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Sample records for birds bald eagle

  1. Bald eagle and osprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Anthony, R.G.; Pendleton, Beth Giron

    1989-01-01

    Bald eagles nested in all nine western states during recent years (about 19% of known U.S. population in 1982). The known numbers of nesting pairs in the west increased substantially in the last 10 years and totaled 584 in 1986. Much of the increase was due to more intensive survey efforts, but most biologists cite examples of new palrs establishing nesting territories. In contrast, productivity was relatively stable at 0.9 young produced per occupied territory with small annual fluctuations, a level slightly below the requirement for delisting (1.0 young per occupied territory) by the Pacific States Bald Eagle Recovery Plan. About 4,500 to 6,000 (minimum estimate) bald eagles winter throughout the western United States, which is about 50% of the surveyed population in the contiguous 48 states. Osprey range expansion and population increases have been documented in the West since 1981, when the population was estimated at 1,472 palrs (i.e., about 18% of the U.S. population). Monitoring efforts in the 1980s were not as intensive for ospreys as for bald eagles, but productivity was usually at the upper end of 0.95 to 13 young per occupied territory (a rate generally believed adequate for population stability). Although bald eagle and osprey nesting populations and productivity show cause for optimism, organochlorine contaminants remain a problem in a few individual birds and in some localized areas (e.g., lower Columbia River). DDE residues high enough to reduce productivity have been documented in eggs of both species during the 1980s. In addition, the bald eagle, which also forages on sick or dead prey, has been exposed to lead shot and the organophosphorus insecticide famphur. These contaminants have killed numbers of them in the West in recent years. Nesting ospreys appear more tolerant than nesting bald eagles of man and his disturbance; thus, more restrictions are required at bald eagle nest sites. Furthermore, bald eagles winter within the United States and

  2. 78 FR 72926 - Bald and Golden Eagles; Migratory Birds; Phase I Development of the Chokecherry-Sierra Madre Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... whether to issue a permit authorizing take of eagles for Phase I of the project. Programmatic eagle take... well as via press releases, local newspapers, radio announcements, and other media, at least 10 days... issue a programmatic permit authorizing take of eagles under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act...

  3. Bald Eagles at Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the process of transplanting eggs from one nest to another in an attempt to aid in the strengthening of the eagle population. Discusses pressures exerted on eagles by hunting, trapping and pesticides. (SLH)

  4. Mercury contamination in Idaho bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Marc J; Perkins, Dusty N; Kaltenecker, Gregory S; Alsup, Steve

    2009-11-01

    Because mercury contamination is potentially threatening to bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations, we collected molted feathers at nests to determine the level of contamination in bald eagles in the state of Idaho, USA. Eagle feathers contained measurable amounts of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), selenium (Se), lead (Pb), as well as mercury (Hg). Cadmium, Cr, Se, and Pb levels averaged 0.17, 4.68, 2.02, and 1.29 mg/kg dry weight, respectively, and were at or below concentrations indicated as causing reproductive failure in bald eagles. Mercury contamination was found to be the highest averaging 18.74 mg/kg dry weight. Although a concentration of only 7.5 mg/kg dry weight Hg in bird feathers can cause reduced productivity and even sterility, all of the eagles we sampled bred successfully and the population of bald eagles continues to grow annually throughout the state.

  5. Agonistic asymmetries and the foraging ecology of Bald Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Richard L.; Skagen, Susan Knight

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both asymmetries and differing food levels on contest outcomes of wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) feeding on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses. Large eagles, regardless of age, were more successful in pirating than smaller eagles. Small pirating eagles were usually unsuccessful unless they were adults attempting to supplant other small eagles. Feeding eagles were more successful in defeating pirating eagles according to (1) whether their heads were up to prior to a pirating attempt, (2) how long their heads had been up, and (3) whether they displayed. During periods of food scarcity pirating eagles were less successful, a fact attributed in a proximate sense to the increase incidence of retaliation by feeding birds. When food was scarce and eagles had a choice between scavenging the pirating, they chose to scavenge more often. Body size appears to be an important factor in determining social dominance and influencing differences in foraging modes of wintering Bald Eagles.

  6. Accumulation profiles of parabens and their metabolites in fish, black bear, and birds, including bald eagles and albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-09-01

    Although several studies have reported the ubiquitous occurrence of parabens in human specimens and the environment, little is known about the accumulation of these estrogenic chemicals in fish and birds. In this study, accumulation profiles of six parabens and their metabolites were determined in 254 tissue (including liver, kidney, egg, and plasma) samples from 12 species of fish and seven species of birds collected from inland, coastal, and remote aquatic ecosystems. In addition, liver and kidney tissues from black bears were analyzed. Methyl paraben (MeP) was found in a majority of the tissues, with the highest concentration (796ng/g (wet weight [wet wt])) found in the liver of a bald eagle from Michigan. 4-Hydroxy benzoate (HB) was the major metabolite, found in 91% of the tissue samples analyzed at concentrations as high as 68,600ng/g, wet wt, which was found in the liver of a white-tailed sea eagle from the Baltic Sea coast. The accumulation pattern of MeP and 4-HB varied, depending on the species. The mean concentrations of MeP measured in fishes from Michigan, New York, and Florida waters were <2.01 (fillet), 152 (liver), and 32.0 (liver) ng/g, wet wt, respectively, and the corresponding 4-HB concentrations were 39.5, 10,500, and 642ng/g, wet wt. The mean hepatic and renal concentrations of 4-HB in black bears were 1,720 and 1,330ng/g, wet wt, respectively. The concentrations of MeP and 4-HB were significantly positively correlated with each other in various tissues and species, which suggested a common source of exposure to these compounds in fish and birds. Trace concentrations of MeP and 4-HB also were found in the tissues of albatrosses from Midway Atoll, Northwestern Pacific Ocean, which suggested widespread distribution of these compounds in the marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Food habits of Bald Eagles breeding in the Arizona desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    Of 1814 foraging attempts, prey captures, or nest deliveries by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in 14 Arizona breeding areas during 1983-1985, 1471 observations were identifiable to at least class: fish (76%), mammal (18%), bird (4%), and reptile/amphibian (2%). Forty-five species were recorded: catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), suckers (...

  8. Constructing bald eagle nests with natural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    A technique for using natural materials to build artificial nests for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and other raptors is detailed. Properly constructed nests are as permanently secured to the nest tree or cliff substrate as any eagle-built nest or human-made platform. Construction normally requires about three hours and at least two people. This technique is...

  9. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  10. Bald eagles view their territory from high tower at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A pair of Florida bald eagles take advantage of a tower to rest and view the landscape near the intersection of the NASA Causeway and Kennedy Parkway North at Kennedy Space Center. This pair of eagles nests near Kennedy Parkway and is seen frequently by KSC commuters and visitors. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana and the south Atlantic states. Bald Eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most southern Florida eagles nesting at KSC arrive during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. . Kennedy Space Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  11. 76 FR 9529 - Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX53 Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance AGENCY: Fish and... mail to: Attention: Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish... implementing statutes including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act...

  12. Bald eagle, United States [chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2010-01-01

    "One of you boys will continue radio-tracking bears, and the other will start climbing trees to band bald eagle nestlings ... " That's how it all began for me back in the summer of 1967, on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska, my first summer job in the wildlife field. And as it turned out, that inauspicious beginning has led to a fascinating,...

  13. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering bald eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Chris J; Moriarty, Pamela E; Salathé, Eric P

    2012-03-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are recovering from severe population declines, and are exerting pressure on food resources in some areas. Thousands of bald eagles overwinter near Puget Sound, primarily to feed on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses. We used modeling techniques to examine how anticipated climate changes will affect energetic demands of overwintering bald eagles. We applied a regional downscaling method to two global climate change models to obtain hourly temperature, precipitation, wind, and longwave radiation estimates at the mouths of three Puget Sound tributaries (the Skagit, Hamma Hamma, and Nisqually rivers) in two decades, the 1970s and the 2050s. Climate data were used to drive bald eagle bioenergetics models from December to February for each river, year, and decade. Bald eagle bioenergetics were insensitive to climate change: despite warmer winters in the 2050s, particularly near the Nisqually River, bald eagle food requirements declined only slightly (eagles in the 2050s. That estimate is likely conservative, as it does not account for decreased availability of carcasses due to anticipated increases in winter stream flow. Future climate-driven declines in winter food availability, coupled with a growing bald eagle population, may force eagles to seek alternate prey in the Puget Sound area or in more remote ecosystems.

  14. Care, food consumption, and behavior of bald eagles used in DDT tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.

    1967-01-01

    Twenty-seven Bald Eagles captured in southeastern Alaska were used in feeding tests to determine the effects of DDT in the diet.....Trapping and housing of eagles are discussed. Various aspects of eagle behavior and handling techniques are also presented. Recommendations are made for preventing injuries and increasing the comfort of captive birds.....The 1962 test birds consumed an average of 274 grams per bird day with a range of 109 to 401 grams per day between birds. Average food intake was 254 grams per bird day for the 1963 test birds with a range of 194 to 324 grams per day between birds.....Weight losses varied from 23 to 49 per cent of normal body weight for the 7 birds which died in the 1962 tests. Tremors and death occurred first for birds on the highest dosage and progressively later for birds on the lower dosages.

  15. Metals and Organohalogen Contaminants in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from Ontario, 1991-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P A; Hughes, K D; Campbell, G D; Shutt, J L

    2018-02-01

    We examined the degree of exposure of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and several organohalogen contaminants and its potential impact on survival of bald eagles in Ontario from 1991 to 2008. Overall, results for 43 dead or dying bald eagles collected in the province indicate that 23% (10/43) of birds died of Pb poisoning and 9% (4/43) died of suspected Hg poisoning. Pb poisoning was diagnosed based on exceedances of toxicity thresholds in liver and kidney and supported by clinical observations, necropsy results, and histology findings when available. Evidence for Hg poisoning in eagles was limited; however, Hg concentrations exceeded the toxicity threshold in kidney. Pb concentrations ranged widely in liver and kidney. Total Hg concentrations were relatively higher in kidney compared with liver and were significantly correlated with selenium (Se) concentrations in both tissues. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE and sum PCBs in livers of 12 bald eagles collected from 2001 to 2004 were likely below concentrations associated with adverse effects. Hepatic concentrations of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers were generally higher in birds collected from southern Ontario compared with northern Ontario. Potential impacts of exposure to these flame retardants and others are not known. Elevated metal exposure appears to influence survivorship and may affect the recovery of bald eagles in the province, particularly in southern Ontario and along the Great Lakes where a disproportionate number of poisoned eagles were collected. Increased efforts are needed to identify sources of exposure and develop measures to reduce metal exposure in this top predator.

  16. Lead poisoning of bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden (Aquila chrysaetos) eagles in the U.S. inland Pacific northwest region--an 18-year retrospective study: 1991-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Erik; Finch, Nickol; Talcott, Patricia A; Gay, John M

    2010-12-01

    To determine risk factors and seasonal trends of lead poisoning in bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden (Aquila chrysaetos) eagles, blood lead levels were evaluated in eagles admitted from the inland Pacific Northwest region of the United States to the Raptor Rehabilitation Program, College of Veterinary Medicine at Washington State University from 1991 to 2008. Admissions were from Washington (32 bald eagles, 27 golden eagles), northern Idaho (21 bald eagles, 25 golden eagles), northeastern Oregon (5 bald eagles, 6 golden eagles), Montana (2 bald eagles), Alaska (1 bald eagle), and unrecorded (6 bald eagles, 5 golden eagles). In these birds, 48% (22/46) of bald and 62% (31/50) of golden eagles tested had blood lead levels considered toxic by current standards. Of the bald and golden eagles with toxic lead levels, 91% (20/22) and 58% (18/31) respectively, were admitted after the end of the general deer and elk hunting seasons in December. Coyote hunting intensifies with the end of the large game hunting seasons and coyote carcasses left in the field and contaminated with lead bullet fragments become readily available food sources, exposing scavenging bald and golden eagles to high risk of acute lead poisoning.

  17. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  18. 76 FR 54711 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Bald Eagles Nesting in Sonoran Desert Area of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... bald eagle, alive or dead, including any part, nest, or egg, unless allowed by permit (16 U.S.C. 668(a..., or export, any migratory bird, any part, nest, or eggs of any such bird, or any product, whether or not manufactured, which consists, or is composed in whole or part, of any such bird or any part, nest...

  19. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Bedrosian

    Full Text Available Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  20. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  1. EVALUATION OF LEAD AND MERCURY PREVALENCE IN BALD EAGLES (HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS) FROM THE MID-ATLANTIC UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Andreas; Murphy, Lisa; Welte, Sallie

    2017-09-01

    Heavy metal contamination of the environment remains a critical issue. Lead and mercury exposure, particularly, can affect avian health. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) ingest these metals through their diets. Lead and mercury prevalence were examined in bald eagles from three mid-Atlantic US states between 2004 and 2013. Blood samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Wilcoxon score tests were used to detect differences in lead and mercury over time. Counties of origin for birds with clinically significant metal levels were identified. There were no temporal trends found in lead and mercury prevalence. Eagles with clinically significant lead levels (>0.6 ppm) originated from near Chesapeake and Delaware bays, but most birds with clinically significant mercury levels (>1 ppm) originated from near Delaware and Barnegat bays. These findings indicate that lead and mercury contamination persists in this region and that routine sampling of bald eagles is a useful monitoring tool.

  2. Normal ocular parameters and characterization of ophthalmic lesions in a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Sonia E; Jones, Michael P; Hendrix, Diane V H; Ward, Daniel A; Baine, Katherine H

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen adult captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) underwent a complete bilateral ocular examination to assess normal ocular parameters and describe ophthalmic lesions. Tear production was measured with the Schirmer tear test 1 and intraocular pressure was measured with applanation tonometry. The menace response was normal bilaterally in 13 of 16 eagles. Two birds had normal menace responses despite having fundic lesions, and 2 birds with an inconsistent or absent menace response did not have appreciable ophthalmic lesions. Mean (SD) tear production was 14 +/- 2 mm/min (range, 8-19 mm/min). Mean intraocular pressure was 21.5 +/- 1.7 mm Hg (range, 15-26 mm Hg). At least 1 ocular lesion was present in 50% of examined eyes. Cataracts, the most common lesion observed, were present in 8 eyes of 5 birds. Three of 4 known geriatric birds were or had been affected with bilateral cataracts. Overall, ocular lesions are common in captive bald eagles, and cataracts appear to be more prevalent in geriatric bald eagles. An obvious positive menace response is present in most visual birds but may be absent in some eagles that are either normal or that do not have appreciable ophthalmic lesions. Applanation tonometry and the Schirmer tear test 1 can be performed easily on adult bald eagles and provide reproducible results.

  3. Ospreys Use Bald Eagle Nests in Chesapeake Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Therres, Glenn D.; Chandler, Sheri K.

    1993-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share similar breeding habitat in the Chesapeake Bay area and elsewhere. The nests of these species are similar in size and appearance. Ospreys typically build large stick nests in dead trees or on man-made structures (C.J. Henny et al. 1974, Chesapeake Sci. 15:125-133; A.F. Poole 1989, Ospreys: a natural and unnatural history, Cambridge Univ. Press, NY), while Bald Eagles usually build larger nests in live trees (P.B. Woo...

  4. The Bald And Golden Eagle Protection Act, Species-Based Legal Protection And The Danger Of Misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to extend protection also to the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. The Bald Eagle was an Endangered Species, but the Golden Eagle was not formally listed as Endangered nationwide in the USA. One of the reasons for extending legal protection to the Golden Eagle under the Act was to strengthen the legal protection of the Bald Eagle, because immature Bald Eagles were being misidentified as Golden Eagles and shot. Additional factors relating to Golden Eagle mortality also made legal protection of the Golden Eagle desirable. The danger that a rare and legally protected species can be misidentified and mistaken for a more common and unprotected species can therefore serve as a reason for bestowing legal protection on the more common species as well. Other factors may also indicate that legal protection of the more common species is desirable, making the case more compelling. If this line of reasoning is applied in respect of South African birds of prey, a strong case can be made in favour of extending legal protection under the national biodiversity legislation to more species than the small number of species currently enjoying such protection. Species that are listed as Vulnerable under South African national biodiversity legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable.

  5. Bald eagles view their territory atop a utility pole at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This pair of bald eagles appear unhappy as the focus of the camera while they perch together on the top of a utility pole at Kennedy Space Center. The Center counts more than half a dozen bald eagles among the denizens of its site, especially since KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The Southern bald eagle is no stranger to Florida as it ranges throughout the state and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana and south Atlantic states. Most southern Florida eagles nesting at KSC arrive during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  6. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    2000-01-01

    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  7. Why Did the Bald Eagle Almost Become Extinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sarah J.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2012-01-01

    The activity described in this article poses a question, provides evidence needed to answer the question, and uses a cooperative learning structure within which students analyze the evidence and create their own questions. Students see how a single cause can interact with two natural systems--the water cycle and the bald eagle food chain--to…

  8. West Nile Virus transmission in winter: the 2013 Great Salt Lake Bald Eagle and Eared Grebes Mortality event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; McFarlan, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dickson, Sammie L.; Baker, JoDee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee Romaine; Bodenstein, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites.

  9. The effect of kleptoparasitic bald eagles and gyrfalcons on the kill rate of peregrine falcons hunting dunlins wintering in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, T.J.; Out, M.; Tabak, M.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism in birds has been the subject of much research, and the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a known kleptoparasite. It has been reported to pirate ducks captured by Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus), but ours is the first study to examine the effect of kleptoparasitic Bald

  10. To migrate, stay put, or wander? Varied movement strategies in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Rachel E; Lewis, Stephen B; Wang, Yiwei; Levi, Taal; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying individual variability in movement behavior is critical to understanding population-level patterns in animals. Here, we explore intraspecific variation in movement strategies of bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) in the north Pacific, where there is high spatiotemporal resource variability. We tracked 28 bald eagles (five immature, 23 adult) using GPS transmitters between May 2010 and January 2016. We found evidence of four movement strategies among bald eagles in southeastern Alaska and western Canada: breeding individuals that were largely sedentary and remained near nest sites year-round, non-breeding migratory individuals that made regular seasonal travel between northern summer and southern winter ranges, non-breeding localized individuals that displayed fidelity to foraging sites, and non-breeding nomadic individuals with irregular movement. On average, males traveled farther per day than females. Most nomadic individuals were immature, and all residential individuals (i.e. breeders and localized birds) were adults. Alternative movement strategies among north Pacific eagles are likely associated with the age and sex class, as well as breeding status, of an individual. Intraspecific variation in movement strategies within the population results in different space use patterns among contingents, which has important implications for conservation and management.

  11. Provisioning rates and time budgets of adult and nestling Bald Eagles at Inland Wisconsin nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Warnke D.; Andersen, D.E.; Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Karasov, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    We used a remote video recording system and direct observation to quantify provisioning rate and adult and nestling behavior at Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in north-central Wisconsin in 1992 (N = 5) and 1993 (N = 8). Eagles nesting in this region have a high reproductive rate (??? 1.3 young/occupied territory), and the number of occupied territories has expanded nearly three-fold since 1980. The season-long provisioning rate averaged 5.2 prey deliveries/nest/d and 3.0 prey deliveries/nestling/d, and did not vary by year or with nestling number or age. Fish (Osteichthyes) made up 97% of identified prey deliveries followed by reptiles (Reptilia) (1.5%), birds (Aves) (1.2%), and mammals (Mammalia) (0.6%). Nearly 85% of prey items were >15 cm and 90% of the day and was negatively correlated with nestling age. Time adults spent feeding nestlings was negatively correlated with nestling age. Nestlings stood or sat in the nest >30% of the day, began to feed themselves, and exhibited increased mobility in the nest at 6-8 wk. We identified three stages of the nestling period and several benchmarks that may be useful when scheduling data collection for comparison of Bald Eagle nesting behavior. Our results support the hypothesis that food was not limiting this breeding population of Bald Eagles. ?? 2002 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  12. The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, species-based legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to ...

  13. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus), after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE) per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations.

  14. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Wright

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus, after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations.

  15. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  16. Final Report Bald and Golden Eagle Territory Surveys for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct surveys for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) at Site 300 and in the surrounding area out to 10-miles. The survey effort was intended to document the boundaries of eagle territories by careful observation of eagle behavior from selected viewing locations throughout the study area.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden (Aquila chrysaetos) eagles from Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Brian Lee; Isanhart, John

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the exposure and accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the 2 species of eagles inhabiting North America. The authors analyzed the livers of 33 bald eagles and 7 golden eagles collected throughout Washington and Idaho, USA, for 51 PBDE congeners. Total PBDEs ranged from 2.4 ng/g to 9920 ng/g wet weight. Bald eagles and eagles associated with large urban areas had the highest PBDE concentrations; golden eagles and eagles from more sparsely populated areas had the lowest concentrations. Congener patterns in the present study (brominated diphenyl ether [BDE]-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154 dominating concentrations) were similar to those reported for other bird species, especially raptors. However, the authors also found elevated contributions of BDE-209 in golden eagles and BDE-77 in both species. Patterns in bald eagle samples reflected those in fillets of fish collected from the same general locations throughout Washington, suggesting local exposure to runoff-based contamination, whereas patterns in golden eagle samples suggest a difference in food chain uptake facilitated by atmospheric transport and deposition of BDE-209 and its degradation products into the terrestrial system. Data from the present study represent some of the first reported on burdens of PBDEs in juvenile and adult eagles from North America. The high PBDE liver concentrations associated with large metropolitan areas and accumulation of deca-BDE congeners are a cause for concern. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  18. Mercury exposure and neurochemical impacts in bald eagles across several Great Lakes states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Nam, Dong-Ha; Cooley, Thomas; Neumann, Kay; Padilla, Irene Bueno; Route, William; Strom, Sean; Basu, Niladri

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we assessed mercury (Hg) exposure in several tissues (brain, liver, and breast and primary feathers) in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) collected from across five Great Lakes states (Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) between 2002-2010, and assessed relationships between brain Hg and neurochemical receptors (NMDA and GABA(A)) and enzymes (glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)). Brain total Hg (THg) levels (dry weight basis) averaged 2.80 μg/g (range: 0.2-34.01), and levels were highest in Michigan birds. THg levels in liver (r(p) = 0.805) and breast feathers (r(p) = 0.611) significantly correlated with those in brain. Brain Hg was not associated with binding to the GABA(A) receptor. Brain THg and inorganic Hg (IHg) were significantly positively correlated with GS activity (THg r(p) = 0.190; IHg r(p) = 0.188) and negatively correlated with NMDA receptor levels (THg r(p) = -0245; IHg r(p) = -0.282), and IHg was negatively correlated with GAD activity (r(s) = -0.196). We also report upon Hg demethylation and relationships between Hg and Se in brain and liver. These results suggest that bald eagles in the Great Lakes region are exposed to Hg at levels capable of causing subclinical neurological damage, and that when tissue burdens are related to proposed avian thresholds approximately 14-27% of eagles studied here may be at risk.

  19. Multiple metals exposure and neurotoxic risk in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from two Great Lakes states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Basu, Niladri

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, the authors determined concentrations of several elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb, Sb, Zn) in the brains and livers of 46 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from two Great Lakes states, Michigan and Minnesota. To explore whether exposures are of neurological concern, the authors assessed their associations with neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate [NMDA] and γ-aminobutyric acid A [GABA(A)]) and enzymes (glutamine synthetase [GS] and glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD]) that play critical roles in vertebrate neurobehavior and reproduction. For most elements, levels in the livers and brains did not differ between region and gender. Hepatic Pb levels averaged 33.1 ppm (dry wt), 30.4% of all carcasses exceeded proposed avian Pb thresholds (>26.4 ppm), and in 30.8% of the birds examined evidence of Pb pellets or fragments was found. Significant changes in the activities of GS and GAD were related to brain concentrations of several metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Zn). No relationships were found among any of the nine elements and NMDA or GABA(A) receptor levels. When combined with the authors' previous study on these same eagles that showed Hg-associated alterations in GS, GAD, and NMDA receptor levels, the present research suggests that bald eagles are exposed to various elements, especially Pb and Hg, that are capable of causing changes in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. The functional significance of these neurochemical changes warrants attention. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral tramadol in the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas; Jones, Michael P; Cox, Sherry K

    2009-12-01

    Analgesia is becoming increasingly important in veterinary medicine, and little research has been performed that examined pain control in avian species. Tramadol is a relatively new drug that provides analgesia by opioid (mu), serotonin, and norepinephrine pathways, with minimal adverse effects. To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its major metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in eagles, 6 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were each dosed with tramadol administered intravenously (4 mg/kg) and orally (11 mg/kg) in a crossover study. Blood was collected at various time points between 0 and 600 minutes and then analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine levels of tramadol and M1, the predominate active metabolite. The terminal half-life of tramadol after intravenous dosing was 2.46 hours. The maximum plasma concentration, time of maximum plasma concentration, and terminal half life for tramadol after oral dosing were 2156.7 ng/ml, 3.75 hours, and 3.14 hours, respec vely. In addition, the oral bioavailability was 97.9%. Although plasma concentrations of ramadol and M1 associated with analgesia in any avian species is unknown, based on the obtained data and known therapeutic levels in humans, a dosage of 5 mg/kg PO q12h is recommended for bald eagles. Pharmacodynamic studies are needed to better determine plasma levels of tramadol and M1 associated with analgesia in birds.

  1. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

  2. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus population increases in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland: evidence for habitat saturation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla R. Letto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Across North America, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus populations appear to be recovering following bans of DDT. A limited number of studies from across North America have recorded a surplus of nonbreeding adult Bald Eagles in dense populations when optimal habitat and food become limited. Placentia Bay, Newfoundland is one of these. The area has one of the highest densities of Bald Eagles in eastern North America, and has recently experienced an increase in the proportion of nonbreeding adults within the population. We tested whether the observed Bald Eagle population trends in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland during the breeding seasons 1990-2009 are due to habitat saturation. We found no significant differences in habitat or food resource characteristics between occupied territories and pseudo-absence data or between nest sites with high vs. low nest activity/occupancy rates. Therefore there is no evidence for habitat saturation for Bald Eagles in Placentia Bay and alternative hypotheses for the high proportion of nonbreeding adults should be considered. The Newfoundland population provides an interesting case for examination because it did not historically appear to be affected by pollution. An understanding of Bald Eagle population dynamics in a relatively pristine area with a high density can be informative for restoration and conservation of Bald Eagle populations elsewhere.

  3. Bald eagle site management plan for the Hanford Site, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.F.; Weiss, S.G.

    1994-12-01

    The CERCLA remedial investigations of waste sites on the Hanford Site will involve lands containing or adjacent to a bald eagle nest, winter concentration areas, or communal night roost. Because these CERCLA investigations may affect bald eagles, the DOE has prepared this Bald Eagle Site Management Plan (BESMP). However, it is intended that this BESMP be used or updated so as to be also applicable to future activities that affect bald eagles on the Hanford Site. Bald eagles regularly use the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State during winter months for roosting, perching, and foraging. Each of these activities requires buffer zones to protect eagles from human disturbances. Buffer zones developed in this plan follow recommended guidelines and are intended to be used in planning. If Hanford Site activities in the vicinity of identified bald eagle use areas are carried out in accordance with this plan, such actions are not likely to adversely affect the eagles or their habitat. Activities that may be exceptions will involve informal or formal (whichever is appropriate) consultation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service as required by the Endangered Species Act

  4. Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and metabolites: Relation to circulating thyroid hormone and retinol in nestling bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesh, Lillian S; Elliott, Kyle H; Quade, Susan; McKinney, Melissa A; Maisoneuve, France; Garcelon, David K; Sandau, Court D; Letcher, Robert J; Williams, Tony D; Elliott, John E

    2010-06-01

    Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are global contaminants that are often considered to be endocrine disruptors and include 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The present study examined these compounds and their hydroxylated metabolites or analogues and relationships with circulating thyroid hormones and retinols in plasma from nestling and adult bald eagles in British Columbia, Canada, and California, USA. We also compared our results with published data. Thyroxine (T4) decreased with summation operatorPCB and CB153 in nestling bald eagles, which was congruent with results from nine of 14 other published avian laboratory and field studies. Free thyroid hormone levels also decreased with CB-153 and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs). Retinol increased with CB118 and CB180 in nestling eagles, decreased with OH-PCBs in a subset of nestlings, and decreased in 7 of 12 PCB published studies. Thyroxine decreased with p,p'-DDE for nestlings and with data reported in one of five other published studies. In our samples, plasma retinol, triiodothyronine (T3), and T4 were independent of summation operatorPBDEs, whereas summation operatorOH-PBDEs were weakly but significantly correlated with increases in T3 and retinol. Adult bald eagles showed no relationship between contaminants and thyroid hormones, which is consistent with other studies of long-lived birds, perhaps because adult birds have time to adjust to contaminant levels. Measurement of circulating thyroid hormones appears to be a more useful biomarker than retinols, given the more consistent response of T4 to PCBs here and reported in the literature. We conclude that current environmental exposures to PCBs in British Columbia and in southern California are associated with significant decreases in T4, suggesting a potential negative effect on the endocrine system of nestling bald eagles. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  5. Physical characteristics of bald eagle eggs from Maine, 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between 2000 and 2012, 91 abandoned or non‐viable bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected from55 nest territories in inland and coastal habitats in...

  6. Bioenergetics model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  7. Food web model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  8. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  9. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Estes, J.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Forsman, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993–1994 and 2000–2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993–1994 to 2000–2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex

  10. Mercury Exposure in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Admitted for Rehabilitation in Iowa, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A; Reiter-Marolf, William J; Dinsmore, Stephen J

    2017-04-01

    To gain insight into mercury exposure in Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) in Iowa, US we collected blood from 22 rehabilitation eagles in 2012-13. The geometric mean blood mercury level was 0.144 μg/g (95% confidence interval: 0.066-0.314) and was at the lower end of the range of levels reported elsewhere.

  11. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) naturally infected with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschmann, Arno; Timurkaan, Necati; Armien, Aníbal G; Bueno Padilla, Irene; Glaser, Amy; Redig, Patrick T

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 3 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) were diagnosed with West Nile disease based on 1) presence of lesions in brain, eyes, and heart, 2) viral antigen detection in brain, eyes, heart, kidney, and/or liver by immunohistochemical staining, 3) detection of viral RNA in tissue samples and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction, and/or 4) detection of West Nile virus (WNV)-specific antibodies in CSF by serum neutralization assay. West Nile virus-associated gross lesions included cerebral pan-necrosis with hydrocephalus ex vacuo (7/15 bald eagles), fibrin exudation into the fundus in 1 golden eagle, retinal scarring in 1 bald eagle, and myocardial pallor and rounded heart apex in 4 bald eagles. Histologic lesions included lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis, most prominently in the cerebrum (17 eagles), lymphoplasmacytic pectenitis and choroiditis (15 and 8 eagles, respectively), and myocarditis (12 eagles). West Nile virus antigen was detected in the majority of the eagles in neurons of the brain (cerebrum and cerebellum), and less commonly present in neurons of the retina, tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, and cardiomyocytes. West Nile disease was diagnosed in 2 bald eagles based on the presence of cerebral pan-necrosis and WNV-specific antibodies in the CSF despite lacking viral antigen and RNA. In conclusion, WNV infection causes a fatal disease in bald and golden eagles. A variety of gross and histologic lesions are highly suggestive of WN disease in most eagles. A combination of detection of viral antigen and/or RNA or virus-specific antibodies proved useful in confirming the diagnosis. © 2014 The Author(s).

  12. Bald Eagle nestling mortality associated with Argas radiatus and Argas ricei tick infestation and successful management with nest removal in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne; Orr, Kathy; Schuler, Krysten L.; McCarty, Kyle; Jacobson, Kenneth; Meteyer, Carol U.

    2016-01-01

    Eight Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings heavily infested with larval ticks were found in or under a nest near the confluence of the Verde and Salt rivers in Arizona in 2009-11. The 8-12-wk-old nestlings were slow to respond to stimuli and exhibited generalized muscle weakness or paresis of the pelvic limbs. Numerous cutaneous and subcutaneous hemorrhages were associated with sites of tick attachment. Ticks were identified as Argas radiatus and Argas ricei. Treatment with acaricides and infection with West Nile virus (WNV) may have confounded the clinical presentation in 2009 and 2010. However, WNV-negative birds exhibited similar signs in 2011. One nestling recovered from paresis within 36 h after the removal of all adult and larval ticks (>350) and was released within 3 wk. The signs present in the heavily infested Bald Eagle nestlings resembled signs associated with tick paralysis, a neurotoxin-mediated paralytic syndrome described in mammals, reptiles, and wild birds (though not eagles). Removal of the infested nest and construction of a nest platform in a different tree was necessary to break the cycle of infection. The original nesting pair constructed a new nest on the man-made platform and successfully fledged two Bald Eagles in 2012.

  13. If Animals Could Talk: Bald Eagle, Bear, Florida Panther, Gopher Tortoise, Indigo Snake, Manatee, Otter, Raccoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinellas County District School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    In this series of booklets, eight Florida animals describe their appearance, habitats, food, behavior, and relationships with humans. Each entry is written for elementary students from the animal's point of view and includes a bibliography. Contained are the life stories of the bald eagle, black bear, Florida panther, gopher tortoise, Eastern…

  14. Night roosts of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabin K. Joshi

    2009-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were delisted from threatened or endangered status in 2007 in the conterminous states because of their encouraging comeback throughout most of North America. However the recent court decision on 1 May 2008 forced USFWS to issue a rule to amend the regulations for the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife by...

  15. 50 CFR 22.28 - Permits for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Endangered Species Act. 22.28 Section 22.28 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE... for bald eagle take exempted under the Endangered Species Act. (a) Purpose and scope. This permit... section 7 incidental take statement under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA) (16 U.S.C...

  16. Distribution of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose in the coelom of healthy bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael P; Morandi, Federica; Wall, Jonathan S; Long, Misty J; Stuckey, Alan C; LeBlanc, Amy K

    2013-03-01

    To determine 2-deoxy-2-fluoro (fluorine 18)-d-glucose ((18)FDG) biodistribution in the coelom of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). 8 healthy adult bald eagles. For each eagle, whole-body transmission noncontrast CT, 60-minute dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) of the celomic cavity (immediately after (18)FDG injection), whole-body static PET 60 minutes after (18)FDG injection, and whole-body contrast CT with iohexol were performed. After reconstruction, images were analyzed. Regions of interest were drawn over the ventricular myocardium, liver, spleen, proventriculus, cloaca, kidneys, and lungs on dynamic and static PET images. Standardized uptake values were calculated. Kidneys had the most intense (18)FDG uptake, followed by cloaca and intestinal tract; liver activity was mild and slightly more intense than that of the spleen; proventricular activity was always present, whereas little to no activity was identified in the wall of the ventriculus. Activity in the myocardium was present in all birds but varied in intensity among birds. The lungs had no visibly discernible activity. Mean ± SD standardized uptake values calculated with representative regions of interest at 60 minutes were as follows: myocardium, 1. 6 ± 0.2 (transverse plane) and 1.3 ± 0.3 (sagittal plane); liver, 1.1 ± 0.1; spleen, 0.9 ± 0.1; proventriculus, 1.0 ± 0.1; cloaca, 4.4 ± 2.7; right kidney, 17.3 ± 1.0; left kidney, 17.6 ± 0.3; and right and left lungs (each), 0.3 ± 0.02. The study established the biodistribution of (18)FDG in adult eagles, providing a baseline for clinical investigation and future research.

  17. Induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane in bald eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Priscilla H; Jones, Michael P; Ward, Daniel; Gompf, Rebecca E; Zagaya, Nancy; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2008-01-01

    To compare induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane and sevoflurane in bald eagles. Animals-17 healthy adult bald eagles. Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane or sevoflurane delivered in oxygen via a facemask in a crossover design with 4 weeks between treatments. Eagles were intubated, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and instrumented for cardiopulmonary measurements. Time to induction, extubation, and recovery, as well as smoothness of recovery, were recorded. Administration of sevoflurane resulted in a significantly quicker recovery, compared with isoflurane. Temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate significantly decreased over time, whereas systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) significantly increased over time with each treatment. Temperature, heart rate, SAP, DAP, and MAP were significantly higher with isoflurane. Blood pH significantly decreased, whereas PaCO(2) significantly increased over time with each treatment. Bicarbonate and total carbon dioxide concentrations significantly increased over time with each treatment; however, there was a significant time-treatment interaction. The PaO(2) and arterial oxygen saturation increased over time with isoflurane and decreased over time with sevoflurane with a significant time-treatment interaction. Six eagles developed cardiac arrhythmias with isoflurane, as did 4 with sevoflurane anesthesia. Isoflurane and sevoflurane administration resulted in smooth, rapid induction of and recovery from anesthesia similar to other species. Isoflurane administration resulted in tachycardia, hypertension, and more arrhythmias, compared with sevoflurane. Sevoflurane was associated with fewer adverse effects and may be particularly beneficial in compromised bald eagles.

  18. Long-term monitoring studies of pollutants on public lands: Bald Eagles in the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowerman, W.W. [Eagle Environmental Inc., Haslett, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The role of public agencies to monitor the populations of wildlife species with protected status is paramount to the recovery of these species. Since the early 1960s, the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) populations within the Midwest have been monitored to determine number of breeding pairs, nest occupancy, and success rates. In addition to the reproductive outcome studies, abandoned eggs, blood samples, and feather samples have been collected to determine concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and heavy metals. These surveys give an actual measure of population dynamics of a top-predator species in aquatic systems that integrates the effects of many different environmental pollutants. As concentrations of the organochlorine compounds have declined, bald eagle populations have increased in numbers and their reproductive success has improved. The recovery of this species has not been uniform however. In regions where DDT and PCB concentrations are still above thresholds associated with reproductive impairment, eagles still have impaired reproduction. These areas include the shorelines of the Great Lakes and Voyageurs National Park. Some areas such as the Chippewa National Forest have begun to show declines in reproduction due to density dependent factors. Recent proposals for ecosystem management and reclassification of the bald eagle have led to reduced emphasis for maintaining these long-term data sets. The utility and importance of maintaining surveys of top-predators that can give a measure of population-level effects of pollutants rather than an index will be discussed using examples from the Midwest.

