WorldWideScience

Sample records for bird species lists

  1. International Trade of CITES Listed Bird Species in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangere...

  2. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  3. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Li

    Full Text Available Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC. We found that: (1 International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2 Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3 Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation

  4. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  5. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  6. 75 FR 81793 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Seven Brazilian Bird Species as Endangered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... requirements of the black-hooded antwren are still unclear, the species is not considered a tropical forest... Plants; Listing Seven Brazilian Bird Species as Endangered Throughout Their Range AGENCY: Fish and... petition, we published a substantial 90-day finding on May 12, 1981 (46 FR 26464), for 58 foreign...

  7. List of documented bird species from the municipality of Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Simpson; Vagner Cavarzere; Elis Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Although preliminary surveys have been conducted at the Atlantic Forest of Ubatuba, there is no list of documented bird records from this coastline municipality. To organize such a compilation, we searched the literature and a number of different sources for all documented records of birds from Ubatuba, state of São Paulo. We further carried out a 7-year non-systematic bird inventory in different regions and elevations to document the species within the municipality. The total number of docum...

  8. List of documented bird species from the municipality of Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although preliminary surveys have been conducted at the Atlantic Forest of Ubatuba, there is no list of documented bird records from this coastline municipality. To organize such a compilation, we searched the literature and a number of different sources for all documented records of birds from Ubatuba, state of São Paulo. We further carried out a 7-year non-systematic bird inventory in different regions and elevations to document the species within the municipality. The total number of documented bird species is 417, 11% of which are endemic to Brazil. Another 26% are Atlantic Forest endemics and as many as 60 species are under threat categories, including near-threatened birds, in the state. Some 49 species of 27 families are reported from the municipality but still lack documentation. Considering historical records, no species have extinguished from the municipality. Ubatuba is one of the most studied regions along Serra do Mar in São Paulo regarding its ornithology, but there are still high-elevational gaps that will yield significant additions of species to the area with increasing surveying efforts.

  9. 75 FR 50813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Bird Species From Latin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... overwintered at Lagos Uru Uru and Poop (Caziani et al. 2007, p. 279). Laguna Saquewa and Laguna Macaya are also... FR 26464) for 58 foreign species, noting that 2 of the foreign species identified in the petition were already listed under the Act, and initiated a status review. On January 20, 1984 (49 FR 2485),...

  10. List of Strigiformes species in the Belgrade Natural History Museum bird collection

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    Novčić Ivana D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available During re-inventory of the order Strigiformes in the ornithological collection of the Belgrade Natural History Museum, we recorded a total of 134 specimens, collected at over 40 localities throughout Serbia. Of these 71 are in the study collection, 59 in the exhibition collection, and four in the historical collection of birds. In view of the number of specimens diversity of species, and the geographical representatives, the collection of owls in the Natural History Museum represents an extremely important source of information for the taxon Strigiformes.

  11. Quantitative analysis of forest fragmentation in the atlantic forest reveals more threatened bird species than the current red list.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Schnell

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and attendant fragmentation threaten the existence of many species. Conserving these species requires a straightforward and objective method that quantifies how these factors affect their survival. Therefore, we compared a variety of metrics that assess habitat fragmentation in bird ranges, using the geographical ranges of 127 forest endemic passerine birds inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. A common, non-biological metric - cumulative area of size-ranked fragments within a species range - was misleading, as the least threatened species had the most habitat fragmentation. Instead, we recommend a modified version of metapopulation capacity. The metric links detailed spatial information on fragment sizes and spatial configuration to the birds' abilities to occupy and disperse across large areas (100,000+ km(2. In the Atlantic Forest, metapopulation capacities were largely bimodal, in that most species' ranges had either low capacity (high risk of extinction or high capacity (very small risk of extinction. This pattern persisted within taxonomically and ecologically homogenous groups, indicating that it is driven by fragmentation patterns and not differences in species ecology. Worryingly, we found IUCN considers some 28 of 58 species in the low metapopulation capacity cluster to not be threatened. We propose that assessing the effect of fragmentation will separate species more clearly into distinct risk categories than does a simple assessment of remaining habitat.

  12. All about Owls: Studying Owls, State Birds, and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Leonard P.

    1991-01-01

    Activities are included that acquaint students with the parts of birds and the structure of feathers; that identify the prey of owls by opening owl pellets; working with information about threatened and endangered species of birds; and follow-up activities for bird study. A list of state and provincial birds of the United States and Canada and…

  13. Comparative list of the Birds of Holland and England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, F.E.

    1893-01-01

    In the following paper a list as possible complete is given of the birds of Holland and England, whilst a few lines are added to each species, to state when and where the birds occur in both countries. It is worth of being noticed that, although Holland and England are so near each other, a great di

  14. 78 FR 64691 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Five Foreign Bird Species in Colombia and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... numerous threats and warrant listing under the Act as endangered species (74 FR 32308). Therefore, we... reopened the comment period for an additional 60 days (74 FR 57987). During the comment periods, we sought... published a positive 90-day finding on May 12, 1981 (46 FR 26464), to initiate a status review for...

  15. A list of the birds recorded from Bangka Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    An enumeration of bird specimens from Bangka present in museum-collections, has resulted in a faunal list of 172 species (176 forms). A discussion is given of the zoogeography of the island, the avifauna of which is mainly Sumatran in its affinities, but with a distinct Bornean influence. In contrad

  16. 77 FR 43433 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... proposed rule published on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 606). Summary of Changes From the Proposed Rule This... take climate change into account when evaluating threats to these species. Although the science of climate change is still uncertain with respect to how it will affect the long-term viability of...

  17. A list of the birds recorded from Bangka Island, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mees, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    An enumeration of bird specimens from Bangka present in museum-collections, has resulted in a faunal list of 172 species (176 forms). A discussion is given of the zoogeography of the island, the avifauna of which is mainly Sumatran in its affinities, but with a distinct Bornean influence. In contradistinction to a previously-published opinion (de Schauensee, 1958), there is no recognizable Javanese element in the avifauna.

  18. Endangered Species, Provincialism, and a Continental Approach to Bird Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Craig

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available I examined lists of endangered species from northeastern and midwestern United States to assess the extent to which they were dominated by species considered rare due to their vulnerability to anthropogenic stressors or, instead, by species whose rarity might be explained otherwise. Northeastern states had longer species lists than midwestern states, and more species associated with locally rare prairie habitats. More species at the edge of their geographic range appeared on lists from the Northeast than the Midwest. About 70% of listed species overall have shown either no significant population trend, or increases, at the continental scale, but wetland and prairie species were frequently listed, consistent with the generally acknowledged, widespread loss of these habitats. Curiously, midwestern states tended to list fewer forest species, despite evidence that forest fragmentation there has had strongly deleterious effects on regional bird populations. Overall, species appear to be listed locally for a variety of reasons not necessarily related to their risk of extinction generally, potentially contributing to inefficient distributions of limited resources to deal effectively with species that legitimately require conservation attention. I advocate a continental perspective when listing species locally, and propose enhanced criteria for characterizing species as endangered at the local level.

  19. Additions to the check-list of birds of the Addo Elephant National Park

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    B. L. Penzhorn

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available In his original check-list of the birds of the Addo Elephant National Park, Liversidge (1965 recorded 120 species. In a subsequent publication six additional species were reported from the Park (Penzhorn and Morris 1969. A further seven species are reported here, increasing the species total for the Park to 133.

  20. A revised check-list of birds in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

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    M. G. L. Mills

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available A more complete list of the birds in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park is given, including the results of three and a half years of observations. A total of 214 species have now been identified for the Park, among which 75 are resident throughout the year, 37 are migrants, 14 are nomads and 88 are vagrants.

  1. Bird Populations in Fernbank Forest: MIGRANT SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses fragmented forests in general and provides arrival/departure data about migratory birds collected at Fernbank Forest which is located within metropolitan Atlanta. The data indicate that population trends for selected species have not changed over 19 years of migration recordings within this small, but important, fragmented…

  2. 50 CFR 92.22 - Subsistence migratory bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence migratory bird species. 92.22... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Regulations Governing Subsistence Harvest § 92.22 Subsistence migratory bird species. You may harvest birds or...

  3. Alien species recorded in the United Arab Emirates: an initial list of terrestrial and freshwater species

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    Pritpal Soorae

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is documented on the alien terrestrial and freshwater species in the United Arab Emirates. To address this, an assessment of terrestrial and freshwater alien species was conducted using various techniques such as a questionnaire, fieldwork data, networking with relevant people, and a detailed literature review. The results of the initial assessment show that there are 146 alien species recorded in the following seven major taxonomic groups: invertebrates 49 species, freshwater fish five species, amphibian one species, reptiles six species, birds 71 species, mammals six species and plants eight species. To inform decision makers a full list of the 146 species identified in this assessment is presented. 

  4. Impact assessment of mosquito larvicides on selected listed species of marsh and shore birds of the southwest Florida coast: Year two

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study with the following results: 1. The key species chosen for this study were the osprey, tricolored, great and little blue herons, and...

  5. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Massey, J.G.; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with antia??T. gondiia??specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

  6. Cryptic diversity revealed by DNA barcoding in Colombian illegally traded bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Ángela María; Torres, María Fernanda; Paz, Andrea; Trujillo-Arias, Natalia; López-Alvarez, Diana; Sierra, Socorro; Forero, Fernando; Gonzalez, Mailyn A

    2016-07-01

    Colombia is the country with the largest number of bird species worldwide, yet its avifauna is seriously threatened by habitat degradation and poaching. We built a DNA barcode library of nearly half of the bird species listed in the CITES appendices for Colombia, thereby constructing a species identification reference that will help in global efforts for controlling illegal species trade. We obtained the COI barcode sequence of 151 species based on 281 samples, representing 46% of CITES bird species registered for Colombia. The species analysed belong to nine families, where Trochilidae and Psittacidae are the most abundant ones. We sequenced for the first time the DNA barcode of 47 species, mainly hummingbirds endemic of the Northern Andes region. We found a correct match between morphological and genetic identification for 86-92% of the species analysed, depending on the cluster analysis performed (BIN, ABGD and TaxonDNA). Additionally, we identified eleven cases of high intraspecific divergence based on K2P genetic distances (up to 14.61%) that could reflect cryptic diversity. In these cases, the specimens were collected in geographically distant sites such as different mountain systems, opposite flanks of the mountain or different elevations. Likewise, we found two cases of possible hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. This survey constitutes the first attempt to build the DNA barcode library of endangered bird species in Colombia establishing as a reference for management programs of illegal species trade, and providing major insights of phylogeographic structure that can guide future taxonomic research. PMID:26929271

  7. Music for the birds: effects of auditory enrichment on captive bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2016-01-01

    With the increase of mixed species exhibits in zoos, targeting enrichment for individual species may be problematic. Often, mammals may be the primary targets of enrichment, yet other species that share their environment (such as birds) will unavoidably be exposed to the enrichment as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if (1) auditory stimuli designed for enrichment of primates influenced the behavior of captive birds in the zoo setting, and (2) if the specific type of auditory enrichment impacted bird behavior. Three different African bird species were observed at the Buffalo Zoo during exposure to natural sounds, classical music and rock music. The results revealed that the average frequency of flying in all three bird species increased with naturalistic sounds and decreased with rock music (F = 7.63, df = 3,6, P = 0.018); vocalizations for two of the three species (Superb Starlings and Mousebirds) increased (F = 18.61, df = 2,6, P = 0.0027) in response to all auditory stimuli, however one species (Lady Ross's Turacos) increased frequency of duetting only in response to rock music (X(2) = 18.5, df = 2, P behavior in non-target species as well, in this case leading to increased activity by birds.

  8. Music for the birds: effects of auditory enrichment on captive bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2016-01-01

    With the increase of mixed species exhibits in zoos, targeting enrichment for individual species may be problematic. Often, mammals may be the primary targets of enrichment, yet other species that share their environment (such as birds) will unavoidably be exposed to the enrichment as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if (1) auditory stimuli designed for enrichment of primates influenced the behavior of captive birds in the zoo setting, and (2) if the specific type of auditory enrichment impacted bird behavior. Three different African bird species were observed at the Buffalo Zoo during exposure to natural sounds, classical music and rock music. The results revealed that the average frequency of flying in all three bird species increased with naturalistic sounds and decreased with rock music (F = 7.63, df = 3,6, P = 0.018); vocalizations for two of the three species (Superb Starlings and Mousebirds) increased (F = 18.61, df = 2,6, P = 0.0027) in response to all auditory stimuli, however one species (Lady Ross's Turacos) increased frequency of duetting only in response to rock music (X(2) = 18.5, df = 2, P influence behavior in non-target species as well, in this case leading to increased activity by birds. PMID:26749511

  9. Bird species and habitat inventory, mainland southeast Alaska, summer 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This manuscript is a report of the bird species/habitat survey conducted on mainland southeast Alaska, June 20th through August 10th, 1974, by Daniel D. Gibson and...

  10. Environmental factors influencing bird species diversity in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oindo, B.O.; By, de R.A.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable resource management requires understanding the factors that increase or decrease species richness. Regional species richness patterns may be predicted by analysing patterns of variation in the environment. A number of studies have shown that bird species richness at a regional scale is i

  11. DNA barcode detects high genetic structure within neotropical bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Sendra Tavares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards lower latitudes the number of recognized species is not only higher, but also phylogeographic subdivision within species is more pronounced. Moreover, new genetically isolated populations are often described in recent phylogenies of Neotropical birds suggesting that the number of species in the region is underestimated. Previous COI barcoding of Argentinean bird species showed more complex patterns of regional divergence in the Neotropical than in the North American avifauna. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we analyzed 1,431 samples from 561 different species to extend the Neotropical bird barcode survey to lower latitudes, and detected even higher geographic structure within species than reported previously. About 93% (520 of the species were identified correctly from their DNA barcodes. The remaining 41 species were not monophyletic in their COI sequences because they shared barcode sequences with closely related species (N = 21 or contained very divergent clusters suggestive of putative new species embedded within the gene tree (N = 20. Deep intraspecific divergences overlapping with among-species differences were detected in 48 species, often with samples from large geographic areas and several including multiple subspecies. This strong population genetic structure often coincided with breaks between different ecoregions or areas of endemism. CONCLUSIONS: The taxonomic uncertainty associated with the high incidence of non-monophyletic species and discovery of putative species obscures studies of historical patterns of species diversification in the Neotropical region. We showed that COI barcodes are a valuable tool to indicate which taxa would benefit from more extensive taxonomic revisions with multilocus approaches. Moreover, our results support hypotheses that the megadiversity of birds in the region is associated with multiple geographic processes starting well before the Quaternary and extending to more recent

  12. Relationships between Duck and Grassland Bird Relative Abundance and Species Richness in Southern Saskatchewan

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    Susan P. Skinner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital map products that integrate long-term duck population and land-use data are currently being used to guide conservation program delivery on the Canadian Prairies. However, understanding the inter-relationships between ducks and other grassland bird species would greatly enhance program planning and delivery. We hypothesized that ducks, and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta in particular, may function as an umbrella guild for the overall breeding habitat quality for other grassland bird species. We compared grassland bird species richness and relative abundance among areas of low, moderate, and high predicted waterfowl breeding densities (i.e., duck density strata in the southern Missouri Coteau, Saskatchewan. We conducted roadside point counts and delineated habitats within a 400 m radius of each point. The duck high-density stratum supported greater avian species richness and abundance than did the duck low-density stratum. Overall, duck and other grassland bird species richness and abundance were moderately correlated, with all r between 0.37 and 0.69 (all P < 0.05. Although the habitat requirements of Northern Pintail may overlap with those of other grassland endemics, priority grassland bird species richness was only moderately correlated with total pintail abundance in both years, and the abundances of pintail and grassland songbirds listed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada were not correlated. No differences in the mean number of priority grassland species were detected among the strata. Adequate critical habitat for several priority species may not be protected if conservation is focused only in areas of moderate to high wetland density because large tracts of contiguous, dry grassland habitat (e.g., pasture occur infrequently in high-quality duck habitat.

  13. Kenyan endemic bird species at home in novel ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Teucher, Mike; Rödder, Dennis; Bleicher, Marie-Therese; Dieckow, Claudia; Wiese, Anja; Fischer, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Riparian thickets of East Africa harbor a large number of endemic animal and plant species, but also provide important ecosystem services for the human being settling along streams. This creates a conflicting situation between nature conservation and land-use activities. Today, most of this former pristine vegetation is highly degraded and became replaced by the invasive exotic Lantana camara shrub species. In this study, we analyze the movement behavior and habitat use of a diverse range of riparian bird species and model the habitat availability of each of these species. We selected the following four riparian bird species: Bare-eyed Thrush Turdus tephronotus, Rufous Chatterer Turdoides rubiginosus, Zanzibar Sombre Greenbul Andropadus importunus insularis, and the Kenyan endemic Hinde's Babbler Turdoides hindei. We collected telemetric data of 14 individuals during a 2 months radio-tracking campaign along the Nzeeu River in southeast Kenya. We found that (1) all four species had similar home-range sizes, all geographically restricted and nearby the river; (2) all species mainly use dense thicket, in particular the invasive L. camara; (3) human settlements were avoided by the bird individuals observed; (4) the birds' movement, indicating foraging behavior, was comparatively slow within thickets, but significantly faster over open, agricultural areas; and (5) habitat suitability models underline the relevance of L. camara as suitable surrogate habitat for all understoreyed bird species, but also show that the clearance of thickets has led to a vanishing of large and interconnected thickets and thus might have negative effects on the population viability in the long run. PMID:27066236

  14. Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India

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    Sujit Narwade

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven provinces of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS. The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula.

  15. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND STABILITY OF BIRD COMMUNITIES

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    Matsyura M.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available When comparing the suggested stability indicators, we obtained statistically significant correlations for indicators of annual stability of species and total number and standard deviation of the logarithm of the number. Annual Stability Index can be applied with a high degree of reliability as a characteristic of the averaged structure of the community and its pyramid of abundances. The results of correlation analysis confirm our assumptions about the correlation between stability over the years and indices of species diversity and relative uniformity.The final task of the study was to create a mathematical model of stability, where the independent variables are the indices of species diversity. The calculation of these indices allows forecasting birds’ community stability. According to the result of multiple regression for the indicators of diversity and stability of the breeding birds’ community highest correlation coefficients were obtained fro Shannon index and Simpson's dominance Index.Community stability could be determined by its overall species diversity. When considering the stability of community its diversity should be considered as a combination of uniformity of their total number and number of species. The most suitable predictors for the community stability were the nonparametric index of dominance and information-statistical indices, since they considered simultaneously evenness and richness. The community stability is subject of the complexity of its internal communications pattern.

  16. On two new species of Birds from South Celebes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büttikofer, J.

    1893-01-01

    Amongst the numerous birds, collected by the Dutch botanist Teysmann in the district of Macassar during the year 1878, the Leyden Museum is in possession of a specimen of the genus Cinnyris, which I am not able to identify with any known species and which I introduce here under the name of Cinnyris

  17. Weather, not climate, defines distributions of vagile bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April E Reside

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate predictions of species distributions are essential for climate change impact assessments. However the standard practice of using long-term climate averages to train species distribution models might mute important temporal patterns of species distribution. The benefit of using temporally explicit weather and distribution data has not been assessed. We hypothesized that short-term weather associated with the time a species was recorded should be superior to long-term climate measures for predicting distributions of mobile species. METHODOLOGY: We tested our hypothesis by generating distribution models for 157 bird species found in Australian tropical savannas (ATS using modelling algorithm Maxent. The variable weather of the ATS supports a bird assemblage with variable movement patterns and a high incidence of nomadism. We developed "weather" models by relating climatic variables (mean temperature, rainfall, rainfall seasonality and temperature seasonality from the three month, six month and one year period preceding each bird record over a 58 year period (1950-2008. These weather models were compared against models built using long-term (30 year averages of the same climatic variables. CONCLUSIONS: Weather models consistently achieved higher model scores than climate models, particularly for wide-ranging, nomadic and desert species. Climate models predicted larger range areas for species, whereas weather models quantified fluctuations in habitat suitability across months, seasons and years. Models based on long-term climate averages over-estimate availability of suitable habitat and species' climatic tolerances, masking species potential vulnerability to climate change. Our results demonstrate that dynamic approaches to distribution modelling, such as incorporating organism-appropriate temporal scales, improves understanding of species distributions.

  18. Critically retreating species of birds; 1 : 750 000, map fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Populations of the quoted bird species were reduced in such an extent in the 20th century that they are critically endangered now. Great bustard (Otis tarda) inhabited above all the southern part of the Podunajska nizina Basin and the middle part of valley of the Ipel. Its population broke down into small flocks after 1975. Only the last several individuals survive now and the species is critically endangered. Ortolan bunting (Emberiza hortulana) is also critically threatened bird species in Slovakia. The last known localities of its occurrence are on the south-eastern slopes of the Male Karpaty Mts. Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) bred in the region of Zahorie on the inundated meadows of the Morava river and on the foothills of the Male Karpaty Mts. in the past, and probably also in Zitny ostrov. It is critically endangered now. (author)

  19. Zoological researches in Liberia. Fourth list of Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büttikofer, J.

    1889-01-01

    Mr. F. X. Stampfli, whom I left in Liberia at the end of May 1887, repatriated last summer and brought home an important number of Birds skins, most of which are collected at three stations: Owen’s Grove, Mount Olive and Gallilee Mountain on the Farmington River. Only relatively few have been obtain

  20. Species richness and morphological diversity of passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between species richness and the occupation of niche space can provide insight into the processes that shape patterns of biodiversity. For example, if species interactions constrained coexistence, one might expect tendencies toward even spacing within niche space and positive relationships between diversity and total niche volume. I use morphological diversity of passerine birds as a proxy for diet, foraging maneuvers, and foraging substrates and examine the morphological space occupied by regional and local passerine avifaunas. Although independently diversified regional faunas exhibit convergent morphology, species are clustered rather than evenly distributed, the volume of the morphological space is weakly related to number of species per taxonomic family, and morphological volume is unrelated to number of species within both regional avifaunas and local assemblages. These results seemingly contradict patterns expected when species interactions constrain regional or local diversity, and they suggest a larger role for diversification, extinction, and dispersal limitation in shaping species richness.

  1. Species richness and morphological diversity of passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between species richness and the occupation of niche space can provide insight into the processes that shape patterns of biodiversity. For example, if species interactions constrained coexistence, one might expect tendencies toward even spacing within niche space and positive relationships between diversity and total niche volume. I use morphological diversity of passerine birds as a proxy for diet, foraging maneuvers, and foraging substrates and examine the morphological space occupied by regional and local passerine avifaunas. Although independently diversified regional faunas exhibit convergent morphology, species are clustered rather than evenly distributed, the volume of the morphological space is weakly related to number of species per taxonomic family, and morphological volume is unrelated to number of species within both regional avifaunas and local assemblages. These results seemingly contradict patterns expected when species interactions constrain regional or local diversity, and they suggest a larger role for diversification, extinction, and dispersal limitation in shaping species richness. PMID:22908271

  2. List of type specimens of birds in the Zoological Museum of the University of Amsterdam (ZMA), including taxa described by ZMA staff but without types in the ZMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roselaar, C.S.; Prins, T.G.

    2000-01-01

    The type specimens in the bird collection of the Zoological Museum of the University of Amsterdam (ZMA) are listed and discussed. The ZMA, founded 1838, has types of 51 taxa, at least 31 of these are still in use as valid names of species or subspecies, the remainder are synonyms of taxa described e

  3. Contribution to our knowledge of the Avifauna of the Netherlands, being a list of all the species of birds hitherto observed, with special references to specimens in the Leyden Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1908-01-01

    Though the specimens in our general ornithological collection, for the greater part collected before and at the time that the late Professor H. Schlegel interested himself much in the knowledge of the birds of the Netherlands — that is before 1865 —, in addition with those of the fine collection of

  4. Supplement to the Faunal List of the Birds of the Moluccan Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.; Voous, K.H.

    1953-01-01

    A faunal list of the birds of the Moluccan Islands has been previously published by the first author (Treubia 19, part 2, May 1948, pp. 323— 402). Additional data have been collected since by Mr. G. A. L. de Haan during a period of several years in which this zealous collector lived in Halmahera and

  5. 76 FR 50051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Six Foreign Birds as Endangered Throughout...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... six foreign bird species as endangered under the Act (75 FR 286). Following publication of the... extinction'' under the National Catalog of Endangered Species, a recovery plan for the Cantabrian... recovery plan and adopts measures for the protection of the species in the Community of Castilla and...

  6. Birds of the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird list containng 201 documented species by either refuge staff or visiting ornithologists. Taxonomic standard adheres to Fifth A.O.U. Check-List. Species...

  7. The Distribution and Abundance of Bird Species: Towards a Satellite, Data Driven Avian Energetics and Species Richness Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the fundamental question of why birds occur where and when they do, i.e., what are the causative factors that determine the spatio-temporal distributions, abundance, or richness of bird species? In this paper we outline the first steps toward building a satellite, data-driven model of avian energetics and species richness based on individual bird physiology, morphology, and interaction with the spatio-temporal habitat. To evaluate our model, we will use the North American Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Bird Count data for species richness, wintering and breeding range. Long term and current satellite data series include AVHRR, Landsat, and MODIS.

  8. Species diversity of birds in mangroves of Kundapura, Udupi District, Karnataka, Southwest Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijaya Kumar K.M; Vijaya Kumara

    2014-01-01

    We quantified species diversity of birds in mangroves at Kundapura from April-2010 to March-2013. We recorded 79 species of 36 families and 14 orders. Of these 71% are resident species, 22% are residential migrants and 8% are migratory. One endangered species, three near threatened species, and a few occasional visitors were re-corded. Species diversity and abundance of birds were greater during from October through May as there was availability of food, increased vegetation and the arrival of migratory birds. Minimum diversity was recorded from June through September owing to heavy rains, increased flow of water, limited availability of food and return of migratory birds.

  9. Species List for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a species list of fish, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles that are either common to the Back Bay area or have ranges that extend into this region. This list...

  10. List of the described species of the order Stylasterina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1957-01-01

    Moseley (1880, pp. 83-88) published a "List of all the Species of Stylasteridae at present known", remarking that this list is not to be regarded as constituting a revision of the species, but represents an attempt to draw attention to all the species of which an account has been published. This lis

  11. Offsets and conservation of the species of the EU habitats and birds directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Baptiste; Couvet, Denis; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity offsets are intended to achieve no net loss of biodiversity due to economic and human development. A variety of biodiversity components are addressed by offset policies. It is required that loss of protected species due to development be offset under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives in Europe. We call this type of offset a species-equality offset because the offset pertains to the same species affected by the development project. Whether species equality can be achieved by offset design is unknown. We addressed this gap by reviewing derogation files (i.e., specific files that describe mitigation measures to ensure no net loss under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives) from 85 development projects in France (2009-2010). We collected information on type of effect (reversible vs. irreversible) and characteristics of affected and offset sites (i.e., types of species, total area). We analyzed how the type of effect and the affected-site characteristics influenced the occurrence of offset measures. The proportion of species targeted by offset measures (i.e., offset species) increased with the irreversibility of the effect of development and the conservation status of the species affected by development (i.e., affected species). Not all effects on endangered species (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List) were offset; on average, 82% of affected species would be offset. Twenty-six percent of species of least concern were offset species. Thirty-five percent of development projects considered all affected species in their offset measures. Species richness was much lower in offset sites than in developed sites even after offset proposals. For developed areas where species richness was relatively high before development, species richness at offset sites was 5-10 times lower. The species-equality principle appears to have been applied only partially in offset policies, as in the EU directives. We suggest the application of this principle

  12. Offsets and conservation of the species of the EU habitats and birds directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Baptiste; Couvet, Denis; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity offsets are intended to achieve no net loss of biodiversity due to economic and human development. A variety of biodiversity components are addressed by offset policies. It is required that loss of protected species due to development be offset under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives in Europe. We call this type of offset a species-equality offset because the offset pertains to the same species affected by the development project. Whether species equality can be achieved by offset design is unknown. We addressed this gap by reviewing derogation files (i.e., specific files that describe mitigation measures to ensure no net loss under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives) from 85 development projects in France (2009-2010). We collected information on type of effect (reversible vs. irreversible) and characteristics of affected and offset sites (i.e., types of species, total area). We analyzed how the type of effect and the affected-site characteristics influenced the occurrence of offset measures. The proportion of species targeted by offset measures (i.e., offset species) increased with the irreversibility of the effect of development and the conservation status of the species affected by development (i.e., affected species). Not all effects on endangered species (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List) were offset; on average, 82% of affected species would be offset. Twenty-six percent of species of least concern were offset species. Thirty-five percent of development projects considered all affected species in their offset measures. Species richness was much lower in offset sites than in developed sites even after offset proposals. For developed areas where species richness was relatively high before development, species richness at offset sites was 5-10 times lower. The species-equality principle appears to have been applied only partially in offset policies, as in the EU directives. We suggest the application of this principle

  13. Learning About Bird Species on the Primary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2009-04-01

    Animal species identification is often emphasized as a basic prerequisite for an understanding of ecology because ecological interactions are based on interactions between species at least as it is taught on the school level. Therefore, training identification skills or using identification books seems a worthwhile task in biology education, and should already start on the primary level. On the primary level, however, complex interactions could not be taught but pupils are often interested in basic knowledge about species. We developed a hands-on, group-based and self-determined learning phase organized in workstations. About 138 pupils (2nd-4th graders) participated in this study. The two groups received an identification treatment with six different bird species. These were presented either as soft toys or as taxidermy specimen. Both groups scored similar prior and after the treatment (posttest 1) and with a delay of 6-8 weeks (posttest 2). More complex general linear modeling revealed a significant influence of prior knowledge, treatment and of grade (2nd, 3rd or 4th grade) on the first posttest while in the retention test gender differences emerged. We suggest that soft toys may be of equal value for teaching species identification on the primary level compared to natural taxidermic specimen, especially when considering pricing, insensitivity to handling, and contamination with agents used for preservation.

  14. Salmonellosis in garden birds in Scotland, 1995 to 2008: geographic region, Salmonella enterica phage type and bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycott, T W; Mather, H A; Bennett, G; Foster, G

    2010-04-01

    Salmonellosis was diagnosed in garden birds from 198 incidents in Scotland between September 1995 and August 2008. Salmonellosis was essentially a disease of finches in the north of Scotland, but in the south of Scotland it was also a problem in house sparrows. Almost all of the incidents were caused by Salmonella Typhimurium phage types 40 or 56/variant, but regional variation in phage types was observed. In the north of Scotland, one phage type (DT 40) predominated, but in the south of Scotland two phage types were commonly isolated (DTs 40 and 56/variant, with the latter the more common of the two phage types). This regional difference was statistically significant for salmonellosis in greenfinches, chaffinches and 'other garden birds', but not for house sparrows. Different temporal patterns for different species of bird and different phage types were also observed within regions. These findings suggest that the epidemiology of salmonellosis in garden birds varies depending on the phage type of Salmonella and the species of garden bird, with additional regional differences depending on the wild bird populations and the phage types of Salmonella in circulation. An awareness of these differences will help when formulating guidelines aimed at reducing the impact of salmonellosis in garden birds.

  15. Familiarity breeds content: assessing bird species popularity with culturomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ricardo A; Jepson, Paul R; Malhado, Ana C M; Ladle, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding public perceptions of biodiversity is essential to ensure continued support for conservation efforts. Despite this, insights remain scarce at broader spatial scales, mostly due to a lack of adequate methods for their assessment. The emergence of new technologies with global reach and high levels of participation provide exciting new opportunities to study the public visibility of biodiversity and the factors that drive it. Here, we use a measure of internet saliency to assess the national and international visibility of species within four taxa of Brazilian birds (toucans, hummingbirds, parrots and woodpeckers), and evaluate how much of this visibility can be explained by factors associated with familiarity, aesthetic appeal and conservation interest. Our results strongly indicate that familiarity (human population within the range of a species) is the most important factor driving internet saliency within Brazil, while aesthetic appeal (body size) best explains variation in international saliency. Endemism and conservation status of a species had small, but often negative, effects on either metric of internet saliency. While further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between internet content and the cultural visibility of different species, our results strongly indicate that internet saliency can be considered as a broad proxy of cultural interest. PMID:26966663

  16. Breeding bird populations of Irish peatlands : capsule peatlands are very important habitats for birds despite low species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Fintan; Barry J. McMahon; Whelan, John

    2008-01-01

    Aims to describe the variation in breeding bird populations that occur on different types of Irish peatlands and their associated habitat characteristics. Methods: Bird abundance and diversity were compared between four peatland habitat types: fens; raised bogs; Atlantic blanket bogs; and montane blanket bogs at twelve study sites using transects. Various measures of habitat quality were also taken at each location. Results: Only 21 species were recorded during the study with Meadow Pip...

  17. Light Pollution: Impact on Voice Activity of Selected Bird Species

    OpenAIRE

    Plzenská, Markéta

    2013-01-01

    The urban environment differs from the natural environment of birds in many aspects, which cause modifications of singing activites of urban bird populations. Some scientific studies have demonstrated that males begin to vocalize earlier before dawn in the noisy urban habitats than those inhabiting thein natural forest biotope. The effects of light pollution on bird voice activity has not been studied yet, although this factor may also cause some changes in the course of bird vocalization. Th...

  18. Conservation Status of Marine Biodiversity in Oceania: An Analysis of Marine Species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A. Polidoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the economic and cultural dependence on the marine environment in Oceania and a rapidly expanding human population, many marine species populations are in decline and may be vulnerable to extinction from a number of local and regional threats. IUCN Red List assessments, a widely used system for quantifying threats to species and assessing species extinction risk, have been completed for 1190 marine species in Oceania to date, including all known species of corals, mangroves, seagrasses, sea snakes, marine mammals, sea birds, sea turtles, sharks, and rays present in Oceania, plus all species in five important perciform fish groups. Many of the species in these groups are threatened by the modification or destruction of coastal habitats, overfishing from direct or indirect exploitation, pollution, and other ecological or environmental changes associated with climate change. Spatial analyses of threatened species highlight priority areas for both site- and species-specific conservation action. Although increased knowledge and use of newly available IUCN Red List assessments for marine species can greatly improve conservation priorities for marine species in Oceania, many important fish groups are still in urgent need of assessment.

  19. Seasonal Changes in Bird Species and Feeding Guilds along Elevational Gradients of the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Hem Bahadur; Basnet, Khadga; Khanal, Bhaiya; Devkota, Shiva; Rai, Sanjeev Kumar; Gajurel, Jyoti Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph; Nobis, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas are a global hotspot for bird diversity with a large number of threatened species, but little is known about seasonal changes in bird communities along elevational gradients in this region. We studied the seasonality of bird diversity in six valleys of the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Using 318 plots with a 50 m radius, located from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l., and repeated sampling during different seasons (mainly pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon), we analyzed 3642 occurrences of 178 species. Birds classified in the literature as resident were more species-rich than migratory birds (140 vs. 38 species). In all six valleys and within the studied elevation range, species richness of all birds showed a peak at mid-elevation levels of 2600 or 3000 m a.s.l. Similar patterns were found for the most species-rich feeding guilds of insectivores (96 species) and omnivores (24 species), whereas the species richness of herbivores (37 species including frugivores) increased towards higher elevations. Among these feeding guilds, only species richness of insectivores showed pronounced seasonal changes with higher species numbers during post-monsoon season. Similarly, individual bird species showed distinct spatio-temporal distribution patterns, with transitions from species dominated by elevational differences to those characterized by strong seasonal changes. In an era of climate change, the results demonstrate that individual bird species as well as feeding guilds might greatly differ in their responses to climate warming and changes in the seasonality of the precipitation regime, two aspects of climate change which should not be analyzed independently. PMID:27367903

  20. Seasonal Changes in Bird Species and Feeding Guilds along Elevational Gradients of the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Hem Bahadur; Basnet, Khadga; Khanal, Bhaiya; Devkota, Shiva; Rai, Sanjeev Kumar; Gajurel, Jyoti Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph; Nobis, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas are a global hotspot for bird diversity with a large number of threatened species, but little is known about seasonal changes in bird communities along elevational gradients in this region. We studied the seasonality of bird diversity in six valleys of the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Using 318 plots with a 50 m radius, located from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l., and repeated sampling during different seasons (mainly pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon), we analyzed 3642 occurrences of 178 species. Birds classified in the literature as resident were more species-rich than migratory birds (140 vs. 38 species). In all six valleys and within the studied elevation range, species richness of all birds showed a peak at mid-elevation levels of 2600 or 3000 m a.s.l. Similar patterns were found for the most species-rich feeding guilds of insectivores (96 species) and omnivores (24 species), whereas the species richness of herbivores (37 species including frugivores) increased towards higher elevations. Among these feeding guilds, only species richness of insectivores showed pronounced seasonal changes with higher species numbers during post-monsoon season. Similarly, individual bird species showed distinct spatio-temporal distribution patterns, with transitions from species dominated by elevational differences to those characterized by strong seasonal changes. In an era of climate change, the results demonstrate that individual bird species as well as feeding guilds might greatly differ in their responses to climate warming and changes in the seasonality of the precipitation regime, two aspects of climate change which should not be analyzed independently. PMID:27367903

  1. Unveiling the conservation biogeography of a data-deficient endangered bird species under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    It remains a challenge to identify the geographical patterns and underlying environmental associations of species with unique ecological niches and distinct behaviors. This in turn hinders our understanding of the ecology as well as effective conservation management of threatened species. The white-eared night heron (Gorsachius magnificus) is a non-migratory nocturnal bird species that has a patchy distribution in the mountainous forests of East Asia. It is currently categorized as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List, primarily due to its restricted range and fragmented habitat. To improve our knowledge of the biogeography and conservation of this species, we modeled the geographical pattern of its suitable habitat and evaluated the potential impacts of climate change using ecological niche modeling with a maximum entropy approach implemented in Maxent. Our results indicated that the amount of suitable habitat in all of East Asia was about 130 000 km(2), which can be spatially subdivided into several mountain ranges in southern and southwestern China and northern Vietnam. The extent of suitable habitat range may shrink by more than 35% under a predicted changing climate when assuming the most pessimistic condition of dispersal, while some more suitable habitat would be available if the heron could disperse unrestrainedly. The significant future changes in habitat suitability suggested for Gorsachius magnificus urge caution in any downgrading of Red List status that may be considered. Our results also discern potentially suitable areas for future survey efforts on new populations. Overall, this study demonstrates that ecological niche modeling offers an important tool for evaluating the habitat suitability and potential impacts of climate change on an enigmatic and endangered species based on limited presence data. PMID:24404169

  2. Unveiling the conservation biogeography of a data-deficient endangered bird species under climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Hu

    Full Text Available It remains a challenge to identify the geographical patterns and underlying environmental associations of species with unique ecological niches and distinct behaviors. This in turn hinders our understanding of the ecology as well as effective conservation management of threatened species. The white-eared night heron (Gorsachius magnificus is a non-migratory nocturnal bird species that has a patchy distribution in the mountainous forests of East Asia. It is currently categorized as "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List, primarily due to its restricted range and fragmented habitat. To improve our knowledge of the biogeography and conservation of this species, we modeled the geographical pattern of its suitable habitat and evaluated the potential impacts of climate change using ecological niche modeling with a maximum entropy approach implemented in Maxent. Our results indicated that the amount of suitable habitat in all of East Asia was about 130 000 km(2, which can be spatially subdivided into several mountain ranges in southern and southwestern China and northern Vietnam. The extent of suitable habitat range may shrink by more than 35% under a predicted changing climate when assuming the most pessimistic condition of dispersal, while some more suitable habitat would be available if the heron could disperse unrestrainedly. The significant future changes in habitat suitability suggested for Gorsachius magnificus urge caution in any downgrading of Red List status that may be considered. Our results also discern potentially suitable areas for future survey efforts on new populations. Overall, this study demonstrates that ecological niche modeling offers an important tool for evaluating the habitat suitability and potential impacts of climate change on an enigmatic and endangered species based on limited presence data.

  3. Composition of Mix Species Foraging Flocks of Birds in Riverstan of Montane Region, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    S. Wikramasinghe; W.G.D.D.M. Shermila

    2013-01-01

    Montane zone mixed-species bird flock system is distinct from that of low-land wet zone of SriLanka, although some species are present in both systems. The present study identified the mixed speciesflocks of birds in Riverstan at Knuckles Region, Sri Lanka. Monthly transect counts and opportunisticobservations were made between January and May, 2012. A total of 78 flocks and 27 bird species wereencountered at Riverstan during the study period. The flock size varied between 2 to 13 species and...

  4. Microsporidian Species Known To Infect Humans Are Present in Aquatic Birds: Implications for Transmission via Water?

    OpenAIRE

    Slodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Tamang, Leena; Jedrzejewski, Szymon; Nowosad, Andrzej; Zduniak, Piotr; Solarczyk, Piotr; Girouard, Autumn S.; Majewska, Anna C.

    2006-01-01

    Human microsporidiosis, a serious disease of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed people, can be due to zoonotic and environmental transmission of microsporidian spores. A survey utilizing conventional and molecular techniques for examining feces from 570 free-ranging, captive, and livestock birds demonstrated that 21 animals shed microsporidian spores of species known to infect humans, including Encephalitozoon hellem (20 birds; 3.5%) and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (1 bird; 0.2%). Of 11 av...

  5. Identifying the world's most climate change vulnerable species: a systematic trait-based assessment of all birds, amphibians and corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foden, Wendy B; Butchart, Stuart H M; Stuart, Simon N; Vié, Jean-Christophe; Akçakaya, H Resit; Angulo, Ariadne; DeVantier, Lyndon M; Gutsche, Alexander; Turak, Emre; Cao, Long; Donner, Simon D; Katariya, Vineet; Bernard, Rodolphe; Holland, Robert A; Hughes, Adrian F; O'Hanlon, Susannah E; Garnett, Stephen T; Sekercioğlu, Cagan H; Mace, Georgina M

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on biodiversity, including increasing extinction rates. Current approaches to quantifying such impacts focus on measuring exposure to climatic change and largely ignore the biological differences between species that may significantly increase or reduce their vulnerability. To address this, we present a framework for assessing three dimensions of climate change vulnerability, namely sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity; this draws on species' biological traits and their modeled exposure to projected climatic changes. In the largest such assessment to date, we applied this approach to each of the world's birds, amphibians and corals (16,857 species). The resulting assessments identify the species with greatest relative vulnerability to climate change and the geographic areas in which they are concentrated, including the Amazon basin for amphibians and birds, and the central Indo-west Pacific (Coral Triangle) for corals. We found that high concentration areas for species with traits conferring highest sensitivity and lowest adaptive capacity differ from those of highly exposed species, and we identify areas where exposure-based assessments alone may over or under-estimate climate change impacts. We found that 608-851 bird (6-9%), 670-933 amphibian (11-15%), and 47-73 coral species (6-9%) are both highly climate change vulnerable and already threatened with extinction on the IUCN Red List. The remaining highly climate change vulnerable species represent new priorities for conservation. Fewer species are highly climate change vulnerable under lower IPCC SRES emissions scenarios, indicating that reducing greenhouse emissions will reduce climate change driven extinctions. Our study answers the growing call for a more biologically and ecologically inclusive approach to assessing climate change vulnerability. By facilitating independent assessment of the three dimensions of climate change vulnerability, our approach can

  6. Identifying the world's most climate change vulnerable species: a systematic trait-based assessment of all birds, amphibians and corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy B Foden

    Full Text Available Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on biodiversity, including increasing extinction rates. Current approaches to quantifying such impacts focus on measuring exposure to climatic change and largely ignore the biological differences between species that may significantly increase or reduce their vulnerability. To address this, we present a framework for assessing three dimensions of climate change vulnerability, namely sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity; this draws on species' biological traits and their modeled exposure to projected climatic changes. In the largest such assessment to date, we applied this approach to each of the world's birds, amphibians and corals (16,857 species. The resulting assessments identify the species with greatest relative vulnerability to climate change and the geographic areas in which they are concentrated, including the Amazon basin for amphibians and birds, and the central Indo-west Pacific (Coral Triangle for corals. We found that high concentration areas for species with traits conferring highest sensitivity and lowest adaptive capacity differ from those of highly exposed species, and we identify areas where exposure-based assessments alone may over or under-estimate climate change impacts. We found that 608-851 bird (6-9%, 670-933 amphibian (11-15%, and 47-73 coral species (6-9% are both highly climate change vulnerable and already threatened with extinction on the IUCN Red List. The remaining highly climate change vulnerable species represent new priorities for conservation. Fewer species are highly climate change vulnerable under lower IPCC SRES emissions scenarios, indicating that reducing greenhouse emissions will reduce climate change driven extinctions. Our study answers the growing call for a more biologically and ecologically inclusive approach to assessing climate change vulnerability. By facilitating independent assessment of the three dimensions of climate change vulnerability

  7. Does bird species diversity vary among forest types? A local-scale test in Southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Jiménez, Jaime E.

    2014-10-01

    Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60 % of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats.

  8. Birds of the Shatan River Basin, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study we recorded 149 species of birds belonging to 97 genera and 36 families in 15 orders. These bird species compose 32% of Mongolian registered bird fauna. Of these 149 species, 54% are passeriformes. Our observation was held in three different habitats: mountains ranging with rocks and forest (88 species, river basins (45 species, and an area around human habitation, specifically train stations outside towns (16 species. Of our studied bird species, 11 are enlisted in the International Union for Conservation of Nature red list as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened species, and 144 are known as least concerned. Also 20 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and 15 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species.

  9. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Hanley, Nick;

    2014-01-01

    preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more...... for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country – even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level....... Furthermore, people believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation...

  10. Composition of Mix Species Foraging Flocks of Birds in Riverstan of Montane Region, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.G.D.D.M. Shermila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Montane zone mixed-species bird flock system is distinct from that of low-land wet zone of SriLanka, although some species are present in both systems. The present study identified the mixed speciesflocks of birds in Riverstan at Knuckles Region, Sri Lanka. Monthly transect counts and opportunisticobservations were made between January and May, 2012. A total of 78 flocks and 27 bird species wereencountered at Riverstan during the study period. The flock size varied between 2 to 13 species and 4 to58 individuals. The mean number of species per flock was 6.03 ± 2.25 and the mean number ofindividuals in a flock was 18.41±9.87. The flock size was positively correlated with the number of speciespresent (r = 0.756, P <0.05. Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher was the most abundant species (mean2.68±1.02 birds per flocks while Sri Lanka White-eye was the most frequent species (mean 5.69±3.92birds per flocks. Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher and Sri Lanka Scimitar-babbler were the nuclear speciesin Riverstan. The leading species were Sri Lanka white-eye and Sri Lanka Yellow-eared Bulbul. Differentbird species used different heights within flocks.Keywords: Mixed-species flock, Nuclear species, Abundance, Foraging flocks

  11. Pollinator shifts drive petal epidermal evolution on the Macaronesian Islands bird-flowered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Dario I; Valido, Alfredo; Fernández de Castro, Alejandro G; Ortega-Olivencia, Ana; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier; Carvalho, José A; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo

    2016-04-01

    Pollinator shifts are considered to drive floral trait evolution, yet little is still known about the modifications of petal epidermal surface at a biogeographic region scale. Here we investigated how independent shifts from insects to passerine birds in the Macaronesian Islands consistently modified this floral trait (i.e. absence of papillate cells). Using current phylogenies and extensive evidence from field observations, we selected a total of 81 plant species and subspecies for petal microscopy and comparative analysis, including 19 of the 23 insular species pollinated by opportunistic passerine birds (Macaronesian bird-flowered element). Species relying on passerine birds as the most effective pollinators (bird-pollinated) independently evolved at least five times and in all instances associated with a loss of papillate cells, whereas species with a mixed pollination system (birds plus insects and/or other vertebrates) evolved at least five times in Macaronesia and papillate cells were lost in only 25% of these transitions. Our findings suggest that petal micromorphology is a labile trait during pollinator shifts and that papillate cells tend to be absent on those species where pollinators have limited mechanical interaction with flowers, including opportunistic passerine birds that forage by hovering or from the ground. PMID:27122008

  12. Determinants of Mammal and Bird Species Richness in China Based on Habitat Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Xu

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial patterns in species richness is a central issue in macroecology and biogeography. Analyses that have traditionally focused on overall species richness limit the generality and depth of inference. Spatial patterns of species richness and the mechanisms that underpin them in China remain poorly documented. We created a database of the distribution of 580 mammal species and 849 resident bird species from 2376 counties in China and established spatial linear models to identify the determinants of species richness and test the roles of five hypotheses for overall mammals and resident birds and the 11 habitat groups among the two taxa. Our result showed that elevation variability was the most important determinant of species richness of overall mammal and bird species. It is indicated that the most prominent predictors of species richness varied among different habitat groups: elevation variability for forest and shrub mammals and birds, temperature annual range for grassland and desert mammals and wetland birds, net primary productivity for farmland mammals, maximum temperature of the warmest month for cave mammals, and precipitation of the driest quarter for grassland and desert birds. Noteworthily, main land cover type was also found to obviously influence mammal and bird species richness in forests, shrubs and wetlands under the disturbance of intensified human activities. Our findings revealed a substantial divergence in the species richness patterns among different habitat groups and highlighted the group-specific and disparate environmental associations that underpin them. As we demonstrate, a focus on overall species richness alone might lead to incomplete or misguided understanding of spatial patterns. Conservation priorities that consider a broad spectrum of habitat groups will be more successful in safeguarding the multiple services of biodiversity.

