of the oviposition, a cyclic and repeated process which leads to a pattern over time (the egg laying curve which can be modelled and described individually. Unlike the total egg number which compounds all variations, the shape of the curve gives information on the different phases of egg laying, and its genetic analysis using molecular markers might contribute to understand better the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to perform the first QTL search for traits involved in shaping the egg laying curve, in an F2 experiment with 359 female Japanese quail. Results Eight QTL were found on five autosomes, and six of them could be directly associated with egg production traits, although none was significant at the genome-wide level. One of them (on CJA13 had an effect on the first part of the laying curve, before the production peak. Another one (on CJA06 was related to the central part of the curve when laying is maintained at a high level, and the four others (on CJA05, CJA10 and CJA14 acted on the last part of the curve where persistency is determinant. The QTL for the central part of the curve was mapped at the same position on CJA06 than a genome-wide significant QTL for total egg number detected previously in the same F2. Conclusion Despite its limited scope (number of microsatellites, size of the phenotypic data set, this work has shown that it was possible to use the individual egg laying data collected daily to find new QTL which affect the shape of the egg laying curve. Beyond the present results, this new approach could also be applied to longitudinal traits in other species, like growth

  19. Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of the Pecten Oculi in the Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

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    Aris F. Pourlis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to extend the microscopic investigations of the pecten oculi in the quail in order to add some information on the unresolved functional anatomy of this unique avian organ. The pecten oculi of the quail was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Eighteen- to-twenty two highly vascularised accordion-like folds were joined apically by a heavily pigmented bridge of tissue, which holds the pecten in a fanlike shape, widest at the base. The structure of the double layered limiting membrane was recorded. The presence of hyalocytes with macrophage-like appearance was illustrated. It is assumed that the pecten oculi of the quail resembles that of the chicken. Illustrated morphological features of this species may add information on the active physiological role of the pecten. But still, the functional significance of this organ is a matter of controversies.

  20. Muscle hypertrophy in heavy weight Japanese quail line: delayed muscle maturation and continued muscle growth with prolonged upregulation of myogenic regulatory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y M; Suh, Y; Ahn, J; Lee, K

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the temporal expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, Pax7, and myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) between heavy weight (HW) and random bred control (RBC) Japanese quail lines during muscle development to better understand the mechanisms leading to increased skeletal muscle mass in the HW quail line selected for a greater BW at 4 wk of age separated from RBC quail. Expression of neonatal MyHC isoform began at 3 and 7 d posthatch in RBC and HW quail lines, respectively. In the RBC quail line, adult MyHC isoform, as a marker for muscle maturation, was expressed at 28 d posthatch with sustained expression through 75 d posthatch, whereas this protein was detected only at 75 d posthatch in the HW quail line. Moreover, Pax7 expression continued from embryonic ages to 14 d posthatch in the HW quail line and to 7 d posthatch in the RBC quail line. These expression patterns of MyHC isoforms and Pax7 in the HW quail line were accompanied by delayed muscle maturation and prolonged growth compared with the RBC quail line. Temporal expressions of the primary MRF showed that higher expression levels of MyoD and Myf-5 were observed at 9 and 11 d embryo in the HW quail line compared with the RBC quail line (P muscle development is associated with delayed maturation and continued muscle growth, which consequently would permit muscle hypertrophic potentials in the HW quail line compared with the RBC quail line. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  2. Fly emergence from manure of Japanese quail fed thymol- or isoeugenol-supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Ianniello, I; Horenstein, M Battán; Lábaque, M C; Luna, A; Marin, R H; Gleiser, R M

    2014-10-01

    Many problems in poultry production are caused by a combination of interrelated factors such as management, stress, nutrition, and exposure to pathogens. Saprophagous flies that develop in poultry manure are a potential route of pathogen transmission. Besides being a nuisance, defecation and regurgitation of flies soil equipment and structures and can reduce light levels of lighting fixtures. These effects clearly affect management and may contribute to reductions in poultry egg production, health, and welfare. Many essential oils or their main components have bioactive effects such as natural repellents and insecticides, antioxidants, anticholesterolemics, and antimicrobials. This study evaluated if supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol as functional food could alter the production of flies from manure. Dropping samples deposited by quail fed with a supplementation of 2,000 mg of thymol or isoeugenol per kg of feed or no supplement (control) were collected. Each sample was incubated inside an emergence cage that was inspected daily to collect emerging adult flies. Fewer flies emerged from droppings of quail fed a thymol-supplemented diet (P = 0.01) and there was a tendency to a lower emergence from droppings of isoeugenol-fed quail (P = 0.09). The number of positive containers for Musca domestica was smaller from quail droppings of thymol- (P = 0.02) or isoeugenol- (P = 0.01) supplemented feed than from the control counterparts, suggesting an oviposition repellent effect. Supplementing quail feed with thymol or isoeugenol has an overall moderate effect against flies, reducing M. domestica emergence. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Female Japanese quail with high levels of estradiol demonstrate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karin E; Reynolds, Anna R; Prendergast, Mark A; Akins, Chana K

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical research has indicated that females may be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of cocaine. However, the majority of this research has been done in rodent species. Environmental cues associated with human drug-taking behavior tend to be visual. Because rodents do not rely on the visual system as their primary sense modality, the use of a visually oriented species may add to our understanding of cue-elicited drug cravings and relapse. The present study examined the potential role of the steroid hormone, estradiol, in the rewarding properties of cocaine in female Japanese quail using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. In the current experiment, female quail were housed on either an 8L:16D (light:dark) or 16L:8D (light:dark) cycle for 21 days to induce photoregression or photostimulation, respectively. They then received 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg cocaine, or saline during conditioning. Conditioning trials were carried out for 8 days, once per day for 30 min, for a total of 4 cocaine and 4 saline alternating conditioning trials. Results indicated that female quail housed in long-light conditions (16L:8D) had significantly higher levels of estradiol than short-cycle females. Additionally, photostimulated female quail developed a CPP to 10 and 20 mg/kg cocaine. Short-cycle females did not show cocaine-induced CPP to any dose tested. Results indicate that cocaine is dose-dependently rewarding to photostimulated female Japanese quail. Furthermore, the current findings suggest that estradiol may enhance the rewarding properties of cocaine in female quail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Camomila como aditivo fitoterápico para codornas na fase de postura Chamomile herbal medicine as an additive for quails in the laying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danísio Prado Munari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da camomila (Matricaria chamomila sobre codornas na fase de postura através da análise dos parâmetros de desempenho, comportamento e indicadores fisiológicos de estresse. Foram utilizadas 192 codornas com 45 dias de idade, distribuídas em blocos casualizados, submetidas às dietas com 0; 250; 500 e 750mg de camomila /kg de ração, no total de quatro tratamentos com oito repetições e seis aves por parcela, em um período experimental que foi dos 45 aos 143 dias de idade das aves, no total de sete ciclos de 14 dias cada. Foram avaliados parâmetros de desempenho (consumo diário de ração, conversão alimentar/dúzia e kg de ovos, porcentagem de postura, viabilidade e peso dos ovos, comportamentais (tempo em imobilidade tônica, ferimentos corporais e agressividade e indicadores fisiológicos de estresse (concentração plasmática de corticosterona e relação heterófilo: linfócito. Os resultados mostraram que as diferentes inclusões de camomila na ração de codornas não influenciaram o desempenho, assim como os indicadores fisiológicos de estresse e comportamentais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chamomile (Matricaria chamomile on the stress of laying Japanese quails, analyzing the performance, behavior and physiological indicators. A total of 192 quails was used with 45 days of age, distributed in randomized blocks, feed with 0, 250, 500 and 750mg chamomila/kg feed, with of four treatments, eight replicates and six birds per cage. The trial period was from 45 to 143 days of age, totaling seven cycles with 14 days. Were evaluated performance parameters (feed intake, feed/kg and dozen eggs, egg production, viability and egg weight, behavioral (time in tonic immobility, body injury and aggression and physiological (plasma corticosterone and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. The results showed that the different inclusions of chamomile in the quail diet did not affect performance

  5. Meat quality traits and muscle characteristics in high or low fear lines of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) subjected to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remignon, H; Mills, A D; Guemene, D; Desrosiers, V; Garreau-Mills, M; Marche, M; Marche, G

    1998-07-01

    1. The influence of acute stress before slaughter on muscle and meat quality was studied in adult male quail from lines divergently selected for long (LTI) or short (STI) duration of tonic immobility (TI) and from the unselected (C) control line. 2. When subjected to acute stress, birds from the long TI line responded differently to those of the control or the low fear lines. LTI birds exhibited: a higher plasma creatine kinase and a smaller increase in plasma corticosterone levels, a higher pHu and drip loss values for breast meat associated with no differences in L*a*b* colour values; a higher percentage of fast glycolytic myofibres (IIb) and correspondingly (correlate) higher glycolytic (activity) in the pectoralis major (PM) muscle, and consequently lower oxidative enzyme activity in the PM muscle. 3. It is concluded that acute stress affected muscle metabolism differently in the STI, C and LTI lines. Hence, selection for TI, which is correlated with underlying fearfulness, can indirectly lead to differences in meat quality.