  19. Captive propagation of bald eagles at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and introductions into the wild, 1976-80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1981-01-01

    One to 5 pairs of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were in the captive propagation project at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center during 1976-80. Four pairs produced viable eggs or young by natural mating in one or more years. Pairs laid second clutches 9 of 11 times when their first clutches were collected within 8 days of clutch completion. Sixty-nine percent of fertile artificially incubated eggs hatched; 93% of fertile parent-incubated eggs hatched. Eleven eaglets from artificially incubated eggs were hand reared. Age of birds at the time they were acquired from the wild was not a factor in their reproductive success. Ten hand-reared and 2 parent-reared young were fostered to adult Bald Eagles at active wild nests; 11 were accepted and survived. Eleven parent-reared young were provided to hacking projects. Egg transplants to wild nests were conducted, but discontinued because of poor success. Double clutching of captive pairs has not resulted in substantially increased numbers of eaglets. Additional research is needed in artificial incubation, artificial insemination, and nutrition and care of hand-reared eaglets.

  20. 76 FR 13446 - Nittany Bald and Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ..., 2006, with SEDA-COG to provide common carrier rail service to multiple shippers on this extended line... are reminded that once the operator obtains Board authorization to provide common carrier rail service... Eagle Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA- COG Joint Rail Authority Nittany Bald and Eagle...

  1. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Tyler Pittman; William W. Bowerman; Leland H. Grim; Teryl G. Grubb; William C. Bridges; Michael R. Wierda

    2015-01-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs,...

  2. JC Knobel THE BALD AND GOLDEN EAGLE PROTECTION ACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiversity Act 10 of 2004 (NEMBA), read with the Threatened or Protected Species Regulations,. 2007 (TOPS Regulations). Examples .... Debus Birds of Prey of Australia; Dunne, Sibley and Sutton Hawks in Flight; Ferguson-Lees and. Christie Raptors of the World ..... the control of rodents; and. Whereas protection of the ...

  3. A spatially-dynamic preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Gallegos, A.F.; Foxx, T.S.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Pratt, L.E.; Gomez, P.E.

    1998-04-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 and the Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require that the Department of Energy protect the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), a state and federally listed species, from stressors such as contaminants. A preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle was performed using a custom FORTRAN code, ECORSK5, and the geographical information system. Estimated exposure doses to the eagle for radionuclide, inorganic metal, and organic contaminants were derived for varying ratios of aquatic vs. terrestrial simulated diet and compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (His). HI results indicate that no appreciable impact to the bald eagle is expected from contaminants at LANL from soil ingestion and food consumption pathways. This includes a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes linear additive toxicity. Improving model realism by weighting simulated eagle foraging based on distance from potential roost sites increased the HI by 76%, but still to inconsequential levels. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, eagle habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at low levels.

  4. Hepatic polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in Wisconsin river otters (Lontra canadensis) and Michigan bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbos, Peter; Chernyak, Sergei; Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Cooley, Thomas; Strom, Sean; Batterman, Stuart; Basu, Niladri

    2015-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent and toxic flame-retardant chemicals widespread in the Great Lakes ecosystem. These chemicals are now being regulated and phased-out of the region; therefore it remains important to understand the extent of contamination in order to track the efficacy of recent actions. Here, Σ 4 PBDE congeners (PBDE-47, 99, 100, 153;wetweight basis unless indicated)were determined in liver tissues from Wisconsin river otters ( Lontra canadensis ; n = 35; 2009-2010) and Michigan bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ; n = 33; 2009-2011). In otters, Σ 4 PBDE ranged from0.5 to 72.9 ng/g, with a mean (±SD) and median (25th-75th percentile inter-quartile range) of 16.3 ± 16.4 ng/g and 11.3 (5.6-18.9) ng/g, respectively. The mean lipid-adjusted Σ 4 PBDE was 1377 ± 1485 ng/g. In eagles, Σ 4 PBDE ranged from 0 to 1,538.8 ng/g, with a mean and median of 74.3 ± 266.7 ng/g and 21.2 (5.7-28.9) ng/g, respectively. The mean lipid-adjusted Σ 4 PBDE was 5274.5 ± 19,896.1 ng/g. In both species, PBDE-47 accounted for >50% of the Σ 4 PBDE, followed by PBDE-99 and PBDE-100 (each ~17-19% of the total). The PBDE levels reported here in otters are similar to mammalian wildlife elsewhere, though the levels in eagles are among the highest worldwide across studied birds. The findings indicate that apex Great Lakes wildlife remain exposed to appreciable levels of PBDEs and more work is needed to understand whether such exposures are associated with adverse health outcomes.

  5. Integrating the Forensic Sciences in Wildlife Case Investigations: A Case Report of Pentobarbital and Phenytoin Toxicosis in a Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, T C; Hamlin, B C; McClure, P J; Yates, B C

    2016-09-01

    The application of medical knowledge to the purpose of law is the foundation of forensic pathology. A forensic postmortem examination often involves the expertise of multiple scientific disciplines to reconstruct the full story surrounding the death of an animal. Wildlife poses additional challenges in forensic investigations due to little or no associated history, and the disruptive effects of decomposition. To illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of wildlife forensic medicine, the authors outline a case of secondary pentobarbital/phenytoin toxicosis in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The eagle was the single fatality in a group of 8 birds that fed on euthanized domestic cat remains that had been improperly disposed of in a landfill. Cooperation between responding law enforcement officers, pathologists, and other forensic scientists led to the successful diagnosis and resolution of the case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Accumulation of flame retardants in paired eggs and plasma of bald eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiehong; Simon, Kendall; Romanak, Kevin; Bowerman, William; Venier, Marta

    2018-03-05

    In this study, we measured the concentrations of 58 flame retardants (and related compounds) in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) egg and plasma samples from the Michigan. These analytes include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel flame retardants (nFRs), Dechlorane-related compounds (Decs), and organophosphate esters (OPEs). A total of 24 paired eaglet plasma and egg samples were collected from inland (IN, N = 13) and the Great Lakes (GL, N = 11) breeding areas from 2000 to 2012. PBDEs were the most abundant chemical group with a geometric mean of 181 ng/g wet weight (ww) in egg and 5.31 ng/g ww in plasma. Decs were barely found in plasma samples, but they were frequently found in eggs (geometric mean 23.5 ng/g ww). OPE levels were comparable to those of PBDEs in the plasma but lower than those of PBDEs in eggs. Dec and PBDE concentrations were significantly higher in GL than in IN (p eagle egg and plasma concentrations from Lake Superior and Huron were one to three orders of magnitude higher than concentrations measured in composite lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the same lake, implying that they biomagnify in the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using bald eagles to track spatial (1999-2008) and temporal (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) trends of contaminants in Michigan's aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierda, Michael R; Leith, Katherine F; Roe, Amy S; Grubb, Teryl G; Sikarskie, James G; Best, David A; Pittman, H Tyler; Fuentes, Latice; Simon, Kendall L; Bowerman, William

    2016-08-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is an extensively researched tertiary predator. Studies have delineated information about its life history and the influences of various stressors on its reproduction. Due to the bald eagle's position at the top of the food web, it is susceptible to biomagnification of xenobiotics. The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality implemented a program in 1999 to monitor persistent chemicals including polychlorinated biphenols (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE). The objectives of the present study were to evaluate spatial and temporal trends of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in nestling bald eagles of Michigan. The authors' study found that concentrations of PCBs and DDE were higher in Great Lakes areas with Lakes Michigan and Lake Huron having the highest concentrations of DDE and Lake Erie having the highest concentrations of PCBs. Temporally (1987-1992, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) the present study found declines in PCB and DDE concentrations with a few exceptions. Continued monitoring of Michigan bald eagle populations is suggested for a couple of reasons. First, nestling blood contaminant levels are an appropriate method to monitor ecosystem contaminant levels. Second, from 1999 to 2008 PCB and DDE concentrations for 30% and 40%, respectively, of the nestling eagles sampled were above the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for bald eagles. Lastly, with the continued development and deployment of new chemistries a continuous long term monitoring program is an invaluable resource. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1995-2002. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Using nestling feathers to assess spatial and temporal concentrations of mercury in bald eagles at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H T; Bowerman, W W; Grim, L H; Grubb, T G; Bridges, W C

    2011-10-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been utilized as a biosentinel of aquatic ecosystem health in the Great Lakes Region since the early 1960s. Bald eagle populations have been monitored at Voyageurs National Park (VNP), Minnesota, since 1973. For the past 20 years, researchers have collected feathers from nestling bald eagles to assess their dietary exposure to mercury (Hg) on Rainy, Kabetogama, and Namakan lakes in VNP. Mercury is an environmental pollutant with both natural and anthropogenic sources, and negatively affects many species of wildlife. In a previous study, geometric mean concentrations of Hg in feathers of nestling bald eagles were greater at VNP (20 mg/kg Dry Weight (DW)) than in nestling feathers from other Great Lakes subpopulations (~7 mg/kg DW), for the period 1985-1989. Current geometric mean concentrations have declined by 77.4% since 1989 at VNP. While all samples from 1985 to 1989 had detectable concentrations of Hg, 10% of current samples had concentrations below the reportable detection limit (0.001 mg/kg DW, n = 180). The major lakes at VNP are impounded, and Hg concentrations also declined greatly after the lake level stabilization order by the International Joint Commission was implemented in 1999. Mercury concentrations in feathers of nestling bald eagles from 1989 to 2010 ranged from ND (<0.001) to 34.97 mg/kg DW. The highest single concentration in a nestling was from Namakan Lake in 2010. The five-year geometric means for Rainy, Kabetogama, and Namakan lakes for 2006-2010 were 6.08, 1.07, and 5.56 mg/kg DW (n = 28, n = 32, n = 27) respectively. Although Hg concentrations in feathers of nestlings greatly declined after the change in water level management in 1999 and are lower than 1989 concentrations, recent samples suggest a gradual increase. Continued monitoring of nestling feather concentrations will be essential to assess this increase, to determine the source of Hg, to determine if there are changes to methylation

  9. Density and productivity of bald eagles in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.M.; Ritchie, R.J.; Cooper, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Helicopter surveys were conducted in Prince William Sound (PWS) to assess the effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on the reproductive success and densities of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) one and two years after the spill (1990 and 1991). Densities of bald eagles were compared between an oiled area in southwestern PWS and an unoiled area in northern PWS. In all surveys (four in 1990, one in 1991) densities of eagles in the oiled areas generally were similar to or higher than those in the unoiled area. Reproductive success was compared between nesting territories that were oiled within 1 km of nests and nesting territories that were unoiled. In 1990, all measures of nest productivity, nest occupancy, and nesting success were similar between oiled and unoiled territories. In 1991, however, the number of young per successful nest was lower in oiled territories. The number of successful nests was slightly lower in 1991 than in 1990 in oiled territories but was significantly lower in 1991 in unoiled territories. Comparisons of nest occupancy and nesting success could not be made in 1991 because early surveys were not conducted. Differences between areas, territories, and years could not be attributed to oil, but rather appeared to be related to natural annual variability. Overall, no demonstrable effects of the oil spill on eagle density or reproduction could be detected in PWS one and two years after the spill. 70 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.

    1981-01-01

    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  11. Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redig Patrick T

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50 were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR; one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV.

  12. Correlation of brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of spontaneously lead poisoned bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with histological lesions: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Feeney, Daniel; Armién, Anibal G; Wuenschmann, Arno; Redig, Patrick T

    2016-04-01

    Six bald eagles with severe, acute lead poisoning based on blood lead values were analyzed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain and histopathology. The aims of the study were to use MRI to locate brain lesions and correlate the changes in MRI signal with the histological character of the lesions at necropsy. All of the bald eagles presented with neurologic and non-neurologic signs suggestive of severe lead poisoning and had blood lead levels in excess of 1.0 ppm. Areas of change in image intensity in the brainstem, midbrain and cerebellum were detected in the MRI scans. Histopathology confirmed the presence of all suspected lesions. The character of the lesions suggested vascular damage as the primary insult. MRI was useful for detecting lesions and defining their three-dimensional distribution and extent. Future studies are needed to evaluate the utility of MRI for detection of lesions in less severely lead poisoned eagles and determining prognosis for treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reference intervals, longitudinal analyses, and index of individuality of commonly measured laboratory variables in captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reference intervals, perform longitudinal analyses, and determine the index of individuality (IoI) of 8 hematologic, and 13 biochemical and electrophoretic variables for a group of captive bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Reference intervals were determined from blood samples collected during annual wellness examinations for 41 eagles (23 male and 18 female) with ages ranging between 6 and 43 years (18.7 +/- 7.4, mean +/- SD) at the time of sample collection. Longitudinal analyses and IoI were determined for measured hematologic, biochemical, and protein electrophoretic variables, both individually and as a group, for a subset of 16 eagles (10 male and 6 female) during a 12-year period. This smaller group of eagles ranged in age between 2 and 20 years at the start of the study period, and between 14 and 32 years (21.9 +/- 5.0, mean +/- SD) at the end of the study period. Significant increases with age within the group of 16 eagles were observed only for red blood cells, percent heterophils, total protein, and beta-globulin protein fraction, while albumin:globulin decreased significantly with age. A low IoI (> or = 1.4) was determined for all hematologic and biochemical variables except gamma globulins, which had high IoI (< or = 0.6) for 3 individuals within the subset of 16.

  14. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Elizabeth K; Watts, Bryan D; Turrin, Courtney L

    2016-01-01

    Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1) identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2) compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD) surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles) and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40) and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100).

  15. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Mojica

    Full Text Available Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1 identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2 compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40 and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100.

  16. Recent switch by the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini) in the Pacific northwest to associative nesting with Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) to gain predator protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, I.M.; Butler, R.W.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini Chapman, 1901) in the Pacific northwest appears to have modified nesting behaviour in response to the strong recent recovery of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) population. Previously undescribed, herons now often nest in close

  17. PCBs and DDE, but not PBDEs, increase with trophic level and marine input in nestling bald eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kyle Hamish; Cesh, Lillian S; Dooley, Jessica A; Letcher, Robert J; Elliott, John E

    2009-06-01

    Concentrations of persistent contaminants often vary widely among individuals within a population. We hypothesized that such variation was caused mainly by differences in diet (biomagnification) and in coastal systems by the tendency of marine systems to act as contaminant sinks. We examined the relationship between contaminant concentrations and stable isotope ratios in nestling plasma from an apex predator with a particularly broad diet. Our study included freshwater, estuarine, inshore and pelagic breeding sites. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at the pelagic marine sites showed high trophic level and marine input, eagles at the freshwater sites showed low trophic level and marine input, and eagles at the estuarine and inshore marine sites had intermediate values. The relationship between trophic level and marine input may reflect longer food chains in pelagic compared to terrestrial ecosystems. summation operator PCBs and DDE concentrations generally increased with trophic level and marine input, with the exception of the freshwater sites, while summation operator PBDEs, hydroxylated-PBDEs and hydroxylated-PCBs increased with marine input, but were independent of trophic level. The relationships for summation operator PCBs and DDE were often slightly stronger with marine input than trophic level, suggesting that oceanographic processes may be more important than trophic level. At freshwater locations, spatial variation may be more important than trophic level due to the heterogeneity of contaminant profiles between feeding locations (lakes, rivers, agricultural fields). Adults had similar isotopic composition to their chicks but higher contamination. Based on nests where prey composition was determined independently, isotopic enrichment values for nestling plasma were 1.6+/-0.1 (delta(15)N) and -0.4+/-0.2 (delta(13)C). We conclude that trophic level and marine influence are significant factors influencing PCB and DDE concentrations in eagles. However

  18. PCBs and DDE, but not PBDEs, increase with trophic level and marine input in nestling bald eagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamish Elliott, Kyle, E-mail: haliaeetus@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, Z320 Duff Roblin Building, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Cesh, Lillian S. [Department of Biological Sciences, Centre for Wildlife Ecology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Dooley, Jessica A. [Department of Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Letcher, Robert J. [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Elliott, John E. [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, B.C., V4K 3N2 (Canada)

    2009-06-01

    Concentrations of persistent contaminants often vary widely among individuals within a population. We hypothesized that such variation was caused mainly by differences in diet (biomagnification) and in coastal systems by the tendency of marine systems to act as contaminant sinks. We examined the relationship between contaminant concentrations and stable isotope ratios in nestling plasma from an apex predator with a particularly broad diet. Our study included freshwater, estuarine, inshore and pelagic breeding sites. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at the pelagic marine sites showed high trophic level and marine input, eagles at the freshwater sites showed low trophic level and marine input, and eagles at the estuarine and inshore marine sites had intermediate values. The relationship between trophic level and marine input may reflect longer food chains in pelagic compared to terrestrial ecosystems. {Sigma}PCBs and DDE concentrations generally increased with trophic level and marine input, with the exception of the freshwater sites, while {Sigma}PBDEs, hydroxylated-PBDEs and hydroxylated-PCBs increased with marine input, but were independent of trophic level. The relationships for {Sigma}PCBs and DDE were often slightly stronger with marine input than trophic level, suggesting that oceanographic processes may be more important than trophic level. At freshwater locations, spatial variation may be more important than trophic level due to the heterogeneity of contaminant profiles between feeding locations (lakes, rivers, agricultural fields). Adults had similar isotopic composition to their chicks but higher contamination. Based on nests where prey composition was determined independently, isotopic enrichment values for nestling plasma were 1.6 {+-} 0.1 ({delta}{sup 15}N) and - 0.4 {+-}0.2 ({delta}{sup 13}C). We conclude that trophic level and marine influence are significant factors influencing PCB and DDE concentrations in eagles. However, trophic level in

  19. PCBs and DDE, but not PBDEs, increase with trophic level and marine input in nestling bald eagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamish Elliott, Kyle; Cesh, Lillian S.; Dooley, Jessica A.; Letcher, Robert J.; Elliott, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent contaminants often vary widely among individuals within a population. We hypothesized that such variation was caused mainly by differences in diet (biomagnification) and in coastal systems by the tendency of marine systems to act as contaminant sinks. We examined the relationship between contaminant concentrations and stable isotope ratios in nestling plasma from an apex predator with a particularly broad diet. Our study included freshwater, estuarine, inshore and pelagic breeding sites. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at the pelagic marine sites showed high trophic level and marine input, eagles at the freshwater sites showed low trophic level and marine input, and eagles at the estuarine and inshore marine sites had intermediate values. The relationship between trophic level and marine input may reflect longer food chains in pelagic compared to terrestrial ecosystems. ΣPCBs and DDE concentrations generally increased with trophic level and marine input, with the exception of the freshwater sites, while ΣPBDEs, hydroxylated-PBDEs and hydroxylated-PCBs increased with marine input, but were independent of trophic level. The relationships for ΣPCBs and DDE were often slightly stronger with marine input than trophic level, suggesting that oceanographic processes may be more important than trophic level. At freshwater locations, spatial variation may be more important than trophic level due to the heterogeneity of contaminant profiles between feeding locations (lakes, rivers, agricultural fields). Adults had similar isotopic composition to their chicks but higher contamination. Based on nests where prey composition was determined independently, isotopic enrichment values for nestling plasma were 1.6 ± 0.1 (δ 15 N) and - 0.4 ±0.2 (δ 13 C). We conclude that trophic level and marine influence are significant factors influencing PCB and DDE concentrations in eagles. However, trophic level in particular did not influence PBDEs

  20. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian; Russell, Robin E

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2% of bald eagles and 11.8% of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  1. INFLUENCE OF SNOWFALL ON BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF FREE-FLYING BALD EAGLES (HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS) IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER VALLEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Ronald A; Reichart, Letitia M; Mandernack, Brett A; Solensky, Matthew; Schoenebeck, Casey W; Redig, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Lead poisoning of scavenging raptors occurs primarily via consumption of game animal carcasses containing lead, which peaks during fall firearm hunting seasons. We hypothesized that snowfall would mitigate exposure by concealing carcasses. We categorized blood lead level (BLL) for a subsample of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Upper Mississippi River Valley and described BLL with respect to age, sex, and snowfall. We captured Bald Eagles overwintering in the Upper Mississippi River Valley (n=55) between December 1999 and January 2002. Individual BLL ranged from nondetectable to 335 μg/dL, with 73% of the samples testing positive for acute exposure to lead. Eagle BLL did not significantly differ between age or sex, but levels were higher immediately following the hunting season, and they were lower when the previous month's snowfall was greater than 11 cm. This study suggests a window of time between the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunting season and the onset of snow when the population experienced peak exposure to lead. Combining these findings with existing research, we offer a narrative of the annual lead exposure cycle of Upper Mississippi River Valley Bald Eagles. These temporal associations are necessary considerations for accurate collection and interpretation of BLL.

  2. A rapid postmortem screening test for lead toxicosis in common loons (Gavia immer) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornetsky, Rachel; Rock, Meagan; Pokras, Mark

    2013-07-01

    In live animals, lead poisoning can be diagnosed by analyzing blood samples. For postmortem testing, blood samples are not available and analysis of liver or kidney is often used for diagnosis. Liver and kidney analysis is relatively expensive and results might not be quickly available. We examined an inexpensive, rapid method to screen animals for lead toxicosis postmortem by testing the mixture of body fluids (termed "tissue fluids") that pool in the body cavity at necropsy for lead. At necropsy we collected body fluid and liver samples from Common Loon (Gavia immer) and Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) carcasses and determined concentrations of lead in tissue fluid using a desk-top blood lead analyzer. Concentrations of lead in liver were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. There was strong correlation between tissue fluid and liver tissue lead concentrations, and receiver-operating characteristic analysis gave an area under the curve of 0.91, indicating that postmortem measurements of lead in tissue fluids can be utilized as a screening method for lead toxicosis.

  3. Birding--Fun and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This feature article presents the basics of birding, or bird watching, and discusses its appeal, especially to serious birders. A section on "citizen scientists" explains organizations that collect data on birds and describes projects they organize. Other sections discuss the legacy of John James Audubon and the bald eagle.

  4. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H Tyler; Bowerman, William W; Grim, Leland H; Grubb, Teryl G; Bridges, William C; Wierda, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs, total DDTs, 4,4'-DDE, and Dieldrin were analyzed since >50% of nestling plasma samples had detectable concentrations. Total PCBs, total DDTs, and 4,4'-DDE concentrations have all decreased over time (26.09%, 24.09%, and 40.92% respectively). Concentrations of Dieldrin have increased by 50.25%. In this study, 61.1% of all nestlings sampled had detectable concentrations of Dieldrin from all time periods and all areas of VNP. Since Dieldrin is a banned pesticide in North America, the source of this increase is unknown. However, increases and fluctuations in Dieldrin concentration suggest contaminant levels in VNP may be linked to a new source or environmental process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 39367 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Raptor Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...-0020; 91200-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX78 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing... primary responsibility for managing migratory birds. Our authority is based on the Migratory Bird Treaty... take and possession of migratory birds for many purposes. The BGEPA allows bald eagles and golden...

  6. 50 CFR 17.41 - Special rules-birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-birds. 17.41 Section 17.41 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... rules—birds. (a) Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) wherever listed as threatened under § 17.11(h...

  7. Eagles nesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Earth System Science Office scientists have helped find ways to increase populations of the American Bald Eagle by studying the thermal energy balance of eggs. This information will contribute to the development of artificial incubation techniques that more closely match natural conditions in the wild.

  8. Organochlorine compounds in bald eagle and common loon eggs from Androscoggin Lake and the Androscoggin River watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Reduced productivity has been documented in fish‐eating birds inhabiting Androscoggin Lake in west‐central Maine. The cause of reduced productivity of fish‐eating...

  9. Chromosome reshuffling in birds of prey: the karyotype of the world's largest eagle (Harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja) compared to that of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Habermann, Felix A; Lacerda, Oneida; Sbalqueiro, Ives J; Wienberg, Johannes; Müller, Stefan

    2005-11-01

    Like various other diurnal birds of prey, the world's largest eagle, the Harpy (Harpia harpyja), presents an atypical bird karyotype with 2n=58 chromosomes. There is little knowledge about the dramatic changes in the genomic reorganization of these species compared to other birds. Since recently, the chicken provides a "default map" for various birds including the first genomic DNA sequence of a bird species. Obviously, the gross division of the chicken genome into relatively gene-poor macrochromosomes and predominantly gene-rich microchromosomes has been conserved for more than 150 million years in most bird species. Here, we present classical features of the Harpy eagle karyotype but also chromosomal homologies between H. harpyja and the chicken by chromosome painting and comparison to the chicken genome map. We used two different sets of painting probes: (1) chicken chromosomes were divided into three size categories: (a) macrochromosomes 1-5 and Z, (b) medium-sized chromosomes 6-10, and (c) 19 microchromosomes; (2) combinatorially labeled chicken chromosome paints 1-6 and Z. Both probe sets were visualized on H. harpyja chromosomes by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our data show how the organization into micro- and macrochromosomes has been lost in the Harpy eagle, seemingly without any preference or constraints.

  10. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Golden eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on grassland birds were summarized from information in more than 4,000 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to the breeding, year-round, and nonbreeding ranges in the United States and southern Canada. Although birds frequently are observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species, especially those habitats that occur in the Great Plains. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates of cowbird parasitism, host responses to parasitism, and factors that

  11. Bird nesting on an Athabasca power line structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedwill, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    SaskPower has recently completed its 400 km Athabasca power line, and is evaluating the predicted environmental impact of the line on the resident population of bald eagles and other raptors. During construction of the line, five major types of impact associated with the line were addressed. Minor route adjustments were made to by-pass nests of bald eagles and osprey to minimize impact of construction on breeding. The proximity of the power line to cliff faces and the north shore of lake Athabasca was maximized, and frequency of stream crossings and proximity to rapids were minimized. Route adjustments were made to ensure that the line was at least 1.6 km from bald eagle nest sites. As structures of the main 115 kV power line allow a minimum separation between conductors and grounded spars of 1.6 m, and between conductors of 4.6 m, electrocution was not considered to be a significant risk. However, on the 25 kV power line in regions of known bald eagle activity and in close proximity to bodies of water, provision was made for special structures to allow birds to perch without danger of electrocution. It was concluded that the resident population of raptors will probably be enhanced, particularly in areas not previously utilized. 8 refs., 5 figs

  12. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the

  13. Relation between travel strategy and social organization of migrating birds with special consideration of formation flight in the northern bald ibis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkl, B; Fritz, J

    2017-08-19

    A considerable proportion of the world's bird species undertake seasonal long-distance migrations. These journeys are energetically demanding. Two major behavioural means to reduce energy expenditure have been suggested: the use of thermal uplifts for a soaring-gliding migration style and travelling in echelon or V-shaped formation. Both strategies have immediate consequences for the social organization of the birds as they either cause large aggregations or require travelling in small and stable groups. Here, we first discuss those consequences, and second present an analysis of formation flight in a flock of northern bald ibis on their first southbound migration. We observe clear correlations between leading and trailing on the dyadic level but only a weak correlation on the individual level during independent flight and no convincing correlation during the human guided part of the migration. This pattern is suggestive of direct reciprocation as a means for establishing cooperation during formation flight. In general, we conclude that behavioural adaptations for dealing with physiological constraints on long-distance migrations either necessitate or ultimately foster formation of social groups with different characteristics. Patterns and social organization of birds travelling in groups have been elusive to study; however, new tracking technology-foremost lightweight GPS units-will provide more insights in the near future.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Use of multiple modes of flight subsidy by a soaring terrestrial bird, the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, when on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E; Turk, Philip J; Duerr, Adam E; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael J; Cooper, Jeff L; Brandes, David; Tremblay, Junior A; Lemaître, Jérôme

    2015-11-06

    Large birds regularly use updrafts to subsidize flight. Although most research on soaring bird flight has focused on use of thermal updrafts, there is evidence suggesting that many species are likely to use multiple modes of subsidy. We tested the degree to which a large soaring species uses multiple modes of subsidy to provide insights into the decision-making that underlies flight behaviour. We statistically classified more than 22 000 global positioning satellite-global system for mobile communications telemetry points collected at 30-s intervals to identify the type of subsidized flight used by 32 migrating golden eagles during spring in eastern North America. Eagles used subsidized flight on 87% of their journey. They spent 41.9% ± 1.5 ([Formula: see text], range: 18-56%) of their subsidized northbound migration using thermal soaring, 45.2% ± 2.1 (12-65%) of time gliding between thermals, and 12.9% ± 2.2 (1-55%) of time using orographic updrafts. Golden eagles responded to the variable local-scale meteorological events they encountered by switching flight behaviour to take advantage of multiple modes of subsidy. Orographic soaring occurred more frequently in morning and evening, earlier in the migration season, and when crosswinds and tail winds were greatest. Switching between flight modes allowed migration for relatively longer periods each day and frequent switching behaviour has implications for a better understanding of avian flight behaviour and of the evolution of use of subsidy in flight. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Endrin in birds: Lethal residues and secondary poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; Reichel, W.L.; Hughes, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Endrin residues in brains that are diagnostic of death were determined for several species of birds. Residues of 0.8 ppm or more of endrin in brain meant death; 0.6 ppm or less meant survival; between was a zone of overlap. These criteria indicate that some wild birds of the U.S., particularly white pelicans in the Northwest and two bald eagles, have been killed by endrin. Signs of endrin poisoning in experimental birds are described. The important and highly toxic metabolite in rodents, 12-ketoendrin, was sought but not found.

  16. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by ...

  17. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baldness. Medicines that treat male pattern baldness include: Minoxidil (Rogaine), a solution that is applied directly to ... slows hair loss. It works slightly better than minoxidil. Hair loss returns when you stop using this ...

  18. Like an eagle carries its young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... Eagles are really impressive birds. We often call them the 'king of the air' and, indeed, the Yoruba in Nigeria have a proverb which says: 'the eagle is the father of birds of prey' (Mieder 1986:131). In the Reichstag – the German parliamentary building – an image of an eagle fills one wall. We call.

  19. Bald Eagle Range - CWHR [ds600

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  20. Bald Eagle Range - CWHR [ds600

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  1. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.A.; Tingay, R.E.; Culver, M.; Hailer, F.; Clarke, M.L.; Mindell, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. Natural fatal Sarcocystis falcatula infections in free-ranging eagles in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschmann, Arno; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A; Hall, Natalie; Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Vaughn, Samuel B; Barr, Bradd C

    2010-03-01

    Three bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 1 golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) were admitted to rehabilitation facilities with emaciation, lethargy, and an inability to fly. Intravascular schizonts and merozoites were present in 2 bald eagles, mainly in the lung tissue, whereas the third bald eagle and the golden eagle had lymphohistiocytic encephalitis with intralesional schizonts and merozoites. In all eagles, protozoal tissue cysts were present in skeletal musculature or heart. The protozoal organisms were morphologically compatible with a Sarcocystis sp. By immunohistochemistry, the protozoal merozoites were positive for Sarcocystis falcatula antigen in all cases when using polyclonal antisera. Furthermore, the protozoa were confirmed to be most similar to S. falcatula by polymerase chain reaction in 3 of the 4 cases. To the authors' knowledge, this report presents the first cases of natural infection in eagles with S. falcatula as a cause of mortality.

  3. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aging Changes in the levels of androgens (male hormones). For example, after reaching menopause , many women find that the hair on their head is thinner, while the hair on their face is coarser. Family history of male or female pattern baldness.

  4. 78 FR 25758 - Migratory Birds; Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    .... The ECPG recommends that, at the end of each of the first four stages, project developers or operators... Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Arlington, Virginia... management populations that the Service has determined cannot sustain additional mortality, any remaining...

  5. Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Changes of Free-Flying Migrating Northern Bald Ibis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bairlein, Franz; Fritz, Johannes; Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; van Dijk, Gertjan; Meijer, Harro A J; Verhulst, Simon; Dittami, John

    2015-01-01

    Many migrating birds undertake extraordinary long flights. How birds are able to perform such endurance flights of over 100-hour durations is still poorly understood. We examined energy expenditure and physiological changes in Northern Bald Ibis Geronticus eremite during natural flights using birds

  6. Mortality and morbidity associated with gunshot in raptorial birds from the province of Quebec: 1986 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Fitzgérald, Guy; Lair, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Although raptors have been protected for decades in Quebec they are still regular victims of poaching. The objective of this study was to characterize cases of raptor shootings in Quebec over the last 2 decades. We reviewed clinical files, radiographs, and pathology reports on 4805 free-flying birds of prey admitted to the Faculté de médecine vétérinaire between 1986 and 2007. Evidence of gunshots was detected in 6.4% of the birds. Large species, such as ospreys, turkey vultures, snowy owls, and bald eagles represented the most frequently targeted species. The percentage of shot birds has decreased from 13.4% during 1991 to 1992 to 2.2% in 2006 to 2007. Potential reasons for this trend include a decrease in the presence of firearms in raptor habitats and changes in human attitude towards raptorial birds. PMID:20357944

  7. Monitoring the impact of the Gordon C. Leitch oil spill on the breeding bird populations of the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, (QC) Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, B.; Chapdelaine, G.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a monitoring study of the impact of a 1999 oil spill on the breeding bird population in the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, are discussed. The common eider, the black guillemot and the bald eagle were the three species studied by observing and comparing the status of these bird populations on islands located inside and outside of the contaminated area. Data from before and after the oil spill were compared. Results show that an estimated 211 to 777 breeding birds have died as a result of the oil spill, however, the overall impact on the reproductive potential of the breeding bird population was insignificant. Various protective measures to mitigate the effects of future oil spills are proposed. 38 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Characterization of clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds (mandarin duck and Eurasian eagle owl) in 2010 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Gu; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kim, Kwang-Il; Song, Byung Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2013-04-23

    Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

  9. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  10. Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical.

  11. An example of an interspecific chick rearing in Birds of Prey: the Marsh Harrier grown by the Greater Spotted Eagle in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We visited a breeding territory of the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga in Zavyalivskiy Wildlife Preserve of Altai Region on the 1st August, 2014. In the nest, located in a pine tree, we found a fledgling of the Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus and a nestling of the Greater Spotted Eagle in the first juvenile plumage. When we approached the nest, the female GSE flew off, followed by the fledgling of the Harrier, who uttered food-begging calls, but soon returned to the nest. The present situation possibly emerged after the adult eagle caught a nestling of the harrier but failed to kill it. Judging by prey remains near the nest, another nestling of the Marsh Harrier was eaten at the age of 25 days. But the second one survived and begun to call for food. The maternal instinct of the female Greater Spotted Eagle would have prevented her from killing the harrier, instead prompting her to feed it.

  12. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  13. Eagle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, Deepika; Gothi, Rajesh; Rajan, Sriram

    2009-01-01

    Eagle syndrome occurs due to elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, which then may produce a pain sensation due the pressure exerted on various structures in the head and neck. When suspected, imaging helps in identifying the abnormally elongated styloid process or the calcified ligament. In recent years, three-dimensional CT (3DCT) has proved to be valuable in these cases. We report the case of a 62-year-old man with this syndrome in whom imaging with 3DCT conclusively established the diagnosis

  14. Eagle Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beytholahi JM

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome is characterized by an elongated styloid process and (or calcification of"nstylohyoid ligament besides clinical symptoms. The symptoms are those related to pain when"nswallowing or rotating the neck, headacke, earache, dizziness, intermittent glossitis, sensation of"nforeign body in pharynx and transient syncope. The case which is presented can be considered a very"nrare form of the disease in which complete calcification of the ligament and it's thickening has"noccured. Also there is little relationship between the severity of calcification and severity of symptoms."nA careful and thorough evaluation of each panoramic radiography is emphasized.

  15. Comparison of metabolic substrates in alligators and several birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweazea, Karen L; McMurtry, John P; Elsey, Ruth M; Redig, Patrick; Braun, Eldon J

    2014-08-01

    On average, avian blood glucose concentrations are 1.5-2 times those of mammals of similar mass and high concentrations of insulin are required to lower blood glucose. Whereas considerable data exist for granivorous species, few data are available for plasma metabolic substrate and glucoregulatory hormone concentrations for carnivorous birds and alligators. Birds and mammals with carnivorous diets have higher metabolic rates than animals consuming diets with less protein whereas alligators have low metabolic rates. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare substrate and glucoregulatory hormone concentrations in several birds of prey and a phylogenetically close relative of birds, the alligator. The hypothesis was that the combination of carnivorous diets and high metabolic rates favored the evolution of greater protein and fatty acid utilization leading to insulin resistance and high plasma glucose concentrations in carnivorous birds. In contrast, it was hypothesized that alligators would have low substrate utilization attributable to a low metabolic rate. Fasting plasma substrate and glucoregulatory hormone concentrations were compared for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Avian species had high circulating β-hydroxybutyrate (10-21 mg/dl) compared to alligators (2.81 ± 0.16 mg/dl). In mammals high concentrations of this byproduct of fatty acid utilization are correlated with insulin resistance. Fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were positively correlated in eagles whereas no relationship was found between these variables for owls, hawks or alligators. Additionally, β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were low in alligators. Similar to carnivorous mammals, ingestion of a high protein diet may have favored the utilization of fatty acids and protein for energy thereby promoting the development of insulin

  16. A technique for evisceration as an alternative to enucleation in birds of prey: 19 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Maureen; Pizzirani, Stefano; Tseng, Florina

    2013-06-01

    Ocular trauma is common in birds of prey presented to wildlife clinics and rehabilitation centers. Enucleation is the procedure most commonly described for treatment of end-stage ocular disease or chronically painful eyes in birds; however, there are several disadvantages and risks to this procedure. While evisceration has been suggested as an alternative, it has not been described for multiple cases or with long-term follow-up data in birds of prey. This report details an evisceration technique performed in 5 captive birds of prey of 4 different species (1 eastern screech owl [Megascops asio], 1 great horned owl [Bubo virginianus], 2 red-tailed hawks [Buteo jamaicensis], and 1 bald eagle [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]) with long-term follow-up information. In addition, this report describes 14 cases of free-living owls of 3 different species (1 great horned owl, 4 barred owls [Strix varia], and 9 eastern screech owls) on which this technique was performed from 2004 to 2011 and which were subsequently released to the wild. Because of the limited risk of complications and the less-severe disruption of facial symmetry, which may be particularly important in owls that are candidates for release to the wild, evisceration should be considered over enucleation in birds of prey that require surgical intervention for the management of severe sequelae to ocular trauma.

  17. Bird Mortaility at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998--September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, K. S.; Thelander, C. G.

    2005-09-01

    Over the past 15 years, research has shown that wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) kill many birds, including raptors, which are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, and/or state and federal Endangered Species Acts. Early research in the APWRA on avian mortality mainly attempted to identify the extent of the problem. In 1998, however, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated research to address the causal relationships between wind turbines and bird mortality. NREL funded a project by BioResource Consultants to perform this research directed at identifying and addressing the causes of mortality of various bird species from wind turbines in the APWRA.With 580 megawatts (MW) of installed wind turbine generating capacity in the APWRA, wind turbines there provide up to 1 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of emissions-free electricity annually. By identifying and implementing new methods and technologies to reduce or resolve bird mortality in the APWRA, power producers may be able to increase wind turbine electricity production at the site and apply similar mortality-reduction methods at other sites around the state and country.