  13. Bird Species Abundance and Their Correlationship with Microclimate and Habitat Variables at Natural Wetland Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nawaz Rajpar; Mohamed Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Birds are the most conspicuous and significant component of freshwater wetland ecosystem. Presence or absence of birds may indicate the ecological conditions of the wetland area. The objectives of this study were to determine bird species abundance and their relationship with microclimate and habitat variables. Distance sampling point count method was applied for determining species abundance and multiple regressions was used for finding relationship between bird species abundance, microclima...

  14. Biogeographic and conservation implications of revised species limits and distributions of South Asian birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of breeding species richness and endemism of South Asian birds are described and depicted. The impacts of a taxonomic revision on these patterns and on threat levels of the region’s avifauna are discussed.

  15. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  16. Additions and amendments to the bird and mammal lists of the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H Grobler

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The following account updates and amends various previous publications dealing with the birds and mammals of the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP. In the case of birds, Roberts' Birds of South Africa numbers are used.

  17. Species Diversity and Feeding Guilds of Birds in Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Sajap

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the bird species diversity and feeding guilds in Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Peninsular, Malaysia. Distance sampling-point count method was used to survey the bird species. A total of 13872 birds belonging to 100 species and 38 families were recorded. The results show that Treron vernans (12.42%, Pycnonotus goiavier (12.13%, Geopelia striata (7.58%, Porphyrio porphyrio (6.87% and Streptopelia chinensis (6.33% were the most dominant species in the area. The Ardeidae was the most dominant family with nine species and sixteen families were rarest only with one species each. The highest bird diversity was observed in Marsh swamp (Shannons N1 = 27.16, while the lowest was in Patchy shrubland (Shannons N1 = 22.51. The highest bird species richness was observed in Marsh swamp (Margalefs R1 = 9.52, while the lowest was observed in open water bodies (Margalefs R1 = 7.35. The evenness of individuals among the species was higher in Marsh swamps (Pielou J = 0.71 and lower in Patchy shrubland (Pielou J = 0.67. Analysis of variance and Tukey (HSD tests showed that bird species among habitats is significantly different (F4, 495 = 8.82 p<0.0001. Feeding guilds indicated that insectivore was the most dominant group (37%, while Carnivore/Insectivore and Granivore were the least dominant groups (3% each in all five habitats. This study clearly indicated that Paya Indah Wetland Reserve is highly important in providing food resources, shelter, nesting and roosting sites for wide range of bird species.

  18. 50 CFR 23.91 - How do I find out if a species is listed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Lists of Species § 23.91 How do I find out if a species is listed? (a) CITES list. The official CITES list includes species of wildlife and plants placed in Appendix I, II, and III... the CITES Secretariat based on decisions of the Parties. You may access the official list from...

  19. How well do Important Bird Areas represent species and minimize conservation conflict in the tropical Andes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Dea, Niall; Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Whittaker, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    then compare the performance of the expert-driven Important Bird Areas (IBA) scheme against a hypothetical protected-areas network identified with a systematic reserve selection algorithm seeking to maximize at-risk bird species representation. Our aim is to assess the degree to which: IBAs contain a higher......Where high species richness and high human population density coincide, potential exists for conflict between the imperatives of species conservation and human development. We examine the coincidence of at-risk bird species richness and human population in the countries of the tropical Andes. We...... richness of at-risk species than would be expected by chance, IBAs contain more people than would be expected by chance, and IBAs are congruent with complementary areas that maximize species representation with an equivalent number of sites. While the correlation of richness and population was low...

  20. Can temporal and spatial NDVI predict regional bird-species richness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Nieto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of the species and its controls over biogeographic scales is still a major challenge in ecology. National Park Networks provide an opportunity to assess the relationship between ecosystem functioning and biodiversity in areas with low human impacts. We tested the productivity–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the available energy, and the ​variability–biodiversity hypothesis which states that the number of species increases with the diversity of habitats. The available energy and habitat heterogeneity estimated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was shown as a good predictor of bird-species richness for a diverse set of biomes in previously published studies. However, there is not a universal relationship between NDVI and bird-species richness. Here we tested if the NDVI can predict bird species richness in areas with low human impact in Argentina. Using a dataset from the National Park Network of Argentina we found that the best predictor of bird species richness was the minimum value of NDVI per year which explained 75% of total variability. The inclusion of the spatial heterogeneity of NDVI improved the explanation power to 80%. Minimum NDVI was highly correlated with precipitation and winter temperature. Our analysis provides a tool for assessing bird-species richness at scales on which land-use planning practitioners make their decisions for Southern South America.

  1. Re-shuffling of species with climate disruption: a no-analog future for California birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stralberg

    Full Text Available By facilitating independent shifts in species' distributions, climate disruption may result in the rapid development of novel species assemblages that challenge the capacity of species to co-exist and adapt. We used a multivariate approach borrowed from paleoecology to quantify the potential change in California terrestrial breeding bird communities based on current and future species-distribution models for 60 focal species. Projections of future no-analog communities based on two climate models and two species-distribution-model algorithms indicate that by 2070 over half of California could be occupied by novel assemblages of bird species, implying the potential for dramatic community reshuffling and altered patterns of species interactions. The expected percentage of no-analog bird communities was dependent on the community scale examined, but consistent geographic patterns indicated several locations that are particularly likely to host novel bird communities in the future. These no-analog areas did not always coincide with areas of greatest projected species turnover. Efforts to conserve and manage biodiversity could be substantially improved by considering not just future changes in the distribution of individual species, but including the potential for unprecedented changes in community composition and unanticipated consequences of novel species assemblages.

  2. Bird population trends are linearly affected by climate change along species thermal ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent; Ottvall, Richard; Van Turnhout, Chris; van der Jeugd, Henk; Lindström, Åke

    2010-01-01

    Beyond the effects of temperature increase on local population trends and on species distribution shifts, how populations of a given species are affected by climate change along a species range is still unclear. We tested whether and how species responses to climate change are related to the populations locations within the species thermal range. We compared the average 20 year growth rates of 62 terrestrial breeding birds in three European countries along the latitudinal gradient of the spec...

  3. Re-Shuffling of Species with Climate Disruption: A No-Analog Future for California Birds?

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Stralberg; Dennis Jongsomjit; Christine A Howell; Snyder, Mark A.; Alexander, John D; Wiens, John A.; Root, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    By facilitating independent shifts in species' distributions, climate disruption may result in the rapid development of novel species assemblages that challenge the capacity of species to co-exist and adapt. We used a multivariate approach borrowed from paleoecology to quantify the potential change in California terrestrial breeding bird communities based on current and future species-distribution models for 60 focal species. Projections of future no-analog communities based on two climate mo...

  4. Bird Species Abundance and Their Correlationship with Microclimate and Habitat Variables at Natural Wetland Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nawaz Rajpar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Birds are the most conspicuous and significant component of freshwater wetland ecosystem. Presence or absence of birds may indicate the ecological conditions of the wetland area. The objectives of this study were to determine bird species abundance and their relationship with microclimate and habitat variables. Distance sampling point count method was applied for determining species abundance and multiple regressions was used for finding relationship between bird species abundance, microclimate and habitat variables. Bird species were monitored during November, 2007 to January, 2009. A total of 8728 individual birds comprising 89 species and 38 families were detected. Marsh Swamp was swarmed by 84 species (69.8% followed open water body by 55 species (17.7% and lotus swamp by 57 species (12.6%. Purple swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio (9.1% of all detections was the most abundant bird species of marsh swamp, lesser whistling duck—Dendrocygna javanica (2.3% was dominant species of open water body and pink-necked green pigeon—Treron vernans (1.7% was most common species of lotus swamp. Results revealed that the habitat characteristics such as vegetation composition (i.e. emergent and submerged vegetations, grasses, shrubs, and trees, vegetation structures (tree diameter and height and microclimate variables (temperature, relative humidity and light intensity were the key factors that influenced the distribution, diversity and density of the wetland bird species. This study also revealed that the wetland bird species have adapted a fairly unique set of microhabitat and microclimate conditions.

  5. What species-specific traits make a bird a better surrogate of native species richness? A test with insular avifauna

    OpenAIRE

    Carrascal, L. M.; Cayuela, L.; Palomino, D. (Desirée); Seoane, Javier

    2012-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published in Biological Conservation. Carrascal, L.M. et al. What species-specific traits make a bird a better surrogate of native species richness? A test with insular avifauna. Biological Conservation 152 (2012): 204-211

  6. Galápagos Birds and Diseases: Invasive Pathogens as Threats for Island Species

    OpenAIRE

    Hernan Vargas; Johannes Foufopoulos; Martin Wikelski; Howard Snell

    2004-01-01

    Exotic diseases and parasites have caused extinctions on islands and continents, particularly when they spread through assemblages of immunologically naïve species. Hawaii has lost a substantial part of its endemic bird fauna since the introduction of avian malaria at the beginning of the 20th century. In contrast, the Galápagos archipelago still possesses its entire endemic avifauna. Several of these Galápagos bird populations are in decline, however, and wildlife managers seek guidance to c...

  7. The pattern of influenza virus attachment varies among wild bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Jourdain

    Full Text Available The ability to attach to host cells is one of the main determinants of the host range of influenza A viruses. By using virus histochemistry, we investigate the pattern of virus attachment of both a human and an avian influenza virus in colon and trachea sections from 12 wild bird species. We show that significant variations exist, even between closely related avian species, which suggests that the ability of wild birds to serve as hosts for influenza viruses strongly varies among species. These results will prove valuable to assess the possibilities of interspecies transmission of influenza viruses in natural environments and better understand the ecology of influenza.

  8. Migratory and carnivorous birds in Brazil: reservoirs for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério; Werther, Karin; de Sousa, Eliane; Gavioli, Fernando Antônio; Alves Junior, José Roberto Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    In order to investigate new hosts for Anaplasmataceae agents in Brazil, we collected blood samples from 21 wild birds. Using molecular techniques, we detected the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and an Ehrlichia species closely related to Ehrlichia canis in carnivorous avian blood samples. In addition, an Ehrlichia species closely related to an Ehrlichia species found in wild felines in Brazil was also detected in a goose blood sample. Wild birds may play a role as carriers of Anaplasmataceae agents in Brazil. PMID:22607070

  9. [Bird species diversity and related protection measures in urban park green spaces of Loudi City, Hunan Province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-de; Liu, Ping-yuan; Gong, Xun-sheng; Xiao, Xiao-jun

    2013-08-01

    Urban park green space is an important physical part of urban ecosystem, and also, the important habitat and carrier for birds and other animals. Rapid urbanization induces the great change in the spatial pattern of urban park green space, while the patched distribution of urban park green space has the habitat features similar to 'habitat islands', giving obvious effects on urban avian communities. In order to understand the bird species distribution and species diversity in Loudi City and to provide the basic information for the bird conservation, a line transect method and a quadrat sampling method were adopted to investigate the distribution pattern and species richness of the birds across seven urban parks in the Loudi City from November, 2010 to January, 2012. A total of 56 birds species belonging to 11 orders and 27 families were recorded, among which, there were 32, 12 and 12 species belonging to resident birds, summer migrant birds and winter migrant birds, accounting for 57.2%, 21.4% and 21.4%, respectively. As for the fauna, there were 27, 14, and 15 bird species belonging to oriental species, palaearctic species and widely distributed species, accounting for 48.2%, 25.0% and 26.8%, respectively. A total of 7 species belonging to the second class of the national key protected species were recorded, accounting for 12.5% of the total. The Shannon, Pielou and G-F indices of the bird communities in the urban parks in Loudi City were 1.49, 0.85 and 0.62, respectively. Zhushan Park had the highest species number (42), Shannon index (1.41), G index (3.46), F index (6.12) and G-F index (0.43), and Yueqin Hill Park had the highest Pielou index (0.92). The reasons of the poor bird species in Loudi City were analyzed, and some suggestions for preventing the birds were put forward.

  10. Dose reconstruction for birds species exposed to ionizing radiations highlights risk for species reproducing in the Fukushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam-Guillermin, C.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Sternalski, A.; Bonzom, J.M.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Brown, J.E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Giraudeau, M. [Arizona state university (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS) in Japan following the earthquake in March 2011 led to a massive release of radioactive isotopes into the environment. The atmospheric releases have created a footprint of radioactive contamination in the terrestrial ecosystems around the site, with a hot spot area that extends up to 80-km northwest. Despite some data are available on medium and biota contamination, there is still a lack of knowledge on possible ecological consequences due to the complexity of the exposure situation. Few papers were published using data observed in situ, reporting a reduction of bird and invertebrate abundance (Moeller et al., 2012, 2013) and morphological effects in butterflies (Hiyama et al., 2012). But as for any contaminant, the biological effects are dependent on the dose received, and an accurate dose estimation is needed to be able to correctly predict ecological risk. An early study has published preliminary radiological dose reconstruction from Fukushima wildlife signaling potential ecological consequences, but without using any quantitative data relating to biological samples (Garnier-Laplace et al., 2011). In this general framework, the work presented here aims at refining the first assessment conducted to evaluate possible consequences of the FDNPS radioactive releases, focusing on some bird species, studied in Fukushima but also in Chernobyl. Public data available on bird and soil contamination were used to check the bird contamination model used, showing that radioactive contamination predictions were within the range of variation of measured data. This model was then applied to estimate doses in bird species living in the Fukushima prefecture and known to reproduce during the period just after the nuclear power plant accident, based on ecological maps established for Japan. The influence of life stages and species ecological characteristics was taken into account on the dose estimates. The heterogeneity of

  11. 50 CFR 23.90 - What are the criteria for listing species in Appendix III?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Lists of Species § 23.90 What are the criteria for listing... concern. (g) Transferring a species from Appendix III to Appendix I or II. If, after monitoring the...

  12. Which Species Are We Researching and Why? A Case Study of the Ecology of British Breeding Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa J McKenzie

    Full Text Available Our ecological knowledge base is extensive, but the motivations for research are many and varied, leading to unequal species representation and coverage. As this evidence is used to support a wide range of conservation, management and policy actions, it is important that gaps and biases are identified and understood. In this paper we detail a method for quantifying research effort and impact at the individual species level, and go on to investigate the factors that best explain between-species differences in outputs. We do this using British breeding birds as a case study, producing a ranked list of species based on two scientific publication metrics: total number of papers (a measure of research quantity and h-index (a measure of the number of highly cited papers on a topic--an indication of research quality. Widespread, populous species which are native, resident and in receipt of biodiversity action plans produced significantly higher publication metrics. Guild was also significant, birds of prey the most studied group, with pigeons and doves the least studied. The model outputs for both metrics were very similar, suggesting that, at least in this example, research quantity and quality were highly correlated. The results highlight three key gaps in the evidence base, with fewer citations and publications relating to migrant breeders, introduced species and species which have experienced contractions in distribution. We suggest that the use of publication metrics in this way provides a novel approach to understanding the scale and drivers of both research quantity and impact at a species level and could be widely applied, both taxonomically and geographically.

  13. Which Species Are We Researching and Why? A Case Study of the Ecology of British Breeding Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Ailsa J.; Robertson, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Our ecological knowledge base is extensive, but the motivations for research are many and varied, leading to unequal species representation and coverage. As this evidence is used to support a wide range of conservation, management and policy actions, it is important that gaps and biases are identified and understood. In this paper we detail a method for quantifying research effort and impact at the individual species level, and go on to investigate the factors that best explain between-species differences in outputs. We do this using British breeding birds as a case study, producing a ranked list of species based on two scientific publication metrics: total number of papers (a measure of research quantity) and h-index (a measure of the number of highly cited papers on a topic – an indication of research quality). Widespread, populous species which are native, resident and in receipt of biodiversity action plans produced significantly higher publication metrics. Guild was also significant, birds of prey the most studied group, with pigeons and doves the least studied. The model outputs for both metrics were very similar, suggesting that, at least in this example, research quantity and quality were highly correlated. The results highlight three key gaps in the evidence base, with fewer citations and publications relating to migrant breeders, introduced species and species which have experienced contractions in distribution. We suggest that the use of publication metrics in this way provides a novel approach to understanding the scale and drivers of both research quantity and impact at a species level and could be widely applied, both taxonomically and geographically. PMID:26154759

  14. Weather, Not Climate, Defines Distributions of Vagile Bird Species

    OpenAIRE

    April E Reside; VanDerWal, Jeremy J.; Kutt, Alex S.; Perkins, Genevieve C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate predictions of species distributions are essential for climate change impact assessments. However the standard practice of using long-term climate averages to train species distribution models might mute important temporal patterns of species distribution. The benefit of using temporally explicit weather and distribution data has not been assessed. We hypothesized that short-term weather associated with the time a species was recorded should be superior to long-term clima...

  15. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hedemark Lundhede

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country--even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level. Furthermore, people believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation investments rely heavily on public funding and hence on public support. Our results suggest that cross-country coordination of conservation efforts under climate change will be challenging in terms of achieving an appropriate balance between cost-effectiveness in adaptation and the concerns of a general public who seem mostly worried about protecting currently-native species.

  16. Habitat fragmentation and effects of herbivore (howler monkey) abundances on bird species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kenneth J; Terborgh, John W

    2006-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation can alter herbivore abundances, potentially causing changes in the plant community that can propagate through the food web and eventually influence other important taxonomic groups such as birds. Here we test the relationship between the density of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) and bird species richness on a large set of recently isolated land-bridge islands in Lago Guri, Venezuela (n = 29 islands). Several of these islands host relict populations of howler monkeys at densities up to more than 30 times greater than those on the mainland. These "hyperabundant" herbivores previously have been shown to have a strong positive influence on aboveground plant productivity. We predicted that this should lead to a positive, indirect effect of howler monkey density on bird species richness. After accounting for passive sampling (the tendency for species richness to be positively associated with island area, regardless of differences in habitat quality) we found a significant positive correlation between howler monkey density and bird species richness. A path analysis incorporating data on tree growth rates from a subset of islands (n = 9) supported the hypothesis that the effect of howler monkeys on the resident bird communities is indirect and is mediated through changes in plant productivity and habitat quality. These results highlight the potential for disparate taxonomic groups to be related through indirect interactions and trophic cascades. PMID:16634305

  17. Monitoring potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Feng, D.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds and poultry have caught worldwide attention. To explore the association between wild bird migration and avian influenza virus transmission, we monitored potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species that might carry the avian influenza viruses in China. They are Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). They served as major reservoir of the avian influenza viruses. We used bird watching records with the precise latitude/longitude coordinates from January 2002 to August 2014, and environmental variables with a pixel resolution of 5 km × 5 km from 2002 to 2014. The study utilized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on ecological niche model approaches, and got the following results: 1) MaxEnt model have good discriminatory ability with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.86-0.97; 2) The four wild bird species were estimated to concentrate in the North China Plain, the middle and lower region of the Yangtze River, Qinghai Lake, Tianshan Mountain and Tarim Basin, part of Tibet Plateau, and Hengduan Mountains; 3) Radiation and the minimum temperature were found to provide the most significant information. Our findings will help to understand the spread of avian influenza viruses by wild bird migration in China, which benefits for effective monitoring strategies and prevention measures.

  18. Spatial, temporal, and species variation in prevalence of influenza A viruses in wild migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J Munster

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although extensive data exist on avian influenza in wild birds in North America, limited information is available from elsewhere, including Europe. Here, molecular diagnostic tools were employed for high-throughput surveillance of migratory birds, as an alternative to classical labor-intensive methods of virus isolation in eggs. This study included 36,809 samples from 323 bird species belonging to 18 orders, of which only 25 species of three orders were positive for influenza A virus. Information on species, locations, and timing is provided for all samples tested. Seven previously unknown host species for avian influenza virus were identified: barnacle goose, bean goose, brent goose, pink-footed goose, bewick's swan, common gull, and guillemot. Dabbling ducks were more frequently infected than other ducks and Anseriformes; this distinction was probably related to bird behavior rather than population sizes. Waders did not appear to play a role in the epidemiology of avian influenza in Europe, in contrast to the Americas. The high virus prevalence in ducks in Europe in spring as compared with North America could explain the differences in virus-host ecology between these continents. Most influenza A virus subtypes were detected in ducks, but H13 and H16 subtypes were detected primarily in gulls. Viruses of subtype H6 were more promiscuous in host range than other subtypes. Temporal and spatial variation in influenza virus prevalence in wild birds was observed, with influenza A virus prevalence varying by sampling location; this is probably related to migration patterns from northeast to southwest and a higher prevalence farther north along the flyways. We discuss the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza A virus in wild birds in relation to host ecology and compare our results with published studies. These data are useful for designing new surveillance programs and are particularly relevant due to increased interest in avian influenza in

  19. Spatial, temporal, and species variation in prevalence of influenza A viruses in wild migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, Vincent J; Baas, Chantal; Lexmond, Pascal; Waldenström, Jonas; Wallensten, Anders; Fransson, Thord; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Beyer, Walter E P; Schutten, Martin; Olsen, Björn; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2007-05-11

    Although extensive data exist on avian influenza in wild birds in North America, limited information is available from elsewhere, including Europe. Here, molecular diagnostic tools were employed for high-throughput surveillance of migratory birds, as an alternative to classical labor-intensive methods of virus isolation in eggs. This study included 36,809 samples from 323 bird species belonging to 18 orders, of which only 25 species of three orders were positive for influenza A virus. Information on species, locations, and timing is provided for all samples tested. Seven previously unknown host species for avian influenza virus were identified: barnacle goose, bean goose, brent goose, pink-footed goose, bewick's swan, common gull, and guillemot. Dabbling ducks were more frequently infected than other ducks and Anseriformes; this distinction was probably related to bird behavior rather than population sizes. Waders did not appear to play a role in the epidemiology of avian influenza in Europe, in contrast to the Americas. The high virus prevalence in ducks in Europe in spring as compared with North America could explain the differences in virus-host ecology between these continents. Most influenza A virus subtypes were detected in ducks, but H13 and H16 subtypes were detected primarily in gulls. Viruses of subtype H6 were more promiscuous in host range than other subtypes. Temporal and spatial variation in influenza virus prevalence in wild birds was observed, with influenza A virus prevalence varying by sampling location; this is probably related to migration patterns from northeast to southwest and a higher prevalence farther north along the flyways. We discuss the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza A virus in wild birds in relation to host ecology and compare our results with published studies. These data are useful for designing new surveillance programs and are particularly relevant due to increased interest in avian influenza in wild birds. PMID

  20. Ethical advantages of using domestic bird species for magnetic orientation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the mechanism in birds that controls magnetic orientation behavior is proving elusive and is currently attracting a plethora of research activity. Much of this research involves wild birds that are caught in nets, tested and released. Ethical concerns regarding these experiments are likely to encompass the welfare of animals, their "rights" and conservation issues. Recently, Pekin ducks derived from migratory ancestors have been shown to posses a magnetic compass in a simple conditioning procedure. The use of domestic bird species provides a refinement in the ethics of animal experimentation since these birds are not caught in nets, are less fearful of humans and their use does not raise conservation concerns. The study of magnetic orientation is a high profile and fascinating areas of animal behavior research and one in which behavioral scientists should be seen to actively embrace the principles of the 3R's.

  1. Double keystone bird in a keystone species complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R; Haddad, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    Species in a Colorado subalpine ecosystem show subtle interdependences. Red-naped sapsuckers play two distinct keystone roles. They excavate nest cavities in fungus-infected aspens that are required as nest sites by two species of swallows, and they drill sap wells into willows that provide abundant nourishment for themselves, hummingbirds, orange-crowned warblers, chipmunks, and an array of other sap robbers. The swallows thus depend on, and the sap robbers benefit from, a keystone species c...

  2. Unveiling the Conservation Biogeography of a Data-Deficient Endangered Bird Species under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Junhua Hu; Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    It remains a challenge to identify the geographical patterns and underlying environmental associations of species with unique ecological niches and distinct behaviors. This in turn hinders our understanding of the ecology as well as effective conservation management of threatened species. The white-eared night heron (Gorsachius magnificus) is a non-migratory nocturnal bird species that has a patchy distribution in the mountainous forests of East Asia. It is currently categorized as "Endangere...

  3. Birds as tourism flagship species: a case study of tropical islands.

    OpenAIRE

    Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain M; Groombridge, Jim J; Bristol, Rachel M.; MacMillan, Douglas C.

    2009-01-01

    Species selected as flagships to promote conservation activities around the world are typically well known and charismatic mega-fauna. Unfortunately this limits the scope for applying the concept as some critical areas for biodiversity conservation, such as tropical islands, lack such species. In this study, we explore the potential to apply the concept of 'tourism flagship species' to tropical island birds of the Seychelles, an archipelago of considerable importance for conservation that is ...

  4. Explaining the species richness of birds along a subtropical elevational gradient in the Hengduan Mountains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yongjie; Colwell, Robert K.; Rahbek, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    that climatic and energy factors correlate well with the richness pattern of birds, and that on the surveyed subtropical mountain, the elevational bands with highest seasonality harbour fewer species than areas with less seasonal variation in temperature. The results, however, vary somewhat among taxonomic...... groups. The most diverse species groups and species with the broadest ranges have a disproportionate influence on our perception of the overall diversity pattern and its underlying explanatory factors....

  5. Endangered Species Act listing: three case studies of data deficiencies and consequences of ESA 'threatened' listing on research output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijerman, M.W.; Birkeland, C.; Piniak, G.A.; Miller, M.W.; Eakin, C.M.; McElhany, P.; Dunlap, M.J.; Patterson, M.; Brainard, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a species warrants listing as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act depends on the government's assessment of the species' extinction risk, usually in response to a petition. Deciding whether data are sufficient to make a listing determination is a challe

  6. Are mixed-species bird flocks stable through two decades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ari E; Gomez, Juan P

    2013-03-01

    The stability of tropical systems has been hypothesized to explain the evolution of complex behavioral interactions among species. We evaluate the degree to which one highly evolved social system, mixed-species flocks, are stable in space and time in French Guiana, where flocks were characterized 17 years apart. These flocks are led by alarm-calling "sentinels," which may benefit from food flushed by other "beater" species. Using null models, we found that flock roost sites, home range overlap, and composition were more similar than expected by chance; home ranges were nearly identical between the two time periods. Such extremely stable conditions may be essential for the evolution and maintenance of the sentinel-beater system that appears to characterize some flocks. These results may reflect an evolutionarily stable strategy among potentially interdependent species within mixed-species flocks, where home ranges contribute to stability by being far larger than the most common local disturbances in the forest. PMID:23448892

  7. Contrasted patterns of genetic differentiation across eight bird species in the Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimoun, Aurélie; Arnoux, Emilie; Martel, Guillaume; Pot, Alexandre; Eraud, Cyril; Condé, Béatriz; Loubon, Maxime; Théron, Franck; Covas, Rita; Faivre, Bruno; Garnier, Stéphane

    2016-02-01

    Archipelagoes are considered as "natural laboratories" for studying processes that shape the distribution of diversity. The Lesser Antilles provide a favorable geographical context for divergence to occur. However, although morphological subspecies have been described across this archipelago in numerous avian species, the potential for the Lesser Antilles in driving intra-specific genetic divergence in highly mobile organisms such as birds remains understudied. Here, we assessed level of intra-specific genetic diversity and differentiation between three islands of the Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, Dominica and Martinique) using a multi-species approach on eight bird species. For each species, we built a set of microsatellite markers from cross-species amplifications. Significant patterns of inter-island and/or within-island genetic differentiation were detected in all species. However, levels of intra-specific genetic differentiation among the eight bird species were not always consistent with the boundaries of subspecies previously described in the sampled islands. These results suggest different histories of colonization/expansion and/or different species-specific ecological traits affecting gene flow, advocating for multi-species studies of historical and contemporary factors shaping the distribution of diversity on islands.

  8. Can Birds Perceive Rhythmic Patterns? A Review and Experiments on a Songbird and a Parrot Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, Carel; Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-01-01

    While humans can easily entrain their behavior with the beat in music, this ability is rare among animals. Yet, comparative studies in non-human species are needed if we want to understand how and why this ability evolved. Entrainment requires two abilities: (1) recognizing the regularity in the auditory stimulus and (2) the ability to adjust the own motor output to the perceived pattern. It has been suggested that beat perception and entrainment are linked to the ability for vocal learning. The presence of some bird species showing beat induction, and also the existence of vocal learning as well as vocal non-learning bird taxa, make them relevant models for comparative research on rhythm perception and its link to vocal learning. Also, some bird vocalizations show strong regularity in rhythmic structure, suggesting that birds might perceive rhythmic structures. In this paper we review the available experimental evidence for the perception of regularity and rhythms by birds, like the ability to distinguish regular from irregular stimuli over tempo transformations and report data from new experiments. While some species show a limited ability to detect regularity, most evidence suggests that birds attend primarily to absolute and not relative timing of patterns and to local features of stimuli. We conclude that, apart from some large parrot species, there is limited evidence for beat and regularity perception among birds and that the link to vocal learning is unclear. We next report the new experiments in which zebra finches and budgerigars (both vocal learners) were first trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The results showed that both species reduced the discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However, some

  9. Can birds perceive rhythmic patterns? A review and experiments on a songbird and a parrot species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eSpierings

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While humans can easily entrain their behavior with the beat in music, this ability is rare among animals. Yet, comparative studies in non-human species are needed if we want to understand how and why this ability evolved. Entrainment requires two abilities: (1 recognizing the regularity in the auditory stimulus and (2 the ability to adjust the own motor output to the perceived pattern. It has been suggested that beat perception and entrainment are linked to the ability for vocal learning. The presence of some bird species showing beat induction, and also the existence of vocal learning as well as vocal non-learning bird taxa, make them relevant models for comparative research on rhythm perception and its link to vocal learning. Also, some bird vocalizations show strong regularity in rhythmic structure, suggesting that birds might perceive rhythmic structures. In this paper we review the available experimental evidence for the perception of regularity and rhythms by birds, like the ability to distinguish regular from irregular stimuli over tempo transformations and report data from new experiments. While some species show a limited ability to detect regularity, most evidence suggests that birds attend primarily to absolute and not relative timing of patterns and to local features of stimuli. We conclude that, apart from some large parrot species, there is limited evidence for beat and regularity perception among birds and that the link to vocal learning is unclear. We next report experiments in which zebra finches and budgerigars (both vocal learners were first trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The results showed that both species reduced the discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However

  10. Can Birds Perceive Rhythmic Patterns? A Review and Experiments on a Songbird and a Parrot Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Carel; Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-01-01

    While humans can easily entrain their behavior with the beat in music, this ability is rare among animals. Yet, comparative studies in non-human species are needed if we want to understand how and why this ability evolved. Entrainment requires two abilities: (1) recognizing the regularity in the auditory stimulus and (2) the ability to adjust the own motor output to the perceived pattern. It has been suggested that beat perception and entrainment are linked to the ability for vocal learning. The presence of some bird species showing beat induction, and also the existence of vocal learning as well as vocal non-learning bird taxa, make them relevant models for comparative research on rhythm perception and its link to vocal learning. Also, some bird vocalizations show strong regularity in rhythmic structure, suggesting that birds might perceive rhythmic structures. In this paper we review the available experimental evidence for the perception of regularity and rhythms by birds, like the ability to distinguish regular from irregular stimuli over tempo transformations and report data from new experiments. While some species show a limited ability to detect regularity, most evidence suggests that birds attend primarily to absolute and not relative timing of patterns and to local features of stimuli. We conclude that, apart from some large parrot species, there is limited evidence for beat and regularity perception among birds and that the link to vocal learning is unclear. We next report the new experiments in which zebra finches and budgerigars (both vocal learners) were first trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The results showed that both species reduced the discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However, some

  11. Can Birds Perceive Rhythmic Patterns? A Review and Experiments on a Songbird and a Parrot Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Carel; Spierings, Michelle; Hubert, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan

    2016-01-01

    While humans can easily entrain their behavior with the beat in music, this ability is rare among animals. Yet, comparative studies in non-human species are needed if we want to understand how and why this ability evolved. Entrainment requires two abilities: (1) recognizing the regularity in the auditory stimulus and (2) the ability to adjust the own motor output to the perceived pattern. It has been suggested that beat perception and entrainment are linked to the ability for vocal learning. The presence of some bird species showing beat induction, and also the existence of vocal learning as well as vocal non-learning bird taxa, make them relevant models for comparative research on rhythm perception and its link to vocal learning. Also, some bird vocalizations show strong regularity in rhythmic structure, suggesting that birds might perceive rhythmic structures. In this paper we review the available experimental evidence for the perception of regularity and rhythms by birds, like the ability to distinguish regular from irregular stimuli over tempo transformations and report data from new experiments. While some species show a limited ability to detect regularity, most evidence suggests that birds attend primarily to absolute and not relative timing of patterns and to local features of stimuli. We conclude that, apart from some large parrot species, there is limited evidence for beat and regularity perception among birds and that the link to vocal learning is unclear. We next report the new experiments in which zebra finches and budgerigars (both vocal learners) were first trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The results showed that both species reduced the discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However, some

  12. Geographical variation in bill size across bird species provides evidence for Allen's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Matthew R E; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2010-08-01

    Allen's rule proposes that the appendages of endotherms are smaller, relative to body size, in colder climates, in order to reduce heat loss. Empirical support for Allen's rule is mainly derived from occasional reports of geographical clines in extremity size of individual species. Interspecific evidence is restricted to two studies of leg proportions in seabirds and shorebirds. We used phylogenetic comparative analyses of 214 bird species to examine whether bird bills, significant sites of heat exchange, conform to Allen's rule. The species comprised eight diverse taxonomic groups-toucans, African barbets, Australian parrots, estrildid finches, Canadian galliforms, penguins, gulls, and terns. Across all species, there were strongly significant relationships between bill length and both latitude and environmental temperature, with species in colder climates having significantly shorter bills. Patterns supporting Allen's rule in relation to latitudinal or altitudinal distribution held within all groups except the finches. Evidence for a direct association with temperature was found within four groups (parrots, galliforms, penguins, and gulls). Support for Allen's rule in leg elements was weaker, suggesting that bird bills may be more susceptible to thermoregulatory constraints generally. Our results provide the strongest comparative support yet published for Allen's rule and demonstrate that thermoregulation has been an important factor in shaping the evolution of bird bills. PMID:20545560

  13. Establishing appropriate measures for monitoring aging in birds: comparing short and long lived species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Reed, E.; Wu, J.; Thompson, N.; French, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reveal patterns of reproductive aging in birds we focus on a short lived species, the Japanese quail and the American kestrel, which has a life span of medium length. Quail have been studied extensively in the laboratory as models for understanding avian endocrinology and behavior, and as a subject for toxicological research and testing. In the lab, Japanese quail show age-related deterioration in endocrine, behavioral, and sensory system responses; the American kestrel is relatively long lived and shows moderate evidence of senescence in the oldest birds. Using data collected from captive kestrels at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a database was designed to document selected parameters over the life cycle of the kestrels. Life table data collated from many species indicate that longer lived species of birds show senescence in survival ability but this pattern has not been established for reproductive function. We suggest that useful comparisons among species can be made by identifying stages in reproductive life history, organized on a relative time scale. Preliminary data from quail and kestrels, admittedly only two species, do not yet indicate a pattern of greater reproductive senescence in longer-lived birds.

  14. Bird species diversity in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil is not explained by the Mid-domain Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Vagner Cavarzere; Luís Fábio Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is an excellent case study for the elevational diversity of birds, and some inventories along elevational gradients have been carried out in Brazil. Since none of these studies explain the patterns of species richness with elevation, we herein review all Brazilian studies on bird elevational diversity, and test a geometric constraint null model that predicts a unimodal species-altitude curve, the Mid-domain Effect (MDE). We searched for bird inventories in the literature a...

  15. Metapopulation shift and survival of woodland birds under climate change: will species be able to track?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, P.; Verboom-Vasiljev, J.; Vos, C.C.; Jochem, R.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change has been widely recognized as a key factor driving changes in species distributions. In this study we use a metapopulation model, with a window of suitable climate moving polewards, to explore population shifts and survival of woodland birds under different climate change scenarios an

  16. Student Science Teachers' Ideas about Endangered Bird Species: Hermit Ibis, Chukar Partridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardak, Osman; Dikmenli, Musa

    2009-01-01

    In this study, student science teachers' ideas and views of endangered bird species and their protection are analysed. 173 student science teachers studying at Selcuk University in the department of science education, participated in the study. Data analysis provides evidence that the majority of students thought that human intervention is…

  17. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  18. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Janion–Scheepers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa’s springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  19. Updated list of Collembola species currently recorded from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Deharveng, Louis; Bedos, Anne; Chown, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the abundance and richness of species is one of the most fundamental steps in effecting their conservation. Despite global recognition of the significance of the below-ground component of diversity for ecosystem functioning, the soil remains a poorly studied terrestrial ecosystem. In South Africa, knowledge is increasing for a variety of soil faunal groups, but many still remain poorly understood. We have started to address this gap in the knowledge of South African soil biodiversity by focusing on the Collembola in an integrated project that encompasses systematics, barcoding and ecological assessments. Here we provide an updated list of the Collembola species from South Africa. A total of 124 species from 61 genera and 17 families has been recorded, of which 75 are considered endemic, 24 widespread, and 25 introduced. This total number of species excludes the 36 species we consider to be dubious. From the published data, Collembola species richness is high compared to other African countries, but low compared to European countries. This is largely a consequence of poor sampling in the African region, as our discovery of many new species in South Africa demonstrates. Our analyses also show that much ongoing work will be required before a reasonably comprehensive and spatially explicit picture of South Africa's springtail fauna can be provided, which may well exceed 1000 species. Such work will be necessary to help South Africa meet its commitments to biodiversity conservation, especially in the context of the 2020 Aichi targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26019671

  20. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Hedemark Lundhede; Jette Bredahl Jacobsen; Nick Hanley; Jon Fjeldså; Carsten Rahbek; Niels Strange; Bo Jellesmark Thorsen

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmar...

  1. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  2. Natural Cross Chlamydial Infection between Livestock and Free-Living Bird Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus, Jesús A.; Fargallo, Juan A.; Vergara, Pablo; Parejo, Deseada; Banda, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus) and lesser (Falco naumanni) kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus), an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae) and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species. PMID:20976071

  3. High exposure rates of anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory bird species in intensively managed landscapes in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Lassen, Pia; Elmeros, Morten

    2012-10-01

    The extensive use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) for rodent control has led to widespread secondary exposure in nontarget predatory wildlife species. We investigated exposure rates and concentrations of five ARs in liver samples from five raptors and six owls from Denmark. A total of 430 birds were analysed. ARs were detected in 84-100 % of individual birds within each species. Multiple AR exposure was detected in 73 % of all birds. Average number of substances detected in individual birds was 2.2 with no differences between owls and raptors. Difenacoum, bromadiolone, and brodifacoum were the most prevalent substances and occurred in the highest concentrations. Second-generation ARs made up 96 % of the summed AR burden. Among the six core species (sample size >30), summed AR concentrations were lower in rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus) and long-eared owl (Asio otus) than in barn owl (Tyto alba), buzzard (B. buteo), kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), and tawny owl (Strix aluco). There was a strong tendency for seasonal variations in the summed AR concentration with levels being lowest during autumn, which is probably related to an influx of less-exposed migrating birds from northern Scandinavia during autumn. High hepatic AR residue concentrations (>100 ng/g wet weight), which have been associated with symptoms of rodenticide poisoning and increased mortality, were recorded high frequencies (12.9-37.4 %) in five of the six core species. The results suggest that the present use of ARs in Denmark, at least locally, may have adverse effects on reproduction and, ultimately, population status in some raptors and owls. PMID:22588365

  4. Greater sage-grouse as an umbrella species for shrubland passerine birds: a multiscale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Knick, Steven T.; Knick, Steven T.; Connelly, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Working groups and government agen-cies are planning and conducting land actions in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats to benefit Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. Managers have adopted an umbrella concept, creating habitat characteristics specific to sage-grouse requirements, in the belief that other wildlife species dependent on sagebrush will benefit. We tested the efficacy of this approach by first identifying the primary environmental gradients underlying sagebrush steppe bird com-munities (including Greater Sage-Grouse). We integrated field sampling for birds and vegetation with geographic information system (GIS) data to characterize 305 sites sampled throughout the current range of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Intermountain West, United States. The primary environmental axis defining the bird community represented a gradient from local-scale Wyoming/basin big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis/A. t. ssp. tridentata), and bare ground cover to local and regional grassland cover; the second axis repre-sented a transition from low-elevation Wyoming/basin big sagebrush and bare ground to mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) and habitat edge. We identified the relative overlap of sage-grouse with 13 species of passerine birds along the multiscale gradients and estimated the width of the umbrella when applying management guidelines specific to sage-grouse. Passerine birds associated with sagebrush steppe habitats had high levels of overlap with Greater Sage-Grouse along the multiscale environmental gradients. However, the overlap of the umbrella was prima-rily a function of the broad range of sagebrush habitats used by sage-grouse. Management that focuses on creating a narrow set of plot-scale con-ditions will likely be less effective than restoration efforts that recognize landscape scale heterogene-ity and multiscale organization of habitats. These multiscale efforts may improve some sage-grouse habitats and strengthen the

  5. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alejandro Villegas Vallejos

    Full Text Available The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL, trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas' beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites

  6. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro; Padial, André Andrian; Vitule, Jean Ricardo Simões

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL), trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes) accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas' beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites. We generated

  7. Human-Induced Landscape Changes Homogenize Atlantic Forest Bird Assemblages through Nested Species Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro; Padial, André Andrian; Vitule, Jean Ricardo Simões

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of quantitative assessments of homogenization using citizen science data is particularly important in the Neotropics, given its high biodiversity and ecological peculiarity, and whose communities may react differently to landscape changes. We looked for evidence of taxonomic homogenization in terrestrial birds by investigating patterns of beta diversity along a gradient of human-altered landscapes (HAL), trying to identify species associated with this process. We analyzed bird data from 87 sites sampled in a citizen science program in the south Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Regional-scale taxonomic homogenization was assessed by comparing beta diversity among sites in different HALs (natural, rural or urban landscapes) accounting for variation derived from geographical distance and zoogeographical affinities by georeferencing sites and determining their position in a phytogeographical domain. Beta diversity was calculated by multivariate dispersion and by testing compositional changes due to turnover and nestedness among HALs and phytogeographical domains. Finally, we assessed which species were typical for each group using indicator species analysis. Bird homogenization was indicated by decreases in beta diversity following landscape changes. Beta diversity of rural sites was roughly half that of natural habitats, while urban sites held less than 10% of the natural areas' beta diversity. Species composition analysis revealed that the turnover component was important in differentiating sites depending on HAL and phytogeography; the nestedness component was important among HALs, where directional species loss is maintained even considering effects of sampling effort. A similar result was obtained among phytogeographical domains, indicating nested-pattern dissimilarity among compositions of overlapping communities. As expected, a few native generalists and non-native urban specialists were characteristic of rural and urban sites. We generated

  8. Bird Species and Climate Change. The Global Status Report. A synthesis of current scientific understanding of anthropogenic climate change impacts on global bird species now, and projected future effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a global analysis of current and future impacts of climate change on birds are presented. The report reviews more than 200 research reports to assemble a clear and consistent picture of climatic risk to this important animal group, illustrated with numerous examples and case studies. It is found that: climate change now affects bird species' behaviour, ranges and population dynamics; some bird species are already experiencing strong negative impacts from climate change; and in future, subject to greenhouse gas emissions levels and climatic response, climate change will put large numbers of bird species at risk of extinction, with estimates of extinction rates varying from 2 to 72%, depending on the region, climate scenario and potential for birds to shift to new habitat

  9. Spotted fever Rickettsia species in Hyalomma and Ixodes ticks infesting migratory birds in the European Mediterranean area

    OpenAIRE

    Wallmenius, Katarina; Barboutis, Christos; Fransson, Thord; Thomas G.T. Jaenson; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Nyström, Fredrik; Olsen, Bjorn; Salaneck, Erik; Nilsson, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Background: A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Ric...

  10. Estimated Mortality of Selected Migratory Bird Species from Mowing and Other Mechanical Operations in Canadian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Tews

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical operations such as mowing, tilling, seeding, and harvesting are well-known sources of direct avian mortality in agricultural fields. However, there are currently no mortality rate estimates available for any species group or larger jurisdiction. Even reviews of sources of mortality in birds have failed to address mechanical disturbance in farm fields. To overcome this information gap we provide estimates of total mortality rates by mechanical operations for five selected species across Canada. In our step-by-step modeling approach we (i quantified the amount of various types of agricultural land in each Bird Conservation Region (BCR in Canada, (ii estimated population densities by region and agricultural habitat type for each selected species, (iii estimated the average timing of mechanical agricultural activities, egg laying, and fledging, (iv and used these values and additional demographical parameters to derive estimates of total mortality by species within each BCR. Based on our calculations the total annual estimated incidental take of young ranged from ~138,000 for Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris to as much as ~941,000 for Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis. Net losses to the fall flight of birds, i.e., those birds that would have fledged successfully in the absence of mechanical disturbance, were, for example ~321,000 for Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus and ~483,000 for Savannah Sparrow. Although our estimates are subject to an unknown degree of uncertainty, this assessment is a very important first step because it provides a broad estimate of incidental take for a set of species that may be particularly vulnerable to mechanical operations and a starting point for future refinements of model parameters if and when they become available.

  11. Biological, ecological, conservation and legal information for all species and subspecies of Australian bird

    OpenAIRE

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Duursma, Daisy E.; Ehmke, Glenn; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Stewart, Alistair; Szabo, Judit K.; Weston, Michael A; Bennett, Simon; Crowley, Gabriel M.; Drynan, David; Dutson, Guy; Fitzherbert, Kate; Donald C Franklin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a dataset of biological, ecological, conservation and legal information for every species and subspecies of Australian bird, 2056 taxa or populations in total. Version 1 contains 230 fields grouped under the following headings: Taxonomy & nomenclature, Phylogeny, Australian population status, Conservation status, Legal status, Distribution, Morphology, Habitat, Food, Behaviour, Breeding, Mobility and Climate metrics. It is envisaged that the dataset will be updated periodically w...

  12. The combined influence of the local environment andregional enrichment on bird species richness

    OpenAIRE

    White, Ethan P.; Hurlbert, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that local species richness at a site reflects the combined influence of local and regional processes. However, most empirical studies evaluate the influence of either local environmental variables or regional enrichment but not both simultaneously. Here we demonstrate the importance of combining these processes to understand continental scale richness patterns in breeding birds. We show that neither regional enrichment nor the local environment in isolation is suffic...

  13. Variations in flocking behaviour from core to peripheral regions of a bird species' distribution range

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Flocking behaviour in birds reflects the outcome of a momentary trade-off between increased foraging efficiency and improved predator avoidance. However, these changing patterns remain poorly known at any spatial or temporal scale. The aim of the present study was first to investigate seasonal fluctuations of flocking behaviour throughout the entire distribution range of a species and secondly to explore behavioural responses to daily temperature variations. From 2000 to 2010, sightings of Pe...

  14. The influence of study species selection on estimates of pesticide exposure in free-ranging birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Shannon L.; Vyas, Nimish B.; Christman, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Field studies of pesticide effects on birds often utilize indicator species with the purpose 16 of extrapolating to other avian taxa. Little guidance exists for choosing indicator species to 17 monitor the presence and/or effects of contaminants that are labile in the environment or body, 18 but are acutely toxic, such as anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) insecticides. Use of an indicator 19 species that does not represent maximum exposure and/or effects could lead to inaccurate risk 20 estimates. Our objective was to test the relevance of a priori selection of indicator species for a 21 study on pesticide exposure to birds inhabiting fruit orchards. We used total plasma 22 cholinesterase (ChE) activity and ChE reactivation to describe the variability in anti-ChE exposure among avian species in two conventionally managed fruit orchards. Of seven 24 species included in statistical analyses, the less common species, chipping sparrow (Spizella 25 passerina), showed the greatest percentage of exposed individuals and the greatest ChE 26 depression, whereas the two most common species, American robins (Turdus migratorius) and 27 grey catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis), did not show significant exposure. Due to their lower 28 abundance, chipping sparrows would have been an unlikely choice for study. Our results show 29 that selection of indicator species using traditionally accepted criteria such as abundance and 30 ease of collection may not identify species that are at greatest risk. Our efforts also demonstrate 31 the usefulness of conducting multiple-species pilot studies prior to initiating detailed studies on 32 pesticide effects. A study such as ours can help focus research and resources on study species 33 that are most appropriate.