  6. EFFECT OF STRESS ON THE PERCENT BODY WEIGHT CHANGE AND MRNA EXPRESSION OF IGF-1, SURVIVINE AND HSP-70 GENE IN THE HIERARCHIAL FOLLICLES OF JAPANESE QUAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to explore the effect of stress on body weight and the mRNA expression of IGF-1, Survivine and HSP-70 gene in the hierarchial follicles of Japanese quail. A total 24 birds (10 weeks were taken and stress was induced by immobilization daily for 2hrs (between 9.00 - 11.00 AM throughout the study (10 days. Four birds were sacrificed on 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days of the treatment. Hierarchial follicles (F1, F2 & F3 were aseptically collected to quantify the expression of IGF-1, Survivine and HSP-70 gene using real-time PCR technique. The percent body weight reduction increased and reached highest (21.30% on 10th day. The fold expression of IGF-1 gene was significantly ((P=0.05 down regulated in advance to the time of experiment. However, the fold expression of survivine gene was significantly (P=0.05 up regulated and the intensity was highest (17 fold in F-3 follicle on 4th day of experiment. No significant change in the mRNA expression of HSP-70 gene was evident in this study. From this study it may be concluded that stress brings physio-molecular change through HPA activation, which not only causes tissue regression also modifies the cellular mechanism.

  7. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B; Panda, N; Pradhan, C R; Mallik, B K; Majhi, B; Rout, S S

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6(th) to 20(th) week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1(st) to 6(th) week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha.

  8. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  9. Light colour and intensity alters reproductive/seasonal responses in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Suneeta; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2015-08-01

    An extensive literature is available on the photoperiodic responses of avian species but studies on light colour and wavelength from light emitting diode (LED) sources on reproduction are limited. Hence, an experiment was designed to study the effect of different colours and intensities of light on the reproductive responses of Japanese quail. Three-week old quail were exposed to five different light conditions with a long photoperiod (LD 16:8): WT (white fluorescent light 100 lux as control), W LED (white light emitting diode, 30 lux), B LED (blue LED, 30 lux), G LED (green LED, 30 lux) and R-LED (red LED, 30 lux). The cloacal gland size, an indicator of androgenic activity, was monitored weekly. The results indicated an early initiation of gonadal growth in WT quail which continued and maintained a plateau throughout the period of study. On the other hand, in general low intensity light, there was a decreased amplitude of the reproductive cycle and the quail exposed to different colour lights (green, red and blue lights) used different incubation times to initiate their gonadal growth and exhibited a gonadal cycle of a different duration up to 15.5 weeks. Thereafter, the gonad of quail of all the LED groups started developing again (including the blue LED exposed quail which remained undeveloped until this age) and attained the increased degree of growth until 26.5 weeks of age. During the second cycle, gonads of green and red light exposed quail continued to increase and maintained a plateau of development similar to WT exposed control while white and blue LED exposed quail exhibited spontaneous regression and attained complete sexual quiescence. Based on our study, it is suggested that long term exposure to blue LED light of low intensity may induce gonadal regression even under long-day conditions (LD 16:8), while exposure to green and red lights appears to maintain a constant photosensitivity after one complete gonadal cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  10. Effect of Simulated Microgravity on Sexual Development of Male Japanese Quail

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    Peter Škrobánek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypodynamia can be used to simulate weightlessness in laboratory conditions. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of chronic hypodynamia on the growth and development of the testes and cloacal gland, and plasma testosterone concentration in Japanese quail. The testis weight in males reared under hypodynamia was significantly lower compared to agematched control between 21 and 63 days of age (P P P P < 0.05, with the exception of day 56. These results provide further evidence that although hypodynamia negatively affects the examined variables, the male Japanese quail is able to develop normally under conditions of simulated weightlessness.

  11. MANOVA vs nonlinear mixed effects modeling: The comparison of growth patterns of female and male quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürcan, Eser Kemal

    2017-04-01

    The most commonly used methods for analyzing time-dependent data are multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and nonlinear regression models. The aim of this study was to compare some MANOVA techniques and nonlinear mixed modeling approach for investigation of growth differentiation in female and male Japanese quail. Weekly individual body weight data of 352 male and 335 female quail from hatch to 8 weeks of age were used to perform analyses. It is possible to say that when all the analyses are evaluated, the nonlinear mixed modeling is superior to the other techniques because it also reveals the individual variation. In addition, the profile analysis also provides important information.

  12. Whole-Genome de novo Sequencing Of Quail And Grey Partridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Panitz, Frank; Burt, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The development in sequencing methods has made it possible to perform whole genome de novo sequencing of species without large commercial interests. Within the EU-financed QUANTOMICS project (KBBE-2A-222664), we have performed de novo sequencing of quail (Coturnix coturnix) and grey partridge...... comparative studies towards the chicken genome and will aid in identifying evolutionarily conserved sequences within the Galliformes. The obtained sequences from quail and partridge represent a beginning of generating the whole genome sequence for these species. The continuation of establishing the genome...

  13. Evaluation of stability of canned quail egg with organic sales and preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Casas, Nidia; Moncayo, Diana; Cote, Sandra; Cárdenas, Alejandro; Espitia, Leidy

    2016-01-01

    The quail egg is a product with high nutritional value, their shelf life is short, and is widely used in the meat products industry, by the above, a product ready to eat becomes a good alternative. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of salts and organic acids on the stability of canned quail egg during storage. The project was divided into two phases, the first effect of a combination of salts (NaCl and KCl) in three concentrations (2, 3 and 4%) with two concentrations of citric ...

  14. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  15. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and enteric Helicobacter in domestic and free living birds in North-Western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, P; Tomassone, L; Tramuta, C; Rodo, M; Giammarino, M; Vaschetti, G; Nebbia, P

    2010-09-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of some thermophilic Campylobacter (C. jejuni and C. coli) and enteric Helicobacter (H. pullorum and H. canadensis) in domestic and wild birds, a total of 278 bird caecal samples were analyzed over a 2 year period in North-Western Italy. Samples were collected from poultry raised in intensive farming at the slaughterhouse (n=102, group A) and in small scale rural farms (n=60, group B) as well as from wild birds (n=116, group C). PCR amplifications were carried out on DNA extracted from caecal samples. Molecular assays targeted the hipO gene for C. jejuni, the asp gene for C. coli and the 16S rRNA gene of H. pullorum/H. canadensis. To differentiate H. pullorum from H. canadensis, PCR products were subjected to an ApaLI digestion assay. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter and enteric Helicobacter was significantly different among groups (p<0.0001). Campylobacter infections were detected in all three bird groups (78.4% group A, 18.3% group B and 38.8% group C, respectively), Helicobacter infections were only detected in poultry, with H. pullorum infecting 68.6% of group A and 21.7% of group B birds. H. canadensis was detected in Guinea fowls (group A) and for the first time in pheasants (group B). Mixed infections by enteric Campylobacter and Helicobacter were shown in 53.9% of group A and in 5.0 % of group B. Our results show that both microorganisms commonly infect poultry, especially intensive farming animals. Only hooded crows among the wild bird group (group C), proved to be highly sensitive to Campylobacter infection.