  18. Restoration of sea eagle population: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef RAJCHARD

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The population density of the white-tailed sea eagle Haliaeetus albicilla is very low in many countries. In last twenty years, the sea eagle population in South Bohemia was restored by strict protection subsidized by reintroduction. The active help consisted of feeding during winter and building of artificial nests. A new sea eagle breeding population arose in the Třeboň basin area in the early 1980’s. Until this time sea eagles had used former breeding places only for wintering, probably coming from the Baltic. The South Bohemian sea eagle population is very unique: it exists in a densely man-occupied landscape, mainly in areas with very intensive carp breeding in artificial fishponds and was partly artficially (help to wintering birds and reintroduction of some individuals restored. The experience from South Bohemia may have importance for populations of the sea eagle in other areas of its occurence, primarily in the continental conditions [Current Zoology 55 (5:–2009].

  19. Lead poisoning in upland-foraging birds of prey in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A J; Scheuhammer, A M

    2003-01-01

    We examined the degree of lead exposure, based on tissue-lead concentrations, in 184 raptors of 16 species found dead across Canada. The most prevalent species available for examination were Red-tailed hawks, Great horned owls, and Golden eagles (n = 131). The majority of individuals examined had very low lead accumulation, however 3-4% of total mortality in these 3 most commonly encountered species was attributed to lead poisoning. In addition, 1 of 9 Bald Eagles found dead far from aquatic environments was lead poisoned; and a single Turkey Vulture had a highly elevated bone-lead concentration (58 microg/g dry weight). Evidence from our study, along with other published research, indicates that upland-foraging birds of prey and scavengers that typically include game birds and mammals in their diets, are at risk for lead poisoning from the ingestion of lead projectiles from ammunition used in upland hunting. The use of non-lead ammunition for hunting upland game would effectively remove the only serious source of high lead exposure and lead poisoning for upland-foraging raptors.

  20. Lead and mercury in fall migrant golden eagles from western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Heiko W; Domenech, Robert; Slabe, Vincent A; Sullivan, Sean P

    2015-07-01

    Lead exposure from ingestion of bullet fragments is a serious environmental hazard to eagles. We determined blood lead levels (BLL) in 178 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured during fall migration along a major North American flyway. These eagles spent the breeding season distributed over a large range and are the best currently available representation of free flying golden eagles on the continent. We found 58 % of these eagles containing increased BLL > 0.1 mg/L; 10 % were clinically lead poisoned with BLL > 0.6 mg/L; and 4 % were lethally exposed with BLL > 1.2 mg/L. No statistical difference in BLL existed between golden and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Golden eagles captured on carrion had higher BLL than those captured using live bait suggesting differences in feeding habits among individuals. Median BLL increased with age class. We propose a conceptual model for the long-term increase in BLL after ingestion of lead particles. The mean blood mercury level in golden eagles was 0.023 mg/L. We evaluate a field test for BLL that is based on anodic stripping voltammetry. This cost-effective and immediate method correlated well with results from inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, although results needed to be corrected for each calibration of the test kit.

  1. Ecotoxicology of organochlorine chemicals in birds of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Giesy, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Silent Spring was fulfilled in the United States with passage of environmental legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Toxic Substance Control Act in the 1970s. Carson's writings, television interviews, and testimony before Congress alerted a nation and the world to the unintended effects of persistent, bioaccumulative chemicals on populations of fish, wildlife, and possibly humans. Her writings in the popular press brought attention to scientific findings that declines in populations of a variety of birds were directly linked to the widespread use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in agriculture, public health, and horticulture. By the 1970s, DDT and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were being banned or phased out, and the intent of these regulatory acts became apparent in a number of locations across the United States, including the Great Lakes. Concentrations of DDT and its major product of transformation, dichlorodiphenylchloroethane (DDE), were decreasing in top predators, such as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), colonial waterbirds, and other fish-eating wildlife. Eggshell thinning and the associated mortality of bird embryos caused by DDE had decreased in the Great Lakes and elsewhere by the early 1980s.

  2. West Nile virus in the endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Ursula; Blanco, Juan M; Crespo, Elena; Naranjo, Victoria; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez, Azucena; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2008-05-25

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is considered to be the most endangered European eagle. The species is an endemic resident in the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula. We used RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and seroneutralization to test samples from 13 wild and 18 captive eagles. WNV was detected by RT-PCR in tissues and/or oropharyngeal swabs of eight of 10 (80%) imperial eagles analyzed, and both in apparently clinically healthy birds, and in animals that died due to secondary infections but had symptoms/lesions compatible with WNV. Immunohistochemistry detected WNV antigen in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, epithelial cells of the gizzard and duodenum, perivascular inflammatory cells, and in Kupffer-cells and hepatocytes. Serum antibodies against WNV were detected in a total of five out of 21 imperial eagles (23.8%), including free-living nestlings (two out of nine samples, 22.2%) and captive adult eagles (three out of 12 samples, 25%). Our results evidence WNV circulation among free-living and captive Spanish imperial eagles in South-central Spain, a dry inland region with no previous WNV evidence, throughout 6 consecutive years. They also indicate the need for further research into this important zoonosis in order to better understand its epidemiology in the Mediterranean ecosystem and in order to understand the role of WNV in the population dynamics of the critically endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

  3. Habitat Requirements and Foraging Ecology of the Madagascar Fish-Eagle

    OpenAIRE

    Berkelman, James

    1997-01-01

    With a population estimate of 99 pairs, the Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is one of the rarest birds of prey in the world. I investigated the ecological requirements of the Madagascar fish-eagle in 1994 and 1995 to help determine management action to prevent its extinction. I investigated fish-eagle foraging ecology in 1996 to determine its prey preference and whether fish abundance and availabi...

  4. Abundance and Distribution of African Fish Eagles along Major Rivers in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Chiganze, S.; Chirombe, P.; Mashapa, C.; Muboko, N.; Gandiwa, E.

    2013-01-01

    African fish eagles (Haliaeetus vocifer) are important birds of prey and indicator of ecosystem integrity in aquatic environments. We assessed the population abundance and spatial distribution of African fish eagles along three major rivers in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Data were collected

  5. Steppe Eagle in the Karaganda Region, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Between June 22 and July 18, 2017, fieldworks were carried out to study the population structure and demographic characteristics of the Steppe Eagle breeding groups (Aquila nipalensis in the central part of the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan. In the course of the work 808 birds we found, 280 Steppe Eagle breeding territories were localized. Within 10 registration areas 277 Steppe Eagle breeding territories (96.18 % were examined, including 70 successful nests with 102 nestlings. The occupation of breeding territories was 87.73 %, while the percentage of active nests in the occupied breeding territories was 69.14 %. Successful were 42.26 % of nests from the number of active nests and 25.63 % from the number of identified breeding territories. The number of nestlings in broods ranged from 1 to 3, averaging (n=71 1.45±0.56 nestlings per successful nest and (n=168 0.61±0.80 nestlings per occupied nest. With a very high percentage of nests with unsuccessful breeding (54.46 % of the number of active ones, high percentage of nests with dead clutch was recorded – 34.55 % of the number of nests with unsuccessful breeding. Distribution density of Steppe Eagle active nests averaged 7.67/100 km2, varying in different areas from 4.11 to 12.90/100 km2. The distribution density of Steppe Eagle successful nests on the areas varied from 0 to 4.81/100 km2 averaged 3.24/100 km2. For the area of habitats suitable for breeding across the Karaganda region (142,549.9 km2, the abundance of the Steppe Eagle in nesting was 4,794–5,814, at average 5,275 pairs and 2,183–2,647, at average 2,402 successful pairs.

  6. The Conservation Status of Eagles in South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Knobel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is an introductory survey and preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of eagles in South African law. The methodology is primarily an interdisciplinary literature study of legal texts and texts from the natural sciences. Eagles are some of the largest and most powerful avian predators, and the human response to their presence is dualistic and polarised. At the one extreme, many people admire eagles, while at the other extreme they are perceived as a threat to economic and other interests, and may even be actively persecuted in a conviction that they are vermin. This duality in the human perception of eagles is also prevalent in South Africa and complicates their conservation. The mobility of eagles and other birds of prey means that they cannot be restrained by fencing national parks and other protected areas, and this heightens the likelihood of their entering into conflict with human interests. The conservation problems faced by eagles in South Africa can broadly be divided into direct and indirect threats. Direct threats include the intentional killing of eagles, and trade in eagles and their eggs. Indirect threats include non-targeted poisoning (where poisoned bait is used to control other predators, but eagles find the bait, feed on it, and succumb; habitat loss; mortality induced by dangerous structures; and disturbance. The legal status of eagles is influenced by a large body of legislative provisions, ranging from international and regional legal instruments, through national legislation, to provincial legislative measures. An overview of these provisions is given, with concise explanations of how they apply to the legal status of eagles and other birds of prey in South Africa. The conservation status of eagles in South African law is subsequently evaluated by considering the contribution of the applicable laws to three main types of conservation interventions. In respect of the first, habitat preservation

  7. "BSR Eagle" lendas Tartusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    8. veebr. Tartus Loodusuurijate Seltsi majas toimunud seminarist "Mida Juku õues ei õpi, seda Juhan vallaametnikuna ei tea", mis toimus Läänemere-piirkonna loodusharidusprojekti "BSR Eagle" raames

  8. Movements and landscape use of Eastern Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Bragin, Evgeny A.; Sharpe, Peter B.; Garcelon, David K.; Bartoszuk, Kordian; Katzner, Todd E.

    2018-01-01

    Capsule: We describe ecological factors associated with movements of a globally declining raptor species, the Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca.Aims: To describe the movements, habitat associations and resource selection of Eastern Imperial Eagles marked in Central Asia.Methods: We used global positioning system (GPS) data sent via satellite telemetry devices deployed on Eastern Imperial Eagles captured in Kazakhstan to calculate distances travelled and to associate habitat and weather variables with eagle locations collected throughout the annual cycle. We also used resource selection models to evaluate habitat use of tracked birds during autumn migration. Separately, we used wing-tagging recovery data to broaden our understanding of wintering locations of eagles.Results: Eagles tagged in Kazakhstan wintered in most countries on the Arabian Peninsula, as well as Iran and India. The adult eagle we tracked travelled more efficiently than did the four pre-adults. During autumn migration, telemetered eagles used a mixture of vegetation types, but during winter and summer, they primarily used bare and sparsely vegetated areas. Finally, telemetered birds used orographic updrafts to subsidize their autumn migration flight, but they relied on thermal updrafts during spring migration.Conclusion: Our study is the first to use GPS telemetry to describe year-round movements and habitat associations of Eastern Imperial Eagles in Central Asia. Our findings provide insight into the ecology of this vulnerable raptor species that can contribute to conservation efforts on its behalf.

  9. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 9690-109] Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application...: Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC; Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e...

  10. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  11. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  12. Ecology of Eagles in Bundelkhand Region, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragni Gupta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on eagles in districts of Bundelkhand region (stretched between 23° 35'-26'N and 78- 82' E has been carried out. An extensive survey was carried out (2006-2010 to know their population status and fluctuation in population, including breeding colonies in Bundelkhand region. The numbers of birds were recorded per year in different seasons, with the help of binoculars. Method was supported by photography. The most common species recorded during the study period was Milvus migrans govinda (resident species while the rarer species were Haliaeetus leucoryphus, Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus. Aquila helica, Ictinaetus malayensis, Aquila chrysaetos as migratory species in Panna National Park. It was found that number of eagles also variable. It has been recorded that maximum number 1070 in 2010. Highest numbers of chicks were reported in 2009. Juveniles have more tendency of migration. [Vet. World 2012; 5(1.000: 31-35

  13. Vulnerability of birds to climate change in California's Sierra Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney B. Siegel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a rapidly changing climate, effective bird conservation requires not only reliable information about the current vulnerability of species of conservation concern, but also credible projections of their future vulnerability. Such projections may enable managers to preempt or reduce emerging climate-related threats through appropriate habitat management. We used NatureServe's Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI to predict vulnerability to climate change of 168 bird species that breed in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, USA. The CCVI assesses species-specific exposure and sensitivity to climate change within a defined geographic area, through the integration of (a species' range maps, (b information about species' natural history traits and ecological relationships, (c historic and current climate data, and (d spatially explicit climate change projections. We conducted the assessment under two different downscaled climate models with divergent projections about future precipitation through the middle of the 21st century. Assessments differed relatively little under the two climate models. Of five CCVI vulnerability ranking categories, only one species, White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura, received the most vulnerable rank, Extremely Vulnerable. No species received the second-highest vulnerability ranking, Highly Vulnerable. Sixteen species scored as Moderately Vulnerable using one or both climate models: Common Merganser (Mergus merganser, Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus, Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus, Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius, Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa, Black Swift (Cypseloides niger, Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana, American Dipper (Cinclus mexicanus, Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus, American Pipit (Anthus rubescens, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis, Pine Grosbeak

  14. Variations in native protein glycation and plasma antioxidants in several birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Tana; Zuck, Jessica; Borges, Chad R; Redig, Patrick; Sweazea, Karen L

    2017-08-01

    Birds are an anomaly among vertebrates as they are remarkably long-lived despite having naturally high blood glucose and metabolic rates. For mammals, hyperglycemia leads to oxidative stress and protein glycation. In contrast, many studies have shown that domestic and wild birds are relatively resistant to these glucose-mediated pathologies. Surprisingly very little research has examined protein glycation in birds of prey, which by nature consume a diet high in protein and fat that promotes gluconeogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate protein glycation and antioxidant concentrations in serum samples from several birds of prey (bald eagle (BAEA), red-tailed hawk (RTHA), barred owl (BAOW), great horned owl (GHOW)) as protein glycation can accelerate oxidative stress and vice versa. Serum glucose was measured using a commercially available assay, native albumin glycation was measured by mass spectrometry and various antioxidants (uric acid, vitamin E, retinol and several carotenoids) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Although glucose concentrations were not significantly different between species (p=0.340), albumin glycation was significantly higher (p=0.004) in BAEA (23.67±1.90%) and BAOW (24.28±1.43%) compared to RTHA (14.31±0.63%). Of the antioxidants examined, lutein was significantly higher in BAOW (p=0.008). BAEA had the highest beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene concentrations (pbirds of prey relative to other birds likely helps protect from complications that may otherwise arise from having high glucose and protein glycation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spizaetus hawk-eagles as predators of arboreal colobines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, S D; Nijman, V

    2011-04-01

    The predation pressure put on primates by diurnal birds of prey differs greatly between continents. Africa and South America have specialist raptors (e.g. crowned hawk-eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus and harpy eagle Harpia harpyja) whereas in Asia the only such specialist's (Philippine eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi) distribution is largely allopatric with primates. The almost universal absence of polyspecific groups in Asia (common in Africa and South America) may indicate reduced predation pressure. As such there is almost no information on predation pressures on primates in Asia by raptors. Here we report successful predation of a juvenile banded langur Presbytis femoralis (~2 kg) by a changeable hawk-eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus. The troop that was attacked displayed no signs of being alarmed, and no calls were made before the event. We argue that in insular Southeast Asia, especially, large Spizaetus hawk-eagles (~2 kg) are significant predators of arboreal colobines. Using data on the relative size of sympatric Spizaetus hawk-eagles and colobines we make predictions on where geographically we can expect the highest predation pressure (Thai-Malay Peninsula) and which colobines are least (Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus auratus, P. thomasi) and most (P. femoralis, T. cristatus) affected.

  16. Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Heather R L; Mindell, David P

    2005-11-01

    We assessed phylogenetic relationships for birds of prey in the family Accipitridae using molecular sequence from two mitochondrial genes (1047 bases ND2 and 1041 bases cyt-b) and one nuclear intron (1074 bases beta-fibrinogen intron 7). We sampled representatives of all 14 Accipitridae subfamilies, focusing on four subfamilies of eagles (booted eagles, sea eagles, harpy eagles, and snake eagles) and two subfamilies of Old World vultures (Gypaetinae and Aegypiinae) with nearly all known species represented. Multiple well-supported relationships among accipitrids identified with DNA differ from those traditionally recognized based on morphology or life history traits. Monophyly of sea eagles (Haliaeetinae) and booted eagles (Aquilinae) was supported; however, harpy eagles (Harpiinae), snake eagles (Circaetinae), and Old World vultures were found to be non-monophyletic. The Gymnogene (Polyboroides typus) and the Crane Hawk (Geranospiza caerulescens) were not found to be close relatives, presenting an example of convergent evolution for specialized limb morphology enabling predation on cavity nesting species. Investigation of named subspecies within Hieraaetus fasciatus and H. morphnoides revealed significant genetic differentiation or non-monophyly supporting recognition of H. spilogaster and H. weiskei as distinctive species.

  17. Validity of self reported male balding patterns in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leavy Justine E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the association between male pattern baldness and disease such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Limitations in the lack of standardized instruments to measure male pattern baldness have resulted in researchers measuring balding patterns in a variety of ways. This paper examines the accuracy and reliability of assessment of balding patterns by both trained observers and men themselves, using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Methods An observational study was carried out in Western Australia with 105 male volunteers aged between 30 and 70 years. Participants completed a short questionnaire and selected a picture that best represented their balding pattern. Two trained data collectors also independently assessed the participant's balding pattern using the same system and the men's self assessment was compared with the trained observer's assessment. In a substudy, observers assessed the balding pattern in a photo of the man aged 35 years while the man independently rated his balding at that age. Results Observers were very reliable in their assessment of balding pattern (85% exact agreement, κ = 0.83. Compared to trained observers, men were moderately accurate in their self-assessment of their balding status (48–55% exact agreement, κ = 0.39–0.46. For the substudy the exact agreement between the men and the observers was 67% and the agreement within balding groups was 87%. Conclusions We recommend that male balding patterns be assessed by trained personnel using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Where the use of trained personnel is not feasible, men's self assessment both currently and retrospectively has been shown to be adequate.

  18. Menopon gaillinae lice in the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos and Marsh harear (Circus aeruginosus in Najaf province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Fatlawi M. A. A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study considered as the first work on ectoparasites of the Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos and Marsh harear (Circus aeruginosus in Iraq. Overall, we examined 17 eagles for the period from 01\\Nov\\2016 until 25\\Feb\\2017, out of which 4were found infected (23.5%. All infected birds were female. Aquila was hunted from Najaf sea area. Under the wing and between feathers of Aquila grossly examined for detect any parasites. Lice of genus Menopon gaillinae isolated from 4 eagles, from under the wing area. Infected eagles suffering from skin redness. 38 parasites isolated from infected eagle, we prepared a slide from these louse for spp. classification. This study was on the first hand record of shaft louse (M. gallinae in Golden eagle and Marsh harear in Iraq

  19. Davis Pond freshwater prediversion biomonitoring study: freshwater fisheries and eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  20. Resource availability and diet in Harpy Eagle breeding territories on the Xingu River, Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar-Silva, FH.; Junqueira, TG.; Sanaiotti, TM.; Guimarães, VY.; Mathias, PVC.; Mendonça, CV.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the Tapajos-Xingu interfluve, one of the largest birds of prey, the Harpy Eagle, is under intense anthropogenic pressure due to historical and recent reductions in forest cover. We studied prey availability and use by Harpy Eagle on six breeding territories on the low- and mid-Xingu River, between 2013 and 2015. We evaluated food resource availability using the environmental-surveys database from two methods: terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method) and fauna rescue/flushing before veg...

  1. Eagle Feathers, the Highest Honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverhead, Pete

    Following his own advice that elders of the tribe share their knowledge so that "the way of the Indians would come back to the children of today," Pete Beaverhead (1899-1975) tells of the traditions of respect and honor surrounding the eagle feather in a booklet illustrated with black and white drawings. The eagle is an Indian symbol of…

  2. Eagle-Picher SPV development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jack; Smith, Ron

    1993-02-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Eagle-Picher heritage - single pressure vessel (SPV) technology; SPV units in process at Eagle-Pitcher; design features; basic battery design features; cell development considerations; SPV boiler plate cell; cell development activity; SPV cell capacity test - charge and discharge; and current plans.

  3. Eagle syndrome : A comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badhey, Arvind; Jategaonkar, Ameya; Kovacs, Alexander Joseph Anglin; Kadakia, Sameep; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Ducic, Yadranko; Schantz, Stimson; Shin, Edward

    The objective of this report is to summarize the symptoms, diagnostic workup, necessary imaging, and management of Eagle syndrome. A comprehensive literature review was conducted on peer-reviewed publications of Eagle syndrome across multiple disciplines in order to gain a thorough understanding of

  4. Bald Eagle Creek and Little Juniata River Channel Improvement Project; Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    elevations at various areas throughout the project. c. Performance of the stilling basin for various flow conditions. d. Optimum riprap and gabion ...between sta 133+60 and 131+00 (Photo 31). Again, no failure was found in the gabion test section for the sane flow conditions that were used in the...effects in the general flow conditions in this area. 42. Either riprap or gabions could be used for protection of the bank slopes in the Little Juniata

  5. Watching Bald Eagles Change Shifts: Seeking Digital Curriculum Access across Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    There is an inconsistency between a growing need for national research on issues of child and adolescent health and the wide range of diverse curriculum responses to health issues undertaken by individual provinces and territories in Canada. Measuring the effect of interventions is more difficult in this contradiction. In this study, the authors…

  6. Bald Eagle Nesting Disturbance Information 1974 Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report is a series of excerpts from various researchers discussing the impact that human disturbances have on the eagle’s ability to successfully nest, incubate...

  7. 76 FR 24084 - Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Company (N&BE) over a portion of NSR's line of railroad between Lock Haven, PA (milepost BR 194.2), and... exemption under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) may be filed at any time. The filing of a petition to revoke will not... Proceedings. Andrea Pope-Matheson, Clearance Clerk. [FR Doc. 2011-10414 Filed 4-28-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  8. Use of noninvasive genetics to assess nest and space use by white-tailed eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Zafer; Bragin, Evgeny A.; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Braham, Melissa A.; Katzner, Todd E.; Doyle, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Movement and space use are important components of animal interactions with the environment. However, for hard-to-monitor raptor species, there are substantial gaps in our understanding of these key determinants. We used noninvasive genetic tools to evaluate the details of space use over a 3-yr period by White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Naurzum Zapovednik in northern Kazakhstan. We genotyped, at 10 microsatellite markers and one mitochondrial marker, 859 eagle feathers and assigned naturally shed feathers to individuals. We identified 124 White-tailed Eagles, including both members of 5–10 pairs per year, and were able to monitor birds across years. Distances between eagle nests and hunting perches were always greater than nearest neighbor distances, eagles never used the closest available hunting perch, and hunting perches were always shared with other eagles. When eagles switched nests between years, the nests they chose were almost always well outside the space that theory predicted they defended the prior year. Our data are inconsistent with classical territorial and colonial models of resource use; they more closely resemble semi-colonial behavior. It is unlikely that standard methods of animal tracking (e.g., marking and telemetry), would have provided a similarly cost-effective mechanism to gain these insights into spatial and temporal aspects of eagle behavior. When combined with existing information on space use of other local species, these data suggest that partitioning of spatial resources among White-tailed Eagles and other eagles at the Zapovednik may be facilitated by the alternative strategies of space use they employ.

  9. Wind power and bird kills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

  10. Baldness : A Diagnostic Physical Trait In Mood Disorders - Sarvada Sign

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, S.C.; Singh, Sarvesh

    2004-01-01

    Physical traits and features, i.e., body build, colour of eye etc. are often utilized in making diagnosis of psychiatric and physical disorders. A study was carried out to investigate the relationship between baldness and mood disorders on psychiatric out patients, Department of Psychiatry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, and their available first degree relatives. In this study, 371 psychiatric patients and their first degree relatives were assessed and evaluated. 56.6% male bald ...

  11. Eagle syndrome. A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Arbildo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Painful disorders in the maxillofacial region are common in dental practice. Most of these conditions are not properly diagnosed because of inadequate knowledge of craniofacial and cervico-pharyngeal syndromes such as Eagle Syndrome. The aim of this review is to describe the general aspects, diagnosis and treatment of Eagle syndrome. Eagle syndrome or stylohyoid syndrome was first described by Watt W. Eagle in 1937. It was defined as orofacial pain related to the elongation of the styloid process and ligament stylohyoid calcification. The condition is accompanied by symptoms such as dysphonia, dysphagia, sore throat, glossitis, earache, tonsillitis, facial pain, headache, pain in the temporomandibular joint and inability to perform lateral movements of the neck. Diagnosis and treatment of Eagle syndrome based on symptoms and radiographic examination of the patient will determine the need for surgical or nonsurgical treatment. Eagle syndrome is a complex disorder demanding a thorough knowledge of its signs and symptoms to make a correct diagnosis and provide an appropriate subsequent treatment. Disseminating information about this syndrome among medical-dental professionals is essential to provide adequate dental care to patients.

  12. Contrasting feeding strategies among wintering common eiders linked to white-tailed sea eagle predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Mosbech, Anders; Sonne, Christian

    activity of the eiders indicated that predation by white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla groenlandicus) was the key to understand the segregation between the fjord habitats and coastal habitats. We found that eiders in the fjords were feeding along the shoreline, but only during twilight...... and at night, whereas coastal birds were primarily diurnal feeders. Occasionally juvenile birds initiated feeding during daytime in the fjord, but were discontinued due to interactions with white-tailed eagles. Even in April when day length had increased by 5.9 hours (compared to February) the eiders appeared...... to rely on nocturnal feeding. The more extensive shallow waters in the coastal areas allow eiders to forage and feed at daytime at larger distances from land - presumably out of reach of eagle predation. We suggest that the nocturnal feeding strategy observed in the fjord is an effective anti...

  13. Contrasting feeding strategies among wintering common eiders linked to white-tailed sea eagle predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Mosbech, Anders; Sonne, Christian

    are typically dominated by adult birds gathered in large communal roosts on deep waters, which is in contrast to the coastal habitats that are dominated by younger birds with a more even spatial distribution on more shallow waters (... and at night, whereas coastal birds were primarily diurnal feeders. Occasionally juvenile birds initiated feeding during daytime in the fjord, but were discontinued due to interactions with white-tailed eagles. Even in April when day length had increased by 5.9 hours (compared to February) the eiders appeared...

  14. Behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi Stresemann, 1924

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Resit; Nijman, Vincent

    1995-01-01

    In the period December 1993 – January 1995 research on the behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi was carried out by R. Sözer and V. Nijman, under supervision of BirdLife International / PHPA – Indonesia Programme. This research was part of the

  15. 78 FR 59710 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Shiloh IV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... was prepared in response to an application from Shiloh IV Wind Project, LLC (applicant), an affiliate... (Aquila chrysaetos) under the Eagle Act. The applicant would implement a conservation program to avoid... Beeler, Migratory Bird Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Southwest Regional Office, 2800...

  16. Notes on the breeding biology of Javan Hawk-eagle in West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Balen, van S.; Sözer, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is one of the rarest and least known birds of prey, regarded as globally endangered and confined to the last remnants of forests left on the densely populated island of Java, Indonesia. Its biology is little-known and only a few cases of breeding have been

  17. 77 FR 27174 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ...-2011-0054; FF09M21200-123-FXMB123209EAGL0L2] RIN 1018-AX91 Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; extension of..., proposed rule to revise the regulations for permits for nonpurposeful take of golden eagles (Aquila...

  18. 77 FR 22267 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...-2011-0054: FF09M21200-123-FXMB123209EAGL0L2] RIN 1018-AX91 Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We propose to revise the regulations for permits for nonpurposeful take of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos...

  19. Quantitative evaluations of male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Y; Ishino, A; Hanzawa, N; Uzuka, M; Okazaki, K; Adachi, K; Imamura, S

    1994-07-01

    Several methods for the evaluation of hair growth have been reported; however, none of the hitherto reported methods are satisfactory as unbiased double blind studies to evaluate the efficacy of hair growth agents. In the present paper, we describe quantitative evaluation methods for hair growth by measuring the anagen ratio and hair diameters in 56 Japanese subjects aged 23-56 for 3 years. The average anagen ratio decreased by 3.8% in 3 years. The average hair diameters showed a statistically significant decrease each year totalling 3.4 microns. Subjects were sorted according to their anagen ratio into 4 groups. Each group showed different distribution patterns of hair diameters. The higher anagen ratio group has a high frequency peak at thicker hair diameters and the lower anagen ratio group has a high frequency peak at thinner hair diameters. The number of thicker hairs decreased and the high frequency peak shifted to thinner hair diameters in 3 years. These methods are useful to evaluate both the progression of male pattern baldness and the effects of hair growth agents with double blind studies in an unbiased quantitative fashion.

  20. Data on the Trophic Spectrum of Young Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809 in South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlin V. Zhelev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The current publication presents the results of a research on the food spectrum of young Imperial eagles (juvennes, immaturus (Aquilaheliaca, SAVIGNY, 1809 in South Bulgaria. Dispersal sites and temporary settlement areas were identified tracking two young eagles marked with radio-transmitters. The birds were tagged in 2007 by the team of Green Balkans Federation. The feeding and behaviour of over 20 young Imperial eagles was observed in a total of 6 regions, including vulture feeding sites. A total of 32 pellets were collected from the trees used by those birds for roosting. Thus the feeding spectrum of young imperial eagles in their roaming period just after fledgling was identified. A total of 13 feeding components, comprising 101 specimens were identified. These were mainly small mammals, dominated by *- (Microtus arvalis, P. - complex (n= 56 specimens, 55,45% and significant presence of House mouse (Mus musculus, L. – 18 specimens or 17,82 %. The observations prove the presence of carcass among the food items taken by the wintering eagles and the particular use of the existing artificial feeding sites for vultures. The study proves the food opportunism of the species.

  1. Lead, mercury, selenium, and other trace elements in tissues of golden eagles from southwestern Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmata, Alan R; Restani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Lead-based rifle bullets, used in game hunting and recreational shooting, fragment when striking bone and soft tissues. Lead fragments may be ingested by birds scavenging offal piles or nonretrieved carcasses and therefore pose a poisoning risk. We captured and sampled 74 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in southwestern Montana, USA, from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate levels of lead, mercury, selenium, and 13 other trace elements in blood and feathers. Lead was detected in blood of most (97%, n=70) eagles; mean blood level was 0.26 parts per million (ppm). Most eagles (65%) had background levels (1.0 ppm) in blood. Lead in blood decreased from winter to spring. Resident eagles had higher lead levels than eagles of unknown residency. Mercury was detected in few eagles, whereas selenium was detected in all, but at a low level (0.36 ppm). Other chemical elements in blood were at low or biologically appropriate levels. Lead in feathers (n=29) was correlated with blood lead (P=0.010), as was mercury in blood and feathers (n=48; P=0.003). Concentrations of lead and mercury in feathers were higher in adults than in juveniles and immatures (Peagles captured in spring increased from 1985-1993 to 2008-2010, mean levels decreased (Peagles exhibiting above background levels (>0.2 ppm; P<0.02).

  2. 50 CFR 22.23 - What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to human or eagle health and safety? 22.23 Section... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.23 What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to human or eagle health and safety? (a) How...

  3. Birds of Mount Kisingiri, Nyanza Province, including a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this represents a capture rate of 1 bird per 38.9 net-metre h. All ringed birds were captured at Mwing'ore. Table 1. Species trapped and ringed in the GHFR, 2–5 ... Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus — recently fledged juvenile in January 2011. Grey Apalis Apalis cinerea — recently fledged young in February 2012.

  4. Positive assortative pairing by plumage colour in Spanish imperial eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Gary R; González, Luis Mariano; Margalida, Antoni; Sánchez, Roberto; Oria, Javier

    2008-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in plumage may have a functional significance in mate choice. As a result, breeding birds are often paired assortatively with respect to colour. However, whether this within-pair correlation is a result of homotypic preference whereby individuals pick a mate that looks like themselves, or directional preference whereby all individuals have the same phenotypic preference, is often unknown. Using data collected between 1989 and 2006, we describe intraspecific variation in the striking white feathers on the leading edge of the wing, lesser coverts and mantle of 144 Spanish imperial eagles (Aquila adalberti), one of the most endangered birds of prey in the world. Females had, on average, more white than males, and pairs mated in a positive assortative fashion. Coloration was not related to age of the bird, food supply (i.e., territory quality) or breeding productivity. Our results are most consistent with the process of homotypic-preference assortative mating, and this may be a result of sexual imprinting, and function as a mechanism to optimize the degree of outbreeding. This pattern of mate selection may explain the rapid evolutionary divergence of A. adalberti from the continental population of imperial eagle A. heliaca.

  5. Modeling Late-Summer Distribution of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Ryan M; Murphy, Robert K; Millsap, Brian A; Howe, William H; Gardner, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Increasing development across the western United States (USA) elevates concerns about effects on wildlife resources; the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is of special concern in this regard. Knowledge of golden eagle abundance and distribution across the western USA must be improved to help identify and conserve areas of major importance to the species. We used distance sampling and visual mark-recapture procedures to estimate golden eagle abundance from aerial line-transect surveys conducted across four Bird Conservation Regions in the western USA between 15 August and 15 September in 2006-2010, 2012, and 2013. To assess golden eagle-habitat relationships at this scale, we modeled counts of golden eagles seen during surveys in 2006-2010, adjusted for probability of detection, and used land cover and other environmental factors as predictor variables within 20-km2 sampling units randomly selected from survey transects. We found evidence of positive relationships between intensity of use by golden eagles and elevation, solar radiation, and mean wind speed, and of negative relationships with the proportion of landscape classified as forest or as developed. The model accurately predicted habitat use observed during surveys conducted in 2012 and 2013. We used the model to construct a map predicting intensity of use by golden eagles during late summer across our ~2 million-km2 study area. The map can be used to help prioritize landscapes for conservation efforts, identify areas where mitigation efforts may be most effective, and identify regions for additional research and monitoring. In addition, our map can be used to develop region-specific (e.g., state-level) density estimates based on the latest information on golden eagle abundance from a late-summer survey and aid designation of geographic management units for the species.

  6. Subcutaneous blood flow in early male pattern baldness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemp, P.; Peters, K.; Hansted, B.

    1989-01-01

    The subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) was measured by the 133 Xe washout method in the scalp of 14 patients with early male pattern baldness. Control experiments were performed in 14 normal haired men matched for age. The SBF in the scalp of the normal individuals was about 10 times higher than previously reported SBF values in other anatomical regions. In patients with early male pattern baldness, SBF was 2.6 times lower than the values found in the normal individuals (13.7 +/- 9.6 vs 35.7 +/- 10.5 ml/100 g/min-1). This difference was statistically significant (p much less than 0.001). A reduced nutritive blood flow to the hair follicles might be a significant event in the pathogenesis of early male pattern baldness

  7. Management recommendations and performances for more effective conservation of the Spanish imperial eagles (Aquila adalberti Brehm, 1861) habitat and population.

    OpenAIRE

    Grande Vega, María; Velázquez Saornil, Javier; Hernando Gallego, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila Adalberti BREHM, 1861) is nowadays the predatory bird most threatened in the Iberian Peninsula, as well as one of the most threatened in the world. It is listed in several International agreements of protection (IUCN, Bern, Cites, Bonn) as well as in the annexe I of Birds Directive (79/409/CEE) which makes up the Natura 2000 network. Regarding the Spanish framework, some measures have been taking to protect the Spanish imperial eagle. It is included in the N...

  8. Ubush Darzhinov, The Crow and the Eagle

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumova, Elvira; Churyumov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The Kalmyk fairy tale about the crow and the eagle is mentioned in Pushkin’s famous novel called The Captain’s Daughter. In the novel the rebel Emelyan Pugachev recounts this fairy tale that he heard from an old Kalmyk woman.One day the crow and the eagle meet each other. The eagle asks the crow why it lived for 300 years whereas the eagle itself lived for only 30 years. The crow replies, “I drink the blood of the dead, that is why I live 300 years”. The eagle proposes to the crow that they s...

  9. Seasonal variation of persistent organochlorine accumulation in birds from Lake Baikal, Russia, and the role of the south Asian region as a source of pollution for wintering migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Minh, Tu Binh; Fukuda, Kayo; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Titenko, Alexei M

    2002-04-01

    concentrations in the common tern from Lake Baikal exceeded the levels associated with enzyme induction in bald eagles. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study showing the seasonal variations of OC accumulation in the birds from Lake Baikal.

  10. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  11. Solving man-induced large-scale conservation problems: the Spanish imperial eagle and power lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual López-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti. Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974-2009 on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electricuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects

  12. Solving man-induced large-scale conservation problems: the Spanish imperial eagle and power lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-03-02

    Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974-2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electricuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered species.

  13. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The University of Maryland and and LLNL are investigating the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program Eagle Nebula has performed NIF shots to study models of pillar formation. The shots feature a new long-duration x-ray source, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 to 15 ns each to create a 30 to 60 ns output x-ray pulse. The source generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, a structure of dense plastic and foam mocking up a molecular cloud containing a dense core. Omega EP and NIF shots have validated the source concept, showing that earlier hohlraums do not compromise later ones by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect later beams. The NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and also showed evidence that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at the millimeter-wave BIMA and CARMA observatories. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. The First Record of Case of the Imperial Eagle and the Steppe Eagle Successful Breeding in the Mixed Pair in Western Kazakhstan and Records of Probable Hybrids of These Species in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Facts mentioned in paper give evidence of the possibility of forming the mixed pairs between Steppe and Imperial Eagles, breeding success and fertility of hybrids. All the observed mixed pairs were found in the contact zone of the two species on the periphery of the Steppe Eagle breeding range under conditions of either decrease in numbers of one species (Steppe Eagle and the growth of another (in Western Kazakhstan, or decline in numbers of both species and the lack of birds of their own species (in Dauria. Considering the fact that the number of Steppe Eagles continues to decline, the hybridization process may amplify and this phenomenon requires a more thorough examination.

  15. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans isolated from droppings of captive birds in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irokanulo, E O; Makinde, A A; Akuesgi, C O; Ekwonu, M

    1997-04-01

    The yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans, was found in apparently healthy birds at the Jos Wildlife Park and Zoo in Jos, Nigeria. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans was isolated from feces of four captive bird species. Five isolates belonged to serotype A while two were serotype D. Serotype A of C. neoformans was isolated from a white face duck (Dendrocygna viduata), eagle owl (Bubo africanus cinerascene) and peacock (Pavo cristatus). The other two (serotype D), were isolated from a spotted eagle owl.

  16. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Removal of eagle nests. 22.27 Section 22... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Eagle Permits § 22.27 Removal of eagle nests. (a) Purpose and... active or inactive nest where necessary to alleviate a safety emergency; (ii) An inactive eagle nest when...