  15. The Influence of Study Species Selection on Estimates of Pesticide Exposure in Free-Ranging Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Shannon L.; Vyas, Nimish B.; Christman, Mary C.

    2014-02-01

    Field studies of pesticide effects on birds often utilize indicator species with the purpose of extrapolating to other avian taxa. Little guidance exists for choosing indicator species to monitor the presence and/or effects of contaminants that are labile in the environment or body, but are acutely toxic, such as anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) insecticides. Use of an indicator species that does not represent maximum exposure and/or effects could lead to inaccurate risk estimates. Our objective was to test the relevance of a priori selection of indicator species for a study on pesticide exposure to birds inhabiting fruit orchards. We used total plasma ChE activity and ChE reactivation to describe the variability in anti-ChE pesticide exposure among avian species in two conventionally managed fruit orchards. Of seven species included in statistical analyses, the less common species, chipping sparrow ( Spizella passerina), showed the greatest percentage of exposed individuals and the greatest ChE depression, whereas the two most common species, American robins ( Turdus migratorius) and gray catbirds ( Dumatella carolinensis), did not show significant exposure. Due to their lower abundance, chipping sparrows would have been an unlikely choice for study. Our results show that selection of indicator species using traditionally accepted criteria such as abundance and ease of collection may not identify species that are at greatest risk. Our efforts also demonstrate the usefulness of conducting multiple-species pilot studies prior to initiating detailed studies on pesticide effects. A study such as ours can help focus research and resources on study species that are most appropriate.

  16. Environmental species sorting dominates forest-bird community assembly across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan; Svenning, J.-C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Environmental species sorting and dispersal are seen as key factors in community assembly, but their relative importance and scale dependence remain uncertain, as the extent to which communities are consistently assembled throughout their biomes. To address these issues, we analysed bird metacomm...... of the Istranca Forest' bird metacommunity was predominantly controlled by environmental species sorting in a manner consistent with the broader WP region. However, variability in local community structure was also linked to purely spatial factors, albeit more weakly.......Environmental species sorting and dispersal are seen as key factors in community assembly, but their relative importance and scale dependence remain uncertain, as the extent to which communities are consistently assembled throughout their biomes. To address these issues, we analysed bird...... metacommunity structure in a 1200-km2 forested landscape (Istranca Forests) in Turkish Thrace at the margin of the Western Palaearctic (WP) temperate-forest biome. First, we used spatial regressions and Mantel tests to assess the relative importance of environmental and spatial factors as drivers of local...

  17. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents ( Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant ( Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  18. Galápagos Birds and Diseases: Invasive Pathogens as Threats for Island Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Vargas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Exotic diseases and parasites have caused extinctions on islands and continents, particularly when they spread through assemblages of immunologically naïve species. Hawaii has lost a substantial part of its endemic bird fauna since the introduction of avian malaria at the beginning of the 20th century. In contrast, the Galápagos archipelago still possesses its entire endemic avifauna. Several of these Galápagos bird populations are in decline, however, and wildlife managers seek guidance to counteract a potential man-made ecological disaster. We recommend that endemic birds be tested for susceptibility to disease outside the Galápagos so that protection efforts can be better designed to deal with actual threats. At present, the best and perhaps only management option is to protect the isolation of these island communities because treating or vaccinating wild bird populations against diseases is almost impossible. If the isolation of the Galápagos Islands is successful, we will preserve the complete avifauna of an archipelago for the first time in the history of human colonization in the Pacific eco-region.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Enterobacteriaceae in European wild bird species admitted in a wildlife rescue centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacopello, Cristina; Foti, Maria; Mascetti, Antonietta; Grosso, Fabio; Ricciardi, Deborah; Fisichella, Vittorio; Lo Piccolo, Francesco

    2016-06-30

    Wild birds have been considered to be reservoirs of enteric human pathogens and vectors of resistance dissemination to the environment. During annual migration, they potentially play a role in the epidemiology of human associated zoonoses. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Enterobacteriaceae members isolated from cloacal swabs of common European wild birds. Fifty-five cloacal swabs were taken during birds' entrance evaluation in a rescue centre for injured wild birds in the Province of Messina (Sicily, Italy). All samples were examined for the presence of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae using standard methods and on the isolated strains antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed. Eighty three Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated from raptors, waterbirds and passerines. The bacterial species isolated were: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia vulneris, Enterobacter amnigenus biogroup 2, Salmonella Duesseldorf and Hafnia alvei. The isolates showed significant frequencies of antibiotic resistance. Multiresistance to three or more groups of antibiotics also occurred. None of them have shown a phenotypic Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) profile. PMID:27393875

  20. Ecological traits affect the response of tropical forest bird species to land-use intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Tim; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Butchart, Stuart H M; Sekercioğlu, Cağan H; Alkemade, Rob; Booth, Hollie; Purves, Drew W

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change is one of the main drivers of current and likely future biodiversity loss. Therefore, understanding how species are affected by it is crucial to guide conservation decisions. Species respond differently to land-use change, possibly related to their traits. Using pan-tropical data on bird occurrence and abundance across a human land-use intensity gradient, we tested the effects of seven traits on observed responses. A likelihood-based approach allowed us to quantify uncertainty in modelled responses, essential for applying the model to project future change. Compared with undisturbed habitats, the average probability of occurrence of bird species was 7.8 per cent and 31.4 per cent lower, and abundance declined by 3.7 per cent and 19.2 per cent in habitats with low and high human land-use intensity, respectively. Five of the seven traits tested affected the observed responses significantly: long-lived, large, non-migratory, primarily frugivorous or insectivorous forest specialists were both less likely to occur and less abundant in more intensively used habitats than short-lived, small, migratory, non-frugivorous/insectivorous habitat generalists. The finding that species responses to land use depend on their traits is important for understanding ecosystem functioning, because species' traits determine their contribution to ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the loss of species with particular traits might have implications for the delivery of ecosystem services.

  1. Remarks, on six species of Heterakid Nematodes parasites of brazilian Tinamid birds with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Julio Vicente

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes representing five species of the genus Heterakis, namely: H. inglisi n. sp., H. alata, H. gallinarum, H. spiculatus and one species of the genus Odontoterakis, O. multidentata, were studied. Heterakis inglisi n. sp. closely resembles H. spiculatus, differing from it by smaller size of spicules, precloacal sucker and terminal spike of the tail in the males. Heterakis arquata and H. brasiliana are only listed, for they were not found during the present study. Odontoterakis multidentata is reported in Brazil for the first time. New host records are estabilished for most of the species. These species are fully illustrated.

  2. Associations of forest bird species richness with housing and landscape patterns across the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, A M; Radeloff, V C; Flather, C H; Lepczyk, C A; Clayton, M K; Hawbaker, T J; Hammer, R B

    2007-10-01

    In the United States, housing density has substantially increased in and adjacent to forests. Our goal in this study was to identify how housing density and human populations are associated with avian diversity. We compared these associations to those between landscape pattern and avian diversity, and we examined how these associations vary across the conterminous forested United States. Using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, the U.S. Census, and the National Land Cover Database, we focused on forest and woodland bird communities and conducted our analysis at multiple levels of model specificity, first using a coarse-thematic resolution (basic models), then using a larger number of fine-thematic resolution variables (refined models). We found that housing development was associated with forest bird species richness in all forested ecoregions of the conterminous United States. However, there were important differences among ecoregions. In the basic models, housing density accounted for ecoregion, where 29% of variation in richness of the permanent resident guild was associated with housing density. Model improvements due to regional stratification were most pronounced for cavity nesters and short-distance migrants, suggesting that these guilds may be especially sensitive to regional processes. The varying patterns of association between avian richness and attributes associated with landscape structure suggested that landscape context was an important mediating factor affecting how biodiversity responds to landscape changes. Our analysis suggested that simple, broadly applicable, land use recommendations cannot be derived from our results. Rather, anticipating future avian response to land use intensification (or reversion to native vegetation) has to be conditioned on the current landscape context and the species group of interest. Our results show that housing density and residential land cover were significant predictors of forest bird species

  3. Species composition and number of breeding birds in urban parks in Novi Sad

    OpenAIRE

    Tucakov Marko J.

    2010-01-01

    Numbers of breeding pairs of breeding birds and breeding density are established by territory mapping in Limanski (12.9 ha), Futoški (8.26 ha), and Dunavski (3.9 ha) Parks in Novi Sad from early March to late June 2007. In Limanski Park 11 species of breeders were found, the most numerous being tree sparrow (Passer montanus). Futoški Park had 15 breeders and the most numerous were great tit (Parus major). The smallest number of species (9) bred in Dunavski Park, with great tit as the most com...

  4. Bird Surveys at DARHT Before and During Operations: Comparison of Species Abundance and Composition and Trace Element Uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez, D. C. Keller, C. D. Hathcock

    2007-11-30

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Mitigation Action Plan specifies the comparison of baseline conditions in biotic and abiotic media with those collected after operations have started. Operations at DARHT at Los Alamos National Laboratory started in 2000. In this study, the abundance and composition of birds collected near the DARHT facility from 2003 through 2006 were determined and compared to a preoperational period (1999). In addition, the levels of radionuclides and other inorganic chemicals in birds were compared to regional statistical reference levels (RSRLs). The number and diversity of bird species generally increased over preoperational levels with the greatest number of birds (412) and species (46) occurring in 2005. The most common bird species collected regardless of time periods were the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), the Virginia's warbler (Vermivora virginiae), the western bluebird (Sialia mexicana), the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus), the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli), and the western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana). Most radionuclides, with the exception of uranium-234 and uranium-238, in (whole body) birds collected after operations began were either not detected or below RSRLs. Uranium-234 and uranium-238 concentrations in a few samples were far below screening levels and do not pose a potential unacceptable dose to the birds. In contrast, many inorganic chemicals, particularly arsenic and silver, in birds collected before and after operations began were in higher concentrations than RSRLs. Because birds (skin plus feathers) collected in the years before operations began contained higher levels of arsenic and silver than RSRLs and because there was no evidence of these metals in soil and sediment directly around the DARHT facility, the elevated levels of these metals in birds during early operations are probably not related to DARHT operations. Arsenic and silver in birds, however

  5. Habitat availability is a more plausible explanation than insecticide acute toxicity for U.S. grassland bird species declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassland bird species have experienced substantial declines in North America. These declines have been largely attributed to habitat loss and degradation, especially from agricultural practices and intensification (the habitat-availability hypothesis). A recent analysis of North American Breeding B...

  6. [Chewing-lice species (Phthiraptera) found on domestic and wild birds in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out 48 domestic and wild bird samples belonging to 15 different species. Birds that were killed by traffic on the roads as well as birds that were ill or injured were brought for investigation to the Veterinary Faculty or Animal Keeping House of Konya Municipal. Firstly, all of them were inspected macroscopically for ectoparasites. Then, they were treated with an insecticidal drug, propoxur in a cartoon box. One long-eared owl, one Eurasian buzzard, four long-legged buzzards and five rock pigeons were found to be infested with lice, the others were not. The lice were mounted on slides into Canada balsam after being cleared in KOH 10 % and were identified to species under the light microscope. The lice were identified as Strigiphilus barbatus collected from the long-eared owl, as Kurodaia fulvofasciata collected from the Eurasian buzzard, as Crasspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Colpocephalum nanum collected from long-legged buzzards and as Columbicola columbae collected from rock pigeons. This is the first time that Kurodaia fulvofasciata from the Eurasian buzzard and Strigiphilus barbatus from the long-eared owl has been recorded in Turkey.

  7. Causes and consequences of spatial variation in sex ratios in a declining bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Catriona A; Robinson, Robert A; Clark, Jacquie A; Gill, Jennifer A

    2016-09-01

    Male-biased sex ratios occur in many bird species, particularly in those with small or declining populations, but the causes of these skews and their consequences for local population demography are rarely known. Within-species variation in sex ratios can help to identify the demographic and behavioural processes associated with such biases. Small populations may be more likely to have skewed sex ratios if sex differences in survival, recruitment or dispersal vary with local abundance. Analyses of species with highly variable local abundances can help to identify these mechanisms and the implications for spatial variation in demography. Many migratory bird species are currently undergoing rapid and severe declines in abundance in parts of their breeding ranges and thus have sufficient spatial variation in abundance to explore the extent of sex ratio biases, their causes and implications. Using national-scale bird ringing data for one such species (willow warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus), we show that sex ratios vary greatly across Britain and that male-biased sites are more frequent in areas of low abundance, which are now widespread across much of south and east England. These sex ratio biases are sufficient to impact local productivity, as the relative number of juveniles caught at survey sites declines significantly with increasing sex ratio skew. Sex differences in survival could influence this sex ratio variation, but we find little evidence for sex differences in survival increasing with sex ratio skew. In addition, sex ratios have become male-biased over the last two decades, but there are no such trends in adult survival rates for males or females. This suggests that lower female recruitment into low abundance sites is contributing to these skews. These findings suggest that male-biased sex ratios in small and declining populations can arise through local-scale sex differences in survival and dispersal, with females recruiting disproportionately into larger

  8. Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Regan, H. M.; Jiménez, Juan (O.F.M.), trad; Surroca, M.; Oro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Wind farms are emerging as a major cause of mortality of large scavenging bird species, which may be catastrophic when they operate in concert with other threats. As a study model, we examine the impact of wind turbines on the population dynamics of a soaring bird species, when acting in conjunction with a sudden decrease in food availability following the European bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic. In Spain, vultures have been provided with supplementary food at traditional vul...

  9. Birds of Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil: do humans add or subtract species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin O. Willis

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In uplands and lowlands of Santa Teresa, central Espírito Santo State, Brazil, 405 bird species were confirmed by field, museum, and literature studies. Of these, 16 seem to have disappeared, while 67 other species seem to have been lost from the lowlands (where no large biological reserves exist. Due to a suggestion that human areas add species to beta-diversity, we verified that up to 79 species now present have perhaps "invaded" with human activity (and 10 others are likely to invade, a total similar to that for lost species. However, lost species are often rare and invading species often widespread, resulting in exchange of "Picassos for Coca-Cola bottles." Furthermore, gains exceed losses only when large biological reserves are present, as in the uplands (Nova Lombardia, Santa Lúcia Reserves, each with over 250 species. Small or irregular reserves usually lose well over half their species, and these are only partly replaced by the invaders, resulting in net losses of up to half the local avifaunas. If one lists only 31 probable invaders, rather than a possible 79, things are even worse; net losses occur even in the entire township and near reserves, reaching over 200 species around lowland private reserves. Future "productive" development of human areas can eliminate or maltreat many invading species, too. While approving taxes on improductive use of land, as it leaves other areas free, we suggest that many current local "uses," such as for coffee, are "luxury" production and could be taxed.Nas terras altas e baixas de Santa Teresa, região central do Estado de Espírito Santo, Brasil, 405 espécies de aves foram confirmadas por estudos de campo, museu e de literatura. Destas, 16 parecem ter desaparecido, enquanto outras 67 espécies parecem ter sido perdidas nas baixadas (onde não existem reservas biológicas de grande extensão. Baseado na sugestão de que as áreas humanas adicionam espécies à beta diversidade, nós verificamos que

  10. 50 CFR 424.11 - Factors for listing, delisting, or reclassifying species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... required. A species may be delisted on the basis of recovery only if the best scientific and commercial... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A LISTING ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES AND DESIGNATING CRITICAL HABITAT Revision of the Lists §...

  11. Declines in abundance and species richness of birds following a major flood on the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Klaas, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the abundance and species richness of birds breeding in floodplain forests of the Upper Mississippi River in 1992 through 1994, and used a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures to identify effects of a 1993 flood on the bird community. Sixty-five study plots were divided into treatment and control plots based on whether they were flooded in 1993. Among 84 species observed on all plots, 41 species decreased in abundance from 1992 to 1994, 13 increased, 5 were unchanged. Sample sizes were inadequate to evaluate trends for 25 species. Species richness declined over the three-year period. Of 36 species tested with the ANOVA, 20 had a significant main effect of Year. Cool, wet conditions may have contributed to poor reproductive success in 1993, and resulted in widespread decline in floodplain bird abundance during the year following the flood. Bird abundance increased on most unflooded plots in 1993, probably because birds were displaced from flooded plots. This pattern was most striking for neotropical migrants, species preferring habitat edges, lower canopy nesters, and species that forage in the air. We suggest that periodic major flooding may maintain suitable floodplain habitat for Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) in the face of competition from House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) for nest sites.

  12. Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23% leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52% are already well established, 262 (35% are casual records, while 98 species (13% remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca, which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are

  13. Quantifying Effects of Spatial Heterogeneity of Farmlands on Bird Species Richness by Means of Similarity Index Pairwise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Morelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown how intensification of farming is the main cause of loss biodiversity in these environments. During the last decades, agroecosystems in Europe have changed drastically, mainly due to mechanization of agriculture. In this work, species richness in bird communities was examined on a gradient of spatial heterogeneity of farmlands, in order to quantify its effects. Four categories of farmland spatial heterogeneity were defined, based on landscape and landuse parameters. The impact of features increasing the spatial heterogeneity was quantified comparing the similarity indexes between bird communities in several farmlands of Central Italy. The effects of environmental variables on bird richness were analyzed using GLM. The results highlighted that landscape features surrogates of high nature values (HNVs of farmlands can increase more than 50% the bird species richness. The features more related to bird richness were hedgerows, scattered shrubs, uncultivated patches, and powerlines. The results confirm that the approach based on HNV for evaluating the farmlands is also suitable in order to study birds’ diversity. However, some species are more sensitive to heterogeneity, while other species occupy mainly homogeneous farmlands. As a consequence, different conservation methods must be considered for each farmland bird species.

  14. Observations of Birds Northern Great Plains: Fall 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey summarizes bird observations in the eastern half of North Dakota during the fall of 1982. A species list and comments are included in this survey.

  15. Observations of Birds Northern Great Plains: Spring 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey summarizes bird observations on the eastern half of North Dakota during the spring, between 311981 to 5311981. A species list and comments are included...

  16. Observations of Birds Northern Great Plains: Winter 1981-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey summarizes bird observations in the eastern half of North Dakota during the winter, between 1211981 to 2281982. A species list and comments are included...

  17. Anatomy and histology of the Fibrocartilago humerocapsularis in some species of European wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Marco; Bombardi, Cristiano; De Sordi, Nadia; Clavenzani, Paolo; Grandis, Annamaria

    2014-07-01

    The occurrence and structure of the fibrocartilago humerocapsularis (FHC) in the shoulders of 72 subjects of various species of wild birds were evaluated by gross dissection and histological examination with the purpose of increasing the body of knowledge regarding this structure and verifying the functional hypotheses submitted in the past in other species. The results showed that the FHC has a conical shape with a narrow cavity on the inside. The structure is heterogeneous in the various species and consists of different tissues, such as hyaline cartilage, fibrous cartilage, and bone. From the data obtained in this study, there does not appear to be any correlation between ossification and the weight of the prey lifted, wing shape, and aging. This study also provided interesting preliminary data regarding the ossification of the FHC. In fact, in the Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), the ossification seemed to be correlated with the mechanical stimulation of flying. Additional studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  18. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech; Fjeldså, Jon;

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemism....... Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography......, and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the mainland, possibly because surrounding oceans buffer against strong climate oscillations and because geography is a strong...

  19. Extra-pair paternity in birds: explaining variation between species and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, M; Kempenaers, B

    1998-02-01

    Molecular techniques used to assign paternity have revealed previously unknown incidences of extra-pair paternity in socially monogamous bird species. DNA fingerprinting has now been used sufficiently often for mating-system biologists to appreciate the natural variation in the frequency of broods showing extra-pair young. The variation between species and between populations of the same species is surprisingly marked. Explaining this variation may help us to understand the factors promoting sexual selection. Recent comparative studies and detailed behavioural studies suggest that factors such as breeding density, genetic variation in the population and the intensity of sexual conflicts determine the costs and benefits to males and females of engaging in extra-pair copulations, and therefore contribute to the variation among populations. PMID:21238200

  20. Bajan Birds Pull Strings: Two Wild Antillean Species Enter the Select Club of String-Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2016-01-01

    String-pulling is one of the most popular tests in animal cognition because of its apparent complexity, and of its potential to be applied to very different taxa. In birds, the basic procedure involves a food reward, suspended from a perch by a string, which can be reached by a series of coordinated pulling actions with the beak and holding actions of the pulled lengths of string with the foot. The taxonomic distribution of species that pass the test includes several corvids, parrots and parids, but in other families, data are much spottier and the number of individuals per species that succeed is often low. To date, the association between string-pulling ability and other cognitive traits was never tested. It is generally assumed that string-pulling is a complex form of problem-solving, suggesting that performance on string-pulling and other problem-solving tasks should be correlated. Here, we show that individuals of two innovative species from Barbados, the bullfinch Loxigilla barbadensis and the Carib grackle Quiscalus lugubris fortirostris, pass the string-pulling test. Eighteen of the 42 bullfinches tested succeeded, allowing us to correlate performance on this test to that on several other behavioral measurements. Surprisingly, string-pulling in bullfinches was unrelated to shyness, neophobia, problem-solving, discrimination and reversal learning performance. Only two of 31 grackles tested succeeded, precluding correlational analyses with other measures but still, the two successful birds largely differed in their other behavioral traits. PMID:27533282

  1. Bajan Birds Pull Strings: Two Wild Antillean Species Enter the Select Club of String-Pullers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2016-01-01

    String-pulling is one of the most popular tests in animal cognition because of its apparent complexity, and of its potential to be applied to very different taxa. In birds, the basic procedure involves a food reward, suspended from a perch by a string, which can be reached by a series of coordinated pulling actions with the beak and holding actions of the pulled lengths of string with the foot. The taxonomic distribution of species that pass the test includes several corvids, parrots and parids, but in other families, data are much spottier and the number of individuals per species that succeed is often low. To date, the association between string-pulling ability and other cognitive traits was never tested. It is generally assumed that string-pulling is a complex form of problem-solving, suggesting that performance on string-pulling and other problem-solving tasks should be correlated. Here, we show that individuals of two innovative species from Barbados, the bullfinch Loxigilla barbadensis and the Carib grackle Quiscalus lugubris fortirostris, pass the string-pulling test. Eighteen of the 42 bullfinches tested succeeded, allowing us to correlate performance on this test to that on several other behavioral measurements. Surprisingly, string-pulling in bullfinches was unrelated to shyness, neophobia, problem-solving, discrimination and reversal learning performance. Only two of 31 grackles tested succeeded, precluding correlational analyses with other measures but still, the two successful birds largely differed in their other behavioral traits. PMID:27533282

  2. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental contaminants, acting at molecular through population levels of biological organization, can have profound effects upon birds. A screening level risk assessment was conducted that examined potential contaminant threats at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating pollutant hazards (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory data, estimated pesticide use and hazard) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative contaminant threat for each site was ranked. The 10 sites identified as having the greatest contaminant threats included Jefferson National Forest, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park, Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, George Washington National Forest, Green Mountain National Forest, and Long Island Piping Plover Beaches. These sites accounted for over 50% of the entire study area, and in general had moderate to high percentages of impaired waters, fish consumption advisories related to mercury and PCBs, and were located in counties with substantial application rates of pesticides known to be toxic to birds. Avian species at these IBAs include Federally endangered Roseate terns (Sterna dougallii), threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus), neotropical migrants, Bicknell?s thrush (Catharus bicknelli), Swainson?s warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) and wintering brant geese (Branta bernicla). Extant data for free-ranging birds from the Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database were examined within the buffered boundaries of each IBA, and for a moderate number of sites there was qualitative concordance between the perceived risk and actual contaminant exposure data. However, several of the IBAs with substantial contaminant

  3. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech; Fjeldså, Jon;

    2014-01-01

    network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the mainland, possibly because surrounding oceans buffer against strong climate oscillations and because geography is a strong....... Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography...... determinant of island richness, endemism and network roles....

  4. Widespread correlations between climatic niche evolution and species diversification in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Christopher R; Seddon, Nathalie; Tobias, Joseph A

    2016-07-01

    The adaptability of species' climatic niches can influence the dynamics of colonization and gene flow across climatic gradients, potentially increasing the likelihood of speciation or reducing extinction in the face of environmental change. However, previous comparative studies have tested these ideas using geographically, taxonomically and ecologically restricted samples, yielding mixed results, and thus the processes linking climatic niche evolution with diversification remain poorly understood. Focusing on birds, the largest and most widespread class of terrestrial vertebrates, we test whether variation in species diversification among clades is correlated with rates of climatic niche evolution and the extent to which these patterns are modified by underlying gradients in biogeography and species' ecology. We quantified climatic niches, latitudinal distribution and ecological traits for 7657 (˜75%) bird species based on geographical range polygons and then used Bayesian phylogenetic analyses to test whether niche evolution was related to species richness and rates of diversification across genus- and family-level clades. We found that the rate of climatic niche evolution has a positive linear relationship with both species richness and diversification rate at two different taxonomic levels (genus and family). Furthermore, this positive association between labile climatic niches and diversification was detected regardless of variation in clade latitude or key ecological traits. Our findings suggest either that rapid adaptation to unoccupied areas of climatic niche space promotes avian diversification, or that diversification promotes adaptation. Either way, we propose that climatic niche evolution is a fundamental process regulating the link between climate and biodiversity at global scales, irrespective of the geographical and ecological context of speciation and extinction. PMID:27064436

  5. Widespread correlations between climatic niche evolution and species diversification in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Christopher R; Seddon, Nathalie; Tobias, Joseph A

    2016-07-01

    The adaptability of species' climatic niches can influence the dynamics of colonization and gene flow across climatic gradients, potentially increasing the likelihood of speciation or reducing extinction in the face of environmental change. However, previous comparative studies have tested these ideas using geographically, taxonomically and ecologically restricted samples, yielding mixed results, and thus the processes linking climatic niche evolution with diversification remain poorly understood. Focusing on birds, the largest and most widespread class of terrestrial vertebrates, we test whether variation in species diversification among clades is correlated with rates of climatic niche evolution and the extent to which these patterns are modified by underlying gradients in biogeography and species' ecology. We quantified climatic niches, latitudinal distribution and ecological traits for 7657 (˜75%) bird species based on geographical range polygons and then used Bayesian phylogenetic analyses to test whether niche evolution was related to species richness and rates of diversification across genus- and family-level clades. We found that the rate of climatic niche evolution has a positive linear relationship with both species richness and diversification rate at two different taxonomic levels (genus and family). Furthermore, this positive association between labile climatic niches and diversification was detected regardless of variation in clade latitude or key ecological traits. Our findings suggest either that rapid adaptation to unoccupied areas of climatic niche space promotes avian diversification, or that diversification promotes adaptation. Either way, we propose that climatic niche evolution is a fundamental process regulating the link between climate and biodiversity at global scales, irrespective of the geographical and ecological context of speciation and extinction.

  6. Visualization of species pairwise associations: a case study of surrogacy in bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Peter W; Lindenmayer, David B; Barton, Philip S; Blanchard, Wade; Westgate, Martin J

    2014-08-01

    Quantifying and visualizing species associations are important to many areas of ecology and conservation biology. Species networks are one way to analyze species associations, with a growing number of applications such as food webs, nesting webs, plant-animal mutualisms, and interlinked extinctions. We present a new method for assessing and visualizing patterns of co-occurrence of species. The method depicts interactions and associations in an analogous way with existing network diagrams for studying pollination and trophic interactions, but adds the assessment of sign, strength, and direction of the associations. This provides a distinct advantage over existing methods of quantifying and visualizing co-occurrence. We demonstrate the utility of our new approach by showing differences in associations among woodland bird species found in different habitats and by illustrating the way these can be interpreted in terms of underlying ecological mechanisms. Our new method is computationally feasible for large assemblages and provides readily interpretable effects with standard errors. It has wide applications for quantifying species associations within ecological communities, examining questions about particular species that occur with others, and how their associations can determine the structure and composition of communities. PMID:25473480

  7. The relative importance of climate and vegetation properties on patterns of North American breeding bird species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Sun, Mindy; Zolkos, Scott; Hansen, Andy; Dubayah, Ralph

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and ecological modeling warrant a timely and robust investigation of the ecological variables that underlie large-scale patterns of breeding bird species richness, particularly in the context of intensifying land use and climate change. Our objective was to address this need using an array of bioclimatic and remotely sensed data sets representing vegetation properties and structure, and other aspects of the physical environment. We first build models of bird species richness across breeding bird survey (BBS) routes, and then spatially predict richness across the coterminous US at moderately high spatial resolution (1 km). Predictor variables were derived from various sources and maps of species richness were generated for four groups (guilds) of birds with different breeding habitat affiliation (forest, grassland, open woodland, scrub/shrub), as well as all guilds combined. Predictions of forest bird distributions were strong (R2 = 0.85), followed by grassland (0.76), scrub/shrub (0.63) and open woodland (0.60) species. Vegetation properties were generally the strongest determinants of species richness, whereas bioclimatic and lidar-derived vertical structure metrics were of variable importance and dependent upon the guild type. Environmental variables (climate and the physical environment) were also frequently selected predictors, but canopy structure variables were not as important as expected based on more local to regional scale studies. Relatively sparse sampling of canopy structure metrics from the satellite lidar sensor may have reduced their importance relative to other predictor variables across the study domain. We discuss these results in the context of the ecological drivers of species richness patterns, the spatial scale of bird diversity analyses, and the potential of next generation space-borne lidar systems relevant to vegetation and ecosystem studies. This study strengthens current understanding of bird species

  8. Bird species diversity in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil is not explained by the Mid-domain Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is an excellent case study for the elevational diversity of birds, and some inventories along elevational gradients have been carried out in Brazil. Since none of these studies explain the patterns of species richness with elevation, we herein review all Brazilian studies on bird elevational diversity, and test a geometric constraint null model that predicts a unimodal species-altitude curve, the Mid-domain Effect (MDE. We searched for bird inventories in the literature and also analysed our own survey data using limited-radius point counts along an 800 m elevational gradient in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We found 10 investigations of elevational diversity of Atlantic Forest birds and identified five different elevational patterns: monotonic decreasing diversity, constant at low elevations, constant at low elevations but increasing towards the middle, and two undescribed patterns for Atlantic Forest birds, trough-shaped and increasing diversity. The average MDE fit was low (r² = 0.31 and none of the MDE predictions were robust across all gradients. Those studies with good MDE model fits had obvious sampling bias. Although it has been proposed that the MDE may be positively associated with the elevational diversity of birds, it does not fit the Brazilian Atlantic Forest bird elevational diversity.

  9. Bird Watching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Being based in, and conducting business in, some of China's largest cities is an exciting, yet stressful occupation and 1 like to relax by taking a pair of binoculars, getting out into the open air of China's huge countryside, and spending time seeing what birds I can identify. I'm not really a twitcher (one who relentlessly pursues sightings of as many different species as possible)-just happy to get into nature. In my travels around the country, I listed

  10. Power to detect trends in abundance of secretive marsh birds: effects of species traits and sampling effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, Robert J.; Conway, Courtney J.; Litt, Andrea R.

    2013-01-01

    Standardized protocols for surveying secretive marsh birds have been implemented across North America, but the efficacy of surveys to detect population trends has not been evaluated. We used survey data collected from populations of marsh birds across North America and simulations to explore how characteristics of bird populations (proportion of survey stations occupied, abundance at occupied stations, and detection probability) and aspects of sampling effort (numbers of survey routes, stations/route, and surveys/station/year) affect statistical power to detect trends in abundance of marsh bird populations. In general, the proportion of survey stations along a route occupied by a species had a greater relative effect on power to detect trends than did the number of birds detected per survey at occupied stations. Uncertainty introduced by imperfect detection during surveys reduced power to detect trends considerably, but across the range of detection probabilities for most species of marsh birds, variation in detection probability had only a minor influence on power. For species that occupy a relatively high proportion of survey stations (0.20), have relatively high abundances at occupied stations (2.0 birds/station), and have high detection probability (0.50), ≥40 routes with 10 survey stations per route surveyed 3 times per year would provide an 80% chance of detecting a 3% annual decrease in abundance after 20 years of surveys. Under the same assumptions but for species that are less common, ≥100 routes would be needed to achieve the same power. Our results can help inform the design of programs to monitor trends in abundance of marsh bird populations, especially with regards to the amount of sampling effort necessary to meet programmatic goals.

  11. The relative importance of climate and vegetation properties on patterns of North American breeding bird species richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in remote sensing and ecological modeling warrant a timely and robust investigation of the ecological variables that underlie large-scale patterns of breeding bird species richness, particularly in the context of intensifying land use and climate change. Our objective was to address this need using an array of bioclimatic and remotely sensed data sets representing vegetation properties and structure, and other aspects of the physical environment. We first build models of bird species richness across breeding bird survey (BBS) routes, and then spatially predict richness across the coterminous US at moderately high spatial resolution (1 km). Predictor variables were derived from various sources and maps of species richness were generated for four groups (guilds) of birds with different breeding habitat affiliation (forest, grassland, open woodland, scrub/shrub), as well as all guilds combined. Predictions of forest bird distributions were strong (R2 = 0.85), followed by grassland (0.76), scrub/shrub (0.63) and open woodland (0.60) species. Vegetation properties were generally the strongest determinants of species richness, whereas bioclimatic and lidar-derived vertical structure metrics were of variable importance and dependent upon the guild type. Environmental variables (climate and the physical environment) were also frequently selected predictors, but canopy structure variables were not as important as expected based on more local to regional scale studies. Relatively sparse sampling of canopy structure metrics from the satellite lidar sensor may have reduced their importance relative to other predictor variables across the study domain. We discuss these results in the context of the ecological drivers of species richness patterns, the spatial scale of bird diversity analyses, and the potential of next generation space-borne lidar systems relevant to vegetation and ecosystem studies. This study strengthens current understanding of bird species

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in various bird species from northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Zhang Xiulan; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sun Quanhui [Beijing Raptor Rescue Center, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Beijing 100875 (China); Song Jie [Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Luo Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hale, Robert C., E-mail: hale@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Little data are available on organochlorine contamination in Chinese terrestrial birds of prey. This study examined the presence of PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in various raptors from northern China. DDE exhibited the highest concentrations among targeted compounds. Greatest levels (23.5-1020 mg/kg lipid weight) were observed in Eurasian sparrowhawks. This may be due to their stopover in southeastern China, where high DDT and dicofol applications have been documented. Residential kestrels exhibited much lower DDE, but similar PCB and HCH concentrations. SIGMATEQs and PCB-126/-77 concentration ratios exhibited significant positive correlations with SIGMAPCB concentrations, respectively. Similar results were also demonstrated by a meta-analysis of previously published data across avian species. Possible hepatic sequestration of coplanar PCB-77, -126, -169 and -118 was observed as liver TEQs increased in Eurasian sparrowhawks. These observations may indicate an induction of CYP1A enzymes, as a result of elevated contamination in some species. - Substantial bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants may cause toxic effects (i.e., an induction of Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in birds of prey from the northern China.

  13. A species assemblage approach to comparative phylogeography of birds in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Gaynor; Joseph, Leo

    2012-02-01

    We present a novel approach to investigating the divergence history of biomes and their component species using single-locus data prior to investing in multilocus data. We use coalescent-based hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (HABC) methods (MsBayes) to estimate the number and timing of discrete divergences across a putative barrier and to assign species to their appropriate period of co-divergence. We then apply a coalescent-based full Bayesian model of divergence (IMa) to suites of species shown to have simultaneously diverged. The full Bayesian model results in reduced credibility intervals around divergence times and allows other parameters associated with divergence to be summarized across species assemblages. We apply this approach to 10 bird species that are wholly or patchily discontinuous in semi-arid habitats between Australia's southwest (SW) and southeast (SE) mesic zones. There was substantial support for up to three discrete periods of divergence. HABC indicates that two species wholly restricted to more mesic habitats diverged earliest, between 594,382 and 3,417,699 years ago, three species from semi-arid habitats diverged between 0 and 1,508,049 years ago, and four diverged more recently, between 0 and 396,843 years ago. Eight species were assigned to three periods of co-divergence with confidence. For full Bayesian analyses, we accounted for uncertainty in the two remaining species by analyzing all possible suites of species. Estimates of divergence times from full Bayesian divergence models ranged between 429,105 and 2,006,355; 67,172 and 663,837; and 24,607 and 171,085 for the earliest, middle, and most recent periods of co-divergence, respectively. This single-locus approach uses the power of multitaxa coalescent analyses as an efficient means of generating a foundation for further, targeted research using multilocus and genomic tools applied to an understudied biome. PMID:22423329

  14. Association of Critically Endangered Bengal Florican with other bird species in two sites of Manas, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Brahma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Birds and animals group together for diverse benefits, including anti-predator, foraging, and reproductive advantages. Present study is aimed to know association of Bengal florican with other bird species found in two different habitats, one is natural and other human intervened based on association analysis in Manas National Park and understand potential benefits derived from these associations. This study was carried out in two site one in natural habitat of Bengal florican Kuribeel inside Manas National Park and other one in Koklabari Agricultural Farm outside Manas National Park which is man made habitat. Study was conducted from morning 0530 - 1000 hrs and afternoon 1500 hrs - 1700 hrs in 100 m radius circular plots, centre on the interactions of 50 m by 50 m regular grid in Bengal florican territories. Fourteen bird species found to associate with Bengal florican, of which nine species in Kuribeel, and thirteen species of birds in Koklabari seed farm. From association analysis, it is found that Bengal florican had stronger interspecific associations with Indian peafowl in the natural habitat (Kuribeel. However, in Kokalabari seed farm Bengal florican was found to associate with Red wattle lapwing. In this study, association strengths of Bengal florican with other bird species follow different trends in the two study sites.

  15. Response of bird species densities to habitat structure and fire history along a Midwestern open-forest gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, R.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    Oak savannas were historically common but are currently rare in the Midwestern United States. We assessed possible associations of bird species with savannas and other threatened habitats in the region by relating fire frequency and vegetation characteristics to seasonal densities of 72 bird species distributed across an open-forest gradient in northwestern Indiana. About one-third of the species did not exhibit statistically significant relationships with any combination of seven vegetation characteristics that included vegetation cover in five vertical strata, dead tree density, and tree height. For 40% of the remaining species, models best predicting species density incorporated tree density. Therefore, management based solely on manipulating tree density may not be an adequate strategy for managing bird populations along this open-forest gradient. Few species exhibited sharp peaks in predicted density under habitat conditions expected in restored savannas, suggesting that few savanna specialists occur among Midwestern bird species. When fire frequency, measured over fifteen years, was added to vegetation characteristics as a predictor of species density, it was incorporated into models for about one-quarter of species, suggesting that fire may modify habitat characteristics in ways that are important for birds but not captured by the structural habitat variables measured. Among those species, similar numbers had peaks in predicted density at low, intermediate, or high fire frequency. For species suggested by previous studies to have a preference for oak savannas along the open-forest gradient, estimated density was maximized at an average fire return interval of about one fire every three years. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  16. Ecological risk assessments for protected migratory birds and marine species at Midway Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scatolini, S.; Hope, B.; Lees, D.

    1995-12-31

    In June 1997, the US Navy plans to close its Naval Air Facility on Sand Island and transfer the atoll to the US Fish and Wildlife Service for use as a National Wildlife Refuge. Midway provides breeding and feeding habitat for migratory seabirds, terrestrial and marine mammals, sea turtles and other reptiles, and a variety of reef fishes and invertebrates. As part of the base closure and transfer process, 36 sites of potential environmental concern were identified on Sand and Eastern islands. These sites include landfills and uncontrolled disposal areas, hazardous materials storage areas, abandoned transformers, sewer outfalls, and other potential hazardous waste sites. Potential contaminants include pesticides, PAHs, PCBs, and heavy metals. A screening ecological risk assessment was performed at each site with a goal of determining whether contaminants could pose any current or future risks to protected migratory bird or marine mammal wildlife species. Specific exposure pathways investigated were dermal and inhalation routes for ground-nesting and burrowing seabirds; incidental soil ingestion for shore birds; consumption for monk seals and sea turtles. Exposure analysis involved sediment and soil chemistry, marine invertebrate tissue chemistry, bioassays (bioavailability), and food web modeling. Effects analysis involved benthic infauna community analysis, acute and chronic invertebrate sediment bioassays, and extensive literature reviews. Risk characterization used both toxicity quotient methods and weight-of-evidence analysis. Because work by other investigators suggests that birds and perhaps marine wildlife acquire significant contaminant loads while feeding away from the atoll, on-atoll risk investigations had to consider whether atoll sites made significant marginal contributions to existing contaminant loads, particularly with respect to PCBs.

  17. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland); Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T. [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: > We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. > We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. > Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. > Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. > Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  18. Bioacoustics for species management: two case studies with a Hawaiian forest bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-González, Esther; Pang-Ching, Joshua; Barbosa, Jomar M; Hart, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    The management of animal endangered species requires detailed information on their distribution and abundance, which is often hard to obtain. When animals communicate using sounds, one option is to use automatic sound recorders to gather information on the species for long periods of time with low effort. One drawback of this method is that processing all the information manually requires large amounts of time and effort. Our objective was to create a relatively "user-friendly" (i.e., that does not require big programming skills) automatic detection algorithm to improve our ability to get basic data from sound-emitting animal species. We illustrate our algorithm by showing two possible applications with the Hawai'i 'Amakihi, Hemignathus virens virens, a forest bird from the island of Hawai'i. We first characterized the 'Amakihi song using recordings from areas where the species is present in high densities. We used this information to train a classification algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM), in order to identify 'Amakihi songs from a series of potential songs. We then used our algorithm to detect the species in areas where its presence had not been previously confirmed. We also used the algorithm to compare the relative abundance of the species in different areas where management actions may be applied. The SVM had an accuracy of 86.5% in identifying 'Amakihi. We confirmed the presence of the 'Amakihi at the study area using the algorithm. We also found that the relative abundance of 'Amakihi changes among study areas, and this information can be used to assess where management strategies for the species should be better implemented. Our automatic song detection algorithm is effective, "user-friendly" and can be very useful for optimizing the management and conservation of those endangered animal species that communicate acoustically. PMID:26668733

  19. Bird species richness and diversity at montane Important Bird Area (IBA) sites in south-eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Manu, S; Imong, I.S.; Cresswell, Will

    2010-01-01

    The mountains of south-eastern Nigeria are a western extension of the Cameroon mountain range, which is classified as an endemic bird area (EBA). Unlike its eastern extension in Cameroon, most of the ornithological surveys in the western extension of the Cameroon highlands in Nigeria have produced only limited checklists and inventories. There is a clear need for quantitative baseline data so that conservation problems can be identified. Twenty line transects covering a total transect length ...

  20. 77 FR 3329 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing Three Python Species and One Anaconda Species as Injurious...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...), which may not be present when a species is released in a new country. Therefore, the areas at risk of... facilitate long-term establishment. Natural disasters, such as Hurricane Andrew in 1992, may have provided a... 3329-3366] [FR Doc No: 2012-1155] [[Page 3329

  1. Evidence for increased olfactory receptor gene repertoire size in two nocturnal bird species with well-developed olfactory ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiger Silke S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vertebrates, the molecular basis of the sense of smell is encoded by members of a large gene family, namely olfactory receptor (OR genes. Both the total number of OR genes and the proportion of intact OR genes in a genome may indicate the importance of the sense of smell for an animal. There is behavioral, physiological, and anatomical evidence that some bird species, in particular nocturnal birds, have a well developed sense of smell. Therefore, we hypothesized that nocturnal birds with good olfactory abilities have evolved (i more OR genes and (ii more intact OR genes than closely related and presumably less 'olfaction-dependent' day-active avian taxa. Results We used both non-radioactive Southern hybridization and PCR with degenerate primers to investigate whether two nocturnal bird species that are known to rely on olfactory cues, the brown kiwi (Apteryx australis and the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, have evolved a larger OR gene repertoire than their day-active, closest living relatives (for kiwi the emu Dromaius novaehollandiae, rhea Rhea americana, and ostrich Struthio camelus and for kakapo the kaka Nestor meridionalis and kea Nestor notabilis. We show that the nocturnal birds did not have a significantly higher proportion of intact OR genes. However, the estimated total number of OR genes was larger in the two nocturnal birds than in their relatives. Conclusion Our results suggest that ecological niche adaptations such as daily activity patterns may have shaped avian OR gene repertoires.

  2. Evaluation of autonomous recording units for detecting 3 species of secretive marsh birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidie-Slettehahl, Anna M.; Jensen, Kent C.; Johnson, Rex R.; Arnold, Todd W.; Austin, Jane; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Population status and habitat use of yellow rails (Coturnicops noveboracensis), Nelson's sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni), and Le Conte's sparrows (A. leconteii) are poorly known, so standardized surveys of these species are needed to inform conservation planning and management. A protocol for monitoring secretive marsh birds exists; however, these species regularly call at night and may be missed during early morning surveys. We tested the effectiveness of autonomous recording units (hereafter, recording units) to survey these species by analyzing recorded vocalizations using bioacoustics software. We deployed 22 recording units at 54 sites in northern Minnesota and eastern North Dakota, USA, and conducted traditional broadcast surveys during May–June, 2010 and 2011. We compared detection probabilities between recording units and standard monitoring protocols using robust-design occupancy models. On average, recording units detected 0.59 (SE = 0.11) fewer Le Conte's sparrows, 0.76 (SE = 0.15) fewer Nelson's sparrows, and 1.01 (SE = 0.14) fewer yellow rails per survey than were detected using the standard protocol. Detection probabilities using the standard protocol averaged 0.95 (yellow rail; 95% CI = 0.86–0.98), 0.93 (Le Conte's sparrow; 95% CI = 0.78–0.98), and 0.89 (Nelson's sparrow; 95% CI = 0.56–0.98), but averaged 0.71 (yellow rail; 95% CI = 0.56–0.83), 0.61 (Le Conte's sparrow; 95% CI = 0.42–0.78), and 0.51 (Nelson's sparrow; 95% CI = 0.19–0.82) using recording units. Reduced detection by recording units was likely due to the ability of human listeners to identify birds calling at greater distances. Recording units may be effective for surveying nocturnal secretive marsh birds if investigators correct for differential detectability. Reduced detectability may be outweighed by the increased spatial and temporal coverage feasible with recording units.

  3. New species of Cerobasis and Psyllipsocus from Mexico, and a list of Mexican Trogiomorpha (Psocoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Aldrete,Alfonso Neri

    2010-01-01

    Three new species of Cerobasis (Trogiidae) and three new species of Psyllipsocus (Psyllipsocidae) from Mexico are here described, which rises to seven the number of Mexican Cerobasis, and rises to nine the number of Mexican Psyllipsocus. Identification keys for the Mexican species of both genera are provided. The Mexican species of Trogiomorpha are thus known to consist of 46 species, of which 25 (54%) are endemic to this country. Lists of Cerobasis and Psyllipsocus species are presented, as ...

  4. 内蒙古赛罕乌拉自然保护区冬季鸟类多样性调查%Field Survey on Bird Species Diversity in Winter at Saihanwula Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    那顺得力格尔; 王安梦; 巴特尔; 宁宗勋; 僧格; 张逦嘉; 鲍伟东

    2011-01-01

    Bird diversity was surveyed by fixed transect lines in Inner Mongolia Saihanwula Nature Reserve in three winters from 2006 to 2009. Total of 5 1 species belong to 18 families, 6 orders have been recorded, of them 37 are resident birds, 9 winter migrant, and 5 wandering birds. In the survey, we recoded 6 summer migrant birds that wintered in the study area. Of the birds, Aquila chrysaetos is national protected as the first catesory species, 13 more species are protected as secondary category species, 29 are listed as the species benefic,important, and valuable to people. The habitat of mountain forest had the highest species richness with 37 bird species. The zoogeographical distribution patterns of the wintering birds were divided into 9 types, the high species composition of avifauna resulted from the complex vegetation at the reserve which locates in the zoogeographical transitional regions of the Mongolia-Xinjiang and the Northeast. The winter bird species diversity is relative rich in the study area compared to the surrounding areas.%采用固定样线法于2006~2009年对内蒙古赛罕乌拉国家级自然保护区冬季鸟类组成进行了调查.共记录鸟类6目18科51种,其中有37种留鸟,9种冬候鸟,5种旅鸟,鸟类的居留型发生变化.所记录鸟类中有国家Ⅰ级重点保护鸟类1种,Ⅱ级保护鸟类13种,国家保护的有益的或者有重要经济及科学研究价值的鸟类29种.群落多样性指数值最高的生境为山地森林,鸟类种数为37种.在动物地理分布型上划分为9种类型,较为复杂的组成与保护区的植被类型以及动物地理区划属于蒙新区和东北区的双重过渡地带有关.与周边地区冬季鸟类调查比较,本次调查鸟类物种相对丰富.