  17. EFFECTS OF LIMESTONE PARTICLE SIZE ON PERFORMANCE AND SHELL QUALITY OF JAPANESE QUAILS GRANULOMETRIA DO CALCÁRIO NO DESEMPENHO E QUALIDADE DA CASCA DE OVOS DE CODORNAS JAPONESAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barcellos Café

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment evaluated limestone particle size of diet on performance and shell quality of japanese quails. The experimental design used was completely randomized with five treatments (five different particle sizes of limestone and five replicates of 16 birds each in a total of 400 birds. The treatments were: T1 – Diets with 100% of the limestone coarse; T2 – diets with 70% of limestone coarse and 30% fine; T3 – diets with 30% of limestone coarse and 70% fine; T4 - Diets with 100% of the limestone fine and T5 – Diets with 100% of medium limestone. The experimental diets were formulated to meet NRC (1994 nutritional requirements. The treatment of 100% fine particle size improved egg production and bird performance compared to the treatment with 100% medium particle size. There was no effect of limestone particle size on shell quality of quail eggs. The fine or coarse limestone particle size can be used in diets of laying quails. The medium limestone particle size is not recommended on laying Japanese quail diets. KEY WORDS: Limestone, particle size, japonese quails, egg production, shell egg quality. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da granulometria do calcário calcítico da ração de postura sobre o desempenho produtivo e a qualidade da casca dos ovos de codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos, com cinco repetições de 16 aves cada, num total de quatrocentas aves. Os tratamentos foram: T1 – ração com 100% de calcário de granulometria grossa; T2 – ração com 70% de calcário de granulometria grossa e 30% fina; T3 – ração com 30% de calcário de granulometria grossa e 70% fina; T4 – ração com 100% de calcário de granulometria fina; T5 – ração com 100% de calcário de granulometria média. As rações experimentais eram isonutritivas e foram formuladas para conter os níveis nutricionais sugeridos pelo NRC (1994

  18. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  19. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  20. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However, some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Top of Page Avian Influenza in Wild Birds Avian influenza A viruses have ... hours. Some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Avian influenza outbreaks are of concern in domesticated birds for ...

  1. Urban bird conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, Robbert P.H.; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kwak, Robert G.M.; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Parsons, Holly; Awasthy, Monica; Sierdsema, Henk L.K.; Marzluff, John M.; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Laet, de Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird

  2. Migratory Birds. Issue Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses why, how, where, and when birds migrate as well as problems birds encounter while migrating; the importance of research…

  3. The healing bird

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greek mythology it was a nondescript bird but in the medieval bestiaries it became pure white. The caladrius is used in the coats of arms of the South African Medical and Dental Council and also the Medical University of Soufhern Africa. These appear to be the first use of this medically significant bird in modern heraldry.

  4. Indirect ELISA for the detection of IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus in quail serum

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, D.D.; Folgueras-Flatschart, A.V.; Flatschart, R.B.; Resende, J.S.; Abreu, J.T.; Martins, N.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    An indirect ELISA for the detection of japanese quail IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed. The secondary anti-quail IgG was produced in Balb/c mice, by inoculating Freund's complete adjuvant emulsified japanese quail-IgG extract. The purification of IgG was achieved using the caprilic acid method. The ELISA was compared to the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test for antibodies to NDV. ELISA cut-off point was established through TG-ROC analysis. Total correlation was...

  5. Effects of dietary addition of synbiotic on the performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Tufan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different levels of synbiotic (Syn on the growth performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters of Japanese quails. A total of 1,500 (750 male and 750 female Japanese quails were assigned to five treatments, including the control (basal diet and basal diets with the addition of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4% Syn according to a completely randomized design. Each treatment in the male and female experiment groups consisted of five replicates, with 30 chicks for each replicate. The addition of Syn had no effect on body weight (BW, while the BW of female quails was higher than that of male quails at day 42. The addition of Syn reduced feed intake (FI and improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR (P<0.000. The daily body weight gain and FI were significantly higher in female than in male quails and Syn also improved the FCR in the overall experiment. The effect of the addition of Syn on carcass parameters (except for abdominal fat was not determined. The addition of Syn decreased abdominal fat weight and percentage when compared with the control group. Male quails were found to have higher carcass yield, wing, neck, and other percentages than female quails. However, female quails were found to have higher breast, breast skin, abdominal fat, and visceral organ percentages. The addition of 0.1% Syn to quail ration reduced serum aspartate aminotransferase, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, total protien (TP, and albumin (ALB levels at day 42 of the trial. The addition of Syn decreased the serum total cholesterol level. Gender was found to have an effect in that female quails were found to have higher total cholesterol, HDL, TP, and ALB levels than male quails. In both genders, the addition of Syn improved the BWG, FC, and FCR in the overall experiment, reduced abdominal fat, decreased the total cholesterol levels, improved the HDL levels, and increased the TP and ALB levels at day 42. The addition of 0.3 and

  6. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 4. Carcase composition and thyroid hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyánková, L.; Novotná, Božena; Darras, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2008). s. 96-102 ISSN 0007-1668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/99/1262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Japanese quail * Growth phases * Carcase quality Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.134, year: 2008

  7. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM or antibiotics (ANTs, a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed, and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed. Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage, amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp., laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L., sage leaf (Salvia triloba L., myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis, fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare, and citrus peel (Citrus sp.. In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P<0.001. However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio.

  8. Egg quality of quails fed low methionine diet supplemented with betaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Dewanti, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of betaine supplementation to low methionine diet on egg quality of quails. A total of 340 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was divided into 4 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 17 quails each. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design. The four dietary treatments were the low methionine diet (0.3% methionine) without betaine supplementation and the low methionine diet supplemented with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21% betaine. The experimental diets were applied for 8 weeks and the egg quality traits were measured at the age of 16 and 20 weeks. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when the treatment indicated significant effect, it was continued to orthogonal polynomial test to determine the optimum level of betaine. Increasing dietary levels of betaine increased the fat content of the egg with the linear regression of y = 11.0949 + 4.1914x (R2 = 0.18). However, supplementation of betaine did not affect protein content, yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentage. It can be concluded that betaine supplementation up to 0.21% to low methionine diet only had little effect in improving the quality traits of quail eggs.

  9. Microanatomical Study of Embryonic Gonadal Development in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittipon Intarapat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal development of quail embryos was examined histologically using histological and histochemical methods. In the present study, quail embryos were studied at various stages of incubation period based on phases of gonadogenesis. Germ cell migration was observed on day 3-4 but gonadal differentiation and gonadal function were observed on day 6–8 and day 11–14, respectively. During germ cell migration, quail primordial germ cells (qPGCs were successfully detected in both left and right genital ridges as well as the dorsal mesentery by lectin histochemistry. Unexpectedly, qPGCs-like cells were found next to the neural tube by Mallory-AZAN stain. During gonadal differentiation, embryonic sex can be distinguished histologically since day 8 of incubation. Embryonic testis exhibited a thin cortex, whereas embryonic ovary exhibited a thick cortex. Testicular cord formation was found in the medulla of embryonic testes while the lacunae and fat-laden cells were found in the medulla of embryonic ovary during gonadal function. This is the first report on a comparison of phases of gonadogenesis and histochemical study of quail embryonic gonads in both sexes.

  10. Centromere positions in chicken and Japanese quail chromosomes: de novo centromere formation versus pericentric inversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlotina, A.; Galkina, S.; Krasikova, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.; Gaginskaya, E.; Deryusheva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus, GGA) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica, CCO) karyotypes are very similar. They have identical chromosome number (2n = 78) and show a high degree of synteny. Centromere positions on the majority of orthologous chromosomes are different in these two

  11. Production of live offspring from testicular tissue cryopreserved by vitrification procedures in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2013-05-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue can be used for ex situ conservation of male germplasm of avian species. The possibility of using vitrification and transplantation of testicular tissue for fertility preservation and recovery was tested in Japanese quail. Testes were removed from 1-wk-old Japanese quail; transfixed on acupuncture needles; equilibrated with dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose; plunged into liquid nitrogen; and stored in 2-ml straws. Cryopreserved tissue was warmed in sucrose solution at room temperature or at 40°C. Fresh and cryopreserved tissue were transplanted subcutaneously into castrated, 1-wk-old recipients. Twenty of 21 recipients survived the surgery, and 18 had viable transplants at maturity, with no difference in transplantation success between fresh and cryopreserved tissue. Fluid extrusion from 11 of the transplants was collected and inseminated surgically into the magnum of 22 quail hens, and 10 inseminations included foam from the proctodeal gland of the same recipients. Egg production in the 2 wk after insemination was reduced, and none of the hens inseminated with foam produced fertile eggs. Five hens inseminated without foam produced a total of eight live offspring; four of these hens had been inseminated with fluid extrusion from cryopreserved tissue. Histological examination showed spermatogenesis in the transplants, and the tubules, lumens, and epithelium of the seminiferous tubules were of comparable size to those of testicular tissue from intact males. These results demonstrate that testicular tissue of Japanese quail can be preserved using vitrification procedures and recovered through transplantation.

  12. Diagnosis of Marek's Disease From a Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica) Using Paraffin-embedded Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single paraffin-embedded liver section was submitted from a research flock of Japanese quail that had revealed focal infiltrations of immature lymphocytes within multiple visceral organs. Tumor cells were characterized as T-cells positive for Marek's disease virus (MDV) pp38 antigen by IHC dual st...

