WorldWideScience

Sample records for bird flu genome

  1. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Ali; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  2. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  3. BIRD FLU MASKS

    OpenAIRE

    YASAR KESKIN; OÐUZ OZYARAL

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a disease of birds caused by influenza viruses closely related to human influenza viruses. The potential for transformation of avian influenza into a form that both causes severe disease in humans and spreads easily from person to person is a great concern for world health. The main purpose of a mask is to help prevent particles (droplets) being expelled into the environment by the wearer. Masks are also resistant to fluids, and help protect the wearer from splas...

  4. CTL epitopes for influenza A including the H5N1 bird flu; genome-, pathogen-, and HLA-wide screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M.J.; Lamberth, K.; Harndahl, M.;

    2007-01-01

    present in the emerging bird flu isolates. Our study demonstrates that present technology enables a fast global screening for T cell immune epitopes of potential diagnostics and vaccine interest. This technology includes immuno-bioinformatics predictors with the capacity to perform fast genome-, pathogen...

  5. Cooperation bibliogram of bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmann, Johannes; Grohmann, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    The published literature on Bird Flu, now a pandemic animal disease with a possible potential of evolving into a devastating human disease, was analysed primarily with respect of national and international cooperations and networks of authors and countries. The output of research-relevant papers is now around 150 per year and was less than 100 papers per year before 2003. The field is highly cooperative; nearly 90% of the articles have two or more authors. National extramural cooperation is ...

  6. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu ... WhiteHouse.gov USA.gov GobiernoUSA.gov BusinessUSA.gov Flu Basics Symptoms (CDC) Prevention (CDC) Treatment (CDC) Vaccination ( ...

  7. Is China Ready for Bird Flu?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Besides a clear plan to deal with bird flu, a leading epidemic expert warns the biggest challenge is raising public awareness Premier Wen Jiabao said in his government work report, presented March 5 at the annual session of the National People's Congress, China's top legislature, that the country is attaching great attention to the prevention and control of

  8. Bird Flu Outbreak Worries Global Experts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danile; Habet; 汪凯旋

    2004-01-01

    [提示]猴年春节前后,SARS的阴影尚未离开,一个新的可怕的名词"禽流感"(bird flu)又出现在我们的身边。何为"禽流感"?它是禽流行性感冒的简称,鸡和其它家禽及野鸟都能被感染。禽流感可分为高致病性,低致病性和非致病性三类。其中高致病性禽流感发病率和死亡性高,感染的鸡群常"全军覆没"。禽流感被发现100多年来,人类仅能以消毒、隔离、大量宰杀禽畜的方法来防止其蔓延。去年年底和今年1月,韩国、日本和越南相继爆发禽流感。禽流感与人类的流感的致病痛毒均为甲型流感病毒。甲型流感病毒可分为H1到H15和H7型,而人类主要对H1和H3型易感。本文指出,禽流感的可怕之处在于:If abird flu pandemic occurs,could it be stopped?Many experts fear not.但是,值得庆幸的是,迄今为止,我国尚未发现由于吃鸡肉和鸡蛋而受到感染的病例。

  9. Bird Flu Outbreak Worries Global Experts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯旋

    2004-01-01

    @@ 猴年春节前后,SARS的阴影尚未离开,一个新的可怕的名词"禽流感"(bird flu)又出现在我们的身边.何为"禽流感?"它是禽流行性感冒和简称,鸡和其它家禽及野鸟都能被感染.禽流感可分为高致性,低致病和非致病性三类.其中高致病性禽流感发病率和死亡性高,感染的鸡群常"全军覆没".禽流感被发现100多年来,人类仅能以消毒、隔离、大量宰杀禽畜的方法来防止其蔓延。去年年底和今年1月,韩国、日本和越南相继爆发禽流感.

  10. Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

  11. Use of Protective Gear in Bird Flu Outbreak Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-29

    CDC's Dr. Oliver Morgan discusses how the use of masks and other protective gear impacted whether workers dealing with an outbreak of bird flu in England became sick. The paper is published in the January 2009 issue of CDC’s journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 12/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2008.

  12. BFluenza: A Proteomic Database on Bird Flu

    OpenAIRE

    Salahuddin, Parveen; Khan, Asad U.

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as “bird flu” has been documented to cause an outbreak of respiratory diseases in humans. The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza type A is a threat to veterinary and human health. The BFluenza is a relational database which is solely devoted to proteomic information of H5N1 subtype. Bfluenza has novel features including computed physico-chemical properties data of H5N1 viral proteins, modeled structures of viral proteins, data ...

  13. Vaksin Polivalen Untuk Mencegah Penyakit Flu Burung (POLIVALEN VACCINE TO PREVENT BIRD FLU DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suartha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the use of bird flu polyvalent vaccines containing two or threeor more virus isolates representating of circulating viruses in the region. Three seed isolates of avianinfluenza H5N1 virus were used in this experiment. The isolates were Chicken/Denpasar/Unud-01/2004,Chicken/Klungkung/Unud-12/2006, and Chicken/Jembrana/Unud-17/2006. The seeds were inactivatedusing 0.01% formaldehide than mixed (AI3G alumunium hidroxide adjuvant and then injectedintramuscularly to Isa Brown layer chicken at 3 weeks of age and repeated at the age of 5 weeks. The doseof each seed virus was 27 HA units. Sera were collected at one and two weeks after the second vaccination.The result showed that the arithmetic meant titer (AMT of sera that tested with homologous isolate washigher than the test using a heterologous isolates, in the standard haemaglutination inhibition (HI assay.The mixed AI3G vaccine produced a uniform AMT against the constituent isolates, while vaccines withindividual isolate yielded a lower and more variation in AMT. Further experiments using a commercialhomologous H5N1 and heterologous H5N2 commercial vaccines has resulted AMT that 1-4 log lower thanAI3G vaccine. It is concluded that polyvalent vaccine with field seed isolates is recommended to be appliedin the poultry farm in Indonesia.

  14. Mathematical formulation and numerical simulation of bird flu infection process within a poultry farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Arrival Rince; Nova, Tertia Delia; Watanabe, M.

    2016-02-01

    Bird flu infection processes within a poultry farm are formulated mathematically. A spatial effect is taken into account for the virus concentration with a diffusive term. An infection process is represented in terms of a traveling wave solutions. For a small removal rate, a singular perturbation analysis lead to existence of traveling wave solutions, that correspond to progressive infection in one direction.

  15. Understanding Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Flu Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone seems to ...

  16. Sellers to Preventive and Control Measures on Bird Flu, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated was the knowledge of preventive measures of avian influenza from farmers, live chicken sellers, and poultry veterinarian in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study using standardized questionnaire was conducted. Respondents included 236 poultry farmers, live chicken sellers (LCS, and veterinarian aged 12–70 years in contact with birds through husbandry. The study duration was from October 2010 to May 2011. Participants knowledge on transmission sources showed low understanding with highest being from bird-bird (57.3%. The medium most commonly utilized was electronic media (82.5% as information source. Respondents thought that vaccination of birds (80.6% would prevent infection. Farmers’ education on bird flu needs to be improved through veterinary public health and health promotion approach. Nonpharmaceutical preventive measures such as hand washing freely and avoidance of eye, nose, and mouth touching must be improved.

  17. Clinical presentation of the new emerging infectious disease,H6N1 bird flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy; Joob; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    To the editor,The newest emerging influenza which has just been reported in November 2013 from Taiwan province is the H6N1 bird flu.This infeetion is the emerging zoonotic influenza which crosses species from avian to human beings[1.2].The first indexed case in Taiwan presented with acute respiratory illness,which is concordant with the clinical feature of acute influenza infection[1,2].

  18. Research priorities in modeling the transmission risks of H7N9 bird flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of H7N9 bird flu in eastern China in early 2013 has caused much attention from researchers as well as public health workers. The issue on modeling the transmission risks is very interesting topic. In this article, this issue is debated and discussed in order to promote further researches on prediction and prevention of avian influenza viruses supported by better interdisciplinary datasets from the surveillance and response system. PMID:23927386

  19. Enlisting Genomics to Understand Flu Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Edward C.; Ghedin, Elodie; Miller, Naomi; Taylor, Jill; Bao, Yiming; St. George, Kirsten; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Salzberg, Steven L; Claire M Fraser; Lipman, David J; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of influenza A viruses in humans is important for surveillance and vaccine strain selection. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of 156 complete genomes of human H3N2 influenza A viruses collected between 1999 and 2004 from New York State, United States, and observed multiple co-circulating clades with different population frequencies. Strikingly, phylogenies inferred for individual gene segments revealed that multiple reassortment events had occurred among these ...

  20. Social representation of a food risk: the Hong Kong avian bird flu epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Hélène; Lee, N Y Louis

    2004-07-01

    The paper explores the social representation of the 2001 Hong Kong avian bird flu epidemic from the perspective of local women. Fifty women were asked to describe their first thoughts about the flu, and these were subsequently explored. Thematic analysis of the semi-structured interviews revealed that the first thoughts were characterized by: (a) the origin of the epidemic, (b) anchors for it, (c) emotions about it, and (d) images of it. Aspersion concerning the lack of hygiene of Mainland Chinese chicken rearers and chicken sellers in Hong Kong dominated the interviews. Other environmental factors were also stressed, as was regulation leniency and a drive to profit. Comparisons between old traditions and newer practices formed a central feature. The findings are discussed in terms of their continuity with western risk findings as well as their specific cultural nuances. PMID:15231054

  1. Avian influenza vaccines against H5N1 'bird flu'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

    2014-03-01

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have spread widely to more than 60 countries spanning three continents. To control the disease, vaccination of poultry is implemented in many of the affected countries, especially in those where H5N1 viruses have become enzootic in poultry and wild birds. Recently, considerable progress has been made toward the development of novel avian influenza (AI) vaccines, especially recombinant virus vector vaccines and DNA vaccines. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in vaccine development and use against H5N1 AIV in poultry. Understanding the properties of the available, novel vaccines will allow for the establishment of rational vaccination protocols, which in turn will help the effective control and prevention of H5N1 AI. PMID:24491922

  2. Faktor-Faktor Risiko Tertular Flu Burung di Desa-Desa Kabupaten Klungkung, Bali (THE RISK FACTOR OF BIRD FLU CASES IN VILLAGES IN KLUNGKUNG REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Badiwangsa Temaja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried  out to identify the risk factor of  bird flu cases in villages in Klungkung regency,Bali. The data were collected through observation and interviews using questionnaire to head of householdsin villages of which were officially recorded as infected and uninfected area of bird flu.  Data was analyzedusing chi-square test and odds ratio to see the relationship AI infection and risks factors, as well as howsignificance is the relationship between them. The study showed that the crucial risk factor to bird flucases in infected villages were ceremonies (odds ratio : 2.401 and traditional rituals (odds ratio 3.229.The occurrence to bird flu in both villages is significantly affected by the following fctors: (1 poultry forconsuming, ceremony, and traditional ritual from markets and collected poultry, (2 disposal of deadchicken in to the  river, (3 the operation of villages markets, (4 Trading of live  poultry, (5 Commercialpoultry livestock in respected villages, (6 herding duck after rice harvesting, (7 frequency  of traditionalceremonies  in the villages.