  5. Next-generation sequencing reveals phylogeographic structure and a species tree for recent bird divergences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCormack, John E.; Maley, James M.; Hird, Sarah M.;

    2012-01-01

    throughout the genome. Using eight loci found in Zonotrichia and Junco lineages, we were also able to generate a species tree of these sparrow sister genera, demonstrating the potential of this method for generating data amenable to coalescent-based analysis. We discuss improvements that should enhance...... divergence in four phylogenetically diverse avian systems using a method for quick and cost-effective generation of primary DNA sequence data using pyrosequencing. NGS data were processed using an analytical pipeline that reduces many reads into two called alleles per locus per individual. Using single...... nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mined from the loci, we detected population differentiation in each of the four bird systems, including: a case of ecological speciation in rails (Rallus); a rapid postglacial radiation in the genus Junco; recent in situ speciation among hummingbirds (Trochilus) in Jamaica...

  6. Diffuse migratory connectivity in two species of shrubland birds: evidence from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Leu, Matthias; Rotenberry, John T.; Hanser, Steven E.; Fesenmyer, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    Connecting seasonal ranges of migratory birds is important for understanding the annual template of stressors that influence their populations. Brewer’s sparrows (Spizella breweri) and sagebrush sparrows (Artemisiospiza nevadensis) share similar sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats for breeding but have different population trends that might be related to winter location. To link breeding and winter ranges, we created isoscapes of deuterium [stable isotope ratio (δ) of deuterium; δ2H] and nitrogen (δ15N) for each species modeled from isotope ratios measured in feathers of 264 Brewer’s and 82 sagebrush sparrows and environmental characteristics at capture locations across their breeding range. We then used feather δ2Hf and δ15Nf measured in 1,029 Brewer’s and 527 sagebrush sparrows captured on winter locations in southwestern United States to assign probable breeding ranges. Intraspecies population mixing from across the breeding range was strong for both Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows on winter ranges. Brewer’s sparrows but not sagebrush sparrows were linked to more northerly breeding locations in the eastern part of their winter range. Winter location was not related to breeding population trends estimated from US Geological Survey Breeding Bird Survey routes for either Brewer’s or sagebrush sparrows. Primary drivers of population dynamics are likely independent for each species; Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows captured at the same winter location did not share predicted breeding locations or population trends. The diffuse migratory connectivity displayed by Brewer’s and sagebrush sparrows measured at the coarse spatial resolution in our analysis also suggests that local environments rather than broad regional characteristics are primary drivers of annual population trends.

  7. Avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds: Infection and population impacts across species and elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Hart, P. J.; LaPointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife diseases can present significant threats to ecological systems and biological diversity, as well as domestic animal and human health. However, determining the dynamics of wildlife diseases and understanding the impact on host populations is a significant challenge. In Hawai‘i, there is ample circumstantial evidence that introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has played an important role in the decline and extinction of many native forest birds. However, few studies have attempted to estimate disease transmission and mortality, survival, and individual species impacts in this distinctive ecosystem. We combined multi-state capture-recapture (longitudinal) models with cumulative age-prevalence (cross-sectional) models to evaluate these patterns in Apapane, Hawai‘i Amakihi, and Iiwi in low-, mid-, and high-elevation forests on the island of Hawai‘i based on four longitudinal studies of 3–7 years in length. We found species-specific patterns of malaria prevalence, transmission, and mortality rates that varied among elevations, likely in response to ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance. Malaria infection was highest at low elevations, moderate at mid elevations, and limited in high-elevation forests. Infection rates were highest for Iiwi and Apapane, likely contributing to the absence of these species in low-elevation forests. Adult malaria fatality rates were highest for Iiwi, intermediate for Amakihi at mid and high elevations, and lower for Apapane; low-elevation Amakihi had the lowest malaria fatality, providing strong evidence of malaria tolerance in this low-elevation population. Our study indicates that hatch-year birds may have greater malaria infection and/or fatality rates than adults. Our study also found that mosquitoes prefer feeding on Amakihi rather than Apapane, but Apapane are likely a more important reservoir for malaria transmission to mosquitoes. Our approach, based on host abundance and infection rates, may be an

  8. Bird diversity in the Serra do Aracá region, northwestern Brazilian Amazon: preliminary check-list with considerations on biogeography and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Borges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We inventoried the birds from Serra do Aracá region, state of Amazonas. The region encompasses a high diversity of vegetation types, including white sand forests and campinas, terra firme and flooded forests, montane forests and tepuis. We recorded 416 bird taxa in 69 families through captures with mist nets, tape recording of bird voices, and collection of voucher specimens. A large proportion of them (61% were recorded in a single vegetation type. Qualitative estimates suggest that approximately 580 bird species occur in the region. The avifauna of the Aracá region has a mixed biogeographic composition, with species typical of both margins of the Rio Negro occurring sympatrically. Additionally, species whose distributions are restricted to three areas of endemism for Amazonian birds (Imeri, Guiana and Pantepui were recorded in the region. Rare landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon are found in the Serra do Aracá region. Additionally, we recorded endemic and rare birds, highlighting the value of the region for conservation. The Serra do Aracá State Park officially protects montane forests, terra firme forests and tepuis. We suggest that the large extension of white sand campinas and igapó forests at the southern portion of Serra do Aracá should be also preserved in order to improve the representation of the rich natural heritage of the region.

  9. Habitat Relationships of Three Grassland Breeding Bird Species: Broadscale Comparisons and Hayfield Management Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Nocera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized recommendations for the conservation of birds in agro-ecosystems have been elusive because studies are often of a local nature, and do not compare source data against those from other regions. In this study, we developed geographically broad habitat relationship models to provide conservation prescriptions for three species that breed in farmed grasslands: Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis, and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus. We develop models from our study in Nova Scotia, Canada and confront them with independent data from Wisconsin, USA pastures and Iowa, USA restored prairies. Vegetation that was higher and denser in the prebreeding season was linked to increased occupancy rates and abundance of Bobolinks in each study region. Providing tall spring grass is easily accomplished by not cutting late in the previous year. Savannah Sparrows were instead associated with shorter and sparser spring grass, which highlights the need to simultaneously provide heterogeneous habitat for otherwise ecologically similar species. Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrows were more likely to occur, and be numerous, in areas with greater availability of drainage ditches. They and several other species would benefit from provision of ditches with adequate vegetation to promote occupancy. By combining these with other well-established recommendations, such as a delayed first harvest, a greater net conservation benefit can be realized from these working landscapes.

  10. Accumulation pattern of persistent organochlorine pesticides in liver tissues of various species of birds from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal

    2013-05-01

    As part of a large study on assessing the impact of environmental contaminants in Indian avifauna, the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in liver tissues of 16 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India during 2005-2007 was quantified. The higher concentrations of total organochlorine pesticides were detected in livers of shikra Accipiter badius (3.43 ± 0.99 μg/g wet wt) and the lower levels in white ibis Pseudibis papillosa (0.02 ± 0.01 μg/g wet wt). Marked differences in the concentrations of total OCPs occurred among species (p DDT > heptachlor epoxide > dieldrin. Among various pesticides analyzed, p,p'-DDE and β-HCH contributed maximum towards the total OCPs and study indicates the continuous use of lindane and DDT for agriculture and public health purpose, respectively. Although no serious threat is posed by any of the organochlorine pesticides detected in the present study species, continued monitoring is recommended. PMID:23054790

  11. 50 CFR 23.89 - What are the criteria for listing species in Appendix I or II?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Lists of Species § 23.89 What are the criteria for listing... CITES Appendices I and II. A species must meet trade and biological criteria listed in the CITES... in Appendix I, such that enforcement officers who encounter specimens of such similar CITES...

  12. Haemosporidian parasite prevalence, parasitemia, and diversity in three resident bird species at a shrubland dominated landscape of the Mexican highland plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Reinoso-Pérez, María Teresa; Canales-Delgadillo, Julio César; Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Riego-Ruiz, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies of avian haemosporidians allow understanding how these parasites affect wild bird populations, and if their presence is related to factors such as habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, and climate change. Considering the importance of the highland Plateau of Mexico as part of the North American bird migratory route and as a region containing important habitat for numerous bird species, the purpose of this study was to document haemosporidian species richness and how ...

  13. The composition of mixed-species foraging flocks of birds in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hausler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-species foraging flocks (MSFFs of birds can be defined as aggregations of more than two species that actively initiate and continue their association while foraging, without being drawn to a single resource. MSFFs have been well documented for terrestrial habitats globally, but rarely in southern Africa. This study describes the composition of MSFFs in two habitat types (Acacia and Combretum within the southern Kruger National Park, South Africa during the late dry season. Thirty-one MSFFs were recorded in each of the two habitat types, with 1251 individuals of 74 different species being observed. We found that compared to Combretum, (mean: 10.7 ± 5.2 s.d. Acacia had significantly more individuals per MSFFs (mean: 21.5 ± 12.6 s.d. and more species per MSFF (Acacia mean: 8.7 ± 3.5 s.d.; Combretum mean: 5.9 ± 1.7 s.d.. The mean number of individuals per species per 31 MSFFs was 9.3 (± 4.5 s.d. and 7.6 (± 5.6 s.d. in the Acacia and Combretum habitat types respectively. The most frequently occurring species in both habitat types was the Fork-tailed Drongo (Dicrurus adsimilis. There was a significant association between certain species pairs in both habitats. Future studies in this area could be done to investigate the reasons behind the differences in MSFF sizes and species numbers between habitats. The season during which this study was performed excluded all summer migrants and a similar investigation in the wet season may reveal a different MSFF composition.Conservation implications: Understanding the dynamics and compositions of MSFFs, could form a valuable component of avian biodiversity monitoring both in and outside of protected areas. Within a given area, changes in the composition and behaviour of MSFFs over time could potentially be used as early indicator of threats to biodiversity.Keywords: avian; habitat; savanna

  14. Species richness and relative abundance of breeding birds in forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the Vicksburg Field Research Station of the National Wetlands Research Center initiated research on the ecology of migratory birds within forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The MAV was historically a nearly contiguous bottomland hardwood forest, however, only remnants remain. These remnants are fragmented and often influenced by drainage projects, silviculture, agriculture, and urban development. Our objectives are to assess species richness and relative abundance, and to relate these to the size, quality, and composition of forest stands. Species richness and relative abundance were estimated for 53 randomly selected forest sites using 1 to 8 point counts per site, depending on the size of the forest fragment. However, statistical comparisons among sites will be restricted to an equal number ofpoint counts within the sites being compared. Point counts, lasting five minutes, were conducted from 11 May to 29 June 1992, foltowing Ralph, Sauer, and Droege (Point Count Standards; memo dated 9 March 1992). Vegetation was measured at the first three points on each site using a modification of the methods employed by Martin and Roper (Condor 90: 5 1-57; 1988). During 252 counts, 7 1 species were encountered, but only 62 species were encountered within a 50-m radius of point center. The mean number of species encountered within 50 m of a point, was 7.3 (s.d. = 2.7) and the mean number of individuals was 11.2 (s.d. = 4.2). The mean number of species detected at any distance was 9.6 (s.d, = 2.8) and the mean number of individuals was 15.6 (s.d. = 7.9). The most frequently encountered warblers in the MAV were Prothonotary Warbler and Northern Parula. Rarely encountered warblers were American Redstart and Worm-eating Warbler. The genera, Quercus, Ulmus, Carya, and Celtis were each encountered at 80 or more of the 152 points at which vegetation was sampled. Species most frequentlyencountered were: sugarberry (Celtis laevagata), water hickory (Caqa

  15. Five new species of Culicoides Latreille described from Colombia, yielding a new species list and country records (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo R. Spinelli; Erika Santamaría; Olga L Cabrera; Ronderos, María M.; Suárez, Marco F.

    2009-01-01

    The following five new species of Culicoides from Colombia are described, illustrated and placed to subgenus or species group: Culicoides antioquiensis, Culicoides gabrieli, Culicoides inermis, Culicoides micayensis and Culicoides nigrifemur. C. gabrieli is also known from Peru. When possible, their position in previously published keys is indicated and their features discussed in light of the most recent revisions. A list of 180 Culicoides species known (114) or suspected of being in Colombi...

  16. Correlating Flight Behavior and Radar Measurements for Species Based Classification of Bird Radar Echoes for Wind Energy Site Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, S. P.; Frasier, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the fastest-growing segments of the world energy market, offering a clean and abundant source of electricity. However, wind energy facilities can have detrimental effects on wildlife, especially birds and bats. Monitoring systems based on marine navigation radar are often used to quantify migration near potential wind sites, but the ability to reliably distinguish between bats and different varieties of birds has not been practically achieved. This classification capability would enable wind site selection that protects more vulnerable species, such as bats and raptors. Flight behavior, such as wing beat frequency, changes in speed, or changes in orientation, are known to vary by species [1]. The ability to extract these properties from radar data could ultimately enable a species based classification scheme. In this work, we analyze the relationship between radar measurements and bird flight behavior in echoes from avifauna. During the 2014 fall migration season, the UMass dual polarized weather radar was used to collect low elevation observations of migrating birds as they traversed through a fixed antenna beam. The radar was run during the night time, in clear-air conditions. Data was coherently integrated, and detections of biological targets exceeding an SNR threshold were extracted. Detections without some dominant frequency content (i.e. clear periodicity, potentially the wing beat frequency) were removed from the sample in order to isolate observations suspected to contain a single species or bird. For the remaining detections, measurements including the polarimetric products and the Doppler spectrum were extracted at each time step over the duration of the observation. The periodic and time changing nature of some of these different measurements was found to have a strong correlation with flight behavior (i.e. flapping vs. gliding behavior). Assumptions about flight behavior and orientation were corroborated through scattering

  17. Which forest bird species are the main hosts of the tick, Ixodes ricinus, the vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, during the breeding season?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsot, M; Henry, P-Y; Vourc'h, G; Gasqui, P; Ferquel, E; Laignel, J; Grysan, M; Chapuis, J-L

    2012-07-01

    Wild birds are important hosts for vector-borne pathogens, especially those borne by ticks. However, few studies have been conducted on the role of different bird species within a community as hosts of vector-borne pathogens. This study addressed individual and species factors that could explain the burden of Ixodes ricinus on forest birds during the reproductive periods of both vectors and hosts. The goal was to identify which bird species contribute the most to the tick population at the community level. Birds were mist-netted on four plots in 2008 and on seven plots in 2009 in two forests (Sénart and Notre Dame, near Paris, France). The dependence of the tick load per bird upon environmental conditions (questing nymph density, year and plot) and on host species traits (species, age, sex, body size, vertical space use, level of innate and acquired immunity) was analysed. Finally, the relative contribution of each bird species to the local dynamics of ticks was estimated, while accounting for their respective abundance. Tick burden differed markedly between bird species and varied according to questing nymph density. Bird species with a high body mass, those that forage low in the vegetation, and those that had a high innate immune response and a high spleen mass were more likely to have a high tick burden. Four species (the Common Blackbird, Turdus merula, the European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, the Song Thrush, Turdus philomelos, and the Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes) hosted more than 90% of the ticks in the local bird community. These species, and particularly T. merula which was host to a high proportion of the nymphs, are likely to contribute significantly to the circulation of pathogens for which they are competent, such as the agent of Lyme borreliosis.

  18. Plants, Birds and Butterflies: Short-Term Responses of Species Communities to Climate Warming Vary by Taxon and with Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Tobias; Plattner, Matthias; Amrhein, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of climate warming, species usually shift their distribution towards higher latitudes or altitudes. Yet, it is unclear how different taxonomic groups may respond to climate warming over larger altitudinal ranges. Here, we used data from the national biodiversity monitoring program of Switzerland, collected over an altitudinal range of 2500 m. Within the short period of eight years (2003–2010), we found significant shifts in communities of vascular plants, butterflies and birds. At low altitudes, communities of all species groups changed towards warm-dwelling species, corresponding to an average uphill shift of 8 m, 38 m and 42 m in plant, butterfly and bird communities, respectively. However, rates of community changes decreased with altitude in plants and butterflies, while bird communities changed towards warm-dwelling species at all altitudes. We found no decrease in community variation with respect to temperature niches of species, suggesting that climate warming has not led to more homogenous communities. The different community changes depending on altitude could not be explained by different changes of air temperatures, since during the 16 years between 1995 and 2010, summer temperatures in Switzerland rose by about 0.07°C per year at all altitudes. We discuss that land-use changes or increased disturbances may have prevented alpine plant and butterfly communities from changing towards warm-dwelling species. However, the findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that unlike birds, many alpine plant species in a warming climate could find suitable habitats within just a few metres, due to the highly varied surface of alpine landscapes. Our results may thus support the idea that for plants and butterflies and on a short temporal scale, alpine landscapes are safer places than lowlands in a warming world. PMID:24416144

  19. Plants, birds and butterflies: short-term responses of species communities to climate warming vary by taxon and with altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Roth

    Full Text Available As a consequence of climate warming, species usually shift their distribution towards higher latitudes or altitudes. Yet, it is unclear how different taxonomic groups may respond to climate warming over larger altitudinal ranges. Here, we used data from the national biodiversity monitoring program of Switzerland, collected over an altitudinal range of 2500 m. Within the short period of eight years (2003-2010, we found significant shifts in communities of vascular plants, butterflies and birds. At low altitudes, communities of all species groups changed towards warm-dwelling species, corresponding to an average uphill shift of 8 m, 38 m and 42 m in plant, butterfly and bird communities, respectively. However, rates of community changes decreased with altitude in plants and butterflies, while bird communities changed towards warm-dwelling species at all altitudes. We found no decrease in community variation with respect to temperature niches of species, suggesting that climate warming has not led to more homogenous communities. The different community changes depending on altitude could not be explained by different changes of air temperatures, since during the 16 years between 1995 and 2010, summer temperatures in Switzerland rose by about 0.07°C per year at all altitudes. We discuss that land-use changes or increased disturbances may have prevented alpine plant and butterfly communities from changing towards warm-dwelling species. However, the findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that unlike birds, many alpine plant species in a warming climate could find suitable habitats within just a few metres, due to the highly varied surface of alpine landscapes. Our results may thus support the idea that for plants and butterflies and on a short temporal scale, alpine landscapes are safer places than lowlands in a warming world.

  20. A niche-based framework to assess current monitoring of European forest birds and guide indicator species' selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S I Wade

    Full Text Available Concern that European forest biodiversity is depleted and declining has provoked widespread efforts to improve management practices. To gauge the success of these actions, appropriate monitoring of forest ecosystems is paramount. Multi-species indicators are frequently used to assess the state of biodiversity and its response to implemented management, but generally applicable and objective methodologies for species' selection are lacking. Here we use a niche-based approach, underpinned by coarse quantification of species' resource use, to objectively select species for inclusion in a pan-European forest bird indicator. We identify both the minimum number of species required to deliver full resource coverage and the most sensitive species' combination, and explore the trade-off between two key characteristics, sensitivity and redundancy, associated with indicators comprising different numbers of species. We compare our indicator to an existing forest bird indicator selected on the basis of expert opinion and show it is more representative of the wider community. We also present alternative indicators for regional and forest type specific monitoring and show that species' choice can have a significant impact on the indicator and consequent projections about the state of the biodiversity it represents. Furthermore, by comparing indicator sets drawn from currently monitored species and the full forest bird community, we identify gaps in the coverage of the current monitoring scheme. We believe that adopting this niche-based framework for species' selection supports the objective development of multi-species indicators and that it has good potential to be extended to a range of habitats and taxa.

  1. A niche-based framework to assess current monitoring of European forest birds and guide indicator species' selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Amy S I; Barov, Boris; Burfield, Ian J; Gregory, Richard D; Norris, Ken; Vorisek, Petr; Wu, Taoyang; Butler, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Concern that European forest biodiversity is depleted and declining has provoked widespread efforts to improve management practices. To gauge the success of these actions, appropriate monitoring of forest ecosystems is paramount. Multi-species indicators are frequently used to assess the state of biodiversity and its response to implemented management, but generally applicable and objective methodologies for species' selection are lacking. Here we use a niche-based approach, underpinned by coarse quantification of species' resource use, to objectively select species for inclusion in a pan-European forest bird indicator. We identify both the minimum number of species required to deliver full resource coverage and the most sensitive species' combination, and explore the trade-off between two key characteristics, sensitivity and redundancy, associated with indicators comprising different numbers of species. We compare our indicator to an existing forest bird indicator selected on the basis of expert opinion and show it is more representative of the wider community. We also present alternative indicators for regional and forest type specific monitoring and show that species' choice can have a significant impact on the indicator and consequent projections about the state of the biodiversity it represents. Furthermore, by comparing indicator sets drawn from currently monitored species and the full forest bird community, we identify gaps in the coverage of the current monitoring scheme. We believe that adopting this niche-based framework for species' selection supports the objective development of multi-species indicators and that it has good potential to be extended to a range of habitats and taxa.

  2. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    OpenAIRE

    Raimo Virkkala; Ari Rajasärkkä

    2012-01-01

    A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of comm...

  3. Proactive conservation management of an island-endemic bird species in the face of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S.A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Graber, D.M.; Bakker, V.J.; Bowman, R.; Collins, C.T.; Collins, P.W.; Delaney, K.S.; Doak, D.F.; Koenig, W.D.; Laughrin, L.; Lieberman, A.A.; Marzluff, J.M.; Reynolds, M.D.; Scott, J.M.; Stallcup, J.A.; Vickers, W.; Boyce, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation in an era of global change and scarce funding benefits from approaches that simultaneously solve multiple problems. Here, we discuss conservation management of the island scrub-jay (Aphelocoma insularis), the only island-endemic passerine species in the continental United States, which is currently restricted to 250-square-kilometer Santa Cruz Island, California. Although the species is not listed as threatened by state or federal agencies, its viability is nonetheless threatened on multiple fronts. We discuss management actions that could reduce extinction risk, including vaccination, captive propagation, biosecurity measures, and establishing a second free-living population on a neighboring island. Establishing a second population on Santa Rosa Island may have the added benefit of accelerating the restoration and enhancing the resilience of that island's currently highly degraded ecosystem. The proactive management framework for island scrub-jays presented here illustrates how strategies for species protection, ecosystem restoration, and adaptation to and mitigation of climate change can converge into an integrated solution. ?? 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  4. An annotated list of the species of the genus Corbicula from Indonesia (Mollusca: Corbiculidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz

    1977-01-01

    The species of the genus Corbicula known from Indonesia are alphabetically listed and noted. Sixteen out of the 35 described species are considered valid, i.e. C. gustaviana, C. moltkiana, C. sumatrana, C. tobae and C. tumida from Sumatra; C. javanica, C. pulchella and C. rivalis from Java; C. bitru

  5. 76 FR 12292 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: Correction To Codify in the Code of Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... to clarify that take prohibitions under section 4(d) of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-XA082 Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: Correction To Codify in the Code of Federal Regulations Application of Take...

  6. 76 FR 12308 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Six Species of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ....S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish as endangered on April 1, 2003 (68 FR 15674). Smalltooth sawfish whose... reclassifying a species under the ESA (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is... then infused into a medicinal tea, which is used to treat ``whooping cough, bronchitis, laryngitis...

  7. Tourism Revenue as a Conservation Tool for Threatened Birds in Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle Steven; J Guy Castley; Ralf Buckley

    2013-01-01

    Many bird populations worldwide are at risk of extinction, and rely heavily on protected area networks for their continued conservation. Tourism to these areas contributes to conservation by generating revenue for management. Here we quantify the contribution of tourism revenue for bird species in the IUCN Red List, using a simple accounting method. Relevant data are available for 90 (16%) of the 562 critically endangered and endangered species. Contributions of tourism to bird conservation a...

  8. Tourism revenue as a conservation tool for threatened birds in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Rochelle; Castley, J Guy; Buckley, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Many bird populations worldwide are at risk of extinction, and rely heavily on protected area networks for their continued conservation. Tourism to these areas contributes to conservation by generating revenue for management. Here we quantify the contribution of tourism revenue for bird species in the IUCN Red List, using a simple accounting method. Relevant data are available for 90 (16%) of the 562 critically endangered and endangered species. Contributions of tourism to bird conservation are highest, 10-64%, in South America, Africa, and their neighbouring islands. Critically endangered bird species rely on tourism more heavily than endangered species (ptourism specifically. PMID:23667498

  9. Tourism Revenue as a Conservation Tool for Threatened Birds in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Rochelle; Castley, J. Guy; Buckley, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Many bird populations worldwide are at risk of extinction, and rely heavily on protected area networks for their continued conservation. Tourism to these areas contributes to conservation by generating revenue for management. Here we quantify the contribution of tourism revenue for bird species in the IUCN Red List, using a simple accounting method. Relevant data are available for 90 (16%) of the 562 critically endangered and endangered species. Contributions of tourism to bird conservation are highest, 10–64%, in South America, Africa, and their neighbouring islands. Critically endangered bird species rely on tourism more heavily than endangered species (ptourism specifically. PMID:23667498

  10. Oak Ridge Reservation Bird Records and Population Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, N. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wade, M. C. [CDM Smith (United States); Haines, A. M. [Xcel Engineering, Inc.(United States); Evans, J. W. [Tennessee WIldlife Resources Agency (WRA), Nashville, TN (United States); Jett, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Bird data have been collected through surveys, environmental assessments, and other observations for decades in the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, located on the US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. Birds were recorded in a variety of habitats, including wetlands, interior forests, grasslands, ponds, corridors, forest edges, and more. Most of the information was gathered from waterfowl surveys conducted from 1990 to 2008, from Partners in Flight (PIF) breeding bird surveys conducted from 1995 to 2013, and from past publications and research on Reservation birds. We have also included our own observations and, in a few instances, credible observations of ORR birds of which we have been made aware through eBird or discussions with area ornithologists and bird watchers. For the period 1950-2014, we were able to document 228 species of birds on the ORR. Several of these species are known from historic records only, while others were not known to have ever occurred on the Reservation until recently. This report does not include PIF breeding bird data from the 2014 season or any records after July 2014. Twenty-two species--approximately 10% of the total number of species observed--have state-listed status in Tennessee as endangered, threatened, or in need of management. Of the 228 species we documented, 120 are believed to be breeding birds on the ORR.

  11. Oak Ridge Reservation Bird Records and Population Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W. Kelly [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, Neil R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wade, Murray [CDM Smith, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haines, Angelina [Xcel Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, James W. [Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Nashville, TN (United States); Jett, Robert Trent [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Bird data have been collected through surveys, environmental assessments, and other observations for decades in the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, located on the US Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. Birds were recorded in a variety of habitats, including wetlands, interior forests, grasslands, ponds, corridors, forest edges, and more. Most of the information was gathered from waterfowl surveys conducted from 1990 to 2008, from Partners in Flight (PIF) breeding bird surveys conducted from 1995 to 2013, and from past publications and research on Reservation birds. We have also included our own observations and, in a few instances, credible observations of ORR birds of which we have been made aware through eBird or discussions with area ornithologists and bird watchers. For the period 1950 2014, we were able to document 228 species of birds on the ORR. Several of these species are known from historic records only, while others were not known to have ever occurred on the Reservation until recently. This report does not include PIF breeding bird data from the 2014 season or any records after July 2014. Twenty-two species approximately 10% of the total number of species observed have state-listed status in Tennessee as endangered, threatened, or in need of management. Of the 228 species we documented, 120 are believed to be breeding birds on the ORR.

  12. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Boscolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.A técnica de play-back é muito útil para a detecção de aves, mas este método geralmente não é padronizado. Sua eficiência em atestar a ocorrência de cinco espécies de aves da Mata Atlântica (Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Batará Batara cinerea, Tangará Chiroxiphia caudata, Olho-de-fogo Pyriglena leucoptera e Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha Trogon surrucura foi analisada de acordo com o horário do dia, estação do ano e abundância das espécies na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande (São Paulo, Brasil e em treze fragmentos florestais de uma paisagem adjacente

  13. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Atiqah Norazlimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus, Common redshank (Tringa totanus, Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus, and Little heron (Butorides striata and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder. The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R=0.443, p<0.05, bill size and prey size (R=-0.052, p<0.05, bill size and probing depth (R=0.42, p=0.003, and leg length and water/mud depth (R=0.706, p<0.005. A Kruskal-Wallis Analysis showed a significant difference between average estimates of real probing depth of the birds (mm and species (H=15.96, p=0.0012. Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging.

  14. The Relationships between Morphological Characteristics and Foraging Behavior in Four Selected Species of Shorebirds and Water Birds Utilizing Tropical Mudflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazlimi, Nor Atiqah; Ramli, Rosli

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the physical morphology of shorebirds and water birds (i.e., Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus), Common redshank (Tringa totanus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), and Little heron (Butorides striata)) and their foraging behavior in the mudflats area of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, from August 2013 to July 2014 by using direct observation techniques (using binoculars and a video recorder). The actively foraging bird species were watched, and their foraging activities were recorded for at least 30 seconds for up to a maximum of five minutes. A Spearman Rank Correlation highlighted a significant relationship between bill size and foraging time (R = 0.443, p water/mud depth (R = 0.706, p < 0.005). A Kruskal-Wallis Analysis showed a significant difference between average estimates of real probing depth of the birds (mm) and species (H = 15.96, p = 0.0012). Three foraging techniques were recorded: pause-travel, visual-feeding, and tactile-hunting. Thus, morphological characteristics of bird do influence their foraging behavior and strategies used when foraging. PMID:26345324

  15. Environmental factors influence both abundance and genetic diversity in a widespread bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Webber, Simone; Bowgen, Katharine; Schmaltz, Lucie; Bradley, Katharine; Halvarsson, Peter; Abdelgadir, Mohanad; Griesser, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Genetic diversity is one of the key evolutionary variables that correlate with population size, being of critical importance for population viability and the persistence of species. Genetic diversity can also have important ecological consequences within populations, and in turn, ecological factors may drive patterns of genetic diversity. However, the relationship between the genetic diversity of a population and how this interacts with ecological processes has so far only been investigated in a few studies. Here, we investigate the link between ecological factors, local population size, and allelic diversity, using a field study of a common bird species, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). We studied sparrows outside the breeding season in a confined small valley dominated by dispersed farms and small-scale agriculture in southern France. Population surveys at 36 locations revealed that sparrows were more abundant in locations with high food availability. We then captured and genotyped 891 house sparrows at 10 microsatellite loci from a subset of these locations (N = 12). Population genetic analyses revealed weak genetic structure, where each locality represented a distinct substructure within the study area. We found that food availability was the main factor among others tested to influence the genetic structure between locations. These results suggest that ecological factors can have strong impacts on both population size per se and intrapopulation genetic variation even at a small scale. On a more general level, our data indicate that a patchy environment and low dispersal rate can result in fine-scale patterns of genetic diversity. Given the importance of genetic diversity for population viability, combining ecological and genetic data can help to identify factors limiting population size and determine the conservation potential of populations.

  16. Environmental factors influence both abundance and genetic diversity in a widespread bird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Webber, Simone; Bowgen, Katharine; Schmaltz, Lucie; Bradley, Katharine; Halvarsson, Peter; Abdelgadir, Mohanad; Griesser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity is one of the key evolutionary variables that correlate with population size, being of critical importance for population viability and the persistence of species. Genetic diversity can also have important ecological consequences within populations, and in turn, ecological factors may drive patterns of genetic diversity. However, the relationship between the genetic diversity of a population and how this interacts with ecological processes has so far only been investigated in a few studies. Here, we investigate the link between ecological factors, local population size, and allelic diversity, using a field study of a common bird species, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). We studied sparrows outside the breeding season in a confined small valley dominated by dispersed farms and small-scale agriculture in southern France. Population surveys at 36 locations revealed that sparrows were more abundant in locations with high food availability. We then captured and genotyped 891 house sparrows at 10 microsatellite loci from a subset of these locations (N = 12). Population genetic analyses revealed weak genetic structure, where each locality represented a distinct substructure within the study area. We found that food availability was the main factor among others tested to influence the genetic structure between locations. These results suggest that ecological factors can have strong impacts on both population size per se and intrapopulation genetic variation even at a small scale. On a more general level, our data indicate that a patchy environment and low dispersal rate can result in fine-scale patterns of genetic diversity. Given the importance of genetic diversity for population viability, combining ecological and genetic data can help to identify factors limiting population size and determine the conservation potential of populations. PMID:24363897

  17. Projecting impacts of anthropogenic climatic change on the bird communities of southern Swedish spruce monocultures : will the species poor get poorer?

    OpenAIRE

    Felton, Adam; Lindbladh, Matts; Elmberg, Johan; Felton, Annika; Andersson, Erik; Sekercioglu, Cagan; Collingham, Yvonne; Huntley, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The potential impact of climatic change on bird species’ distributions in Europe was recently modeled for several scenarios of projected late 21st century climate. The results indicate mean range shifts of hundreds of kilometres north for many of European bird species. Here we consider the implications from such distributional shifts for the bird communities of Norway spruce (Picea abies)monocultures in southern Sweden, a forest type likely to remain prevalent due to forestry, ...

  18. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  19. Pathogenicity of two recent Western Mediterranean West Nile virus isolates in a wild bird species indigenous to Southern Europe: the red-legged partridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Elena; Gutierrez-Guzmán, Ana Valeria; del Amo, Javier; Llorente, Francisco; El-Harrak, Mehdi; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Blanco, Juan Manuel; Höfle, Ursula; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen whose geographic spread and incidence in humans, horses and birds has increased significantly in recent years. WNV has long been considered a mild pathogen causing self-limiting outbreaks. This notion has changed as WNV is causing large epidemics with a high impact on human and animal health. This has been particularly noteworthy since its introduction into North America in 1999. There, native bird species have been shown to be highly susceptible to WNV infection and disease with high mortalities. For this reason, the effect of WNV infection in North American bird species has been thoroughly studied by means of experimental inoculations in controlled trials. To a lesser extent, European wild birds have been shown to be affected clinically by WNV infection. Yet experimental studies on European wild bird species are lacking. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) is a gallinaceous bird indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula, widely distributed in South Western Europe. It plays a key role in the Mediterranean ecosystem and constitutes an economically important game species. As such it is raised intensively in outdoor facilities. In this work, red-legged partridges were experimentally infected with two recent WNV isolates from the Western Mediterranean area: Morocco/2003 and Spain/2007. All inoculated birds became viremic and showed clinical disease, with mortality rates of 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that Western Mediterranean WNV variants can be pathogenic for some European bird species, such as the red-legged partridge. PMID:21314967

  20. Five new species of Culicoides Latreille described from Colombia, yielding a new species list and country records (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R Spinelli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The following five new species of Culicoides from Colombia are described, illustrated and placed to subgenus or species group: Culicoides antioquiensis, Culicoides gabrieli, Culicoides inermis, Culicoides micayensis and Culicoides nigrifemur. C. gabrieli is also known from Peru. When possible, their position in previously published keys is indicated and their features discussed in light of the most recent revisions. A list of 180 Culicoides species known (114 or suspected of being in Colombia (66 is given in a Table. Of these, 12 including the new species are recorded from Colombia for the first time.

  1. Feather barbs as a good source of mtDNA for bird species identification in forensic wildlife investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speller Camilla F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to accurately identify bird species is crucial for wildlife law enforcement and bird-strike investigations. However, such identifications may be challenging when only partial or damaged feathers are available for analysis. Results By applying vigorous contamination controls and sensitive PCR amplification protocols, we found that it was feasible to obtain accurate mitochondrial (mtDNA-based species identification with as few as two feather barbs. This minimally destructive DNA approach was successfully used and tested on a variety of bird species, including North American wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, Canada goose (Branta canadensis, blue heron (Ardea herodias and pygmy owl (Glaucidium californicum. The mtDNA was successfully obtained from 'fresh' feathers, historic museum specimens and archaeological samples, demonstrating the sensitivity and versatility of this technique. Conclusions By applying appropriate contamination controls, sufficient quantities of mtDNA can be reliably recovered and analyzed from feather barbs. This previously overlooked substrate provides new opportunities for accurate DNA species identification when minimal feather samples are available for forensic analysis.

  2. Alien plant species list and distribution for Camdeboo National Park, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmoto L. Masubelele

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas globally are threatened by the potential negative impacts that invasive alien plants pose, and Camdeboo National Park (CNP, South Africa, is no exception. Alien plants have been recorded in the CNP since 1981, before it was proclaimed a national park by South African National Parks in 2005. This is the first publication of a list of alien plants in and around the CNP. Distribution maps of some of the first recorded alien plant species are also presented and discussed. To date, 39 species of alien plants have been recorded, of which 13 are invasive and one is a transformer weed. The majority of alien plant species in the park are herbaceous (39% and succulent (24% species. The most widespread alien plant species in the CNP are Atriplex inflata (= A. lindleyi subsp. inflata, Salsola tragus (= S. australis and cacti species, especially Opuntia ficus-indica. Eradication and control measures that have been used for specific problematic alien plant species are described. Conservation implications: This article represents the first step in managing invasive alien plants and includes the collation of a species list and basic information on their distribution in and around the protected area. This is important for enabling effective monitoring of both new introductions and the distribution of species already present. We present the first species list and distribution information for Camdeboo National Park.

  3. Identifying vulnerable hotspots of land cover or climate dependant bird species in Africa, using species distribution modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Stolyarov, Serjay

    2015-01-01

    Birds are crucial parts of ecosystems and good indicators of the state of natural environments of the planet. As empirical evidence suggests, bird’s populations around the world are declining due to habitat loss from agricultural activities, deforestation and increasing effects from climate change, particularly in areas of Africa which are greatly abundant and rich in biodiversity. Africa is home for very large number of endemic birds, distributions and environments of which we still do not f...

  4. A critical look at national monitoring programs for birds and other wildlife species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Concerns?about declines in numerous taxa have created agreat deal of interest in survey development. Because birds have traditionally been monitored by a variety of methods, bird surveys form natural models for development of surveys for other taxa. Here I suggest that most bird surveys are not appropriate models for survey design. Most lack important design components associated with estimation of population parameters at sample sites or with sampling over space, leading to estimates that may be biased, I discuss the limitations of national bird monitoring programs designed to monitor population size. Although these surveys are often analyzed, careful consideration must be given to factors that may bias estimates but that cannot be evaluated within the survey. Bird surveys with appropriate designs have generally been developed as part of management programs that have specific information needs. Experiences gained from bird surveys provide important information for development of surveys for other taxa, and statistical developments in estimation of population sizes from counts provide new approaches to overcoming the limitations evident in many bird surveys. Design of surveys is a collaborative effort, requiring input from biologists, statisticians, and the managers who will use the information from the surveys.

  5. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  6. Long-term changes of species richness in a breeding bird community of a small Mediterranean archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Abraín, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the pattern of species richness changes in a bird–breeding bird community on a small western Mediterranean archipelago (Columbretes Islands over a 40–year period (1964–2003. The aim of this study was to qualitatively account for the relative roles of local and regional factors in shaping the community. As expected, we found that regional factors (at the metapopulation spatial scale increased diversity whereas local factors (i.e. ecological probably prevented further increases in diversity. We found that the archipelago gained four new species (two seabirds and two falconids during the study period, whereas no extinctions were recorded. The community seems partially or completely closed to some groups of species (e.g. small–sized birds such as passerines and storm–petrels, probably owing to predatory exclusion by Eleonora falcons (Falco eleonorae. As newly arrived species have breeding calendars that do not fully overlap with those of resident species, competition for space in a rather saturated area is prevented. Preservation of rare species which increase gamma (regional diversity rather than alpha diversity with common species should be the main local conservation goal.

  7. Functional implications of species differences in the size and morphology of the isthmo optic nucleus (ION in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Gutiérrez-Ibáñez

    Full Text Available In birds, there is a retinofugal projection from the brain to the retina originating from the isthmo optic nucleus (ION in the midbrain. Despite a large number of anatomical, physiological and histochemical studies, the function of this retinofugal system remains unclear. Several functions have been proposed including: gaze stabilization, pecking behavior, dark adaptation, shifting attention, and detection of aerial predators. This nucleus varies in size and organization among some species, but the relative size and morphology of the ION has not been systematically studied. Here, we present a comparison of the relative size and morphology of the ION in 81 species of birds, representing 17 different orders. Our results show that several orders of birds, besides those previously reported, have a large, well-organized ION, including: hummingbirds, woodpeckers, coots and allies, and kingfishers. At the other end of the spectrum, parrots, herons, waterfowl, owls and diurnal raptors have relatively small ION volumes. ION also appears to be absent or unrecognizable is several taxa, including one of the basal avian groups, the tinamous, which suggests that the ION may have evolved only in the more modern group of birds, Neognathae. Finally, we demonstrate that evolutionary changes in the relative size and the cytoarchitectonic organization of ION have occurred largely independent of phylogeny. The large relative size of the ION in orders with very different lifestyles and feeding behaviors suggest there is no clear association with pecking behavior or predator detection. Instead, our results suggest that the ION is more complex and enlarged in birds that have eyes that are emmetropic in some parts of the visual field and myopic in others. We therefore posit that the ION is involved in switching attention between two parts of the retina i.e. from an emmetropic to a myopic part of the retina.

  8. The state of Nepal birds 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Inskipp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The national status of Nepal birds was determined using the IUCN Red List criteria and following IUCN regional guidelines. Records of all species identified as potentially at high risk were extracted from all relevant references in a comprehensive, up-to-date Nepal bird bibliography. In addition, numerous previously undocumented records were obtained from observers in Nepal. The initial list of potentially threatened species was revised as records were accumulated. Literature reviews were made of current pressures on Nepal birds, responses to these pressures and recommendations for the future. Finally a comprehensive summary table was compiled for all nationally threatened species, including their world distribution, global threat status, national threat status, occurrence, habitat, main altitudinal range, population, key threats, research needs, and key conservation interventions needed. In 2010, 149 bird species (17% of the total recorded of Nepal birds were considered nationally threatened: 53 Critically Endangered species, 48 Endangered and 47 Vulnerable. Near Threatened species were not assessed due to lack of time available for the necessary research. An additional 16 species were considered threatened in 2010 compared with 2004; no species assessed as threatened in 2004 was considered non-threatened in 2010. When habitat types are considered wetland species are the most threatened (35% of the total wetland species, followed by grassland species (23%. When altitudinal preferences are considered lowland species are the most threatened (36% of all lowland species, followed by species only occurring in the middle hills (17%. Human activities leading to habitat loss and damage are the major threats, with agriculture the root cause; hunting and trapping are other important threats. Effective responses for conservation include Nepal protected areas network, community forestry, designation of Ramsar sites, National Wetland Policy implementation

  9. The winter feeding habits of selected species of marine birds in Kachemak Bay, Alaska: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on winter feeding habits and ecology of marine birds in lower Cook Inlet. Monthly field operations commenced in...

  10. Ethical advantages of using domestic bird species for magnetic orientation research

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the mechanism in birds that controls magnetic orientation behavior is proving elusive and is currently attracting a plethora of research activity. Much of this research involves wild birds that are caught in nets, tested and released. Ethical concerns regarding these experiments are likely to encompass the welfare of animals, their “rights” and conservation issues. Recently, Pekin ducks derived from migratory ancestors have been shown to posses a magnetic compass in a simple condi...

  11. Species richness and relative abundance of birds in natural and anthropogenic fragments of Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz dos Anjos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird communities were studied in two types of fragmented habitat of Atlantic forest in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil; one consisted of forest fragments that were created as a result of human activities (forest remnants, the other consisted of a set of naturally occurring forest fragments (forest patches. Using quantitative data obtained by the point counts method in 3 forest patches and 3 forest remnants during one year, species richness and relative abundance were compared in those habitats, considering species groups according to their general feeding habits. Insectivores, omnivores, and frugivores presented similar general tendencies in both habitats (decrease of species number with decreasing size and increasing isolation of forest fragment. However, these tendencies were different, when considering the relative abundance data: the trunk insectivores presented the highest value in the smallest patch while the lowest relative abundance was in the smallest remnant. In the naturally fragmented landscape, time permitted that the loss of some species of trunk insectivores be compensated for the increase in abundance of other species. In contrast, the remnants essentially represented newly formed islands that are not yet at equilibrium and where future species losses would make them similar to the patches.Comunidades de aves foram estudadas em duas regiões fragmentadas de floresta Atlântica no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil; uma região é constituída de fragmentos florestais que foram criados como resultado de atividades humanas (remanescentes florestais e a outra de um conjunto de fragmentos florestais naturais (manchas de floresta. Usando dados quantitativos (o método de contagens pontuais previamente obtidos em 3 manchas de floresta e em 3 remanescentes florestais durante um ano, a riqueza e a abundância relativa de aves foram comparadas naqueles habitats considerando as espécies pelos seus hábitos alimentares. Inset

  12. Sero-survey of Avian Influenza in backyard poultry and wild bird species in Iran-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Mehrabadi, M H; Bahonar, A R; Vasfi Marandi, M; Sadrzadeh, A; Tehrani, F; Salman, M D

    2016-06-01

    In almost all villages in Iran backyard birds, especially chickens, are kept for egg and meat production. AI H9N2 subtype is endemic in Iran. Therefore, estimation of AI prevalence among these birds is important to determine the risk of transmission of infection to commercial farms. The aim of this study was to estimate subclinical infections or previous exposure to H5, H7, and H9 subtypes and to identify potentially important determinants of prevalence of this infectious at premises level in backyard poultry, bird gardens, zoos, and wild bird markets in Iran. A survey was conducted using a cross-sectional design throughout the entire country. A total of 329 villages, seven bird gardens, three zoos and five wild bird markets were included. In each village four families that kept birds were included in the collection of biological samples and background information. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used as the screening test and all ELISA-positive samples were examined with the HI test to differentiate H5, H7, and H9. Among the bird gardens, eight of 15 premises (53.3%) were positive in both the ELISA test and HI for H9N2. Testing of samples collected in the villages revealed that 296 out of 329 villages (90%) had positive ELISA tests and also HI tests for H9. The HI-H9 mean titers in positive units were significantly higher than negative units (P.05). The results of this study showed that among the risk variables, mountainous area was a protective factor and lack of hygienic disposal of dead birds was a risk factor for AI; this was also observed in rural poultry. The high sero-prevalence of influenza H9N2 in rural domestic poultry indicates that the disease is endemic. It is necessary to include backyard poultry in any surveillance system and control strategy due to the existence of AIV in backyard poultry and the possibility of transmission of infection to commercial poultry farms. Implementation of an AI surveillance program and biosecurity

  13. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimo Virkkala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of common forest habitat generalists remained the same between the two periods, while densities of species of conservation concern showed contrasting trends: species preferring old-growth forests increased, but those living in mires and wetlands, and species of Arctic mountains decreased. These trends are most probably connected with climate change, but successional changes in protected areas and regional habitat alteration should also be taken into account. Of species preferring old-growth forests, a larger proportion are southern than among species of mires and wetlands, or of Arctic mountains, most or all of which, respectively, had a northerly distribution. In general, northern species have decreased and southern increased with the exception of northern species of old-growth forests which had not declined. On the other hand, bird species of mires and wetlands decreased also in the northernmost protected areas although mires had not been drained in the region in contrast with southern and central Finland thus indicating that regional-scale direct habitat loss did not cause the decline of these species in the north. It is suggested that climate change effects on species in natural boreal and Arctic habitats most probably are habitat-specific with large differences in response times and susceptibility.

  14. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Frantz, Adrien; Ambus, Per Lennart; Covaci, Adrian; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE: 0.11-2163ngg(-1) dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT: 0.36-345ngg(-1) dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02-34ngg(-1) dry wt.), ∑PCBs (0.03-16ngg(-1) dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01-0.13ngg(-1) dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p'-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑PCBs and ∑DDTs were significantly different among species (both p<0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p<0.03). Only ∑PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p<0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) differed significantly (all p<0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p=0.22 for δ(13)C; p=0.50 for δ(15)N). Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p=0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p<0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ(13)C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of contributing factors responsible for OC contamination differences in predatory birds should be further elucidated in future studies.

  15. Species accounts of migratory birds at three study areas on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the species accounts of migratory birds at 3 study areas on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska during 1983. The...

  16. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  17. New combinations and a complete list of Asparagus species in southern Africa (Asparagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Fellingham

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available With only flower sexuality differing. Protasparagus can not be separated from  Asparagus, neither at generic nor at subgeneric level. No significant differences in the degree to which filaments were connivent were observed between species placed under  Myrsiphyllum and those under  Protasparagus/Asparagus. All southern African species of Asparagaceae are therefore reinstated under Asparagus and listed here without recognition of subgenera. Several new combinations are made.