  13. Subchronic toxicity and reproduction effects of tri-n-butyltin oxide in Japanese Quail.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.M.M.; Brouwer, A.; Eiminga, I.C.; Koeman, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    A subchronic toxicity/reproduction study was performed in Japanese quails that were fed a diet containing 0, 24, 60, and 150 mg tri-n-butyltin oxide (TBTO) per kg basal diet for 6 weeks. Eggs produced during the 6 weeks of treatment were incubated and hatched, and chicks hatched from eggs collected

  14. Effect of 17ß trenbolone on male and female reproduction in japanese quail (Coturnix japonica japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anabolic steroid 17ß trenbolone (17ß-TB), a known endocrine disruptive chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17ß-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturati...

  15. Foraging behavior and physiological changes in precocial quail chicks in response to low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsveld, KL; Visser, GH; Daan, S

    We examined whether low ambient temperatures influence foraging behavior of precocial Japanese quail chicks and alter the balance between investment in growth and thermogenic function. To test this, one group of chicks was exposed to 7 degreesC and one group to 24 degreesC during foraging throughout

  16. Validation of the DLW method in Japanese quail at different water fluxes using laser and IRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trigt, R; Kerstel, E.R.T.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Mclean, M.; Visser, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    In Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica; n = 9), the doubly labeled water (DLW) method (H-2, O-18) for estimation Of CO2 production (1/day) was validated. To evaluate its sensitivity to water efflux levels (r(H2Oe); g/day) and to assumptions of fractional evaporative water loss (x; dimensionless),

  17. Recovery of fertility from adult ovarian tissue transplanted into week-old Japanese quail chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    Fertility of cryopreserved ovarian tissue from immature chickens and Japanese quail has been recovered by transplantation. This is of special importance for non-mammalian vertebrates in which cryopreservation and in vitro maturation of oocytes are challenging because their oogenesis is characterised by vitellogenesis. This study tested whether fertility of adult quail ovarian tissue could be recovered by transplantation. Ovaries were isolated from mature Japanese quail hens, trimmed, cut into 3- to 4-mm2 pieces and transplanted into ovariectomised, week-old chicks. Recipients were administered an immunosuppressant for two weeks. Ten of 12 recipients survived until sexual maturity and seven laid eggs, but all stopped laying by 17 weeks of age. The age at first egg of recipients laying eggs (75.7±4.2 days) was greater than that of untreated hens (51.8±1.7 days) and egg production of recipients during the laying period (21.7±5.7) was less than that of untreated hens (60.8±3.5). Recipients were paired with males from the WB line for test mating. Only two hens laid eggs during the test period but both produced 100% donor-derived offspring. This research demonstrated that the reproductive potential of ovarian tissue from adult quail hens can be restored by transplantation.

  18. Early life stress shapes female reproductive strategy through eggshell pigmentation in Japanese quail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duval, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Cassey, P.; Spencer, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 208, Nov 1 (2014), s. 146-153 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : breeding conditions * early-life stress * eggshell pigmentation * Japanese quail Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014

  19. Genetic parameters of growth, body, and egg traits in Japanese quails

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... Momoh et al. J. Appl. Biosci. 2014. Genetic parameters of growth, body and egg traits in Japanese quails reared in southern guinea savannah, Nigeria. 6948 resistance, less capital requirement, high rate of lay and much lower feed and space requirement than domestic fowl (Adeogun and Adeoye, 2004) ...

  20. Evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract on Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties have been associated with the extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum in several animals and conditions. The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current study investigated the effects of the pomegranate pericarp aqueous extract on the shedding, viability and morphometry of three Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails, besides the weight gain and genotoxic activity. Although the pomegranate is recognized by multiple properties, including anti-coccidial, in the current study the results are contrary. The treated group shed greater amount of oocysts; the sporulation times and viability were similar in both groups; despite some morphometric differences, these were not expressive; weight gains were similar; and the pomegranate had insignificant effect genotoxic. Finally, these results suggest that the pomegranate pericarp extract did not influence on Eimeira spp. from Japanese quails; therefore, the pomegranate pericarp extract is not suggested in the prevention/treatment of coccidiosis in Japanese quails, or at least not using methods of preparation and administration applied in this study.

  1. Effects of dietary taurine on egg production, egg quality and cholesterol levels in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Rong; Dong, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Tong, Jian-Ming; Xie, Zhong-Guo; Zhang, Qi

    2010-12-01

    Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and has many biological properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with taurine on egg production, egg quality, and cholesterol level in serum and egg yolk of quails. A total of 108 quails aged 6 weeks were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of nine quails. The diets were supplemented with 0, 100, and 500 mg kg(-1) of taurine for 8 weeks. Dietary 500 mg kg(-1) taurine significantly affected egg production rate and feed conversion ratio, but had no significant effects on body weight gain, feed consumption, or egg weight. Dietary taurine had no significant effect on egg quality parameters studied. Serum triglyceride concentration was reduced significantly with supplementation of taurine at 100 and 500 mg kg(-1). Egg yolk cholesterol content was reduced significantly, and the contents of serum taurine and egg yolk taurine were increased significantly with taurine supplementation at 500 mg kg(-1). Results of the present study indicated that adding 500 mg kg(-1) taurine reduced yolk cholesterol concentration and increased yolk taurine content without adverse effects on performance and egg quality of laying quails. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Níveis de proteína bruta e energia metabolizável na ração para codornas de corte Dietary crude protein and metabolizable energy levels for meat quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Chalegre de Freitas

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de PB (20, 22, 24 e 26% e EM (2.565, 2.715, 2.865 e 3.015 kcal/kg na ração sobre o desempenho de codornas de corte. Foram utilizadas 768 codornas européias (Coturnix coturnix coturnix, machos e fêmeas no período de 1 a 42 dias de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial 4 x 4 (proteína x energia, com três repetições de 16 aves. Não houve efeito significativo da interação proteína × energia nem dos níveis de PB sobre o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar das aves e a viabilidade econômica das rações. Entretanto, o aumento do nível de energia da ração provocou redução linear no consumo de ração, aumentou o ganho de peso e melhorou a conversão alimentar das aves. O consumo de ração por codornas de corte depende do nível de energia da ração. O melhor desempenho destas aves foi obtido com 20% de PB e 2.865 kcal de EM/kg.The effect of different CP (20, 22, 24, and 26% of CP and ME (2,565, 2,715, 2,865, and 3,015 kcal of ME/kg. levels on the performance of meat quails was evaluated. Seven hundred and sixty-eight European quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix of both sexes from 1 to 42 days of age were assigned to a completely randomized design with 4 x 4 factorial arrangement (protein x energy and grouped into three clusters with 16 birds each. No significant interaction among protein-energy and protein levels on feed intake, weight gain, feed:gain ratio and viability was observed. However, increasing the dietary energy level resulted in linear reduction of feed intake and greater weight gain and feed:gain ratio. Feed intake of meat quails depends on the dietary energy level. Diet containing 20% CP and 2,865 kcal ME/kg account for better meat quail performance.

  3. Mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory . The analysis of the ...

  4. mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory. The analysis of the ...

  5. Juniper oil improves oxidative stability and eggshell and albumin quality of quail eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, S S; Yesilbag, D; Meral, Y; Cetin, I; Biricik, H

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of juniper oil (JO) dietary supplementation on the laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of quail. 2. A total of 400 female Pharaoh quails were equally divided into 4 groups containing 100 quails (5 replicates of 20 quails each). The study included a control treatment with no diet additives, and the treatments were as follows: (group 1) 100 mg JO/kg; (group 2) 200 mg JO/kg; (group 3) 300 mg JO/kg. The experiment was carried out for 60 d. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, yolk colour, egg production, feed consumption or feed efficiency. 4. The Haugh unit was increased in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control group. Dietary fortification with JO improved eggshell thickness and breaking strength compared to the control group. Furthermore, the damaged egg ratio was significantly decreased in group 3 compared to the control. The increasing concentration of JO (200 and 300 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in egg yolk MDA concentration after 15 and 30 d of storage at 20°C. 5. It was concluded that inclusion of JO in layer diets can improve egg quality characteristics in terms of Haugh unit, eggshell thickness and breaking strength. Moreover, supplementation of JO in the diets of quail may enhance the antioxidant status of eggs, and the most effective doses of JO were 200 and 300 mg/kg.