  3. The birds of Genome10K

    OpenAIRE

    OBrien, Stephen J; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Everyone loves the birds of the world. From their haunting songs and majesty of flight to dazzling plumage and mating rituals, bird watchers – both amateurs and professionals - have marveled for centuries at their considerable adaptations. Now, we are offered a special treat with the publication of a series of papers in dedicated issues of Science, Genome Biology and GigaScience (which also included pre-publication data release). These present the successful beginnings of an international int...

  4. Predicted epitopes of H5N1 bird flu virus by bioinformatics method: a clue for further vaccine development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwnanitkit

    2006-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: Bird flu or avian flu, caused by H5N1 virus, is a new emerging infectious disease. It is noted that this H5N1 virus jumped the species barrier and caused severe disease with high mortality in humans in many countries. The continued westward dissemination of H5N1 influenza A viruses in avian populations and the nearly 50% mortality of humans infected with H5N1 are a source of great international concern.1Providing sufficient antiviral drugs and development and approval of new vaccines are the keys for control of the possible emerging pandemic of this atypical influenza.1,2 Based on the advance in bioinformatics, the immunomics becomes a new alternative in vaccine development.3

  5. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous...... evolved very recently. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we uncover that the sequence and expression patterns of Z chromosome genes covary with their ages of becoming Z-linked. In contrast to the mammalian X chromosomes, such patterns are mainly driven by mutational bias and genetic drift in birds, due...... to the opposite sex-biased inheritance of Z vs. X....

  6. Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Overview Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the flu and its complications every year. Seasonal Flu Seasonal flu refers to the flu outbreaks that ...

  7. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  8. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology. PMID:18198116

  9. Current status, surveillance and control of avian flu in domestic and wild bird populations in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting several species of food producing birds (chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl, etc.), as well as pet birds and wild birds. The AI viruses are divided in two groups based on their ability to cause disease (pathogenicity). Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus spreads rapidly, may cause serious disease and result in high mortality rates (up to 100% within 48 hours). The low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) can causes mild disease that may be undetected or no symptoms at all in some species of birds. Since 1997 millions of chicken have been reported to have died due to HPAI H5N1 in countries of South-East Asia. In 2003 AI virus H7N7 affected poultry farms in Netherlands, then penetrated to Belgium and Germany. It had been considered that among human community there were circulating A viruses of 3 subtypes of H type (H1, H2 and H3) and 2 subtypes of N type (N1 and N2). However, for the recent years it has established that AI viruses as a result of mutation have changed their biological features and acquired a capacity of overcoming an interspecies barrier and affecting humans, mostly with lethal outcome. Once domestic birds are infected, avian influenza outbreaks can be difficult to control and often cause major economic impacts for poultry farmers in affected countries, since mortality rates are high and infected fowl generally must be destroyed -- the technical term is 'culled' -- in order to prevent the spread of the disease. Anatidae (ducks, geese and swans) is a group of water birds that is ecologically dependent on wetlands for at least some aspects of their annual cycle. Anatidae species use a wide range of wetlands, from the high arctic tundra, rivers and estuaries, freshwater or saline lakes, and ponds or swamps to coastal lagoons and inter-tidal coastal areas such as mud-flats, bays and the open sea. They also utilize man-made wetlands such as rice fields and other agricultural

  10. Importance of rapid testing to combat the global threat of bird flu.

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the important outcomes of the recently held meeting of the World Heatlh Organization (EHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the World Organization of Animal Heath (OIE) and the World Bank in Genevan NOvember 7- 9, 2005, on the threat of avian inluenza A(H5N1), was that there is still a window of opporntunity ot minimize teh threat to both the animal and human populations at the source (the birds) through rapied reduction of the viraal burgen of A(H5N1...

  11. Influenza - flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valčić Miroslav A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In epidemiology or in epizootiology, there are some infectious diseases that have potential for significant reduction of the susceptible species population. Over the past few decades, epidemiologists were concentrated on diseases that were 'modern' and made front-page news in tabloids. One should recall diseases like bovine spongiform encephalopathy, SARS and AIDS syndromes. However, we should always be aware of the most dangerous diseases such as our old friend, influenza, or simply, flu. In the past decade, we heard about 'bird' or 'swine' influenza. It is the same disease for different animal species as well as for man. Influenza owes its characteristics to specific virus biology as well as to the epidemiology-epizootiology characteristics of the susceptible species. Antigenic changes that took place thanks to reassortment mechanisms of the viral gene segments cause the onset of the new antigenic combinations of the hemaglutinin and neuraminidase molecules. As a result, new H and/or N antigenic formulas appear for the first time in totally susceptible animal and human populations. That means that in such circumstances, no person in the world is immune to the virus. In that case, such a virus can cause a pandemic with disastrous consequences since influenza is a disease with significant mortality, especially in some segments of the human (as well as animal population. Birds and swine are virus reservoirs, but these species are at the same time live test tubes in which the virus resides, changes and adapts itself not only to the original species but to other species as well. That means that there is no 'bird' or 'swine' flu. Influenza is an infection of several important animal species as well as man that have potential not only for the reduction of the population size but, in case of the human population, for influencing social and economic life. .

  12. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Avian Influenza Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  13. Bird Flu Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大忠

    2004-01-01

    假设你是学校广播站英文节目的编辑.请按照下面图画所示内容.用英语写一篇广播稿.向同学们介绍在发生禽流感疫情的情况下应采取的一些预防措施。

  14. The survey of H5N1 flu virus in wild birds in 14 Provinces of China from 2004 to 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Kou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza emerged in the year 1996 in Asia, and has spread to Europe and Africa recently. At present, effective monitoring and data analysis of H5N1 are not sufficient in Chinese mainland. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During the period from April of 2004 to August of 2007, we collected 14,472 wild bird samples covering 56 species of 10 orders in 14 provinces of China and monitored the prevalence of flu virus based on RT-PCR specific for H5N1 subtype. The 149 positive samples involved six orders. Anseriformes had the highest prevalence while Passeriformes had the lowest prevalence (2.70% versus 0.36%. Among the 24 positive species, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos had the highest prevalence (4.37%. A difference of prevalence was found among 14 provinces. Qinghai had a higher prevalence than the other 13 provinces combined (3.88% versus 0.43%. The prevalence in three species in Qinghai province (Pintail (Anas acuta, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos and Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula were obviously higher than those in other 13 provinces. The results of sequence analysis indicated that the 17 strains isolated from wild birds were distributed in five clades (2.3.1, 2.2, 2.5, 6, and 7, which suggested that genetic diversity existed among H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds. The five isolates from Qinghai came from one clade (2.2 and had a short evolutionary distance with the isolates obtained from Qinghai in the year 2005. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have measured the prevalence of H5N1 virus in 56 species of wild birds in 14 provinces of China. Continuous monitoring in the field should be carried out to know whether H5N1 virus can be maintained by wild birds.

  15. Flu Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main symptoms of flu are: headache sore throat fever chills muscle aches stuffy nose dry cough Someone with the flu may have a high fever — for example, that person's temperature may be around ...

  16. Diagnosing Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  17. "Stomach Flu"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > For Kids > "Stomach Flu" Print A A A Text Size en ... El virus estomacal" Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their ...

  18. Flu Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. Most people with the flu get better on their own. But it can ... cause complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to ...

  19. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  20. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Cause About the Flu Virus Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the virus. Influenza A virus. Credit: CDC Where Influenza Comes From In nature, the flu virus is ...

  1. Flu.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemics Current Situation Global Activities Research Activities History Flu Symptoms & Severity The flu is different from a ... you know if you have the flu? (CDC) Flu Vaccine Finder Your browser does not support iframes. ...

  2. Hypertoxic flu

    OpenAIRE

    D. L. Sulima; V. E. Karev; K. V. Zhdanov

    2014-01-01

    In the presented supervision the adverse variant of a current of a seasonal flu at the young man, led to a lethal outcome in 38 hours from the moment of the beginning of disease is described. Character established pathomorphological changes testifies to the limited possibilities of rendering of specialised medical aid by the patient with the hypertoxic form of a flu in a phase of already developed disease.

  3. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  4. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seasonal influenza; some of those illnesses result in death. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially ... flu each year. Since 2004-2005, flu-related deaths in children reported to CDC during regular flu seasons have ...

  5. Help Stop the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use the Flu Vaccine Finder at www.flu.gov to find nearby locations offering flu ... html National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/Flu U.S. Department of ...

  6. Large-scale genomic 2D visualization reveals extensive CG-AT skew correlation in bird genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xuemei

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bird genomes have very different compositional structure compared with other warm-blooded animals. The variation in the base skew rules in the vertebrate genomes remains puzzling, but it must relate somehow to large-scale genome evolution. Current research is inclined to relate base skew with mutations and their fixation. Here we wish to explore base skew correlations in bird genomes, to develop methods for displaying and quantifying such correlations at different scales, and to discuss possible explanations for the peculiarities of the bird genomes in skew correlation. Results We have developed a method called Base Skew Double Triangle (BSDT for exhibiting the genome-scale change of AT/CG skew as a two-dimensional square picture, showing base skews at many scales simultaneously in a single image. By this method we found that most chicken chromosomes have high AT/CG skew correlation (symmetry in 2D picture, except for some microchromosomes. No other organisms studied (18 species show such high skew correlations. This visualized high correlation was validated by three kinds of quantitative calculations with overlapping and non-overlapping windows, all indicating that chicken and birds in general have a special genome structure. Similar features were also found in some of the mammal genomes, but clearly much weaker than in chickens. We presume that the skew correlation feature evolved near the time that birds separated from other vertebrate lineages. When we eliminated the repeat sequences from the genomes, the AT and CG skews correlation increased for some mammal genomes, but were still clearly lower than in chickens. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSDT is an expressive visualization method for AT and CG skew and enabled the discovery of the very high skew correlation in bird genomes; this peculiarity is worth further study. Computational analysis indicated that this correlation might be a compositional characteristic

  7. FluGenome: a web tool for genotyping influenza A virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Guoqing; Rowley, Thaine; Garten, Rebecca; Donis, Ruben O.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are hosted by numerous avian and mammalian species, which have shaped their evolution into distinct lineages worldwide. The viral genome consists of eight RNA segments that are frequently exchanged between different viruses via a process known as genetic reassortment. A complete genotype nomenclature is essential to describe gene segment reassortment. Specialized bioinformatic tools to analyze reassortment are not available, which hampers progress in understanding its role...

  8. FluView National Flu Activity Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FluView National Flu Activity Map is a complementary widget to the state-by-state flu map widget introduced in the 2007-2008 flu season. This interactive map...

  9. FLU : teoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ollikainen, Antti

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni FLU on mykkäsarjakuva, joka on toteutettu sekä paperiversiona että digitaalisena älypuhelimelle tarkoitettuna versiona. Kirjallisessa osuudessa perehdyn tarinankerronnan perinteeseen ja käyn läpi sarjakuvan tekemisen prosessinkulkua.