  18. A new genus and four new species of quill mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae from phasianid birds (Galliformes: Phasianidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoracki M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and four new species of the quill mites are described. Galliphilopsis gen. n. (G. francolinus sp. n., type species differs from the closely related Dissonus Skoracki, 1999 by loss of leg setae dGII, the slightly divergent tips of epimeres I and the stylophore constricted posteriorly. Three new species of the genus Galliphilopsis gen. n. and one new species of the genus Mironovia Chirov and Kravtsova, 1995 are described from galliform birds (Phasianidae collected at the Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University (Poland: G. lophurus sp. n. from Lophura leucomelanos, G. bochkovi sp. n. from Tragopan sp. and Alectoris barbara, G. francolinus sp. n. from Francolinus levalliantoides, and Mironovia rouloul sp. n. from Rollulus rouloul

  19. Electrocution and impact mortality of big bird species in Brandenburg; Stromschlag oder Leitungsanflug? - Erfahrungen mit Grossvogelopfern in Brandenburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langgemach, T. [Landesumweltamt Brandenburg, Himmelpfort (Germany). Naturschutzstation Wobliz

    1997-12-01

    In Brandenburg we can as yet only speculate on the extent of bird mortality from electrocution or impact on power lines and the break-down of species involved. What is currently being discovered documented only the tip of the iceberg, as there are no systematic studies. In the case of some species or groups of species our current state of knowledge is shown empirically, taking particular account of conductor impact. Birds of prey and owls are at comparatively little hazard from impact and are far more frequently killed by electrocution. That also applies to the white stork, although impact does account for a certain proportion of mortality. Losses of cranes and otididae are attributable only to impact, although this might be accompanied by a short-circuit. The otididae are in fact the only of the above-mentioned species whose decline - at least regionally - can be put in a causal relationship with bird impact mortality. The sparse knowledge available to us at present needs to be supplemented by collection of more data so that meaningful conclusions can be drawn. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Brandenburg kann beim Leitungsanflug ebenso wie beim Stromschlag ueber das wahre Ausmass und die Zusammensetzung der Verluste bisher nur spekuliert werden. Was derzeit gefunden bzw. dokumentiert wird, ist nur die Spitze des Eisberges, da es keine systematischen Untersuchungen gibt. Fuer einige Arten bzw. Artengruppen wird der gegenwaertige Kenntnisstand unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Drahtanfluges empirisch dargestellt. Greifvoegel und Eulen unterliegen einer relativ geringen Gefaehrdung durch Anflug und sterben weit haeufiger durch Stromschlag. Letzteres gilt auch fuer den Weissstorch, bei dem jedoch auch Leitungsanflug einen gewissen Anteil der Verluste ausmacht. Bei Grosstrappe und Kranich entstehen Leitungsverluste nur durch Anflug, der jedoch mit einem Kurzschluss einhergehen kann. Dabei ist die Grosstrappe die einzige der genannten Arten, bei der - zumindest regional - ein

  20. 75 FR 38069 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Boa Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proposed rule (75 FR 11808) to list the Indian python (Python molurus, including Burmese python Python... proposed rule (75 FR 11808; March 12, 2010), draft economic analysis, draft environmental assessment, and U... comments, please refer to the March 12, 2010, proposed rule (75 FR 11808), available online at...

  1. REDUCED FOREST COVER AND CHANGES IN BREEDING BIRD SPECIES COMPOSITION IN RHODE ISLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship of land use/cover, riparian vegetation, and avian populations. Our objective was to compare the vegetation structure in riparian corridors with the composition of breeding bird populations in eight Rhode Island subwatersheds alo...

  2. Next-generation sequencing reveals phylogeographic structure and a species tree for recent bird divergences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCormack, John E.; Maley, James M.; Hird, Sarah M.;

    2012-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mined from the loci, we detected population differentiation in each of the four bird systems, including: a case of ecological speciation in rails (Rallus); a rapid postglacial radiation in the genus Junco; recent in situ speciation among hummingbirds (Trochilus) in Jamaica...

  3. Nest building behavior in birds: cross-fostered individuals resemble their own species and not their foster species

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Variation in behavioral traits may be genetically or environmentally determined, or both. Previous studies on nest building behaviour in captive birds have proposed that nest building is mainly genetically determined. However, to settle this question, cross-fostering experiments in the wild has been recommended. The focus of the present study has been nest building behavior in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tits (Parus major) studied in a woodland near Oslo in Norway, where respect...

  4. Occurrence of three red listed species of Epinephelus (Perciformes: Serranidae on Digha coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yennawar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine efforts to maintain diversity in the public aquarium of the Marine Aquarium & regional Center, Digha, of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI, the authors encountered three more species of the Genus Epinephelus which after thorough literature survey were found to be not reported earlier from this area though listed in IUCN Red list of threatened fauna. Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822 Orange Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch, 1790 Brindle Grouper and Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1842 Striped Grouper are the first time reports from Digha Coast.

  5. Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da, E-mail: chen@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Hale, Robert C. [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Watts, Bryan D. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States); La Guardia, Mark J.; Harvey, Ellen [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Mojica, Elizabeth K. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Compared to organochlorines, little is known about polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the U.S. This study examined and compared PBDE contamination in eggs of osprey, double-crested cormorant, brown pelican and peregrine falcon from this area. Several legacy persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDE were also investigated. The level of urbanization of the landscape appeared to influence the level of PBDE exposure. PBDE congener distribution patterns varied between piscivorous and terrestrial-feeding birds. This suggests individual congeners may be subject to differences in bioaccumulation, biomagnification or metabolism in the aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Biomagnification of PBDEs was studied in the Bay aquatic food chains for the first time. A biomagnification factor of 25.1 was estimated for SIGMAPBDEs for the fish - osprey egg food chain. Hazard quotients, applied as a preliminary evaluation, indicated that PBDEs may pose a moderate hazard to ospreys and peregrine falcons through impairment of reproductive performance. - Birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) exhibited species-specific PBDE accumulation patterns.

  6. The relative impacts of climate and land-use change on conterminous United States bird species from 2001 to 2075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models often use climate data to assess contemporary and/or future ranges for animal or plant species. Land use and land cover (LULC) data are important predictor variables for determining species range, yet are rarely used when modeling future distributions. In this study, maximum entropy modeling was used to construct species distribution maps for 50 North American bird species to determine relative contributions of climate and LULC for contemporary (2001) and future (2075) time periods. Species presence data were used as a dependent variable, while climate, LULC, and topographic data were used as predictor variables. Results varied by species, but in general, measures of model fit for 2001 indicated significantly poorer fit when either climate or LULC data were excluded from model simulations. Climate covariates provided a higher contribution to 2001 model results than did LULC variables, although both categories of variables strongly contributed. The area deemed to be "suitable" for 2001 species presence was strongly affected by the choice of model covariates, with significantly larger ranges predicted when LULC was excluded as a covariate. Changes in species ranges for 2075 indicate much larger overall range changes due to projected climate change than due to projected LULC change. However, the choice of study area impacted results for both current and projected model applications, with truncation of actual species ranges resulting in lower model fit scores and increased difficulty in interpreting covariate impacts on species range. Results indicate species-specific response to climate and LULC variables; however, both climate and LULC variables clearly are important for modeling both contemporary and potential future species ranges.

  7. Genetic characterization of oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates from wild birds indicates that genotype is associated with host species, diet and presence of pathognomonic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Herrero, M C; Sansano-Maestre, J; López Márquez, I; Obón, E; Ponce, C; González, J; Garijo-Toledo, M M; Gómez-Muñoz, M T

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates of wild birds from Spain were studied. A total of 1688 samples (1214 of predator birds and 474 of prey species) from wildlife recovery centres and scientific bird-ringing campaigns were analysed from 2011 to 2013. The overall infection prevalence was 20.3% (11.4% in predator birds and 43.3% in prey species). Pathognomonic lesions were present in 26% of the infected birds (57.3% in predator birds and 4.9% in prey species). The most commonly parasitized species were the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, 74.5%) and the rock pigeon (Columba livia, 79.4%). Host species in which the parasite has not been previously analysed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing in Spain are also reported: Columba palumbus, Streptopelia turtur, Pica pica, A. gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Asio otus, Bubo bubo, Buteo buteo, Circus aeruginosus, Circus cyaneus, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Neophron percnopterus, Otus scops, Pernis apivorus and Strix aluco. Sequence analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 region revealed five different genotypes and also some mixed infections. A relationship between genotype and host species was observed, but only two genotypes (ITS-OBT-Tg-1and ITS-OBT-Tg-2) were widely distributed. Genotype ITS-OBT-Tg-1 was most frequently found in predator birds and statistically associated with pathognomonic lesions. Non-strict ornithophagous species were at higher risk to develop disease than ornithophagous ones. Genotypes ITS-OBT-Tcl-1 and ITS-OBT-Tcl-2 are new reports, and ITS-OBT-Tvl-5 is reported for the first time in Spain. They showed higher genetic homology to Trichomonas canistomae and Trichomonas vaginalis than to Trichomonas gallinae, indicating the possibility of new species within this genus. PMID:25262786

  8. Pathogenicity of two recent Western Mediterranean West Nile virus isolates in a wild bird species indigenous to Southern Europe: the red-legged partridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotelo Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is an emerging zoonotic pathogen whose geographic spread and incidence in humans, horses and birds has increased significantly in recent years. WNV has long been considered a mild pathogen causing self-limiting outbreaks. This notion has changed as WNV is causing large epidemics with a high impact on human and animal health. This has been particularly noteworthy since its introduction into North America in 1999. There, native bird species have been shown to be highly susceptible to WNV infection and disease with high mortalities. For this reason, the effect of WNV infection in North American bird species has been thoroughly studied by means of experimental inoculations in controlled trials. To a lesser extent, European wild birds have been shown to be affected clinically by WNV infection. Yet experimental studies on European wild bird species are lacking. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa is a gallinaceous bird indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula, widely distributed in South Western Europe. It plays a key role in the Mediterranean ecosystem and constitutes an economically important game species. As such it is raised intensively in outdoor facilities. In this work, red-legged partridges were experimentally infected with two recent WNV isolates from the Western Mediterranean area: Morocco/2003 and Spain/2007. All inoculated birds became viremic and showed clinical disease, with mortality rates of 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that Western Mediterranean WNV variants can be pathogenic for some European bird species, such as the red-legged partridge.

  9. Inference about species richness and community structure using species-specific occupancy models in the National Swiss Breeding Bird Survey MUB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is the most widely used biodiversity measure. Virtually always, it cannot be observed but needs to be estimated because some species may be present but remain undetected. This fact is commonly ignored in ecology and management, although it will bias estimates of species richness and related parameters such as occupancy, turnover or extinction rates. We describe a species community modeling strategy based on species-specific models of occurrence, from which estimates of important summaries of community structure, e.g., species richness, occupancy, or measures of similarity among species or sites, are derived by aggregating indicators of occurrence for all species observed in the sample, and for the estimated complement of unobserved species. We use data augmentation for an efficient Bayesian approach to estimation and prediction under this model based on MCMC in WinBUGS. For illustration, we use the Swiss breeding bird survey (MHB) that conducts 2?3 territory-mapping surveys in a systematic sample of 267 1 km2 units on quadrat-specific routes averaging 5.1 km to obtain species-specific estimates of occupancy, and estimates of species richness of all diurnal species free of distorting effects of imperfect detectability. We introduce into our model species-specific covariates relevant to occupancy (elevation, forest cover, route length) and sampling (season, effort). From 1995 to 2004, 185 diurnal breeding bird species were known in Switzerland, and an additional 13 bred 1?3 times since 1900. 134 species were observed during MHB surveys in 254 quadrats surveyed in 2001, and our estimate of 169.9 (95% CI 151?195) therefore appeared sensible. The observed number of species ranged from 4 to 58 (mean 32.8), but with an estimated 0.7?11.2 (mean 2.6) further, unobserved species, the estimated proportion of detected species was 0.48?0.98 (mean 0.91). As is well known, species richness declined at higher elevation and fell above the timberline, and most

  10. 75 FR 11808 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Boa Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... South Florida. The Service published a notice of inquiry in the Federal Register (73 FR 5784; January 31... Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda Species as Injurious Reptiles AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... to add Indian python (Python molurus, including Burmese python Python molurus...

  11. Determination of temperate bird-flower interactions as entangled mutualistic and antagonistic sub-networks: characterization at the network and species levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsuro; Isagi, Yuji

    2014-05-01

    Most network studies on biological interactions consider only a single interaction type. However, individual species are simultaneously positioned in various types of interactions. The ways in which different network types are merged and entangled, and the variations in network structures between different sympatric networks, require full elucidation. Incorporating interaction types and disentangling complex networks is crucial, because the integration of various network architectures has the potential to alter the stability and co-evolutionary dynamics of the whole network. To reveal how different types of interaction networks are entangled, we focused on the interaction between birds and flowers of temperate plants in Japan, where flower-feeding birds are mainly generalist passerines, acting as pollinators and predators of flowers. Using long-term monitoring data, we investigated the flower-feeding episodes of birds. We constructed the whole network (WN) between birds and plants, separating the network into mutualistic and antagonistic sub-networks (MS and AS, respectively). We investigated structural properties of the three quantified networks and species-level characteristics of the main bird species. For bird species, we evaluated dietary similarity, dietary specialization and shifts of feeding behaviour relative to plant traits. Our results indicate that WN comprises entangled MS and AS, sharing considerable proportions of bird and plant assemblages. We observed distinctive differences in the network structural properties between the two sub-networks. In comparison with AS, MS had lower numbers of bird and plant species, showed lower specialization and modularity and exhibited higher nestedness. At the species level, the Japanese white-eye acted as pollinator, while the brown-eared bulbul acted as both pollinator and predator for large numbers of flowers, based on its behavioural plasticity. Overall, the pattern of avian feeding behaviour was influenced by

  12. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Species by the Antarctic Treaty Parties and is hereby designated Specially Protected Species: Common Name... Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS...

  13. DNA barcoding of shark meats identify species composition and CITES-listed species from the markets in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yin Vanson Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing awareness of the vulnerability of sharks to exploitation by shark finning has contributed to a growing concern about an unsustainable shark fishery. Taiwan's fleet has the 4th largest shark catch in the world, accounting for almost 6% of the global figures. Revealing the diversity of sharks consumed by Taiwanese is important in designing conservation plans. However, fins make up less than 5% of the total body weight of a shark, and their bodies are sold as filets in the market, making it difficult or impossible to identify species using morphological traits. METHODS: In the present study, we adopted a DNA barcoding technique using a 391-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene to examine the diversity of shark filets and fins collected from markets and restaurants island-wide in Taiwan. RESULTS: Amongst the 548 tissue samples collected and sequenced, 20 major clusters were apparent by phylogenetic analyses, each of them containing individuals belonging to the same species (most with more than 95% bootstrap values, corresponding to 20 species of sharks. Additionally, Alopias pelagicus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Isurus oxyrinchus, and Prionace glauca consisted of 80% of the samples we collected, indicating that these species might be heavily consumed in Taiwan. Approximately 5% of the tissue samples used in this study were identified as species listed in CITES Appendix II, including two species of Sphyrna, C. longimanus and Carcharodon carcharias. CONCLUSION: DNA barcoding provides an alternative method for understanding shark species composition when species-specific data is unavailable. Considering the global population decline, stock assessments of Appendix II species and highly consumed species are needed to accomplish the ultimate goal of shark conservation.

  14. The structure of mixed-species bird flocks, and their response to anthropogenic disturbance, with special reference to East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eben Goodale; Ping Ding; Xiaohu Liu; Ari Martnez; Xingfeng Si; Mitch Walters; Scott K Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-species flocks of birds are distributed world-wide and can be especially dominant in temperate forests during the non-breeding season and in tropical rainforests year-round. We review from a community ecology perspective what is known about the structure and organization of flocks, emphasizing that flocking species tend to be those particularly vulnerable to predation, and flocks tend to be led by species that are able to act as sources of information about predators for other species. Studies on how flocks respond to fragmentation and land-use intensification continue to accumulate, but the question of whether the flock phenomenon makes species more vulnerable to anthropogenic change remains unclear. We review the literature on flocks in East Asia and demonstrate there is a good foundation of knowledge on which to build. We then outline potentially fruitful future directions, focusing on studies that can investigate how dependent species are on each other in flocks, and how such interdependencies might affect avian habitat selection in the different types of human-modified environments of this region.

  15. The influence of vegetation height heterogeneity on forest and woodland bird species richness across the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongyu Huang

    Full Text Available Avian diversity is under increasing pressures. It is thus critical to understand the ecological variables that contribute to large scale spatial distribution of avian species diversity. Traditionally, studies have relied primarily on two-dimensional habitat structure to model broad scale species richness. Vegetation vertical structure is increasingly used at local scales. However, the spatial arrangement of vegetation height has never been taken into consideration. Our goal was to examine the efficacies of three-dimensional forest structure, particularly the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation height in improving avian richness models across forested ecoregions in the U.S. We developed novel habitat metrics to characterize the spatial arrangement of vegetation height using the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset for the year 2000 (NBCD. The height-structured metrics were compared with other habitat metrics for statistical association with richness of three forest breeding bird guilds across Breeding Bird Survey (BBS routes: a broadly grouped woodland guild, and two forest breeding guilds with preferences for forest edge and for interior forest. Parametric and non-parametric models were built to examine the improvement of predictability. Height-structured metrics had the strongest associations with species richness, yielding improved predictive ability for the woodland guild richness models (r(2 = ∼ 0.53 for the parametric models, 0.63 the non-parametric models and the forest edge guild models (r(2 = ∼ 0.34 for the parametric models, 0.47 the non-parametric models. All but one of the linear models incorporating height-structured metrics showed significantly higher adjusted-r2 values than their counterparts without additional metrics. The interior forest guild richness showed a consistent low association with height-structured metrics. Our results suggest that height heterogeneity, beyond canopy height alone, supplements habitat

  16. The influence of vegetation height heterogeneity on forest and woodland bird species richness across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiongyu; Swatantran, Anu; Dubayah, Ralph; Goetz, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Avian diversity is under increasing pressures. It is thus critical to understand the ecological variables that contribute to large scale spatial distribution of avian species diversity. Traditionally, studies have relied primarily on two-dimensional habitat structure to model broad scale species richness. Vegetation vertical structure is increasingly used at local scales. However, the spatial arrangement of vegetation height has never been taken into consideration. Our goal was to examine the efficacies of three-dimensional forest structure, particularly the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation height in improving avian richness models across forested ecoregions in the U.S. We developed novel habitat metrics to characterize the spatial arrangement of vegetation height using the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset for the year 2000 (NBCD). The height-structured metrics were compared with other habitat metrics for statistical association with richness of three forest breeding bird guilds across Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes: a broadly grouped woodland guild, and two forest breeding guilds with preferences for forest edge and for interior forest. Parametric and non-parametric models were built to examine the improvement of predictability. Height-structured metrics had the strongest associations with species richness, yielding improved predictive ability for the woodland guild richness models (r(2) = ∼ 0.53 for the parametric models, 0.63 the non-parametric models) and the forest edge guild models (r(2) = ∼ 0.34 for the parametric models, 0.47 the non-parametric models). All but one of the linear models incorporating height-structured metrics showed significantly higher adjusted-r2 values than their counterparts without additional metrics. The interior forest guild richness showed a consistent low association with height-structured metrics. Our results suggest that height heterogeneity, beyond canopy height alone, supplements habitat characterization and

  17. The influence of vegetation height heterogeneity on forest and woodland bird species richness across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiongyu; Swatantran, Anu; Dubayah, Ralph; Goetz, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Avian diversity is under increasing pressures. It is thus critical to understand the ecological variables that contribute to large scale spatial distribution of avian species diversity. Traditionally, studies have relied primarily on two-dimensional habitat structure to model broad scale species richness. Vegetation vertical structure is increasingly used at local scales. However, the spatial arrangement of vegetation height has never been taken into consideration. Our goal was to examine the efficacies of three-dimensional forest structure, particularly the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation height in improving avian richness models across forested ecoregions in the U.S. We developed novel habitat metrics to characterize the spatial arrangement of vegetation height using the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset for the year 2000 (NBCD). The height-structured metrics were compared with other habitat metrics for statistical association with richness of three forest breeding bird guilds across Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes: a broadly grouped woodland guild, and two forest breeding guilds with preferences for forest edge and for interior forest. Parametric and non-parametric models were built to examine the improvement of predictability. Height-structured metrics had the strongest associations with species richness, yielding improved predictive ability for the woodland guild richness models (r(2) = ∼ 0.53 for the parametric models, 0.63 the non-parametric models) and the forest edge guild models (r(2) = ∼ 0.34 for the parametric models, 0.47 the non-parametric models). All but one of the linear models incorporating height-structured metrics showed significantly higher adjusted-r2 values than their counterparts without additional metrics. The interior forest guild richness showed a consistent low association with height-structured metrics. Our results suggest that height heterogeneity, beyond canopy height alone, supplements habitat characterization and

  18. Is supplementary feeding in gardens a driver of evolutionary change in a migratory bird species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Kate E; Siriwardena, Gavin M; Conway, Greg J; Risely, Kate; Toms, Mike P

    2015-12-01

    Human activities are causing rapid environmental change at a global scale. Urbanization is responsible for some of the most extreme human-altered habitats and is a known driver of evolutionary change, but evidence and understanding of these processes is limited. Here, we investigate the potential underlying mechanisms contributing to the contemporary evolution of migration behaviour in the Eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). Blackcaps from central Europe have been wintering in urban areas of Britain with increasing frequency over the past 60 years, rather than migrating south to the Mediterranean. It has been hypothesized that the popularization of providing supplementary foods for wild birds within Britain may have influenced this marked migratory change, but quantifying the selective forces shaping evolutionary changes remains challenging. Using a long-term national scale data set, we examine both the spatial distribution and interannual variation in blackcap wintering behaviour in Britain in relation to supplementary food availability and local climate. Over a 12-year period, we show that blackcaps are becoming increasingly associated with the provision of supplementary foods in British gardens, and that the reliability of bird food supplies is influencing their winter distribution at a national scale. In addition, local climatic temperatures and broader scale weather variation are also important determinants of blackcap wintering patterns once they arrive in Britain. Based on our findings, we conclude that a synergistic effect of increased availability of feeding resources, in the form of garden bird food, coupled with climatic amelioration, has enabled a successful new wintering population to become established in Britain. As global biodiversity is threatened by human-induced environmental change, this study presents new and timely evidence of the role human activities can play in shaping evolutionary trajectories. PMID:26400594

  19. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  20. Species richness, relative abundance, and habitat associations of nocturnal birds along the rio grande in Southern texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoruppa, M.K.; Woodin, M.C.; Blacklock, G.

    2009-01-01

    The segment of the Rio Grande between International Falcon Reservoir and Del Rio, Texas (distance ca. 350 km), remains largely unexplored ornithologically. We surveyed nocturnal birds monthly during February-June 1998 at 19 stations along the Rio Grande (n = 6) and at upland stock ponds (n = 13) in Webb County, Texas. We conducted 10-min point counts (n = 89) after sunset and before moonset. Four species of owls and five species of nightjars were detected. Nightjars, as a group, were nearly five limes more abundant (mean number/count = 2.63) than owls (mean number = 0.55). The most, common owl, the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), had a mean number of 0.25/point count. The mean for elf owls (Micrathene whitneyi) was 0.16/point count. The most common nightjars were the common poorwill (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii; 1.21/point count) and lesser nighthawk (Chordeiles acutipennir, 1.16/point count). Survey sites on the river supported more species (mean = 2.2) than did upland stock ponds (mean = 1.4). However, only one species (common pauraque, Nyctidromus albicollis) showed a preference for the river sites. Our results establish this segment of the Rio Grande in southern Texas as an area of high diversity of nightjars in the United States, matched (in numbers of species) only by southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico.

  1. Visualization of species pairwise associations: a case study of surrogacy in bird assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Peter W Lane; Lindenmayer, David B; Philip S Barton; Blanchard, Wade; Westgate, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying and visualizing species associations are important to many areas of ecology and conservation biology. Species networks are one way to analyze species associations, with a growing number of applications such as food webs, nesting webs, plant–animal mutualisms, and interlinked extinctions. We present a new method for assessing and visualizing patterns of co-occurrence of species. The method depicts interactions and associations in an analogous way with existing network diagrams for ...

  2. Behavioural and hormonal effects of social isolation and neophobia in a gregarious bird species, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Raess, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Separating gregarious individuals from their group members often results in behavioural and physiological changes, like increased levels of corticosterone. Testosterone and corticosterone, in particular, have been implicated in the response of mammals to novelty. Data in birds are, however, rare. The presence or absence of group members may also influence an individual's response to novel stimuli. We assessed the behaviour and hormonal response of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to a novel object in two different situations and seasons: each starling was tested when separated and when in contact with its group members in May/June (breeding season) and again in September/October (non-breeding season). Starlings are gregarious throughout the year, but as foraging flocks are small during the breeding season and large during the non-breeding season, we assumed that non-breeding starlings would be more affected by social isolation. Overall, starlings had higher levels of corticosterone, lost more body mass, and were more active when they were separated from their group. Isolated individuals, however, did not show a greater neophobic response than individuals in the presence of their group members in either season. Circulating levels of testosterone and corticosterone were higher after a test with novel object than after a test with only the familiar feeding dish in both sexes and seasons. However, control tests for handling effects confirmed only the increase in testosterone. Our study shows that social isolation is stressful for unrelated and unpaired members of a wild flocking bird species and demonstrates that novelty can lead to a rise in testosterone in birds. PMID:18514197

  3. Within-season increase in parental investment in a long-lived bird species: investment shifts to maximize successful reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N A; Griesser, M

    2015-01-01

    In nest-building species predation of nest contents is a main cause of reproductive failure and parents have to trade off reproductive investment against antipredatory behaviours. While this trade-off is modified by lifespan (short-lived species prioritize current reproduction; long-lived species prioritize future reproduction), it may vary within a breeding season, but this idea has only been tested in short-lived species. Yet, life history theory does not make any prediction how long-lived species should trade off current against future reproductive investment within a season. Here, we investigated this trade-off through predator-exposure experiments in a long-lived bird species, the brown thornbill. We exposed breeding pairs that had no prior within-season reproductive success to the models of a nest predator and a predator of adults during their first or second breeding attempt. Overall, parents reduced their feeding rate in the presence of a predator, but parents feeding second broods were more risk sensitive and almost ceased feeding when exposed to both types of predators. However, during second breeding attempts, parents had larger clutches and a higher feeding rate in the absence of predators than during first breeding attempts and approached both types of predators closer when mobbing. Our results suggest that the trade-off between reproductive investment and risk-taking can change in a long-lived species within a breeding season depending on both prior nest predation and renesting opportunities. These patterns correspond to those in short-lived species, raising the question of whether a within-season shift in reproductive investment trade-offs is independent of lifespan. PMID:25430672

  4. A Breeding Bird Survey of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to: 1) Create a list of birds occurring in the study area during the breeding season; 2.) Identify species and habitats of...

  5. Focal species of birds in European crops for higher tier pesticide risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzen, Christian; Edwards, Peter J; Wolf, Christian; Ludwigs, Jan-Dieter; Luttik, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Focal species have been defined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as real species that represent others in a crop resulting from their potential higher level of exposure to pesticides. As such they are the most appropriate species for refining estimates of exposure further, through, for example, radio tracking and dietary studies. Plant protection product manufacturers collectively commissioned many studies in Europe, according to the EFSA guidelines, to identify focal species in different crops that may be used in risk assessments for spray applications of pesticides. Using frequency of occurrence in crops and risk-based criteria for exposure, all studies have been reviewed to identify if possible at least 1 focal species per feeding guild, per crop in the new registration zones for southern and central Europe. Some focal species repeatedly appeared across a wide range of arable or tree crops but not both, demonstrating broad adaptation to these 2 different crop structures. Many have widespread distributions, for example, 15 of the focal species have a distribution covering all agricultural regions of Europe (northern, central, and southern zones). Three species, corn bunting, serin, and tree sparrow, are restricted to the central and southern zones, whereas another 4 species, Sardinian and fan-tailed warbler, and crested and short-toed lark, are essentially restricted to the southern zone. The authors consider the focal species identified as suitable for risk assessment in Europe at the zonal level and for further refinement of exposure through studies, such as radio tracking or diet analysis, if necessary.

  6. A numerical taxonomic study of species of Vibrio isolated from the aquatic environment and birds in Kent, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P A; Lee, J V; Bryant, T N

    1983-10-01

    A numerical taxonomic study has been carried out to confirm the identity of strains of the family Vibrionaceae isolated during an ecological study. A total of 237 strains were studied including 148 from the aquatic environment, 6 from estuarine birds, 1 from sheep faeces, and 61 control cultures. Duplicates of 21 of the strains were randomly selected and included to estimate test and operator error. Taxonomic resemblance was estimated on the basis of 148 characters using Euclidean distance. The taxonomic position of some strains was reevaluated using the pattern different coefficient. Strains were clustered by three methods, all of which gave similar results. The estimated average probability of test error was 1.5%. Strains previously identified as Vibrio anguillarum fell into four distinct phenons corresponding to V. anguillarum biovar I, 'V. anguillarum biovar II', V. diazotrophicus, and strains pathogenic to oyster larvae. The latter group characteristically degraded xanthine and probably represents a new species. The phenon corresponding to V. cholerae included the type strain, strains of human origin, and strains isolated in the United Kingdom from birds and the aquatic environment. Some strains of V. cholerae were luminous. Other phenons were identified as V. metschnikovii, V. fluvialis, and Aeromonas spp.

  7. Birds of the Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History Campus, Anaikatty Hills, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.S. Ali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on avifauna was conducted in and around the campus of the Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Anaikatty hills, Coimbatore, Southern India between January 2012 and May 2013. A total of 145 species of birds belonging to 48 families and 15 orders was recorded of which 73 species were residents, 58 local migrants and 14 were winter migrants. Forty species of birds were recorded breeding here. The birds of the campus included two species endemic to Western Ghats and 14 species listed under Schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972.

  8. Attracting Birds to Your Backyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Discusses methods for drawing birds to outdoor education areas, including the use of wild and native vegetation. Lists specific garden plants suitable for attracting birds in each season. Includes a guide to commercial bird seed and instructions for building homemade birdfeeders and nestboxes. (LZ)

  9. Fine-scale kin recognition in the absence of social familiarity in the Siberian jay, a monogamous bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michael; Halvarsson, Peter; Drobniak, Szymon M; Vilà, Carles

    2015-11-01

    Kin recognition is a critical element to kin cooperation, and in vertebrates, it is primarily based on associative learning. Recognition of socially unfamiliar kin occurs rarely, and it is reported only in vertebrate species where promiscuity prevents recognition of first-order relatives. However, it is unknown whether the recognition of socially unfamiliar kin can evolve in monogamous species. Here, we investigate whether genetic relatedness modulates aggression among group members in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus). This bird species is genetically and socially monogamous and lives in groups that are formed through the retention of offspring beyond independence, and the immigration of socially unfamiliar nonbreeders. Observations on feeders showed that genetic relatedness modulated aggression of breeders towards immigrants in a graded manner, in that they chased most intensely the immigrant group members that were genetically the least related. However, cross-fostering experiments showed that breeders were equally tolerant towards their own and cross-fostered young swapped as nestlings. Thus, breeders seem to use different mechanisms to recognize socially unfamiliar individuals and own offspring. As Siberian jays show a high degree of nepotism during foraging and predator encounters, inclusive fitness benefits may play a role for the evolution of fine-scale kin recognition. More generally, our results suggest that fine-graded kin recognition can evolve independently of social familiarity, highlighting the evolutionary importance of kin recognition for social species. PMID:26460512

  10. 50 CFR 222.309 - Permits for listed species of sea turtles involving the Fish and Wildlife Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in accordance with either 50 CFR 17.22(a), if the species is endangered, or 50 CFR 17.32(a), if the... International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (TIAS 8249, July 1, 1975) (50 CFR part... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for listed species of sea...

  11. 77 FR 38762 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... 5-year status reviews under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), of seven animal... to as the List) in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for... interbreeds when mature; (B) Endangered species means any species that is in danger of extinction...

  12. 76 FR 44564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... 5-year status reviews under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), of seven animal... to as the List) in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for... interbreeds when mature; (B) Endangered species means any species that is in danger of extinction...

  13. Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern

    OpenAIRE

    Virkkala, Raimo; Pöyry, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Valkama, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, posing increasing pressures on species to adapt in situ or shift their ranges. A protected area network is one of the main instruments to alleviate the negative impacts of climate change. Importantly, protected area networks might be expected to enhance the resilience of regional populations of species of conservation concern, resulting in slower species loss in landscapes with a significant amount of protected habitat compared to unpro...

  14. Testing for effects of climate change on competitive relationships and coexistence between two bird species

    OpenAIRE

    Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Durant, Joël M.; Fowler, Mike S.; Matthysen, Erik; Adriaensen, Frank; Jonzén, Niclas; Chan, Kung-Sik; Liu, Hai; De Laet, Jenny; SHELDON, BEN C.; Visser, Marcel E; André A Dhondt

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have profound ecological effects, yet shifts in competitive abilities among species are rarely studied in this context. Blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tits (Parus major) compete for food and roosting sites, yet coexist across much of their range. Climate change might thus change the competitive relationships and coexistence between these two species. Analysing four of the highest-quality, long-term datasets available on these species across Europe, we ...

  15. Predicting continental-scale patterns of bird species richness with spatially explicit models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Colwell, Robert K;

    2007-01-01

    The causes of global variation in species richness have been debated for nearly two centuries with no clear resolution in sight. Competing hypotheses have typically been evaluated with correlative models that do not explicitly incorporate the mechanisms responsible for biotic diversity gradients...... the extraordinary diversity of avian species in the montane tropics, the most species-rich region on Earth. Our findings imply that correlative climatic models substantially underestimate the importance of historical factors and small-scale niche-driven assembly processes in shaping contemporary species...

  16. Status of wetland birds of Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary, Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary (76036-76046 E and 29052-30000 N, situated in Kurukshetra District of Haryana provides an important wintering ground for a diverse range of wetland birds. This study was carried out from April 2009 to March 2012 to document the diversity of wetland birds. Altogether 57 species of wetland birds belonging to 37 genera and 16 families were recorded from the study area. Family Anatidae dominated the wetland bird community with 13 species. Among recorded species, 33 were winter migrants, two summer migrants and 22 were resident species. The winter migratory birds did not arrive at this wetland in one lot and at one time. Instead, they displayed a definite pattern specific to species for arrival and departure. They appeared at the wetland during mid-October and stayed up to early April. The composition of birds in major feeding guilds in the study area showed that the insectivore guild was the most common with 35.09% species, followed by carnivore (29.82%, omnivore (19.30%, herbivore (10.53% and piscivore (5.26%. Among the birds recorded in this study area, Darter (Anhinga melanogaster and Painted Stork (Mycterialeucocephala were Near Threatened species. Comb Duck (Sarkidiornismelanotos, listed in Appendix II of CITES, was also spotted in the sanctuary. The spotting of these threatened bird species highlights the importance of Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary as a significant wetland bird habitat in Haryana. However, anthropogenic activities like fire wood collection, livestock grazing, cutting of emergent and fringe vegetation and improper management of the wetland are major threats to the ecology of this landscape.

  17. Two species of Synhimantus (dispharynx) railliet, Henry and Sisoff, 1912 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae), in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2004-10-01

    Members of 2 species of Synhimantus (Dispharynx) live under the lining of the gizzard in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) occurs in Thraupis episcopus, Turdus grayi, Caryothraustes poliogaster, Platyrinchus cancrominus, Ramphocaenus melanurus, Vermivora peregrina, and Geothlypis poliocephala. A single male, in Turdus grayi, apparently representing a new species, distinguishable from all other species of Synhimantus (Dispharynx) by having similar shaped left and right spicules, is described but not named.

  18. Observations of Birds Northern Great Plains: Fall 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey summarizes bird observations in the eastern half of North Dakota during the fall, between 8/1/1980 to 11/30/1980. A species list and comments are...

  19. Diversification of tanagers, a species rich bird group, from lowlands to montane regions of South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldså, Jon; Rahbek, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The process of diversification since the late Tertiary was studied by linking together well-resolved phylogenies and species distributions for tanagers (Aves, Thraupini). Species richness patterns reveal very high densities of range-restricted species in the Andes, and to a lesser extent in the A......The process of diversification since the late Tertiary was studied by linking together well-resolved phylogenies and species distributions for tanagers (Aves, Thraupini). Species richness patterns reveal very high densities of range-restricted species in the Andes, and to a lesser extent...... be explained well from topography and landscape complexity. Phylogenetically old species are mainly found along the Andes and along the Rio coast of Brazil. Most other areas outside the Andes probably had very moderate rates of later diversification. In contrast, the humid tropical Andes region was a centre...... of intensive speciation throughout the evolutionary history of the group, and species richness patterns here seem largely to be driven by the rate of speciation, with further diversification from the highlands into adjacent lowlands. The diversification process in montane areas may be related to high...

  20. Testing for effects of climate change on competitive relationships and coexistence between two bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenseth, Nils Chr; Durant, Joël M; Fowler, Mike S; Matthysen, Erik; Adriaensen, Frank; Jonzén, Niclas; Chan, Kung-Sik; Liu, Hai; De Laet, Jenny; Sheldon, Ben C; Visser, Marcel E; Dhondt, André A

    2015-05-22

    Climate change is expected to have profound ecological effects, yet shifts in competitive abilities among species are rarely studied in this context. Blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tits (Parus major) compete for food and roosting sites, yet coexist across much of their range. Climate change might thus change the competitive relationships and coexistence between these two species. Analysing four of the highest-quality, long-term datasets available on these species across Europe, we extend the textbook example of coexistence between competing species to include the dynamic effects of long-term climate variation. Using threshold time-series statistical modelling, we demonstrate that long-term climate variation affects species demography through different influences on density-dependent and density-independent processes. The competitive interaction between blue tits and great tits has shifted in one of the studied sites, creating conditions that alter the relative equilibrium densities between the two species, potentially disrupting long-term coexistence. Our analyses show that long-term climate change can, but does not always, generate local differences in the equilibrium conditions of spatially structured species assemblages. We demonstrate how long-term data can be used to better understand whether (and how), for instance, climate change might change the relationships between coexisting species. However, the studied populations are rather robust against competitive exclusion.

  1. Nematode parasites of Brazilian pelecaniformes and trogoniformes birds: a general survey with new records for the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Júlio Vicente

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with the identification of one hundred and seventy-one samples of nematodes recovered from Brazilian birds collected by Lauro Travassos and his staff, between 1921-1960. Aprocta travassossi Caballero, 1938, Aprocta sp., Baruscapillaria appendiculata (Freitas, 1933 Moravec, 1982, Contracaecum plagiaticium Lent & Freitas, 1948, C. spiculigerum (Rudolphi, 1809 Railliet & Henry, 1912, Contracaecum sp., Cyrnea (C. semilunaris (Molin, 1860 Seurat, 1914, Oxyspirura sp., Paronchocerca ibanezi (Freitas, Vicente & Pinto, 1970 Anderson &. Bain, 1976, Porrocaecum sp., Procyrnea sp., Skrjabinura spiralis Gnédina, 1933, Subulura acutissima Molin, 1860, S. bentocruzi Barreto, 1919, S. travassossi Barreto, 1919, Subulura sp. and Tetrameres sp. were studied. Contracaecum spiculigerum and Aprocta travassossi are redescribed and referred for the first time in South America. New host records were established for most of the species.

  2. Listes

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    LISTE DES CARTES ET DES FIGURES 1. La population municipale au Mexique (1991) 16 2. Les municipes de l'Etat du Michoacán (Mexique) 17 3. La population municipale au Brésil (1991) 18 4. La population des Guyanes côtières (1991) 36 5. La Guyane côtière : la fin du splendide isolement ? 46 6. Aménagements du littoral en Guyane 50 7. Les polders de Nickérie (Surinam) 51 8. Paysages du littoral de l'Amapá (Brésil) 52 9. L'organisation de l'espace haïtien 61 10. Les réseaux de communication au Brés...

  3. Harbouring nature: port development and dynamic birds provide clues for conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Stienen,Eric; Courtens, Wouter; de Walle, Marc Van; van Waeyenberge, Jeroen; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2005-01-01

    During the twentieth century, many coastal areas in Europe changed dramatically due to coastal protection works, human expansion drift and booming beach tourism. As a result the natural area of suitable nesting habitat of many coastal birds has decreased enormously and a large number of species are now listed as threatened. Some species were able to exploit new opportunities offered by human activities, but most coastal birds are now confined to islands, protected areas or artificial sites (n...

  4. Psychoactive plant species – actual list of plants prohibited in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonienko, Katarzyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction (20-th of March, 2009, Dz. U. Nr 63 poz. 520. the list of federally prohibited plants in Poland was expanded to include 16 new species. Until that time the only illegal plant materials were cannabis, papaver, coca and most of their products. The actual list of herbal narcotics includes species which significantly influence on the central nervous system work but which are rarely described in the national literature. The plants usually come from distant places, where – among primeval cultures – are used for ritual purposes. In our civilization the plants are usually used experimentally, recreationally or to gain particular narcotic effects. The results of the consumption vary: they can be specific or less typical, imitate other substances intake, mental disorders or different pathological states. The plant active substances can interact with other medicaments, be toxic to internal organs, cause serious threat to health or even death. This article describes the sixteen plant species, which are now prohibited in Poland, their biochemical ingredients and their influence on the human organism.

  5. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: Sea otters and black abalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter T.; Jurgens, Laura J.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  6. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations. PMID:27070027

  7. Alien plants in urban nature reserves: from red-list species to future invaders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Jarošik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban reserves, as other protected areas, are aimed at preserving species richness but the conservation effort in these protected areas is complicated by a high proportion of alien species. We examined which environmental factors determine the representation of alien species in 48 city reserves of Prague, Czech Republic, distinguishing between archaeophytes, i.e. alien species introduced since the beginning of Neolithic agriculture up to 1500 A. D., and neophytes, i.e. modern invaders introduced after that date, with the former group separately analysed for endangered archaeophytes (listed as C1 and C2 categories on national red list. Archaeophytes responded positively to the extent of arable land that was in place at the time of the reserve establishment, and to a low altitudinal range. Neophytes, beside soil properties responded to recent human activities proxied by current proportion of built-up area in the reserves. Endangered archaeophytes, besides the same affinity for past arable land as other archaeophytes, were supported by the presence of current wasteland habitats in the reserve. This suggests that for endangered archaeophytes it might have been difficult to adapt to changing agricultural practices, and ruderal wasteland might act as a refugium for them. From the viewpoint of conservation, ruderal habitats of nature reserves thus can be more important than was previously though. Forty-six of the 155 neophytes recorded in the reserves are classified as invasive. The reserves thus harbour 67% of the 69 invasive neophytes recorded in the country, and particularly warning is that among the most invasive species are many shrubs and trees, a life form that is known to account for widespread invasions with high impacts. Our results thus strongly suggest that in Prague nature reserves there is a warning potential for future invasions.

  8. A species assemblage approach to comparative phylogeography of birds in southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dolman, Gaynor; Joseph, Leo

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel approach to investigating the divergence history of biomes and their component species using single-locus data prior to investing in multilocus data. We use coalescent-based hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (HABC) methods (MsBayes) to estimate the number and timing of discrete divergences across a putative barrier and to assign species to their appropriate period of co-divergence. We then apply a coalescent-based full Bayesian model of divergence (IMa) to suite...

  9. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  10. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  11. Notes on distribution, conservation, and taxonomy OF birds from the Cape Verde Islands, including records of six species new to the archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazevoet, Cornelis J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent data on the distribution of birds in the Cape Verde Islands are presented, including records of six species new to the archipelago, viz. Pintail Anas acuta, Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla, Snipe Gallinago gallinago, Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica, African Sand Martin Riparia paludicol

  12. Archaeopteryx: Dinosaur or Bird?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2011-01-01

    @@ An Archaeopteryx-like theropod dinosaur newly found from western Liaoning Province in northeastern China would make an unusual, if not unwelcome, gift for the 150th birthday of Archaeopteryx, the oldest bird as long-believed by paleontologists: Named as Xiaotingia zhengiis, the new species carries some critical traits suggesting that Archaeopteryx might have actually been a dinosaur.Naturally this breaking news stirred intense controversies.Was "The Oldest Bird" a bird? If not, what makes a bird? With these questions in mind, the author joined an exploration in search of "the real first bird" along with the paleontologists at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) under CAS.

  13. Testing for effects of climate change on competitive relationships and coexistence between two bird species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Durant, Joel M.; Fowler, Mike S.; Matthysen, Erik; Adriaensen, Frank; Jonzen, Niclas; Chan, Kung-Sik; Liu, Hai; De Laet, Jenny; Sheldon, Ben C.; Visser, Marcel E.; Dhondt, Andre A.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have profound ecological effects, yet shifts in competitive abilities among species are rarely studied in this context. Blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tits (Parus major) compete for food and roosting sites, yet coexist across much of their range. Climate chan

  14. Environmental factors influence both abundance and genetic diversity in a widespread bird species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yang; Webber, Simone; Bowgen, Katharine; Schmaltz, Lucie; Bradley, Katharine; Halvarsson, Peter; Abdelgadir, Mohanad; Griesser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity is one of the key evolutionary variables that correlate with population size, being of critical importance for population viability and the persistence of species. Genetic diversity can also have important ecological consequences within populations, and in turn, ecological factors

  15. Nematode parasites of Brazilian Ciconiiformes Birds: a general survey with new records for the species

    OpenAIRE

    J. Júlio Vicente; Roberto Magalhães Pinto; Dely Noronha; Gonçalves, L

    1995-01-01

    This report deals with the identification of one hundred and fifty-nine samples of nematodes recovered from Brazilian egrets and herons. Contracaecum microcephalum, C. multipapillatum, C. plagiaticium, Desportesius invaginatus, D. longevaginatus, Desmidocercella ardeae, Eustrongylides ignotus, Porrocaecum reticulatum, Tetrameres micropenis, Capillaria sp., Contracaecum sp., Porrocaecum sp., Procyrnea sp., Tetrameres sp. and Viktorocara sp. were studied. The genus Viktorocara and the species C...

  16. Threat status of birds of Yamuna Nagar District, Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv S. Kalsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Birds were surveyed in the Yamuna Nagar District, Haryana, India and the threat categories of the species observed were determined with the IUCN Red List.  A total of 185 species belonging to 46 families were observed.  Families Accipitridae, Passeridae, Corvidae and Scolopacidae dominated the list.  There were 13 species with various IUCN Red List categories.  One Critically Endangered species, the Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvus, and two Endangered species Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda and Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus were observed.  A prerequisite for all the measures focussed on management and conservation of species is that the status and population trends of the target species must be known, and future work should be in this direction. 

  17. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  18. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  19. Relationship Between Several Biochemical Indexes and Resistance of Aegilops Species to Oat-Bird Cherry Aphids(Homoptera:Aphididae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing; YE Hua-zhi; YANG Qun-fang; JIANG Su-rong

    2003-01-01

    The biochemical mechanism of resistance of 9 Aegilops species including A.biuncialis,A.juvenalis, A.ovata, A.kotschyi var. varianilis, A.triaristata, A.tauschii, A.vavilovii, A.crassa and A.ventricosa in Triticeae to oat-bird cherry aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) were reported for the first time. The results showed that the content of total phenols in seedling was not associated with resistance to this aphid. The level of DIMBOA was negatively related to intrinsic innate rate of increase (rm) of R. padi. Neither of soluable sugar nor total phenols in adult stage was associated with resistance level. However, concentrations of free proline and serine in leaf were positively related to rm of R. padi (rm =-0.0636+0.23xpro** +1.982xser*). The content of DIMBOA was high-negatively related to rm of R. padi (r=-0.819**). The low level of free proline and serine and high concentration of DIMBOA could be regarded as important elements for resistance of Aegilops species to R. padi.