  17. Tissue expansion for correction of baldness in aplasia cutis congenita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmans, S.J.A.; Don Griot, J.P.W.; Niessen, F.B.; Mulder, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aplasia cutis is a congenital absence of the skin, usually presenting on the scalp. In 20% of all cases, part of the skull is also absent. A residual area of baldness may still be present some years after surgical or conservative treatment. It is possible to excise the scarred hairless region and

  18. Genetic variability in the Iberian imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) demonstrated by RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, J A; Martínez-Trancón, M; Rabasco, A; Parejo, J C; Sansinforiano, M E; Guijo, M I

    2000-01-01

    RAPD analysis was used to estimate the genetic diversity in an Iberian imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) population, one of the most threatened bird species in the world. Forty-five of 60 arbitrarily designed primers amplified 614 loci in 25 individual eagles, 59.7% of which were polymorphic. In contrast to the traditional allozyme analysis performed in a previous study, the RAPD method has revealed a high level of heterozygosity in this species (H = 0.267+/-0.008). The genetic distances estimated between 25 eagles can serve to establish more adequate mating in order to preserve genetic variability. Conservation efforts being carried out in Spain in this species might be successful based on the results obtained in the present work.

  19. First evidence for carrion–feeding of Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchev Boyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of carrion-feeding with remains of artiodactyls (0.3%, n=1104 samples with food remains have been documented in a long term diet study of Eurasian Eagle-owls (Bubo bubo in 53 localities at Southeastern Bulgaria. Bone pieces of a sheep/goat (Ovis aries/Carpa hircus, a Fallow Deer (Dama dama and a Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa dom. in three Eurasian Eagle-owl breeding localities (5.7% prove extremely rare feeding on carrion. Northern White-breasted Hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus, rats (Rattus sp., waterbirds and gallinaceous birds (total 59.5-72.6% by biomass constituted the main portion of the diets with carrion remains. The comparisons between food niche breadths, diet composition, average prey biomass and values of superpredation of the annual diets in the three localities have not supported the carrion-feeding of the Eurasian Eagle-owl as a result of food shortages.

  20. Harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) nesting in manipulated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Continental records point to shooting, removal of young and destruction of nests as the primary conservation problems for harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja); bird-observer visits are a new source of concern. Nesting events are roughly 3 yr apart. Nests are used during and after intensive manipulation of the surrounding habitat, and minimum distance between active sites was 3-5 km. In nine nesting sites along a 100-km stretch of the Imalaca Mountains in Venezuela, we fitted five fledglings with satellite-tracked tags from NASA. One of these birds was hacked with the help of the loggers who destroyed its nest. All these nests were active while logging ensued. Out of three renesting attempts, one failed when the nest collapsed. We salvaged two additional fledglings found in captivity. We are monitoring five nests in the buffer area of the Darien National Park in Panama, all within 3 km of human settlements where trees are regularly felled for firewood, lumber, and to clear more cropland. Eagles have been killed at two sites, a third site remains inactive since 1991, and the other two nests currently have fledglings.

  1. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  2. A population study of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource area. Second-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Since January 1994, the Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California, Santa Cruz, has been conducting a field investigation of the ecology of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The 190 km{sup 2} facility lies just east of San Francisco Bay in California and contains about 6,500 wind turbines. Grassland and oak savanna habitats surrounding the WRA support a substantial resident population of golden eagles. Each year, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service receivers reports from the wind industry of about 30 golden eagle casualties occurring at the WRA, and it is probable that many more carcasses go unnoticed. Over 90 percent of the casualties are attributed to collisions with wind turbines. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of turbine-related mortality on the golden eagle population of the area. Assessing the impact of the WRA kills on the population requires quantification of both survival and reproduction. To estimate survival rates of both territorial and non-territorial golden eagles, we tagged 179 individuals with radio-telemetry transmitters expected to function for about four years and equipped with mortality sensors. Population segments represented in the tagged sample include 79 juveniles, 45 subadults, 17n floaters (non-territorial adults), and 38 breeders. Effective sample sizes in the older segments increase as younger eagles mature or become territorial. Since the beginning of the study, we have conducted weekly roll-call surveys by airplane to locate the tagged eagles in relation to the WRA and to monitor their survival. The surveyed area extends from the Oakland Hills southeast through the Diablo Mountain Range to San Luis Reservoir about 75 km southeast of the WRA. The surveys show that breeding eagles rarely enter the WRA while the non-territorial eagles tend to move about freely throughout the study area and often visit the WRA.

  3. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting Postponement On July 17, 2012, the...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. However, the meeting has been postponed...

  4. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a... Policy and Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric...

  5. Patterns of spatial distribution of golden eagles across North America: How do they fit into existing landscape-scale mapping systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L.; Bedrosian, Bryan; Bell, Douglas A.; Braham, Melissa A.; Cooper, Jeff; Crandall, Ross H.; DiDonato, Joe; Domenech, Robert; Duerr, Adam E.; Katzner, Todd; Lanzone, Michael J.; LaPlante, David W.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Miller, Tricia A.; Murphy, Robert K.; Shreading, Adam; Slater, Steven J.; Smith, Jeff P.; Smith, Brian W.; Watson, James W.; Woodbridge, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Conserving wide-ranging animals requires knowledge about their year-round movements and resource use. Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) exhibit a wide range of movement patterns across North America. We combined tracking data from 571 Golden Eagles from multiple independent satellite-telemetry projects from North America to provide a comprehensive look at the magnitude and extent of these movements on a continental scale. We compared patterns of use relative to four alternative administrative and ecological mapping systems, namely Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs), U.S. administrative migratory bird flyways, Migratory Bird Joint Ventures, and Landscape Conservation Cooperatives. Our analyses suggested that eagles initially captured in eastern North America used space differently than those captured in western North America. Other groups of eagles that exhibited distinct patterns in space use included long-distance migrants from northern latitudes, and southwestern and Californian desert residents. There were also several groupings of eagles in the Intermountain West. Using this collaborative approach, we have identified large-scale movement patterns that may not have been possible with individual studies. These results will support landscape-scale conservation measures for Golden Eagles across North America.

  6. Ring Recoveries from Steppe Eagles and Eastern Imperial Eagles from the Russian and Kazakhstan Breeding Populations and a Review of Major Threats to Eagles in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly; Ali N. Al-Barazangi; Mukhtar K. Haba; Nadheer A. Fazaa; Husham K. Abdulzahra; Mufid Kassim Abou Turab; Ahmad J. Al-Azawi

    2018-01-01

    The article summarizes ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis) and 2 Eastern Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca) from Iraq that were ringed in Russia and Kazakhstan, as well as ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles and 3 Eastern Imperial Eagles from the border regions of Iraq (Iran, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia) that were ringed in Russia. Threats for eagles in Iraq are discussed in this article.

  7. Ring Recoveries from Steppe Eagles and Eastern Imperial Eagles from the Russian and Kazakhstan Breeding Populations and a Review of Major Threats to Eagles in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis and 2 Eastern Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca from Iraq that were ringed in Russia and Kazakhstan, as well as ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles and 3 Eastern Imperial Eagles from the border regions of Iraq (Iran, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia that were ringed in Russia. Threats for eagles in Iraq are discussed in this article.

  8. Subordinate Males Sire Offspring in Madagascar Fish-eagle (Haliaeetus Vociferoides) Polyandrous Breeding Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Tingay, Ruth E.; Culver, Melanie; Hallerman, Eric M.; Fraser, James D.; Watson, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    The island endemic Madagascar Fish-Eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is one of the most endangered birds of prey. Certain populations in west-central Madagascar sometimes exhibit a third, and sometimes a fourth, adult involved in breeding activities at a nest. We applied DNA fingerprinting to assess relatedness among 17 individuals at four nests. In all nests with young, a subordinate rather than the dominant male sired the offspring. Within-nest relatedness comparisons showed that some dominan...

  9. Population genetics of the endangered Crowned Solitary Eagle (Buteogallus coronatus) in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Canal, David; Roques, Séverine; Negro, Juan J.; Sarasola, José Hernán

    2017-01-01

    The Crowned Solitary Eagle (Buteogallus coronatus) is one of the rarest and most severely threatened birds of prey in the Neotropical region. We studied levels of neutral genetic diversity, population structure, and the demographic history of the species using 55 contemporary samples covering a large fraction of the species range, which were genotyped at 17 microsatellite loci. Our results indicated genetic homogeneity across the sampled regions, which may be explained by a high dispersal cap...

  10. Age and territory-quality effects on fecundity in the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Miguel; Bisson, I.

    2003-01-01

    Over a period of 19 years, we studied 237 breeding attempts of Spanish Imperial Eagles (Aquila adalberti) in Doñana National Park (southwestern Spain), including 29 pairs with at least one immature member, to investigate age-related effects on population fecundity. Without considering effect of territory quality, adult pairs were significantly more productive than immature pairs. Highly significant differences in breeding performance among territories were independent of age-classes of birds ...

  11. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Luis; Beja, Pedro; Tavares, Paula C.; Monteiro, Luis R.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles

  12. Ahmad's NPRT system: A practical innovation for documenting male pattern baldness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various classifications for male pattern baldness are mentioned in the literature. The 'Norwood's classification is the most commonly used but it has certain limitations. The new system has included 'three' extra features which were not mentioned in any other classification. It provides an opportunity to document the full and correct picture while documenting male pattern baldness. It also aids in assessing the treatment for various degrees of baldness.

  13. ASBO Eagle Institute: A Leadership Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, James

    2012-01-01

    Each summer, ASBO International conducts an Eagle Institute leadership session in the Washington, D.C., area that provides a group of about 25 participants, including Eagle Award recipients, an opportunity to network with and learn from exemplary leaders inside and outside the field of school business management. Each year, the focus of the…

  14. Golden eagle population trends in the western United States: 1968-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, Brian A.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Sauer, John R.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Otto, Mark; Bjerre, Emily; Murphy, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service promulgated permit regulations for the unintentional lethal take (anthropogenic mortality) and disturbance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Accurate population trend and size information for golden eagles are needed so agency biologists can make informed decisions when eagle take permits are requested. To address this need with available data, we used a log-linear hierarchical model to average data from a late-summer aerial-line-transect distance-sampling survey (WGES) of golden eagles in the United States portions of Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 9 (Great Basin), BCR 10 (Northern Rockies), BCR 16 (Southern Rockies/Colorado Plateau), and BCR 17 (Badlands and Prairies) from 2006 to 2010 with late-spring, early summer Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data for the same BCRs and years to estimate summer golden eagle population size and trends in these BCRs. We used the ratio of the density estimates from the WGES to the BBS index to calculate a BCR-specific adjustment factor that scaled the BBS index (i.e., birds per route) to a density estimate. Our results indicated golden eagle populations were generally stable from 2006 to 2010 in the 4 BCRs, with an estimated average rate of population change of −0.41% (95% credible interval [CI]: −4.17% to 3.40%) per year. For the 4 BCRs and years, we estimated annual golden eagle population size to range from 28,220 (95% CI: 23,250–35,110) in 2007 to 26,490 (95% CI: 21,760–32,680) in 2008. We found a general correspondence in trends between WGES and BBS data for these 4 BCRs, which suggested BBS data were providing useful trend information. We used the overall adjustment factor calculated from the 4 BCRs and years to scale BBS golden eagle counts from 1968 to 2005 for the 4 BCRs and for 1968 to 2010 for the 8 other BCRs (without WGES data) to estimate golden eagle population size and trends across the western United States for the period 1968 to 2010. In general, we

  15. Resource availability and diet in Harpy Eagle breeding territories on the Xingu River, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH. Aguiar-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Tapajos-Xingu interfluve, one of the largest birds of prey, the Harpy Eagle, is under intense anthropogenic pressure due to historical and recent reductions in forest cover. We studied prey availability and use by Harpy Eagle on six breeding territories on the low- and mid-Xingu River, between 2013 and 2015. We evaluated food resource availability using the environmental-surveys database from two methods: terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method and fauna rescue/flushing before vegetation suppression for the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Complex construction. Harpy Eagle diet was identified by prey remains sampled around six nest trees. Eighteen species of mammals, birds and reptiles comprised the prey items. Most prey species were sloths, primates and porcupines, which have arboreal habits and are found in forested areas, but two species, hoatzin and iguana, are usually associated with riverine habitats. The proportion of prey from each species predated on the nest best studied was different from estimated availability (χ2 = 54.23; df = 16; p < 0.001, however there was a positive correlation (rs = 0.7; p < 0.01 between prey species consumed and abundance available, where the predation was more on species more abundant. Continuous monitoring of the Harpy Eagle diet at these nests could evidence changes in the assemblage of prey species available for Harpy Eagles, due to changes in the seasonal flood pulse of the Xingu River to be caused by the operation of the hydroelectric dam, and changes in habitat features by forest reduction around breeding territories. We believe that it is important to consider the protection of remnants of forested areas in the landscape matrix surrounding the breeding territories to maintain the food resource availability and allow all pairs to successfully reproduce.

  16. EAGLE: relay mirror technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Mary; Restaino, Sergio R.; Baker, Jeffrey T.; Payne, Don M.; Bukley, Jerry W.

    2002-06-01

    EAGLE (Evolutionary Air & Space Global Laser Engagement) is the proposed high power weapon system with a high power laser source, a relay mirror constellation, and the necessary ground and communications links. The relay mirror itself will be a satellite composed of two optically-coupled telescopes/mirrors used to redirect laser energy from ground, air, or space based laser sources to distant points on the earth or space. The receiver telescope captures the incoming energy, relays it through an optical system that cleans up the beam, then a separate transmitter telescope/mirror redirects the laser energy at the desired target. Not only is it a key component in extending the range of DoD's current laser weapon systems, it also enables ancillary missions. Furthermore, if the vacuum of space is utilized, then the atmospheric effects on the laser beam propagation will be greatly attenuated. Finally, several critical technologies are being developed to make the EAGLE/Relay Mirror concept a reality, and the Relay Mirror Technology Development Program was set up to address them. This paper will discuss each critical technology, the current state of the work, and the future implications of this program.

  17. Small populations and offspring sex-ratio deviations in eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Miguel; Newton, Ian; Pandolfi, Massimo

    2009-08-01

    Stochastic variation of sex ratio has long been appreciated as a potential factor driving small populations to extinction, but it is not the only source of sex-ratio bias in small populations. We examined whether some consequences of sex allocation could affect extinction risk in small populations of size-dimorphic birds such as eagles. We report variations in sex ratio at fledging from a long-term study of a declining population of Spanish Imperial Eagles (Aquila adalberti). Nestling sex-ratio deviation apparently was mediated by age of breeders, whereas territory quality had no obvious effect. Adult-adult pairs produced the same proportion of both sexes in high- or low-density situations, but pairs with at least one member in nonadult plumage class produced more males. As the population declined over a period of years, the proportion of breeders with immature plumage increased; consequently, the proportion of fledgling males increased. However, when population density was high, the proportion of breeders with immature plumage decreased and more female offspring were produced. This relationship between population density, composition of breeder age, and fledgling sex ratios allowed us to make predictions of extinction risk due to nonstochastic deviations of sex ratio in small, declining populations. In the study population, on the basis of the Vortex simulation results, an estimated reduction of 42.5% in predicted mean time to extinction was attributed solely to biased sex ratio.

  18. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  19. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  20. Through the Eyes of the Eagle

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  1. Retrospective: Adjusting contaminant concentrations in bird eggs to account for moisture and lipid Loss during their incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Blus, Lawrence J.

    2016-01-01

    By the 1960s, research and monitoring efforts on chlorinated pesticide residues in tissues of wildlife were well underway in North America and Europe. Conservationists and natural resource managers were attempting to resolve whether pesticide exposure and accumulated residues were related to population declines in several species of predatory and scavenging birds (e.g., bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis and osprey Pandion haliaetus). The avian egg was a favored sampling matrix even before the realization that eggshell thinning was linked to population declines (Ratcliffe 1967; Hickey and Anderson 1968) and that the concentration of p,p’-DDE in an egg was associated with the shell thinning phenomenon (e.g., Blus et al. 1972; Wiemeyer et al. 1988). The necessity for making wet-weight concentration adjustments to account for natural moisture loss during incubation of viable eggs was realized. Correction for the more dramatic moisture loss in non-viable decaying eggs was recognized as being paramount. For example, the ∑DDT residues in osprey eggs were reported to vary by as much as eightfold without accounting for moisture loss adjustments (Stickel et al. 1965). In the absence of adjusting concentrations to the fresh wet-weight that was present at the time of egg laying, the uncorrected values exaggerated contaminant concentrations, yielding artifactual results and ultimately incorrect conclusions. The adjustment to fresh wet-weight concentration is equally important for many other persistent contaminants including PCBs, dioxins, furans, and brominated diphenyl ethers.

  2. Assessing the vegetation history of three Southern Appalachian balds through soil organic matter analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Larry L. Tieszen; Glen G. Fredlund

    1998-01-01

    The history of Southern Appalachian grassy balds has long been a topic of speculation. Two types have been identified: those completely covered by grass and those occupied by a mixed-hardwood overstory with a grassy herbaceous layer. Three areas historically known as balds were identified in the Wine Spring Ecosystem Project Area. Each is currently under a different...

  3. MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-420 MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle ) As of FY 2017 President’s...Budget Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 21, 2016 17:33:19 UNCLASSIFIED MQ-1C Gray Eagle December 2015 SAR March 21...Gray Eagle December 2015 SAR March 21, 2016 17:33:19 UNCLASSIFIED 3 PB - President’s Budget PE - Program Element PEO - Program Executive Officer PM

  4. Rare birds of prey observations in Kresna Gorge in Bulgaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Greater Spotted Eagle. Aquila clanga was observed over the feeding site in Kresna Gorge interacting with Griffon Vultures and. Ravens in flight on 30 Mar 2010. This is the first record of the species from the area. Lanner Falcon. Falco biarmicus feldegii. A territorial single adult bird (most probably female) was frequently.

  5. Modern Status of the Steppe Eagle Population in the Orenburg region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis monitoring in the Orenburg region in 2010–2015. For 2010–2015 the population of Steppe Eagle in Orenburg region decreased by 20.6% and is 266–349, at average 293 breeding pairs. In 2015 the average density of occupied breeding territories on the main part of the Steppe Eagle breeding population (Trans Ural – Western part of the region in the Orenburg region was about 8.6 per 100 km2, in the other habitats of the low and middle density of species – 1.3 (0.67–2.7/100 km2. Observed breeding success in 2013 is 0.55±1.04, in 2015 is 0.40±0.78 nestlings per occupied breeding territory. Substantial increase in the proportion of young birds in the breeding pairs from 21.7% in 2012 to 44.4% in 2015 was noticed. The main threats to the Steppe Eagle in the Orenburg region are steppe fires and death on power lines. It is likely that the decline of eagles’ population is due to increasing of negative factors on the migration routes and wintering grounds

  6. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E; Nelson, David M; Braham, Melissa A; Doyle, Jacqueline M; Fernandez, Nadia B; Duerr, Adam E; Bloom, Peter H; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Miller, Tricia A; Culver, Renee C E; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ 2 H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ 2 H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Some Aspects of the Nest Etology of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca (Aves: Accipitridae in Sakar Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir D. Dobrev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out for studying some aspects of nest etologyof the eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca Savigni, 1809 in Sakar Mountain. The aim of the survey was to determine apportionment of the parental care between partners in the pair. Incubation in the both studied pairs was taken mainly by the female bird, which incubated 90.8% of the time in one of the pairs corresponding to 94.1% in the other one. Male contributed significantly in food provisioning, supplying 59.2% of the food in one of the pairs and 58.3% in the second one. The survey shows similar results as obtained for the Spanish imperial eagle (A. adalberti. This is the first survey done regarding to distribution of parental care between sexes in the eastern imperial eagle in Bulgaria.

  8. An Eagle of Cosmic Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Today ESO has released a new and stunning image of the sky around the Eagle Nebula, a stellar nursery where infant star clusters carve out monster columns of dust and gas. Located 7000 light-years away, towards the constellation of Serpens (the Snake), the Eagle Nebula is a dazzling stellar nursery, a region of gas and dust where young stars are currently being formed and where a cluster of massive, hot stars, NGC 6611, has just been born. The powerful light and strong winds from these massive new arrivals are shaping light-year long pillars, seen in the image partly silhouetted against the bright background of the nebula. The nebula itself has a shape vaguely reminiscent of an eagle, with the central pillars being the "talons". The star cluster was discovered by the Swiss astronomer, Jean Philippe Loys de Chéseaux, in 1745-46. It was independently rediscovered about twenty years later by the French comet hunter, Charles Messier, who included it as number 16 in his famous catalogue, and remarked that the stars were surrounded by a faint glow. The Eagle Nebula achieved iconic status in 1995, when its central pillars were depicted in a famous image obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. In 2001, ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) captured another breathtaking image of the nebula in the near-infrared, giving astronomers a penetrating view through the obscuring dust, and clearly showing stars being formed in the pillars. The newly released image, obtained with the Wide-Field Imager camera attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile, covers an area on the sky as large as the full Moon, and is about 15 times more extensive than the previous VLT image, and more than 200 times more extensive than the iconic Hubble visible-light image. The whole region around the pillars can now be seen in exquisite detail. The "Pillars of Creation" are in the middle of the image, with the cluster of young stars, NGC 6611, lying above and to the right. The

  9. Like an eagle carries its young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Wünch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The picture of an eagle carrying its young on its wings (Dt 32:11 is a powerful and encouraging image of trust and security in God. It is particularly relevant for Western culture, where the eagle is a prominent symbol of power and strength. In recent years, though, the translation of the Hebrew term רֶשֶׁנ as ‘eagle’ has come into question and modern exegetes claim that it is more accurately translated as ‘vulture’. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions. Keywords: Old Testament; Deuteronomy; Eagle; Vulture

  10. Summer and winter space use and home range characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia A.; Brooks, Robert P.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Brandes, David; Duerr, Adam E.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Movement behavior and its relationship to habitat provide critical information toward understanding the effects of changing environments on birds. The eastern North American population of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is a genetically distinct and small population of conservation concern. To evaluate the potential responses of this population to changing landscapes, we calculated the home range and core area sizes of 52 eagles of 6 age–sex classes during the summer and winter seasons. Variability in range size was related to variation in topography and open cover, and to age and sex. In summer, eagle ranges that were smaller had higher proportions of ridge tops and open cover and had greater topographic roughness than did larger ranges. In winter, smaller ranges had higher proportions of ridge tops, hillsides and cliffs, and open cover than did larger ranges. All age and sex classes responded similarly to topography and open cover in both seasons. Not surprisingly, adult eagles occupied the smallest ranges in both seasons. Young birds used larger ranges than adults, and subadults in summer used the largest ranges (>9,000 km2). Eastern adult home ranges in summer were 2–10 times larger than those reported for other populations in any season. Golden Eagles in eastern North America may need to compensate for generally lower-quality habitat in the region by using larger ranges that support access to adequate quantities of resources (prey, updrafts, and nesting, perching, and roosting sites) associated with open cover and diverse topography. Our results suggest that climate change–induced afforestation on the breeding grounds and ongoing land cover change from timber harvest and energy development on the wintering grounds may affect the amount of suitable habitat for Golden Eagles in eastern North America.

  11. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Höfle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; Nicolas de Francisco, Olga; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan Manuel

    2011-06-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 μg/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  12. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  13. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in plasma and feathers of nestling birds of prey from northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Bustnes, J O; Eulaers, I; Herzke, D; Johnsen, T V; Lepoint, G; Pérez-García, J M; García-Fernández, A J; Jaspers, V L B

    2017-10-01

    Plasma samples from nestlings of two top predators, White-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) from northern Norway were analysed for a wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Body feathers from the White-tailed eagles were also analysed and significant associations between specific PFASs in blood plasma and body feathers were found (0.36 birds of prey are not established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 76 FR 15971 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Friday, April 15, 2011 at 9 a.m. (Pacific Time). b. Place: By copy of this notice we are inviting all...

  15. 76 FR 22699 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002--CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Friday, May 6, 2011 at 1 p.m. (Pacific Time). b. Place: By copy of this notice we are inviting all...

  16. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation of Teleconference On March 15... Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. This meeting has been cancelled. We will reschedule this...

  17. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002--CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a... Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal agencies, tribes, and interested parties, are hereby...

  18. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [P-13123-002-CA] Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a... Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal agencies, tribes, and...

  19. Total and methylmercury in soft tissues of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) collected in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Gorecki, Jerzy; Lanocha, Natalia; Okonska, Anna; Melgarejo, Javier B; Budis, Halina; Rzad, Izabella; Golas, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in piscivorous birds, especially methylmercury (MeHg), has been drawing much attention worldwide in regard to its bioaccumulation and biomagnification in food chains. In this study on Hg in the soft tissues of white-tailed eagles (n = 22) and ospreys (n = 2) from Poland, total Hg (THg) range was 0.15-47.6 while MeHg range was 0.11-8.05 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. In both species, median THg and MeHg concentrations were lower in the muscle and brain than in the liver and kidney. Median nephric residues were just under 3 and 5 mgTHg kg⁻¹ or 0.9 and 3.7 mgMeHg kg⁻¹ for white-tailed eagle and osprey, respectively. In Norwegian data from the 1970s and in our results, MeHg in the muscle of white-tailed eagle was ~60 % THg (%MeHg = MeHg/THg × 100), lower than in other piscivorous birds. A clear similarity in THg tissue levels was found between Polish and German populations of white-tailed eagles.

  20. Post-fledging movements of white-tailed eagles: Conservation implications for wind-energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotari-Chiebao, Fabio; Villers, Alexandre; Ijäs, Asko; Ovaskainen, Otso; Repka, Sari; Laaksonen, Toni

    2016-11-01

    The presence of poorly sited wind farms raises concerns for wildlife, including birds of prey. Therefore, there is a need to extend the knowledge of the potential human-wildlife conflicts associated with wind energy. Here, we report on the movements and habitat use of post-fledging satellite-tagged white-tailed eagles in Finland, where wind-energy development is expected to increase in the near future. In particular, we examine the probability of a fledgling approaching a hypothetical turbine that is placed at different distances from the nest. We found that this probability is high at short distances but considerably decreases with increasing distances to the nest. A utilisation-availability analysis showed that the coast was the preferred habitat. We argue that avoiding construction between active nests and the shoreline, as well as adopting the currently 2-km buffer zone for turbine deployment, can avoid or minimise potential impacts on post-fledging white-tailed eagles.

  1. Coexistence in a multispecies assemblage of eagles in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, T.E.; Bragin, E.A.; Knick, S.T.; Smith, A.T.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated factors that permit species coexistence in an exceptional assemblage of similar raptor species at the Naurzum Zapovednik (a national nature reserve) in north-central Kazakhstan. White-tailed Sea-Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Golden Eagle (A. chrysaetos), and Steppe Eagle (A. nipalensis) all breed at the Zapovednik. Steppe Eagle use of nesting resources was distinct from that of tree-nesting species. We evaluated differences in nest tree and nest habitat characteristics, nest dimensions and positions, and nest spacing among the three forest-dwelling eagle species to distinguish between the effects of inter- and intraspecific resource limitations on species coexistence. Although the different species bred in similar habitat and sometimes reused other species' nests, the dimensions, positions and locations of their nests often differed. These differences did not appear to result from interspecific competition. Nest spacing trends were also species specific; Imperial Eagles generally nested farther from other eagle nests than did Golden Eagles and White-tailed Sea-Eagles. Intraspecific variation in habitat, physical characteristics, and spacing patterns of Imperial Eagle nests was extensive throughout the nature reserve. Although interspecific partitioning of nesting habitat may allow coexistence of ground-nesting Steppe Eagles, interspecific competition did not appear to be a primary determinant of the use of nest habitat, space, or nests by tree-nesting species. Rather, interspecific effects appeared secondary to intraspecific effects in determining coexistence of tree-nesting eagles at this site.

  2. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  3. Eagle's syndrome with facial palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Hashim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome (ES is a rare disease in which the styloid process is elongated and compressing adjacent structures. We describe a rare presentation of ES in which the patient presented with facial palsy. Facial palsy as a presentation of ES is very rare. A review of the English literature revealed only one previously reported case. Our case is a 39-year-old male who presented with left facial palsy. He also reported a 9-year history of the classical symptoms of ES. A computed tomography scan with three-dimensional reconstruction confirmed the diagnoses. He was started on conservative management but without significant improvement. Surgical intervention was offered, but the patient refused. It is important for otolaryngologists, dentists, and other specialists who deal with head and neck problems to be able to recognize ES despite its rarity. Although the patient responded to a treatment similar to that of Bell's palsy because of the clinical features and imaging, ES was most likely the cause of his facial palsy.

  4. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Luis [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)]. E-mail: lpalma@ualg.pt; Beja, Pedro [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); ERENA, Av. Visconde Valmor, 11-3, 1000-289 Lisbon (Portugal); Tavares, Paula C. [IMAR, Universidade dos Acores, Departamento de Pescas e Oceanografia, Cais Sta. Cruz, 9901-862 Horta (Portugal); Monteiro, Luis R. [IMAR, Universidade dos Acores, Departamento de Pescas e Oceanografia, Cais Sta. Cruz, 9901-862 Horta (Portugal)

    2005-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles.

  5. the conservation status of eagles in south african law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    religions, the use of eagles in heraldry and advertising, and the portrayal of eagles in art and publications. At the other extreme, many people, especially those ...... poaching. However, as noted above,267 in the case of creatures as mobile as eagles, habitat protection, while undoubtedly essential, may on its own not be ...

  6. The expanded "BAT" flap for treatment of male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R D

    1993-11-01

    A new combination of expanded simultaneous transposition and advancement flaps is reported for the treatment of extensive male pattern baldness. Although vertical transposition and parieto-occipital advancement flaps in themselves are not new, their combination and simultaneous bilateral use combined with the use of expansion is new. The advantages of the expanded bilateral advancement transposition flap procedure are presented, along with the technique and results. The results are predictable, providing a more pleasing result, with a natural immediate temporal recession, avoidance of temporal dog-ears, and desirable anterior-superior direction of hair growth. Although flaps do require surgical skill and training, and there are risks and possible complications involved, the results are achieved in a relatively short time compared with grafting techniques. Flaps also provide the advantages of a full and natural hairline contrasted with the sparse look afforded by multiple grafts. The described procedures are very effective and reliable when properly planned and properly executed.

  7. White phosphorus at Eagle River Flats, Alaska: A case history of waterfowl mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, Donald W.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    White phosphorus has a limited distribution in the environment because it only occurs where it has been directly used by humans. It is not transported aerially for any distance and, due to its density, has a limited ability to disperse through water. Therefore, it is not a contaminant of broad-scale concern. However, where it does occur, it can cause substantial mortality or critically injure populations of waterfowl. This chronic harm includes impaired liver and kidney functioning, decreased respiratory efficiency, increased susceptibility to predation, loss of body mass, general weakening and malaise, and curtailment of reproductive functioning. Lethal effects occur around 3---4 mg/kg or approximately 3-6 ingested particles; sublethal effects can occur with ingestion of as little as a single particle. The impact of P4 on waterfowl populations nesting around ERF has never been estimated. Even if direct mortality on ERF could be estimated accurately in ducks, the delayed toxicity of P4 in swans (and presumably other species that use small grit size) and the potential for swans to fly away after ingesting a lethal dose of P4 could greatly underestimate the overall mortality. Inhibition of laying, reduced fertility and hatchability, and teratogenesis in hens ingesting even a small amount of P4 could potentially have, an effect on populations greater than that exhibited by direct mortality. Predators such as bald eagles and gulls are also at risk due to the toxicity of pelletized, dissolved, and assimilated P4 in prey organisms. Although the U.S. Army stopped using P4 in wetlands in 1993 and remediation efforts have been underway since 1995, waterfowl mortality is expected to continue for several more years. Because Eagle River Flats is only one of several sites where P4 has been found in wetland conditions, further biological investigation is warranted at these other sites.

  8. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  9. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in

  10. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  11. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  12. UNKNOWN SYNDROME - MENTAL-RETARDATION WITH DYSMORPHIC FEATURES, EARLY BALDING, PATELLA LUXATIONS, ACROMICRIA, AND HYPOGONADISM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLTE, FA; BEGEER, JH; VANESSEN, AJ

    A patient is described with severe mental retardation, a peculiar face with small palpebral fissures and premature balding, habitual patella luxations, small hands and feet, and hypogonadism, a combination which appears to represent a new syndrome.

  13. Juvenile Dispersal of Harpy Eagles (Harpia harpyja) in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Urios, Vicente; Muñiz López, Ruth; Vidal-Mateo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The movement ecology of Harpy Eagles (Harpia harpyja) is poorly known due to the difficulty observing this species. We studied the movements of two juvenile Harpy Eagles before and during dispersal using GPS satellite telemetry in the Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno, Ecuador. Both eagles were tagged at their respective nest tree. For each eagle, we calculated the daily distance moved and the distance from each recorded position to the nest. One eagle started dispersal during its 28t...

  14. EAGLE: 'EAGLE'Is an' Algorithmic Graph Library for Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-16

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) were introduced about a decade ago to enable flexible schema-free data interchange on the Semantic Web. Today data scientists use the framework as a scalable graph representation for integrating, querying, exploring and analyzing data sets hosted at different sources. With increasing adoption, the need for graph mining capabilities for the Semantic Web has emerged. Today there is no tools to conduct "graph mining" on RDF standard data sets. We address that need through implementation of popular iterative Graph Mining algorithms (Triangle count, Connected component analysis, degree distribution, diversity degree, PageRank, etc.). We implement these algorithms as SPARQL queries, wrapped within Python scripts and call our software tool as EAGLE. In RDF style, EAGLE stands for "EAGLE 'Is an' algorithmic graph library for exploration. EAGLE is like 'MATLAB' for 'Linked Data.'

  15. 77 FR 52344 - Information Collection Request Sent to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ..., but not limited to: Migratory birds; Bats; Bald and golden eagles and other birds of prey; Prairie and..., ending on June 1, 2012. We received one comment regarding permits for the take of migratory birds, but... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-HQ-FHC-2012-N209; FXHC11220900000Z2-112...

  16. Size and shape stasis in late Pleistocene mammals and birds from Rancho La Brea during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R.; Syverson, Valerie J.; Raymond, Kristina R.; Madan, Meena; Molina, Sarah; Fragomeni, Ashley; DeSantis, Sylvana; Sutyagina, Anastasiya; Gage, Gina L.

    2012-11-01

    Conventional neo-Darwinian theory views organisms as infinitely sensitive and responsive to their environments, and considers them able to readily change size or shape when they adapt to selective pressures. Yet since 1863 it has been well known that Pleistocene animals and plants do not show much morphological change or speciation in response to the glacial-interglacial climate cycles. We tested this hypothesis with all of the common birds (condors, golden and bald eagles, turkeys, caracaras) and mammals (dire wolves, saber-toothed cats, giant lions, horses, camels, bison, and ground sloths) from Rancho La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles, California, which preserves large samples of many bones from many well-dated pits spanning the 35,000 years of the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle. Pollen evidence showed the climate changed from chaparral/oaks 35,000 years ago to snowy piñon-juniper forests at the peak glacial 20,000 years ago, then back to the modern chaparral since the glacial-interglacial transition. Based on Bergmann's rule, we would expect peak glacial specimens to have larger body sizes, and based on Allen's rule, peak glacial samples should have shorter and more robust limbs. Yet statistical analysis (ANOVA for parametric samples; Kruskal-Wallis test for non-parametric samples) showed that none of the Pleistocene pit samples is statistically distinct from the rest, indicating complete stasis from 35 ka to 9 ka. The sole exception was the Pit 13 sample of dire wolves (16 ka), which was significantly smaller than the rest, but this did not occur in response to climate change. We also performed a time series analysis of the pit samples. None showed directional change; all were either static or showed a random walk. Thus, the data show that birds and mammals at Rancho La Brea show complete stasis and were unresponsive to the major climate change that occurred at 20 ka, consistent with other studies of Pleistocene animals and plants. Most explanations for such

  17. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Lindberg, Peter; Helander, Björn; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  18. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  19. Scaled Eagle Nebula Experiments on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, Marc W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-03-28

    We performed scaled laboratory experiments at the National Ignition Facility laser to assess models for the creation of pillar structures in star-forming clouds of molecular hydrogen, in particular the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula. Because pillars typically point towards nearby bright ultraviolet stars, sustained directional illumination appears to be critical to pillar formation. The experiments mock up illumination from a cluster of ultraviolet-emitting stars, using a novel long duration (30--60 ns), directional, laser-driven x-ray source consisting of multiple radiation cavities illuminated in series. Our pillar models are assessed using the morphology of the Eagle Pillars observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, and measurements of column density and velocity in Eagle Pillar II obtained at the BIMA and CARMA millimeter wave facilities. In the first experiments we assess a shielding model for pillar formation. The experimental data suggest that a shielding pillar can match the observed morphology of Eagle Pillar II, and the observed Pillar II column density and velocity, if augmented by late time cometary growth.

  20. Doctors and baldness: a five thousand year old challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniele; D'Acunzo, Valeria

    2016-02-01

    The history of trichology follows a thread that continually intersects with that of the history of medicine in general. Even Hippocrates believed that the approach to baldness should be of a medical nature. This confrontation between doctors and hair loss, which has lasted for five thousand years, begins with the invocations of the head physicians in the Egyptian era and ends with the recent institution of postgraduate Master's degrees at Faculties of Medicine and Surgery. The biggest names in medicine concerned themselves with trichology beginning with Hippocrates, who dealt with the topic in his most famous work: the Aphorisms. Even the most celebrated doctors of the Roman era, such as Galen and Pliny the Elder, did not disdain considering hair loss, leaving important scientific contributions before passing on the baton to their distinguished colleagues of the Byzantine Empire. The narrative then flows through the most prestigious institutions of the Middle Ages, such as the Salerno School of Medicine and the Siena Accademia del Fisiocritici where, at the end of the 1600s, the distinguished anatomical describer Marcello Malpighi also taught trichology, and left his contribution to "Hair Science" with a fine description of the hair follicle in the pages of his Opera Posthuma. At the turn of the late Middle Ages and the early modern era, barbers formed the primordial nucleus of surgery and at the same time became the ones to concern themselves with hair loss. In the 1800s, several doctors published the first texts dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the hair and taking into account the principal forms of alopecia, but at the therapeutic level did not yet propose anything scientifically valid. Until a few decades ago trichology still lent itself to various commercial speculations. It was not until the twentieth century that the pathogenetic mechanisms of baldness were clarified in a scientific manner. With this knowledge, the pharmaceutical industry has been

  1. Diet of the White-Tailed Eagle During the Breeding Season in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri V. Yurko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data on the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla collected during breeding seasons of 2006–2015 in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve. The data included 127 records of prey remains belonging to 27 species of vertebrates collected in and under the nests. We discovered that the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle mainly consists of vertebrates of three classes: fishes (Pisces 48.1 %, birds (Aves 41.7 % and mammals (Mammalia 10.2 %. At the present, the main prey species in the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle in the breeding season are: Bream (Abramis brama – 22.0 %, Black Stork (Ciconia nigra – 12.6 %, Northern Pike (Esox lucius – 10.2 %, Wild Boar (Sus scrofa – 7.1 %, White Stork (Ciconia ciconia – 6.3 %, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos – 5.5 % and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra – 5.5 %. Together these species makes up 69.2 % or 2/3 of the diet of this raptor. We also established that cannibalism is a character feature of the local population of White-Tailed Eagle, and its proportion is 2.4 %.