  10. BIRD FLU AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar KESKIN; Oguz OZYARAL

    2006-01-01

    Despite significant medical progress, recent events have shown that infectious diseases have not lost importance. Indeed, the threat of worldwide epidemics has increased. Due to their high infectious ness and rapid person-to-person transmissibility, the emergence of new influenza viruses with pandemic potential poses an especially alarming situation in this regard. During the last decade highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza virus, including the H5N1 subtype, crossed the species barrie...

  11. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  12. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  13. Avian Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  14. Avian Flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  15. Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1▿

    OpenAIRE

    Matilla, Miguel A.; Pizarro-Tobias, Paloma; Roca, Amalia; Fernández, Matilde; Duque, Estrella; Molina, Lázaro; WU, XIAO; van der Lelie, Daniel; Gómez, Manuel J.; Segura, Ana; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2010-01-01

    We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

  16. Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matilla, M.A.; van der Lelie, D.; Pizarro-Tobias, P.; Roca, A.; Fernandez, M.; Duque, E.; Molina, L.; Wu, X.; Gomez, M. J.; Segura, A.; Ramos, J.-L.

    2011-03-01

    We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

  17. Birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    Geneva : WHO Press, 2008 - (Bonnefoy, X.; Kampen, H.; Sweeney, K.), s. 239-287 ISBN 978-92-890-7188-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : birds * urban ecosystem * pathogenic microorganisms Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine http://www.euro.who.int/document/e91435.pdf

  18. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  19. Two low coverage bird genomes and a comparison of reference-guided versus de novo genome assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daren C Card

    Full Text Available As a greater number and diversity of high-quality vertebrate reference genomes become available, it is increasingly feasible to use these references to guide new draft assemblies for related species. Reference-guided assembly approaches may substantially increase the contiguity and completeness of a new genome using only low levels of genome coverage that might otherwise be insufficient for de novo genome assembly. We used low-coverage (∼3.5-5.5x Illumina paired-end sequencing to assemble draft genomes of two bird species (the Gunnison Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus minimus, and the Clark's Nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana. We used these data to estimate de novo genome assemblies and reference-guided assemblies, and compared the information content and completeness of these assemblies by comparing CEGMA gene set representation, repeat element content, simple sequence repeat content, and GC isochore structure among assemblies. Our results demonstrate that even lower-coverage genome sequencing projects are capable of producing informative and useful genomic resources, particularly through the use of reference-guided assemblies.

  20. Two low coverage bird genomes and a comparison of reference-guided versus de novo genome assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Daren C.; Schield, Drew R.; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Fujita, Matthre K.; Andrew, Audra L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Tomback, Diana F.; Ruggiero, Robert P.; Castoe, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    As a greater number and diversity of high-quality vertebrate reference genomes become available, it is increasingly feasible to use these references to guide new draft assemblies for related species. Reference-guided assembly approaches may substantially increase the contiguity and completeness of a new genome using only low levels of genome coverage that might otherwise be insufficient for de novo genome assembly. We used low-coverage (~3.5–5.5x) Illumina paired-end sequencing to assemble draft genomes of two bird species (the Gunnison Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus minimus, and the Clark's Nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana). We used these data to estimate de novo genome assemblies and reference-guided assemblies, and compared the information content and completeness of these assemblies by comparing CEGMA gene set representation, repeat element content, simple sequence repeat content, and GC isochore structure among assemblies. Our results demonstrate that even lower-coverage genome sequencing projects are capable of producing informative and useful genomic resources, particularly through the use of reference-guided assemblies.

  1. The Genome of the “Great Speciator” Provides Insights into Bird Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Cornetti, Luca; Valente, Luis M.; Dunning, Luke T.; Quan, Xueping; Black, Richard A.; Hébert, Olivier; Savolainen, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Among birds, white-eyes (genus Zosterops) have diversified so extensively that Jared Diamond and Ernst Mayr referred to them as the “great speciator.” The Zosterops lineage exhibits some of the fastest rates of species diversification among vertebrates, and its members are the most prolific passerine island colonizers. We present a high-quality genome assembly for the silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), a white-eye species consisting of several subspecies distributed across multiple islands. We ...

  2. Bird evolution: testing the Metaves clade with six new mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary biologists are often misled by convergence of morphology and this has been common in the study of bird evolution. However, the use of molecular data sets have their own problems and phylogenies based on short DNA sequences have the potential to mislead us too. The relationships among clades and timing of the evolution of modern birds (Neoaves has not yet been well resolved. Evidence of convergence of morphology remain controversial. With six new bird mitochondrial genomes (hummingbird, swift, kagu, rail, flamingo and grebe we test the proposed Metaves/Coronaves division within Neoaves and the parallel radiations in this primary avian clade. Results Our mitochondrial trees did not return the Metaves clade that had been proposed based on one nuclear intron sequence. We suggest that the high number of indels within the seventh intron of the β-fibrinogen gene at this phylogenetic level, which left a dataset with not a single site across the alignment shared by all taxa, resulted in artifacts during analysis. With respect to the overall avian tree, we find the flamingo and grebe are sister taxa and basal to the shorebirds (Charadriiformes. Using a novel site-stripping technique for noise-reduction we found this relationship to be stable. The hummingbird/swift clade is outside the large and very diverse group of raptors, shore and sea birds. Unexpectedly the kagu is not closely related to the rail in our analysis, but because neither the kagu nor the rail have close affinity to any taxa within this dataset of 41 birds, their placement is not yet resolved. Conclusion Our phylogenetic hypothesis based on 41 avian mitochondrial genomes (13,229 bp rejects monophyly of seven Metaves species and we therefore conclude that the members of Metaves do not share a common evolutionary history within the Neoaves.

  3. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and South America. Does bat flu pose a threat to human health? Preliminary laboratory research at CDC ... a flu virus to attach to and gain entry into a human respiratory tract cell. Likewise, NA ...

  4. Avoiding the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers for ...

  5. Rapid microsatellite identification from Illumina paired-end genomic sequencing in two birds and a snake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A Castoe

    Full Text Available Identification of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs, can be a time-consuming and costly investment requiring enrichment, cloning, and sequencing of candidate loci. Recently, however, high throughput sequencing (with or without prior enrichment for specific SSR loci has been utilized to identify SSR loci. The direct "Seq-to-SSR" approach has an advantage over enrichment-based strategies in that it does not require a priori selection of particular motifs, or prior knowledge of genomic SSR content. It has been more expensive per SSR locus recovered, however, particularly for genomes with few SSR loci, such as bird genomes. The longer but relatively more expensive 454 reads have been preferred over less expensive Illumina reads. Here, we use Illumina paired-end sequence data to identify potentially amplifiable SSR loci (PALs from a snake (the Burmese python, Python molurus bivittatus, and directly compare these results to those from 454 data. We also compare the python results to results from Illumina sequencing of two bird genomes (Gunnison Sage-grouse, Centrocercus minimus, and Clark's Nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana, which have considerably fewer SSRs than the python. We show that direct Illumina Seq-to-SSR can identify and characterize thousands of potentially amplifiable SSR loci for as little as $10 per sample--a fraction of the cost of 454 sequencing. Given that Illumina Seq-to-SSR is effective, inexpensive, and reliable even for species such as birds that have few SSR loci, it seems that there are now few situations for which prior hybridization is justifiable.

  6. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Neuraminidase Gene Reveals that the H5N1 Strains Prevalent in Chickens During 2006 Bird Flu Outbreaks in Two Regions of Maharashtra, India Are Genetically Different

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd Danishuddin; Asad U. Khan

    2009-01-01

    In February 2006, two outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H5N1 occurred in chickens in two neighboring districts (first in Nandurbar and second in Jaigaon) of Maharashtra, India, in a span of 12 days. In the present study, the neuraminidase (NA) gene of the two Indian H5N1 isolates was taken into consideration to find if the two strains are genetically similar. Phylogenetic analysis of the NA gene showed that the H5N1 strains isolated from the two outbreaks were not originated from the same source. The first Indian isolate (Nandubar/7972/06) was clustered closest to an isolate from chicken in Vietnam in 2004, whereas the second Indian isolate (Jalgaon/8824/06) showed resemblance to strains isolated from swan in Italy and Iran in 2006. Moreover, amino acid sequence analysis showed varying hot spots for substitutions between these two Indian isolates, and three substitutions were found at functional domain sites. Secondary structure changes due to these substitutions were also reported. This study reveals that the H5N1 strains isolated from chickens during 2006 bird flu outbreaks in two neighboring districts of Maharashtra, India are genetically different.

  7. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  8. The Research Progress about the Role of Wild Birds in the Bird Flu Epidemic%野鸟对禽流感流行的作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李栋

    2014-01-01

    Bird lfu outbreak suddenly in silence after a period of time, which cause high morbidity and high mortality. Birds can not only carry the bird lfu virus can also spread the virus. Wild birds and there exists A long-term relationship between inlfuenza A viruses. Avian inlfuenza virus is a pathogenic microbes, it through a lot of genetic variation and quickly adapt to the environment, the pathogenicity is a result from a variety of virulence factors. The paper simply introduces the role of wild birds in the spread of the virus and mutation.%禽流感会在沉寂一段时间后突然大爆发,造成高发病率和高死亡率。野鸟有能力携带禽流感病毒,并广泛传播,野生鸟类和A型流感病毒之间存在着长期的进化和生态学联系。禽流感病毒是一个通过大量遗传变异而快速适应环境的病原微生物,其致病性是多种基因的毒力因子协同作用的结果。本文简介野鸟在病毒的传播和变异中的作用。

  9. Your baby and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babies and the flu; Your infant and the flu; Your toddler and the flu ... FLU SYMPTOMS IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and (sometimes) lungs. Call your baby’s health care provider if you notice any of ...

  10. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the flu? ... Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ...

  11. The Spanish flu as a worst case scenario?

    OpenAIRE

    John F. Moxnes; Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2011-01-01

    For preparation of pandemic plans for the H5N1 bird flu virus, it has been common practice among health authorities in several countries to use crude death figures from the Spanish flu pandemic as a worst case scenario. This has been done without taking into consideration either what is known about the molecular biology of malignant influenza viruses or the detailed statistical information that is available about the Spanish flu pandemic, as regards the variation of death risk as a function o...

  12. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Everyone 6 months of age and older should ...

  13. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend ... flu vaccine . The Flu Shot is Safe for Pregnant Women The risk of premature labor and delivery ...

  14. Influenza A aviária (H5N1: a gripe do frango Avian influenza A (H5N1: the bird flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina

    2005-10-01

    conducted using the Medline, MD Consult, HighWire, Medscape and Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature databases, as well as through direct research, limiting the scope to articles published within the past 10 years. We selected 31 original articles addressing the recent outbreaks of infection with the H5N1 subtype of avian influenza A in domesticated birds in Asia, which have resulted in significant economic losses and repercussions for public health, as well as some cases of human infection presenting high lethality. In most cases, infection has been associated with direct exposure to infected birds or contact with surfaces infected with bird excrement. However, cases of human-to-human transmission have been confirmed. In those cases, the incubation period varied from 2 to 4 days. The clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic infection to mild upper airway disease, pneumonia and multiple organ failure. Chest X-rays may reveal bilateral interstitial infiltrate, lobar collapse, focal consolidation and air bronchogram without pleural effusion. Lymphopenia is indicative of a poor prognosis. Supportive care appears to be the only acceptable treatment. Risk factors for poor prognosis include advanced age, delayed hospitalization, lower airway involvement, low white blood cell count or lymphopenia upon admission. Controlling outbreaks in domestic fowl and limiting contact between humans and infected birds must be the priorities in the management of this disease at the public health level. In addition, techniques and knowledge regarding the disease should be widely disseminated.