  20. Biomonitoring of heavy metals in feathers of eleven common bird species in urban and rural environments of Tiruchirappalli, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, Menon; Mohanraj, R; Devi, M Prashanthi

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals continue to remain as a major environmental concern in spite of emission control measures. In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd) in the feathers of 11 species of birds collected from urban and rural areas of Tiruchirappalli, Southern India. Metal concentrations followed the order: Fe > Cu > Zn > Cr > Mn > Ni > Cd. Irrespective of sample locations, heavy metals such as Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Cu were detected in high concentrations, while Cd and Mn were observed in lower concentrations. In contrary to our assumption, there were no statistically significant intraspecific and urban-rural differences in the metal concentrations except for Zn. Pairwise comparisons among species irrespective of metal type showed significant interspecific differences between Acridotheres tristis and Centropus phasianinus, A. tristis and Milvus migrans, C. phasianinus and M. migrans, M. migrans and Eudynamys scolopaceus, and Psittacula krameri and E. scolopaceus. Principal component analysis carried out for urban data extracted Ni, Mn, Zn, Fe, and Cu accounting for 48% variance implying dietary intake and external contamination as important sources for metals. In the rural, association of Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cr suggests the impact of metal fabrication industries and leather tanning operations. PMID:25893764

  1. Multi-Season Regional Analysis of Multi-Species Occupancy: Implications for Bird Conservation in Agricultural Lands in East-Central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goijman, Andrea Paula; Conroy, Michael J; Bernardos, Jaime Nicolás; Zaccagnini, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Rapid expansion and intensification of agriculture create challenges for the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. In Argentina, the total row crop planted area has increased in recent decades with the expansion of soybean cultivation, homogenizing the landscape. In 2003 we started the first long-term, large-scale bird monitoring program in agroecosystems of central Argentina, in portions of the Pampas and Espinal ecoregions. Using data from this program, we evaluated the effect of land use and cover extent on birds between 2003-2012, accounting for imperfect detection probabilities using a Bayesian hierarchical, multi-species and multi-season occupancy model. We tested predictions that species diversity is positively related to habitat heterogeneity, which in intensified agroecosystems is thought to be mediated by food availability; thus the extent of land use and cover is predicted to affect foraging guilds differently. We also infer about ecosystem services provisioning and inform management recommendations for conservation of birds. Overall our results support the predictions. Although many species within each guild responded differently to land use and native forest cover, we identified generalities for most trophic guilds. For example, granivorous gleaners, ground insectivores and omnivores responded negatively to high proportions of soybean, while insectivore gleaners and aerial foragers seemed more tolerant. Habitat heterogeneity would likely benefit most species in an intensified agroecosystem, and can be achieved with a diversity of crops, pastures, and natural areas within the landscape. Although most studied species are insectivores, potentially beneficial for pest control, some guilds such as ground insectivores are poorly represented, suggesting that agricultural intensification reduces ecological functions, which may be recovered through management. Continuation of the bird monitoring program will allow us to continue to

  2. Multi-Season Regional Analysis of Multi-Species Occupancy: Implications for Bird Conservation in Agricultural Lands in East-Central Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Paula Goijman

    Full Text Available Rapid expansion and intensification of agriculture create challenges for the conservation of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. In Argentina, the total row crop planted area has increased in recent decades with the expansion of soybean cultivation, homogenizing the landscape. In 2003 we started the first long-term, large-scale bird monitoring program in agroecosystems of central Argentina, in portions of the Pampas and Espinal ecoregions. Using data from this program, we evaluated the effect of land use and cover extent on birds between 2003-2012, accounting for imperfect detection probabilities using a Bayesian hierarchical, multi-species and multi-season occupancy model. We tested predictions that species diversity is positively related to habitat heterogeneity, which in intensified agroecosystems is thought to be mediated by food availability; thus the extent of land use and cover is predicted to affect foraging guilds differently. We also infer about ecosystem services provisioning and inform management recommendations for conservation of birds. Overall our results support the predictions. Although many species within each guild responded differently to land use and native forest cover, we identified generalities for most trophic guilds. For example, granivorous gleaners, ground insectivores and omnivores responded negatively to high proportions of soybean, while insectivore gleaners and aerial foragers seemed more tolerant. Habitat heterogeneity would likely benefit most species in an intensified agroecosystem, and can be achieved with a diversity of crops, pastures, and natural areas within the landscape. Although most studied species are insectivores, potentially beneficial for pest control, some guilds such as ground insectivores are poorly represented, suggesting that agricultural intensification reduces ecological functions, which may be recovered through management. Continuation of the bird monitoring program will allow

  3. Distribution and abundance of forest birds in low-altitude habitat on Hawai'i Island: Evidence for range expansion of native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, C.S.; Hart, P.J.; Woodwort, B.L.; Tweed, E.J.; Leburn, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Hawaiian honeycreepers are thought to be limited primarily to middle- and high-altitude wet forests due to anthropogenic factors at lower altitudes, especially introduced mosquitotransmitted avian malaria. However, recent research has demonstrated that at least one native species, the Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens virens), is common in areas of active malaria transmission. We examined the current distribution and abundance of native and exotic forest birds within approximately 640 km2 of low-altitude (0-326 m) habitat on south-eastern Hawai'i Island, using roadside variable circular plot (VCP) at 174 stations along eight survey transects. We also re-surveyed 90 stations near sea level that were last surveyed in 1994-1995. Overall, introduced species were more abundant than natives; 11 exotic species made up 87% of the total individuals detected. The most common exotic passerines were Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus), House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) and Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Two native species, Hawai'i 'Amakihi and 'Apapane (Himatione sanguina), comprised 13% of the bird community at low altitudes. Hawai'i 'Amakihi were the most common and widespread native species, being found at 47% of stations at a density of 4.98 birds/ha (95% CI 3.52-7.03). Amakihi were significantly associated with 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha)-dominated forest. 'Apapane were more locally distributed, being found at only 10% of stations. Re-surveys of 1994-1995 transects demonstrated a significant increase in 'Amakihi abundance over the past decade. This work demonstrates a widespread recovery of Hawai'i 'Amakihi at low altitude in southeastern Hawai'i. The changing composition of the forest bird community at low-altitudes in Hawai'i has important implications for the dynamics of avian malaria in low-altitude Hawai'i, and for conservation of Hawai'i's lowland forests. ?? 2006 BirdLife International.

  4. Avifauna (Passeriformes of Santa Cruz province, Patagonia (Argentina: annotated list of species Avifauna (Passeriformes de la provincia de Santa Cruz, Patagonia (Argentina: lista comentada de especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aquiles Darrieu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The birds (Passeriformes of Santa Cruz province, Argentina, are analyzed based on three main sources: specimens housed in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales of Buenos Aires (MACN, in the Félix de Azara Collection, Buenos Aires (CFA, in the Museo de La Plata, La Plata (MLP, in the Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán (FML and in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington (USNM. The data were obtained from bibliographical citations which include precise localities and from field observations. A list of 75 species belonging to 13 families is included. First records with precise localities are provided for five species. New localities are cited for 64 species.En el presente trabajo se aporta una lista comentada de todas las especies de aves Passeriformes registradas en la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los ejemplares de colección pertenecen al Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales y a la Colección Félix de Azara, ambos de Buenos Aires, al Museo de La Plata, a la Fundación Miguel Lillo de Tucumán y al National Museum of Natural History, Washington. Los datos fueron obtenidos de la literatura, del análisis de especimenes de museos y de observaciones de campo. Esto nos permitió incluir un total de 75 especies pertenecientes a 13 familias. Cinco de ellas no presentaban registros concretos para la provincia, aportándose nuevas localidades para otras 64.

  5. Reef-building corals (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) from the Watamu Marine National Reserve, Kenya; an annotated species list

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.W.T.J.

    1993-01-01

    The scleractinian fauna of the Watamu Marine National Reserve, Kenya, was surveyed between November 1982 and April 1983. The survey yielded 276 specimens representing 113 species in 45 genera, which are presented in an annotated checklist. Four genera and 43 species are added to the the list of prev

  6. Nematode parasites of Brazilian Ciconiiformes Birds: a general survey with new records for the species

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    J. Júlio Vicente

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with the identification of one hundred and fifty-nine samples of nematodes recovered from Brazilian egrets and herons. Contracaecum microcephalum, C. multipapillatum, C. plagiaticium, Desportesius invaginatus, D. longevaginatus, Desmidocercella ardeae, Eustrongylides ignotus, Porrocaecum reticulatum, Tetrameres micropenis, Capillaria sp., Contracaecum sp., Porrocaecum sp., Procyrnea sp., Tetrameres sp. and Viktorocara sp. were studied. The genus Viktorocara and the species C. microcephalum, C. plagiaticium, D. invaginatus, D. ardeae and P. reticulatum are referred in Brazil for the first time.

  7. 75 FR 57720 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Agave...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Include New Mexico 1/05/2010 Listing Foreign Bird Species Proposed Listing 75 FR 605-649 in Peru and...-7440. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information... species in the Notice of Review published in the Federal Register on September 30, 1993 (58 FR 51144)...

  8. When is an “Extinct” Species Really Extinct? Gauging the Search Efforts for Hawaiian Forest Birds and the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker

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    J. Michael. Scott

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare species, particularly those in inaccessible habitat, can go years without being observed. If we are to allocate conservation resources appropriately to conserving such species, it is important to be able to distinguish “rare” from “extinct.” Criteria for designating extinction, however, tend to be arbitrary or vaguely defined. This designation should not be made unless the search effort has been sufficient to yield a high degree of confidence that the species is in fact absent. We develop models to assess the probability of extinction and the search effort necessary to detect an individual in a small population. We apply these models to searches for nine potentially extinct Hawaiian forest birds and for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis in intensively searched areas in Arkansas. The Hawaiian forest bird survey was extensive, providing excellent information on population sizes and habitat associations of species encountered during the survey. Nonetheless, we conclude that the survey effort was not sufficient to conclude extinction (p > 0.90 for populations of 10 or fewer individuals for those species that were not encountered during surveys. In contrast, our analysis for Ivory-billed Woodpeckers suggests that, unless there were actually two or fewer birds present, the search effort was sufficient to conclude (p > 0.95 that Ivory-billed woodpeckers were not present in the intensively searched area. If one assumes distributions other than uniform, there is a greater chance that Ivory-billed Woodpeckers may persist in the intensively searched areas. Conclusions regarding occupancy of suitable habitat throughout the rest of the former range will require similarly intensive survey efforts. The degree of confidence in the absence of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker depended in part on our assumptions about the distribution of birds in the search area. For species with limited detection distance and small populations, a

  9. Effects of Sea-Level Rise and Anthropogenic Development on Priority Bird Species Habitats in Coastal Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Ross A.; Craft, Christopher B.

    2012-02-01

    We modeled changes in area of five habitats, tidal-freshwater forest, salt marsh, maritime shrub-scrub (shrub), maritime broadleaf forest (oak) and maritime narrowleaf (pine) forest, in coastal Georgia, USA, to evaluate how simultaneous habitat loss due to predicted changes in sea level rise (SLR) and urban development will affect priority bird species of the south Atlantic coastal plain by 2100. Development rates, based on regional growth plans, were modeled at 1% and 2.5% annual urban growth, while SLR rates, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's A1B mean and maximum scenarios, were modeled at 52 cm and 82 cm, respectively. SLR most greatly affected the shrub habitat with predicted losses of 35-43%. Salt marsh and tidal forest also were predicted to lose considerable area to SLR (20-45 and 23-35%, respectively), whereas oak and pine forests had lesser impact from SLR, 18-22% and 11-15%, respectively. Urban development resulted in losses of considerable pine (48-49%) and oak (53-55%) habitat with lesser loss of shrub habitat (21-24%). Under maximum SLR and urban growth, shrub habitat may lose up to 59-64% compared to as much as 62-65% pine forest and 74-75% oak forest. Conservation efforts should focus on protection of shrub habitat because of its small area relative to other terrestrial habitats and use by Painted Buntings ( Passerina ciris), a Partners In Flight (PIF) extremely high priority species. Tidal forests also deserve protection because they are a likely refuge for forest species, such as Northern Parula and Acadian Flycatcher, with the decline of oak and pine forests due to urban development.

  10. Two species of Acuaria Bremser, 1811 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea: Acuariidae) in passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2003-10-01

    Two species of Acuaria were collected from passerine birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proenca, 1945, was collected from Myiarchus nuttingi. Specimens from Costa Rica differ from the original description by having a spicule ratio of 1:1.5-1.7 versus 1:1.43-1.47, as well as shorter spicules and female tails. Acuaria wangi n. sp. in Hylophylax naevioides and Gymnopithys leucaspis resembles A. alii, A. crami, A. cyanocitta, A. minuta, A. pattoni, and A. cissae by having cordons extending posteriorly to the anterior portion of the glandular esophagus. The new species differs from A. alii by having 4 pairs of preanal and 6 pairs of postanal papillae rather than 2 pairs of preanal and 7 pairs of postanal papillae, a shorter left spicule, a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1.1 and in having spicules with blunt rather than pointed distal ends. Acuaria crami and A. minuta differ from A. wangi by having 7 pairs of postanal papillae and spicule ratios of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1.3 in A. crami and 1:1.1 in A. minuta; in addition, A. minuta has spatulate-shaped spicules and a tricupsid-shaped distal end of the right spicule. The new species can be distinguished from A. pattoni by having a longer left spicule and a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:1 and from A. cissae by having a shorter left spicule and a spicule ratio of 1:1.6-1.8 versus 1:2.5-2.7. Acuaria wangi is similar to A. cyanocitta, which has similarly shaped spicules, including a very pointed distal end of the left spicule, but differs in body length, in having shorter spicules, in the arrangement of postanal papillae, and in having smaller eggs.

  11. Dark or short nights: differential latitudinal constraints in nestling provisioning patterns of a nocturnally hunting bird species.

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    Markéta Zárybnická

    Full Text Available In diurnal bird species, individuals breeding at high latitudes have larger broods than at lower latitudes, which has been linked to differences in the daily time available for foraging. However, it remains unclear how latitude is linked with parental investment in nocturnal species. Here, we investigate nestling provisioning rates of male Tengmalm's owls in two populations at different latitudes (Czech Republic 50 °N; Finland 63 °N with the help of cameras integrated into nest boxes. Clutch sizes were smaller in the Czech population (CZ: 5.1 ± 0.1; FIN: 6.6 ± 0.1, but given the higher nestling mortality in the Finnish population, the number of fledglings did not differ between the two populations (CZ: 3.5 ± 0.3; FIN: 3.9 ± 0.2. Nestling provisioning patterns varied within days, over the reproductive season and between the two sites. Males delivered most food at dusk and dawn, having peak delivery rates at sun angles of -11° to -15° at both sites, and males increased the prey delivery rates with higher nestling requirements. Given the longer nights during summer in the Czech Republic compared to Finland, Czech males only showed a small shift in their delivery peak during the night from -17° in April to -14° in July. In contrast, Finnish males shifted their peak of prey delivery from -11° in April to -1° in July. Consequently, Czech males had a longer hunting time per night around midsummer when feeding young (360 min than Finnish males (270 min. This suggests that nocturnal owl species in northern populations are constrained by the short nights during the breeding season, which can limit the number of young they can raise. Moreover, owls in northern populations are additionally constrained through the unpredictable changes in food availability between years, and both these factors are likely to influence the reproductive investment between populations.

  12. High urban breeding densities do not disrupt genetic monogamy in a bird species.

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    Sol Rodriguez-Martínez

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes widespread endangerment of biodiversity worldwide. However, some species successfully colonize cities reaching higher densities than in their rural habitats. In these cases, although urban city dwellers may apparently be taking advantage of these new environments, they also face new ecological conditions that may induce behavioural changes. For example, the frequency of alternative reproductive behaviours such as extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism might increase with breeding densities. Here, using a panel of 17 microsatellites, we tested whether increments in breeding densities such as those associated with urban invasion processes alter genetic monogamy in the burrowing owl Athene cunicularia. Our results show low rates of extra-pair paternity (1.47%, but relatively high levels of intraspecific brood parasitism (8.82%. However, we were not able to detect differences in the frequency at which either alternative reproductive behaviour occurs along a strong breeding density gradient. Further research is needed to properly ascertain the role of other social and ecological factors in the frequency at which this species presents alternative reproductive strategies. Meanwhile, our results suggest that genetic monogamy is maintained despite the increment in conspecific density associated with a recent urban invasion process.

  13. Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three species of endemic New Zealand birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laryssa; Hunter, Stuart; Burrows, Elizabeth; Roe, Wendi

    2014-03-01

    Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three endemic New Zealand avian species are reported. Between 2009 and 2012, two kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), one North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), and one North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis) were submitted for necropsy examination. On gross postmortem, the kiwi had marked hepatosplenomegaly while the kaka and two kereru had swollen, slightly firm, deep-red lungs. Histologically there was extensive hepatocellular necrosis in the liver of the kiwi while the kaka and kereru showed severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In the kiwi, protozoal organisms were present within both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of the liver and within the epithelial cells and macrophages of the interstitium of the lungs in the kaka and two kereru. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR of paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue of the liver, lungs, or both. Genotyping of up to seven markers revealed that an atypical Type II isolate of Toxoplasma gondii was present in at least three of the cases. This study provides evidence that T. gondii can cause mortality in these endemic species and suggests further research is needed to determine the full extent of morbidity and mortality caused by this parasite in New Zealand's unique avifauna. PMID:24758132

  14. Phylogeography of the Vermilion Flycatcher species complex: Multiple speciation events, shifts in migratory behavior, and an apparent extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Ore; Witt, Christopher C; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Dumbacher, John P

    2016-09-01

    full species corresponding to the two currently recognized subspecies, nanus and dubius. The population of dubius is presumed to be extinct, and thus would represent the first documented extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species. Two strongly supported mitochondrial clades divide Galápagos subspecies nanus in a geographic pattern that conflicts with previous hypotheses that were based on plumage color. Several populations of nanus have recently become extinct or are in serious decline. Urgent conservation measures should seek to preserve the deep mitochondrial DNA diversity within nanus, and further work should explore whether additional forms should be recognized within nanus. Ancestral states analysis based on our phylogeny revealed that the most recent common ancestor of extant Vermilion Flycatcher populations was migratory, and that migratory behavior was lost more often than gained within Pyrocephalus and close relatives, as has been shown to be the case within Tyrannidae as a whole. PMID:27233443

  15. Phylogeography of the Vermilion Flycatcher species complex: Multiple speciation events, shifts in migratory behavior, and an apparent extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Ore; Witt, Christopher C; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Dumbacher, John P

    2016-09-01

    full species corresponding to the two currently recognized subspecies, nanus and dubius. The population of dubius is presumed to be extinct, and thus would represent the first documented extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species. Two strongly supported mitochondrial clades divide Galápagos subspecies nanus in a geographic pattern that conflicts with previous hypotheses that were based on plumage color. Several populations of nanus have recently become extinct or are in serious decline. Urgent conservation measures should seek to preserve the deep mitochondrial DNA diversity within nanus, and further work should explore whether additional forms should be recognized within nanus. Ancestral states analysis based on our phylogeny revealed that the most recent common ancestor of extant Vermilion Flycatcher populations was migratory, and that migratory behavior was lost more often than gained within Pyrocephalus and close relatives, as has been shown to be the case within Tyrannidae as a whole.

  16. Nematofauna in the Adriatic Sea: review and check-list of free-living nematode species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travizi, Ana; Vidaković, Jasna

    1998-02-01

    The present paper presents a collection and synthesis of data found in numerous publications on Adriatic Sea nematofauna, as well as unpublished, data mentioned in annotations. For this purpose, a chronological order of investigations and a general survey of the species that occurred in the Adriatic Sea are given. In all, 281 free-living nematode species comprised in 133 genera and 34 families were discerned and listed in a taxonomic review, according to their spatial distribution. In special cases, descriptions of habitat features were noted. The position of species characterized by high population densities, their importance, and contribution to the faunistic composition of certain parts of the Adriatic were also discussed. The summary of the results, of prevailing research on free-living marine nematodes serves as a tool for making distinctions concerning the research level and state of nematofauna knowledge in different parts of the Adriatic Sea. Northern Adriatic nematofauna has been considerably more intensively investigated than that of the Central and South Adriatic.

  17. Composition of mixed-species flocks of forest birds in the Parque Estadual das Araucárias, western Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-species flocks are associations of two or more species possibly derived from the maximization of foraging and/or minimization of predation. Several studies with mixed-species flocks have been carried out in southern Brazil, but none of them in a native Araucaria forest. Mixed-species bird flocks were surveyed between 2006 to 2007 at the Parque Estadual das Araucárias (PEA, in São Domingos, in the western part of the state of Santa Catarina. Fifty-six species were recorded in 29 flocks and the average number of birds per flock was 11. Of these species, 36 (64% had a frequency of occurrence that was higher than 10%. The most abundant species were Parula pitiayumi (72%, Hemithraupis guira (65%, Basileuterus culicivorus (62%, Lepidocolaptes falcinellus (62%, Veniliornis spilogaster (55% and Sittasomus griseicapillus (51%. Apparently, there was no nuclear species that assumed responsibility for the mixed flock’s constitution and cohesion, but instead a complex of nuclear species that acted in way that favored the relatively large sizes of the flocks.

  18. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Contrast the Diet and Explore Pest-Reduction Services of Sympatric Bird Species in Macadamia Orchards in Australia.

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    Eduardo Crisol-Martínez

    Full Text Available Worldwide, avian communities inhabiting agro-ecosystems are threatened as a consequence of agricultural intensification. Unravelling their ecological role is essential to focus conservation efforts. Dietary analysis can elucidate bird-insect interactions and expose avian pest-reduction services, thus supporting avian conservation. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to analyse the dietary arthropod contents of 11 sympatric bird species foraging in macadamia orchards in eastern Australia. Across all species and based on arthropod DNA sequence similarities ≥98% with records in the Barcode of Life Database, 257 operational taxonomy units were assigned to 8 orders, 40 families, 90 genera and 89 species. These taxa included 15 insect pests, 5 of which were macadamia pests. Among the latter group, Nezara viridula (Pentatomidae; green vegetable bug, considered a major pest, was present in 23% of all faecal samples collected. Results also showed that resource partitioning in this system is low, as most bird species shared large proportion of their diets by feeding primarily on lepidopteran, dipteran and arachnids. Dietary composition differed between some species, most likely because of differences in foraging behaviour. Overall, this study reached a level of taxonomic resolution never achieved before in the studied species, thus contributing to a significant improvement in the avian ecological knowledge. Our results showed that bird communities prey upon economically important pests in macadamia orchards. This study set a precedent by exploring avian pest-reduction services using next-generation sequencing, which could contribute to the conservation of avian communities and their natural habitats in agricultural systems.

  19. Using Next-Generation Sequencing to Contrast the Diet and Explore Pest-Reduction Services of Sympatric Bird Species in Macadamia Orchards in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisol-Martínez, Eduardo; Moreno-Moyano, Laura T; Wormington, Kevin R; Brown, Philip H; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, avian communities inhabiting agro-ecosystems are threatened as a consequence of agricultural intensification. Unravelling their ecological role is essential to focus conservation efforts. Dietary analysis can elucidate bird-insect interactions and expose avian pest-reduction services, thus supporting avian conservation. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to analyse the dietary arthropod contents of 11 sympatric bird species foraging in macadamia orchards in eastern Australia. Across all species and based on arthropod DNA sequence similarities ≥98% with records in the Barcode of Life Database, 257 operational taxonomy units were assigned to 8 orders, 40 families, 90 genera and 89 species. These taxa included 15 insect pests, 5 of which were macadamia pests. Among the latter group, Nezara viridula (Pentatomidae; green vegetable bug), considered a major pest, was present in 23% of all faecal samples collected. Results also showed that resource partitioning in this system is low, as most bird species shared large proportion of their diets by feeding primarily on lepidopteran, dipteran and arachnids. Dietary composition differed between some species, most likely because of differences in foraging behaviour. Overall, this study reached a level of taxonomic resolution never achieved before in the studied species, thus contributing to a significant improvement in the avian ecological knowledge. Our results showed that bird communities prey upon economically important pests in macadamia orchards. This study set a precedent by exploring avian pest-reduction services using next-generation sequencing, which could contribute to the conservation of avian communities and their natural habitats in agricultural systems. PMID:26930484

  20. AN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF LEAD SHOT EXPOSURE IN NON-WATERFOWL AVIAN SPECIES: UPLAND GAME BIRDS AND RAPTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing concern that birds in terrestrial ecosystems may be exposed to spent lead shot. Evidence exists that upland birds, particularly mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), ingest spent lead shot and that raptors ingest lead shot by consuming wounded game. Mortality, ne...

  1. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26505635

  2. Species list of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera of Santarém area, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bernard

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its enormous area, diversity of habitat, and bat species, studies in the Brazilian Amazon represent just a small portion of the bat research in the South América. Consequently, the distribution of the major part of the bat species in the Brazilian Amazon remains incompletely documented. Conservation strategies involving bat species in the Brazilian Amazon may be difficult without more information about geographic distribution, status, roost, food preferences, and reproduction of the species. Here is presented an updated list of species of bats of Alter do Chão, and complete this list with data from the nearby Amazon National Park, providing a list of bats in the Santarém area. This list includes at least 55 species of bats, representing 34 genera, and 7 families. The higher taxonomic composition of bat fauna of Santarérn area is similar to other areas sampled in the Brazilian Amazon, with a high proportion of frugivores, but the number of aerial insectivores is lower, probably due the use of mist nets as the principal sampling method.

  3. Molecular analysis of clonal trichomonad isolates indicate the existence of heterogenic species present in different birds and within the same host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabensteiner, Elvira; Bilic, Ivana; Kolbe, Thomas; Hess, Michael

    2010-08-27

    Trichomonas gallinae is a flagellated protozoon and the etiological agent of avian trichomoniasis. Despite its importance, especially in columbiformes and falconiformes, only a few molecular studies have yet been performed in order to investigate the degree of genetic diversity and cross-transmissibility between different isolates of this parasite. To address these questions 63 clonal cultures of Trichomonas spp. isolates were established by successful isolation of single trichomonads from a mixture of micro-organisms obtained from 17 birds belonging to five different species. All birds were from Austria with the exception of one bird which originated from the Czech Republic. The sequence of the complete genomic region spanning the two ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene was determined for all 63 isolates. In addition, in order to compare the results obtained with the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region the sequence of the 18S rRNA gene was determined from a subset of isolates. Unrooted phylogenetic trees inferred by distance, parsimony, and likelihood methods suggest the existence of at least three clusters within the T. gallinae species complex, two groups being closely related to the human pathogens, Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomonas tenax. Furthermore, for the first time two different trichomonad sequence types isolated at the same time from a single bird could be detected in the crops of two pigeons. PMID:20471174

  4. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drooge, Barend van [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Vives, Ingrid [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cardiel, Iris [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Guitart, Raimon [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: raimon.guitart@uab.cat

    2008-05-15

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for {sigma}PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and {sigma}PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors.

  5. Situation-Based Survey of Avian Influenza Viruses in Possible “Bridge” Species of Wild and Domestic Birds in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columba Teru, Vakuru; Manu, Shiiwua A.; Ahmed, Gashash I.; Junaidu, Kabir; Newman, Scott; Nyager, Joseph; Iwar, Vivian N.; Mshelbwala, Gideon M.; Joannis, T.; Maina, Junaidu A.; Apeverga, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 subtype) recurred in Nigeria after 9 months period of no reported case. A critical look at possible sources of the re-occurrence was desirable. The objective of this study was to determine whether avian influenza viruses were present at reasonably detectable levels (0.5%) in possible “bridge” species of wild and domestic birds. The study was conducted in 8 Nigerian states. A total of 403 birds from 40 species were sampled. Virus isolation was done in embryonated chicken eggs according to standard protocols. The test results were all negative for avian influenza viruses. The overall confidence interval (CI) calculated in R using the exact binomial confidence interval function was 0–0.007406. Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax) was the lowest sampled 0.3% (1/403) and Red-billed Firefinch (Lagonosticta senegala) the highest 11.7% (47/403). The limitations of the sample size and possibly designing effects on the study, as to make concrete conclusions were acknowledged. Species of wild birds, so identified in the study could be useful in future surveys. Furthermore, multidisciplinary and community oriented approach, blending targeted and passive surveillances was suggested. This approach was envisaged to bring about wider coverage of “bridge” species and clearer insight of their possible roles in avian influenza re-occurrences and spread in Nigeria. PMID:23074668

  6. Longevity records of North American birds. Supplement 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Futcher, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    This is the first supplement to the previous published four-part series on avian longevities (Clapp et al. 1982, 1983; Klimkiewicz et al. 1983; Klimkiewicz and Futcher 1987). R ecords processed in the Bird Banding Laboratory through August 1988 are included, as well as several corrections to the original series. One hundred-seven of the 147 entries in this supplement are new longevity records for species or forms listed previously. Another 37 entries represent taxa not listed before, and the remaining three records correct previous listings that were in error.

  7. A Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment of California's At-Risk Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gardali; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; DiGaudio, Ryan T.; Comrack, Lyann A.

    2012-01-01

    Conservationists must develop new strategies and adapt existing tools to address the consequences of anthropogenic climate change. To support statewide climate change adaptation, we developed a framework for assessing climate change vulnerability of California's at-risk birds and integrating it into the existing California Bird Species of Special Concern list. We defined climate vulnerability as the amount of evidence that climate change will negatively impact a population. We quantified clim...

  8. Bird populations as sentinels of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carere

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Although the mechanisms of action of EDCs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ED at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic EDC exposure have been overlooked. Birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. Hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. In this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to EDCs. We provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ED; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.

  9. X-ray investigations of lead shot pellets in the tissues of various species of birds found dead in Northern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the period 1985-1988 467 specimens of dead or moribund birds including 51 species were collected in northern Germany, and x-rayed to ascertain lead pellet damage. In 15.8% of the cases evidence of lead bullets was found in the tissues. In over 80% of the cases lead pellets were found, and in 11 (14.9%) of the animals air rifle ammunition was discovered. Along with wood cock, greylag geese, and eider ducks several species of sea gulls were especially affected. The exact causes of death of the lead damaged birds could usually not be determined. The problems with lead pellet ammunition are presented and a legally designated maximum shooting distance is recommended. The replacement of lead pellets with small caliber ammunition for hunting from blinds is also discussed. Bullets are considered more effective for the hunting of knob-billed swans

  10. Tourism revenue as a conservation tool for threatened birds in protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Steven

    Full Text Available Many bird populations worldwide are at risk of extinction, and rely heavily on protected area networks for their continued conservation. Tourism to these areas contributes to conservation by generating revenue for management. Here we quantify the contribution of tourism revenue for bird species in the IUCN Red List, using a simple accounting method. Relevant data are available for 90 (16% of the 562 critically endangered and endangered species. Contributions of tourism to bird conservation are highest, 10-64%, in South America, Africa, and their neighbouring islands. Critically endangered bird species rely on tourism more heavily than endangered species (p<0.02. Many protected areas could also enhance their management budgets by promoting birdwatching tourism specifically.

  11. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  12. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and...

  13. Two new species of scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea from Sardinia (Italy with a check list of Sardinian Coccoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Pellizzari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of scale insects collected in Sardinia (Italy are described and illustrated: Spinococcus giuliae sp. n. (Pseudococcidae off the roots of Umbilicus rupestris (Crassulaceae and Micrococcus sardous sp. n. (Micrococcidae off the root of an undetermined grass (Poaceae growing near the sea. A n identification key to Micrococcus species and a revised list of the scales presently known in the island are also provided.

  14. 78 FR 66675 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Multiple Species of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... purposes of listing, delisting, and reclassifying a species under the ESA (``DPS Policy''; 61 FR 4722... known from only five museum specimens collected from Sagami Bay and just south of Tokyo Bay, Japan. No... occurred as a result of anthropogenic climate change and the consequent destruction of their habitat....

  15. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

  16. Recognition of Bird Species in Nine Turns Stream Wetland%武夷山九曲溪湿地鸟类物种辨识①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石贵民

    2013-01-01

    唐庆和,唐兆园等人在2006年12月~2008年3月采用“点样线法”对九曲溪生态保护区湿地鸟类多样性进行了调查研究,共记录鸟类65种。近年来,随着数字图像识别技术的快速发展,对动、植物物种的鉴别已成为一个热门的研究领域。本文在保护九曲溪水生鸟类的前提下,使用图形分析技术对鸟类物种进行辨识研究;使用SVM 决策树法,对鸟类颜色图表(包括形状,颜色和纹理)进行深入分析和研究,提出一套分类方法。该方法的应用将更有效的识别九曲溪湿地鸟类物种,为鸟类生物多样性研究及保护提供科学依据。%From March 2006 to Decembe2008, sample and line transect methods were used to investigate bird diversity in Nine Turns Stream wetland in Fujian Province, A total of 65 species were recorded. With the rapid development of digital graphic recognition technology, in recent years, more attention is given to the subject of animal and plant species identification which has become a popular researching field. The article mainly discusses about the method to apply graphic analyzing technology for bird identification research in the case of aquatic bird protection in the marsh of Nine Turns Stream. It also put forward a set of classification case with SVM Decision Tree for protesting information through deep analysis and study on bird color graph in terms of shape, color and texture. Moreover, the appearance of the case contributes to the effective recognition and classification of birds in species Nine Turns Stream wetland,and then provides the scientific basis for bird biodiversity research and conservation.

  17. Meadow birds as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beintema, A J

    1983-09-01

    The use of birds as indicators for 'biological qualities' is not without risks, and should always be based on a sound knowledge of population dynamics and ecological requirements of the species involved. Meadow birds form a comparatively well-studied group of waders, which breed in Dutch grasslands, heavily influenced by agricultural management. The individual species show different tolerances to intensity levels of management, and can therefore be used as indicators for these levels. PMID:24259105

  18. Biological Assessment of the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally Listed Threatened and Endangered Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Leslie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Ecology and Air Quality Group

    2006-09-19

    This biological assessment considers the effects of continuing to operate Los Alamos National Laboratory on Federally listed threatened or endangered species, based on current and future operations identified in the 2006 Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS; DOE In Prep.). We reviewed 40 projects analyzed in the SWEIS as well as two aspects on ongoing operations to determine if these actions had the potential to affect Federally listed species. Eighteen projects that had not already received U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) consultation and concurrence, as well as the two aspects of ongoing operations, ecological risk from legacy contaminants and the Outfall Reduction Project, were determined to have the potential to affect threatened or endangered species. Cumulative impacts were also analyzed.

  19. Winter bird assemblages, species richness and relative abundance at a re-vegetated coal mine in the Middelburg district, Mpumalanga province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, I.T.; Little, R.M.; Jansen, R.; Crowe, T.M. [University of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Zoology

    2005-04-01

    Winter bird assemblages, species richness and relative abundance were investigated at six re-vegetated sites within the Middelburg Coal Mine (Mpumalanga, South Africa) and compared with those for a site thought to be representative of un-mined biotope within the nearby Witbank Nature Reserve. Age of site since initiation of re-vegetation had little or no apparent effect on richness or abundance. Adjacency to currently active mining and variation in current land management practices appeared to have much more profound effects. Sites surrounded by active mining had lower richness and abundance. Those with 40% or more land left as fallow and strips of un-mowed grass as well as artificial ponds had higher bird richness and abundance.

  20. Composition and Functional Diversity in Bird Communities in a Protected Humid Coastal Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfan A. Rija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of the vertebrate communities of a newly gazetted Tanzanian coastal national park is limited and strongly taxonomically biased towards large mammals. We conducted bird assessments in three sites in Saadani National Park using species lists to analyze some parameters to inform biodiversity conservation in the area. We recorded 3112 individuals in 268 species falling in 66 families, including 2 endangered, 2 vulnerable, and 6 near threatened species. Both species richness and species diversity varied between sites. Species relative abundances were not different between the sites although some functional groups, especially granivores, were more abundant than others. Bird assemblages included 21 forest specialists (FF-species, 35 forest generalists (F-species, and 68 forest visitors (f-species overlapping among bushland, wooded grassland, grassland, and thickets suggesting presence of important microhabitats for the forest-associated species in this ecosystem. Bird species richness in a feeding guild also showed marked overlap between habitats suggesting availability of rich food resources for the birds. This paper highlights the importance of maintaining a structurally heterogeneous landscape to sustain diverse bird communities in the area.

  1. 75 FR 605 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... ranging from education and tourism, to organic agriculture and sustainable development. However, tourism..., such as clearcutting, logging, tourism, and infrastructure development, are ongoing throughout this... response to the 1991 petition, we published a substantial 90-day finding on December 16, 1991 (56 FR...

  2. 50 CFR 15.32 - Criteria for including species in the approved list for non-captive-bred species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... important habitats used by the species in the country of export as a whole whenever available and within... the species' important habitats, if any. (3) Information on the role of the species in its ecosystem... methods of capture, transport, and maintenance of the species minimize the risk of injury, damage...

  3. Evaluating release alternatives for a long-lived bird species under uncertainty about long-term demographic rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clinton T.; Converse, Sarah J.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The release of animals to reestablish an extirpated population is a decision problem that is often attended by considerable uncertainty about the probability of success. Annual releases of captive-reared juvenile Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) were begun in 1993 in central Florida, USA, to establish a breeding, non-migratory population. Over a 12-year period, 286 birds were released, but by 2004, the introduced flock had produced only four wild-fledged birds. Consequently, releases were halted over managers' concerns about the performance of the released flock and uncertainty about the efficacy of further releases. We used data on marked, released birds to develop predictive models for addressing whether releases should be resumed, and if so, under what schedule. To examine the outcome of different release scenarios, we simulated the survival and productivity of individual female birds under a baseline model that recognized age and breeding-class structure and which incorporated empirically estimated stochastic elements. As data on wild-fledged birds from captive-reared parents were sparse, a key uncertainty that confronts release decision-making is whether captive-reared birds and their offspring share the same vital rates. Therefore, we used data on the only population of wild Whooping Cranes in existence to construct two alternatives to the baseline model. The probability of population persistence was highly sensitive to the choice of these three models. Under the baseline model, extirpation of the population was nearly certain under any scenario of resumed releases. In contrast, the model based on estimates from wild birds projected a high probability of persistence under any release scenario, including cessation of releases. Therefore, belief in either of these models suggests that further releases are an ineffective use of resources. In the third model, which simulated a population Allee effect, population persistence was sensitive to the release decision

  4. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew;

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....

  5. Genomic signatures of near-extinction and rebirth of the crested ibis and other endangered bird species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shengbin; Li, Bo; Cheng, Cheng;

    2014-01-01

    -East Asia, by 1981 only seven individuals from two breeding pairs remained in the wild. The recovering crested ibis populations thus provide an excellent example for conservation genomics since every individual bird has been recruited for genomic and demographic studies.ResultsUsing high-quality genome...

  6. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milá, Borja; Tavares, Erika S; Muñoz Saldaña, Alberto; Karubian, Jordan; Smith, Thomas B; Baker, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys

  7. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  8. Constraints on nest site selection: a comparison of predator and flood avoidance in four species of marsh-nesting birds (genera: Catoptrophorus, Larus, Rallus, and Sterna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, A E; Montevecchi, W A; Andrews, H F; Sims, N

    1988-03-01

    Nest site characteristics associated with flood and predator avoidance were compared for four nonpasserine species of marsh-nesting birds: clapper rails, willets, laughing gulls, and common terns. Species with short nests, willets and terns, minimized flood damage by nesting on higher ground than did gulls and rails that build tall nests. Species with dispersed, cryptic nests had taller surrounding grass than did open-nesting colonial species. Total nest height was similar for species with tall nests and for terns whose short nests were elevated by placement on mats of dead Spartina grass. Willets had lower nest heights than the other species, probably because the inverse relation between grass height and ground height in the salt marsh makes it difficult for willets to find sites with high enough ground for flood avoidance while still retaining high enough grass for nest crypticity. Ground height for common terns and grass height for gulls and rails appear to be cues used in nest site selection. Nests of each species in which these characteristics were maximized were more successful in a major tidal flood. Laughing gulls and clapper rails appear to be more specialized salt marsh nesters than the other two species. PMID:3365941

  9. Can Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS and Forest Estimates Derived from Satellite Images Be Used to Predict Abundance and Species Richness of Birds and Beetles in Boreal Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lindberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In managed landscapes, conservation planning requires effective methods to identify high-biodiversity areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning (ALS and forest estimates derived from satellite images extracted at two spatial scales for predicting the stand-scale abundance and species richness of birds and beetles in a managed boreal forest landscape. Multiple regression models based on forest data from a 50-m radius (i.e., corresponding to a homogenous forest stand had better explanatory power than those based on a 200-m radius (i.e., including also parts of adjacent stands. Bird abundance and species richness were best explained by the ALS variables “maximum vegetation height” and “vegetation cover between 0.5 and 3 m” (both positive. Flying beetle abundance and species richness, as well as epigaeic (i.e., ground-living beetle richness were best explained by a model including the ALS variable “maximum vegetation height” (positive and the satellite-derived variable “proportion of pine” (negative. Epigaeic beetle abundance was best explained by “maximum vegetation height” at 50 m (positive and “stem volume” at 200 m (positive. Our results show that forest estimates derived from satellite images and ALS data provide complementary information for explaining forest biodiversity patterns. We conclude that these types of remote sensing data may provide an efficient tool for conservation planning in managed boreal landscapes.

  10. Assessment of the exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and PAHs in six species of predatory birds of the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2014-02-15

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distributions of 57 anthropogenic pollutants, including 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liver samples from 102 birds of prey of six species that were found dead or that had died during their stay in the Wildlife Recovery Centers of the Canary Islands (Spain) between 2009 and 2012. The dual goal of this work was to determine the occurrence of these contaminants in these six species of birds of prey, and also whether they can be used as bioindicators for monitoring environmental pollution in the region. We found that Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides and Falco tinnunculus were the most contaminated species. The profiles of contamination among the species were extremely similar in the case of organochlorine contaminants, with DDT and its metabolites as the most abundant compounds. The contamination by DDT and its metabolites, as well as contamination by dieldrin, could be considered high in these animals, much higher than reports from other regions of the planet, which is in agreement with previous reports from our group regarding humans, food and other animals from this area. In contrast, the contamination by PCBs could be considered extremely low and was probably below the threshold of toxicity for these contaminants. The content of carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs in these animals was clearly dependent on the feeding pattern of the species; however, the levels were also well below the values that were considered toxic in predictive models. This study represents the first report of contamination by PAHs in all these species and is also the first report of PCB levels in Barbary Falcons. PMID:24291140

  11. Nematode parasites of Brazilian pelecaniformes and trogoniformes birds: a general survey with new records for the species

    OpenAIRE

    J. Júlio Vicente; R. Magalhães Pinto; Dely Noronha; Patrícia Goulart de Carvalho

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with the identification of one hundred and seventy-one samples of nematodes recovered from Brazilian birds collected by Lauro Travassos and his staff, between 1921-1960. Aprocta travassossi Caballero, 1938, Aprocta sp., Baruscapillaria appendiculata (Freitas, 1933) Moravec, 1982, Contracaecum plagiaticium Lent & Freitas, 1948, C. spiculigerum (Rudolphi, 1809) Railliet & Henry, 1912, Contracaecum sp., Cyrnea (C.) semilunaris (Molin, 1860) Seurat, 1914, Oxyspirura sp., Paronch...

  12. Sex-associated differences in trace metals concentrations in and on the plumage of a common urban bird species

    OpenAIRE

    Frantz, Adrien; Federici, Pierre; Legoupi, Julie; Jacquin, Lisa; Gasparini, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas encompass both favorable and stressful conditions linked with human activities and pollution. Pollutants remain of major ecological importance for synanthropic organisms living in the city. Plumage of urban birds harbour trace metals, which can result from external deposition or from internal accumulation. External and internal plumage concentrations likely differ between specific trace metals, and may further differ between males and females because of potential sex-linked differ...

  13. Oxyspiruriasis in zoo birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellayan, S; Jeffery, J; Oothuman, P; Zahedi, M; Krishnasamy, M; Paramaswaran, S; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-06-01

    Oxyspiruriasis caused by the bird eyeworm, Oxyspirura mansoni, a thelaziid nematode, in three species of pheasants, 3 Chrysolophus pictus (golden pheasant), 7 Lophura nycthemera (silver pheasant) and 9 Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant) in Zoo Negara Malaysia are reported. Birds with the disease were treated with a solution of 0.5% iodine or 0.5% lysol. Antistress powder for 4 days in water and non-strep vitamin powder in water was also provided. Control measures included removal of the cockroach intermediate host, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Surinam cockroach) from the vicinity of the birds. The golden pheasant is a new host for O. mansoni in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:22735854

  14. Nesting behaviour of the Baya Weaver bird, Ploceus philippinus (Ploceidae and the life-cycle of the Plains Cupid butterfly, Chilades pandava (Lycaenidae with the red-listed Cycas spheric and C. beddomei (Cycadaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baya Weaver bird, Ploceus philippinus utilizes the well developed leaves of Cycas sphaerica for nest construction and offspring production. It constructs nest on the leaf tips of this species; the nest material used is exclusively Dendrocalamus strictus. This bird species does not utilize Cycas beddomei for nest construction and offspring production. The Plains Cupid butterfly, Chilades pandava utilizes the newly emerging leaves of both C. sphaerica and C. beddomei for raising its offspring. In both the Cycas species, the new leaves emerge as a crown at the top of the plant; the larvae of C. pandava feed on these leaves and make the plant as leafless until the next leaf flushing season. New leaf production occurs after coning event in Cycas species; coning is not annual event. In consequence, the plants utilized by C. pandava for the production of its offspring remain leafless until the next coning season and their survival during this period depends on the nutrient status within the shoot system and in the soil system. The study suggests that there is no direct or indirect interaction between C. pandava and P. philippinus. C. sphaerica serves as a host plant for these two animal species at different times; but the interaction of these animal species is dependent on the leaves only; C. pandava on newly emerging leaves while P. philippinus on well developed leaves.

  15. REGISTRO DE CINCO ESPECIES DE AVES POCO CONOCIDAS PARA NORTE DE SANTANDER, COLOMBIA Five Bird Species Poorly Known for Norte de Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS ORLANDO ARMESTO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Registramos cinco especies de aves poco conocidas para la región con base en observaciones realizadas en el área urbana de Cúcuta (departamento de Norte de Santander, Colombia. Dos de ellas son migratorias neárticas/neotropicales (Coccyzus americanus y Protonotaria citrea. Aunque cuatro especies ya habían sido recolectadas en Cúcuta, han pasado inadvertidas para esta región. Uno de los registros corresponde a la ampliación hacia el norte del área de distribución geográfica conocida para Paroaria nigrogenis.We report five bird species poorly known for Norte de Santander based on observations in the urban area of the city of Cúcuta (department of Norte de Santander, Colombia. Two are nearctic/neotropical migratory birds (Coccyzus americanus and Protonotaria citrea. Although four species had been collected before in Cúcuta, their report has remained unnoticed. We record the geographical range extension for Paroaria nigrogenis to the north of its currently known distribution.

  16. Descriptions of two new species of Quasithelazia Maplestone, 1932 (Spirurida: Acuariidae) and a redescription of Alinema sturni Jögis, 1968 from birds in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiev, Yasen

    2016-07-01

    Quasithelazia minuta n. sp. and Quasithelazia pearsoni n. sp. (Spirurida: Acuariidae) are described from Todiramphus sanctus (Vigors & Horsfield) (Coraciiformes: Alcedinidae) in Australia. Alinema sturni Jögis, 1968 from Sturnus vulgaris (L.) (Passeriformes: Sturnidae) in Europe, is considered to belong in the subfamily Schistorophinae Travassos, 1918 (and not in the Seuratiinae Chitwood & Wehr, 1932, where it has previously been placed) on the basis of the number of the pairs of precloacal papillae. The latter species, known from its original record only, is found as parasitic in diverse passerine birds in Australia, namely Psophodes olivaceus (Latham) (Psophodidae), Falcunculus frontatus (Latham) (Pachycephalidae), Colluricincla harmonica (Latham) (Pachycephalidae), Malurus cyaneus (Ellis) (Maluridae) and Ptilotula penicillata (Gould) (Meliphagidae). Alinema sturni is considered an alien species for Australia that has been introduced with its host (starling) and subsequently adapted to a wide range of native avian hosts.

  17. On a collection of Peruvian Neniinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Clausiliidae), with a check-list and a provisional key to all the Peruvian species known

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.; Loosjes-van Bemmel, A.C.W.

    1984-01-01

    An annotated list is given of all Neniinae collected in 1975 by Dr. A. S. H. Breure in Peru. The localities that have been visited are also listed, together with the Neniinae collected there. Pseudogracilinenia gen. nov. is described for P. huallagana (Pilsbry, 1949) (type-species) and P.jolyi (O. B

  18. Comparison of herbage yield, nutritive value and ensilability traits of three ryegrass species evaluated for the Irish Recommended List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 169 of the newest varieties of three ryegrass species, perennial (Lolium perenne L., Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and hybrid (Lolium boucheanum Kunth, from Recommended List trials in Ireland. The traits examined were yield, dry matter concentration, three nutritive value traits (in vitro dry matter digestibility, water-soluble carbohydrate on a dry matter basis and crude protein concentration and two ensilability traits (buffering capacity and water soluble carbohydrate concentration on an aqueous phase basis. Varietal monocultures of each species underwent a six cut combined simulated grazing and silage management in each of two years following sowing. Perennial ryegrass yielded less than both other species in one-year-old swards, but less than only Italian ryegrass in two-year-old swards, but generally had the higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein values. Italian ryegrass displayed the most favourable ensilability characteristics of the three species with perennial ryegrass less favourable and hybrid ryegrass intermediate. Overall, despite the high yields and favourable nutritive value and ensilability traits recorded, the general differences between the three ryegrass species studied were in line with industry expectations. These findings justify assessing the nutritive value and ensilability of ryegrass species, in addition to yield, to allow farmers select species that match farming enterprise requirements.

  19. Protected wading bird species threaten relict centenarian cork oaks in a Mediterranean Biosphere Reserve: a conservation management conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Luis V. García; Ramo, Cristina; Aponte, Cristina; Moreno López, Adela; Gómez Aparicio, Lorena; Redondo, Ramón; Marañón, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    18 páginas. Three anonymous referees helped us to greatly improve the paper. We are grateful to the Consejería de Medio Ambiente (Andalusian Government) and to the Organismo Autónomo Parques Nacionales for financial support and to the Doñana National Park and Doñana Biological Reserve managers for the use of their facilities and the support to carry out the field work. Héctor Garrido, Eduardo Aguilera and Rubén Rodríguez provided us with valuable information about the wading bird colony. Doña...