  6. Molecular cloning of motilin and mechanism of motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apu, Auvijit Saha; Mondal, Anupom; Kitazawa, Takio; Takemi, Shota; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Motilin, a peptide hormone produced in the upper intestinal mucosa, plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. In the present study, we first determined the cDNA and amino acid sequences of motilin in the Japanese quail and studied the distribution of motilin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract. We also examined the motilin-induced contractile properties of quail GI tracts using an in vitro organ bath, and then elucidated the mechanisms of motilin-induced contraction in the proventriculus and duodenum of the quail. Mature quail motilin was composed of 22 amino acid residues, which showed high homology with chicken (95.4%), human (72.7%), and dog (72.7%) motilin. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that motilin-immunopositive cells were present in the mucosal layer of the duodenum (23.4±4.6cells/mm(2)), jejunum (15.2±0.8cells/mm(2)), and ileum (2.5±0.7cells/mm(2)), but were not observed in the crop, proventriculus, and colon. In the organ bath study, chicken motilin induced dose-dependent contraction in the proventriculus and small intestine. On the other hand, chicken ghrelin had no effect on contraction in the GI tract. Motilin-induced contraction in the duodenum was not inhibited by atropine, hexamethonium, ritanserin, ondansetron, or tetrodotoxin. However, motilin-induced contractions in the proventriculus were significantly inhibited by atropine and tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that motilin is the major stimulant of GI contraction in quail, as it is in mammals and the site of action of motilin is different between small intestine and proventriculus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bird brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Martin

    2013-10-21

    For many animals, the effort to rear their young is considerable. In birds, this often includes building nests, incubating eggs, feeding the chicks, and protecting them from predators. Perhaps for this reason, about 1% of birds (around 100 species) save themselves the effort and cheat instead. They are obligate brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species and leaving the hosts or foster parents to rear the foreign chicks for them. Some birds also cheat on individuals of the same species (intraspecific brood parasitism). Intraspecific brood parasitism has been reported in around 200 species, but is likely to be higher, as it can often only be detected by genetic analyses.

  8. Hatching synchrony in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Tippeltová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about hatching synchrony in birds. Generally, among birds there are two types of hatching - asynchronous and synchronous- and the type of hatching is primarily determined by the time of the onset of incubation. In many bird species, including most precocial ones, incubation does not begin until the last egg has been laid, which results in hatching of all the eggs within a few hours. In synchronously-hatched broods, all the chicks are about the same age. Thus no single ...

  9. Effect of in ovo injection of threonine on immunoglobulin A gene expression in the intestine of Japanese quail at hatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanshahi, H; Ghofrani Tabari, D; Khodambashi Emami, N; Daneshmand, A; Ibrahim, S A

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of in ovo injection of threonine (THR) on immunoglobulin A (IgA) gene expression of Japanese quail on hatch day. A total of 540 Japanese quail eggs were assigned into nine groups of 60 each and were set in a single-stage incubator. Treatments were as follows: non-injected (control), two diluent levels (0.05 or 0.1 ml saline), two sites of injection (in or under the air sac) and with or without nutrients (0.5 mg/ml THR). Eggs were injected on d 11 of incubation. On hatch day, after euthanizing hatched quail chicks, the intestine was removed and the jejunum was separated. The relative mRNA expression of jejunal IgA increased (p Japanese quail chicks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Comparative growth performance in different Japanese quail lines: the effect of muscle DNA content and fiber morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y M; Sarah, D; Shin, S; Wick, M P; Kim, B C; Lee, K

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA content and morphological characteristics of muscle fibers, and their relation to the growth performance in random bred control (RBC) and heavy weight (HW) Japanese quail lines. The 2 lines were of similar embryo size at 6 and 8 d of incubation; however, HW quail were significantly larger than their counterparts after 10 d of incubation (P quail line was approximately 1.3-fold higher than the RBC quail line (P quail lines. The RBC line showed a faster rate of increase in PMW (2.7- vs. 2.1-fold) and total DNA mass (2.2- vs. 1.6-fold) between 0 and 4 d posthatch. The HW line exhibited a greater rate of the PMW (33.0- vs. 12.9-fold) and total DNA mass (10.3- vs. 4.0-fold) between 4 and 15 d posthatch than the RBC line. Moreover, the greatest increase in total DNA mass occurred between 0 and 8 d posthatch for the RBC line and 4 to 15 d posthatch for the HW line. These differences in the DNA content indicate a difference in the hypertrophic potential of muscle fibers between the 2 quail lines. The cross-sectional area of muscle fibers was 1.3-fold greater in the HW line compared with the RBC line at 8 d posthatch (158.5 vs. 97.11 μm(2), P quail lines are between 0 to 8 d and 4 to 15 d posthatch, respectively. Rapid muscle growth rate and a greater muscle mass in the HW quail line may be partially due to the hypertrophic potential of muscle fibers, which is characterized by larger fiber size.

  11. Comparative cytogenomics of poultry: mapping of single gene and repeat loci in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Marla C; Robinson, Charmaine M; Gehlen, Lida P; Delany, Mary E

    2014-04-01

    Well-characterized molecular and cytogenetic maps are yet to be established in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The aim of the current study was to cytogenetically map and determine linkage of specific genes and gene complexes in Japanese quail through the use of chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genomic DNA probes and conduct a comparative study among the three genomes. Chicken and turkey clones were used as probes on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene stage chromosomes of the three species for the purpose of high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The genes and complexes studied included telomerase RNA (TR), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), 5S rDNA, 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA (i.e., nucleolus organizer region (NOR)), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The telomeric profile of Japanese quail was investigated through the use of FISH with a TTAGGG-PNA probe. A range of telomeric array sizes were confirmed as found for the other poultry species. Three NOR loci were identified in Japanese quail, and single loci each for TR, TERT, 5S rDNA and the MHC-B. The MHC-B and one NOR locus were linked on a microchromosome in Japanese quail. We confirmed physical linkage of 5S rDNA and the TR gene on an intermediate-sized chromosome in quail, similar to both chicken and turkey. TERT localized to CJA 2 in quail and the orthologous chromosome region in chicken (GGA 2) and in turkey (MGA 3). The cytogenetic profile of Japanese quail was further developed by this study and synteny was identified among the three poultry species.

  12. Nuisance Birds Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.

  13. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  14. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  15. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Subtypes Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Related Links Research Glossary of Influenza (Flu) Terms ...

  16. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  17. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  18. Aproveitamento de nutrientes e de energia da ração de codornas japonesas em postura com o uso de fitase Nutrient and energy utilization from the feedings of laying Japanese quails by using phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heder José D'Avila Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da adição de fitase no aproveitamento dos ingredientes da ração para codornas. Foram utilizadas 200 codornas japonesas fêmeas com 251 dias de idade, peso médio de 187,2 ± 6,0 g e taxa de produção de ovos de 84,8%, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro dietas experimentais e cinco repetições de dez aves por unidade experimental. As dietas experimentais consistiram de uma ração basal à base de milho e farelo de soja, formulada para atender às exigências nutricionais das codornas e às recomendações da matriz da fitase, suplementada com 0, 200, 400 ou 600 unidades de fitase (uf/kg. Utilizando-se o método de coleta total de excretas, foram determinados os valores de matéria seca ingerida, matéria seca excretada, energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pela retenção de nitrogênio (EMAn e os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade da energia corrigida ou não pelo balanço de nitrogênio. Foi calculada também a quantidade de fósforo, cálcio e nitrogênio retido por ave/dia. De maneira geral, houve melhora no aproveitamento da energia das rações com a suplementação de fitase. Os níveis de 195 e 186 uf/kg resultaram em maior aproveitamento da EMA e EMAn. Não houve diferença na retenção de fósforo e cálcio. O nível de 600 (uf/kg promove menor excreção de nitrogênio, porém o de 368 uF/kg é suficiente para máxima retenção de nitrogênio pelas codornas.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phytase addition on the use of feeding ingredients for laying quails. It was used 200 female Japanese quails at 251 days of age at an average weight of 187.2 ± 6.0 g and egg production rate of 84.8%. The quails were distributed in a complete random design with four experimental diets and five repetitions of ten birds per experimental unity. The experimental diets were consisted of corn and

  19. Metionina mais cistina digestível e relação metionina mais cistina digestível: lisina para codornas japonesas Digestible methionine plus cystine and relation digestible methionine plus cystine: lysine for japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Francisco Valiati Marin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o melhor nível de metionina mais cistina digestível e a melhor relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível em diferentes níveis de proteína para codorna em postura. Foram utilizadas 400 codornas japonesas produtoras de ovos de consumo com 45 dias de idade, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 2 x 5, dois níveis de proteína bruta (19,5% e 21,5% e cinco níveis de metionina mais cistina digestível (0,60%; 0,67%; 0,74%; 0,81% e 0,88%, com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Foram analisadas as taxas de postura (%, peso médio dos ovos (g, massa de ovos (g de ovos/ave/dia, consumo de ração (g/ave/dia, conversão alimentar (g de ração/g de ovos, peso e porcentagem de gema (g e %, peso e porcentagem de clara (g e % e peso e porcentagem de casca (g e %. Para o nível de 19,5% de proteína 0,60% de metionina mais cistina digestível e relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível de 0,66% foram suficientes para otimizar a produção. Para o nível de 21,5% de proteína 0,851% de metionina mais cistina digestível com relação metionina mais cistina digestível:lisina digestível de 0,935% com consumo diário de 223,3mg/ave levou a uma melhor produção de ovos de codornas.This research had the purpose to determine the best level of digestible methionine plus cystine and the best relation of digestible methionine plus cystine:digestible lysine in different levels of protein for laying Japanese quails. 400 laying Japanese quails, with 45 days of age were used in a completely randomized design, with a factorial 2 x 5, two crude protein levels (19,5% and 21,5% and five levels of digestible methionine plus cystine (0,60%; 0,67%; 0,74%; 0,81% e 0,88%, with five replicates and eight quails per experimental unity. There were analysis of the posture rate (%, egg average weight (g egg mass (egg grams/bird/day, feed intake (g/bird/day, feed