  15. Social versus independent interest in 'bird flu' and 'swine flu'

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Ormerod, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The explosion of interest in H1N1, more popularly called ‘swine flu’, across the world, from late April to early May 2009, exemplified how information transmission in modern online society can affect the spread of the disease itself. A simple but effective model based on cultural evolutionary theory can characterise in such data the effective degree of social transmission versus independent decision. In a novel approach that applies this model to Google Trends search data, we find significant...

  16. Swine flu in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    Emerging swine flu (variant H1N1 influenza virus infection)is a new problem in medicine.The outbreaks in Mexico,USA and Canada bring attention to medical scientists that thing infection might finalize in the global pandemic situation.In this specific paper,the author hereby discusses on the situation of swine flu in Asia.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Avian Paramyxovirus (APMV-13) Isolated from a Wild Bird in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamendin, K; Kydyrmanov, A; Seidalina, A; Asanova, S; Sayatov, M; Kasymbekov, E; Khan, E; Daulbayeva, K; Harrison, S M; Carr, I M; Goodman, S J; Zhumatov, K

    2016-01-01

    A novel avian paramyxovirus was identified during annual viral surveillance of wild bird populations in Kazakhstan in 2013. The virus was isolated from a white fronted goose (Anser albifrons) in northern Kazakhstan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the isolate, which we suggest should constitute a novel serotype. PMID:27198008

  18. Swine Flu: Prevention to Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Padda

    2015-01-01

    Swine flu, also known as swine influenza, pig influenza, hog flu and pig flu, is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses) that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behaviour. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Mostly people who are closely associated with pigs (for example, pork processors and farmers) acquire the infection and similarly pigs ...

  19. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  20. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be used to treat influenza illness. Antiviral drugs fight influenza viruses in your body. They are different from ... chills and fatigue. Your doctor may prescribe antiviral drugs to treat your flu illness. Should Istill get aflu vaccine? Yes. Antiviral ...

  1. Fighting the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-03-08

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges Native peoples to know the facts about the flu.  Created: 3/8/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/8/2011.

  2. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breastfeeding women get a flu vaccine? Why should pregnant women get a flu shot? Flu is more ... Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) . Is it safe for pregnant women and their developing babies to get a ...

  3. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2012-01-01

    In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1), pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in ...

  4. Researchers Shed More Light on Bird Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Brown; 于德江

    2006-01-01

    最近科学家们对禽流感有了进一步的认识。他们发现,普通流感病毒位于人类上呼吸道内,当人们咳嗽或者打喷嚏时,这些病毒会轻而易举地被喷出体外,使得其他人极易受到感染;而H5N1型禽流感病毒则大多位于人体的肺部细胞中,由于在人类呼吸道中聚集的位置太过靠下,所以很难在人们咳嗽或打喷嚏的过程中离开人体进入空气中,这就为H5N1难于人际传染找到了最新依据。尽管如此,我们不能排除这种病毒发生变异的可能性,所以应继续对其保持警惕,绝不能掉以轻心。

  5. SERO SURVEI DAN ANALISA PENGETAHUAN SIKAP PENJAMAH UNGGAS TERHADAP PENYAKIT FLU BURUNG DI INDONESIA TAHUN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Endah Pracoyo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bird flu in Indonesia actually is Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 type. Is known bird flu virus in Humans occur if direct contact with infected poultry or through contact with environmental enclosure, and the carcasses of infected poultry products. The absence of the data if the handlers of poultry in the cases of bird flu virus has been exposed to the research conducted sero survey of bird flu antibody titers in handlers poultry  attitudes and knowledge of poultry against bird flu incident. The research objective measure antibodies against respondents tirer AI H5N1 virus, assess knowledge and attitudes against bird flu handlers through the interview. The study design was cross sectional. Handlers of poultry population in the region is ever going Extraordinary Cases of bird flu. Samples were responders/poultry handlers venous blood taken for H5N1 antibody titer by Ellisa, H5N1 conducted interviews using a questionnaire. The study used the respondents informed consent agreement. Research time in February to November 2007 in the island of Java. The number of samples of 80 samples of respondents. The results obtained are not found of H5N1 avian influenza antibody titer in responders. The results of the interview most of the handlers to wash Their hands after doing Their job (82.1%. A total of 52.9% residential handlers is more than a mile from where the management of poultry, (69% lived outside market handlers/Abattoir of poultry.Handler to act entered correctly (53.3%% and almost all handlers (97% would bring the patient/patient ill with signs of bird flu infection to health facilities. Keywords: poultry handlers, bird flu virus, knowledge and attitudes of poultry handlers Abstrak Yang dimaksud Flu burung di Indonesia sebetulnya adalah Virus Avian Influenza dengan tipe H5N1. Selama ini diketahui penularan virus flu burung pada manusia terjadi jika kontak langsung dengan unggas yang terinfeksi atau melalui kontak dengan lingkungan kandang

  6. College students and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007446.htm College students and the flu To use the sharing features ... and a lot of social activities make a college student more likely to catch the flu. This article ...

  7. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the ...

  8. College students and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a lot of social activities make a college student more likely to catch the flu. This article will give you information about the flu and college students. This is not a substitute for medical advice ...

  9. Flu and People with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  10. Flu and People with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  11. Flu I.Q. Widget

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  12. Caring for Someone Sick (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  13. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  14. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gascuel Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions.

  15. FluBreaks: Early Epidemic Detection from Google Flu Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-01-01

    Background The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an e...

  16. Fighting Flu PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-15

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges American Indians and Alaska Natives to get vaccinated against seasonal flu.  Created: 2/15/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.   Date Released: 2/15/2011.

  17. Fighting Flu PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-15

    Wes Studi, Hollywood actor, urges American Indians and Alaska Natives to get vaccinated against seasonal flu.  Created: 2/15/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.   Date Released: 2/15/2011.

  18. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  19. On Flu Alert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On May 18, China Central Television (CCTV) interviewed Shu Yuelong, Director of the Chinese National Influenza Center, after it obtained the first A/H1N1 flu virus sample on the Chinese mainland from an imported case on May 17. Here are excerpts from the interview.

  20. Take Three: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  1. Warning Signs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of seasonal flu and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  2. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-13

    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.

  3. Flu and Holiday Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast explains the ways people can stay healthy and avoid the flu when traveling this winter.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/13/2010.

  4. Genome evolution of novel influenza A (H1N1)viruses in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Zheng; HU SongNian; LI TianXian

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic situation of A H1N1 flu arose in North America in April 2009,which rapidly expanded to three continents of Europe,Asia and Africa,with the risk ranking up to 5.Until May 13th,the flu virus of A H1N1 had spread into 33 countries and regions,with a laboratory confirmed case number of 5728,including 61 deaths.Based on IRV and EpiFluDB database,425 parts of A H1N1 flu virus sequence were achieved,followed by sequenced comparison and evolution analysis.The results showed that the current predominant A H1N1 flu virus was a kind of triple reassortment A flu virus:(i) HA,NA,MP,NP and NS originated from swine influenza virus;PB2 and PA originated from bird influenza virus;PB1 originated from human influenza virus.(ii) The origin of swine influenza virus could be subdivided as follows:HA,NP and NS originated from classic swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype;NA and MP originated from bird origin swine influenza virus of H1N1 subtype.(iii) A H1N1 flu virus experienced no significant mutation during the epidemic spread,accompanied with no reassortment of the virus genome.In the paper,the region of the representative strains for sequence analysis (A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) and A/Mexico/4486/2009 (H1N1)) included USA and Mexico and was relatively wide,which suggested that the analysis results were convincing.

  5. Influenza A H1N1 2009 (Swine Flu) and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Boon H.; Mahmood, Tahir A.

    2011-01-01

    The Influenza A H1N1 pandemic (A H1N1) occurred between June 2009 and August 2010. Although the pandemic is now over, the virus has emerged as the predominant strain in the current seasonal influenza phase in the northern hemisphere. The A H1N1 influenza is a novel strain of the influenza A virus and is widely known as swine flu. The virus contains a mixture of genetic material from human, pig and bird flu virus. It is a new variety of flu which people have not had much immunity to. Much has ...

  6. Expectant Mom's Flu Shot Protects 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158634.html Expectant Mom's Flu Shot Protects 2 Infants benefit when a woman gets ... strongly recommends that pregnant women get a flu shot during any trimester of pregnancy during flu season, ...

  7. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  8. [Christopher Columbus flu. A hypothesis for an ecological catastrophe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín

    2006-05-01

    When Christopher Columbus and his men embarked on the second Colombian expedition to the New World (1493), the crew suffered from fever, respiratory symptoms and malaise. It is generally accepted that the disease was influenza. Pigs, horses and hens acquired in Gomera (Canary Islands) traveled in the same ship. The pigs may well have been the origin of the flu and the intermediary hosts for genetic recombination of other viral subtypes. The Caribbean archipelago had a large population of birds, the natural reservoir of the avian influenza virus. In this ecological scenario there was a concurrence of several biological elements that had never before coexisted in the New World: pigs, horses, the influenza virus and humans. We propose that birds are likely to have played an important role in the epidemiology of the flu occurring on the second Colombian trip, which caused a fatal demographic catastrophe, with an estimated mortality of 90% among the natives. PMID:16762260

  9. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  10. Chicken genome mapping - Constructing part of a road map for mining this bird's DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to aid in the international chicken genome mapping effort. To this purpose, a significant contribution was made to the construction of the chicken whole-genome BAC-based physical map (presented in Chapter A). An important aspect of this constructi

  11. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot Flu vaccine comes in two forms: an injectable form (the flu shot) and a nasal spray. The nasal spray (or LAIV) ... pregnant women. Pregnant women should receive the flu shot. The nasal spray is for use in healthy ...