  2. Assessment of Trace Element Concentrations in Birds of Prey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2016-07-01

    This study presents liver concentrations of trace elements of cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus), common buzzards (Buteo buteo), common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) collected in Korea from 2007 to 2008. Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in common kestrel juveniles were greater than in other juveniles of birds of prey. Adult cinereous vultures had greater Fe, Pb, and Cd concentrations than in those of other species, but common kestrels had greater Mn and Cu concentrations than in those of other birds of prey. Zinc concentrations in Eurasian eagle owl juveniles and adults were greater than in juveniles and adults of other species, respectively. In common kestrels, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Cd concentrations were significantly greater in adults than in juveniles. In Eurasian eagle owls, only Pb concentrations were greater in adults than in juveniles. Essential elements, such as Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu concentrations, were within the range of other birds of prey studies. Seventeen individual birds of prey (30 %) were at a level considered Pb exposed (6-30 µg/g dw). This is a greater proportion than reported earlier in herons, egrets, and other birds from Korea. Elevated Pb concentration might be attributed to ingestion of Pb shot and bullet fragments for cinereous vultures and common buzzards, and urbanization for common kestrels. Cadmium concentrations in birds of prey were within the background concentrations (<3 µg/g dw) for wild birds.

  3. Using DNA analysis to assess territory structure, mortality and partner shifts in a population of white-tailed eagle breeding inside and close to the Smoela wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Espen Lie; Flagstad, Oeystein; Follestad, Arne; Reitan, Ole; Bevanger, Kjetil; Nygaard, Torgeir

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this project, we used DNA analyses for individual identification of the population of white-tailed eagles at Smoela. Our objective was to follow the adult birds over time and reveal mortality and partner shifts at the nesting sites. Moulted feathers from adult eagles and plucked feathers from chicks were collected yearly over a five-year period (2006-2010) from all known eagle territories on Smoela, both within and outside the wind-power plant area. In addition, tissue samples from all birds that died in collisions with the wind turbines were collected. Altogether, feathers from more than 80 nests were sampled during 2006-2010. Our data demonstrated that many of the breeding pairs used several nesting localities, between which they move from one year to another. The 80+ nests in our sample represented 40 active territories, which is close to 100% of the known active territories on Smoela. Our results showed that the number of active white-tailed eagle territories on Smoela had been overestimated from observations by more than 25%. This demonstrates the importance of conducting DNA analysis along with other methods when estimating the breeding population size for birds of prey. So far, we have documented 13 certain instances where one of the birds in a breeding pair has been replaced. In five of these instances, the bird that was replaced was found killed by a wind turbine. Other mortality factors may have influenced the remaining eight replacements. However, a large proportion of the birds with unknown fate had established territories close to the wind-power plant area, suggesting that even these birds might have been fatally injured or killed in collisions with a turbine. An integrated approach combining data from adult birds, chicks on the nests and birds killed by wind turbines is currently used to quantify the survival rate in the adult population and the potential negative effect from the wind power plant. (Author)

  4. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  5. Power-line electrocution of birds (Electrocucion de Aves en Lineas Electricas en Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Manzano Fischer

    2006-01-01

    A result of rapid growth in human population and energy use, is proliferating power lines that electrocute birds, killing eagles and causing power outages. The United States was one of the first countries to recognize the significance of this problem. Suggested Practices for the Protection of Raptors on Power Lines, first published in the 1970s, has now been translated...

  6. Status of birds of prey in Guinea-Bissau: first assessment based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cover (based on the normalised difference vegetation index). Apart from Hooded Vultures and White-backed Vultures Gyps africanus, all other raptors in the IUCN Red List were found to be scarce, including other vultures and several medium-to-large eagles. Keywords: birds, Guinea-Bissau, raptors, transects, West Africa ...

  7. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Turner, Kelsey L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Grazia, Tracy E. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Mims, Thiomas [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Beasley, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.

  8. Golden Eagle Territories and Ecology at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to collect information on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) use of Site 300. During 2014, we conducted surveys at Site 300 and for an area including a 10-mile radius of Site 300. Those surveys documented 42 golden eagle territories including two territories that overlapped with Site 300. These were named ‘Tesla’ and ‘Linac Road’. In 2015, we conducted surveys to refine the territory boundaries of golden eagle territories that overlapped with Site 300 and to document eagle activity at Site 300.

  9. Odynophagia and cervicobrachialgia in Eagle`s Syndrome. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SANCHEZ-LEGAZA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle syndrome is a rare entity, in which the styloid process or stylohyoid ligament is elongated and / or calcified. Description: We present the case of a male patient with odynophagia and cervical pain radiating to both arms. Discussion: Usually it is asymptomatic and unilateral, although it may be bilateral and give different symptoms, depending on the compressed structure, such as dysphagia, sore throat, pharyngeal foreign body sensation, headache, earache. The diagnosis is based on a good clinical examination confirmed with imaging studies. Conclusions: Eagle´s syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervico-facial pain and pathology of the temporomandibular joint.

  10. Evaluation of DNA Variants Associated with Androgenetic Alopecia and Their Potential to Predict Male Pattern Baldness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcińska, Magdalena; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Abidi, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness...... by area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (AUC). Both models were evaluated for predictive accuracy using a test set of 300 males reflecting the general European population. Applying a 65% probability threshold, high prediction sensitivity of 87.1% but low specificity of 42.4% was obtained...... in men aged tests to predict MPB patterns...

  11. Age- and season-specific variation in local and long-distance movement behavior of golden eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Bloom, Peter H.; Braham, Melissa; Katzner, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    Animal movements can determine the population dynamics of wildlife. We used telemetry data to provide insight into the causes and consequences of local and long-distance movements of multiple age classes of conservation-reliant golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the foothills and mountains near Tehachapi, California. We estimated size and habitat-related correlates of 324 monthly 95 % home ranges and 317 monthly 50 % core areas for 25 birds moving locally over 2.5 years. We also calculated daily, hourly, and total distances traveled for the five of these birds that engaged in long-distance movements. Mean (±SD) monthly home-range size was 253.6 ± 429.4 km2 and core-area size was 26.4 ± 49.7 km2. Consistent with expectations, space used by pre-adults increased with age and was season-dependent but, unexpectedly, was not sex-dependent. For all ages and sexes, home ranges and core areas were dominated by both forest & woodland and shrubland & grassland habitat types. When moving long distances, eagles traveled up to 1588.4 km (1-way) in a season at highly variable speeds (63.7 ± 69.0 km/day and 5.2 ± 10.4 km/h) that were dependent on time of day. Patterns of long-distance movements by eagles were determined by age, yet these movements had characteristics of more than one previously described movement category (migration, dispersal, etc.). Our results provide a context for differentiating among types of movement behaviors and their population-level consequences and, thus, have implications for management and conservation of golden eagle populations.

  12. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  13. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian A. Millsap; Teryl G. Grubb; Robert K. Murphy; Ted Swem; James W. Watson

    2015-01-01

    Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest), but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests). Conservation plans often protect used nests, but...

  15. The Conservation Status of Eagles in South African Law | Knobel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contribution is an introductory survey and preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of eagles in South African law. The methodology is primarily an interdisciplinary literature study of legal texts and texts from the natural sciences. Eagles are some of the largest and most powerful avian predators, and the human ...

  16. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years | Thomsett | Scopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eagle Hill, the study site of the late Leslie Brown, was first surveyed over 60 years ago in 1948. The demise of its eagle population was near-complete less than 50 years later, but significantly, the majority of these losses occurred in the space of a few years in the late 1970s. Unfortunately, human densities and land use ...

  17. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Vukovich; K.L. Turner; T.E. Grazia; T. Mims; J.C. Beasley; John Kilgo

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S...

  18. Knemidocoptic mange in wild golden eagles, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Aslı; Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A; Smallwood, Kenneth S; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

    2014-10-01

    During 2012-2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted.

  19. The EAGLE simulations: atomic hydrogen associated with galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crain, Robert A.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; McCarthy, Ian G.; Marasco, Antonino; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2017-01-01

    We examine the properties of atomic hydrogen (H I) associated with galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations of galaxy formation. EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce the stellar mass function and galaxy sizes at z = 0.1, and we

  20. 78 FR 73704 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... intention to move ahead in the near future with the additional rulemaking that we initiated through the ANPR. That rulemaking will provide an opportunity to revisit all aspects of the 2009 regulations, as well as... definition of ``low risk'' to eagles. We will revisit the provisions of this rule during our review of the...

  1. 78 FR 48183 - Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Commerce City, CO; Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... than 271 species of birds, such as bald eagles, burrowing owls, and Swainson's hawks; coyote and red..., including more than 120 species of birds, coyote and red fox, muskrat, raccoon, and beaver, deer, several...: Habitat and prey needs; protection [ssquf] Management of the bison herd [ssquf] The Refuges' urban and...

  2. GWAS for male-pattern baldness identifies 71 susceptibility loci explaining 38% of the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirastu, Nicola; Joshi, Peter K.; de Vries, Paul S.; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; McKeigue, Paul M.; Keum, NaNa; Franceschini, Nora; Colombo, Marco; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Spiliopoulou, Athina; Franke, Lude; North, Kari E.; Kraft, Peter; Morrison, Alanna C.; Esko, Tonu; Wilson, James F.

    2017-01-01

    Male pattern baldness (MPB) or androgenetic alopecia is one of the most common conditions affecting men, reaching a prevalence of similar to 50% by the age of 50; however, the known genes explain little of the heritability. Here, we present the results of a genome-wide association study including

  3. Assessing risk to birds from industrial wind energy development via paired resource selection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia A; Brooks, Robert P; Lanzone, Michael; Brandes, David; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Duerr, Adam; Katzner, Todd

    2014-06-01

    When wildlife habitat overlaps with industrial development animals may be harmed. Because wildlife and people select resources to maximize biological fitness and economic return, respectively, we estimated risk, the probability of eagles encountering and being affected by turbines, by overlaying models of resource selection for each entity. This conceptual framework can be applied across multiple spatial scales to understand and mitigate impacts of industry on wildlife. We estimated risk to Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from wind energy development in 3 topographically distinct regions of the central Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania (United States) based on models of resource selection of wind facilities (n = 43) and of northbound migrating eagles (n = 30). Risk to eagles from wind energy was greatest in the Ridge and Valley region; all 24 eagles that passed through that region used the highest risk landscapes at least once during low altitude flight. In contrast, only half of the birds that entered the Allegheny Plateau region used highest risk landscapes and none did in the Allegheny Mountains. Likewise, in the Allegheny Mountains, the majority of wind turbines (56%) were situated in poor eagle habitat; thus, risk to eagles is lower there than in the Ridge and Valley, where only 1% of turbines are in poor eagle habitat. Risk within individual facilities was extremely variable; on average, facilities had 11% (SD 23; range = 0-100%) of turbines in highest risk landscapes and 26% (SD 30; range = 0-85%) of turbines in the lowest risk landscapes. Our results provide a mechanism for relocating high-risk turbines, and they show the feasibility of this novel and highly adaptable framework for managing risk of harm to wildlife from industrial development. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... noise during certain training exercises; Army control of this area is also necessary to prevent... Eagle River in order to enhance safety and security. This portion of Eagle River runs through an active... Web site is an anonymous access system, which means we will not know your identity or contact...

  5. Change in diet of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) suggests decline in biodiversity in Wadi Al Makhrour, Bethlehem Governorate, Palestinian Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Amr Zuhair S.; Handal Elias N.; Bibi Faysal; Najajrah Mohammad H.; Qumsiyeh Mazin B.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) was studied in Wadi Al Makhrour, Bethlehem, Palestinian Territories in 2015 with fresh and several year old pellets. Three species of arthropods, one reptile species, at least four bird species, and six species of mammals were recovered from the studied pellets. Black rat (Rattus rattus) was the most common prey (37.0%), followed by the southern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) (29.4%) and birds (21.8%). Comparison of recent and older...

  6. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  7. The Legal Status of the Spanish Imperial Eagle in Spain and Thoughts on Environmental Law and Policy as Contributing Factors in the Conservation of Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reflects on the contributory role of environmental law and policy in the successful conservation interventions on behalf of the rare Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila Adalberti, with the aim of gaining insights that may be more universally applicable, including in jurisdictions such as South Africa. An overview of applicable international, European and Spanish laws and policies is given, and the role played by these instruments is considered together with successes attained with diverse conservation goals in respect of the Spanish Imperial Eagle. The exceptionally comprehensive character of the legal protection of the Spanish Imperial Eagle is highlighted, in conjunction with some extra-legal factors that have contributed to successful outcomes. While quantification of the role of the law in the conservation of a species remains elusive, it is probably safe to conclude that environmental law and policy have played a vital and central role in the improvement of the conservation status of the Spanish Imperial Eagle. It is submitted that the conservation interventions on behalf of the Spanish Imperial Eagle show that concerted legal and other conservation interventions can effectively halt and reverse the decline of an endangered species. However, such interventions are onerous and expensive and ideally, effective conservation measures should be in place before populations have declined to a critical level. Birds of prey face similar threats in South Africa and Spain, and a number of South African raptor species will soon be classified as endangered. While South African biodiversity laws and policy are similar to the European and Spanish laws in general import and methodology, the South African laws and policy are more restricted in scope, less detailed and less prescriptive. When comparing the use of Spanish and South African legislation in the conservation of birds of prey, sight must not be lost of the varying conservation needs

  8. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pet birds. Because of the risk of avian influenza (bird flu), USDA restricts the importation of pet birds from ... or look dirty may be ill. Learn the signs of illness in a bird, which include appearing ...

  9. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis halieti n. sp., Sarcocystis lari and Sarcocystis truncata in the intestine of a white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Gjerde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An emaciated white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla from Western Norway was found and nursed briefly before it died. The necropsy revealed that the principal cause of death was an inflammation and occlusion of the bile ducts. A secondary finding was the presence in the intestinal mucosa of numerous sporulated Sarcocystis oocysts measuring 21.8–22.8 × 16.0–17.0 μm. The aim of this study was to identify these oocysts to species level using molecular methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from 10 mucosal scrapings containing oocysts and subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing of four DNA regions: the 18S and 28S rRNA genes, the ITS1 region and the cox1 gene. DNA of three previously known Sarcocystis spp. was identified, but only two of these, Sarcocystis halieti n. sp. and Sarcocystis lari, both employing sea birds as intermediate hosts, were considered to have used the sea eagle as a definitive host and to have formed oocysts in its intestine. The third species found, Sarcocystis truncata, employs red deer as intermediate hosts and seems to use felids as definitive hosts based on its phylogenetic position and prevalence. The sea eagle had probably recently ingested portions of one of the latter hosts (red deer or cat/lynx containing stages (sarcocysts/oocysts and thus DNA of S. truncata. The species S. halieti and S. lari could only be unambiguously separated from their most closely related congeners on the basis of their ITS1 sequences. This is the first report of Sarcocystis oocysts in sea eagles and the first identification to species level of Sarcocystis oocysts in any type of eagle. The sea eagle also acted as intermediate host of an unidentified Sarcocystis spp. as evidenced by the finding of six thin-walled sarcocysts in a histological section of cardiac muscle. Keywords: Sarcocystis, Haliaeetus albicilla, Oocysts, ITS1, Cox1, Phylogeny

  10. The Eagle Nebula Science on NIF experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Heeter, Robert; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Remington, Bruce; Ryutov, Dmitri; Smalyuk, Vladimir

    2012-10-01

    The Eagle Nebula NIF experiment was one of nine selected for laser time through the Science on NIF program. The goal of this scale laboratory experiment is to study the dynamic evolution of distinctive structures in star forming regions of astrophysical molecular clouds such as the Pillars of the Eagle Nebula. That evolution is driven by photoionizing radiation from nearby stars. A critical aspect of the radiation is its very directional nature at the photoionization front. The long duration of the drive and its directionality can generate new classes of instabilities and dynamic flows at the front that may be responsible for the shapes of Pillars and other structures. The experiment will leverage and modify the existing NIF Radiation Transport platform, replacing the target at the back end of the halfraum with a collimating aperture, and extending the existing 20 ns drive to longer times, using a combination of gas fill and other new design features. The apertured, quasi-collimated drive will be used to drive a target placed 2 mm away from the aperture. The astrophysical background and the status of the experimental design will be presented.

  11. Predators as prey at a Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos eyrie in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Tsengeg, Pu; Whitlock, P.; Ellis, Merlin H.

    2000-01-01

    Although golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) have for decades been known to occasionally take large or dangerous quarry, the capturing of such was generally believed to be rare and/or the act of starved birds. This report provides details of an exceptional diet at a golden eagle eyrie in eastern Mongolia with unquantified notes on the occurrence of foxes at other eyries in Mongolia. Most of the prey we recorded were unusual, including 1 raven (Corvus corax), 3 demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), 1 upland buzzard (Buteo hemilasius), 3 owls, 27 foxes, and 11 Mongolian gazelles. Some numerical comparisons are of interest. Our value for gazelle calves (10 minimum count, 1997) represents 13% of 78 prey items and at least one adult was also present. Our total of only 15 hares (Lepus tolai) and 4 marmots (Marmota sibirica) compared to 27 foxes suggests not so much a preference for foxes, but rather that populations of more normal prey were probably depressed at this site. Unusual prey represented 65% of the diet at this eyrie.

  12. Collision risk in white-tailed eagles. Modelling kernel-based collision risk using satellite telemetry data in Smoela wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Roel; Nygaard, Torgeir; Dahl, Espen Lie; Reitan, Ole; Bevanger, Kjetil

    2011-05-15

    Large soaring birds of prey, such as the white-tailed eagle, are recognized to be perhaps the most vulnerable bird group regarding risk of collisions with turbines in wind-power plants. Their mortalities have called for methods capable of modelling collision risks in connection with the planning of new wind-power developments. The so-called 'Band model' estimates collision risk based on the number of birds flying through the rotor swept zone and the probability of being hit by the passing rotor blades. In the calculations for the expected collision mortality a correction factor for avoidance behaviour is included. The overarching objective of this study was to use satellite telemetry data and recorded mortality to back-calculate the correction factor for white-tailed eagles. The Smoela wind-power plant consists of 68 turbines, over an area of approximately 18 km2. Since autumn 2006 the number of collisions has been recorded on a weekly basis. The analyses were based on satellite telemetry data from 28 white-tailed eagles equipped with backpack transmitters since 2005. The correction factor (i.e. 'avoidance rate') including uncertainty levels used within the Band collision risk model for white-tailed eagles was 99% (94-100%) for spring and 100% for the other seasons. The year-round estimate, irrespective of season, was 98% (95-99%). Although the year-round estimate was similar, the correction factor for spring was higher than the correction factor of 95% derived earlier from vantage point data. The satellite telemetry data may provide an alternative way to provide insight into relative risk among seasons, and help identify periods or areas with increased risk either in a pre- or post construction situation. (Author)

  13. A close eye on the eagle-eyed visual acuity hypothesis of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; Schlitt, Sabine; Gapp, Volker; Hainz, Daniela; Schirman, Shella; Poustka, Fritz; Weber, Bernhard; Freitag, Christine; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik

    2012-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with sensory hypersensitivity. A recent study reported visual acuity (VA) in ASD in the region reported for birds of prey. The validity of the results was subsequently doubted. This study examined VA in 34 individuals with ASD, 16 with schizophrenia (SCH), and 26 typically developing (TYP). Participants with ASD did not show higher VA than those with SCH and TYP. There were no substantial correlations of VA with clinical severity in ASD or SCH. This study could not confirm the eagle-eyed acuity hypothesis of ASD, or find evidence for a connection of VA and clinical phenotypes. Research needs to further address the origins and circumstances associated with altered sensory or perceptual processing in ASD.

  14. Time Budget and Diet of the Booted Eagles in the Breeding Season in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoning Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding seasons of 2010-2016, we have found seven nests of the Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus in Xinjiang, the west of China. We used a method of focal sampling and infrared cameras to continually observe behaviors and nestlings’ growth. Nestling behaviors were different between nestling period and post-nestling period. Attendance at the nests by both adults decreased as the nestling aged. The female brooded significantly more than the male did during daylight hours (P=0.016, F= 8.38, df =1. The daily mean number of food items delivered to the nests by adults was 3.2 times/day in nestling period, and 0.96/day in post-nestling period. Seven orders of wild birds, three orders of mammals and domestic poultry were documented as prey.

  15. Nesting habitat selection by the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti

    OpenAIRE

    González, Luis M.; Bustamante, Javier; Hiraldo, F.

    1992-01-01

    Nesting habitat selection by the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti was quantitatively assessed. Nest sites chosen did not differ from the available habitat with regard to physiography and vegetation, but the eagles tended to avoid areas affected by human disturbance. Nest sites used by subadults and those of adults that were recently established tended to be in more disturbed areas than those used by adults or in traditional nesting localities. Management recommendations for more e...

  16. Diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease in a harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) with suspected fenbendazole toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph; Johnson, Laura; Pinkerton, Marie E; Hardie, Robert J; Sladky, Kurt K

    2018-02-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 14-year-old 4.1-kg (9.02-lb) male harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) was evaluated because of vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss (decrease of 0.35 kg [0.77 lb]) of 4 weeks' duration. The bird had previously been treated orally with fenbendazole after the initial onset of clinical signs. CLINICAL FINDINGS An initial CBC revealed marked heteropenia and anemia, but whole-body contrast-enhanced CT images and other diagnostic test findings were unremarkable. Clinical signs persisted, and additional diagnostic testing failed to reveal the cause. During celiotomy, a biopsy specimen of the duodenum was obtained for histologic examination, which revealed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, consistent with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Prior to histopathologic diagnosis of IBD, barium sulfate administered via gavage resulted in a temporary improvement of clinical signs. Following diagnosis of IBD, corticosteroid administration was initiated in conjunction with antifungal prophylaxis. Cessation of vomiting and a return to normal appetite occurred within 3 days. Fifteen months after cessation of corticosteroid treatment, the eagle continued to do well. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this was the first report of diagnosis and management of IBD in an avian species. For the eagle of the present report, results of several diagnostic tests increased clinical suspicion of IBD, but histologic examination of an intestinal biopsy specimen was required for definitive diagnosis. Although successful in this case, steroid administration in avian species must be carefully considered. Conclusive evidence of fenbendazole toxicosis was not obtained, although it was highly suspected in this bird.

  17. Estimating updraft velocity components over large spatial scales: contrasting migration strategies of golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Gil; Brandes, David; Mandel, James T; Bildstein, Keith L; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael; Katzner, Todd; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior A

    2012-02-01

    Soaring birds migrate in massive numbers worldwide. These migrations are complex and dynamic phenomena, strongly influenced by meteorological conditions that produce thermal and orographic uplift as the birds traverse the landscape. Herein we report on how methods were developed to estimate the strength of thermal and orographic uplift using publicly available digital weather and topography datasets at continental scale. We apply these methods to contrast flight strategies of two morphologically similar but behaviourally different species: golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, and turkey vulture, Cathartes aura, during autumn migration across eastern North America tracked using GPS tags. We show that turkey vultures nearly exclusively used thermal lift, whereas golden eagles primarily use orographic lift during migration. It has not been shown previously that migration tracks are affected by species-specific specialisation to a particular uplift mode. The methods introduced herein to estimate uplift components and test for differences in weather use can be applied to study movement of any soaring species. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  18. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  19. The first comprehensive estimate of the winter population of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla along the Danube/ Prva celostna ocena zimske populacije belorepca Haliaeetus albicilla vzdolž Donave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probst Remo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2014, the first ever comprehensive winter census of the Whitetailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla along the Danube River was conducted, using mostly point and transect counts. Altogether, 550-700 eagles were counted. The upper range of the estimate may in fact be more realistic because 615 km of the Danube were not surveyed. Birds were observed in every country along the Danube. Hotspots of occurrences were (1 the Central Danube floodplains - the area encompassing the lower Hungarian section (Danube- Drava National Park, Kopački rit Nature Park (Croatia, and the Gornje Podunavlje Special Nature Reserve (Serbia; and (2 the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve. According to the Action Plan for the conservation of the White-tailed Eagle along the Danube, future winter counts should be made regularly, and lower variation in the resulting eagle numbers achieved by a higher degree of synchronization between individual countries. This study reinforces the importance of protected areas along the Danube as a backbone for the conservation of White-tailed Eagles and biodiversity.

  20. Breeding biology and conservation of hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. (Aves, Accipitridae in southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Zilio

    2017-10-01

    egg was found (64.5 x 51.1 mm. Spizaetus seems to have very variable breeding cycles and begin breeding in the austral winter. I estimated egg laying occurs from July to September with fledging happening 3-4 months later. Diet of OHE consisted mostly of birds (90% but also some mammals. Individuals of Spizaetus require large, unbroken forest areas to live, and my data reinforce the critical situation of hawk-eagles in southern Atlantic forest. All three species have lost habitat and their distributions have shrunk over the past decades. The estimated population sizes suggest concern and a need for conservation actions. Conservation of large raptors in the Atlantic Forest is not a simple task, requiring the need to preserve and limit the disturbance of remaining forests, establish connectivity among fragments and reduce direct threats to raptors (e.g., persecution. We also need to better understand the ecological requirements of hawk-eagles and establish public policies to protect both species and their habitats.

  1. Lead and arsenic in bones of birds of prey from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, R; Taggart, M; Meharg, A A

    2003-01-01

    The bones (humerus and/or femur) of 229 birds of prey from 11 species were analyzed for Pb and As to evaluate their exposure to Pb shot. The species with the highest mean Pb levels were red kite (Milvus milvus) and Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus), and the species with the lowest levels were Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) and booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus). Red kite also had the highest mean As level, an element present in small amounts in Pb shot. Elevated bone Pb concentrations (>10 microg/g dry weight) were found in 10 birds from six species. Clinical signs compatible with lethal Pb poisoning and/or excessive bone Pb concentrations (>20 microg/g) were observed in one Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo), one red kite, and one Eurasian griffon. Pb poisoning has been diagnosed in eight upland raptor species in Spain to date.

  2. Results of the monitoring of the Steppe Eagle population in Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaikalsky Kray in 2015, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ornithological survey was carried out in July–August 2015 in steppe areas of Russian part of Dauria (Trans-Baikal Territory, or Zabaikalsky Krai in the frames of monitoring the population of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis. Research was conducted at 13 study sites in 10 administrative districts of the region, including 11 study sites which were surveyed repeatedly (after first survey in 2010. A total of 57 nesting territories with 95 nest structures were identified in 2010 and 2015 together. Additionally adult birds were recorded in 24 points but nests were not found. In 2015 we checked 35 of 40 nesting territories that were identified in 2010 while other 35 nesting territories (including 17 ones with nest structures are localized for the first time. A total of 27 nestlings and fledglings (1.4±0.5 nestlings and fledglings produced per successful nest in 19 nests were recorded during the 2015 survey. In 2010, the status of Steppe Eagle in Dauria was assessed as extremely unfavorable. The main population characteristics had not essentially changed to 2015. Actual average nesting density slightly increased but still is close to 1 pair per 100 km2. An average distance between neighbor active nests in Dauria is unexpectedly long as comparing with such figures in other regions of the Steppe Eagle nesting. More than a half of potentially available nesting territories remain unoccupied, and the share of unoccupied nesting territories almost did not change. The productivity of successful nests (average brood size remains low – on average 1.4±0.5 fledglings and nestlings per successful nest in 2015. The negative factors such as power lines that are dangerous for birds and steppe wild fires are still acting. More than 40 % of all the nesting territories were affected by fires in 2015; the nest structures were completely burnt at 17% of the known nesting territories visited in 2015. Meanwhile the following positive trends can be noted: the

  3. The Peculiarities of Territorial Distribution and Abundance of Birds of Prey in Kharkiv Region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav G. Viter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the features of the spatial distribution and abundance of birds of prey in the Kharkov region, Ukraine. Investigations were carried out in 2003–2013 years. Totaly we found 1569 nest sites of Falconiformes. There are 29 species of raptors in avifauna of Kharkiv region. Nine of them are wintering species and 16 – nesting. The highest number of nest sites we found in agricultural landscapes – 677 pairs. However, population density here is low, and high number of nest sites can be explained by large extension of this type of habitat. Also significant populations of birds of prey inhabit forest-steppe areas of Central Russian Upland (East European Plain – 468 pairs, steppe areas of Central Russian Upland – at least 279 pairs (notable that the size of steppe areas are 4 times smaller then forest-steppe areas, and gully forests on the spurs of Donets Ridge – 205 pairs (the size of this habitat in Kharkiv region is no more than 3 000 km2. The other habitats includes highlands in the forest-steppe zone covered with oak forests – 431 pairs, and floodplain forests in the valley of river Siverskyi Donets – 148 pairs (with rather small area of this habitat. These last two habitats are refuge for local populations of Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennata and Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus because these areas held the most stable nest sites and the highest density of these two species. The same could be said about gully forests on the spurs of Donets Ridge. The estimate number of breeding pairs of Falconiformes in gully forests is around 290 pairs. In this study, we also assessed the total number of breeding Birds of Prey in Kharkiv region. Here are our estimates: Honey Buzzard – 142–156 pairs, Black Kite (Milvus migrans – 133–148 pairs, White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla – 26–28 pairs, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus – 174–191, Marsh Harrier (C. aeruginosus – 344–359, Northern Goshawk

  4. Preventing Philippine Eagle hunting: what are we missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Ibanez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two pieces of information are minimally required to conserve endangered raptor species — (i an estimate of its remaining global population, and (ii the main factors responsible for its decline. Data suggest that no more than 400 adult pairs of the Critically Endangered Philippine Eagle could remain in the wild. As to what is causing population decline, shooting and hunting continue to be the primary factor while forest habitat loss is another. This paper reflects on the growing incident of human-caused deaths in Philippine Eagles, prominently on Mindanao Island where estimates suggest more than half of the eagle’s wild population exists. By analyzing data from eagle rescues, surveys, and field monitoring through radio and satellite tracking techniques, this paper shows that shooting and trapping is a “clear and present” danger which may potentially drive the population to extinction even when suitable forest habitats still exist. Cases of death within the last decade show that the nature and/or extent of law enforcement, conservation education, and population and habitat monitoring fall short of being effective deterrents to eagle persecution in the wild. We review emerging theories on wildlife crime and cases of community-based species conservation to justify a holistic and grounded approach to preventing eagle poaching as an alternative to the conservation status quo. 

  5. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Millsap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest, but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests. Conservation plans often protect used nests, but not alternative nests or nesting territories that appear vacant. Our objective is to review literature on golden eagle use of alternative nests and occupancy of nesting territories to determine if alternative nests are biologically significant and warrant greater conservation consideration. Our review shows that: (1 alternative nests or their associated habitat are most often in core areas of golden eagle nesting territories; (2 alternative nests likely will become used in the future; (3 probability of an alternative nest becoming used is greatest where prey availability is high and alternative nest sites are limited; (4 likelihood of annual occupancy or reoccupancy of golden eagle nesting territories is high; and (5 prey availability is the most important determinant of nesting territory occupancy and breeding activity. We recommend alternative nests be treated with the same deference as used nests in land use planning.

  6. Habitat segregation in two congeric hawk-eagles (Spizaetus bartelsi abd S. cirrhatus) in Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2004-01-01

    On the island of Java, Indonesia, two congeneric hawk-eagles occur, i.e. the endemic Javan hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi and the wide-ranging changeable hawk-eagle S. cirrhatus. Comparisons with similar species-pairs in South East Asia suggest that these species may be competitors both in habitat

  7. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may, upon... authorizing any person to take golden eagle nests during a resource development or recovery operation when the...

  8. 77 FR 129 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...-FF01M01000] Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte... Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) from West Butte Wind Power, LLC, for a programmatic permit for the take of golden eagles. If issued, the permit would be the first programmatic permit issued under our...

  9. 77 FR 4825 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...-FF01M01000] Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte... an application for the programmatic take of golden eagles. The DEA evaluates alternatives for the... eagles. If issued, the permit would be the first programmatic permit issued under our new permitting...

  10. 75 FR 62184 - Notification of United States Mint Silver Eagle Bullion Coin Premium Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Bullion Coin Premium Increase ACTION: Notification of United States Mint Silver Eagle Bullion Coin Premium... American Eagle Silver Bullion Coins, a program authorized under 31 U.S.C. 5112(e). The United States Mint will increase the premium charged to Authorized Purchasers for American Eagle Silver Bullion Coins...

  11. Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, J.H.; Hadderingh, R.H.; Bijleveld, M.F.I.J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found

  12. Like an eagle carries its young | Wünch | HTS Teologiese Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The picture of an eagle carrying its young on its wings (Dt 32:11) is a powerful and encouraging image of trust and security in God. It is particularly relevant for Western culture, where the eagle is a prominent symbol of power and strength. In recent years, though, the translation of the Hebrew term נשֶֶׁר as 'eagle' has come ...

  13. Torn Paper Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson for third-grade students that begins with an examination of bird prints done by John James Audubon and moves into the students creating their own torn paper birds. Introduces the students to the beauty of birds and focuses on the environmental issues that face birds and their habitats. (CMK)

  14. Evaluation of DNA variants associated with androgenetic alopecia and their potential to predict male pattern baldness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Marcińska

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia, known in men as male pattern baldness (MPB, is a very conspicuous condition that is particularly frequent among European men and thus contributes markedly to variation in physical appearance traits amongst Europeans. Recent studies have revealed multiple genes and polymorphisms to be associated with susceptibility to MPB. In this study, 50 candidate SNPs for androgenetic alopecia were analyzed in order to verify their potential to predict MPB. Significant associations were confirmed for 29 SNPs from chromosomes X, 1, 5, 7, 18 and 20. A simple 5-SNP prediction model and an extended 20-SNP model were developed based on a discovery panel of 305 males from various European populations fitting one of two distinct phenotype categories. The first category consisted of men below 50 years of age with significant baldness and the second; men aged 50 years or older lacking baldness. The simple model comprised the five best predictors: rs5919324 near AR, rs1998076 in the 20p11 region, rs929626 in EBF1, rs12565727 in TARDBP and rs756853 in HDAC9. The extended prediction model added 15 SNPs from five genomic regions that improved overall prevalence-adjusted predictive accuracy measured by area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (AUC. Both models were evaluated for predictive accuracy using a test set of 300 males reflecting the general European population. Applying a 65% probability threshold, high prediction sensitivity of 87.1% but low specificity of 42.4% was obtained in men aged <50 years. In men aged ≥50, prediction sensitivity was slightly lower at 67.7% while specificity reached 90%. Overall, the AUC=0.761 calculated for men at or above 50 years of age indicates these SNPs offer considerable potential for the application of genetic tests to predict MPB patterns, adding a highly informative predictive system to the emerging field of forensic analysis of externally visible characteristics.

  15. Small-scale galaxy clustering in the eagle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artale, M. Celeste; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Farrow, Daniel J.; Norberg, Peder; Zehavi, Idit; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-09-01

    We study present-day galaxy clustering in the eagle cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. eagle's galaxy formation parameters were calibrated to reproduce the redshift z = 0.1 galaxy stellar mass function, and the simulation also reproduces galaxy colours well. The simulation volume is too small to correctly sample large-scale fluctuations and we therefore concentrate on scales smaller than a few mega parsecs. We find very good agreement with observed clustering measurements from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, when galaxies are binned by stellar mass, colour or luminosity. However, low-mass red galaxies are clustered too strongly, which is at least partly due to limited numerical resolution. Apart from this limitation, we conclude that eagle galaxies inhabit similar dark matter haloes as observed GAMA galaxies, and that the radial distribution of satellite galaxies, as a function of stellar mass and colour, is similar to that observed as well.

  16. A Rare Cause for Cervical Pain: Eagle's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Massimo; Toro, Corrado; Tenani, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Patients with pharyngodynia and neck pain symptoms can lead to an extensive differential diagnosis. Eagle's syndrome must be taken in account. Eagle defined "stylalgia" as an autonomous entity related to abnormal length of the styloid process or to mineralization of the stylohyoid ligament complex. The stylohyoid complex derives from Reichert's cartilage of the second branchial arch. The styloyd process is an elongated conical projection of the temporal bone that lies anteriorly to the mastoid process. The incidence of Eagle's syndrome varies among population. Usually asymptomatic, it occurs in adult patients. It is characterized by pharyngodynia localized in the tonsillar fossa and sometimes accompanied by disphagia, odynophagia, foreign body sensation, and temporary voice changes. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus compresses the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibers, resulting in a persistent pain irradiating in the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is still under discussion.

  17. Early-onset baldness and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer: findings from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Nathan P; MacInnis, Robert J; English, Dallas R; Bolton, Damien; Davis, Ian D; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Millar, Jeremy L; Severi, Gianluca; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the associations between androgenetic alopecia at a young age and subsequent development of aggressive prostate cancer (PC). Using a case-control design with self-administered questionnaire, we evaluated the association between aggressive PC and very early-onset balding at age 20, and early-onset balding at age 40 years in 1,941 men. Cases were men with high-grade and/or advanced stage cancer and controls were clinic based men who had undergone biopsy and were found to be histologically cancer negative. Additionally, for cases we assessed whether early-onset balding was associated with earlier onset of disease. Men with very early-onset balding at age 20 years were at increased risk for subsequent aggressive PC [odds ratio (OR) 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.12] after adjustment for age at baseline, family history of PC, smoking status, alcohol intake, body shape, timing of growth spurt and ejaculatory frequency. Additionally, these men were diagnosed with PC approximately 16 months earlier than cases without the exposure. The effect was present particularly for men with advanced stage pT3+ disease (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.14-2.47) while men with organ-confined high-grade (8-10) PC did not exhibit the same relationship. No significant associations were observed for men who were balding at age 40 years, given no balding at age 20. Men with androgenetic alopecia at age 20 years are at increased risk of advanced stage PC. This small subset of men are potentially candidates for earlier screening and urological follow-up.