  20. Birds in portuguese literature

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Soares, Filipa

    2016-01-01

    UID/ELT/00657/2013 WOS:000374914600004 IF/00222/2013 Birds are emblematic natural elements of landscapes. Readily noticeable and appreciated due to their songs and flight, they have been thoroughly used as components of literary scenarios. This paper analyses their representations in a broad corpus (144 writings by 67 writers) since the nineteenth century, divided in three time-periods. It aims to understand which wild birds are represented in Portuguese literature, how those represe...

  1. Effect of Katuk leaf (Sauropus androgynus L. Merr suplementation in the diet on reproductive function of Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Subekti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Katuk (Sauropus androgynus L Merr is known to contain carotenoids, vitamin E, vitamin C, protein, and sterol compounds. This study was aimed to determine whether phytosterol in Sauropus androgynus (SA leaf affected the reproductive system of female quails. One hundred and fifty female quails were raised from 2-27 weeks old and divided into three dietary treatment, with five replicates and 10 quails in each replicate. The treatment diets were: 1 control group: diet without katuk leaf meal; 2 diet with 9% SA ethanol extract (TEK; 3 Diet containing 9% SA meal (TDK. The TDK-fed quails laid their first eggs at 46 day of age, compared with the TEK (52 day and the control groups (53 day. The highest fertility (94.55% and hatchability (93.29% were obtained from the TDK fed quails at the age of 23 and 24 weeks, respectively. These findings indicated that the reproductive system of female quails were improved not only by phytosterol in SA leaf, but also by the β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol in SA leaf.

  2. Effects of medium-chain fatty acids on performance, carcass characteristics, blood biochemical parameters and immune response in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, E; Shokrollahi, B; Karimi, K; Amiri-Andi, M

    2016-06-01

    This study had the aim of evaluating the effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on performance, carcass characteristics, some blood parameters and antibody titre against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in quail. A total of 240 quail chicks were allotted to 4 treatments consisting of respectively 0, 1, 2 and 4 g/kg dietary MCFA. There were no significant differences in body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio among treatments at different stages of the experiment. MCFAs had no significant effect on breast, thigh, liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius weight ratios. However, the relative weight of abdominal fat significantly decreased in quail receiving 0.2 and 0.4 MCFA as compared to other treatments. Concentrations of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL), triglycerides and total cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was increased in quail chicks receiving MCFA compared with control quail chicks. The concentrations of SRBC antibody were not statistically different among treatments. It is concluded that MCFA significantly decreased LDL, triglycerides, cholesterol and abdominal fat and increased HDL in quail chicks.

  3. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Phos-Chek G75-F and Silv-Ex on developing Northern Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, D.M.; Hoffman, D.J.; Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Kuenzel, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Eggs of nesting birds situated in peripheral areas serving as fire breaks are at risk of being sprayed with fire control chemicals. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by immersing northern bobwhite quail eggs for 10 s in different water-based concentrations of Silv-Ex? (SE), a foam-suppressant chemical, and Phos-Chek? G75-F (PC), a fire retardant chemical, on day 4 or day 11 of incubation. An attempt was made to relate the treatment concentrations to the actual field application levels. Mortality appeared higher in most groups exposed on day 11 than on day 4, suggesting that on day 11 the extensive chorioallantoic vascular network permitted greater uptake of chemical. Only 24-60% of the embryos survived to hatch at exposure concentrations of 202, 269, and 454 g/L, PC when treated on incubation day 11. At higher concentrations including 681, 956, and 1,211 g/L PC, the compound did not completely dissolve in water and clumped on eggshells, resulting in greater hatching success. Exposures to SE at 100 g/L on incubation day 11 did not significantly affect hatching success of embryos but did significantly reduce the percent hematocrit in blood compared with controls. Incubation day 11 exposure to 202 and 1,211 g/L PC led to a significant increase in plasma aspartate aminotransferase, and day 4 exposure to 1,211 g/L PC resulted in a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase. In addition to elevated liver enzymes, these treatments resulted in a decrease in the number of hepatocyte profiles (1,211 g/L PC at day 4 and day 11) and an increase in hepatocyte size (202 and 1,211 g/L PC at day 11) in hatchlings. A combination of SE and PC was synergistic (202 g/L PC and 50 g/L SE) at day 11 of incubation with respect to decreased hatching success and reduced bone lengths. However, lower concentrations of SE (10 g/L or 30 g/L) combined with 202 g/L of PC appeared antagonistic. This may be due to SE, as a surfactant, altering the ability of PC to penetrate the egg. Our

  5. Role Of SYNBIOTICS And Low Level GAMMA Irradiation Treatments In Improving Performance Of Japanese Quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABU-TALEB, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A total number of 800 Japanese quail eggs were obtained from a parent flock maintained the poultry research unit of the Biological Application Department, Nuclear Research Centre at Inshas, Egypt, and used in the present study. Before incubating the eggs, they were divided into two equal groups of 400 eggs each; the 1 st group was exposed to a low level of gamma irradiation at 50 rad before sitting while the 2 nd group did not exposed to gamma irradiation. After hatching of the two groups, fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and hatching weight were determined. Hatched quail chicks from each group (1 and 2) were divided into four identical subgroups and all fed the basal diet but with a different supplement. The diet of the 1 st subgroup was supplemented with 2.5% Lactobacilli, the 2 nd with 1.5% lactose, the 3 rd with 2.5% Lactobacilli plus 1.5% lactose, while the 4 th subgroup was fed the basal diet only and served as control. The results showed decreased embryonic mortality and increased hatchability and hatching weight due to exposing quail eggs to low level of gamma radiation as compared to non-exposed eggs. The average body weight and the relative weights of carcass, testis and oviduct, egg production, egg weight, serum total protein, albumin, globulins, RBC, WBC and Hb values were increased significantly (P th week due to adding Lactobacilli and lactose to the basal diet. Significant reduction (P<0.05) in the intestinal wall index was observed due to adding Lactobacilli and lactose to the basal diet of hatched quails. In conclusion, adding Lactobacilli and/or lactose to the basal diet of hatched Japanese quails improved performance as well as blood constituents and intestinal wall index. The magnitude of this improvement was even greater when both supplements were combined. In addition, the exposure of eggs to low level of gamma radiation (50 rad) improved hatchability and hatching weight of Japanese quail eggs, but no relationship to dietary

  6. Curvas de probabilidade de postura de codornas = Laying probability curves in quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Rossi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Para se estabelecer um modelo para a produção diária de ovos de 308, 374 e 378 codornas de postura, respectivamente, das distintas linhagens L1, L2 e L3, avaliou-se, em um período de 90 dias de produção inicial, a utilização de três modelos distintos, em umaabordagem Bayesiana. Observou-se que um modelo do tipo log-linear condicional não é adequado para ajustar os dados para nenhuma das três linhagens analisadas. Alternativamente, que os dados podem ser ajustados de forma mais adequada quando se utiliza um modelo deefeitos aleatórios com função de ligação logística, considerando-se que θij é a probabilidade de postura da ave i no dia tj, na forma θij = exp(αi + βitj/[1 + exp(αi + βitj], em que os parâmetros α e β representam, respectivamente, o início da postura e a evolução da postura da ave. Considerando-se os efeitos de dois níveis de eclosão e de dieta no modelo, observou-se que as mesmas não apresentaram ser significantes. Por meio de contrastes Bayesianos, verificaram-sediferenças significativas entre linhagens em favor de L1, considerando-se os parâmetros das curvas de probabilidade de postura média. A superioridade da linhagem L1 deve-se ao início precoce da postura e à maior persistência média de produção.In order to establish a model for the daily egg production of 308, 374 and 378 laying quails from strains L1, L2 and L3, respectively, this study evaluated, during a 90-day period of initial production, the use of three distinct models in a Bayesian approach. It was observed that a model of the conditional log-linear type is not appropriate to adjust the data for any of the three analyzed strains. Alternatively, that data can be adjusted more adequately using a random effects model with a logistic linking function, considering that θij is the laying probability of the bird i in tj days, as θij = exp(αi + βitj/[1 + exp(αi + βitj], in which the parameters α and βrepresent, respectively