  12. Whole-Genome Identification, Phylogeny, and Evolution of the Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP2) Subfamilies in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran; Silva, Liliana; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. However, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of CYP2 subfamilies is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the CYP2 family across 48 avian whole genomes representing all major extant bird clades. Overall, 12 CYP2 subfamilies were identified, including the first description of the CYP2F, CYP2G, and several CYP2AF genes in avian genomes. Some of the CYP2 genes previously described as being lineage-specific, such as CYP2K and CYP2W, are ubiquitous to all avian groups. Furthermore, we identified a large number of CYP2J copies, which have been associated previously with water reabsorption. We detected positive selection in the avian CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, CYP2K, and CYP2AC subfamilies. Moreover, we identified new substrate recognition sites (SRS0, SRS2_SRS3, and SRS3.1) and heme binding areas that influence CYP2 structure and function of functional importance as under significant positive selection. Some of the positively selected sites in avian CYP2D are located within the same SRS1 region that was previously linked with the metabolism of plant toxins. Additionally, we find that selective constraint variations in some avian CYP2 subfamilies are consistently associated with different feeding habits (CYP2H and CYP2J), habitats (CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, and CYP2K), and migratory behaviors (CYP2D, CYP2H, and CYP2J). Overall, our findings indicate that there has been active enzyme site selection on CYP2 subfamilies and differential selection associated with different life history traits among birds. PMID:26979796

  13. Whole-Genome Identification, Phylogeny, and Evolution of the Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP2) Subfamilies in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran; Silva, Liliana; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Johnson, Warren E.; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. However, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of CYP2 subfamilies is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the CYP2 family across 48 avian whole genomes representing all major extant bird clades. Overall, 12 CYP2 subfamilies were identified, including the first description of the CYP2F, CYP2G, and several CYP2AF genes in avian genomes. Some of the CYP2 genes previously described as being lineage-specific, such as CYP2K and CYP2W, are ubiquitous to all avian groups. Furthermore, we identified a large number of CYP2J copies, which have been associated previously with water reabsorption. We detected positive selection in the avian CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, CYP2K, and CYP2AC subfamilies. Moreover, we identified new substrate recognition sites (SRS0, SRS2_SRS3, and SRS3.1) and heme binding areas that influence CYP2 structure and function of functional importance as under significant positive selection. Some of the positively selected sites in avian CYP2D are located within the same SRS1 region that was previously linked with the metabolism of plant toxins. Additionally, we find that selective constraint variations in some avian CYP2 subfamilies are consistently associated with different feeding habits (CYP2H and CYP2J), habitats (CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, and CYP2K), and migratory behaviors (CYP2D, CYP2H, and CYP2J). Overall, our findings indicate that there has been active enzyme site selection on CYP2 subfamilies and differential selection associated with different life history traits among birds. PMID:26979796

  14. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a

  15. Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Li, Cai; Li, Bo;

    2014-01-01

    and confirm independent gains of vocal learning. Among Columbea, we identify pigeons and flamingoes as belonging to sister clades. Even with whole genomes, some of the earliest branches in Neoaves proved challenging to resolve, which was best explained by massive protein-coding sequence convergence...

  16. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection Questions & Answers Language: English Españ ...

  17. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flu viruses. What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ... of age and older). How are benefits of vaccination measured? Public health researchers measure how well flu ...

  18. Swine Flu Threatens the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic spreads from Mexico to other countries at an alarming rate How serious is the swine flu? It is so sensitive that the White House had to reassure reporters that U.S. President Barack Obama is still in good health after visiting Mexico in mid-April. Besides the United States and Canada, swine flu cases have appeared in Europe and Asia. The world now faces a "public health emergency of

  19. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) URL of this page: https:// ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages To use the ...

  20. With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158514.html With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything Vaccination seems to provide ... 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu shots may be more effective when people get them ...

  1. Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158080.html Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk Australian researchers find possible ... March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A seasonal flu shot may reduce a pregnant woman's risk of stillbirth, ...

  2. Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Flu activity this season started ...

  3. With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158514.html With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything Vaccination seems to ... 26, 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu shots may be more effective when people get ...

  4. Schiffert Health Center issues campus flu update

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Cases of seasonal flu virus infection on campus have diminished, and so far the flu season has been less active than health authorities expected. Schiffert Health Center reports a much lower number of students seeking treatment for seasonal flu infections compared to the fall semester.

  5. Early warning: Avian flu and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian flu has spread to 51 countries, 36 this year alone, many of which are densely populated and deprived. The joint FAO/IAEA programme is working on the rapid detection of emerging diseases, including bird flu, and using nuclear and radiation techniques in the process. The problems are serious and challenging, but nuclear technologies may offer a solution. For most developing countries, TAD (transboundary animal diseases) detection is still vital. The bottleneck is their inability to rapidly detect the virus and to determine early enough whether it is H5N1 or another subtype, so that authorities can take appropriate control measures. Serious efforts are focused on the early detection of the agents. Timely recognition of such viral infections would prevent the spread of the diseases to large animal populations in huge geographic areas. Thus, the development of novel, powerful diagnostic nuclear and nuclear-related assays is a crucial issue today in veterinary research and animal health care. Molecular virology offers a range of new methods, which are able to accelerate and improve the diagnosis of infectious diseases in animals and in man. The molecular detection assays, like the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies, provide possibilities for a very rapid diagnosis. The detection of viruses can be completed within hours or hopefully even within minutes with a sensitivity level of less than one pathogenic organism. Molecular approaches have contributed significantly to the rapid detection of well-established, as well as newly emerging, infectious agents such as Nipah and Hendra viruses or corona viruses in the SARS scenario and the detection and molecular characterisation of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 subtype that threatens the world today. The nucleic acid amplification assays, although they were at first expensive and cumbersome, have become relatively cheap and user-friendly tools in the diagnostic laboratories

  6. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths for...... early wave of the flu occurred in the capital and major towns, but not in peripheral towns. Influenza incidence in 1918 peaked at age 5-15 y, closely followed by the age groups 1-5 y and 15-65 y, but the influenza mortality was highest in the age groups 0-1 y and 15-65 y, with a peak mortality at age 20...

  7. Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

  8. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  9. Your baby and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or the child has not urinated for the last 8 hours. Alternative Names Babies and the flu; Your infant and the ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  10. Global response to pandemic flu: more research needed on a critical front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Meng-Kin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract If and when sustained human-to-human transmission of H5N1 becomes a reality, the world will no longer be dealing with sporadic avian flu borne along migratory flight paths of birds, but aviation flu – winged at subsonic speed along commercial air conduits to every corner of planet Earth. Given that air transportation is the one feature that most differentiates present day transmission scenarios from those in 1918, our present inability to prevent spread of influenza by international air travel, as reckoned by the World Health Organization, constitutes a major weakness in the current global preparedness plan against pandemic flu. Despite the lessons of SARS, it is surprising that aviation-related health policy options have not been more rigorously evaluated, or scientific research aimed at strengthening public health measures on the air transportation front, more energetically pursued.

  11. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Katie E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos, an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu. Results We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey. Conclusion Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots". Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies.

  12. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159719.html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness ... 2016 TUESDAY, July 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A flu shot during pregnancy protects newborns against the flu ...

  13. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents It's ... There are two types of vaccines: The flu shot — an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is ...

  14. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... 1. Why get vaccinated? Influenza ("flu") is a contagious disease ... every year, usually between October and May. Flu is caused by ...

  15. Using EGEE against avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April 2006 avian flu was spreading across the world with the potential of turning into a pandemic, a drug to treat the deadly H5N1 strain was needed. Such a task required the huge processing power provided by EGEE, which analysed 300 000 possible drug components for their suitability. This map shows the network of computer centres and their activity during this time.

  16. SECONDARY INFECTIONS IN SWINE FLU

    OpenAIRE

    Duthade Mangala; Damle Ajit; Bhakare Jayshree; Bajaj.Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Swine influenza is respiratory disease of pigs ca used by type A influenza virus that causes regular outbr eak in pigs. Human to human transmission occurs. Some people develop severe respiratory symptoms and need ventilator. Patients can get secondary bacterial infections in the form of pneumonia if vi ral infections persist. Death of swine flu occurs d ue to secondary bacterial infections leading to bacter ial pneumonia...

  17. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  18. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and...

  19. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  20. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  1. Take Three Actions to Fight Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-07

    This podcast explains how vaccination, everyday preventive actions, and the correct use of antiviral drugs can help you fight both seasonal flu and 2009 H1N1 flu.  Created: 10/7/2009 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/7/2009.

  2. 禽流感专栏%Bird Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    专家赞成家禽禽流感免疫接种措施,孟加拉国禽流感扑杀补偿惹争议,禽流感检测新型设备问世,菲律宾对小型饲养场家禽实施禽流感疫苗针对性免疫,禽流感病毒变异降低了疫苗的效力,苏格兰各大学投资430万英镑组建禽流感处理中心.

  3. 直面禽流感%Confronted with Bird Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    然悠

    2005-01-01

    从罗马尼亚到希腊,从全欧洲到全球。最近一段时间,禽流感让全世界的神经都绷得紧紧的。世界卫生组织预测,禽流感一旦在人类中爆发,甚至可能导致1.5亿人死亡。10月25日我国外交部发言人透露,安徽天长市发现的禽流感疫情已被扑灭。此前,中国已相继公布青海湖、内蒙古两起疫情。被专家视为比SARS还要可怕的禽流感究竟是一种什么“恶魔”?我们又该如何预防和应对?

  4. WHO Sees No New Threat from Bird Flu in Cats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard; Waddington; 丁邻

    2004-01-01

    [提示]猴年伊始爆发的"禽流感"不断扩大了其受害群,距今已有泰国的两只家猫和一只动物园珍稀云豹相继感染上了相同的病毒,泰国变得人心惶惶。据世界卫生组织称,关于猫可能感染禽流感的消息还有待进一步科学证实,而且即便证明的确出现了猫感染禽流感的病例,人们也不必恐慌,因为病毒不一定会经猫再传播给人类。但是,正如本文指出的:Authorities must be on guard againstany further signs that the virus was spreading to other animals.一切均需防患于未然!

  5. Status of Bird Flu%禽流感动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    禽流感对全球禽产品消费和贸易的影响,匈牙利成为世界首个人H5N1型禽流感疫苗生产国,美国建议禁用人类流感药治疗家禽,美国绘制“H5N1型禽流感病毒家谱”,我国建成世界首个禽流感数据库,英国葛兰素史克两种H5N1人禽流感疫苗进行临床实验,俄罗斯开发出3种禽流感疫苗,俄罗斯鸡肉需求减少20%,统计数字显示禽流感疫情重创欧盟鸡肉市场,欧盟计划对禽肉、蛋生产进行补贴,美国经济学家:家禽行业未遭受禽流感重创。

  6. WHO Sees No New Threat from Bird Flu in Cats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁邻

    2004-01-01

    @@ [提示]猴年伊始爆发的"禽流感"不断扩大了其受害群,距今已有泰国的两只家猫和一只动物园珍稀云豹相继感染上了相同的病毒,泰国变得人心惶惶.据世界卫生组织称,关于猫可能感染禽流感的消息还有待进一步科学证实,而且即便证明的确出现了猫感染禽流感的病例,人们也不必恐慌,因为病毒不一定会经猫再传播给人类.但是,正如本文指出的:Authorities must be on guard against any further signs that the virus was spreading to other animals.一切均需防患于未然!

  7. 禽流感专栏%Bird Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    英国首起H5N1禽流感疫源仍不清楚2007年4月19日:英国环境、食品与农村事务部(DEFRA)在新闻会上宣布.英国首起H5N1禽流感疫情流行病学最终报告已经完成.国家紧急流行病学组的调查人员调查了病毒侵入Bernard Matthews火鸡坊所有可能途径,病毒来源仍不清楚.但有可能是从匈牙利进口了受污染的火鸡肉引起。32页的流行病学调查报告.其结论是从匈牙利进口了受污染的火鸡肉.2007年2月匈牙利因野鸟传播导致两个鹅场发生禽流感疫情,

  8. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... of the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical ...