  18. Eagle Syndrome: diagnostic imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, J.; Andresen, R.; Sonnenburg, M.; Scheufler, O.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of clinical symptoms such as dysphagia, foreign-body sensation and chronic neck or facial pain close to the ear, an Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Rational diagnostics and therapy are elucidated on the basis of four case reports. Four patients presented in the out-patients clinic with chronic complaints on chewing and a foreign-body sensation in the tonsil region. Upon specific palpation below the mandibular angle, pain radiating into the ear region intensified. In all patients, local anaesthesia with lidocaine only led to a temporary remission of symptoms. Imaging diagnostics then performed initially included cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch as well as in the lateral ray path and an OPTG. An axial spiral-CT was then performed using the thin-layer technique with subsequent 3-D reconstruction. Therapy consisted of elective resection with a lateral external incision from the retromandibular. From a symptomatic point of view, the cranial survey radiograms and the OPTG revealed hypertrophic styloid processes. The geometrically corrected addition of the axial CT images produced an absolute length of 51-58 mm. The 3-D reconstruction made it possible to visualise the exact spatial orientation of the styloid processes. An ossification of the stylohyoid ligament could definitely be ruled out on the basis of the imaging procedures. After resection of the megastyloid, the patients were completely free of symptoms. Spiral-CT with subsequent 3-D reconstruction is the method of choice for exact determination of the localisation and size of a megastyloid, while cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch and in the lateral ray path or an OPTG can provide initial information. The therapy of choice is considered to be resection of the megastyloid, whereby an external lateral incision has proved effective. (orig.) [de

  19. 75 FR 56093 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR09-1-002] Eagle Rock... notice that on September 8, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Eagle Rock) filed a request to extend the date for filing its next rate case to May 1, 2012. Eagle Rock states that in Order No. 735 the...

  20. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  1. Eagle Syndrome Causing Vascular Compression with Cervical Rotation: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirtaş, Hakan; Kayan, Mustafa; Koyuncuoğlu, Hasan Rıfat; Çelik, Ahmet Orhan; Kara, Mustafa; Şengeze, Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Eagle syndrome is a condition caused by an elongated styloid process. Unilateral face, neck and ear pain, stinging pain, foreign body sensation and dysphagia can be observed with this syndrome. Rarely, the elongated styloid process may cause pain by compressing the cervical segment of the internal carotid and the surrounding sympathetic plexus, and that pain spreading along the artery can cause neurological symptoms such as vertigo and syncope. In this case report we presented a very rare eagle syndrome with neurological symptoms that occurred suddenly with cervical rotation. The symptoms disappeared as suddenly as they occurred, with the release of pressure in neutral position. We also discussed CT angiographic findings of this case. Radiological diagnosis of the Eagle syndrome that is manifested with a wide variety of symptoms and causes diagnostic difficulties when it is not considered in the differential diagnosis is easy in patients with specific findings. CT angiography is a fast and effective examination in terms of showing compression in patients with the Eagle syndrome that is considered to be atypical and causes vascular compression

  2. Human-associated staphylococcal infection in Spanish imperial eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, M; Hiraldo, F

    1995-10-01

    At Doñana National Park, Spain, we compared the prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. infections in the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) in 66 nestlings handled with bare hands and in 46 nestlings handled with gloved hands, 1986 to 1993. We detected staphylococcal infections in 30 (45%) of 66 chicks handled without gloves, and in two (4%) of 46 chicks handled with gloves.

  3. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA .  Created: 9/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2014.

  4. Attempted Verreaux's Eagle predation on Rüppell's Vulture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Verreaux's Eagle (Aquila verreauxii) was observed to attack in mid-air a fully grown juvenile Rüppell's Vulture (Gyps rueppellii). This event including observations on the breeding of these vultures at Kwenia are presented. Other notes are given for the nesting of Rüppell's Vultures at this site.

  5. Eagle syndrome: A case report | Atsukwei | Jos Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jos Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Eagle syndrome: A case report. A Atsukwei. Abstract. NO Abstract.

  6. Diet of nesting African Crowned Eagles Stephanoaetus coronatus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the species composition of prey caught in the forest, savanna and emerging habitats in which African Crowned Eagles Stephanoaetus coronatus breed in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. At the 17 nest sites, the remains of 195 prey individuals were collected. The five dominant ...

  7. Notes on African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus diet in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study reports on contrasts in prey items from African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus nesting in forest (n = 1) and savanna (n = 2) biomes in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. At least 12 taxa were identified at a forest nest, of which 92.1% were neonate/juvenile. Bovids and procaviids represented 73.7% and 19.6% ...

  8. Swifter than eagles | Ward | Scientia Militaria: South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 2 (1982) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Swifter than eagles. EH Ward ...

  9. Eagles, Otters, and Unicorns: An Anatomy of Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Stephen R.; King, Margaret J.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes three archetypal workers: eagles who innovate by improvements, otters who innovate by extension, and unicorns who innovate by paradigm. Each of these innovators is discussed in terms of domain-relevant skills, manipulative skills, and motivation. Needs of each type in terms of business culture are discussed. (PB)

  10. Sociale Veiligheid Stadion Go Ahead Eagles : Onderzoek onder supporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoutendijk, A. (Andries); Rodenhuis, W.K.F. (Wilbert); Korthals Altes, H.J.C. (Harm Jan)

    2015-01-01

    Het doel van het onderzoek is: een voor alle supporters (uit- en thuispubliek) zowel veilige als gastvrije situatie creëren rondom het stadion op wedstrijddagen. Hoe kan de situatie rondom het Go Ahead Eagles stadion te Deventer zodanig worden geoptimaliseerd dat deze door supporters als

  11. Doppler ultrasonography of the pectinis oculi artery in harpy eagles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low RI and PI values found in the harpy eagle´s pectinis oculi artery compared with the American pekin ducks one and other tissue suggest indeed a high metabolic activity in pecten oculi and corroborates the hypothesis of a nutritional function and/or intraocular pressure regulation. Keywords: Avian posterior segment, ...

  12. Manejo estatal de baldíos: factor de crecimiento en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, 1910-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quejada Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone dar una mirada al papel de la intervención estatal en la transferencia de baldíos en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1910 y 1920. Aunque existen estudios de baldíos sobre la legislación y los conflictos por derechos de propiedad, con un carácter nacional, es necesario aportar al tema estudiando cómo fue el manejo estatal en el momento de repartir y utilizar los baldíos en una región específica. Consecuentemente, la tierra es tomada como factor desde un postulado neoinstitucionalista (mercado de factores, siendo susceptible de transferencia en el marco de los estímulos del mercado interno y externo. El análisis permite identificar que el manejo regional de los baldíos se dio por varios mecanismos de trasferencia y diversos usos, en los que la agencia del Estado resultó decisiva.

  13. Using field data to quantify chemical impacts on wildlife population viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbers, Jelle P; Hoondert, Renske P J; Schipper, Aafke M; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2018-01-16

    Environmental pollution is an important driver of biodiversity loss. Yet, to date, the effects of chemical exposure on wildlife populations have been quantified for only a few species, mainly due to a lack of appropriate laboratory data to quantify chemical impacts on vital rates. In this study we developed a method to quantify the effects of toxicant exposure on wildlife population persistence based on field monitoring data. We established field-based vital rate-response functions for toxicants, using quantile regression to correct for the influences of confounding factors on the vital rates observed, and combined the response curves with population viability modelling. We then applied the method to quantify the impact of DDE on three bird species: the white-tailed eagle, bald eagle and osprey. Population viability was expressed via five population extinction vulnerability metrics: population growth rate (r 1 ), critical patch size (CPS), minimum viable population size (MVP), probability of population extirpation (PE) and median time to population extirpation (MTE). We found that past DDE exposure concentrations increased population extirpation vulnerabilities of all three bird species. For example, at DDE concentrations of 25 mg/kg ww egg (the maximum historic exposure concentration reported in literature for the osprey), r 1 became small (white-tailed eagle and osprey) or close to zero (bald eagle), the CPS increased up to almost the size of Connecticut (white-tailed eagle and osprey) or West Virginia (bald eagle), the MVP increased up to approximately 90 (white-tailed eagle and osprey) or 180 breeding pairs (bald eagle), the PE increased up to almost certain extirpation (bald eagle) or only slightly elevated levels (white-tailed eagle and osprey) and the MTE became within decades (bald eagle) or remained longer than a millennium (white-tailed eagle and osprey). Our study provides a method to derive species-specific field-based response curves of toxicant

  14. The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo diet in the Trøndelag region (Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2015 we collected pellets of the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in the Trøndelag region of central Norway and identified the food remains in these samples. We collected material at 45 sites with samples from a total of 76 nests. Some of the samples were from older and already abandoned nests, but at several sites we also found and collected fresh B. bubo pellets. In total 40,766 items of prey were identified from the osteological material. The most dominant food components were mammals (Mammalia, 25 species, 63.5%. The species representation of birds was very diverse (Aves, more than 150 species, 19.4%. Of amphibians (Amphibia, 1 6.8%, the well-represented species were Rana temporaria. Fish (Pisces, 0.3% were represented rarely, while invertebrates were represented only sporadically (Invertebrata, 0.05%. A special composition was found in the diet spectra of the mammals and birds in the mountainous areas at altitudes between 220-780 m above sea level. The highest proportion of frogs was found in areas in the proximity of the mainland shore. On the northern islands located near the coast a significant proportion of the B. bubo diet consisted of rodents (Rodentia. On the more isolated southern islands of Frøya, Hitra and Storfosna the main prey was sea birds, and of the mammals there were also hedgehogs and rats.

  15. Golden Eagle Migratory Behaviors in Response to Arctic Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPoint, S.; Bohrer, G.; Davidson, S. C.; Gurarie, E.; Mahoney, P.; Boelman, N.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how animals adapt to climate change is a conservation priority, particularly in arctic landscapes where these changes are accelerated. Doing so however, remains challenging because animal behavior datasets are typically conducted at site- or population-specific scales and are often short term (e.g., 2-3 years). We have overcome this challenge by compiling a long-term (25 years), large-scale (northwestern North America) dataset of > 0.5 million locations collected via 86 adult-aged golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) fitted with satellite and GPS data loggers. We used mechanistic range shift analyses to identify the locations and dates when each eagle performed a behavioral switch from a stationary phase (e.g., over-wintering or breeding) to migration and vice-versa. We annotated these spatio-temporal data with a suite of environmental data, including: %snow cover, time-to snow cover, time-to greening, air temperature, and wind direction and magnitude. Preliminary generalized additive mixed-models suggest these eagles have performed significant shifts in their departure dates, yet their arrival dates have remained relatively consistent. We will use a survival analysis (e.g., Cox proportional-hazard regression model) to quantify the influence of the environmental variables on these dates. It appears golden eagles migrating across northwestern North America are adapting to changes in the timing and duration of artic winters, by arriving to their northern breeding grounds earlier every spring, presumably to extend their breeding and chick rearing phases. Golden eagles exhibit some resiliency to changes in the arctic climate, but further work is warranted across other taxa and populations.

  16. Abstracts of contributions presented in the VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutschová Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca was held on October 2-5, 201 3 in Barónka hotel in Bratislava, Slovakia and it was organised by Raptor Protection of Slovakia (RPS in cooperation with the Czech Society for Ornithology and MME/BirdLife Hungary, under the auspices of the Ministry of Environment, supported by the International Visegrad Fund. Results of 43 experts from ten countries, including three countries of Visegrad region (Slovakia, Czech Republic and Hungary were presented in 20 presentations and five posters. Six contributions are published in Slovak Raptor Journal volume 8, issue 1 (2014 as full papers, further twelve contributions are published here as conference abstracts.

  17. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie New

    Full Text Available Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1 in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4; 80th

  18. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Leslie; Bjerre, Emily; Millsap, Brian; Otto, Mark C; Runge, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81)). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1) in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4); 80th quantile, 6

  19. Epidemiological study of Newcastle disease in backyard poultry and wild bird populations in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, E; Thur, B; Griot, C; Audige, L

    1999-06-01

    Blood samples and cloacal swabs from poultry were collected in 107 small chicken flocks and 62 pure-bred poultry flocks to determine their status regarding Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection. A questionnaire emphasizing potential contacts of poultry with wild birds and management practices associated with NDV infection was completed for each flock. Additionally, 1576 wild bird carcasses of 115 different bird species were collected from hunters and taxidermists. Poultry sera and tissue fluids of wild birds were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking ELISA. Cloacal swabs were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for NDV genome detection. In-herd NDV seroprevalences between 5 and 29% were found in one small chicken flock, as well as in four pure-bred poultry flocks. NDV antibody positive wild birds were found in 10.2% of all wild birds examined. Highest proportions (i.e. 15%) of positive birds per species were found among sparrowhawks, kites, tawny owls, eagle owls, barn owls, cuckoos, swifts, cormorants and grebes. No NDV genome was detected in cloacal swabs. This study suggests that buying eggs or poultry abroad and exchanging poultry within the country were factors, more important than wild birds, to explain the higher NDV seropositivity in pure-bred poultry flocks.

  20. Change in diet of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo suggests decline in biodiversity in Wadi Al Makhrour, Bethlehem Governorate, Palestinian Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Zuhair S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo was studied in Wadi Al Makhrour, Bethlehem, Palestinian Territories in 2015 with fresh and several year old pellets. Three species of arthropods, one reptile species, at least four bird species, and six species of mammals were recovered from the studied pellets. Black rat (Rattus rattus was the most common prey (37.0%, followed by the southern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor (29.4% and birds (21.8%. Comparison of recent and older pellets showed change in diet composition. Recent pellets contained more Rattus rattus compared to older ones. Older pellets included more naturally-occurring species such as Meriones tristrami, Microtus guentheri, and Rousettus aegyptiacus, which were absent in newer pellets.

  1. Carbazole antibiotics synthesis in a Streptomyces tendae bald mutant, created by acriflavine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, H; Wolf, H; Gilles, E D; Huth, F; Laatsch, H

    1998-01-01

    Acriflavine treatment on Streptomyces tendae generated a bald mutant (bld-1) with an altered antibiotic pattern. The parental strain produced nikkomycins and juglomycins, whereas the mutant bld-1 was only capable of juglomycin synthesis. The existence of a mutant defective in morphogenesis and in nikkomycin biosynthesis suggests a common regulation of these processes. An interesting finding of this study is that mutant bld-1 produced two carbazole derivatives, hitherto never seen in cultures of the parental strain. It seems likely that the DNA intercalating dye acriflavine, by mutagenesis, had activated cryptic genes which are involved in carbazole synthesis. The two carbazole derivatives were identified as the neuronal cell protecting compounds CS-79B and carquinostatin A, recently isolated from a wild-type of S. exfoliatus. We found that both substances showed antibacterial activity.

  2. First observation of bald patches in a filament channel and at a barb endpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ariste, A.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Sainz Dalda, A.

    2006-09-01

    The 3D magnetic field topology of solar filaments/prominences is strongly debated, because it is not directly measureable in the corona. Among various prominence models, several are consistent with many observations, but their related topologies are very different. We conduct observations to address this paradigm. We measure the photospheric vector magnetic field in several small flux concentrations surrounding a filament observed far from disc center. Our objective is to test for the presence/absence of magnetic dips around/below the filament body/barb, which is a strong constraint on prominence models, and that is still untested by observations. Our observations are performed with the THEMIS/MTR instrument. The four Stokes parameters are extracted, from which the vector magnetic fields are calculated using a PCA inversion. The resulting vector fields are then deprojected onto the photospheric plane. The 180° ambiguity is then solved by selecting the only solution that matches filament chirality rules. Considering the weakness of the resulting magnetic fields, a careful analysis of the inversion procedure and its error bars was performed, to avoid over-interpretation of noisy or ambiguous Stokes profiles. Thanks to the simultaneous multi-wavelength THEMIS observations, the vector field maps are coaligned with the Hα image of the filament. By definition, photospheric dips are identifiable where the horizontal component of the magnetic field points from a negative toward a positive polarity. Among six bipolar regions analyzed in the filament channel, four at least display photospheric magnetic dips, i.e. bald patches. For barbs, the topology of the endpoint is that of a bald patch located next to a parasitic polarity, not of an arcade pointing within the polarity. The observed magnetic field topology in the photosphere tends to support models of prominence based on magnetic dips located within weakly twisted flux tubes. Their underlying and lateral extensions form

  3. Hair follicle growth by stromal vascular fraction-enhanced adipose transplantation in baldness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Meza D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available David Perez-Meza,1 Craig Ziering,2 Marcos Sforza,3 Ganesh Krishnan,4 Edward Ball,5 Eric Daniels6 1Ziering Medical, Marbella, Spain; 2Ziering Medical, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3The Hospital Group, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, 4Ziering Medical, Birmingham, 5Ziering Medical, London, UK; 6Kerastem Technologies, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Great interest remains in finding new and emerging therapies for the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss. The autologous fat grafting technique is >100 years old, with a recent and dramatic increase in clinical experience over the past 10–15 years. Recently, in 2001, Zuk et al published the presence of adipose-derived stem cells, and abundant research has shown that adipose is a complex, biological active, and important tissue. Festa et al, in 2011, reported that adipocyte lineage cells support the stem cell niche and help drive the complex hair growth cycle. Adipose-derived regenerative cells (also known as stromal vascular fraction [SVF] is a heterogeneous group of noncultured cells that can be reliably extracted from adipose by using automated systems, and these cells work largely by paracrine mechanisms to support adipocyte viability. While, today, autologous fat is transplanted primarily for esthetic and reconstructive volume, surgeons have previously reported positive skin and hair changes posttransplantation. This follicular regenerative approach is intriguing and raises the possibility that one can drive or restore the hair cycle in male and female pattern baldness by stimulating the niche with autologous fat enriched with SVF. In this first of a kind patient series, the authors report on the safety, tolerability, and quantitative, as well as photographic changes, in a group of patients with early genetic alopecia treated with subcutaneous scalp injection of enriched adipose tissue. The findings suggest that scalp stem cell-enriched fat grafting may represent a promising alternative approach to

  4. The diet of Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis and its agronomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available If the importance of wildlife in agricultural pest control through predation can be conveyed, it can play an important role in the conservation of wildlife. However, such a strategy needs to be backed with convincing data. We studied the habitat preference, diet and reproductive behavior of the Indian Eagle Owl (IEO Bubo bengalensis in order to understand its role in agricultural pest control. The Owls preferred landscapes with a higher percentage of agriculture and fed on rodents, birds, reptiles, arachnids, insects and other prey species. Despite being a generalist feeder, its diet was dominated by agricultural pests, which contributed 88% of the total prey biomass. Out of the 13 rodent prey species, which comprised a major part of the diet, seven were identified as major agricultural pests and were 98% of the total rodent biomass in the diet of the IEO. The dependence of the IEO on rodent pests was further reflected by positive correlation between rodent biomass consumed and the breeding success of the owl. The IEO, therefore, plays a positive role in the biological control of crop pests. However, owls spent a longer duration of time in agricultural habitats, where they also had higher productivity. Thus IEO may be subjected to anthropogenic activities, human contact and interference. Since this owl is still hunted due to superstitious beliefs, scientific evidence elucidating the importance of the IEO in agricultural pest control can be used for its conservation by educating the farming community.

  5. Factors Influencing the Present Distribution of the Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti

    OpenAIRE

    González, Luis M.; Bustamante, Javier

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the status of the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti in relation to its historic range in Spain, and try to determine geographic, climatic and land-use factors which may favour or limit its distribution. Fourteen of the 32 variables studied showed statistical differences between the grid squares where the eagle breeds and those grid squares sampled at random where it does not breed. The eagle remains in more forested areas, with lower levels of human land use ...

  6. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  7. Coming to terms about describing Golden Eagle reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Brown, Jessi L.

    2017-01-01

    Clearly defined terms are essential for reporting and understanding research findings, and inconsistent terminology can complicate efforts to compare findings from different studies. In this article, we reiterate and clarify recommended terms for describing Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) territory occupancy and reproduction. Several authors have provided recommendations for reporting data on raptor reproduction, but our literature review showed that authors continue to use different, often ambiguous and undefined, terms. The inconsistent use of terminology by researchers has been continued and expanded by lawmakers, regulators, and managers, perpetuating confusion. We recommend that authors clearly define and reference all terminology that they use, and we caution against use of the term “active” to describe a nest or nesting territory, because it is tainted with a history of inconsistent use. We provide a glossary of recommended terms for Golden Eagles and other large, long-lived raptors.

  8. Doppler ultrasonography of thepectinis oculiartery in harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Wanderlei; Ferreira, Thiago A C; Somma, André T; Cubas, Zalmir S; Moore, Bret A; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    Twenty harpy eagles ( Harpia harpyja ) without systemic or ocular diseases were examined to measure blood velocity parameters of the pectinis oculi artery using Doppler ultrasonography. Pectinate artery resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were investigated using ocular Doppler ultrasonography. The mean RI and PI values across all eyes were 0.44±0.10 and 0.62±0.20 respectively. Low RI and PI values found in the harpy eagle´s pectinis oculi artery compared with the American pekin ducks one and other tissue suggest indeed a high metabolic activity in pecten oculi and corroborates the hypothesis of a nutritional function and/or intraocular pressure regulation.

  9. On the galaxy-halo connection in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop

    2017-10-01

    Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass-size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy-halo connection it implies. We find the EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.

  10. An improved PCR method for gender identification of eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Chou, Ta-Ching; Gu, De-Leung; Cheng, Chun-An; Chang, Chia-Che; Yao, Cheng-Te; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Tan, Kock-Yee; Cheng, Chien-Chung

    2008-06-01

    Eagles are sexually monomorphic and therefore it is difficult to determine their gender, which is a crucial need for management purposes. In this study, we have developed an improved gender identification method by exploiting length differences between the Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-Z and CHD-W genes of Spilornis cheela hoya. By comparing DNA sequences for CHD-W and CHD-Z from 10 species of Falconiformes eagles we designed universal gender identification PCR primers that exploit differences in product size. Standard agarose gels were shown to easily distinguish between the 148-bp CHD-ZW and the 258-bp CHD-W PCR products. When used with 28 samples of S. cheela hoya, our improved universal primers provided a fast and precise gender identification assay.

  11. Avian pox infection in Spanish Imperial eagles (Aquila adalberti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, M; Sanchez, C; Galka, M E; Dominguez, L; Goyache, J; Oria, J; Pizarro, M

    2001-02-01

    A cutaneous lesion, previously known as "warts", affecting the featherless parts of face and legs has long been recognized in juvenile Spanish Imperial eagles (Aquila adalberti). This paper describes the presentation, microbiological, histopathological, and electron microscopic findings of lesions and diagnosis of poxvirus infection in nine juveniles. Lesions consisted of single or multiple nodules with a crust and surrounded by skin swelling. Seventy-eight percent of the swabs taken from lesions yielded bacterial growth, with Escherichia coli being the most common bacterium isolated. Histopathology revealed typical pox lesions in all cases. Histopathological changes found consisted of proliferative epithelium, with ballooning degeneration of keratinocytes and lymphocyte infiltrates extending into underlying dermis. Avianpox virus was confirmed by the presence of eosinophilic intracytoplasmatic inclusion bodies in the affected cells on light microscopy, and diagnosis confirmation was performed by electron microscopy of biopsies from all nine eagles.

  12. Birds of Sabaki Birds of Sabaki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CJ

    2005-02-25

    Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...

  13. Hydrodynamics of photoionized columns in the Eagle Nebula, M 16

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, R. J. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    We present hydrodynamical simulations of the formation, structure and evolution of photoionized columns, with parameters based on those observed in the Eagle Nebula. On the basis of these simulations we argue that there is no unequivocal evidence that the dense neutral clumps at heads of the columns were cores in the pre-existing molecular cloud. In our simulations, a variety of initial conditions leads to the formation and maintenance of near-equilibrium columns. Therefore, it is likely that...

  14. The influence of weather on Golden Eagle migration in northwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, R.E.; McClelland, B.R.; Mcclelland, P.T.; Key, C.H.; Bennetts, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of 17 weather factors on migrating Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) near the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A. Local weather measurements were recorded at automated stations on the flanks of two peaks within the migration path. During a total of 506 hr of observation, the yearly number of Golden Eagles in autumn counts (1994-96) averaged 1973; spring counts (1995 and 1996) averaged 605 eagles. Mean passage rates (eagles/hr) were 16.5 in autumn and 8.2 in spring. Maximum rates were 137 in autumn and 67 in spring. Using generalized linear modeling, we tested for the effects of weather factors on the number of eagles counted. In the autumn model, the number of eagles increased with increasing air temperature, rising barometric pressure, decreasing relative humidity, and interactions among those factors. In the spring model, the number of eagles increased with increasing wind speed, barometric pressure, and the interaction between these factors. Our data suggest that a complex interaction among weather factors influenced the number of eagles passing on a given day. We hypothesize that in complex landscapes with high topographic relief, such as Glacier National Park, numerous weather factors produce different daily combinations to which migrating eagles respond opportunistically. ?? 2001 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  15. Angry Birds in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    When space computers first started listening into space radio, they noticed that there were radio noises that happened on the morning side of the Earth. Because these waves sounded like noises birds make in the morning, we named these waves after them. These bird sounding waves can move around the Earth, flying up and down, and sometimes move into an area where there is more stuff. This area is also much colder than where these bird noises are first made. When the waves move into this cold area where there is more stuff, they start to sound like angry birds instead of happy birds. Both of these waves, the happy and angry bird sounding waves, are very important to our understanding of how the tiny things in space move and change. Sometimes the waves which sound like birds can push these tiniest of things into the sky. The happy bird sounding waves can push the tiniest things quickly while the angry bird sounding waves push the tinest of things more slowly. When the tiny things fall into the sky, they create beautiful space lights and light that burns which can hurt people in up goers and not so up goers as well as our things like phones, and space computers. We study these waves that sound like birds to better understand when and where the tiny things will fall. That way we can be prepared and enjoy watching the pretty space lights at night with no worries.

  16. Monitoring Forsmark - Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin [Dept of Biology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  17. [Occurrence of parasites in indigenous birds of prey and owls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lierz, M; Göbel, T; Schuster, R

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper a general overview on parasites in birds of prey and owls is given. This part is followed by a study investigating the prevalences and species of parasites in free-ranging birds of prey and owls in Berlin and Brandenburg State, Germany. Over a one year period, 84 birds of prey and owls of the following species were examined for the presence of endo- and ectoparasites: Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) (n = 32), Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (n = 20), Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (n = 9), Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) (n = 8), Black Kite (Milvus migrans) (n = 4), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) (n = 3), Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) (n = 1), White-tailed-Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) (n = 1), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) (n = 4), Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) (n = 1) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba) (n = 1). In 97.6% of the cases, ectoparasites (feather mites and hippoboscid flies) were found. Especially eyasses (93.3%) were positive for hippoboscid flies. Trichomonas was detected in 28.6% of all birds of prey and owls examined. A prevalence of 100% was established in the Sparrow Hawks as well as Peregrine Falcons. Leucozytozoon sp. and Hemoproteus sp. as blood parasites were found in 26.9% of the birds in total. Common Buzzards showed the highest prevalence (44.8%). 58.3% of birds examined were positive for endoparasites. Flukes were found in 16.7%, tapeworms in 14.3%, round-worms in 48.8% and acanthocephales in 2.4% of the cases. Interestingly, Tylodelphis clavata (in a Common Buzzard) and Hovorkonema variegatum (in a Goshawk) were found for the first time in raptors. The results of this study underline the importance of a parasitological examination in the process of raptor rehabilitation.

  18. Eagle Syndrome: diagnostic imaging and therapy; Eagle Syndrom - Bildgebende Diagnostik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, J.; Andresen, R. [Abt. fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionelle Radiologie, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Sonnenburg, M. [Fachbelegarztpraxis fuer Mund, Kiefer, Gesichtschirurgie und Plastische Operationen, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Scheufler, O. [Klinik fuer Plastische, Wiederherstellungs- und Handchirurgie, Markus Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the case of clinical symptoms such as dysphagia, foreign-body sensation and chronic neck or facial pain close to the ear, an Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Rational diagnostics and therapy are elucidated on the basis of four case reports. Four patients presented in the out-patients clinic with chronic complaints on chewing and a foreign-body sensation in the tonsil region. Upon specific palpation below the mandibular angle, pain radiating into the ear region intensified. In all patients, local anaesthesia with lidocaine only led to a temporary remission of symptoms. Imaging diagnostics then performed initially included cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch as well as in the lateral ray path and an OPTG. An axial spiral-CT was then performed using the thin-layer technique with subsequent 3-D reconstruction. Therapy consisted of elective resection with a lateral external incision from the retromandibular. From a symptomatic point of view, the cranial survey radiograms and the OPTG revealed hypertrophic styloid processes. The geometrically corrected addition of the axial CT images produced an absolute length of 51-58 mm. The 3-D reconstruction made it possible to visualise the exact spatial orientation of the styloid processes. An ossification of the stylohyoid ligament could definitely be ruled out on the basis of the imaging procedures. After resection of the megastyloid, the patients were completely free of symptoms. Spiral-CT with subsequent 3-D reconstruction is the method of choice for exact determination of the localisation and size of a megastyloid, while cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch and in the lateral ray path or an OPTG can provide initial information. The therapy of choice is considered to be resection of the megastyloid, whereby an external lateral incision has proved effective. (orig.) [German] Bei klinischen Beschwerden wie Dysphagie, Fremdkoerpergefuehl und chronischen

  19. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  20. 50 CFR 22.26 - Permits for eagle take that is associated with, but not the purpose of, an activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS... noting whether eagles continue to nest, roost, or forage there. The periodic monitoring is required for...

  1. Biotelemetery data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, February 2016–February 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-05-12

    Because of a lack of clarity about the status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California, the USGS, in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies, began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in September 2014. During trapping efforts from September 29, 2014, to February 23, 2016, 27 golden eagles were captured. During trapping efforts from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017, an additional 10 golden eagles (7 females and 3 males) were captured in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. Biotelemetry data for 26 of the 37 golden eagles that were transmitting data from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017 are presented. These eagles ranged as far north as northern Nevada and southern Wyoming, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  2. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits hair growth and is elevated in bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Luis A; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Alagesan, Brinda; Lawson, John A; Norberg, Scott M; Loy, Dorothy E; Zhao, Tailun; Blatt, Hanz B; Stanton, David C; Carrasco, Lee; Ahluwalia, Gurpreet; Fischer, Susan M; FitzGerald, Garret A; Cotsarelis, George

    2012-03-21

    Testosterone is necessary for the development of male pattern baldness, known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA); yet, the mechanisms for decreased hair growth in this disorder are unclear. We show that prostaglandin D(2) synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA. The product of PTGDS enzyme activity, prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), is similarly elevated in bald scalp. During normal follicle cycling in mice, Ptgds and PGD(2) levels increase immediately preceding the regression phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect on hair growth. We show that PGD(2) inhibits hair growth in explanted human hair follicles and when applied topically to mice. Hair growth inhibition requires the PGD(2) receptor G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)-coupled receptor 44 (GPR44), but not the PGD(2) receptor 1 (PTGDR). Furthermore, we find that a transgenic mouse, K14-Ptgs2, which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression to the skin, demonstrates elevated levels of PGD(2) in the skin and develops alopecia, follicular miniaturization, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, which are all hallmarks of human AGA. These results define PGD(2) as an inhibitor of hair growth in AGA and suggest the PGD(2)-GPR44 pathway as a potential target for treatment.

  3. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  4. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  5. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 07/07-0116] Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle... Constitute Conflicts of Interest, of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations. Eagle...

  6. 76 FR 5580 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline Route for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13123-002] Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline Route for the Proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project and Notice of Public Meetings January 21, 2011. On June 22, 2009, Eagle...

  7. 75 FR 27774 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Rate Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-22-000] Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Rate Election May 11, 2010. Take notice that on May 3, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P., (Desoto) filed a Notice of Rate Election pursuant to section 284.123(b)(1)(ii) of...

  8. 75 FR 62895 - Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 70-7015; NRC-2009-0187] Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility, Bonneville County, ID... proposed facility is known as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF) and will be located in Bonneville...

  9. 76 FR 20971 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-120-001] Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 7, 2011, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions to comply with an unpublished delegated letter...

  10. 77 FR 28375 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR12-25-000] Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on May 1, 2012, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Desoto) filed a Rate Election pursuant to 284.123(b)(1) of the Commissions...

  11. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two... United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The coin set will be offered for sale at a price of $139.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marc Landry...

  12. 78 FR 57629 - Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EL13-87-000; QF13-658-000] Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 9, 2013, Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC filed Form 556 and a petition for certification as a qualifying small power production...

  13. Known breeding distribution and abundance of golden eagles in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois Morneau; Junior A. Tremblay; Charles Todd; Tony E. Chubbs; Charles Maisonneuve; Jerome Lemaitre; Todd. Katzner

    2015-01-01

    Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle) breeds in both eastern and western North America. However, the former population has received much less attention than the latter. The purpose of this paper is to document the known distribution and abundance of eastern Golden Eagles within their breeding range and to identify gaps in knowledge for future studies....

  14. 77 FR 43662 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin... is lowering the price of the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The product will now be offered for sale at a price of $54.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B. Craig, Associate Director for...

  15. 77 FR 40704 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver... States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin. The coin will be offered for sale at a price of $45.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B. Craig, Associate Director...

  16. 77 FR 839 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... Coins Agency: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins. The price of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins will be lowered from $50.95 to $45.95. FOR FURTHER...

  17. 76 FR 33026 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The coin will be offered for...

  18. 77 FR 15457 - Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The coins will be offered...

  19. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Uncirculated Coins AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins. The price of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coins will be lowered from $68.45 to $58.95, and the...

  20. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The price of the coins...

  1. 76 FR 1149 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13123-002--California] Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project and Notice of Public Meetings December 23, 2010. In...

  2. 77 FR 5505 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13123-002--California] Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project In accordance with the National Environmental Policy...

  3. Eighteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the highly endangered Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) and related species

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Godoy, José A.; Negro, Juan J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.

    2002-01-01

    Here we describe the development of 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the endangered Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Microsatellites were tested in five other raptor species. These markers were revealed as good molecular tools for genetic population studies, individual identification and parentage assessment in Spanish imperial eagle and closely related species.

  4. Eighteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the highly endangered Spanish imperial eagle ( Aquila adalberti ) and related species

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; David, Victor A.; Godoy, José A.; Negro, Juan J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.

    2002-01-01

    Here we describe the development of 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the endangered Spanish imperial eagle ( Aquila adalberti ). Microsatellites were tested in five other raptor species. These markers were revealed as good molecular tools for genetic population studies, individual identification and parentage assessment in Spanish imperial eagle and closely related species.

  5. Blood chemistry, protein electrophoresis, and hematologic values of captive Spanish imperial eagles (Aquila adalberti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montijano, Marino; García, Alfonso; Lemus, Jesús A; Montesinos, Andrés; Canales, Rocío; Luaces, Inés; Pereira, Pablo

    2002-06-01

    Hemograms and plasma chemistry values are presented for six male and six female, adult, clinically normal, captive Spanish imperial eagles (Aquila adalberti). No value was substantially different from that which might be predicted on the basis of work in other related species. This data should prove useful for the interpretation of laboratory findings in future clinical cases of this endangered species of eagle.

  6. The eagle concept-framework for a future land monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Stephan; Hazeu, Gerard; Sanz, Nuria Valcarcel

    2016-01-01

    The EAGLE concept embodies a new approach for land monitoring initiatives following an object-oriented approach in landscape modelling. It aims at providing a basis for an integrated European Land Monitoring Framework. Once implemented, the EAGLE concept with its data model and tools can help to

  7. The endemic Bawean Serpent-eagle Spilornis baweanus: habitat use, abundance and conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Bawean Serpent-eagle Spilornis bawearius is endemic to the 190 km(2) island of Bawean in the Java Sea (Indonesia) where it is the only resident diurnal raptor. A 15 day study in 2002 revealed that the species is present in small numbers throughout the island. The eagle's abundance was assessed

  8. Preliminary studies on the effect of organochlorine pesticides on birds in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijani, A.S.M.; Katondo, J.M.; Malulu, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary studies to investigate the effects of organochlorine pesticides on birds was conducted in Lower Moshi, NAFCO West Kilimanjaro, Arusha seed farm, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) farms, Manyara ranch and areas around Lake Victoria as well as in the TPRI laboratory in Tanzania. Large quantities of the pesticides particularly DDT, endosulfan, dieldrin, lindane and toxaphene are still being applied against pests of cotton, coffee, maize, beans and other crops as well as disease vectors in the country. Several groups of birds including waterbirds, African Fish Eagles, Marabou storks, Oxpecker, ducks, etc. were found feeding, roosting and swimming in the water and exposed to other substances that were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and were presumably at risk. Analytical results from the tissues of the African Fish Eagles collected from Lake Victoria areas showed that the kidneys were contaminated with p,p' DDE and o,p' DDE at levels of 0.4 ng g -1 and 1.45 ng g -1 respectively. These organochlorine insecticides as well as β-HCH were also present in the brain and liver tissues. The levels of the organochlorine residues were well below the lethal and sublethal levels for bird raptors reported in the literature. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  9. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  10. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  11. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... However, some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Top of Page Avian Influenza in Wild Birds Avian influenza A viruses have ... hours. Some ducks can be infected without any signs of illness. Avian influenza outbreaks are of concern in domesticated birds for ...

  12. Urban bird conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, Robbert P.H.; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kwak, Robert G.M.; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Parsons, Holly; Awasthy, Monica; Sierdsema, Henk L.K.; Marzluff, John M.; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Laet, de Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird

  13. Migratory Birds. Issue Pac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses why, how, where, and when birds migrate as well as problems birds encounter while migrating; the importance of research…

  14. The healing bird

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greek mythology it was a nondescript bird but in the medieval bestiaries it became pure white. The caladrius is used in the coats of arms of the South African Medical and Dental Council and also the Medical University of Soufhern Africa. These appear to be the first use of this medically significant bird in modern heraldry.

  15. Flight Testing of Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems on the Mighty Eagle Robotic Lander Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Mike; Rickman, Doug; Chavers, Greg; Adam, Jason; Becker, Chris; Eliser, Joshua; Gunter, Dan; Kennedy, Logan; O'Leary, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    During 2011 a series of progressively more challenging flight tests of the Mighty Eagle autonomous terrestrial lander testbed were conducted primarily to validate the GNC system for a proposed lunar lander. With the successful completion of this GNC validation objective the opportunity existed to utilize the Mighty Eagle as a flying testbed for a variety of technologies. In 2012 an Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) algorithm was implemented in flight software and demonstrated in a series of flight tests. In 2012 a hazard avoidance system was developed and flight tested on the Mighty Eagle. Additionally, GNC algorithms from Moon Express and a MEMs IMU were tested in 2012. All of the testing described herein was above and beyond the original charter for the Mighty Eagle. In addition to being an excellent testbed for a wide variety of systems the Mighty Eagle also provided a great learning opportunity for many engineers and technicians to work a flight program.