  7. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  8. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Incorporation of lutein and docosahexaenoic acid from dietary microalgae into the retina in quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnebelen-Berthier, Coralie; Acar, Niyazi; Pouillart, Philippe; Thabuis, Clementine; Rodriguez, Bertrand; Depeint, Flore; Clerc, Elise; Mathiaud, Adeline; Bourdillon, Anne; Baert, Blandine; Bretillon, Lionel; Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-01

    Lutein and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with the prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since microalgae are potent natural sources of these nutrients, their nutritional value should be evaluated based on the bioavailability of lutein and DHA for the retina via the plasmatic compartment. In this study, quail were fed for 5 months either with a diet supplemented or deprived with microalgae rich in lutein and DHA. In the microalgae-fed group, the retinal concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin gradually increased whereas in plasma, these compounds started to increase from the first month of supplementation. We also observed a significant increase in retinal and plasmatic levels of DHA in the microalgae-fed group. In conclusion, the plasmatic and retinal contents of lutein and DHA were significantly increased in quail fed with lutein- and DHA-rich microalgae. Food fortification with microalgae may be an innovative way to increase lutein and DHA consumption in humans.

  10. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    1. To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr.2. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period.3. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  11. A simple PCR method for sexing Japanese quail Coturnix japonica at hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustham, V; Godet, E; Beauclair, L

    2017-02-01

    1. The quail is a potentially important avian model for molecular studies; a major drawback is the inability to sex visually before 3 weeks of age. Molecular sexing is therefore an absolute requirement when animals are sampled before that age. 2. A low-cost method using common laboratory equipment based on Allele-Specific Multiplex-Polymerase Chain Reaction was developed to undertake reliable molecular identification of the sex of Coturnix japonica directly at hatching. 3. This simple method works with down feathers collected from behind the neck of the newly hatched quail and includes internal controls during the PCR to limit risks of error. Males and females can be discriminated on the basis of the presence of one or two amplicons, respectively.

  12. Influence of the method of fluoride administration on toxicity and fluoride concentrations in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Schuler, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were administered NaF for 16 d either in their diet or by esophageal intubation. Based on the total fluoride ion (Emg F-) intake over the l6-d experimental period, fluoride administered by intubation was at least six times more toxic than that fed in the diet. Dietary concentrations of 1,000 ppm F- (Emg F- for 16 d = approx. 144) produced no mortality, whereas intubated doses produced 73% or greater mortality in all groups administered 54 mg F- /kg/d or more (Emg F- for 16 d _ approx. 23 mg). GraphIc companson of the regression of log F- ppm in femurs/mg F- intake showed that fluoride levels in the femurs of quail administered fluoride by intubation were higher than in those administered fluoride in the diet.

  13. Estimation of lysine requirements of growing Japanese quail during the fourth and fifth weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Mehran; Bagherzadeh Kasmani, Farzad; Asghari-Moghadam, Morteza

    2015-08-01

    A dose-response assay was conducted using broken-line regressions to estimate the lysine (Lys) requirements of quail chicks from 21 to 35 d of age. A basal diet was formulated to be adequate in all nutrients other than Lys. Incremental levels of L-Lys.HCl were added to the basal diet at the expense of a mix of cornstarch, NaHCO3, and NaCl to create 6 experimental diets containing 0.84 to 1.59% Lys. Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) responded quadratically to incremental levels of Lys (P Japanese quail at the late stage of production might be 1.36% of diet, which is 105% of NRC recommendations. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica: new characteristic features and diagnostic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail Coturnix japonica originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current paper characterizes Eimeria bateri, Eimeria tsunodai and Eimeria uzura recovered from C. japonica. Based on the fact that quails have a global distribution, as are their coccidia, the findings of this study should provide the means for diagnosis of those Eimeria spp. in other regions and continents. Eimeria bateri showed the greatest intensity of infection and shed oocysts from the fourth day after infection; in contrast, E. tsunodai and E. uzura shed oocysts from the fifth day after infection. The three species shared a high degree of similarity and were all polymorphic. Yet, the application of line regressions, histograms and ANOVA provided means for the identification of these species. Finally, the algorithm was very efficient since verified that resultant values were not superimposed.

  15. Effect of dietary organic selenium and zinc on the internal egg quality of quail eggs for different periods and under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IB Fernandez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal quality of eggs of Japanese quails fed diets supplemented with chelated selenium and zinc. The experiment was carried out for 120 days, and 144 birds were divided in random blocks into four treatments (control; 0.3 ppm Se; 60 ppm Zn and 0.3 ppm Se + 60 ppm Zn. Ten, 14, 18, and 22 weeks after the beginning of lay, eggs were collected and stored under two different temperatures (environmental temperature or refrigeration and for 10, 20, and 30 days. Eggs were analyzed for: Haugh units (HU, albumen height (AH, yolk index (YI, and albumen index (AI. Parameters were only statistically influenced by the interaction between dietary treatment and storage time. It was concluded that the addition of organic Se and Zn influenced internal egg quality when eggs were stored up to 20 days, independently of storage temperature, suggesting that the combined supplementation of organic Se and Zn improve internal egg quality and extend egg shelf life.

  16. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... appeal. However, some studies have found birds to perform relatively poorly as indicators. We therefore ask how the effectiveness of this approach can be improved by supplementing data on birds with information on other taxa. 2. Here, we explore two strategies using (i) species data for other taxa...... and (ii) genus- and family-level data for invertebrates (when available). We used three distinct species data sets for sub-Saharan Africa, Denmark and Uganda, which cover different spatial scales, biogeographic regions and taxa (vertebrates, invertebrates and plants). 3. We found that networks of priority...

  17. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  18. BIRD ATTACK OCULAR INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabbarvand

    2017-03-29

    To report 30 patients with bird attack-related eye injuries. This study was performed among patients coming to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2015 with a history of bird attack causing eye injury. The inclusion criteria were a history of bird attack by pecking causing eye injury and having treatment and follow-up record for at least 6 months after treatment. The primary eye examinations included a full ophthalmic examination including evaluation of uncorrected visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment slit lamp biomicroscopy, and photography. For all patients with penetrating injury, primary repair was undertaken. Thirty patients (10 females and 20 males) with a mean age of 23.3 ± 18.5 years entered the study. The most common zone of injury was zone 1 (P < 0.001), and lensectomy was not needed in majority of patients (P < 0.001). The most common bird causing the injury was mynah (P < 0.001). Those patients with baseline BCVA of less than 20/200 or those with endophthalmitis had statistically worse final BCVA after treatment. Patients attacked by mynah bird had significantly better pretreatment uncorrected visual acuity and BCVA. The most common bird causing the eye injury among the sample of patients from Iran was mynah, which differs with previous studies indicating the rooster attack as the most common cause of eye injury. The authors also found that the most common zone of injury was zone 1, and the presence of endophthalmitis and lower baseline BCVA were significant risk factors for worse visual outcomes.

  19. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  20. Comparação de valores de energia metabolizável de alimentos determinados com frangos de corte e com codornas visando à formulação de dietas para codornas japonesas Comparison of metabolizable energy values of food determined with broilers and quails aiming at formulation of diets for Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Santana de Araujo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 648 codornas japonesas com produção de ovos de 91,1% distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com nove repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. As dietas foram avaliadas em arranjo fatorial 3 × 3 (alimento × formulação, por meio de medidas de desempenho das aves e de qualidade dos ovos. A interação entre alimento alternativo e formulação influenciou o consumo de ração; as demais variáveis (desempenho e características internas e externas dos ovos não foram influenciadas pelos alimentos alternativos avaliados. O ganho de peso, a taxa de postura, o peso médio de ovo, a massa de ovo, a conversão alimentar por massa e a porcentagem de casca variaram de acordo com a formulação. Os valores de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida do milho, do sorgo, do farelo de soja e das farinhas de vísceras de aves, de carne e ossos e de peixe determinados em frangos de corte e em galinhas poedeiras não são apropriados para formulação de dietas para codornas japonesas.It was used 648 Japanese quails with 91.1% of egg production in a completely randomized experiment design with nine replicates and eight birds per experimental unit. The diets were evaluated in a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (food × feed formulation through bird performance measures and egg quality. The interaction among alternative food and formulation influenced feed intake. Both performance and internal and external egg traits were not affected by food alternative. Weight gain, laying rate, egg average weight, egg mass, feed conversion per mass and shell percentage varied according to the formulation. Values of corrected apparent metabolizable energy of corn, sorghum, soybean meal and poultry by product meal, meat and fish bones determined in broilers and laying hens are not suitable for formulation of diets for Japanese quails.