  9. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  10. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Chawla; Rakesh Kumar Sharma; Deepali Madaan; Neha Dubey; Rajesh Arora; Rajeev Goel; Shefali Singh; Vinod Kaushik; Pankaj Kumar Singh; Vivek Chabbra; Janak Raj Bhardwaj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (pha...

  11. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  12. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishtha Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition.

  13. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  14. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and Heart Disease & Stroke Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir People with Heart Disease* and Those Who Have Had a Stroke Are ...

  15. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Life Video Also in this series: Playing Cat-and-Mouse with the Flu Everyday Evolution What ... Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook YouTube RSS Feeds Page Footer NIGMS Home Site Map Contact Us ...

  16. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Documents (General) Workers Employed at Commercial Swine Farms Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Questions & Answers Language: English ...

  17. Feeling the Pulse of The Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Traditional Chinese Medicine approach to dealing with A/H1 N1 flu In 2003, an herb called indigowoad root very quickly became popular and sold out of most Chinese drug stores. With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

  18. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source of the pandemic influenza ... in pigs in a small region of central Mexico, a new study reports. Researchers used genetic analysis ...

  19. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents Give ... There are two types of flu vaccines: "Flu shots"—inactivated vaccines (containing killed virus) that are given ...

  20. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    OpenAIRE

    Nishtha Singh; Sheetu Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Virendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric ...

  1. Genomic signatures of near-extinction and rebirth of the crested ibis and other endangered bird species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shengbin; Li, Bo; Cheng, Cheng;

    2014-01-01

    practices, to facilitate sustainable recovery of endangered species.ConclusionsThese findings demonstrate common genomic signatures of population decline across avian species and pave a way for further effort in saving endangered species and enhancing conservation genomic efforts.......BackgroundNearly a quarter of all avian species is either threatened or nearly threatened. Of these, 73 species are currently being rescued from going extinct in wildlife sanctuaries. One of the previously most critically-endangered is the crested ibis, Nipponia nippon. Once widespread across North...... of near extinction events in association with environmental and behavioral attributes of species. We confirm that both loss of genetic diversity and enrichment of deleterious mutations of protein-coding genes contribute to the major genetic defects of the endangered species. We further identify...

  2. Genomic Characterizations of Six Pigeon Paramyxovirus Type 1 Viruses Isolated from Live Bird Markets in China during 2011 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Wang

    Full Text Available The genomes of six pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1 isolated from symptomless pigeons in live poultry markets during the national active surveillance from 2011 to 2013 were sequenced and analyzed in this study. The complete genome lengths of all isolates were 15,192 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. All isolates had the same motif of 112RRQKRF117 at the cleavage site of the fusion protein, which was typical of velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of complete genomes and six genes revealed that all isolates belonged to genotype VI in class II, but at least 2 sub-genotypes were identified. Most isolates were placed into sub-genotype VIb with the exception of pi/GX/1015/13, which was classified in sub-genotype VIa. The obvious antigenic difference between PPMV-1 isolates and La Sota strain was found based on the R-value calculated by cross hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. These results provided the evidence that PPMV-1 could be detected from healthy pigeons, and our study may be useful in designing vaccines used in pigeon, and developing molecular diagnostic tools to monitor and prevent future PPMV-1 outbreaks.

  3. Flu Shot Safe for Surgery Patients in Hospital: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157754.html Flu Shot Safe for Surgery Patients in Hospital: Study Findings ... risk for complications if they receive a flu shot in the hospital, a new study suggests. The ...

  4. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Language: ... that can be used to treat flu illness. What are antiviral drugs? Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines ( ...

  5. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best ... sneezing, and a sore throat. Is it a cold, flu, or allergies? It can be hard to ...

  6. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This ... is the best tool for prevention of the flu, should patients with immune deficiency be given the ...

  7. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Newsletters Guillain-Barré syndrome and Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English Español Recommend on ... in 1976 with GBS and the swine flu vaccine? In 1976 there was a small increased risk ...

  8. Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yourself Specific Groups People at High Risk Children Adults 65 Years and Older Pregnant Women Asthma Heart Disease & Stroke Diabetes HIV/AIDS Cancer Parents Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine ...

  9. Performance Characteristics of Xpert Flu/RSV XC Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowitch, Elena B; Miller, Melissa B

    2015-08-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay was compared to laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) (n = 207) and the Xpert Flu assay (n = 147) using archived nasopharyngeal swabs. The percentages of positive agreements with LDTs were 97.8% for influenza A, 97.2% for influenza B, and 89.3% for RSV. The sensitivity of influenza detection was improved with the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay compared to the Xpert Flu assay. PMID:26019209

  10. Complete Genome Characterization of the Arumowot Virus (Unclassified Phlebovirus) Isolated from Turdus libonyanus Birds in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Nicolas; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2016-02-01

    The Bunyaviridae family is currently composed of five genera, including Phlebovirus, in which several phleboviruses are associated with human diseases. Using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained and characterized one complete genome of the Arumowot virus (AMTV) isolated in 1978 from Turdus libonyanus, the Kurrichane Thrush, in the Central African Republic (CAR). The genomic segment of the new strain of AMTV isolated in the CAR had 75.4-83.5% sequence similarity and 82-98.4% amino acid similarity to the prototype sequence of AMTV. The different conserved proteins of the small (S) and large (L) segments (Nc, NSP, and RNA polymerase) showed close similarity at the amino acid level, whereas the polyprotein of the medium (M) segment was highly divergent, with 18% and 37.7%, respectively, for the prototype sequence of AMTV and the Odrenisrou virus (ODRV) isolated from Culex (Cx.) albiventris mosquitoes in the Tai forest, Ivory Coast. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the sequence homology analysis and indicated that AMTV-CAR clustered into the Salehabad virus antigenic complex. The two closest viruses were the prototype sequences of AMTV originally isolated from Cx. antennatus mosquitoes and ODRV. These molecular data suggest the need for a deep genetic characterization of the diversity of this viral species to enhance its detection in the Central African region and to understand better its behavior and life cycle so that its potential spread to the human population can be prevented. PMID:26807610

  11. Identification and complete genome analysis of kobuvirus in faecal samples of European roller (Coracias garrulus): for the first time in a bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Kiss, Tamás; Reuter, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    The genus Kobuvirus (Picornaviridae) consists of three species, Aichivirus A (e.g., Aichi virus, which infects humans), Aichivirus B and Aichivirus C. Kobuvirus have not been detected in non-mammal species including birds. In this study, a novel kobuvirus was identified in 3 (17 %) out of 18 faecal samples collected from European rollers (Coracias garrulus) in Hungary. The complete genome sequence of strain SZAL6-KoV/2011/HUN (KJ934637), which was determined using a novel 5'/3' RACE method (dsRNA-RACE) involving a double-stranded (ds)RNA intermediate, has a type-V IRES at the 5' end and a cis-acting element (CRE) in the 3C gene and encodes L and 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary RNA structure in the 3'UTR. SZAL6-KoV/2011/HUN has 72 %, 73 %, and 81 % amino acid sequence identity to the P1, P2, and P3 protein, respectively, of Aichi virus. Evolutionary analysis showed that SZAL6-KoV/2011/HUN shares a common ancestor with other kobuviruses but belongs to a more ancient lineage in the species Aichivirus A. Investigation of the known kobuviruses in different animals and discovery of novel kobuviruses in potential host species helps to clarify the evolutionary connection and zoonotic potential of kobuviruses. PMID:25195063

  12. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Is It a Cold or the Flu? KidsHealth > For Parents > Is It a Cold or the Flu? Print A A A Text ... that's been going around? Or just a common cold ? Although the flu (or influenza ) usually causes symptoms ...

  13. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print A ... just found out that I'm 6 weeks pregnant. Do I need to get the flu vaccine ...

  14. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M.

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  15. [Differentiation of influenza (Flu) type A, type B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiyama, Risa; Miyazawa, Takashi; Shibano, Nobuko; Inano, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Because it is not easy to differentiate Influenza virus (Flu) from RS virus (RSV) just by clinical symptoms, to accurately diagnose those viruses in conjunction with patient's clinical symptoms, rapid diagnostic kits has been used separately for each of those viruses. In our new study, we have developed a new rapid diagnostic kit, QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV. The kit can detect Flu A, Flu B, and RSV antigens with a single sample collection and an assay. Total of 2,873 cases (including nasopharyngeal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens) in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons were evaluated with QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV and a commercially available kit. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Flu type A, type B, and RSV were above 95% when compared to commercially available kits (QuickNavi™-Flu and QuickNavi™-RSV) and considered to be equivalent to the commercially available kits. In 2011/2012 season, RSV infections increased prior to Flu season and continued during the peak of the Flu season. The kit can contribute to accurate diagnosis of Flu and RSV infections since co-infection cases have also been reported during the 2011/2012 season. QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV is useful for differential diagnosis of respiratory infectious diseases since it can detect Flu type A, type B, and RSV virus antigens with a single sample collection. PMID:24694242

  16. BAHAN AKTIF DALAM KOMBINASI OBAT FLU DAN BATUK-PILEK, DAN PEMILIHAN OBAT FLU YANG RASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Gitawati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakFlu, salesma atau batuk pilek adalah infeksi saluran pernapasan akut (ISPA akibat virus, merupakan self-limiting disease dan hanya memerlukan pengobatan simtomatik. Obat-obat yang digunakan adalah obat bebas, umumnya dalam bentuk kombinasi tetap, dengan komposisi zat aktif bervariasi. Tulisan ini bertujuan mengkaji bahan aktif dalam preparat flu kombinasi tetap dan pemilihan obat flu yang rasional. Kajian dilakukan secara cross-sectional dengan sumber data berasal dari 56 referensi berupa buku, panduan, jurnal/artikel on-line maupun publikasi tercetak, menggunakan kata kunci ”common cold, cough, over-the-counter drugs, non-prescription, self-medication, analgetics, sympathomimetics, antihistamines, decongestant, antibiotics, immunomodulators, food supplement, flu, dan batuk-pilek”.Diperoleh sejumlah 191 preparat kombinasi tetap berbentuk tablet dan sirup yang diindikasikan untuk mengurangi gejala flu (common-cold, dengan komposisi zat aktif utama antihistamin dan dekongestan. Komponen tambahan lainnya adalah analgesik, antitusif, ekspektoran, stimulan. Kekuatan (strength dosis tiap komponen masih sesuai dengan dosis yang direkomendasi, namun tercatat masih ada preparat dengan dosis dekongestan (fenilpropanolamin yang lebih tinggi dari yang direkomendasi. Tidak ada preparat tunggal yang mampu mengatasi semua gejala flu sekaligus, sehingga preparat flu kombinasi menjadi pilihan utama. Dalam menggunakan preparat flu kombinasi perlu memilihproduk yang tepat dan rasional sesuai dengan gejala spesifik, karena kemungkinan tidak semua zat aktif dalam komposisi produk obat flu diperlukan oleh penderita.Kata kunci: flu, batuk-pilek, komposisi obat flu, simtomatik.AbstractFlu or common-cold is an acute upper respiratory tract infection mainly caused by virus, and a self-limiting disease which is requires only symptomatic treatments to alleviate the symptoms. Common-cold medication is usually an OTC drug and a fixed-dose combination of various

  17. Talking Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海文

    2005-01-01

    Many students of Englishthink thatlearning a new languageis very difficult.N ow think howdifficultitis to learn English whenyour brain is only the size of abird's brain。That is what som ebirds can do.M any different kinds of birdscan copy the sounds of lan-guage.A frican gray parrots are thebirds bestknown for this.Every D ecem ber in London,the N ationalCage and A viary BirdShow tries to find the best“talkbird in the world.O ne bird nam edPrudle stood outam ong the“talk-ing birds by winning this prizeevery...