  20. Summary of intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting detection probability of marsh birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Gibbs, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Many species of marsh birds (rails, bitterns, grebes, etc.) rely exclusively on emergent marsh vegetation for all phases of their life cycle, and many organizations have become concerned about the status and persistence of this group of birds. Yet, marsh birds are notoriously difficult to monitor due to their secretive habits. We synthesized the published and unpublished literature and summarized the factors that influence detection probability of secretive marsh birds in North America. Marsh birds are more likely to respond to conspecific than heterospecific calls, and seasonal peak in vocalization probability varies among co-existing species. The effectiveness of morning versus evening surveys varies among species and locations. Vocalization probability appears to be positively correlated with density in breeding Virginia Rails (Rallus limicola), Soras (Porzana carolina), and Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris). Movement of birds toward the broadcast source creates biases when using count data from callbroadcast surveys to estimate population density. Ambient temperature, wind speed, cloud cover, and moon phase affected detection probability in some, but not all, studies. Better estimates of detection probability are needed. We provide recommendations that would help improve future marsh bird survey efforts and a list of 14 priority information and research needs that represent gaps in our current knowledge where future resources are best directed. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2011.

  1. Long-term trends in first arrival and first egg laying dates of some migrant and resident bird species in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caffi, Mario; Brichetti, Pierandrea; Armiraglio, Stefano; Saino, Nicola

    2007-08-01

    Climate change is affecting the phenology of seasonal events in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere, as shown by several studies of birds’ timing of migration and reproduction. Here, we analyse the long-term (1982-2006) trends of first arrival dates of four long-distance migratory birds [swift ( Apus apus), nightingale ( Luscinia megarhynchos), barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica), and house martin ( Delichon urbicum)] and first egg laying dates of two migrant (swift, barn swallow) and two resident species [starling ( Sturnus vulgaris), Italian sparrow ( Passer italiae)] at a study site in northern Italy. We also addressed the effects of local weather (temperature and precipitation) and a climate index (the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) on the interannual variability of phenological events. We found that the swift and the barn swallow significantly advanced both arrival and laying dates, whereas all other species did not show any significant temporal trend in either arrival or laying date. The earlier arrival of swifts was explained by increasing local temperatures in April, whereas this was not the case for arrival dates of swallows and first egg laying dates of both species. In addition, arrival dates of house martins were earlier following high NAO winters, while nightingale arrival was earlier when local spring rainfall was greater. Finally, Italian sparrow onset of reproduction was anticipated by greater spring rainfall, but delayed by high spring NAO anomalies, and swift’s onset of reproduction was anticipated by abundant rainfall prior to reproduction. There were no significant temporal trends in the interval between onset of laying and arrival in either the swift or the barn swallow. Our findings therefore indicate that birds may show idiosyncratic responses to climate variability at different spatial scales, though some species may be adjusting their calendar to rapidly changing climatic conditions.

  2. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public comment... 2009 supported the petitioned action for bighead carp. The Asian Carp Prevention and Control Act...

  3. Abundance of red-listed species in infrastructure habitats – ”responsibility species” as a priority-setting tool for transportation agencies´ conservation action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Olof Helldin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Road and railroad verges may contribute to nature conservation by providing habitat for many species, but due to limited resources, there is a need to select the most important road and railroad stretches for adapted management. We explore the responsibility species concept as a tool for the Swedish Transport Administration to make this selection. We propose lists of candidate responsibility species based on relative abundance of conservation priority species in the vicinity of roads and railroads, respectively. Abundance data were derived from crowd-sourced species observations. Species with ≥20% of observations in infrastructure habitats were included as candidate responsibility species. For roads 32 species were included in the list, for railroads seven species, with an overlap of three species between the lists. We analyzed habitat and management requirements of the listed species to try identifying functional groups. Most of the species require open or semi-open habitats, mainly dry grassland or heathland on sandy or limy soil, un-sprayed crop fields, or solitary trees. Host plants or substrates include broom (genus Genista, patches of bare soil, and sun exposed wood. Conservation actions prescribed for the species include, e.g., late or irregular mowing, removal of the field layer, planting of host species, protecting and providing particular substrates, and special protection of certain sites. We argue that road and railroad managers are particularly well suited to conduct most of these actions. We consider the responsibility species concept to be a useful tool for transportation agencies to set priorities for adapted verge management, and the current method to be effective in identifying a first list of candidate species. We discuss the possibility of also identifying responsibility habitats or general management measures based on the results.

  4. Alien plants in urban nature reserves : from red-list species to future invaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtěch Jarošik; Petr Pyšek; Tomáš Kadlec

    2011-01-01

    Urban reserves, as other protected areas, are aimed at preserving species richness but the conservation effort in these protected areas is complicated by a high proportion of alien species. We examined which environmental factors determine the representation of alien species in 48 city reserves of Prague, Czech Republic, distinguishing between archaeophytes, i.e. alien species introduced since the beginning of Neolithic agriculture up to 1500 A. D., and neophytes, i.e. modern invaders introdu...

  5. Review of species of the phylum Acanthocephala recorded from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLATKA DIMITROVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of acanthocephalan species recorded from the Vrachanska Planina Mountains is presented. A total of 4 species were reported: 3 from birds and 1 from mammals and 1 species has been identified at the generic level only. As hosts, 4 vertebrate species were recorded: 3 avian and 1 mammalian species. A host-parasite list is presented. The acanthocephalan species recorded in the Vrachanska Planina Mts. represent 7.5% from the species recorded in Bulgaria.

  6. Interspecific variation in the relationship between clutch size, laying date and intensity of urbanization in four species of hole-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugoyeau, Marie; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N; Forsman, Jukka T; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E; Gosler, Andrew G; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Harnist, Iga; Hartley, Ian R; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G; Norte, Ana C; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Perrins, Christopher M; Pimentel, Carla S; Pinxten, Rianne; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T; Pascoal da Silva, Luis; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J; Tryjanowski, Piotr; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wieslaw; Møller, Anders Pape

    2016-08-01

    The increase in size of human populations in urban and agricultural areas has resulted in considerable habitat conversion globally. Such anthropogenic areas have specific environmental characteristics, which influence the physiology, life history, and population dynamics of plants and animals. For example, the date of bud burst is advanced in urban compared to nearby natural areas. In some birds, breeding success is determined by synchrony between timing of breeding and peak food abundance. Pertinently, caterpillars are an important food source for the nestlings of many bird species, and their abundance is influenced by environmental factors such as temperature and date of bud burst. Higher temperatures and advanced date of bud burst in urban areas could advance peak caterpillar abundance and thus affect breeding phenology of birds. In order to test whether laying date advance and clutch sizes decrease with the intensity of urbanization, we analyzed the timing of breeding and clutch size in relation to intensity of urbanization as a measure of human impact in 199 nest box plots across Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East (i.e., the Western Palearctic) for four species of hole-nesters: blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), great tits (Parus major), collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Meanwhile, we estimated the intensity of urbanization as the density of buildings surrounding study plots measured on orthophotographs. For the four study species, the intensity of urbanization was not correlated with laying date. Clutch size in blue and great tits does not seem affected by the intensity of urbanization, while in collared and pied flycatchers it decreased with increasing intensity of urbanization. This is the first large-scale study showing a species-specific major correlation between intensity of urbanization and the ecology of breeding. The underlying mechanisms for the relationships between life history and

  7. Diversity characteristics of bird species in campus of FuJian AGricuLture and Forestry University%福建农林大学校园鸟类种类的多样性特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎思涵; 刘金福; 兰思仁; 王文辉

    2014-01-01

    This paper anaLyzed the bird diversity in campus of Fujian AgricuLture and Forestry University. The resuLts showed that a totaL of 13 orders,28 famiLies,52 genera and 61species were found from the campus,among which 37 species were resident birds,22 migrant birds( incLuding 10 winter migrants and 12 summer migrants),2 passing mi-grant birds. There were 5 species of NationaL secondary protection,7 species of emphasis protection in Fujian Prov-ince,15 migratory birds of protection agreement between China and Japan,4 migratory birds of protection agreement between China and AustraLia. And there were 16 species distributed in PaLaearctic region,40 in OrientaL region,5 cosmopoLitan species,and the species of OrientaL region were with significant advantages.%依实地观测与调查,福建农林大学校园内有鸟类61种,隶属于13目28科52属。其中留鸟37种、候鸟22种(冬候鸟10种、夏候鸟12种)、旅鸟2种;国家二级保护鸟类有5种,福建省重点保护鸟类有7种,中日协定保护候鸟有15种,中澳协定保护候鸟有4种。其中有古北界的鸟16种,东洋界的鸟40种,广布种的鸟5种,东洋界的鸟在种类上占据显著优势。

  8. Skrjabinura gnedina, 1933 (Nematoda: Seuratoidea: Seuratidae), in birds from the area de conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R

    2005-04-01

    Two species of Skrjabinura Gnedina, 1933, were collected in the intestines of birds from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Costa Rica. Skrjabinura mesoamericana n. sp. inhabits Dendrocincla homochroa, Calocitta formosa, Dendrocolaptes certhia, Basileuterus rufifrons, and Chordeiles acutipennis. The new species differs from all species of the genus by having dissimilar spicules, the right having a distinctive thin and bent handle on the proximal end. The new species can be further distinguished from Skrjabinura pomatostomi and Skrjabinura brevicaudatum by having subequal versus equal spicules. Skrjabinura mesoamericana resembles S. brevicaudatum in the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae but differs in the vulva position and in having smaller eggs. The new species differs from S. potamostomi in having 6 versus 8 pairs of postcloacal papillae. Among those species having subequal spicules, the new species further differs from Skrjabinura spiralis in having 1 pair of paracloacal papillae and 6 pairs of postcloacal papillae, versus no paracloacal papillae and 4 pairs of postcloacal papillae, and in the vulva position. The new species is perhaps most similar to Skrjabinura vali, from which it further differs by having 3 pairs of precloacal, 1 pair of paracloacal, and 6 pairs of postcloacal versus 2 pairs of precloacal, 2 pairs of paracloacal, and 6 pairs of postcloacal papillae in the vulva position and in the shape of the eggs. Skrjabinura vali (Guerrero, 1971) Chabaud, 1978, originally described in Piaya cayana from Venezuela, occurs in the small intestine of P. cayana, as well as the new hosts, Crotophaga sulcirostris and Myiarchus tyrannulus, in the ACG, a new locality. Our specimens differ from the original description in the body length of the female, the numbers of postanal papillae of male tail, and the size of eggs.

  9. Assessing the impact of the U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery planning guidelines on managing threats for listed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Caitlin M; Gerber, Leah R

    2015-10-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of the United States was enacted in 1973 to prevent the extinction of species. Recovery plans, required by 1988 amendments to the ESA, play an important role in organizing these efforts to protect and recover species. To improve the use of science in the recovery planning process, the Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) commissioned an independent review of endangered species recovery planning in 1999. From these findings, the SCB made key recommendations for how management agencies could improve the recovery planning process, after which the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service redrafted their recovery planning guidelines. One important recommendation called for recovery plans to make threats a primary focus, including organizing and prioritizing recovery tasks for threat abatement. We sought to determine the extent to which results from the SCB study were incorporated into these new guidelines and whether the SCB recommendations regarding threats manifested in recovery plans written under the new guidelines. Recovery planning guidelines generally incorporated the SCB recommendations, including those for managing threats. However, although recent recovery plans have improved in their treatment of threats, many fail to adequately incorporate threat monitoring. This failure suggests that developing clear guidelines for monitoring should be an important priority in improving ESA recovery planning. PMID:26108948

  10. A climate change vulnerability assessment of California's at-risk birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gardali

    Full Text Available Conservationists must develop new strategies and adapt existing tools to address the consequences of anthropogenic climate change. To support statewide climate change adaptation, we developed a framework for assessing climate change vulnerability of California's at-risk birds and integrating it into the existing California Bird Species of Special Concern list. We defined climate vulnerability as the amount of evidence that climate change will negatively impact a population. We quantified climate vulnerability by scoring sensitivity (intrinsic characteristics of an organism that make it vulnerable and exposure (the magnitude of climate change expected for each taxon. Using the combined sensitivity and exposure scores as an index, we ranked 358 avian taxa, and classified 128 as vulnerable to climate change. Birds associated with wetlands had the largest representation on the list relative to other habitat groups. Of the 29 state or federally listed taxa, 21 were also classified as climate vulnerable, further raising their conservation concern. Integrating climate vulnerability and California's Bird Species of Special Concern list resulted in the addition of five taxa and an increase in priority rank for ten. Our process illustrates a simple, immediate action that can be taken to inform climate change adaptation strategies for wildlife.

  11. Birds of the Reserva Biológica do Mato Grande and surroundings, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Jacobs, Fernando; Coimbra, Marco Antônio Afonso;

    2015-01-01

    The Reserva Biológica do Mato Grande encompasses 5,161 hectares of wetlands, restinga forests and grasslands in southern Brazil. Aiming to assemble a list of bird species occurring in the reserve, we carried out 21 monthly expeditions from July 2007 to March 2009 and an additional visit on October...

  12. The role of frugivorous birds and bats in the colonization of cloud forest plant species in burned areas in western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rost, J.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The extension of montane cloud forests in western Mexico is threatened by several disturbances that limit their extension. In this study we aim to assess the contribution of birds and bats in the dispersal and colonization of cloud–forest plants in contiguous surface–burned pine forests. We sampled seed rain and sapling establishment over one year in two surface–burned sites, which differed in the size of their closest cloud forest patch. A total of 17 plant species were found, most of which were late–successional trees, shrubs and climbers. Distance influenced the seed rain of only one dispersed taxon (Solanum sp. and had no effect on the sapling distribution of this or other plants. In turn, marked differences were found between sites, with more seeds dispersed and higher sapling density in the site that was next to the larger cloud forest patch. The role of long–distance dispersers and the existence of seed banks before fire could explain the little importance of distance from seed source on seed dispersal and sapling distribution. Nevertheless, dispersal by birds and bats before or after fire facilitates the regeneration and conservation of cloud forests in disturbed areas formerly occupied by other habitats.

  13. Morphology and genetics reveal an intriguing pattern of differentiation at a very small geographic scale in a bird species, the forest thrush Turdus lherminieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, E; Eraud, C; Navarro, N; Tougard, C; Thomas, A; Cavallo, F; Vetter, N; Faivre, B; Garnier, S

    2014-12-01

    Mobile organisms are expected to show population differentiation only over fairly large geographical distances. However, there is growing evidence of discrepancy between dispersal potential and realized gene flow. Here we report an intriguing pattern of differentiation at a very small spatial scale in the forest thrush (Turdus lherminieri), a bird species endemic to the Lesser Antilles. Analysis of 331 individuals from 17 sampling sites distributed over three islands revealed a clear morphological and genetic differentiation between these islands isolated by 40-50 km. More surprisingly, we found that the phenotypic divergence between the two geographic zones of the island of Guadeloupe was associated with a very strong genetic differentiation (Fst from 0.073-0.153), making this pattern a remarkable case in birds given the very small spatial scale considered. Molecular data (mitochondrial control region sequences and microsatellite genotypes) suggest that this strong differentiation could have occurred in situ, although alternative hypotheses cannot be fully discarded. This study suggests that the ongoing habitat fragmentation, especially in tropical forests, may have a deeper impact than previously thought on avian populations.

  14. Populations of migratory bird species that did not show a phenological response to climate change are declining

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, Anders Pape; Rubolini, Diego; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2008-01-01

    Recent rapid climatic changes are associated with dramatic changes in phenology of plants and animals, with optimal timing of reproduction advancing considerably in the northern hemisphere. However, some species may not have advanced their timing of breeding sufficiently to continue reproducing optimally relative to the occurrence of peak food availability, thus becoming mismatched compared with their food sources. The degree of mismatch may differ among species, and species with greater mism...

  15. 78 FR 48943 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ...). Recent efforts to assess the evolutionary origins of landlocked alewives indicate that they rapidly... have jurisdiction over species ``which either (1) reside the major portion of their lifetimes in marine waters; or (2) are species which spend part of their lifetimes in estuarine waters, if the major...

  16. Odonata de Uruguay: lista de especies y nuevos registros Odonata from Uruguay: species list and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Von Ellenrieder

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se proporciona una lista de las 70 especies citadas para Uruguay. Catorce de ellas constituyen nuevos registros para el país: Mnesarete pruinosa (Hagen en Selys [Calopterygidae, Acanthagrion lancea Selys, A. peruvianum Leonard, Argia serva Hagen en Selys y Oxyagrion chapadense Costa (Coenagrionidae, Neoneura ethela Williamson (Protoneuridae, Progomphus costalis Hagen en Selys (Gomphidae, Elasmothemis constricta (Calvert, Erythrodiplax basalis (Kirby, Erythrodiplax media Borror, Micrathyria hypodidyma Calvert, Micrathyria ringueleti Rodrigues Capitulo, Orthemis ambinigra Calvert y Perithemis icteroptera (Selys en Sagra (Libelullidae.A list of 70 species known to occur in Uruguay is given. Fourteen species are new country records: Mnesarete pruinosa (Hagen in Selys (Calopterygidae, Acanthagrion lancea Selys, A. peruvianum Leonard, Argia serva Hagen in Selys, and Oxyagrion chapadense Costa (Coenagrionidae, Neoneura ethela Williamson (Protoneuridae, Progomphus costalis Hagen in Selys (Gomphidae, Elasmothemis constricta (Calvert, Erythrodiplax basalis (Kirby, Erythrodiplax media Borror, Micrathyria hypodidyma Calvert, Micrathyria ringueleti Rodrigues Capitulo, Orthemis ambinigra Calvert, and Perithemis icteroptera (Selys in Sagra (Libelullidae.

  17. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  18. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  19. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  20. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M.

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  1. The use of feathers of birds of prey as indicators of metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodenius, Martin; Solonen, Tapio

    2013-11-01

    Published results concerning metal levels in feathers of birds of prey were listed and evaluated. Mercury concentrations have been studied most and the background values normally vary between 0.1 and 5 mg/kg dry weight the highest concentrations being in birds from aquatic food chains. Pollution causes elevated levels of mercury in feathers. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc show reasonable variation between species, areas and time periods. Feathers of birds of prey have proved to be good indicators of the status of environmental heavy metal pollution. Special attention should be paid to clean sampling and preparation of samples. Interpretation of the results requires knowledge on food habit, molting and migration patterns of the species. Several species representing different food chains should be included in comprehensive monitoring surveys. Chick feathers reflect most reliably local conditions. PMID:24096904

  2. 广西猫儿山地区鸟类组成及垂直分布格局%Species Composition and Vertical Distribution Pattern of the Birds in Mao' ershan Region, Northeastern Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟通萍; 王绍能; 蒋爱伍

    2012-01-01

    猫儿山是华南地区的最高峰,为了了解其鸟类随着海拔高度变化的规律,利用网捕法和样线法对猫儿山地区的鸟类组成及分布格局进行了研究.结果表明,猫儿山地区共有鸟类268种,隶属于16目51科,其中留鸟130种,夏候鸟51种,冬候鸟15种,旅鸟72种.依据不同海拔的典型植被类型把猫儿山地区分成7类生境,其中低海拔的农田生境鸟类多样性最丰富,有156种.随着海拔的升高,猫儿山鸟类种数逐渐减少,G-F指数也表现相似的规律.猫儿山鸟类在区系组成上主要以东洋界鸟类为主,在181种繁殖鸟中,东洋界鸟类有149种,古北界鸟类有15种,其余为广布种.随着海拔的升高,东洋界的鸟类所占的比例逐渐降低,而古北界的鸟类所占的比例逐渐升高.猫儿山鸟类组成的垂直分布格局的形成是多种因素共同作用的结果.%A study of the bird composition and distribution patterns was conducted in Mao' ershan region, South China's highest peak, Northeastern Guangxi. Total of 268 bird species representing 51 families and 16 orders were recorded, including 130 residents, 51 summer migrant, 15 winter migrant and 72 passing birds. Based on elevation and vegetation, 7 types of habitat were categorized in this study. The most richness of bird species (156) was occurred farmland in lowland 2 000 m). G-F index decrease with the increase of altitude and reaches the minimum in the peak of mountain. Of 181 breeding birds, 149 Oriental birds, 15 Palearctic birds and 17 widely distributed birds, inhabit different altitudinal gradient. The proportion of Oriental birds decreases and Palearctic birds increases with altitude increase. The vertical distribution pattern of bird is determined by several ecological factors in the study area.

  3. Loss of sagebrush ecosystems and declining bird populations in the Intermountain West: Priority research issues and information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2002-01-01

    Sagebrush lands in the Intermountain West are declining rapidly in quality and extent. Consequently, populations of many bird species dependent on these ecosystems also are declining. The greater sage-grouse has been petitioned for listing as a threatened and endangered species, and other species of sagebrush-obligate birds have special conservation status in most states. We identified the primary issues and information needs during a multi-agency workshop, conducted in response to concerns by management agencies related to declining bird population trends in sagebrush habitats. Priority needs were to (1) obtain a better understanding of bird response to habitat and landscape features, (2) develop monitoring designs to sample habitats and bird populations, (3) determine the effects of land use on sagebrush habitats and dependent bird species, and (4) identify linkages between breeding and wintering ranges. This agenda will identify causes and mechanisms of population declines in birds dependent on sagebrush ecosystems and will lead to better management of the ecosystems upon which they depend.

  4. Fish species list for Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge, Chesterfield County, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Document includes the following information about the fish species found on the refuge: commonname (scientific name), field number(s), date(s) and stream name(s)....

  5. DNA Barcoding of Malagasy Rosewoods: Towards a Molecular Identification of CITES-Listed Dalbergia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassold, Sonja; Lowry, Porter P; Bauert, Martin R; Razafintsalama, Annick; Ramamonjisoa, Lolona; Widmer, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Illegal selective logging of tropical timber is of increasing concern worldwide. Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot and home to some of the world's most sought after tropical timber species. Malagasy rosewoods belong to the genus Dalbergia (Fabaceae), which is highly diverse and has a pantropical distribution, but these timber species are among the most threatened as a consequence of intensive illegal selective logging and deforestation. Reliable identification of Dalbergia species from Madagascar is important for law enforcement but is almost impossible without fertile plant material, which is often unavailable during forest inventories or when attempting to identify logged trees of cut wood. DNA barcoding has been promoted as a promising tool for species identification in such cases. In this study we tested whether DNA barcoding with partial sequences of three plastid markers (matK, rbcL and trnL (UAA)) can distinguish between Dalbergia from Madagascar and from other areas of its distributional range, and whether Malagasy species can be distinguished from one another. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malagasy Dalbergia species studied form two monophyletic groups, each containing two subgroups, only one of which corresponds to a single species. We characterized diagnostic polymorphisms in the three DNA barcoding markers that allow rapid discrimination between Dalbergia from Madagascar and from other areas of its distribution range. Species identification success based on individual barcoding markers or combinations was poor, whereas subgroup identification success was much higher (up to 98%), revealing both the value and limitations of a DNA barcoding approach for the identification of closely related Malagasy rosewoods. PMID:27362258

  6. DNA Barcoding of Malagasy Rosewoods: Towards a Molecular Identification of CITES-Listed Dalbergia Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Porter P.; Bauert, Martin R.; Razafintsalama, Annick; Ramamonjisoa, Lolona; Widmer, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Illegal selective logging of tropical timber is of increasing concern worldwide. Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot and home to some of the world’s most sought after tropical timber species. Malagasy rosewoods belong to the genus Dalbergia (Fabaceae), which is highly diverse and has a pantropical distribution, but these timber species are among the most threatened as a consequence of intensive illegal selective logging and deforestation. Reliable identification of Dalbergia species from Madagascar is important for law enforcement but is almost impossible without fertile plant material, which is often unavailable during forest inventories or when attempting to identify logged trees of cut wood. DNA barcoding has been promoted as a promising tool for species identification in such cases. In this study we tested whether DNA barcoding with partial sequences of three plastid markers (matK, rbcL and trnL (UAA)) can distinguish between Dalbergia from Madagascar and from other areas of its distributional range, and whether Malagasy species can be distinguished from one another. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malagasy Dalbergia species studied form two monophyletic groups, each containing two subgroups, only one of which corresponds to a single species. We characterized diagnostic polymorphisms in the three DNA barcoding markers that allow rapid discrimination between Dalbergia from Madagascar and from other areas of its distribution range. Species identification success based on individual barcoding markers or combinations was poor, whereas subgroup identification success was much higher (up to 98%), revealing both the value and limitations of a DNA barcoding approach for the identification of closely related Malagasy rosewoods. PMID:27362258

  7. Climate change has indirect effects on resource use and overlap among coexisting bird species with negative consequences for their reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Auer, Sonya K.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can modify ecological interactions, but whether it can have cascading effects throughout ecological networks of multiple interacting species remains poorly studied. Climate-driven alterations in the intensity of plant–herbivore interactions may have particularly profound effects on the larger community because plants provide habitat for a wide diversity of organisms. Here we show that changes in vegetation over the last 21 years, due to climate effects on plant–herbivore interactions, have consequences for songbird nest site overlap and breeding success. Browsing-induced reductions in the availability of preferred nesting sites for two of three ground nesting songbirds led to increasing overlap in nest site characteristics among all three bird species with increasingly negative consequences for reproductive success over the long term. These results demonstrate that changes in the vegetation community from effects of climate change on plant–herbivore interactions can cause subtle shifts in ecological interactions that have critical demographic ramifications for other species in the larger community.

  8. Sex-associated differences in trace metals concentrations in and on the plumage of a common urban bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Adrien; Federici, Pierre; Legoupi, Julie; Jacquin, Lisa; Gasparini, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas encompass both favorable and stressful conditions linked with human activities and pollution. Pollutants remain of major ecological importance for synanthropic organisms living in the city. Plumage of urban birds harbour trace metals, which can result from external deposition or from internal accumulation. External and internal plumage concentrations likely differ between specific trace metals, and may further differ between males and females because of potential sex-linked differential urban use, physiology or behaviour. Here, we measured the concentrations in four trace metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) in both unwashed and washed feathers of 49 male and 38 female feral pigeons (Columba livia) from Parisian agglomeration. We found that these concentrations indeed differed between unwashed and washed feathers, between males and females, and for some metals depended on the interaction between these factors. We discuss these results in the light of physiological and behavioural differences between males and females and of spatial repartition of the four trace metals in the city. PMID:26458927

  9. What prevents phenological adjustment to climate change in migrant bird species? Evidence against the ``arrival constraint'' hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Anne E.; Hart, Adam G.; Elliot, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Phenological studies have demonstrated changes in the timing of seasonal events across multiple taxonomic groups as the climate warms. Some northern European migrant bird populations, however, show little or no significant change in breeding phenology, resulting in synchrony with key food sources becoming mismatched. This phenological inertia has often been ascribed to migration constraints (i.e. arrival date at breeding grounds preventing earlier laying). This has been based primarily on research in The Netherlands and Germany where time between arrival and breeding is short (often as few as 9 days). Here, we test the arrival constraint hypothesis over a 15-year period for a U.K. pied flycatcher ( Ficedula hypoleuca) population where laying date is not constrained by arrival as the period between arrival and breeding is substantial and consistent (average 27 ± 4.57 days SD). Despite increasing spring temperatures and quantifiably stronger selection for early laying on the basis of number of offspring to fledge, we found no significant change in breeding phenology, in contrast with co-occurring resident blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus). We discuss possible non-migratory constraints on phenological adjustment, including limitations on plasticity, genetic constraints and competition, as well as the possibility of counter-selection pressures relating to adult survival, longevity or future reproductive success. We propose that such factors need to be considered in conjunction with the arrival constraint hypothesis.

  10. EnviroAtlas - NatureServe Analysis of Imperiled or Federally Listed Species by HUC-12 for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes analysis by NatureServe of species that are Imperiled (G1/G2) or Listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) by 12-digit...

  11. Identifying the World's Most Climate Change Vulnerable Species: A Systematic Trait-Based Assessment of all Birds, Amphibians and Corals

    OpenAIRE

    Foden, Wendy B.; Stuart H M Butchart; Simon N Stuart; Jean-Christophe Vié; H Resit Akçakaya; Ariadne Angulo; DeVantier, Lyndon M.; Alexander Gutsche; Emre Turak; Long Cao; Donner, Simon D.; Vineet Katariya; Rodolphe Bernard; Holland, Robert A.; Hughes, Adrian F.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on biodiversity, including increasing extinction rates. Current approaches to quantifying such impacts focus on measuring exposure to climatic change and largely ignore the biological differences between species that may significantly increase or reduce their vulnerability. To address this, we present a framework for assessing three dimensions of climate change vulnerability, namely sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity; this draws on specie...

  12. The Influence of Vegetation Height Heterogeneity on Forest and Woodland Bird Species Richness across the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Qiongyu Huang; Anu Swatantran; Ralph Dubayah; Goetz, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Avian diversity is under increasing pressures. It is thus critical to understand the ecological variables that contribute to large scale spatial distribution of avian species diversity. Traditionally, studies have relied primarily on two-dimensional habitat structure to model broad scale species richness. Vegetation vertical structure is increasingly used at local scales. However, the spatial arrangement of vegetation height has never been taken into consideration. Our goal was to examine the...

  13. Response of palila and other subalpine Hawaiian forest bird species to prolonged drought and habitat degradation by feral ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Camp, Richard J.; Farmer, Chris; Brinck, Kevin W.; Leonard, David L.; Stephens, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Extinction has claimed half of all historically-known Hawaiian passerines, and today many extant species are increasingly threatened due to the combined effects of invasive species and climate change. Habitat disturbance has affected populations of feeding specialists most profoundly, and our results indicate that specialists continue to be most vulnerable, although even some abundant, introduced, generalist species also may be affected. Surveys of passerines during 1998–2011 in subalpine woodland habitat on Mauna Kea Volcano, Island of Hawai′i, revealed that the abundance of the critically endangered palila (Loxioides bailleui), a seed specialist, declined by 79% after 2003. The ′akiapōlā′au (Hemignathus munroi), an endangered specialist insectivore, was not detected in the survey area after 1998. The Hawai′i ′amakihi (Hemignathus virens virens), a generalist feeder and the most abundant species on Mauna Kea, was the only native species to maintain a stable population. The Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonicus), a well-entrenched generalist and one of the three most common introduced species, declined. Drought prevailed in 74% of months during 2000–2011, and dry conditions contributed to the recent decline of the palila by reducing the annual māmane (Sophora chrysophylla) seed pod crop, which influences palila breeding and survival. Sustained browsing by introduced ungulates also lowered habitat carrying capacity, and their elimination should reduce the effects of drought and promote forest restoration. Our results illustrate how the feeding ecology of a species can influence its response to interacting environmental perturbations, and they underscore the value of long-term monitoring to detect population trends of sensitive species.

  14. Monitoring Forsmark - Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin [Dept of Biology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  15. Limited population structure, genetic drift and bottlenecks characterise an endangered bird species in a dynamic, fire-prone ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Brown

    Full Text Available Fire is a major disturbance process in many ecosystems world-wide, resulting in spatially and temporally dynamic landscapes. For populations occupying such environments, fire-induced landscape change is likely to influence population processes, and genetic patterns and structure among populations. The Mallee Emu-wren Stipiturus mallee is an endangered passerine whose global distribution is confined to fire-prone, semi-arid mallee shrublands in south-eastern Australia. This species, with poor capacity for dispersal, has undergone a precipitous reduction in distribution and numbers in recent decades. We used genetic analyses of 11 length-variable, nuclear loci to examine population structure and processes within this species, across its global range. Populations of the Mallee Emu-wren exhibited a low to moderate level of genetic diversity, and evidence of bottlenecks and genetic drift. Bayesian clustering methods revealed weak genetic population structure across the species' range. The direct effects of large fires, together with associated changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of suitable habitat, have the potential to cause population bottlenecks, serial local extinctions and subsequent recolonisation, all of which may interact to erode and homogenise genetic diversity in this species. Movement among temporally and spatially shifting habitat, appears to maintain long-term genetic connectivity. A plausible explanation for the observed genetic patterns is that, following extensive fires, recolonisation exceeds in-situ survival as the primary driver of population recovery in this species. These findings suggest that dynamic, fire-dominated landscapes can drive genetic homogenisation of populations of species with low-mobility and specialised habitat that otherwise would be expected to show strongly structured populations. Such effects must be considered when formulating management actions to conserve species in fire-prone systems.

  16. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somveille, Marius; Manica, Andrea; Butchart, Stuart H M; Rodrigues, Ana S L

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes) where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective. PMID:23951037

  17. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  18. Talking Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海文

    2005-01-01

    Many students of Englishthink thatlearning a new languageis very difficult.N ow think howdifficultitis to learn English whenyour brain is only the size of abird's brain。That is what som ebirds can do.M any different kinds of birdscan copy the sounds of lan-guage.A frican gray parrots are thebirds bestknown for this.Every D ecem ber in London,the N ationalCage and A viary BirdShow tries to find the best“talkbird in the world.O ne bird nam edPrudle stood outam ong the“talk-ing birds by winning this prizeevery...

  19. Forensic timber identification: a case study of a CITES listed species, Gonystylus bancanus (Thymelaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kevin Kit Siong; Lee, Soon Leong; Tnah, Lee Hong; Nurul-Farhanah, Zakaria; Ng, Chin Hong; Lee, Chai Ting; Tani, Naoki; Diway, Bibian; Lai, Pei Sing; Khoo, Eyen

    2016-07-01

    Illegal logging and smuggling of Gonystylus bancanus (Thymelaeaceae) poses a serious threat to this fragile valuable peat swamp timber species. Using G. bancanus as a case study, DNA markers were used to develop identification databases at the species, population and individual level. The species level database for Gonystylus comprised of an rDNA (ITS2) and two cpDNA (trnH-psbA and trnL) markers based on a 20 Gonystylus species database. When concatenated, taxonomic species recognition was achieved with a resolution of 90% (18 out of the 20 species). In addition, based on 17 natural populations of G. bancanus throughout West (Peninsular Malaysia) and East (Sabah and Sarawak) Malaysia, population and individual identification databases were developed using cpDNA and STR markers respectively. A haplotype distribution map for Malaysia was generated using six cpDNA markers, resulting in 12 unique multilocus haplotypes, from 24 informative intraspecific variable sites. These unique haplotypes suggest a clear genetic structuring of West and East regions. A simulation procedure based on the composition of the samples was used to test whether a suspected sample conformed to a given regional origin. Overall, the observed type I and II errors of the databases showed good concordance with the predicted 5% threshold which indicates that the databases were useful in revealing provenance and establishing conformity of samples from West and East Malaysia. Sixteen STRs were used to develop the DNA profiling databases for individual identification. Bayesian clustering analyses divided the 17 populations into two main genetic clusters, corresponding to the regions of West and East Malaysia. Population substructuring (K=2) was observed within each region. After removal of bias resulting from sampling effects and population subdivision, conservativeness tests showed that the West and East Malaysia databases were conservative. This suggests that both databases can be used independently

  20. Forensic timber identification: a case study of a CITES listed species, Gonystylus bancanus (Thymelaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kevin Kit Siong; Lee, Soon Leong; Tnah, Lee Hong; Nurul-Farhanah, Zakaria; Ng, Chin Hong; Lee, Chai Ting; Tani, Naoki; Diway, Bibian; Lai, Pei Sing; Khoo, Eyen

    2016-07-01

    Illegal logging and smuggling of Gonystylus bancanus (Thymelaeaceae) poses a serious threat to this fragile valuable peat swamp timber species. Using G. bancanus as a case study, DNA markers were used to develop identification databases at the species, population and individual level. The species level database for Gonystylus comprised of an rDNA (ITS2) and two cpDNA (trnH-psbA and trnL) markers based on a 20 Gonystylus species database. When concatenated, taxonomic species recognition was achieved with a resolution of 90% (18 out of the 20 species). In addition, based on 17 natural populations of G. bancanus throughout West (Peninsular Malaysia) and East (Sabah and Sarawak) Malaysia, population and individual identification databases were developed using cpDNA and STR markers respectively. A haplotype distribution map for Malaysia was generated using six cpDNA markers, resulting in 12 unique multilocus haplotypes, from 24 informative intraspecific variable sites. These unique haplotypes suggest a clear genetic structuring of West and East regions. A simulation procedure based on the composition of the samples was used to test whether a suspected sample conformed to a given regional origin. Overall, the observed type I and II errors of the databases showed good concordance with the predicted 5% threshold which indicates that the databases were useful in revealing provenance and establishing conformity of samples from West and East Malaysia. Sixteen STRs were used to develop the DNA profiling databases for individual identification. Bayesian clustering analyses divided the 17 populations into two main genetic clusters, corresponding to the regions of West and East Malaysia. Population substructuring (K=2) was observed within each region. After removal of bias resulting from sampling effects and population subdivision, conservativeness tests showed that the West and East Malaysia databases were conservative. This suggests that both databases can be used independently

  1. Fernbank Forest Birds in the Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1991-01-01

    Provided is a listing of the common nesting birds and the neotropical migrant birds with nesting records in the approximate 65 acres of Fernbank Forest which is a preserve of mature urban hardwoods and pines within 10 miles of downtown Atlanta and a relic of what was once a large, uninterrupted tract of the Piedmont forest. (JJK)

  2. Reweaving the tapestry: a supertree of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katie E; Page, Roderic D M

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the avian tree of life remains uncertain, particularly at deeper levels due to the rapid diversification early in their evolutionary history. They are the most abundant land vertebrate on the planet and have been of great historical interest to systematists. Birds are also economically and ecologically important and as a result are intensively studied, yet despite their importance and interest to humans around 13% of taxa currently on the endangered species list perhaps as a result of human activity. Despite all this no comprehensive phylogeny that includes both extinct and extant species currently exists. Here we present a species-level supertree, constructed using the Matrix Representation with Parsimony method, of Aves containing approximately two thirds of all species from nearly 1000 source phylogenies with a broad taxonomic coverage. The source data for the tree were collected and processed according to a strict protocol to ensure robust and accurate data handling. The resulting tree topology is largely consistent with molecular hypotheses of avian phylogeny. We identify areas that are in broad agreement with current views on avian systematics and also those that require further work. We also highlight the need for leaf-based support measures to enable the identification of rogue taxa in supertrees. This is a first attempt at a supertree of both extinct and extant birds, it is not intended to be utilised in an overhaul of avian systematics or as a basis for taxonomic re-classification but provides a strong basis on which to base further studies on macroevolution, conservation, biodiversity, comparative biology and character evolution, in particular the inclusion of fossils will allow the study of bird evolution and diversification throughout deep time. PMID:24944845

  3. An annotated list of Symmachia Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Symmachiini) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with the description of a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Ribeiro Leite, Luis Anderson; Silva Dias, Fernando Maia; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-01-01

    We provide an illustrated list of species belonging to the genus Symmachia Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Symmachiini) collected during an expedition conducted between September 10-21, 2011 in the northern part of the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, a remote region of Amazon rainforest. A total of 46 individuals were collected belonging to 15 species. For all recorded species, drawings of male genitalia and behavioral information are provided to support future stu...

  4. Anatomical study of the musculus deltoideus and musculus flexor carpi ulnaris in 3 species of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Marco; Bedoni, Carla; Harper, Valeria; Rambaldi, Anna Maria; Bombardi, Cristiano; Grandis, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited information regarding the anatomy of the thoracic limb in European avian species, we decided to investigate the related muscles in the grey heron (Ardea cinerea), in the eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), and in the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Therefore we performed a stratigraphic dissection of the wing in 3 subjects. The pars major and minor of the musculus deltoideus, despite being roughly in line with those reported by other authors in other species, displayed unique features. Concerning the pars propatagialis of the musculus deltoideus, from what was observed in the grey heron, we believe this structure can contribute to maintain the propatagial tension. In this way vibrations of this structure, which could cause diminished lift, are avoided. Moreover the peculiarity evidenced in the distal insertion of the common kestrel could influence the control of the pronation-supination of the wing during hovering. With respect to the musculus flexor carpi ulnaris, we believe the presence of a sesamoid-like structure at the base tendon, found in the grey heron and in the eurasian buzzard, may help complete the articular surfaces of the elbow. This study shows interesting data on species not previously examined and provides a possible functional correlation between the peculiarity observed and the kind of flight of each species. PMID:26681506

  5. Food-web-based comparison of the drivers of helminth parasite species richness in coastal fish and bird definitive hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Poulin, R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the factors determining parasite richness in hosts are typically performedusing data compiled for various sets of species from disparate habitats. However, parasite transmissionis embedded within local trophic networks, and proper comparisons among host speciesof the drivers of parasite r

  6. Floristic species list of the archipelago of Jardines de la Reina, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Acevedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The floristic inventories contribute directly to knowledge of plant resources of a region. In order to inventory the vascular plant species in the Jardines de la Reina archipelago, field visits were organized and literature review. The study area was represented by 113 infrageneric taxa, 97 genera and 40 families, the keys Anclitas, Grande, Caguamas, Algodón Grande and Caballones possess the higher taxonomic richest. Endemism was low (4,5% and alien plant species represent the 8%. The flora of the archipelago was cha-racterized by high representation of life forms shrubbery and herbaceous, with a predominance of elements neotropical and neotropical-holarctic. The sandy coastal vegetation and coastal xeromorphic scrub exhibited the highest values of specific richness.

  7. Host records for Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) from birds of North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Wayne; Proctor, Heather

    2007-07-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877) (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) is a broadly distributed blood-feeding parasite that has been collected from many birds of temperate regions. Previously, the most complete host list was published in 1938, and it included 15 North American (Canada, United States, and Mexico) host species. In the process of a general survey of bird-associated mites in Alberta, Canada, we recovered many O. sylviarum specimens. Herein, we update the previous host list with these observations and records published since 1938. We collected mites by washing the bodies of salvaged birds and examining the filtrate. Northern fowl mites were collected from 26 host species, with 16 of these species being the first host records for North America. Including results from the current study, O. sylviarum has been reported from 72 species of North American birds from 26 families. This updated host list will be useful to anyone interested in the role of O. sylviarum in transmission of avian disease. PMID:17695029

  8. Food-web-based comparison of the drivers of helminth parasite species richness in coastal fish and bird definitive hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Thieltges, D.W.; Poulin, R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the factors determining parasite richness in hosts are typically performedusing data compiled for various sets of species from disparate habitats. However, parasite transmissionis embedded within local trophic networks, and proper comparisons among host speciesof the drivers of parasite richness should ideally be conducted among hosts belonging to the samelocal network. Here, we used data from 6 well-resolved coastal food webs that include parasites toinvestigate patterns and drive...

  9. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  10. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  11. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements......Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... in when and where the bird compensated for the displacement. The last paper investigates effects of habitat shading on the performance of light-level based geolocation and compares experimental data with data from real tracking studies. This illustrates some of the potential problems and limitations...

  12. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  13. Some additions to the Scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccoidea of Crete with a check list of the species known from the island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Pellizzari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A list of the scale insects (Homoptera: C occoidea recorded by the authors for the Greek island of C rete is reported. This includes twenty-seven species new to the island The most interesting records are Kermes palestiniensis Balachowsky (Kermesidae, only recorded previously from Israel, and Getulaspis bupleuri (Marchal (Diaspididae, only known previously from North A frica and the Middle E ast. With the present additions, the number of scale insect species recorded on C rete has reached 82. A revised check list of the scales presently known from the island is also provided.

  14. Ecological factors differentially affect mercury levels in two species of sympatric marine birds of the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipfner, J.M., E-mail: mark.hipfner@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, RR 1 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, BC, V4K 3N2 (Canada); Hobson, K.A., E-mail: keith.hobson@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, SK, S7N 3H5 (Canada); Elliott, J.E., E-mail: john.elliot@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, RR 1 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, BC, V4K 3N2 (Canada)

    2011-03-01

    In 2003 and 2004, we measured mercury concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C values in the whole blood of adults of two species of seabirds, Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), during their prelaying, incubation, and provisioning periods. We also collected whole blood from the offspring of both seabirds. Among prey items, {delta}{sup 15}N values were higher in fish than in crustaceans, while {delta}{sup 13}C did not vary systematically between prey types. Mercury concentrations in prey showed little relationship with either stable isotope. In the zooplanktivorous Cassin's auklet, year, reproductive stage, and {delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C stable isotope values explained only 14% of the variation in mercury concentrations in adult blood, and none of these variables had a statistically significant effect. In contrast, these same variables explained 41% of the variation in mercury levels in the more piscivorous rhinoceros auklet, and all but {delta}{sup 15}N values had statistically significant effects. Mercury concentrations in adult rhinoceros auklets were higher in 2003 than in 2004; higher prior to laying than during the incubation or provisioning periods; and increased with {delta}{sup 13}C values - but in just one of two years. In both species, mercury concentrations were substantially higher in adults than in nestlings. Our results accord with previous studies in showing that mercury concentrations can vary among years, species and age classes, while the marked variation with reproductive stage is noteworthy because it is so rarely considered. Our results may help to explain the disparate conclusions of previous studies: while many factors influence mercury concentrations in marine predators, they apparently do so in a manner that defies easy characterization. We believe that there is a need for more studies that consider a range of physiological, ecological and behavioral

  15. 甘肃黑河内陆河湿地自然保护区候鸟多样性%Bird Species Diversity in Heihe Inland River Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包新康; 刘迺发; 郭秉堂; 郭彩琴

    2012-01-01

    Gansu Heihe River National Nature Reserve, which located in the middle river basin of the second large inland river of China, is a sort of wetland ecosystem reserve. The bird richness and abundance of the breeding season (from May to August) and the migration season (March to April and September to October) in this area were surveyed in 2008 by the methods of line transect and fixed-radius point count in four types of habitats (wetlands,farm village,plantation and desert). A total of 116 bird species belonging to 17 Orders and 35 Families were recorded in this survey, which includes 73 summer visitors,20 migratory crossing birds, 17 residents and 6 wintering birds. In wetland habitats,50 bird species including 47 summer visitors were observed in breeding season and 44 bird species including 17 migratory crossing birds in migration season, but in other habitats (farm village,plantation and desert) ,the breeding birds consist of 33 summer visitors and 17 residents, the migratory crossing birds only contribute 3 species. These results indicate that the Reserve is very rich in summer visitor birds and migratory crossing birds, which distributed mostly in the wetland habitats, and suggested that the Reserve is the important breeding site and stopover for migratory birds in the northwest of China.%甘肃黑河为我国第二大内陆河,位于其中游的黑河湿地自然保护区为内陆河流湿地生态系统自然保护区.2008年分季节采用样线法和样点法调查该保护区湿地、农田村庄、人工林和荒漠4种生境的鸟类种类和数量.调查共记录保护区分布的鸟类17目35科116种,其中夏候鸟73种(占鸟类种类的62.93%),迁徙过路鸟20种(占17.24%),留鸟17种(占14.66%),冬候鸟6种(占5.17%).其中,属于《湿地公约》的水禽56种.在湿地生境共记录鸟类70种,占保护区鸟类种数的60.34%,其中繁殖期在湿地生境栖息的鸟类有50种,绝大部分为夏候鸟(47种),留鸟只有3

  16. Evidence for Bird Mafia! Threat Pays

    OpenAIRE

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Kolatkar, Milind

    1996-01-01

    Birds are remarkable for their extraordinary efforts at nest building and brood care. Given that so many species of birds spend so much time and effort at these activities, there is plenty of room for some species to take it easy, lay their eggs in the nests of other species and hitch-hike on their hosts. The cuckoo that lays its eggs in the nests of a variety of host species is well known. Indeed, over 80 species, i.e., over 1% of bird species are known to be such obligate inter-specific bro...

  17. Bird community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrobus, T.J.; Guilfoyle, M.P.; Barrow, W.C.; Hamel, P.B.; Wakeley, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Neotropical migrants are birds that breed in North America and winter primarily in Central and South America. Long-term population studies of birds in the Eastern United States indicated declines of some forest-dwelling birds, many of which winter in the Neotropics (Peterjohn and others 1995). These declines were attributed to loss of wintering and breeding habitat due to deforestation and fragmentation, respectively. Many species of Nearctic migrants--birds that breed in the northern regions of North America and winter in the Southern United States--are also experiencing population declines. Because large areas of undistrubed, older, bottomland hardwood forests oftern contain large numbers of habitat specialists, including forest-interior neotropical migrants and wintering Nearctic migrants, these forests may be critical in maintaining avian diversity. This study had two primary objectivs: (1) to create a baseline data set that can be used as a standard against which other bottomland hardwood forests can be compared, and (2) to establish long-term monitoring stations during both breeding and wintering seasons to discern population trends of avian species using bottomland hardwood forests.