  1. Identification of New World Quails Susceptible to Infection with Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plachý, Jiří; Reinišová, Markéta; Kučerová, Dana; Šenigl, Filip; Stepanets, Volodymyr; Hron, Tomáš; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Elleder, Daniel; Hejnar, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2017), č. článku e02002. ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30983S; GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : ALV-J * antiretroviral resistance * Na+/H+ exchanger * New World quail * retroviral receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 4.663, year: 2016

  2. The effect of embryonic development on the thickness of the eggshells of the coturnix quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1972-01-01

    The average thickness of the shells from 75 unincubated coturnix quail eggs was found to be 0.193 mm. This was 7.3 percent greater than the average thickness (0.179 mm.) of the shells from 60 fully incubated eggs from the same hens. The two sets of eggs were collected simultaneously. This thickness difference was statistically significant (t-test:p< 0.005).

  3. The Negative Influence of High-Glucose Ambience on Neurogenesis in Developing Quail Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yao; Fan, Jian-xia; Zhang, Zhao-long; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes is defined as glucose intolerance during pregnancy and it is presented as high blood glucose levels during the onset pregnancy. This condition has an adverse impact on fetal development but the mechanism involved is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of high glucose on the developing quail embryo, especially its impact on the development of the nervous system. We established that high glucose altered the central nervous system mophologi...

  4. Effects of Dietary Protein Level and Betaine Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ratriyanto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of dietary protein levels and betaine supplementation on nutrient digestibility and performance of Japanese quails. In total, 765 Japanese quails were randomly assigned to a 3×3 factorial arrangement, with five replicates of 17 quails each. Three basal diets were formulated to contain three crude protein levels (16.5, 18.0, and 19.5%. Each protein level was supplemented with 0, 0.06, and 0.12% betaine. The diet with 16.5% dietary crude protein with no betaine supplementation resulted in the lowest crude fiber digestibility, while the 18.0% CP diet supplemented with 0.12% betaine generated the highest crude fiber digestibility (p<0.05. The diets with 18.0 and 19.5% crude protein increased crude fiber digestibility, but reduced ether extract digestibility (p<0.01. Moreover, betaine supplementation increased dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, and crude ash (p<0.01 digestibility and tended to increase ether extract digestibility (p=0.09. The increase in egg weight for the 18.0 and 19.5% protein diets was correlated with a decrease in feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. However, feed intake and egg production were not affected by protein levels. Betaine supplementation enhanced all performance variables (p<0.01. The diets with 18.0 and 19.5% crude protein resulted in heavier yolks and eggshells than the 16.5% crude protein diet (p<0.05, whereas betaine supplementation increased yolk, albumen, and eggshell weight (p<0.01. The 18.0 and 19.5% protein diets produced similar responses in most evaluated parameters. Laying Japanese quails can be fed diets with 18.0% crude protein. Moreover, betaine supplementation provided several benefits, and particularly improved nutrient digestibility, performance, and egg quality.

  5. Shelf life of fresh air packaged and precooked vacuum packaged quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of 3 batches (Q1, Q2, Q3 of quail meat, were examined. Q1 were cut and seasoned with commercial olive oil, stoned green olive and sliced bacon. Q2 were divided into two subgroups: Q2.1 produced in the previously described conditions; Q2.2 seasoned also with rosemary. Quails were placed in lowdensity polystirene barrier trays and aerobically packaged. Q3 quails were boiled in salted hot water for 40 min, seasoned with myrtle leafs, placed in low density polyethylene bags and vacuum packaged. All samples were stored at +2 and +7°C. Analysis were conducted at 0, 3, 7, 9 and 14 days (T0, T3, T7, T9, and T14, respectively. For all the samples, pH measurement and microbial analysis [total viable count (TVC, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Lactobacillus spp. (LAB, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS, Enterococcus spp., yeasts and moulds, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes] were performed. Initial TVC levels of fresh quails (ca. 4 log CFU/g were rather high and this may be due to the microbial population of the raw material. In Q1 and Q2.1 samples, TVC reached the value of 7 log, which is considered as the upper acceptability limit for fresh poultry meat (after T9 under storage at +2°C and after T7 at +7°C. In Q2.2 samples such limit was reached earlier, after T3. In Q3 samples, lower TVC levels were recorded and did not reach the above mentioned limit, not even at the end of storage. However, mean counts >5 log were reached, maybe because of a post-cooking cross-contamination. Salmonella spp. prevalence was 33% in Q1, Q2.1 and Q2.2 samples.

  6. Discussing implications of fast depleting rural ponds on the globally threatened wetland winter migratory bird in Haryana: a Case Study of Nigdu village pond in Karnal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohtash Chand Gupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Nigdu-Sarovar is located in Nilokheri block in Karnal district in Haryana (29°50′N 76°55′E. The duration of observations span over seven years (September, 2005 to March, 2012. The recording of wetland winter visitor birds during 2005-08 in winter season included atleast 58 species of birds belonging to 10 orders and 18 families. It is important to mention that 29 species of wetland birds were winter migratory, 17 residents, 9 local migratory and three species of wetland birds like Lesser-whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica, Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus and Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus were summer migratory. The special features of 2005-06 winter was the huge populations of birds like Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata, Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Common Teal Anas crecca, Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhynchus, Common Pochard Aythya ferina, Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, Greylag Goose Anser anser, Gadwall Anas strepera, Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Common Redshank Tringa totanus etc.In successive years, the scenario was more or less a substantial one depicting stability with respect to diversity of birds, number of birds upto the year of 2008. The popular birds included Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, Openbill Stork Anastomus oscitans, White-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus, Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus, Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer and Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrines. The sharp decline in winter migratory birds at “Nigdu-Sarovar” started in the year of 2008 when the pond was leased out for FISH-FARMING as per the policies of Govt. of Haryana. Fish Farming based deepening of the pond by excavation of bottom resulting in total decimation of rooted, floating, submerged and ejecting plants along with its subsidiary fauna, Zooplanktons, phytoplankton etc. The age old structural regime of the pond

  7. Wind power and bird kills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

  8. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) on high fat diet induced quail atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-01-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.

  9. Dietary cadmium and enteropathy in the Japanese quail: histochemical and ultrastructural studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.E.; Fox, M.R.S.

    1974-01-01

    Cadmium was fed to young Japanese quail, at a level of 75 mg. per kg. of diet, from hatching to 4 weeks of age. Cadmium produced gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions in the proximal small intestine of these quail, similar to those occurring in human malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, nontropical sprue, and tropical sprue. The small intestines of the quail were dilated and thin walled. Villi were short and thick and had a dense cellular infiltrate in the lamina propria. The striated border was thin but stained for neutral mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal border. Some villi were covered with stratified epithelial cells. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of goblet were seen, but the mucin stained for weakly acidic mucopolysaccharides, as did the normal cells. At the ultrastructural level, microvilli of both absorptive and goblet cells were markedly shortened, particularly near the tips of the villi. Absorptive cells were atrophic, and there was s diminution of the usual cellular organelles. Granular cisternae were long and tortuous, mitochondria were dense and small, and large lysosome-like bodies and large lipid droplets accumulated in the cytoplasm, but there was a decrease in the normal small, pale and dark lipid droplets. The cellular infiltrate of the lamina propria included groups of plasma cells with dilated cisternae. There were large, irregular, electron-dense bodies in the endothelium of large veins and degeneration of some nerve plexuses in the muscularis propria. 31 references, 21 figures.

  10. Digital Three-Dimensional Atlas of Quail Development Using High-Resolution MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth W. Ruffins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an archetypal set of three-dimensional digital atlases of the quail embryo based on microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI. The atlases are composed of three modules: (1 images of fixed ex ovo quail, ranging in age from embryonic day 5 to 10 (e05 to e10; (2 a coarsely delineated anatomical atlas of the μMRI data; and (3 an organ system-based hierarchical graph linked to the anatomical delineations. The atlas is designed to be accessed using SHIVA, a free Java application. The atlas is extensible and can contain other types of information including anatomical, physiological, and functional descriptors. It can also be linked to online resources and references. This digital atlas provides a framework to place various data types, such as gene expression and cell migration data, within the normal three-dimensional anatomy of the developing quail embryo. This provides a method for the analysis and examination of the spatial relationships among the different types of information within the context of the entire embryo.