  18. Google Flu Trends Still Appears Sick: An Evaluation of the 2013-2014 Flu Season

    OpenAIRE

    Lazer, David M.; Kennedy, Ryan; King, Gary; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In response to its poor performance during the 2012-2013 flu season, Google Flu Trends (GFT) engineers announced a redesign of the GFT algorithm. Two changes were made: (1) dampening anomalous media spikes and (2) using ElasticNet, rather than regression, for estimation. This paper identifies several problems that persist in the new algorithm. First, the transparency problems identified in our earlier Science paper appear to have, if anything, become worse. Second, there are reasons to doubt ...

  19. OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27,000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch. PMID:20624713

  20. Clean Hands Help Prevent the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-06

    Clean hands can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, such as flu. This podcast explains the proper way to wash your hands.  Created: 5/6/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/6/2009.

  1. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (日本語) Khmer (Khmer) ... préparer ? - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (हिन्दी) Home Care for Pandemic Flu Home ...

  2. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  3. Flu-related Hospitalizations by Industry

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-30

    Dr. Sara Luckhaupt, a CDC medical officer, discusses which industries are most impacted by the flu.  Created: 4/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2012.

  4. Deck Yourself with Flu Protection Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-22

    This song (sung to the tune of Deck the Halls) describes actions you can take to protect yourself and others from the flu. Sing along!  Created: 12/22/2009 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 12/22/2009.

  5. Flu BM2 structure and function

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    Flu viruses package essential functions into a small integral membrane protein known as M2. Such small membrane proteins represent major challenges for structural biology. A new study presented in this issue details the structure and functions of the influenza B M2 protein through the use of functional domain–specific solution NMR spectroscopy.

  6. Personal Stories: Why Flu Vaccination Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-08

    In this podcast, moving personal stories help inform parents about the dangers of flu to children and the benefits of vaccination.  Created: 12/8/2008 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/8/2008.

  7. Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Andrea F.; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a practical influenza forecast model, based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the number of influenza cases, thus allowing sufficient time to implement an intervention. Secondly, we evaluated how the addition of a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, would impact the forecasting capabilities of this model. Introduction Each year, influenza results in increased Emergency Department crowding which can be mitigated through early detection linked to an appropriate response. Although current surveillance systems, such as Google Flu Trends, yield near real-time influenza surveillance, few demonstrate ability to forecast impending influenza cases. Methods Forecasting models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004 – 2011) divided into training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear, and autoregressive methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. Models were developed and evaluated through statistical measures of global deviance and log-likelihood ratio tests. An additional measure of forecast confidence, defined as the percentage of forecast values, during an influenza peak, that are within 7 influenza cases of the actual data, was examined to demonstrate practical utility of the model. Results A generalized autoregressive Poisson (GARMA) forecast model integrating previous influenza cases with Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information providing significant forecast improvements (p = 0.00002). The final model, a GARMA intercept

  8. Influenza forecasting with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Freyer Dugas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. METHODS: Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004-2011 divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM, and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. RESULTS: A GARMA(3,0 forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. CONCLUSIONS: Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This

  9. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  10. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Past Issues / ... able to infect others for an even longer time. How serious is the flu? Certain people are ...

  11. It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Vaccination It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu ... older should get the flu vaccine each year. It usually takes two weeks after you are vaccinated ...

  12. FluBlok, a recombinant hemagglutinin influenza vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Manon M.J.; Patriarca, Peter A.; Treanor, John

    2008-01-01

    Abstract  FluBlok, a recombinant trivalent hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine produced in insect cell culture using the baculovirus expression system, provides an attractive alternative to the current egg‐based trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) manufacturing process. FluBlok contains three times more HA than TIV and does not contain egg‐protein or preservatives. This review discusses the four main clinical studies that were used to support licensure of FluBlok under the ‘Accelerated Appro...

  13. Continue to Vaccinate Patients and Staff Against the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-08

    This podcast is a reminder to health care providers about the importance of annual flu vaccination—it’s not too late! Health care providers should get their flu vaccine and continue offering and encouraging flu vaccination among their staff, colleagues, and patients.  Created: 2/8/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  14. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. The seasonal flu vaccination is the best way to protect both mother and baby. In this podcast Dr. Stacie Greby discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  15. [A simulation exercise in a flu clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthe, Juliette; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Lecapitaine, Anne-Lise; Lecompte, Françoise; Szwebel-Chikli, Céline

    2011-01-01

    A simulation exercise aimed at assessing the management and provision of ambulatory care in the context of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic was conducted in a specifically dedicated consultation center (Centre de Consultation Dédié (CCD) à la grippe) based on official French guidelines. The exercise was carried out in a school in Paris equipped to simulate a "flu clinic". 3 practitioners provided treatment lasting 2 hours to nursing students acting as patients. The exercise highlighted a number of major organizational issues. Staff were found to be unable to manage the center and to perform patient transfers; face masks were not routinely and consistently worn by doctors and patients; and communication between professionals within the clinic was limited. The exercise showed that much remains to be done to ensure that "flu clinics" are effective and functional. The results suggest that the exercise will need to be repeated on a larger scale and over a longer period. PMID:22365047

  16. Western Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  17. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  18. Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Freyer Dugas; Mehdi Jalalpour; Yulia Gel; Scott Levin; Fred Torcaso; Takeru Igusa; Rothman, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a practical influenza forecast model, based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the number of influenza cases, thus allowing sufficient time to implement an intervention. Secondly, we evaluated how the addition of a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, would impact the forecasting capabilities of this model. Introduction Each year, influenza results i...

  19. Model SIR untuk Penyebaran Penyakit Flu Burung

    OpenAIRE

    Mansyur, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Model SIR untuk penyebaran penyakit flu burung merupakan model matematika yang menjelaskan interaksi antara kelompok populasi burung susceptible (S_b) dan infected (I_b) dengan kelompok populasi manusia susceptible (S_h), infected (I_h), dan recovered (R_h). Titik keseimbangan model meliputi titik keseimbangan bebas penyakit (E) dan titik keseimbangan endemik (E^+). Dari analisis kestabilan diperoleh bahwa kestabilan titik keseimbangan bergantung pada bilangan reproduksi dasar (R_0). Titik k...

  20. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  1. Recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos

    OpenAIRE

    Thi, Tuan Hue; Wang, Li; Ye, Ning; Jian ZHANG; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Cheng, Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Vision-based surveillance and monitoring is a potential alternative for early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks in urban areas complementing molecular diagnostics and hospital and doctor visit-based alert systems. Visible actions representing typical flu-like symptoms include sneeze and cough that are associated with changing patterns of hand to head distances, among others. The technical difficulties lie in the high complexity and large variation of those actions as well ...

  2. The Evolution of Norovirus, the "Gastric Flu"

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa C Lindesmith; Eric F Donaldson; LoBue, Anna D.; Jennifer L Cannon; Zheng, Du-Ping; Vinje, Jan; Baric, Ralph S.

    2008-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu), the symptoms of which include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. There is no treatment for infection with these highly contagious viruses. While most people recover within a few days, the very young and old may experience severe disease. Like influenza, large outbreaks (epidemics) of norovirus infection occur periodically (often in closed communities such as cruise ships), and most people have ...

  3. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; George; Fu

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioinformatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  4. Website for avian flu information and bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Quan-He; WU Lin-Huan; LIU Bin; WU Jun; LAO Yi-Mei; LI Xiao-Jing; GAO George Fu; MA Jun-Cai

    2009-01-01

    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus H5N1 has spread out worldwide and raised the public concerns. This increased the output of influenza virus sequence data as well as the research publication and other reports. In order to fight against H5N1 avian flu in a comprehensive way, we designed and started to set up the Website for Avian Flu Information (http://www.avian-flu.info) from 2004. Other than the influenza virus database available, the website is aiming to integrate diversified information for both researchers and the public. From 2004 to 2009, we collected information from all aspects, i.e. reports of outbreaks, scientific publications and editorials, policies for prevention, medicines and vaccines, clinic and diagnosis. Except for publications, all information is in Chinese. Till April 15, 2009, the cumulative news entries had been over 2000 and research papers were approaching 5000. By using the curated data from Influenza Virus Resource, we have set up an influenza virus sequence database and a bioin-formatic platform, providing the basic functions for the sequence analysis of influenza virus. We will focus on the collection of experimental data and results as well as the integration of the data from the geological information system and avian influenza epidemiology.

  5. MODEL SEIR UNTUK EPIDEMI FLU BABI PADA POPULASI BABI DENGAN LAJU KONTAK JENUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kharis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babi merupakan inang alami dari virus influensa yang secara anatomis, fisiologis, dan imunitas mirip (similar dengan yang ada pada manusia. Virus influenza subtipe A yang ada pada manusia yaitu H1N1, H3N2 dan H1N2 merupakan enzootic pada populasi babi di dunia. babi dapat terinfeksi oleh turunan-turunan virus influenza tipe A dari manusia maupun dari burung dan dalam hal ini dianggap sebagai inang sementara (Intermediate hosts dari turunan-turunan virus flu babi yang berpotensi menyebabkan epidemi bahkan pandemi. Evolusi antigenik dari virus influenza pada babi terjadi dengan laju sekitar 6 kali lebih lambat dibandingkan dengan virus influenza pada manusia. Dalam tulisan ini akan dikaji model matematika untuk epidemi flu babi pada populasi babi. Model yang diberikan merupakan model deterministik dengan laju kontak jenuh yang merupakan perumuman dari laju kontak standar. Perumuman ini dinyatakan dengan adanya probabilitas suatu individu melakukan kontak yang dinyatakan sebagai suatu fungsi dari populasi. Pengkajian yang dilakukan meliputi penentuan titik ekuilibrium model matematika dan analisa kestabilannya. Diharapkan hasil kajian ini dapat bermanfaat dalam penanggulangan wabah flu babi pada sumber utama yaitu populasi babi sehingga dapat dilakukan pencegahan sebelum mewabah di populasi manusia. Pigs are a natural host of influenza virus that are similar anatomically, physiologically, and immunity which in humans. Influenza viruses of A subtype in humans are H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. They are enzootic in the swine population in the world. Pigs can be infected by strains of type A influenza viruses from humans or from birds. Pigs are considered as a temporary host (intermediate hosts of the derivatives of the swine flu virus that has the potential to cause epidemics and even pandemics. Antigenic evolution of influenza viruses in pigs occurred at rate about 6 times slower than the influenza viruses in humans. In this paper the mathematical model

  6. Stay Flu Free (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-04

    As fall turns to winter, the flu season will be upon us in force. The best way to avoid influenza is to get immunized. In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee discusses the importance of getting the flu vaccine.  Created: 12/4/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/4/2014.