  18. Birds and wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, Rowena

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Climate change, perhaps more accurately described as climate disruption, is considered to be a major long-term threat to biodiversity, with a high probability that the underlying cause is due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy is an important component of a programme of measures to combat further climate change, to include improved energy efficiency and demand management. Wind energy is the most advanced renewable energy source and is a global industry onshore and, increasingly, offshore. However, as with any form of energy generation, wind energy also has potential environmental costs which have to be balanced against benefits. The environmental impacts on birds derive from the following: collision risk, in particular from the moving rotor blades; displacement arising from disturbance during construction, operation or decommissioning; habitat loss or change leading to alteration of food availability; barrier effects leading to deviation of long distance migratory flights or disruption of local flights between feeding, nesting, and roosting/loafing locations. Not all species of birds, or individuals within a species, are equally susceptible to negative interactions with wind turbines, and neither are the population consequences of impacts equivalent. Of greatest concern are bird species of conservation concern that exhibit behaviours that place them at risk of an adverse impact, notably when that impact leads to a reduction in population size that is unlikely to be compensated for. In particular, cumulative impacts arising from multiple wind farms or wind farms in combination with other developments are of concern. There has been a welcome increase in research effort and peer-reviewed publications on the subject of birds and wind energy in recent years. Increasing our understanding of impacts is essential to delivering possible solutions and this paper reviews current knowledge for birds. (Author)

  19. Alien species as a driver of recent extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellard, Céline; Cassey, Phillip; Blackburn, Tim M

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of alien species as a driver of recent extinctions in five major taxa (plants, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals), using data from the IUCN Red List. Our results show that alien species are the second most common threat associated with species that have gone completely extinct from these taxa since AD 1500. Aliens are the most common threat associated with extinctions in three of the five taxa analysed, and for vertebrate extinctions overall. PMID:26888913

  20. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  1. Western Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  2. Procyrnea chabaud, 1958 (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in birds from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, including descriptions of 3 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Four species of Procyrnea were collected in birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Procyrnea brevicaudata n. sp. in Crypturellus cinnamomeus resembles P. ficheuri, P. murrayi, P. ameerae, P. dollfusi, and P. aptera in lacking lateral alae but differs from all these species in having 2 longitudinal ridges on the left side of the body, in having a sinistral rather than ventral vulvar opening, and in having dorsally bent rather than straight female tails. Procyrnea mawsonae n. sp., in Buteo magnirostris, is similar to P. strialata in body size and in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but differs by having longer and differently shaped spicules, and by lacking a single preanal sessile papilla. Procyrnea mclennanae n. sp., in Heliomaster constantii, is similar to P. strialata (Zhang, 1991) and P. mawsonae n. sp. in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but it can be distinguished from P. strialata and P. mawsonae in having 4 rather than 3 small teeth on the interior border of the pseudolabia, in having unequal rather than equal lateral alae, and in having longer spicules. Procyrnea sp., on the basis of a single adult male in Campephilus guatemalensis, resembles P. suraiyae, P. tulostoma, and P. unilateralis in possessing a single and long lateral ala, but can be distinguished from P. suraiyae and P. tulostoma in the length of the left spicule, in the left spicule having a bifid distal end, the right spicule having a rounded distal end rather than both spicules having pointed distal ends, and in having the lateral ala beginning at the lip region instead of posterior to the cervical papillae. It differs from P. uncinipenis in having a spicule ratio of 1:3.5 rather than 1:2.5, in the left spicule having a bifid rather than alate distal end, and in the absence of a single preanal papilla.

  3. Genetic differentiation in two widespread, open-forest bird species of Southeast Asia (Copsychus saularis andMegalaima haemacephala):Insights from ecological niche modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haw Chuan LIM; Fasheng ZOU; Frederick H SHELDON

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling has emerged as an useful tool in the investigation of the phylogeographic histories of spe-cies or communities in a region. The high biodiversity (oftentimes cryptic), and complex geography and geological history of Southeast Asia particularly call for multipronged approaches in phylogeographic investigations. Past studies have focused on taxa that are associated with lowland rainforests, which is the dominant natural vegetation type. Here, we combine published phylo-genetic data, ecological niche modeling and paleo-climate models to reveal potential drivers of divergence in two open-forest bird species, the oriental magpie-robinCopsychus saularis and Coppersmith barbetMegalaima haemacephala. In spite of broad overlap in current distributions, there are subtle differences in their climatic niches, which result in different responses to past climatic changes. ForC. saularis, both Last Glacial Maximum climate models indicated that the entire Sundaland was climati-cally suitable, while phylogenetic analyses found divergent eastern and western Sundaland lineages. We thus postulate that this genetic divergence was a result of past separations of coastal habitats into eastern and western portions due to the emergence of Sunda shelf as sea-level fell. The current separation of morphological subspecies in Borneo is maintained by low climatic suita-bility (high annual rainfall) in certain regions. The extirpation ofM. haemacephala from Borneo and southern Malay Peninsula might have been driven by unsuitable conditions (high temperature seasonality) in central Sundaland and/or the lack of open woodlands. Our study shows that ecological niche modeling adds a powerful dimension to our attempt to understand lineage evolution in space [Current Zoology 61 (5): 922–934, 2015].

  4. Procyrnea chabaud, 1958 (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in birds from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, including descriptions of 3 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Four species of Procyrnea were collected in birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Procyrnea brevicaudata n. sp. in Crypturellus cinnamomeus resembles P. ficheuri, P. murrayi, P. ameerae, P. dollfusi, and P. aptera in lacking lateral alae but differs from all these species in having 2 longitudinal ridges on the left side of the body, in having a sinistral rather than ventral vulvar opening, and in having dorsally bent rather than straight female tails. Procyrnea mawsonae n. sp., in Buteo magnirostris, is similar to P. strialata in body size and in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but differs by having longer and differently shaped spicules, and by lacking a single preanal sessile papilla. Procyrnea mclennanae n. sp., in Heliomaster constantii, is similar to P. strialata (Zhang, 1991) and P. mawsonae n. sp. in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but it can be distinguished from P. strialata and P. mawsonae in having 4 rather than 3 small teeth on the interior border of the pseudolabia, in having unequal rather than equal lateral alae, and in having longer spicules. Procyrnea sp., on the basis of a single adult male in Campephilus guatemalensis, resembles P. suraiyae, P. tulostoma, and P. unilateralis in possessing a single and long lateral ala, but can be distinguished from P. suraiyae and P. tulostoma in the length of the left spicule, in the left spicule having a bifid distal end, the right spicule having a rounded distal end rather than both spicules having pointed distal ends, and in having the lateral ala beginning at the lip region instead of posterior to the cervical papillae. It differs from P. uncinipenis in having a spicule ratio of 1:3.5 rather than 1:2.5, in the left spicule having a bifid rather than alate distal end, and in the absence of a single preanal papilla. PMID:15165061

  5. New records of Tyienchida, Araeolaimida and Enoplida from the Kruger National Park, with an addendum to the check list of nematode species in the park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelize Botha

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available New distribution records are given for Hemicycliophora lahiata Colbran, 1960, Helicot\\lenclms africanus (Micoletzky, 1916, Scutellonema hrachyurum (Steiner, 1938, Plectus cirratus Bastian, 1865 and Ironus i^navus Bastian 1865. A check list of all the nematode species recorded from rivers in the Kruger National Park is included.

  6. 北京翠湖湿地鸟类资源现状及保护对策%Current Status and Conservation Strategy of Bird Resources in Cuihu Wetland in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 李晓光; 商晓静; 刘颖杰; 王博宇; 张富春; 李晓京

    2012-01-01

    A systematic survey on bird resources was performed from 2009 to 2011 in Cuihu wetland in Beijing. The results showed that 166 bird species belonging to 40 families of 17 orders were recorded in Cuihu wetland, including 108 species of non-passerine birds and 58 species of passerine. According to their residence types, the number of passing birds species is the biggest, followed by resident birds and summer migrant birds, the number of winter migrant birds is the least. There are a variety of rare and endangered birds in Cuihu wetland. Among them, 34 species were listed in the national key protected wild animals of China (2003), 68 species were listed in the protected wild animals of Beijing (2007). Meanwhile, there are many birds were included in the list for protection by bilateral agreements, such as "China-Japan Migratory Bird Protection Agreement" and "China-Australia Migratory Bird Protection Agreement". Cuihu wetland was rich in bird biodiversity, and plays an important role in the protection of wildlife and migratory birds.%2009-2011年对翠湖湿地鸟类进行了调查.结果发现:翠湖湿地记录到鸟类17目40科166种,其中非雀形目鸟类108种,雀形目58种.从居留型来看,旅鸟种类数量最多,留鸟和夏候鸟次之,冬候鸟最少.翠湖湿地拥有多种珍稀濒危鸟类,其中属于国家重点保护野生动物(2003)的34种,属于北京市保护野生动物(2007)的68种;翠湖湿地还拥有一些被列入双边国际协定保护中的候鸟,如《中日候鸟保护协定》、《中澳候鸟保护协定》.翠湖湿地鸟类生物多样性十分丰富,在保护野生动植物和候鸟方面发挥着重要的作用.

  7. Trypanosomes of some Fennoscandian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Bennett

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear measurements and derived indices of trypanosomes from species of Fennoscandian birds were compared to those reported form Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, T. ontarioensis and T. paddae. The trypanosomes encountered in the Fennoscandian birds were identified as T. avium from Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, T. everetti from the great tit Parus major and collared flycatcher F. albicollis and T. ontarioensis from the collared flycatcher; T. paddae was not seen.

  8. Orientation and navigation in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwman, H.

    1998-01-01

    How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  9. Orientation and navigation in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bouwman

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  10. Occurrence of Mesocestoides canislagopodis (Rudolphi, 1810) (Krabbe, 1865) in mammals and birds in Iceland and its molecular discrimination within the Mesocestoides species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl; Jouet, Damien; Ferté, Hubert; Nielsen, Ólafur K

    2016-07-01

    The life cycle of Mesocestoides tapeworms (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Mesocestoididae) requires three hosts. The first intermediate host is unknown but believed to be an arthropod. The second intermediate host is a vertebrate. The primary definitive host is a carnivore mammal, or a bird of prey, that eats the tetrathyridium-infected second intermediate host. One representative of the genus, Mesocestoides canislagopodis, has been reported from Iceland. It is common in the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) and has also been detected in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis domestica). Recently, scolices of a non-maturing Mesocestoides sp. have also been detected in gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) intestines, and tetrathyridia in the body cavity of rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta). We examined the taxonomic relationship of Mesocestoides from arctic fox, gyrfalcon, and rock ptarmigan using molecular methods, both at the generic level (D1 domain LSU ribosomal DNA) and at the specific level (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 12S mitochondrial DNA). All stages belonged to Mesocestoides canislagopodis. Phylogenetic analysis of the combined 12S-COI at the specific level confirmed that M. canislagopodis forms a distinct clade, well separated from three other recognized representatives of the genus, M. litteratus, M. lineatus, and M. corti/vogae. This is the first molecular description of this species. The rock ptarmigan is a new second intermediate host record, and the gyrfalcon a new primary definitive host record. However, the adult stage seemed not to be able to mature in the gyrfalcon, and successful development is probably restricted to mammalian hosts. PMID:26984208

  11. Consumption of bird eggs by invasive Burmese Pythons in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Carla J.; Reed, Robert N.; Snow, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Burmese Pythons (Python molurus bivittatus or P. bivittatus) have been reported to consume 25 species of adult birds in Everglades National Park, Florida (Dove et al. 2011), but until now no records documented this species eating bird eggs. Here we report three recent cases of bird-egg consumption by Burmese Pythons and discuss egg-eating in basal snakes.

  12. Habitat size and bird community management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.H.; Robbins, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the results in the literature that show the effect of area of forest on nesting migratory bird species, and to present the results of additional field work that we have conducted in forest habitats in western Maryland. These results indicate the area sensitivity of many long distance migrants. Because 80 to 95 percent of the breeding birds in the northeastern deciduous forest are neotropical migrants, the changes in bird species composition as a result of forest fragmentation can be immense. Management strategies based on habitat size are suggested to assist in maintaining communities of nesting migratory birds.

  13. Survey of Bird Resources in Huizhou%惠州鸟类资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周纪刚; 郑洲翔; 牛晓楠; 彭逸生; 肖慧明; 阳艳萍; 邓杰明; 洪宏志

    2013-01-01

    2005年3月~2012年12月,惠州记录到鸟类18目、58科、299种.其中,雀形目鸟类27科、151种,占总数的50.50%;非雀行目鸟类31科、148种,占总数的49.50%.国家重点保护鸟类Ⅰ级2种,Ⅱ级37种.我国特有种2种.CITES记录的鸟类11种,《中国濒危物种红皮书》中的鸟类23种.留鸟157种,占总数的52.51%;冬候鸟90种,占总数的30.10%;夏候37种,占总数的12.37%;旅鸟或迷鸟15种,占总数的5.02%.东洋界种155种,占总数的51.84%;古北界种107种,占总数的35.79%;广布种37种,占总数的12.37%.鸣禽151种,占总数的50.50%;湿地水鸟73种,占总数的24.7%.麻雀、白喉红臀鹎等15种鸟类是惠州的优势种,占总数的5.01%.%The birds diversity in Huizhou were investigated from March 2005 to December 2012,299 species were recorded belonged to 58 families and 17 orders.151 species belonged to Passeriformes(50.50%),148 to other orders.2 species were listed in national first-grade protected animals,37 species were listed in national second-grade protected animals.2 species were listed into China endemic birds.11 species were listed in CITES.23 species were listed in the China Red Data Book of the Endangered Animals.157 species were belonged to resident birds(52.51%),90 to winter migratory birds(30.10%),37 to summer migratory birds(12.37%),15 to traveling and vagrant(5.02%).155 species belonged to Oriental realms(51.84%),107 to Palearctic realm (35.79%),37 to (12.37%).151 species were belonged to the songbirds,73 wetland birds (48 to wading birds and 25 to swimming birds) composed the second largest community.

  14. Development of urban bird indicators using data from monitoring schemes in two large European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrando, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird monitoring projects have provided valuable data for developing biological indicators to evaluate the state of natural and agricultural habitats. However, fewer advances have been made in urban environments. In this study we used bird monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 in two cities with different climates (Brussels and Barcelona, to generate two multi–species urban indicators to evaluate temporal trends on abundance of urban avifauna. To do this we used two different conceptual approaches, one based on a list of widespread species in European cities (WSEC and another based exclusively on species widespread at city level (WCS regardless of the birds occurring in other cities. The two indicators gave a similar general pattern, although we found a 3% difference in the mean annual change in both cities, thus suggesting that the values provided by urban indicators may differ depending on the conceptual approach and, hence, by the species list used to generate them. However, both indicators may have their own value and could be treated as complementary indices.

  15. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali ACAR; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  16. 93rd Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1992 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 19 species and 989 individual birds were counted.

  17. 92nd Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1991 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 25 species and 2,655 individual birds were counted.

  18. 91st Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1990 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 14 species and 1,469 individual birds were counted.

  19. 89th Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1988 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 9 species and 398 individual birds were counted.

  20. 94th Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1993 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 9 species and 940 individual birds were counted.

  1. 90th Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1989 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 14 species and 1,126 individual birds were counted.

  2. Using social media to measure the contribution of red list species to the nature-based tourism potential of African protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemen, Louise; Cottam, Andrew J.; Drakou, Evangelia G.;

    2015-01-01

    services for large areas. In this paper we explore a method to quantify cultural benefits through the enjoyment of natured-based tourism, by assessing the potential tourism attractiveness of species for each protected area in Africa using the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. We use the number...... most attractive to nature-based tourism are the Lion, African Elephant and Leopard. Combining the photo counts with species range data, African protected areas with the highest potential to attract wildlife tourists based on attractive species occurrence were Samburu National Reserve in Kenya, Mukogodo...... assessments. The index directly links species presence to the tourism potential of protected areas, making the connection between nature and human benefits explicit, but excludes other important contributing factors for tourism, such as accessibility and safety. This social media based index provides a broad...

  3. 78 FR 19729 - Wild Bird Conservation Act; Receipt of Application for Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Wild Bird Conservation Act; Receipt of Application for Approval AGENCY: Fish... certain activities with birds that are protected in accordance with the Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992... activities with bird species covered under the Wild Bird Conservation Act of 1992. This notice is...

  4. Songbirds and Birds of Prey, Unit 6, Colorado Division of Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jon K.; Smith, Dwight R.

    This booklet on songbirds and birds of prey is part of a series developed to encourage youth to pursue environmental projects. The manual explains bird anatomy and physiology, bird watching, types of feeders and shelter, and bird identification. Descriptions of feeding, hunting, and nesting habits are given for many species of birds. Also,…

  5. Monitoring Forsmark. Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin (Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund Univ. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds Directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002-2010. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2010 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from the monitoring in 2010 differed somewhat from results gathered in earlier years. Most monitored species have increased in local numbers during the study years, and from most years continued increases have been reported. Between 2009 and 2010 most species (seven, 64% of the monitored ones) instead decreased in numbers. Only one species (honey buzzard) increased in numbers between the years and in this case this was probably more a result of small moves by certain pairs so that they this year had parts reaching into the regional model area, while in 2009 their territories were outside of this. No dramatic changes in bird numbers were however recorded and all the studied species show stable or increasing local populations over the study period. Number of Black-throated diver pairs was normal and breeding success was good this year. The breeding success of divers has improved considerably over the studied period and the patterns recorded in Forsmark closely follow recorded patterns at the national level. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, above the average for the whole period, and breeding success was better than in 2009. Even if breeding success of honey buzzards is not monitored in any detail, there were still signs of at least a few successful breedings in the area this year. Breeding success of ospreys was below average, but still within the normal variation for most years. The local white-tailed eagles had a poor breeding season and no young at all were produced within the study area. All three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) decreased in numbers between 2009 and 2010. Note however that the large amounts of snow

  6. The fauna composition and species diversity of autumn and winter birds in Baoying Lake Wetlands%江苏宝应湖湿地秋冬两季鸟类区系组成及多样性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马德高; 宋丹红; 赵强; 潘达; 汪霄; 陈志芳

    2014-01-01

    于2012年9月至2013年3月采用样线法对江苏扬州宝应湖湿地冬季鸟类的区系组成进行调研,调查期间共记录到鸟类56种,隶属11目28科。冬季鸟类组成中,留鸟31种,冬候鸟19种,旅鸟6种。古北界鸟类24种,东洋界鸟类20种,其余12种为广布型,鸟类的区系组成兼有古北界和东洋界过渡的特点。鸟类群落多样性的比较分析显示,湖岸生境较敞水区生境的鸟类多样性程度高。调查期间未发现大型雁鸭类。结果表明,保护区域内越冬鸟类的多样性,必须权衡满足当地居民对淡水资源的合理需求与尽可能多地保护生物多样性这两者之间的关系。%Surveys of birds including residents and visitors in winter were conducted in Baoying Lake Wetlands in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province during September 2012 to March 2013 by using the line transect methods .As a result, 56 species belonging to 11 orders, 28 families were recorded during the period of investigations .Of which, 31 species were residents , 19 species were winter migrants , and 6 species were passing migrants .The composition of avifauna comprised with 24 Palaearctic species , 20 oriental species and 12 widespread species in both regions , and was characterized by a transitional trait of both regions .Comparisons of diversity of the bird communities in Baoying Lake showed that the bird diversity in lakeshore habitat is higher than that in water area .It is closely related to the limited water area of Baoying Lake and excessive anthropogenic interference caused by aquaculture and fishing in the lake.Thus, for the regional conservation of wintering bird biodiversity , trade-offs between satisfying legitimate human needs for freshwater and preserving as much biodiversity as possible are necessary .

  7. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  8. Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  9. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  10. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  11. Spatial variation in species richness of birds and mammals in mainland China%中国大陆鸟类和兽类物种多样性的空间变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晶晶; 刘定震; 李春旺; 蒋志刚

    2012-01-01

    pattern of the biodiversity found in China may contribute to the understanding of large-scale patterns in biodiversity.The fauna information database (FID) , founded by the Wildlife and Behavioral Ecology Research Group, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, contains information on the distribution of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals in China. The FID was compiled with data on species checklists of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals from 205 nature reserves across mainland China. They covered most parts of the country except Jiangsu Province, Taiwan, HongKong and Macau.In this study, we explored the spatial variation in the C-F indices of birds and mammals with geostatistical techniques. As a measure of species diversity, we computed the C-F index using data on birds and mammals in the FID. The C-F index, based on the Shannon-Wiener index, provides a standardized measure of the diversity of species of common origin and similar environmental requirements. We treated the C-F index as a regional variable and obtained semivariance models and parameters of birds and mammals individually for each of the three natural regions. Semivariograms were produced using semivariance analysis methods of GS-plus software. Using the semivariograms and model parameters, we analyzed the characteristics of the spatial variation in bird and mammal diversity in each natural region.The semivariance of the G-F index of birds was fitted with a linear model in the eastern monsoon region and the northwest arid region of China. The parameters demonstrated that species diversity of birds had a weak spatial dependence in the eastern monsoon region and the northwest arid region of China. There was no spatial correlation with pure nugget effects on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, indicating that the spatial variation in bird species diversity was caused by random factors. This may be due to the high dispersal abilities of birds.The semivariance of the G-F index of mammals showed no

  12. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples’ relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  13. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  14. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  15. Breeding Bird Survey and bird banding data: Applications to raptor research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.; Bystrak, D.

    1991-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) are sources of information for raptor biologists. The BBS has been conducted each year since 1966 in the United States and Canada; historical bird banding records extend back to the early 20th century. BBS data can be used to document population trends and breeding distributions of many bird species. Banding data are generally collected for specific and local studies of bird populations or behavior. Past use of these data has been limited by their volume and relative inaccessibility. In this paper, we present an overview of BBS and BBL raptor data and their uses, limitations and availability.

  16. Flight performance of the largest volant bird

    OpenAIRE

    Ksepka, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    A fossil species of pelagornithid bird exhibits the largest known avian wingspan. Pelagornithids are an extinct group of birds known for bony tooth-like beak projections, large size, and highly modified wing bones that raise many questions about their ecology. At 6.4 m, the wingspan of this species was approximately two times that of the living Royal Albatross. Modeling of flight parameters in this species indicates that it was capable of highly efficient gliding and suggests that pelagornith...

  17. Windturbines and meadow birds in Germany - results of a 7 years BACI-study and a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, Marc; Steinborn, Hanjo

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In many parts of Germany meadow birds - either breeding or staging - are the species most affected by wind farms planned in open agricultural areas. A 7 year BACI-study (before-after-control-impact) in the south of East Frisia, Lower Saxony, investigated the influence of wind turbines on several meadow bird species. The parameters analysed comprised population trends, spatial distribution and behaviour in relation to turbine distance, breeding success as well as the influence of certain habitat parameters like type of agricultural use and the distance to woods and hedges. The results show, that breeding birds are generally less sensitive to wind turbines than staging birds. Significant reductions of breeding lapwing density occurred only up to a distance of 100 m. Curlews however showed a reduction of resting and grooming behaviour up to a distance of 250 m. Other species like meadow pipit, skylark and stonechat showed no indications of displacement. An impact of wind turbines on breeding success could not be detected. Breeding lapwings showed a strong preference for certain types of crops, which led to spatial aggregations irrespective of turbine proximity. In staging birds a much more obvious displacement up to about 400 m could be detected. The results are consistent with a number of other German studies on possible displacement effects in different bird species. Lapwing and skylark are among the best studied species whereas staging geese tend to be the most sensitive ones. In conclusion the siting of wind farms must not only be guided by occurrence of endangered species named on national or regional Red Lists but also by the species-specific sensitivity against the disturbance effects of wind turbines. (Author)

  18. Migration of birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  19. Do night-active birds lack daily melatonin rhythms? A case study comparing a diurnal and a nocturnal-foraging gull species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wikelski, M; Tarlow, EM; Eising, CM; Groothuis, TGG; Gwinner, E; Tarlow, Elisa M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Bairlein, F.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma melatonin concentrations in most animals investigated so far increase at night regardless of whether individuals are day or night active. Nevertheless, daily melatonin amplitudes are often seasonally adjusted to ecological conditions, with birds that breed at high latitudes and migrate during

  20. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C; Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodium spp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and ecological factors

  1. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  2. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  3. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  4. Lost Dogs, Last Birds, and Listed Species: Cultures of Extinction%灭绝的文化:犬尽禽稀,物种濒危

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厄休拉·海斯; 钟燕

    2013-01-01

    在地球生命史上,当今人类面临着生物学家所称的第六次物种大灭绝——首次由人类导致的物种灭绝之灾.本文第一部分讨论生物多样性减少的科普文献与自然濒危的环保故事传统之间的关联,第二部分论证哀挽悲情叙事模式如何将某个物种的灭绝演变成清算现代化进程的宏大批评工具,第三部分试图在进化论、偶然性和实验性的语境中探求一种解析物种灭绝的喜剧叙事模式.

  5. Migratory Passerine Birds as Reservoirs of Lyme Borreliosis in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstedt, Pär; Bergström, Sven; Olsen, Björn; Garpmo, Ulf; Marjavaara, Lisette; Mejlon, Hans; Barbour, Alan G.

    2006-01-01

    To define the role of birds as reservoirs and disseminators of Borrelia spirochetes, we characterized tick infestation and reservoir competence of migratory passerine birds in Sweden. A total of 1,120 immature Ixodes ricinus ticks were removed from 13,260 birds and assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Borrelia, followed by DNA sequencing for species and genotype identification. Distributions of ticks on birds were aggregated, presumably because of varying encounters with ticks along migratory routes. Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were detected in 160 (14%) ticks. Borrelia garinii was the most common species in PCR-positive samples and included genotypes associated with human infections. Infestation prevalence with infected ticks was 5 times greater among ground-foraging birds than other bird species, but the 2 groups were equally competent in transmitting Borrelia. Migratory passerine birds host epidemiologically important vector ticks and Borrelia species and vary in effectiveness as reservoirs on the basis of their feeding behavior. PMID:16836825

  6. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  7. Okefenokee Bird Records: July 15, 1940 - May 1, 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annotated check list of birds within the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge and abundance data collected by refuge biologist, Hayden Carter.

  8. 77 FR 70733 - Listing Endangered or Threatened Species: 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... primarily from a scientific peer reviewed journal article published subsequent to the listing (Pilot et al... the petition, we have data from new genetic samples and peer reviewed scientific journal articles (e.g... they appear to be based on accepted scientific principles (such as citing published and peer...

  9. 78 FR 69376 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 19 Species and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Caribbean (Trinidad, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana) to northern Brazil and possibly in waters off... species under the ESA (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered''...

  10. Bird mortality after spraying for Dutch elm disease with DDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, C.F.; Wurster, D.H.; Strickland, W.N.

    1965-01-01

    In Hanover, New Hampshire, where elms were sprayed with DDT, 151 dead birds were found; 10 dead birds were found in Norwich, Vermont, where no DDT was used. Chemical analyses of dead birds, observation of symptoms of DDT poisoning, and a population decline after spraying all indicate severe mortality among certain species in Hanover.

  11. A new species of pengornithidae (aves: enantiornithes from the lower cretaceous of China suggests a specialized scansorial habitat previously unknown in early birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hu

    Full Text Available We describe a new enantiornithine bird, Parapengornis eurycaudatus gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning, China. Although morphologically similar to previously described pengornithids Pengornis houi, Pengornis IVPP V18632, and Eopengornis martini, morphological differences indicate it represents a new taxon of the Pengornithidae. Based on new information from this specimen we reassign IVPP V18632 to Parapengornis sp. The well preserved pygostyle of the new specimen elucidates the morphology of this element for the clade, which is unique in pengornithids among Mesozoic birds. Similarities with modern scansores such as woodpeckers may indicate a specialized vertical climbing and clinging behavior that has not previously been inferred for early birds. The new specimen preserves a pair of fully pennaceous rachis-dominated feathers like those in the holotype of Eopengornis martini; together with the unique morphology of the pygostyle, this discovery lends evidence to early hypotheses that rachis-dominated feathers may have had a functional significance. This discovery adds to the diversity of ecological niches occupied by enantiornithines and if correct reveals are remarkable amount of locomotive differentiation among Enantiornithes.

  12. Blood parasites in some birds from eastern plains of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar A Rodríguez; Nubia E. MATTA

    2001-01-01

    A total of 315 birds representing 75 species (23 families) from Villavicencio and San Miguel (Meta, Colombia) were examined for haematozoa. Fifty birds (15.9%) harbored blood parasites. Microfilariae were the most common haematozoans encountered, followed by species of the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and Trypanosoma. This survey included 15 new host-parasite records and 8 species of birds that were examined for haematozoa for the first time. The prevalence registered in this research was ...

  13. A Thankful Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜巧玲

    2002-01-01

    One day, I was playing in the woods when I saw a bird standing on a tree branch in the rain. “Poor bird, I thought, ”He has no home. “When I got home, I set down to make a house for the bird so that the bird would not catch rain any longer.

  14. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodiumspp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and

  15. THE BIODIVERSITY AT SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MIGRATORY BIRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indian subcontinent plays host to a number of migratory birds in summers as well as winters. It is estimated that over hundred species of migratory birds fly to India, either in search of feeding grounds or to escape the severe winter of their native habitat. Sandi bird sanctuary was created in 1990 in order to protect and conserve the natural habitation and surroundings and also the marine vegetation for the migratory birds, as well as for the local people of the region. The term migration is used to describe movements of populations of birds or other animals. There are three types of migrants. One way to look at migration is to consider the distances traveled. The pattern of migration can vary within each category, but is most variable in short and medium distance migrants. The origin of migration is related to the distance traveled. The birds migrating through the area, take shelter on the river front before going to the Sandi Bird sanctuary. The birds generally migrate in the winter months of October-November-December. Bird sanctuary is a popular tourist location. Sandi particularly attracts ornithologists and bird watchers, as many rare migratory birds take refuge in the sanctuary. The bird watching camps arranged to observe the migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary in the month of October and November 2012. The migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include great crested grebe, white storks, black lbis, glossy lbis, spoonbill, ruddy shelduck, pin tail, sholveller, spot bill duck, mallard, gadwall, wigeon, tufted pochard, gargancey teal, common teal, cotton teal, grey lag goose, coot, black tailed godwit, painted stock pin tail snipe, marsh sand piper, common tern, river tern, magpie robin, white wagtail, pied wagtail, common snipe, starlings, white lbis, red crested pochard, common pochard, painted stock, black lbis, curlew, Indian skimmer etc. The resident birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include little grebe, darter, purple heron, grey

  16. Species composition and space-time distribution of water birds in Dongting Lake%东洞庭湖越冬水鸟种类组成与时空分布格局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿; 刘向葵; 姚毅

    2015-01-01

    基于2013年11月、2014年1月和3月,即越冬初期、隆冬期和春季鸟类迁徙前3次东洞庭湖区域水鸟监测结果,对2013—2014年度东洞庭湖区域的水鸟种类组成和不同时期种类变化,水鸟分阶段数量变化和空间分布等进行了系统分析,并简要闸述了该区域内几个重要物种的时-空变化规律。结果表明:东洞庭湖越冬水鸟在种类和数量组成上,均以雁形目和鸻形目为主。在空间分布上,越冬初期,水鸟主要分布在白湖、春风湖和采桑湖区域;进入隆冬期后,丁字堤和采桑湖区域栖息的水鸟数量显著增加,春风湖和白湖区域水鸟数量明显减少;春季水鸟迁徙前,采桑湖栖息的鸟类数量达到顶峰,约占到东洞庭湖该时段水鸟总数的50%,白湖与丁字堤区域水鸟与隆冬期基本保持平稳,但春风湖区域水鸟持续减少,降至该越冬期水鸟数量最低点。%Based on three surveys of water birds,respectively in November in 2013,January and March in 2014,the water bird community composition,variation and space-time distribution in Dongting Lake area were analyzed,and space-time changes of some important bird species were outlined.The results showed that,the Dongting Lake was domi-nated in winter by both Anseriformes and Charadriiformes in terms of species number and population as well.In the early wintering period,the water birds mainly distributed in Bai Lake,Chunfeng Lake and Caisang Lake.In midwinter,the number of bird increased in Dingzidi and Caisang Lake,while declined in Chunfeng Lake and Bai Lake.In spring of pre-migration,the number of water birds peaked in Caisang Lake,accounting for 50% in the total population in Dongting Lake.The number of water birds in Bai Lake and Dingzidi maintained the same level as in midwinter,but declined to the lowest level in Chunfeng Lake.

  17. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 14. Birds of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, G.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report characterizes the bird life found in 100 counties of the four states peripheral to Lake Michigan. It discusses major habitats (the Lake Michigan shoreline, inland lakes, rivers and streams, marshes, fields and open spaces, and woodlots) and associates specific birds with habitats according to preferences for space and food. It also discusses the special attributes of state parks and lakeshores, refuges and sanctuaries, and other special areas which are attractive to avifauna. Patterns of historical occurrence and abundance, and the influence of pesticides and pollution, disease, and hunting pressure are explored to place present occurrence in a modern perspective. Migration patterns are discussed to explain increases and decreases which occur in nonresident avifauna of the Basin. The distribution and habits of birds that occur regularly in the Basin are described in an annotated list; a more complete list is presented in a table which encapsulates data for rapid and convenient reference. Separate sections deal with extinct, extirpated, and introduced species, and with endangered, threatened, and declining species.

  18. Inventory of wetland birds occupying WPAs in the Devils Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary focus of this survey was the non-game bird species found in wetlands; game bird species found to be using the wetlands were also recorded. Both...

  19. Using Social Media to Measure the Contribution of Red List Species to the Nature-Based Tourism Potential of African Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemen, Louise; Cottam, Andrew J; Drakou, Evangelia G; Burgess, Neil D

    2015-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are defined by people's perception of the environment, which make them hard to quantify systematically. Methods to describe cultural benefits from ecosystems typically include resource-demanding survey techniques, which are not suitable to assess cultural ecosystem services for large areas. In this paper we explore a method to quantify cultural benefits through the enjoyment of natured-based tourism, by assessing the potential tourism attractiveness of species for each protected area in Africa using the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. We use the number of pictures of wildlife posted on a photo sharing website as a proxy for charisma, popularity, and ease of observation, as these factors combined are assumed to determine how attractive species are for the global wildlife tourist. Based on photo counts of 2473 African animals and plants, species that seem most attractive to nature-based tourism are the Lion, African Elephant and Leopard. Combining the photo counts with species range data, African protected areas with the highest potential to attract wildlife tourists based on attractive species occurrence were Samburu National Reserve in Kenya, Mukogodo Forest Reserve located just north of Mount Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park in South-Africa. The proposed method requires only three data sources which are freely accessible and available online, which could make the proposed index tractable for large scale quantitative ecosystem service assessments. The index directly links species presence to the tourism potential of protected areas, making the connection between nature and human benefits explicit, but excludes other important contributing factors for tourism, such as accessibility and safety. This social media based index provides a broad understanding of those species that are popular globally; in many cases these are not the species of highest conservation concern. PMID:26068111

  20. Using Social Media to Measure the Contribution of Red List Species to the Nature-Based Tourism Potential of African Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Willemen

    Full Text Available Cultural ecosystem services are defined by people's perception of the environment, which make them hard to quantify systematically. Methods to describe cultural benefits from ecosystems typically include resource-demanding survey techniques, which are not suitable to assess cultural ecosystem services for large areas. In this paper we explore a method to quantify cultural benefits through the enjoyment of natured-based tourism, by assessing the potential tourism attractiveness of species for each protected area in Africa using the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. We use the number of pictures of wildlife posted on a photo sharing website as a proxy for charisma, popularity, and ease of observation, as these factors combined are assumed to determine how attractive species are for the global wildlife tourist. Based on photo counts of 2473 African animals and plants, species that seem most attractive to nature-based tourism are the Lion, African Elephant and Leopard. Combining the photo counts with species range data, African protected areas with the highest potential to attract wildlife tourists based on attractive species occurrence were Samburu National Reserve in Kenya, Mukogodo Forest Reserve located just north of Mount Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park in South-Africa. The proposed method requires only three data sources which are freely accessible and available online, which could make the proposed index tractable for large scale quantitative ecosystem service assessments. The index directly links species presence to the tourism potential of protected areas, making the connection between nature and human benefits explicit, but excludes other important contributing factors for tourism, such as accessibility and safety. This social media based index provides a broad understanding of those species that are popular globally; in many cases these are not the species of highest conservation concern.

  1. Using Social Media to Measure the Contribution of Red List Species to the Nature-Based Tourism Potential of African Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemen, Louise; Cottam, Andrew J; Drakou, Evangelia G; Burgess, Neil D

    2015-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are defined by people's perception of the environment, which make them hard to quantify systematically. Methods to describe cultural benefits from ecosystems typically include resource-demanding survey techniques, which are not suitable to assess cultural ecosystem services for large areas. In this paper we explore a method to quantify cultural benefits through the enjoyment of natured-based tourism, by assessing the potential tourism attractiveness of species for each protected area in Africa using the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. We use the number of pictures of wildlife posted on a photo sharing website as a proxy for charisma, popularity, and ease of observation, as these factors combined are assumed to determine how attractive species are for the global wildlife tourist. Based on photo counts of 2473 African animals and plants, species that seem most attractive to nature-based tourism are the Lion, African Elephant and Leopard. Combining the photo counts with species range data, African protected areas with the highest potential to attract wildlife tourists based on attractive species occurrence were Samburu National Reserve in Kenya, Mukogodo Forest Reserve located just north of Mount Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park in South-Africa. The proposed method requires only three data sources which are freely accessible and available online, which could make the proposed index tractable for large scale quantitative ecosystem service assessments. The index directly links species presence to the tourism potential of protected areas, making the connection between nature and human benefits explicit, but excludes other important contributing factors for tourism, such as accessibility and safety. This social media based index provides a broad understanding of those species that are popular globally; in many cases these are not the species of highest conservation concern.

  2. A new species of Chrysobothris Eschscholtz (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from nests of Cerceris fumipennis Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in northeastern Florida, USA, with new state records for species of Chrysobothris and a list of buprestid prey species taken by the wasp in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Westcott, Richard L.; Thomas, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Chrysobothris cerceripraeda Westcott and Thomas (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is described from prey specimens found in nests of the ground-nesting wasp, Cerceris fumipennis Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae), near Jacksonville, Florida, USA. A listing for all species of Buprestidae taken as prey of the wasp in that state is provided, four of which, including the species described herein, are new. Notes are also given for four new state records for Buprestidae.

  3. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  4. Two new species of calcareous sponges (Porifera: Calcarea) from the deep Antarctic Eckstrom Shelf and a revised list of species found in Antarctic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Hans Tore; Göcke, Christian; Tendal, Ole Secher;

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports on two new species of calcareous sponges (Porifera, Calcarea) from the Antarctic Weddell Sea, Clathrina brandtae sp. nov. and Leucetta delicata sp. nov., collected at 600 m depth during the ANT XXIV/2-SYSTCO expedition in January 2008. The new species are described based...

  5. Species list of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) of Santarém area, Pará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Bernard

    2001-01-01

    Despite its enormous area, diversity of habitat, and bat species, studies in the Brazilian Amazon represent just a small portion of the bat research in the South América. Consequently, the distribution of the major part of the bat species in the Brazilian Amazon remains incompletely documented. Conservation strategies involving bat species in the Brazilian Amazon may be difficult without more information about geographic distribution, status, roost, food preferences, and reproduction of the s...

  6. Louisiana ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for waterfowl species and shorebirds in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  7. Birding: An Introduction to Ornithological Delights for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    The booklet provides resources for blind and visually handicapped individuals interested in birding as a hobby. It describes a midwestern group of visually impaired birders and discusses the importance and variety of bird sounds. Listed are a selection of recorded and braille books available on birding, sources of commercial recordings of bird…

  8. Bird sexing by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Birds are traditionally classified as male or female based on their anatomy and plumage color as judged by the human eye. Knowledge of a bird's gender is important for the veterinary practitioner, the owner and the breeder. The accurate gender determination is essential for proper pairing of birds, and knowing the gender of a bird will allow the veterinarian to rule in or out gender-specific diseases. Several biochemical methods of gender determination have been developed for avian species where otherwise the gender of the birds cannot be determined by their physical appearances or characteristics. In this contribution, we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a suitable tool for a quick and objective determination of the bird's gender. The method is based on differences in chromosome size. Male birds have two Z chromosomes and female birds have a W-chromosome and a Z-chromosome. Each Z-chromosome has approx. 75.000.000 bps whereas the W-chromosome has approx. 260.00 bps. This difference can be detected by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded from germ cells obtained from the feather pulp of chicks as well as from the germinal disk of fertilized but non-bred eggs. Significant changes between cells of male and female birds occur in the region of phosphate vibrations around 1080 and 1120 cm-1.

  9. An inventory of wetland non-passerine birds along a southeastern Brazilian coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Tavares

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the list of non-passerine birds of coastal environments of the Quissama municipality, northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The surveys were conducted monthly between June 2011 and May 2012. Additional ad libitum observations were made between February 2008 and July 2012. We recorded 76 waterbird species of 15 families, of which Scolopacidae was the most representative, with 15 species. The high Nearctic shorebird species richness observed in coastal lagoons in Quissama (17 species is an evidence of the important role of the region as staging site for migratory birds at national level. Also, nine of the species recorded are threatened at regional and one is threatened at national level. It should be emphasized that three species considered locally extinct in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, the most extensively surveyed area in the State, were recorded in the present study. Additionally, we present a high number of previously unrecorded species in northern Rio de Janeiro, and report the first documented record of Stercorarius pomarinus in Rio de Janeiro State. The region has a notorious Waterbird richness including endangered and migratory species, when compared to other coastal areas of the state.

  10. 77 FR 51767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Five Species of Sturgeon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... spawn in freshwater habitats while spending part of their life cycle in marine or estuarine waters (i.e...--Persian sturgeon; A. stellatus--stellate sturgeon/star sturgeon; A. baerii--Siberian sturgeon; A... species under the ESA (``DPS Policy''; 61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS...

  11. 76 FR 46361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... encroachment by nonnative plant and animal species. Oahu Ecosystems The seven Oahu ecosystems that support the... ecosystem, but may include some specialized plants and animals such as nesting seabirds and the rare native... extinction of plant species that currently have fewer than 50 individuals remaining in the wild on...

  12. Fauna of Simuliidae (Diptera from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: distribution, new records and list of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bertazo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of Simuliidae (Diptera from the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: Distribution, new records and list of species. The fauna of Simuliidae in Brazil is composed of 87 species, 17 of which are recorded from the state of Espírito Santo. Entomological collections were carried out in 2010-2011 with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the species richness of this family in the state. Ninety three rivers and streams were sampled, each collection being carried out in a 50m transect. During the study period 30 species were collected, 13 of which represent new records for the state, 12 of the genus Simulium and one of the genus Lutzsimulium. Among these new state records one, Simulium lobatoi, also represents a new record from southeastern Brazil. The other newly recorded species are: Lutzsimulium hirticosta, Simulium distinctum, Simulium exiguum, Simulium oyapockense, Simulium botulibranchium, Simulium petropoliense, Simulium clavibranchium, Simulium rappae, Simulium minusculum, Simulium dinellii, Simulium ochraceum and Simulium scutistriatum.

  13. Mathevotaenia niuguiniensis n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae: Linstowiinae) from the water-rat Parahydromys asper (Thomas) in Papua New Guinea, with a list of species of Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Ian

    2008-11-01

    A new species of cestode, Mathevotaenia niuguiniensis n. sp. (Anoplocephalidae: Linstowiinae), is described from the hydromyine rodent Parahydromys asper (Thomas) in Papua New Guinea. This is the third species of the genus reported from the Australasian region. The new species differs from all congeners in rodents by having an elongate cirrus-sac, which crosses the osmoregulatory canals and extends into the medulla, compared with a short, ovoid cirrus-sac which does not penetrate into the medulla in congeners. It differs from the known Australian species, M. antechini (Beveridge, 1977) and M. nyctophili (Hickman, 1954), found in dasyurid marsupials and bats respectively, by lacking a complex of anastomosing osmoregulatory canals in each segment. A list of all known species of Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946, their host genera, host families and geographical distribution is provided. New combinations proposed in this report are: M. dipodomi (Bienek & Grundmann, 1973) n. comb. (transferred from Schizorchodes Bienek & Grundman, 1973), M. genettae (Ortlepp, 1937) n.comb., M. mephitis (Skinker, 1935) n. comb., M. pedunculata (Chandler, 1952) n. comb., M. wallacei (Chandler, 1952) n. comb. (transferred from Oschmarenia Spasskii, 1951) and M. oedipomidatis (Stunkard, 1965) n. comb. (transferred from Paratriotaenia Stunkard, 1965). PMID:18815898

  14. Recent status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Saipan, Mariana Islands, with emphasis on the endangered Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, R.J.; Pratt, T.K.; Marshall, A.P.; Amidon, F.; Williams, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The avifauna of the Mariana Islands, an archipelago in the western Pacific, faces the threats of rapid economic development and the spread of non-native species, particularly a devastating predator, Brown Tree Snake Boiga irregularis. In this paper, we examine the status and trends of the land bird fauna of Saipan Island based on three island-wide surveys conducted in 1982, 1997, and 2007. During this period, the human population on Saipan increased more than four-fold and much of the island has been developed. The surveys employed standard point-transect methods based on Distance Sampling. Remarkably, we found nearly all species of land birds - 11 native species and three introduced species - to be common or abundant. The exception was the Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperouse, a historically rare species that was not observed on the 2007 survey, although it does persist on Saipan and other Mariana islands. A comparison of species densities among the three surveys showed that seven species, mainly fruit and seed-eaters, had increased and three species of insectivorous birds had decreased - Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinia, and Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei. Of these three, Nightingale Reed-warbler is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and as an Endangered Species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Reed-warbler densities on Saipan decreased by more than half between 1982 and 2007. Although point transect sampling worked well for this species, density estimates and trends assessment could be improved by reallocating sampling stations among habitats and by more frequent sampling. ?? BirdLife International 2009.

  15. THE BIODIVERSITY AT SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MIGRATORY BIRDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar; Meena Srivastav

    2013-01-01

    Indian subcontinent plays host to a number of migratory birds in summers as well as winters. It is estimated that over hundred species of migratory birds fly to India, either in search of feeding grounds or to escape the severe winter of their native habitat. Sandi bird sanctuary was created in 1990 in order to protect and conserve the natural habitation and surroundings and also the marine vegetation for the migratory birds, as well as for the local people of the region. The term migration i...

  16. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution.

  17. Analysis of the effects of Stillwater NWR proposed water management on Newlands Project Operations and Truckee River listed species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In response to a change in Stillwater NWR Complex purposes, an analysis was performed to evaluate potential impacts to endangered species and Newlands Project...

  18. 我国鸟类原虫种类与感染状况研究进展%RESEARCH PROGRESS ON PROTOZOAN SPECIES AND INFECTION STATUS IN BIRDS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李榴佳; 黄兵; 舒凡帆; 吴有陵

    2013-01-01

    的防控和保护鸟类具有十分重要的指导意义。%Protozoa are a group of common parasites in birds and puts a threaten to public health in humans. In order to keep abreast of the recent protozoan species and infection status in birds in China, we have reviewed a lot of literatures about protozoan studies. In summary, 70 species of protozoa have been recorded in birds of China. These species are classified into 3 phyla (Apicomplexa, Sarcomastigophora, Sarcomastigophora), 4 classes (Sporozoa, Zoomastigophora, Lobosasida, Blastocystidea), 5 orders (Eucoccidiorida,Haemospororida, Trichomonadorida, Amoebida, Blastocystida), 9 families (Eimeiridae, Cryptosporidiidae, Sarcocystidae, Plasmodiidae, Leucocystozoidae, Monocercomonadidae, Trichomonadidae, Entamoebidae, Blastocystidae), and 12 genera. There are 23 species in Plasmodium, 20 species in Eimeria, 15 species in Leucocytozoon, 3 species in Cryptosporidium, 2 species in Isospora, and 1 species in each of Toxoplasm, Haemoproteus, Histomonas, Trichomonas, Entamoeba, Endolimax and Blastocystis. All in all, common protozoa in birds are coccidia, Plasmodium and Cryptosporidium. Coccidia, Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Trichomonad often cause infection in birds and Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Amoeba and Blastocystis can infect humans. Understanding on protozoan species and infections in birds may provide important guidance for the control of protozoosis in China.

  19. Seasonal bird use of canopy gaps in a bottomland forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Liessa, T,; Moorman, Christopher, E.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2007-04-01

    ABSTRACT.—Bird use of small canopy gaps within mature forests has not been well studied, particularly across multiple seasons. We investigated seasonal differences in bird use of gap and forest habitat within a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Gaps were 0.13- to 0.5-ha, 7- to 8-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings. Our study occurred during four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, postbreeding, and fall migration) in 2001 and 2002. We used plot counts and mist netting to estimate bird abundance in canopy gaps and surrounding mature forest habitats. Using both survey methods, we observed more birds, including forest-interior species, forest-edge species, field-edge species, and several individual species in canopy gap and gap-edge habitats than in surrounding mature forest during all periods. Interactions between period and habitat type often were significant in models, suggesting a seasonal shift in habitat use. Bird activity generally shifted between the interior of canopy gaps and the immediate gap edge, but many species increased their use of forested habitat during the breeding period. This suggests that many species of birds selectively choose gap and gap-edge habitat over surrounding mature forest during the non-breeding period. Creation of small canopy gaps within a mature forest may increase local bird species richness. The reasons for increased bird activity in gaps remain unclear.

  20. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey. PMID:25055637