  16. Producing progeny from endangered birds of prey: treatment of urine-contaminated semen and a novel intramagnal insemination approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan Manuel; Gee, George F; Wildt, David E; Donoghue, Ann M

    2002-03-01

    Wild raptors brought into an ex situ environment often have poor semen quality that is further compromised by urine contamination. Generally, it is believed that in birds, artificial insemination into the cloaca or caudal vagina of females requires large doses of high-quality spermatozoa to maximize fertility. In an effort to define and overcome some of the challenges associated with reproduction in wild raptors, the objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate the frequency, impact, and remediation of urine contamination in fresh ejaculates for the purpose of maintaining sperm motility and viability in vitro, and 2) develop a deep insemination method that allows low numbers of washed sperm to be placed directly into the magnum to increase the probability of producing fertilized eggs. The species evaluated include golden eagle (Aquila chrysoetos), imperial eagle (A. adalberti), Bonelli's eagle (Hiernaetus fasciatus), and peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Semen samples were collected and pooled by species, and a minimum of 25 pooled ejaculates per species were evaluated for urine contamination, pH, sperm viability, and sperm motility; the samples were either unwashed or washed in neutral (pH 7.0) or alkaline (pH 8.0) modified Lake's diluent. Female golden eagles and peregrine falcons were inseminated via transjunctional, intramagnal insemination with washed spermatozoa from urine-contaminated samples. Urine contamination occurred in 36.8 +/- 12.8% (mean +/- SEM) golden eagle, 43.1 +/- 9.1% imperial eagle. 28.7 +/- 16.1% Bonelli's eagle, and 48.2 +/- 17.3% peregrine falcon ejaculates. The pH in urine-contaminated semen samples ranged from 6.48 +/- 0.3 to 6.86 +/- 0.2, and in noncontaminated samples it ranged from from 7.17 +/- 0.1 to 7.56 +/- 0.1. Sperm viability and motility were reduced (P < 0.05) in all species for unwashed vs. washed sperm after 30 min incubation at room temperature. Two peregrine falcon chicks and one golden eagle chick hatched after

  17. Adaptive Capabilities of the Eastern Imperial Eagle in Power Lines Exploration for Nesting Purposes in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinur H. Bekmansurov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents information on the eastern imperial eagle nesting on electricity pylons in the Republic of Tatarstan (area of 67836.2 km2 on the eastern part of East-European (Russian Plain, where the habitat of this species, marked in GIS (ArcView 3.2a, is 49 thousand km2. During the research in 2011–2015 5 nests were found on steel electricity pylons, which sustains 3.25% from the whole amount of nesting areas (n=154. Rather local disposition of all found cases of nests on electricity pylons in Eastern Zakamye (High Zavolzhye limited by one landscape subzone – typical and southern forest-steppe, and in only two landscape regions with adjacent borders – indicates some general conditions which caused the adaptation.  Distance between nests on power lines in the Republic of Tatarstan ranged from 21.5 to 49.9 km, averaging 29.5±13.64 km (n=5. As this territory lacks interspecific competition, the main reason of nesting on electricity pylons is probably the reduction of distance to forage resources in conditions of intraspecific competition in the densest nesting group. Adaptive capabilities of the Eastern Imperial Eagle are connected with their ability to occupy nests of other birds, high tolerance to human influence, and with the high density of the power lines and low density of long-boled forests. It’s reported that the imperial eagles’ adaptation to living in environment with dense power line network continues, which expresses in increase of the nesting on electricity pylons.

  18. Birds of sacred groves of northern Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Jyothi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sacred groves are patches of vegetation preserved due to  religious or cultural tradition.  They are protected through spiritual beliefs.  Sacred groves provide an excellent abode to the biodiversity of the region where they are located.   Scientific exploration of fauna from sacred groves of India is few and far between.  The present study was conducted to explore the bird diversity and abundance in 15 selected sacred groves of northern Kerala, eight from Kannur District and seven from Kasargod District each.  A total of 111 bird species were observed belonging to 49 families and 16 orders.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala support many of the ‘forest-birds’ such as the Grey Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii, Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena puella, Tickell’s Blue-flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae, Malabar Trogon Harpactes fasciatus, Heart-spotted Woodpecker Hemicircus canente, Malabar Whistling-Thrush Myophonus horsfieldii, Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra, etc.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also support two endemic bird species of the Western Ghats, such as the Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus and Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa. Five species of raptors and four owl species were reported from the sacred groves of north Kerala during the present study.  The breeding of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle has been reported at Edayilakadu Kavu, a sacred grove in Kasargod District.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also supported 17 species of long distant migratory birds.  Thazhe Kavu, recorded the Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, a Near-Threatened bird according to IUCN. 

  19. Ossification of the stylohyoid chain on computed tomograms - Eagle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugmayr, H.; Krennmair, G.; Lenglinger, F.

    1997-01-01

    The computed tomographic morphology of a typical Eagle syndrome is presented on the basis of a case history. In a 40-year-old female patient presenting with bilateral tinnitus, globus hystericus, and increasing hoarseness computed tomography revealed bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament. The incidence of stylalgia is very low in comparison to the occurrence of a elongated styloid process or an ossified stylohyoid ligament. However, in cases of unexplained complaints in the head and neck region it should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it has therapeutic consequences. (orig.) [de

  20. Free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Meng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an online HPLC-DAD-MS coupled with 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS assay was employed for evaluating free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their active components. Twenty-three chromatographic peaks were detected, and nineteen components had free radical scavenging activity. Among them, eight compounds were identified as flavonoids (hyperin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin based on MS data and standard chromatographic characters.

  1. Early-type objects in NGC6611 and Eagle Nebula

    OpenAIRE

    Martayan, Christophe; Floquet, Michele; Hubert, Anne-Marie; Neiner, Coralie; Fremat, Yves; Baade, Dietrich; Fabregat, Juan

    2008-01-01

    An important question about Be stars is whether Be stars are born as Be stars or not. It is necessary to observe young clusters to answer this question. Observations of stars in NGC6611 and the star-formation region of Eagle Nebula have been carried out with the ESO-WFI in slitless spectroscopic mode and at the VLT-GIRAFFE. The targets for the GIRAFFE observations were pre-selected from the literature and our catalogue of emission-line stars (ELS) based on the WFI study. GIRAFFE observations ...

  2. Two upward lightning at the Eagle Nest tower

    OpenAIRE

    Montañá Puig, Juan; Van der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Romero Durán, David; March Nomen, Víctor; Solà de Las Fuentes, Gloria; Pineda Ruegg, Nicolau; Soula, Serge; Hermoso Alameda, Blas

    2012-01-01

    A new instrument composed by a high speed camera, two high energy detectors, a E-field antenna and a VHF antenna were installed at the Eagle Nest tower (northeast of Spain) during summer 2011. With this equipment several lightning flashes to the tower and its vicinity have been observed. This paper presents two examples: the first was an upward negative leader triggered by a close c1oud-to-ground flash and the second was an upward negative flash not associated with previous lightning activity...

  3. A case of unilateral atypical orofacial pain with Eagle's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome is not an uncommon condition, but less known to physicians, where an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament compresses the adjacent anatomical structures leading to orofacial pain. Diagnosis is made with appropriate radiological examination. Nonsurgical treatment options include reassurance, analgesia, and anti.inflammatory medications; and the surgical option includes a transoral or external approach. Here, we present a case report of a male patient, of age38 years, with a chief complaint of unilateral atypical orofacial pain on the right side of his face radiating to the neck region, for the last two months.

  4. A Rare Cause for Cervical Pain: Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Politi

    2009-01-01

    The stylohyoid complex derives from Reichert's cartilage of the second branchial arch. The styloyd process is an elongated conical projection of the temporal bone that lies anteriorly to the mastoid process. The incidence of Eagle's syndrome varies among population. Usually asymptomatic, it occurs in adult patients. It is characterized by pharyngodynia localized in the tonsillar fossa and sometimes accompanied by disphagia, odynophagia, foreign body sensation, and temporary voice changes. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus compresses the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibers, resulting in a persistent pain irradiating in the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is still under discussion.

  5. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  6. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  7. Serologic evidence of exposure of raptors to influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redig, Patrick T; Goyal, Sagar M

    2012-06-01

    Serum or plasma samples from raptors that prey or scavenge upon aquatic birds were tested by a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the evidence of antibodies to influenza A virus. Samples were taken from birds (n = 616) admitted to two rehabilitation centers in the United States. In addition, samples from 472 migrating peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) trapped on autumnal and vernal migrations for banding purposes were also tested. Only bald eagles were notably seropositive (22/406). One each of peregrine falcon, great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperi) from a total of 472, 81, and 100, respectively, were also positive. None of the turkey vultures (n = 21) or black vultures (n = 8) was positive. No clinical signs referable to avian influenza were seen in any bird at the time of capture. These data indicate that, among raptors, bald eagles do have exposure to influenza A viruses.

  8. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from three areas in western North America; initial results and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fuller, Mark R.; Whittington, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  9. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis from Three Areas in Western North America; Initial Results and Conservation Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica H Craig

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026. Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97% was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  10. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from Three Areas in Western North America; Initial Results and Conservation Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R; Waits, Lisette P; Fuller, Mark R; Whittington, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  11. Mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory . The analysis of the ...

  12. mathematical model for bird flu disease transmission with no bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this paper a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of bird flu among birds and humans is presented. The model assumes that there is no migration of birds in the susceptible bird population immediately the disease starts. The model formulated is analyzed using dynamical systems theory. The analysis of the ...

  13. Assessing the impact on birds of prey of nine established wind farms in Thrace, NE Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kret, Elzbieta; Carcamo, Beatriz; Zografou, Christina; Vasilakis, Dimitris

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this study, we evaluate the impact on birds of prey of nine already established wind farms in Thrace, where a large scale wind farm development project of at least 930 MW is under development. Moreover, the area is acknowledged as of high ornithological interest, used for nesting, wintering and passage by rare territorial birds of prey, including the Near Threatened black vultures that use it for foraging. Finally, ca 50% of the wind farm development project area is covered by Natura 2000 sites. During the monitoring (2008-2010), carcass surveys were carried out in order to estimate mortality. In addition, avian space use surveys were carried out, in order to calculate indexes and to establish comparisons with a previous monitoring study run in 2004-05. In total, 14 birds of prey were found dead (one black vulture, four griffon vultures, one booted eagle, two short-toed eagles, one western marsh harrier, one Eurasian sparrow hawk, three common buzzards, one hawk species). The estimated mortality rate was 0.152 birds of prey (including vultures/turbine/year). Griffon vultures, black vultures and common buzzards comprised more than 50% of observations in the study area. Crossing densities between wind turbines were positively correlated with east exposition and the inclination of the slope, and the length of the wind turbines. gaps, while it was negatively correlated with north exposition. The use of the area was more intensive four years after the initial monitoring, but numbers of common buzzard observations drastically decreased. We suggest that during the planning phase of wind farms it is important to avoid steep slopes, east expositions and to take into account the distance between consecutive wind turbines. Our findings indicate that running a post-construction monitoring during only one year may not be enough to properly assess the impact of wind farms on birds of prey. (Author)

  14. Bird brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Martin

    2013-10-21

    For many animals, the effort to rear their young is considerable. In birds, this often includes building nests, incubating eggs, feeding the chicks, and protecting them from predators. Perhaps for this reason, about 1% of birds (around 100 species) save themselves the effort and cheat instead. They are obligate brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species and leaving the hosts or foster parents to rear the foreign chicks for them. Some birds also cheat on individuals of the same species (intraspecific brood parasitism). Intraspecific brood parasitism has been reported in around 200 species, but is likely to be higher, as it can often only be detected by genetic analyses.

  15. Hatching synchrony in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Tippeltová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about hatching synchrony in birds. Generally, among birds there are two types of hatching - asynchronous and synchronous- and the type of hatching is primarily determined by the time of the onset of incubation. In many bird species, including most precocial ones, incubation does not begin until the last egg has been laid, which results in hatching of all the eggs within a few hours. In synchronously-hatched broods, all the chicks are about the same age. Thus no single ...

  16. The normal electrocardiogram of conscious golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Moghaddam, Abdol Karim Zamani; Bashi, Mehdi Cheraghchi

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal electrocardiographic patterns and values in conscious golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). The standard bipolar and augmented unipolar limb leads' electrocardiograms were recorded in the golden eagles. The waveforms were analyzed in all leads at 50 mm/sec and at 10 mm = 1 mV to determine P, PR (segment and interval), QRS, ST, and QT durations and P, net QRS complex, and T amplitudes. The polarity of each waveform was tabulated in all leads. The mean electrical axis for the frontal plane was calculated using standard bipolar leads II and III. The mean heart rate was 346.7 +/- 14.29 beats/min. The P wave was predominantly positive in standard bipolar leads I and II and augmented unipolar limb leads aVL and aVF. The dominant pattern ofwaveforms of the QRS complexes were QS in leads I, II, III, and aVF, whereas in leads aVR and aVL, the pattern was always R. The T wave was slightly positive in leads I, II, and aVF. The average value of the heart mean electrical axis was -85.9 +/- 7.50 degrees. Establishment of normal electrocardiogram values will facilitate a better understanding of electrocardiographic changes seen in many avian diseases.

  17. Eagle i-Bot: An Eye-controlled System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onindita Afrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people in the world are hand impaired in some way, and for many, there is no absolute solution. Operation of computers by physically disabled people; especially with hand impairment was quite impossible till now because use of hands plays a vital role in the use of mouse, touch pad and keyboard. We proposed a new system named as “Eagle i-Bot - An eye-controlled system” which has come with a feasible solution for this scenario. With this system, computers and robots can be controlled by the pair of eyes’ movement or iris movement and voice commands control all the mouse events. This system works with image processing system based on Voila-Jones algorithm and modified Ada-boost algorithms along with java robot class and sphinx-4 frameworks. In this paper, this system is described including software and hardware aspects, algorithms that are used and scopes where Eagle i-Bot can be used.

  18. Age-related changes of plasma alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus, and late ossification of the cranial roof in the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti C. L. Brehm, 1861).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobado-Berrios, P M; Ferrer, M

    1997-01-01

    Plasma alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus levels were determined for 52 nestling Spanish imperial eagles from two wild populations and 22 captive adults and subadults (10 adults and 12 subadults). The exact age was known for all birds. Mean alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus were higher in chicks than in the captive adults and subadults. Sex differences were not observed, and nestlings from different populations showed similar values. No significant regression described the relationship between age and alkaline phosphatase or inorganic phosphorus throughout the nestling period. However, alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus decreased significantly throughout the subadult period, with age explaining 98.2% and 50.5% of the variation in alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus levels, respectively. Non-fully-ossified zones were measured in frontal bones of another 12 subadult eagles that died at known ages. Ossification increased throughout the subadult period and was significantly correlated with expected levels of alkaline phosphatase or inorganic phosphorus (i.e., values predicted from the regression equations derived from the first analysis). Minimum alkaline phosphatase levels and full ossification of the cranial roof coincided with puberty onset. We conclude that, in subadult Spanish imperial eagles, decreasing alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus values are related to the ossification of frontal bones, although a contribution of other unknown processes of late ossification cannot be excluded, and alkaline phosphatase (but not inorganic phosphorus) may be a useful parameter for age-predicting purposes.

  19. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jason D; Fedy, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  20. Nuisance Birds Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.

  1. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  2. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  3. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in People Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A ... Subtypes Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People Related Links Research Glossary of Influenza (Flu) Terms ...

  4. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  5. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  6. Birds in portuguese literature

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Soares, Filipa

    2016-01-01

    UID/ELT/00657/2013 WOS:000374914600004 IF/00222/2013 Birds are emblematic natural elements of landscapes. Readily noticeable and appreciated due to their songs and flight, they have been thoroughly used as components of literary scenarios. This paper analyses their representations in a broad corpus (144 writings by 67 writers) since the nineteenth century, divided in three time-periods. It aims to understand which wild birds are represented in Portuguese literature, how those represe...

  7. Does the order of invasive species removal matter? The case of the eagle and the pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Collins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species are recognized as a primary driver of native species endangerment and their removal is often a key component of a conservation strategy. Removing invasive species is not always a straightforward task, however, especially when they interact with other species in complex ways to negatively influence native species. Because unintended consequences may arise if all invasive species cannot be removed simultaneously, the order of their removal is of paramount importance to ecological restoration. In the mid-1990s, three subspecies of the island fox Urocyon littoralis were driven to near extinction on the northern California Channel Islands owing to heightened predation by golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos. Eagles were lured to the islands by an abundant supply of feral pigs Sus scrofa and through the process of apparent competition pigs indirectly facilitated the decline in foxes. As a consequence, both pigs and eagles had to be removed to recover the critically endangered fox. Complete removal of pigs was problematic: removing pigs first could force eagles to concentrate on the remaining foxes, increasing their probability of extinction. Removing eagles first was difficult: eagles are not easily captured and lethal removal was politically distasteful.Using prey remains collected from eagle nests both before and after the eradication of pigs, we show that one pair of eagles that eluded capture did indeed focus more on foxes. These results support the premise that if the threat of eagle predation had not been mitigated prior to pig removal, fox extinction would have been a more likely outcome.If complete eradication of all interacting invasive species is not possible, the order in which they are removed requires careful consideration. If overlooked, unexpected consequences may result that could impede restoration.

  8. Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, David; Kolar, Patrick; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    This report describes options for monitoring the status and population trends of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) within the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) area of Southern California in maintaining stable or increasing population in the planning area. The report profiles the ecology of golden eagles in the region and provides a range of potential sampling options to address monitoring needs and objectives. This approach also focused on links between changes in human land-use, golden eagle nesting and foraging habitat conditions, and population dynamics. The report outlines how monitoring data from demographic, prey, and habitat studies were used to develop a predictive demographic model for golden eagles in the DRECP area. Results from the model simulations suggest increases in renewable energy development could have negative consequences for population trajectories. Results also suggest site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative impacts to the local population of eagles. A monitoring framework is proposed including: (1) annual assessments of site-occupancy and reproduction by territorial pairs of golden eagles (including rates at which sites become colonized or vacated over time); (2) estimates of survival, movements, and intensity of use of landscapes by breeding and non-breeding golden eagles; (3) periodic (conducted every two to four years) assessments of nesting and foraging habitats, prey populations, and associations with land-use and management activities; and (4) updating the predictive demographic model with new information obtained on eagles and associated population stressors. The results of this research were published in the Journal of Rapture Research, Wiens, David,Inman, Rich D., Esque, Todd C., Longshore, Kathleen M. and Nussear, Kenneth (2017). Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes. 51(3):234-257.

  9. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New Evidence of an Ancient Bald Cypress Forest on the Inner Shelf of Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Harley, G. L.; Reese, C. A.; Obelcz, J.; Guilderson, T. P.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Climate models suggest cold-adapted trees grew in the southeastern United States (SE US) during glacial intervals yet there is a scarcity of paleoclimate records for marine isotope stages 3 to 5 in this region, limiting our understanding of early glacial oceanic-climatic conditions. Here we describe an offshore site with well-preserved in situ bald cypress stumps (Taxodium distichum) and woody remnants exposed in an eroding swale located 13.5 km from Orange Beach, Alabama in 18 m of seawater. T. distichum grows in warm and humid climates with low elevations (>0-50 m) preferring freshwater riparian environments with frequent flooding. Wood samples from exposed stumps and sediments have good preservation with cellular structure intact and smell like freshly cut cypress indicating preservation in anoxic conditions that suppressed biodegradation. Radiocarbon dating of eight wood subsamples, including an in situ stump, was inconclusive due to detection limits indicating the wood is older than 50,000 years. We conducted high-resolution geophysical surveys and coring operations in August 2015 recovering a total of 17.075 m of sediment cores. The base of these cores contain wood-bearing muddy peat sediments of the Pleistocene terrestrial wetlands. The geophysical surveys reveal the stumps are located around the eroding swale with possible river landforms visible in the side-scan sonar suggesting a paleochannel surrounded by bald cypress trees similar to modern swamps and bayous. Preliminary pollen analysis reveals an abundance of bald cypress (T. distichum), tupelo (Nyssa aquatic), and pine (Pinus spp.) similar to modern SE US wetlands. Ongoing sediment core analysis includes microfossil, palynology, and sedimentology analysis. Our preliminary results from this submerged glacial landscape suggest that coastal T. distichum wetlands were present in the early glacial interval along the northern Gulf Coast.

  11. Ossification of the stylohyoid chain on computed tomograms - Eagle syndrome; Die Ossifikation der stylohyoidalen Kette im Computertomogramm - Eagle-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugmayr, H.; Krennmair, G. [Krankenhaus St. Franziskus, Grieskirchen (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Lenglinger, F. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wels (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    1997-11-01

    The computed tomographic morphology of a typical Eagle syndrome is presented on the basis of a case history. In a 40-year-old female patient presenting with bilateral tinnitus, globus hystericus, and increasing hoarseness computed tomography revealed bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament. The incidence of stylalgia is very low in comparison to the occurrence of a elongated styloid process or an ossified stylohyoid ligament. However, in cases of unexplained complaints in the head and neck region it should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it has therapeutic consequences. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Kasuistik wird die computertomographische Morphologie eines typischen Eagle-Syndroms vorgestellt: Bei einem 40jaehrigen Patienten, der an beidseitigem Tinnitus, Globusgefuehl und zunehmender Heiserkeit litt, wurde computertomographisch eine beidseitige Ossifikation des Ligamentum stylohoideum nachgewiesen. Die Inzidenz einer Stylalgie ist verglichen mit der Praevalenz eines elongierten Processus styloideus oder einem verknoecherten Ligamentum stylochyoideum sehr selten. Sie sollte jedoch bei ungeklaerten Beschwerden im Kopf-Halsbereich differentialdiagnostisch in Erwaegung gezogen werden, da sie therapeutische Konsequenzen nach sich zieht. (orig.)

  12. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Chickasaw)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (American Indian translation in Chickasaw).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  13. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Paiute)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Paiute).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  14. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Shoshone)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Shoshone).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  15. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banhos, Aureo; Hrbek, Tomas; Sanaiotti, Tânia M; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest.

  16. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Banhos

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest.

  17. Meta-analysis identifies novel risk loci and yields systematic insights into the biology of male-pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Herold, Christine; Hochfeld, Lara M; Hillmer, Axel M; Nyholt, Dale R; Hecker, Julian; Javed, Asif; Chew, Elaine G Y; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Drichel, Dmitriy; Heng, Xiu Ting; Del Rosario, Ricardo C-H; Fier, Heide L; Paus, Ralf; Rueedi, Rico; Galesloot, Tessel E; Moebus, Susanne; Anhalt, Thomas; Prabhakar, Shyam; Li, Rui; Kanoni, Stavroula; Papanikolaou, George; Kutalik, Zoltán; Deloukas, Panos; Philpott, Michael P; Waeber, Gérard; Spector, Tim D; Vollenweider, Peter; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Dedoussis, George; Richards, J Brent; Nothnagel, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Becker, Tim; Hinds, David A; Nöthen, Markus M

    2017-03-08

    Male-pattern baldness (MPB) is a common and highly heritable trait characterized by androgen-dependent, progressive hair loss from the scalp. Here, we carry out the largest GWAS meta-analysis of MPB to date, comprising 10,846 early-onset cases and 11,672 controls from eight independent cohorts. We identify 63 MPB-associated loci (Pbiological basis with numerous other human phenotypes and may deserve evaluation as an early prognostic marker, for example, for prostate cancer, sudden cardiac arrest and neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Análisis económico de los bienes baldíos en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Regalado, Guillermo Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    En este estudio se pretende exponer la situación actual de los derechos de propiedad de los bienes inmuebles rurales, principalmente bienes baldíos. Se parte de la base de los regímenes que han existido, sus principales características, su estado actual, la productividad económica de los mismos en determinadas regiones de Colombia, su seguridad jurídica y se planteará una propuesta de mejoramiento que podría obtener mejores resultados, tanto sociales como económicos, soportado en la experi...

  19. On Yedinci Yüzyıldan Bir Kırkambar: Baldırzâde Ailesine Ait Bir Mecmua A Kırkambar from the Seventieth Century: A Mecmua of the Baldırzâde Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma BÜYÜKKARCI YILMAZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Baldırzâde Selisî Şeyh Mehmed Efendi’s grandfather Ali who was borninto a family from Tokat moved to Bursa in his youth. His son MevlânâMustafa received education in different centers of knowledge. Aftersuccessfully completing his studies he returned to Bursa to work as a hatipand imam. Mevlânâ Mustafa’s son, Baldırzâde Selisî Şeyh Mehmed Efendi,was engaged in a variety of professional positions such as müderris and qadıin Bursa and in Istanbul. He died in Bursa in 1060/1650, leaving behindmany original works. His son Derviş Mehmed Efendi also worked as amüderris in Bursa, was employed as qadı in Konya, Trablusşam and Kayseri,but had to retire since he had a stroke, and died in Bursa in 1079/1668. Ashis tereke records indicate, Derviş Mehmed Efendi possessed a great numberof books. Some of his books were sold in Ulucami after his death. The presentstudy will focus on a mecmua among those manuscripts belonging to theBaldırzâdes. This mecmua, like the others, is supposed to have been sold andwere no longer in the possession of the family.Mecmuas can be considered as personal collections of miscellaneousrecords and documents. This mecmua which belonged to the Baldırzâdescontains not only documents such as fetvas and vaqf copies, kept forpersonal and professional use, but also poems, prayers, texts and quotes onreligious and mystical subjects, as well as some treatises/works. It is possibleto gain valuable insights into the Ottoman cultural atmosphere by studyingthe content of the mecmua, mainly because it enables the scholar to drawconclusions about the reading practices of its collector. Therefore, themecmua emerges as a significant source for cultural and historical research.A very important characteristic of mecmuas is that they might include textsthat were either unknown or known but unavailable. This particular mecmuacontains the Nâme-i Tâcîzâde Cafer Çelebi, which had not been encounteredbefore.This article

  20. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    This new 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vail West 7.5' quadrangle, as part of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area on the southwest flank of the Gore Range. Bedrock strata include Miocene tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and undivided Early(?) Proterozoic metasedimentary and igneous rocks. Tuffaceous rocks are found in fault-tilted blocks. Only small outliers of the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Chinle Formation exist above the redbeds of the Permian-Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation and Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, which were derived during erosion of the Ancestral Front Range east of the Gore fault zone. In the southwestern area of the map, the proximal Minturn facies change to distal Eagle Valley Formation and the Eagle Valley Evaporite basin facies. The Jacque Mountain Limestone Member, previously defined as the top of the Minturn Formation, cannot be traced to the facies change to the southwest. Abundant surficial deposits include Pinedale and Bull Lake Tills, periglacial deposits, earth-flow deposits, common diamicton deposits, common Quaternary landslide deposits, and an extensive, possibly late Pliocene landslide deposit. Landscaping has so extensively modified the land surface in the town of Vail that a modified land-surface unit was created to represent the surface unit. Laramide movement renewed activity along the Gore fault zone, producing a series of northwest-trending open anticlines and synclines in Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, parallel to the trend of the fault zone. Tertiary down-to-the-northeast normal faults are evident and are parallel to similar faults in both the Gore Range and the Blue River valley to the northeast; presumably these are related to extensional deformation that occurred during formation of the northern end of the

  1. Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, K.; Berntsen, F.; Clausen, S.; Dahl, E.L.; Flagstad, Oe.; Follestad, A.; Halley, D.; Hanssen, F.; Hoel, P.L.; Johnsen, L.; Kvaloey, P.; May, R.; Nygaard, T.; Pedersen, H.C.; Reitan, O.; Steinheim, Y.; Vang, R.

    2009-12-15

    The project is named Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind). BirdWind is approaching its finalization; with 2010 as the last ordinary year where data-collecting activities takes place. In 2009 the project was significantly strengthened through a new PhD-position. The overall aim of the work conducted by the PhD-student is to model the future white-tailed eagle (WTE) population development based on reproduction and mortality data. Weekly searches with dogs for birds killed within the wind-power plant have been carried out throughout the year; in general searches are conducted every 7 days. 25 'primary turbines' are selected and searched together with one of two dogs. A full search of all turbines is performed at larger intervals. In 2009 31 specimens of at least 8 species have been re-corded. The most frequent victims are willow ptarmigan and WTE with 10 and 7 carcasses, respectively. Of waders 3 common snipes have been recorded. Five carcasses were recorded of hooded crow, and single carcasses of parrot crossbill, northern wheat ear, teal and mallard. Some records from earlier years have been revised as collision victims or not. Also in 2009 censuses for willow ptarmigan have been carried out in spring and autumn on Smoela and Hitra. The preliminary results do not indicate any obvious differences between the two areas, but autumn density in the wind-power plant area seems to be more stable compared to the control area. Interestingly the higher density within the wind-power plant area in autumn is evened out in spring each year, so also in spring 2009. To obtain data on habitat selection, movements, collision risks, survival of eggs, chicks and adults and general population dynamic parameters, willow ptarmigan specimen have been radio-tagged in 2008-2009. The activities regarding breeding waders and small birds (mainly passerines) have this year focused on the EIA-activities on Hitra in

  2. The role of the North American Breeding Bird Survey in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Marie-Anne R.; Francis, Charles M.; Campbell, Kate J.; Downes, Constance M.; Smith, Adam C.; Pardieck, Keith L.

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) was established in 1966 in response to a lack of quantitative data on changes in the populations of many bird species at a continental scale, especially songbirds. The BBS now provides the most reliable regional and continental trends and annual indices of abundance available for >500 bird species. This paper reviews some of the ways in which BBS data have contributed to bird conservation in North America over the past 50 yr, and highlights future program enhancement opportunities. BBS data have contributed to the listing of species under the Canadian Species at Risk Act and, in a few cases, have informed species assessments under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. By raising awareness of population changes, the BBS has helped to motivate bird conservation efforts through the creation of Partners in Flight. BBS data have been used to determine priority species and locations for conservation action at regional and national scales through Bird Conservation Region strategies and Joint Ventures. Data from the BBS have provided the quantitative foundation for North American State of the Birds reports, and have informed the public with regard to environmental health through multiple indicators, such as the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Report on the Environment. BBS data have been analyzed with other data (e.g., environmental, land cover, and demographic) to evaluate potential drivers of population change, which have then informed conservation actions. In a few cases, BBS data have contributed to the evaluation of management actions, including informing the management of Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa), and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Improving geographic coverage in northern Canada and in Mexico, improving the analytical approaches required to integrate data from other sources and to address variation in detectability, and

  3. An updated checklist of birds of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sultana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveys were carried out at 10 sites in the buffer and core zones of Sariska Tiger Reserve during 2007-2011. MacKinnon species listing method was used to compile a checklist of birds. A total of 224 bird species was recorded including 36 new records. Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus, Marshall Iora Aegithina nigrolutea, Eurasian Eagle Owl Bubo bubo, Brown-headed Barbet Megalaima zeylanica, Indian Nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus, Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus, Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis, Red-necked Falcon Falco chicquera, Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus, Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus, White-capped Water Redstart Chaimarrornis leucocephalus were some new records. Some important observations are given in detail.

  4. Selected radionuclides and heavy metals in skeletons of birds of prey from eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosa, A.; Chibowski, S.; Solecki, J.; Orzel, J.; Kitowski, I.; Rozanski, P.

    2009-01-01

    Results of determination of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 40 K, 239+240 Pu, and heavy metals: Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co, and Cu in skeletons of 15 species of birds of prey from Eastern Poland were presented. The greatest amounts of 137 Cs and 90 Sr (70 Bq/kg and 33 Bq/kg, respectively) were found in rough-legged buzzards (Buteo lagopus), winter visitors, coming from former soviet nuclear test places. Concentrations of 239+240 Pu in raptors were negligible, only lesser-spotted eagles (Aquila pomarina) revealed slightly higher values. Median concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in raptors which feed predominantly on small mammals were higher in comparison to concentrations found in other ones preferring different trophy. The most noticeable was a very high lead concentration (reaching above 600 mg/kg) in birds which utilize un-retrieved hunting casualties as their prey. (author)

  5. CERN's eagle-eyed movement hunters in action

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Vibrations, movements, strains - nothing escapes the eagle eyes of CERN's Mechanical Measurements Laboratory, which helps groups needing mechanical testing and delicate transport operations. Graphical representation of the natural mode shape of one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, determined through experimentation.After installation of sensors on one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, CERN's Mechanical Measurements team performs remote checks to ensure the sensors are working properly before transport. They are on the look-out for anything that moves, shakes or changes shape. The slightest movement, however minute, will attract their attention. The Mechanical Measurements team, which is part of the Installation Coordination Group (TS-IC), specialises in all kinds of vibration studies, for design projects as well as for the transport of fragile objects. The Mechanical Measurements Laboratory was created in 1973 and, after a lull at the end of the century, was given a new lease of life ...

  6. Automating data citation: the eagle-i experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawini, Abdussalam; Chen, Leshang; Davidson, Susan B; Da Silva, Natan Portilho; Silvello, Gianmaria

    2017-06-01

    Data citation is of growing concern for owners of curated databases, who wish to give credit to the contributors and curators responsible for portions of the dataset and enable the data retrieved by a query to be later examined. While several databases specify how data should be cited, they leave it to users to manually construct the citations and do not generate them automatically. We report our experiences in automating data citation for an RDF dataset called eagle-i, and discuss how to generalize this to a citation framework that can work across a variety of different types of databases (e.g. relational, XML, and RDF). We also describe how a database administrator would use this framework to automate citation for a particular dataset.

  7. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  8. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the evolutionary history of New Zealand's extinct giant eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, Michael; Szulkin, Marta; Lerner, Heather R L; Barnes, Ian; Shapiro, Beth; Cooper, Alan; Holdaway, Richard N

    2005-01-01

    Prior to human settlement 700 years ago New Zealand had no terrestrial mammals--apart from three species of bats--instead, approximately 250 avian species dominated the ecosystem. At the top of the food chain was the extinct Haast's eagle, Harpagornis moorei. H. moorei (10-15 kg; 2-3 m wingspan) was 30%-40% heavier than the largest extant eagle (the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja), and hunted moa up to 15 times its weight. In a dramatic example of morphological plasticity and rapid size increase, we show that the H. moorei was very closely related to one of the world's smallest extant eagles, which is one-tenth its mass. This spectacular evolutionary change illustrates the potential speed of size alteration within lineages of vertebrates, especially in island ecosystems.

  10. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the evolutionary history of New Zealand's extinct giant eagle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bunce

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to human settlement 700 years ago New Zealand had no terrestrial mammals--apart from three species of bats--instead, approximately 250 avian species dominated the ecosystem. At the top of the food chain was the extinct Haast's eagle, Harpagornis moorei. H. moorei (10-15 kg; 2-3 m wingspan was 30%-40% heavier than the largest extant eagle (the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja, and hunted moa up to 15 times its weight. In a dramatic example of morphological plasticity and rapid size increase, we show that the H. moorei was very closely related to one of the world's smallest extant eagles, which is one-tenth its mass. This spectacular evolutionary change illustrates the potential speed of size alteration within lineages of vertebrates, especially in island ecosystems.

  11. Predatory threat of harpy eagles for yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys in the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suscke, Priscila; Verderane, Michele; de Oliveira, Robson Santos; Delval, Irene; Fernández-Bolaños, Marcelo; Izar, Patrícia

    2017-01-01

    We describe seven encounters between different harpy eagle individuals (Harpia harpyja) and a group of yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus xanthosternos) in Una Biological Reserve. These interactions lasted 58 min on average. In each of those encounters, the capuchin monkeys used particular behavioral strategies against the harpy eagle that were not employed in reaction to other aerial predators. We did not observe any successful predation events, but after one of those encounters an infant disappeared from the capuchin group. As a whole, these observations indicate that the presence of harpy eagles in the group's home range increases predation risk for capuchin monkeys. The present report also suggests a reoccupation by H. harpyja of this area, as no previous recent records identify harpy eagle occurrence in Una Biological Reserve.

  12. Remediating and Monitoring White Phosphorus Contamination at Eagle River Flats (Operable Unit C), Fort Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, M. E; Racine, C. H; Collins, C. M; Walsh, M. R; Bailey, R. N

    2001-01-01

    .... Army Engineer District, Alaska, and U.S. Army Alaska, Public Works, describing the results of research, monitoring, and remediation efforts addressing the white phosphorus contamination in Eagle River Flats, an 865-ha estuarine salt marsh...

  13. The U.S. Army's Initial Impressions of Operations Enduring Freedom and Noble Eagle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crane, Conrad

    2002-01-01

    .... The participants initial impressions focused on Operation Enduring Freedom and Noble Eagle. They highlighted rapid and successful responses at home and in distant theaters from Afghanistan to the Philippines...

  14. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Governmental Entities Regarding Environmental Portion of Enrichment Facility Licensing Proceeding February 24... and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of... environmental impact statement (FEIS) analyzing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related...

  15. Baryon effects on void statistics in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillas, Enrique; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Padilla, Nelson; Tissera, Patricia; Helly, John; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-10-01

    Cosmic voids are promising tools for cosmological tests due to their sensitivity to dark energy, modified gravity and alternative cosmological scenarios. Most previous studies in the literature of void properties use cosmological N-body simulations of dark matter (DM) particles that ignore the potential effect of baryonic physics. Using a spherical underdensity finder, we analyse voids using the mass field and subhalo tracers in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations, which follow the evolution of galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter universe with state-of-the-art subgrid models for baryonic processes in a (100 cMpc)3 volume. We study the effect of baryons on void statistics by comparing results with DM-only simulations that use the same initial conditions as EAGLE. When identifying voids in the mass field, we find that a DM-only simulation produces 24 per cent more voids than a hydrodynamical one due to the action of galaxy feedback polluting void regions with hot gas, specially for small voids with rvoid ≤ 10 Mpc. We find that the way in which galaxy tracers are selected has a strong impact on the inferred void properties. Voids identified using galaxies selected by their stellar mass are larger and have cuspier density profiles than those identified by galaxies selected by their total mass. Overall, baryons have minimal effects on void statistics, as void properties are well captured by DM-only simulations, but it is important to account for how galaxies populate DM haloes to estimate the observational effect of different cosmological models on the statistics of voids.

  16. Lead and arsenic in bones of birds of prey from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, R.; Taggart, M.; Meharg, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Raptors feeding on species targeted by hunters in upland habitats suffer from lead poisoning. - The bones (humerus and/or femur) of 229 birds of prey from 11 species were analyzed for Pb and As to evaluate their exposure to Pb shot. The species with the highest mean Pb levels were red kite (Milvus milvus) and Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus), and the species with the lowest levels were Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo) and booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus). Red kite also had the highest mean As level, an element present in small amounts in Pb shot. Elevated bone Pb concentrations (>10 μg/g dry weight) were found in 10 birds from six species. Clinical signs compatible with lethal Pb poisoning and/or excessive bone Pb concentrations (>20 μg/g) were observed in one Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo), one red kite, and one Eurasian griffon. Pb poisoning has been diagnosed in eight upland raptor species in Spain to date

  17. Guardian or threat: does golden eagle predation risk have cascading effects on forest grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies on intraguild predation have mainly focused on within-class assemblages, even though avian top predators may also influence mammalian mesopredator prey. By using nation-wide long-term data from Finland, northern Europe, we examined the impacts of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) together with red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pine martens (Martes martes) on forest-dwelling herbivores, black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia). We hypothesized that eagles may alleviate the overall predation pressure on grouse by imposing intraguild predation risk on mesopredators. The predation impact of eagle was modelled using eagle density estimates and distance to eagle nest. Wildlife triangle counts were used as predation impact proxies of mammalian mesopredators and as measures of response in grouse. Our results show that eagle density correlated negatively with black grouse abundance indices while being positively associated with the proportion of juveniles in both grouse species, irrespective of the abundance of mesopredators. Yet, foxes and martens alone had a negative effect on the abundance indices and the proportion of young in the two grouse species. This suggests that the possible cascading effects of eagles are not mediated by decreased mesopredator numbers, but instead by fear effects. Alternatively, they may be mediated by other species than fox or marten studied here. In conclusion, we found support for the hypothesis that eagles provide protection for juvenile black and hazel grouse, whereas they are a threat for adult grouse. This important information helps us to better understand the role of avian top predators in terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Diet of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug and Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca from Central Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedko Nedyalkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study on the diet of Saker falcon (n = 15 nests and Eastern imperial eagle (n = 2 nests from south Kazakhstan, on the basis of food remains and pellets collected during the 2009 breeding season. The main prey for Saker falcon was predominantly rodents living in middle-size colonies – Spermophilus erytrogenys and Rhombomys opimus. We also present the results from the diet of two pairs of Eastern imperial eagles nesting close to Balkhash Lake.

  19. Population genetics after fragmentation: the case of the endangered Spanish imperial eagle ( Aquila adalberti)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Godoy, José A.; Negro, Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    The highly endangered Spanish imperial eagle, Aquila adalberti , has suffered from both population decline and fragmentation during the last century. Here we describe the current genetic status of the population using an extensive sampling of its current distribution range and both mitochondrial control region sequences and nuclear microsatellite markers. Results were evaluated in comparison to those obtained for the Eastern imperial eagle, Aquila heliaca , its nearest...

  20. Quest for safer skies: Modeling golden eagles and wind energy to reduce turbine risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd Katzner; Tricia Miller; Scott. Stoleson

    2014-01-01

    In a patch of sky above Pennsylvania, a golden eagle moves languidly, never flapping but passing quickly as it cruises southward on a cushion of air. It is migrating to its wintering grounds after a season of breeding in Quebec. As part of a team studying eagles on a daily basis—a project supported by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), West Virginia University,...

  1. Application of CHD1 Gene and EE0.6 Sequences to Identify Sexes of Several Protected Bird Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-C. Lin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many bird species, for example: Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela hoya, Collared Scops (Owl Otus bakkamoena, Tawny Fish Owl (Ketupa flavipes, Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus, and Grass Owl (Tyto longimembris... etc, are monomorphic, which is difficult to identify their sex simply by their outward appearance. Especially for those monomorphic endangered species, finding an effective tool to identify their sex beside outward appearance is needed for further captive breeding programs or other conservation plans. In this study, we collected samples of Black Swan (Cygmus atratus and Nicobar Pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica, two aviaries introduced monomorphic species served as control group, and Crested Serpent Eagle, Collared Scops Owl, Tawny Fish Owl, Crested Goshawk, and Grass Owl, five protected monomorphic species in Taiwan. We used sex-specific primers of avian CHD1 (chromo-helicase-DNA-binding gene and EE0.6 (EcoRI 0.6-kb fragment sequences to identify the sex of these birds. The results showed that CHD1 gene primers could be used to correctly identify the sex of Black Swans, Nicobar Pigeons and Crested Serpent Eagles, but it could not be used to correctly identify sex in Collared Scops Owls, Tawny Fish Owls, and Crested Goshawks. In the sex identification using EE0.6 sequence fragment, A, C, D and E primer sets could be used for sexing Black Swans; A, B, C, and D primer sets could be used for sexing Crested Serpent Eagles; and E primer set could be used for sexing Nicobar Pigeons and the two owl species. Correct determination of sex is the first step if a captive breeding measure is required. We have demonstrated that several of the existing primer sets can be used for sex determination of several captive breeding and indigenous bird species.

  2. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... appeal. However, some studies have found birds to perform relatively poorly as indicators. We therefore ask how the effectiveness of this approach can be improved by supplementing data on birds with information on other taxa. 2. Here, we explore two strategies using (i) species data for other taxa...... and (ii) genus- and family-level data for invertebrates (when available). We used three distinct species data sets for sub-Saharan Africa, Denmark and Uganda, which cover different spatial scales, biogeographic regions and taxa (vertebrates, invertebrates and plants). 3. We found that networks of priority...

  3. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  4. BIRD ATTACK OCULAR INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabbarvand

    2017-03-29

    To report 30 patients with bird attack-related eye injuries. This study was performed among patients coming to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2015 with a history of bird attack causing eye injury. The inclusion criteria were a history of bird attack by pecking causing eye injury and having treatment and follow-up record for at least 6 months after treatment. The primary eye examinations included a full ophthalmic examination including evaluation of uncorrected visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment slit lamp biomicroscopy, and photography. For all patients with penetrating injury, primary repair was undertaken. Thirty patients (10 females and 20 males) with a mean age of 23.3 ± 18.5 years entered the study. The most common zone of injury was zone 1 (P < 0.001), and lensectomy was not needed in majority of patients (P < 0.001). The most common bird causing the injury was mynah (P < 0.001). Those patients with baseline BCVA of less than 20/200 or those with endophthalmitis had statistically worse final BCVA after treatment. Patients attacked by mynah bird had significantly better pretreatment uncorrected visual acuity and BCVA. The most common bird causing the eye injury among the sample of patients from Iran was mynah, which differs with previous studies indicating the rooster attack as the most common cause of eye injury. The authors also found that the most common zone of injury was zone 1, and the presence of endophthalmitis and lower baseline BCVA were significant risk factors for worse visual outcomes.

  5. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  6. Characterizing Golden Eagle risk to lead and anticoagulant rodenticide exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Buck, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is among the many threats to Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) populations throughout North America, particularly lead poisoning and anticoagulant rodenticides (AR). These threats may act in concert with others (e.g., lead poisoning and trauma associated with striking objects) to exacerbate risk. Golden Eagles are skilled hunters but also exploit scavenging opportunities, making them particularly susceptible to contaminant exposure from ingesting tissues of poisoned or shot animals. Lead poisoning has long been recognized as an important source of mortality for Golden Eagles throughout North America. More recently, ARs have been associated with both sublethal and lethal effects in raptor species worldwide. In this review, we examine the current state of knowledge for lead and AR exposure in Golden Eagles, drawing from the broader raptor contaminant ecology literature. We examine lead and AR sources within Golden Eagle habitats, exposure routes and toxicity, effects on individuals and populations, synergistic effects, and data and information needs. Continued research addressing data needs and information gaps will help with Golden Eagle conservation planning.

  7. Assessment of frequency and duration of point counts when surveying for golden eagle presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Ben R.; Boal, Clint W.; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Fuller, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the utility of the recommended golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) survey methodology in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance. We conducted 800-m radius, 1-hr point-count surveys broken into 20-min segments, during 2 sampling periods in 3 areas within the Intermountain West of the United States over 2 consecutive breeding seasons during 2012 and 2013. Our goal was to measure the influence of different survey time intervals and sampling periods on detectability and use estimates of golden eagles among different locations. Our results suggest that a less intensive effort (i.e., survey duration shorter than 1 hr and point-count survey radii smaller than 800 m) would likely be inadequate for rigorous documentation of golden eagle occurrence pre- or postconstruction of wind energy facilities. Results from a simulation analysis of detection probabilities and survey effort suggest that greater temporal and spatial effort could make point-count surveys more applicable for evaluating golden eagle occurrence in survey areas; however, increased effort would increase financial costs associated with additional person-hours and logistics (e.g., fuel, lodging). Future surveys can benefit from a pilot study and careful consideration of prior information about counts or densities of golden eagles in the survey area before developing a survey design. If information is lacking, survey planning may be best served by assuming low detection rates and increasing the temporal and spatial effort.

  8. Species variation in osmotic, cryoprotectant, and cooling rate tolerance in poultry, eagle, and peregrine falcon spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J M; Gee, G; Wildt, D E; Donoghue, A M

    2000-10-01

    Potential factors influencing spermatozoa survival to cryopreservation and thawing were analyzed across a range of the following avian species: domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus), imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), and peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Studies focused on spermatozoa tolerance to the following: 1) osmotic stress, 2) different extracellular concentrations of the cryoprotectant dimethylacetamide (DMA), 3) equilibration times of 1 versus 4 h, 4) equilibration temperature of 4 versus 21 degrees C, and 5) rapid versus slow cooling before cryopreservation and standard thawing. Sperm viability was assessed with the live/dead stain (SYBR-14/propidium iodine). Sperm viability at osmolalities >/=800 mOsm was higher (P: or =2.06 M), experienced decreased (P: < 0. 05) spermatozoa survival in all species, except the golden eagle and peregrine falcon. Number of surviving spermatozoa diminished progressively with increasing DMA concentrations in all species. Increased equilibration temperature (from 4 to 21 degrees C) markedly reduced (P: < 0.05) spermatozoa survival in all species except the Bonelli's eagle and turkey. Rapid cooling was detrimental (P: < 0.05) to spermatozoa from all species except the imperial eagle and the chicken. These results demonstrate that avian spermatozoa differ remarkably in response to osmotic changes, DMA concentrations, equilibration time, temperature, and survival after fast or slow freezing. These differences emphasize the need for species-specific studies in the development and enhancement of assisted breeding for poultry and endangered species.

  9. Síndrome de Eagle: avaliação do tratamento cirúrgico Eagle Syndrome: surgical treatment evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Suzano Louzeiro Tiago

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A apófise estilóide é uma projeção óssea que se origina na porção timpânica do osso temporal. O aumento desta ou a ossificação do ligamento estilohióideo pode originar uma série de sintomas como disfagia, odinofagia, dor facial, otalgia, cefaléia, zumbido e trismo. Este conjunto de sintomas associado à presença da apófise estilóide alongada é conhecido como Síndrome de Eagle. Objetivo: Relatar um grupo de quatro pacientes com Síndrome de Eagle, bem como discutir a apresentação clínica e o tratamento mais adequado desta doença. Forma de estudo: Clínico retrospectivo. Material e método: Realizado estudo clínico retrospectivo de quatro pacientes, operados no HSPE-FMO e HSPM de São Paulo, no período de junho de 1998 a junho de 2001. O tratamento cirúrgico foi a opção terapêutica escolhida, com a retirada da apófise estilóide alongada. Foi avaliada a evolução clínica no pós-operatório. Resultados: Dos quatro pacientes, três eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade variando de 38 a 68 anos e com média etária de 57,25 anos. A apófise estilóide alongada foi encontrada e operada em ambos os lados em 50% dos casos. Houve remissão completa dos sintomas em três pacientes, com melhora parcial no outro paciente. Conclusão: Esta doença deve ser considerada em pacientes com sintomas de disfagia, odinofagia, dor facial, otalgia, cefaléia, zumbido e trismo. O tratamento cirúrgico para pacientes que apresentam a apófise estilóide alongada com sintomas compatíveis com a Síndrome de Eagle é a melhor forma de conduzir estes casos, sendo a via de abordagem externa a que oferece mais segurança e que possibilita uma ressecção mais completa.Introduction: The styloid apophysis is an osseous outgrowth originating in the tympanum portion of the temporal bone. Its growth, or the ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, may cause a series of symptoms, such as dysphagia, odynophagia

  10. Climate change impacts: birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomotani, B.M.; Ramakers, J.J.C.; Gienapp, P.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change can affect populations and species in various ways. Rising temperatures can shift geographical distributions and lead to (phenotypic or genetic) changes in traits, mostly phenology, which may affect demography. Most of these effects are well documented in birds. For example, the

  11. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  12. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... domesticated birds. If possible, avoid rural areas, small farms and open-air markets. Wash your hands. This is one of the simplest and best ways to prevent infections of all kinds. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer containing at least 60 percent alcohol ...

  13. Breeding Ecology of Birds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0022-0032. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory; coloniality; heronries. ecology; nesting strategies. Author Affiliations. Abdul Jamil Urfi1. Department of Environmental Biology, School of Environmental Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007. Resonance – Journal of Science ...

  14. Europe's last Mesozoic bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W.; Mulder, Eric W. A.; Schulp, Anne S.; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2002-01-01

    Birds known from more than isolated skeletal elements are rare in the fossil record, especially from the European Mesozoic. This paucity has hindered interpretations of avian evolution immediately prior to, and in the aftermath of, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event. We report on a

  15. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not

  16. Birds of Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Harriet

    Introducing students to different hawks and owls found in Wisconsin and building a basis for appreciation of these birds in their own environment is the purpose of this teacher's guide. Primarily geared for upper elementary and junior high grades, the concepts presented could be used in conjunction with the study of ecology. A filmstrip is…

  17. Long migration flights of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight. (paper)

  18. Birds of Prey of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerstrom, Frances

    This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…

  19. Long migration flights of birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight.

  20. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-antibodies in free-living birds of prey from Eastern Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büker, M; Picozzi, K; Kolb, S; Hatt, J-M

    2013-07-01

    Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is the most important arthropod-borne zoonosis-pathogen in the Northern hemisphere. Besides small mammals, birds, primarily Passeriformes and sea birds, play an important role in the transmission, distribution and maintenance of this disease. Previous studies on birds have focused mainly on the detection of Borrelia-infected ticks. However, the presence or absence of an infected tick cannot be taken as an indicator of the infective status of the avian host; to date this area of research has not been explored. In this study, serological analyses of blood collected from free-living birds of prey (n = 29) at the rehabilitation centre in Eastern Westphalia, Germany, highlights that birds of prey are also susceptible to B. burgdorferi and react immunologically to an infection. Increased antibody-levels could be found by using a modified Indirect Immunofluorescent-testing in two common buzzards, Buteo buteo, and two eagle owls, Bubo bubo. Further research regarding the serological diagnostics of B. burgdorferi within the avian host is required. In the future, it should be taken into account that birds of prey can be reservoirs for B. burgdorferi, as well as carriers of infected ticks; although at present their epidemiological importance is still to be confirmed.

  1. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...

  2. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Naira N; Bradley, James E; Otter, Ken A

    2014-01-01

    Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011), one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string). Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground) and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level). Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone) as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights) during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  3. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira N Johnston

    Full Text Available Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011, one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string. Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level. Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  4. The diversity and biogeography of late Pleistocene birds from the lowland Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, David W.; Oswald, Jessica A.; Rincón, Ascanio D.

    2015-05-01

    The Neotropical lowlands sustain the world's richest bird communities, yet little that we know about their history is based on paleontology. Fossils afford a way to investigate distributional shifts in individual species, and thus improve our understanding of long-term change in Neotropical bird communities. We report a species-rich avian fossil sample from a late Pleistocene tar seep (Mene de Inciarte) in northwestern Venezuela. A mere 175 identified fossils from Mene de Inciarte represent 73 species of birds, among which six are extinct, and eight others no longer occur within 100 km. These 14 species consist mainly of ducks (Anatidae), snipe (Scolopacidae), vultures/condors (Vulturidae), hawks/eagles (Accipitridae), and blackbirds (Icteridae). Neotropical bird communities were richer in the late Pleistocene than today; their considerable extinction may be related to collapse of the large mammal fauna at that time. The species assemblage at Mene de Inciarte suggests that biogeographic patterns, even at continental scales, have been remarkably labile over short geological time frames. Mene de Inciarte is but one of 300 + tar seeps in Venezuela, only two of which have been explored for fossils. We may be on the cusp of an exciting new era of avian paleontology in the Neotropics.

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns in golden eagle diets in the western United States, with implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Geoffrey; Watson, James W.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Preston, Charles R.; Woodbridge, Brian; Williams, Gary E.; Keller, Kent R.; Crandall, Ross H.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed information on diets and predatory ecology of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is essential to prioritize prey species management and to develop landscape-specific conservation strategies, including mitigation of the effects of energy development across the western United States. We compiled published and unpublished data on Golden Eagle diets to (1) summarize available information on Golden Eagle diets in the western U.S., (2) compare diets among biogeographic provinces, and (3) discuss implications for conservation planning and future research. We analyzed 35 studies conducted during the breeding season at 45 locations from 1940–2015. Golden Eagle diet differed among western ecosystems. Lower dietary breadth was associated with desert and shrub-steppe ecosystems and higher breadth with mountain ranges and the Columbia Plateau. Correlations suggest that percentage of leporids in the diet is the factor driving overall diversity of prey and percentage of other prey groups in the diet of Golden Eagles. Leporids were the primary prey of breeding Golden Eagles in 78% of study areas, with sciurids reported as primary prey in 18% of study areas. During the nonbreeding season, Golden Eagles were most frequently recorded feeding on leporids and carrion. Golden Eagles can be described as both generalist and opportunistic predators; they can feed on a wide range of prey species but most frequently feed on abundant medium-sized prey species in a given habitat. Spatial variations in Golden Eagle diet likely reflect regional differences in prey community, whereas temporal trends likely reflect responses to long-term change in prey populations. Evidence suggests dietary shifts from traditional (leporid) prey can have adverse effects on Golden Eagle reproductive rates. Land management practices that support or restore shrub-steppe ecosystem diversity should benefit Golden Eagles. More information is needed on nonbreeding-season diet to determine what food resources

  6. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements......, and conclude that the currently believed theoretical framework is insufficient to explain the observed performance. The other study investigates the ability of a displaced experienced migrant to navigate back to the normal migration route. It documents the capability, but also finds interesting patterns...

  7. Genetic evidence for a recent divergence and subsequent gene flow between Spanish and Eastern imperial eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Godoy, José Antonio

    2007-09-24

    Dating of population divergence is critical in understanding speciation and in evaluating the evolutionary significance of genetic lineages, upon which identification of conservation and management units should be based. In this study we used a multilocus approach and the Isolation-Migration model based on coalescence theory to estimate the time of divergence of the Spanish and Eastern imperial eagle sister species. This model enables estimation of population sizes at split, and inference of gene flow after divergence. Our results indicate that divergence may have occurred during the Holocene or the late Pleistocene, much more recently than previously suspected. They also suggest a large population reduction at split, with an estimated effective population size several times smaller for the western population than for the eastern population. Asymmetrical gene flow after divergence, from the Eastern imperial eagle to the Spanish imperial eagle, was detected for the nuclear genome but not the mitochondrial genome. Male-mediated gene flow after divergence may explain this result, and the previously reported lower mitochondrial diversity but similar nuclear diversity in Spanish imperial eagles compared to the Eastern species. Spanish and Eastern imperial eagles split from a common ancestor much more recently than previously thought, and asymmetrical gene flow occurred after divergence. Revision of the phylogenetic proximity of both species is warranted, with implications for conservation.

  8. Trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy in Eagle syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackett John

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Eagle syndrome is a condition characterized by an elongated (>3cm styloid process with associated symptoms of recurrent facial or throat pain. In this report we present a case of Eagle syndrome exhibiting the typical findings of glossopharyngeal nerve involvement, as well as unusual involvement of the trigeminal nerve. Notably, this patient developed a classical trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy. Case presentation A 68-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 25-year history of dull pain along the right side of her throat, lateral neck, and jaw. Her symptoms were poorly controlled with medication until 15 years ago when she was diagnosed with Eagle syndrome, and underwent a manual fracture of her styloid process. This provided symptomatic relief until 5 years ago when the pain recurred and progressed. She underwent a styloidectomy via a lateral neck approach, which resolved the pain once again. However, 6 months ago a new onset of triggerable, electric shock-like facial pain began within the right V1 and V2 distributions. Conclusions Eagle syndrome is distressing to patients and often difficult to diagnose due to its wide variability in symptoms. It is easily confused with dental pain or temporomandibular joint disorder, leading to missed diagnoses and unnecessary procedures. Pain along the jaw and temple is an unusual but possible consequence of Eagle syndrome. An elongated styloid process should be considered a possible etiology of dull facial pain in the trigeminal distributions, in particular V3.

  9. Threatened bird valuation in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K Zander

    Full Text Available Threatened species programs need a social license to justify public funding. A contingent valuation survey of a broadly representative sample of the Australian public found that almost two thirds (63% supported funding of threatened bird conservation. These included 45% of a sample of 645 respondents willing to pay into a fund for threatened bird conservation, 3% who already supported bird conservation in another form, and 15% who could not afford to pay into a conservation fund but who nevertheless thought that humans have a moral obligation to protect threatened birds. Only 6% explicitly opposed such payments. Respondents were willing to pay about AUD 11 annually into a conservation fund (median value, including those who would pay nothing. Highest values were offered by young or middle aged men, and those with knowledge of birds and those with an emotional response to encountering an endangered bird. However, the prospect of a bird going extinct alarmed almost everybody, even most of those inclined to put the interests of people ahead of birds and those who resent the way threatened species sometimes hold up development. The results suggest that funding for threatened birds has widespread popular support among the Australian population. Conservatively they would be willing to pay about AUD 14 million per year, and realistically about AUD 70 million, which is substantially more than the AUD 10 million currently thought to be required to prevent Australian bird extinctions.

  10. 75 FR 35018 - Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That.... This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL..., persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be listed as a contact for an intervenor...

  11. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 07/07-0117] Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle..., Financings which Constitute Conflicts of Interest, of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and...

  12. An adaptive-management framework for optimal control of hiking near golden eagle nests in Denali National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Fackler, Paul L.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Lubow, Bruce L.; McCluskie, Maggie C.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Unintended effects of recreational activities in protected areas are of growing concern. We used an adaptive-management framework to develop guidelines for optimally managing hiking activities to maintain desired levels of territory occupancy and reproductive success of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Denali National Park (Alaska, U.S.A.). The management decision was to restrict human access (hikers) to particular nesting territories to reduce disturbance. The management objective was to minimize restrictions on hikers while maintaining reproductive performance of eagles above some specified level. We based our decision analysis on predictive models of site occupancy of eagles developed using a combination of expert opinion and data collected from 93 eagle territories over 20 years. The best predictive model showed that restricting human access to eagle territories had little effect on occupancy dynamics. However, when considering important sources of uncertainty in the models, including environmental stochasticity, imperfect detection of hares on which eagles prey, and model uncertainty, restricting access of territories to hikers improved eagle reproduction substantially. An adaptive management framework such as ours may help reduce uncertainty of the effects of hiking activities on Golden Eagles

  13. 77 FR 32716 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two-Coin Silver Proof Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two...: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two-Coin Silver Proof Set. The coin set will be offered for sale at a price of $149.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  14. Monitoring Forsmark-Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Martin

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  15. Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) habitat selection as a function of land use and terrain, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2018-04-16

    Beginning in 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with Bloom Biological, Inc., began telemetry research on golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in the San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties of southern California. This work was supported by the San Diego Association of Governments, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 2014, we have tracked more than 40 eagles, although this report focuses only on San Diego County eagles.An important objective of this research is to develop habitat selection models for golden eagles. Here we provide predictions of population-level habitat selection for golden eagles in San Diego County based on environmental covariates related to land use and terrain.

  16. Sublethal Lead Exposure Alters Movement Behavior in Free-Ranging Golden Eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Frauke; Singh, Navinder J; Arnemo, Jon M; Bignert, Anders; Helander, Björn; Berglund, Åsa M M; Borg, Hans; Bröjer, Caroline; Holm, Karin; Lanzone, Michael; Miller, Tricia; Nordström, Åke; Räikkönen, Jannikke; Rodushkin, Ilia; Ågren, Erik; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2017-05-16

    Lead poisoning of animals due to ingestion of fragments from lead-based ammunition in carcasses and offal of shot wildlife is acknowledged globally and raises great concerns about potential behavioral effects leading to increased mortality risks. Lead levels in blood were correlated with progress of the moose hunting season. Based on analyses of tracking data, we found that even sublethal lead concentrations in blood (25 ppb, wet weight), can likely negatively affect movement behavior (flight height and movement rate) of free-ranging scavenging Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Lead levels in liver of recovered post-mortem analyzed eagles suggested that sublethal exposure increases the risk of mortality in eagles. Such adverse effects on animals are probably common worldwide and across species, where game hunting with lead-based ammunition is widespread. Our study highlights lead exposure as a considerably more serious threat to wildlife conservation than previously realized and suggests implementation of bans of lead ammunition for hunting.

  17. Spatial demographic models to inform conservation planning of golden eagles in renewable energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Schumaker, Nathan H.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    Spatial demographic models can help guide monitoring and management activities targeting at-risk species, even in cases where baseline data are lacking. Here, we provide an example of how site-specific changes in land use and anthropogenic stressors can be incorporated into a spatial demographic model to investigate effects on population dynamics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Our study focused on a population of Golden Eagles exposed to risks associated with rapid increases in renewable energy development in southern California, U.S.A. We developed a spatially explicit, individual-based simulation model that integrated empirical data on demography of Golden Eagles with spatial data on the arrangement of nesting habitats, prey resources, and planned renewable energy development sites. Our model permitted simulated eagles of different stage-classes to disperse, establish home ranges, acquire prey resources, prospect for breeding sites, and reproduce. The distribution of nesting habitats, prey resources, and threats within each individual's home range influenced movement, reproduction, and survival. We used our model to explore potential effects of alternative disturbance scenarios, and proposed conservation strategies, on the future distribution and abundance of Golden Eagles in the study region. Results from our simulations suggest that probable increases in mortality associated with renewable energy infrastructure (e.g., collisions with wind turbines and vehicles, electrocution on power poles) could have negative consequences for population trajectories, but that site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative effects. Our study demonstrates the use of a flexible and expandable modeling framework to incorporate spatially dependent processes when determining relative effects of proposed management options to Golden Eagles and their habitats.

  18. Radar studies of bird migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  19. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  20. Tropical birds take small risks

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Pape Møller; Wei Liang

    2013-01-01

    The life history of tropical birds differs from that of their temperate counterparts by late start of reproduction, small clutch sizes, and high rates of adult survival. Thus, tropical species should have greater residual reproductive value than temperate species. Therefore, tropical birds can be predicted to take smaller risks than closely related temperate birds in order not to jeopardize their prospects of survival, which is the single most important component of fitness, and which is grea...

  1. Monitoring Forsmark. Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Martin

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds Directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002-2010. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2010 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from the monitoring in 2010 differed somewhat from results gathered in earlier years. Most monitored species have increased in local numbers during the study years, and from most years continued increases have been reported. Between 2009 and 2010 most species (seven, 64% of the monitored ones) instead decreased in numbers. Only one species (honey buzzard) increased in numbers between the years and in this case this was probably more a result of small moves by certain pairs so that they this year had parts reaching into the regional model area, while in 2009 their territories were outside of this. No dramatic changes in bird numbers were however recorded and all the studied species show stable or increasing local populations over the study period. Number of Black-throated diver pairs was normal and breeding success was good this year. The breeding success of divers has improved considerably over the studied period and the patterns recorded in Forsmark closely follow recorded patterns at the national level. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, above the average for the whole period, and breeding success was better than in 2009. Even if breeding success of honey buzzards is not monitored in any detail, there were still signs of at least a few successful breedings in the area this year. Breeding success of ospreys was below average, but still within the normal variation for most years. The local white-tailed eagles had a poor breeding season and no young at all were produced within the study area. All three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) decreased in numbers between 2009 and 2010. Note however that the large amounts of snow

  2. Monitoring Forsmark. Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin (Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund Univ. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds Directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002-2010. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2010 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from the monitoring in 2010 differed somewhat from results gathered in earlier years. Most monitored species have increased in local numbers during the study years, and from most years continued increases have been reported. Between 2009 and 2010 most species (seven, 64% of the monitored ones) instead decreased in numbers. Only one species (honey buzzard) increased in numbers between the years and in this case this was probably more a result of small moves by certain pairs so that they this year had parts reaching into the regional model area, while in 2009 their territories were outside of this. No dramatic changes in bird numbers were however recorded and all the studied species show stable or increasing local populations over the study period. Number of Black-throated diver pairs was normal and breeding success was good this year. The breeding success of divers has improved considerably over the studied period and the patterns recorded in Forsmark closely follow recorded patterns at the national level. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, above the average for the whole period, and breeding success was better than in 2009. Even if breeding success of honey buzzards is not monitored in any detail, there were still signs of at least a few successful breedings in the area this year. Breeding success of ospreys was below average, but still within the normal variation for most years. The local white-tailed eagles had a poor breeding season and no young at all were produced within the study area. All three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) decreased in numbers between 2009 and 2010. Note however that the large amounts of snow

  3. Simulation of Two-group IATE models with EAGLE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, V. T.; Bae, B. U.; Song, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The two-group transport equation should be employed in order to describe correctly the interfacial area transport in various two phase flow regimes, especially at the bubbly-to-slug flow transition. This is because the differences in bubble sizes or shapes cause substantial differences in their transport mechanisms and interaction phenomena. The basic concept of two group interfacial area transport equations have been formulated and demonstrated for vertical gas-liquid bubbly-to-slug flow transition by Hibiki and his coworkers. More than twelve adjustable parameters need to be determined based on extensive experimental database. It should be noted that these parameters were adjusted only in one-dimensional approach by area averaged flow parameters in a vertical pipe under adiabatic and steady conditions. This obviously brings up the following experimental issue: how to adjust all these parameters as independently as possible by considering experiments where a single physical phenomenon is of importance. The vertical air-water loop (VAWL) has been used for investigating the transport phenomena of two-phase flow at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The data for local void fraction and interfacial area concentration are measured by using five-sensor conductivity probe method and classified into two groups, the small spherical bubble group and the cap/slug one. The initial bubble size, which has a big influence on the interaction mechanism between phases, was controlled. In the present work, two-group interfacial area transport equation (IATE) was implemented in the EAGLE code and assessed against VAWL data. The purpose of this study is to investigate the capability of coefficients derived by Hibiki in the two-group interfacial area transport equations with CFD code

  4. Barred galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algorry, David G.; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Sales, Laura V.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2017-07-01

    We examine the properties of barred disc galaxies in a ΛCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE project. Our study follows the formation of 269 discs identified at z = 0 in the stellar mass range 10.6 < log M*/M⊙ < 11. These discs show a wide range of bar strengths, from unbarred discs (≈60 per cent) to weak bars (≈20 per cent) and to strongly barred systems (≈20 per cent). Bars in these systems develop after redshift ≈1.3, on time-scales that depend sensitively on the strength of the pattern. Strong bars develop relatively quickly (in a few Gyr, or roughly ∼10 disc rotation periods) in systems that are disc dominated, gas poor, and have declining rotation curves. Weak bars develop more slowly in systems where the disc is less gravitationally important, and are still growing at z = 0. Unbarred galaxies are comparatively gas-rich discs whose rotation speeds do not exceed the maximum circular velocity of the haloes they inhabit. Bar lengths compare favourably with observations, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 times the radius containing 90 per cent of the stars. Bars slow down remarkably quickly as they grow, causing the inner regions of the surrounding dark halo to expand. At z = 0 strong bars in simulated galaxies have corotation radii roughly 10 times the bar length. Such slow bars are inconsistent with the few cases where pattern speeds have been measured or inferred observationally, a discrepancy that, if confirmed, might prove a challenge for disc galaxy formation in ΛCDM.

  5. Doppler ultrasonography of the pectinis oculi artery in harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja)

    OpenAIRE

    Wanderlei de Moraes; Thiago A.C. Ferreira; André T. Somma; Zalmir S. Cubas; Bret A. Moore; Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Twenty harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja) without systemic or ocular diseases were examined to measure blood velocity parameters of the pectinis oculi artery using Doppler ultrasonography. Pectinate artery resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were investigated using ocular Doppler ultrasonography. The mean RI and PI values across all eyes were 0.44±0.10 and 0.62±0.20 respectively. Low RI and PI values found in the harpy eagle´s pectinis oculi artery compared with the American pekin duck...

  6. Endoscopy-assisted transoral resection of the styloid process in Eagle's syndrome. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Fumihiko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eagle's syndrome is often associated with elongated styloid process or ossified stylohyoid or stylomandibular ligament. Patients with this syndrome present with recurrent cervicofacial pain. Surgical removal of the elongated styloid process is a standard treatment and can be accomplished through either a transoral or extraoral approach. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and the best surgical approach remains controversial. In our case, the elongated styloid process was removed by transoral approach assisted by endoscopy. Endoscopy provides clear surgical view thus lessen the chance of neurovascular injury and other intraoperative complications. Endoscopy-assisted transoral resection is an optional alternative surgical procedure for Eagle's syndrome.

  7. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  11. Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance, March 1998--December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, C. G.; Smallwood, K. S.; Rugge, L.

    2003-12-01

    It has been documented that wind turbine operations at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area kill large numbers of birds of multiple species, including raptors. We initiated a study that integrates research on bird behaviors, raptor prey availability, turbine design, inter-turbine distribution, landscape attributes, and range management practices to explain the variation in avian mortality at two levels of analysis: the turbine and the string of turbines. We found that inter-specific differences in intensities of use of airspace within close proximity did not explain the variation in mortality among species. Unique suites of attributes relate to mortality of each species, so species-specific analyses are required to understand the factors that underlie turbine-caused fatalities. We found that golden eagles are killed by turbines located in the canyons and that rock piles produced during preparation of the wind tower laydown areas related positively to eagle mortality, perhaps due to the use of these rock piles as cover by desert cottontails. Other similar relationships between fatalities and environmental factors are identified and discussed. The tasks remaining to complete the project are summarized.

  12. East Africa's diminishing bird habitats and bird species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resultant intensive agricultural projects that follow. Such impacts have resulted in a decline in both bird habitats and biodiversity. Of particular concern are the areas important to all our endemic bird species, and already we are witnessing a series of very worrying developments. Taking each. Scopus 32: 27–34, June 2013 ...

  13. The BIRD payload platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ingo; Briess, Klaus; Baerwald, Wolfgang; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Schrandt, Fredrich

    2003-04-01

    For hot spot events as forest fires, volcanic activity or burning oil spills and coal seams a dedicate dspace instrumentation does not exist. With its successful launch end of October 2001 with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle the German Aerospace Center starts closing this gap with the micro-satellite mission BIRD. As space segment serves a three-axis stabilized satellite of 92 kg including a contingent of over 30% for the scientific instruments. The main payload of the BIRD micro-satellite is the newly developed Hot Spot Recognition System. It's a dual-channel instrument for middle and thermal IR imagery based on cooled MCT line detectors. The miniaturization by integrated detector/cooler assemblies provides a highly efficient design. A complement for the hot spot detection is the wide-angle stereo-scanner WAOSS-B. It is a hardware re-use dedicated to vegetation and cloud assessment in the visible spectral range. Besides the main objective of hot spot detection the mission has to answer several technological questions of the operation of cooled detectors in space, special aspects of their adaptation to the satellite platform as well as their calibration.

  14. Bird Migration Echoes Observed by Polarimetric Radar

    OpenAIRE

    MINDA, Haruya; FURUZAWA, Fumie A.; SATOH, Shinsuke; NAKAMURA, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A C-band polarimetric radar on Okinawa Island successfully observed large-scale bird migrations over the western Pacific Ocean. The birds generated interesting polarimetric signatures. This paper describes the signatures and speculates bird behavior.

  15. Migration in birds and fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, J.

    1949-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the periodical movements in animals called migrations is chiefly based on observations on birds. By and by, however, a number of facts concerning migration in other animal groups have been assembled and it seems worth while to compare them with those known for birds. There

  16. Biotelemetry data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, November 2014–February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-04-21

    The status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in October 2014 and continued until early March 2015. During the first trapping season that focused on San Diego County, we captured 13 golden eagles (8 females and 5 males). During the second trapping season that began in November 2015, we focused on trapping sites in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. By February 23, 2016, we captured an additional 14 golden eagles (7 females and 7 males). In this report, biotelemetry data were collected between November 22, 2014, and February 23, 2016. The location data for eagles ranged as far north as San Luis Obispo, California, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  17. Response of Red-Tailed Hawks and Golden Eagles to Topographical Features, Weather, and Abundance of a Dominant Prey Species at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California: April 1999-December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, S.

    2002-06-01

    Studies have shown that raptors flying within the Altamont Pass WRA are vulnerable to fatal turbine collisions, possibly because of their specific foraging and flight behavior. Between June 1999 and June 2000, I conducted 346.5 hours of raptor observations within the Atlamont Pass WRA. Behavior was recorded in relation to characteristics of the topography (slope aspect, elevation, and inclination), the weather, and ground squirrel abundance, as determined by active burrow entrances. The most significant finding of this study revealed that red-tailed hawks and golden eagles flew more in strong winds than in weak winds, particularly along hillsides facing into prevailing winds (as opposed to hillsides shielded from the wind). This is likely a result of the birds' use of declivity currents for lift during flights. These results suggest that certain combinations of topography and weather produce wind currents that are sought out by foraging red-tailed hawks and golden eagles within the Altamont Pass WRA. To decrease raptor mortality, mitigation measures can be targeted to specific areas likely to attract foraging raptors because of their capacity to create particularly favorable wind currents.

  18. Cassin\\'s hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus in Ndundulu Forest: a first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single adult Cassin's hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus was sighted on five occasions over three years in a highland forest in the Udzungwa Mountains, the first ever record of this species in Tanzania. This discovery has potentially significant biogeographical implications, strengthening ancient links between the forests of ...

  19. Assessment of butterfly diversity in eagle owl gully of Amurum Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butterfly diversity at the Eagle Owl Gully, Amurum Forest Reserve, Jos East, Plateau State was investigated by the use of sweep nets along transects in two types of habitats namely protected and unprotected. A total of three hundred and ninety-four butterflies belonging to thirty-three genera and seven families were ...

  20. The legal status of the Spanish imperial eagle in Spain and thoughts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contribution reflects on the contributory role of environmental law and policy in the successful conservation interventions on behalf of the rare Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti), with the aim of gaining insights that may be more universally applicable, including in jurisdictions such as South Africa. An overview of ...