  7. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

  8. Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohskopf, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu…

  9. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu...

  10. Preventing Flu During Pregnancy (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-26

    During the influenza season, pregnant women and infants under 6 months old are especially susceptible to severe complications from the flu. This podcast discusses the importance of pregnant women receiving the flu vaccine.  Created: 9/26/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/26/2013.

  11. 人类流感与禽流感的关系%Relation between human flu and bird flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋东江; 胥清

    2005-01-01

    禽流感是由禽流感病毒感染禽(鸟)类后引起的疾病。禽流感病毒主要是甲(又称A)型流行性感冒病毒,一般不感染人。乙(又称B)型流行性感冒病毒则不感染禽(鸟)类。根据甲(A)型禽流感病毒致病性的不同,可以将禽流感病毒分为高致病性、低致病性和无致病性。

  12. Sirkulasi Virus Flu Burung Subtipe H5 pada Unggas di Jawa Barat, Banten, dan Jawa Timur Sepanjang Tahun 2008-2009 (CIRCULATION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA OF H5 SUBTYPE ON BIRDS IN WEST JAVA, BANTEN AND EAST JAVA DURING 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of avian influenza (AI in Indonesia initially occurred at the end of 2003 which caused100% death of the affected chickens. It was caused by avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5. Recent datashowed that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI-H5N1 virus is still endemic among bird populationin Indonesia. A study was therefore conducted to find out the distribution of AIV-H5N1 in several regionsin Indonesia. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to detect the presenceof AI-H5 virus and hemagglutination inhibition (HI test was used to detect the presence of anti-AIV-H5antibody. Results showed that anti-AIV-H5 antibody was detected in 36 % and was not detected in 64% oftested birds in West Java, Banten and East Java. The AIV-H5 antibody titer varied from low to high titer.The AIV-H5 was detected in samples from Cianjur (30%, Blitar (1.9&, Serang (12.5% and pandeglang(17.5%. It was evident that AIV-H5 is still endemic in Indonesia.

  13. The systemic nature of swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takis Fotopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Today’s global crisis is not just a multidimensional crisis extending from the economic to the ecological fields and from the political to the social; it is also a serious biological crisis which is expressed with the dramatic worsening of the public health, as a result of its deadly embrace by the pharmaceutical TNCs and the planetary catastrophe brought about by the intensive agricultural system that accompanied the flourishing of neoliberal globalisation and the reproduction of consumer society all over the world. Factory animal farming in particular has delivered enormous growth in global meat production over the last three decades, with consumers persuaded to buy its cheap products with the same ease as they were getting the freely-offered loans of the financial boom, without asking any questions on how such consumption could be sustained or what the eventual consequences might be. It is, therefore, not surprising at all that the outbreak of swine flu in Mexico is linked to industrialised farming methods designed to provide cheap food for consumers.The multidimensional crisis and now the biological crisis provide ample evidence that what is good for the elites who control not only our way of living but our survival itself is far from good for us. Furthermore, the elites’ actions show why it is so imperative to build a massive movement for the establishment of a genuine democracy, an Inclusive Democracy, so that it is ourselves, rather than criminal elites interested only in making more money, who decide what our needs are and how best to meet them.; CHAPTERS: The record so far; Plot theories on the swine flu; Irrationalism in medical practice and research; The systemic character of the swine flu and of the measures taken against it; Conclusions

  14. Online monitoring of flu in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroey, Dirk; Semaille, Pascal; Vansintejan, Johan; Vandevoorde, Jan; Van De Vijver, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Devroey et al. (2011) Online monitoring of flu in Belgium. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 351–356. Background  The diagnosis and treatment of patients with the A(H1N1) pandemic flu caused some serious burden for general practitioners (GPs) in the summer and autumn of 2009. Objective  The aim of this study was to track the incidence of influenza and influenza‐like illness (ILI) in Belgium and to describe the characteristics of the affected patients. Methods  In July 2009, the Belgian online influenza surveillance system (BOISS) was set up to monitor the spread of influenza and ILI. Registrations were made by 93 GPs from all 10 Belgian provinces who participated at least 1 week during the first 12 months of the registration. Only patients who met the WHO criteria for flu were recorded. Results  In total, 1254 patients (53% men) with influenza or ILI were included. Mainly younger persons were affected: 43% was under the age of 20 years. A risk factor for influenza‐related complications was determined in 19% of cases, mainly patients with chronic respiratory problems. A treatment with oseltamivir or zanamivir was prescribed in 13%, and 3% of the patients was admitted to a hospital. The time of the peak incidence (44th week) and the magnitude (623 cases per week per 100 000 inhabitants) corresponded with the figures of the existing paper‐based registration network. The small sample size and possible reporting biases may have influenced the findings of the study. Conclusions  The BOISS provides a good alternative to conduct surveillance activities for influenza and ILI in Belgium. It provides complementary information regarding ILI compared to the existing data capturing. PMID:21668686

  15. Mitigation approaches to combat the flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Chawla

    2009-01-01

    The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA, Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies, nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its effective implementation at national, state and local levels.

  16. Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents Give ... For those who do not receive a "flu-shot," a nasal-spray flu vaccine is available. Photo: ...

  17. Kebijakan Pemerintah Dalam Rangka Pemulihan Ekonomi Dan Keterkaitannya Dengan Merebaknya Flu Burung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muryani Muryani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of the outbreak of bird flu on economic sectors in the sectoral and macro aspect is analized using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE models. Base on SNSE 2008 dataand some disagregation data sectors, two simulations are conducted. The result of the simulation studies indicate that there is the decrease in the production of poultry meat sector (traditional and medium-large and egg sectors impact on the micro and macro aspects of the economy. This research is the second step of my research deal with Avian flu and the economy.The first step was the negative impact of avian flu on economy which was already published on Asian Social Economic Journal by last year. The result of this research are : On the micro level in domestic market there are decresed production and increased prices in the poultry sector, eggs, other farms, restaurants and services. While in the foreign market there are decresed exports as well as imports. Similarly, there is a decline in consumption by the entire group of household due to a decline in the acceptance by all groups of households and firms. Government revenue also declined due to a decrease in taxes from households and firms.At the macro level there are a decline in GDP and a decline in the investment. The last  simulation illustrate  the increase of production and the impact of government policy on the micro aspects and the overall economy.  On the micro level in domestic market there are increased production and falling prices in the sector of poultry, eggs, other farms, restaurants and services. While in foreign market there are  increased exports and  decreased imports in almost all sectors. Similarly, there are an increase in consumption by the entire group of households due to an increse in the acceptance by all groups of households and firms. Government revenue also increased due to an increse in taxes from household and firms.

  18. Reconstructing the Phylogenetic History of Long-Term Effective Population Size and Life-History Traits Using Patterns of Amino Acid Replacement in Mitochondrial Genomes of Mammals and Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabholz, Benoit; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The nearly neutral theory, which proposes that most mutations are deleterious or close to neutral, predicts that the ratio of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS), and potentially also the ratio of radical over conservative amino acid replacement rates (Kr/Kc), are negatively correlated with effective population size. Previous empirical tests, using life-history traits (LHT) such as body-size or generation-time as proxies for population size, have been consistent with these predictions. This suggests that large-scale phylogenetic reconstructions of dN/dS or Kr/Kc might reveal interesting macroevolutionary patterns in the variation in effective population size among lineages. In this work, we further develop an integrative probabilistic framework for phylogenetic covariance analysis introduced previously, so as to estimate the correlation patterns between dN/dS, Kr/Kc, and three LHT, in mitochondrial genomes of birds and mammals. Kr/Kc displays stronger and more stable correlations with LHT than does dN/dS, which we interpret as a greater robustness of Kr/Kc, compared with dN/dS, the latter being confounded by the high saturation of the synonymous substitution rate in mitochondrial genomes. The correlation of Kr/Kc with LHT was robust when controlling for the potentially confounding effects of nucleotide compositional variation between taxa. The positive correlation of the mitochondrial Kr/Kc with LHT is compatible with previous reports, and with a nearly neutral interpretation, although alternative explanations are also possible. The Kr/Kc model was finally used for reconstructing life-history evolution in birds and mammals. This analysis suggests a fairly large-bodied ancestor in both groups. In birds, life-history evolution seems to have occurred mainly through size reduction in Neoavian birds, whereas in placental mammals, body mass evolution shows disparate trends across subclades. Altogether, our work represents a further step toward a more

  19. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND...

  20. Developmental characterization and chromosomal mapping of the 5-azacytidine-sensitive fluF locus of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamame, M; Antequera, F; Santos, E

    1988-01-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that possesses negligible, if any, levels of methylation in its genome, low concentrations of 5-azacytidine (5-AC) convert a high percentage of the cell population to fluffy phenotypic variants through a heritable modification of a single nuclear gene (M. Tamame, F. Antequera, J. R. Villanueva, and T. Santos, Mol. Cell. Biol. 3:2287-2297, 1983). This new 5-AC-altered locus, designated here fluF1, was mapped as the closest marker to the centromere that has been identified so far on the right arm of chromosome VIII. Of all mutagens tested, only 5-AC induced the fluffy phenotype with a significant frequency. Furthermore, we determined that the wild-type, dominant allele of the fluF gene was primarily accessible to modification by 5-AC at the initial stages of fungal vegetative growth. These results indicated that 5-AC does not act through random mutagenic action but, rather, that fluF constitutes a specific target for this drug during a well-defined period of fungal development. Alteration of fluF by 5-AC resulted in a dramatic modification of the developmental program of A. nidulans. The resulting fluffy clones were characterized by massive, uncontrolled proliferation of undifferentiated hyphae, a drastic delay in the onset of asexual differentiation (conidiation), and colonies with an invasive nature. These features are reminiscent of the malignant properties of tumor cells. We propose that the locus fluF plays a primary role in the control of cell proliferation in A. nidulans and that its alteration by 5-AC produces pleiotropic modifications of the developmental program of this fungus. Images PMID:2463470

  1. Migration of birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  2. Stable recombination hotspots in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Sonal; Leffler, Ellen M; Sannareddy, Keerthi; Turner, Isaac; Venn, Oliver; Hooper, Daniel M; Strand, Alva I; Li, Qiye; Raney, Brian; Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Griffith, Simon C; McVean, Gil; Przeworski, Molly

    2015-11-20

    The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 has a critical role in specifying meiotic recombination hotspots in mice and apes, but it appears to be absent from other vertebrate species, including birds. To study the evolution and determinants of recombination in species lacking the gene that encodes PRDM9, we inferred fine-scale genetic maps from population resequencing data for two bird species: the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, and the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda. We found that both species have recombination hotspots, which are enriched near functional genomic elements. Unlike in mice and apes, most hotspots are shared between the two species, and their conservation seems to extend over tens of millions of years. These observations suggest that in the absence of PRDM9, recombination targets functional features that both enable access to the genome and constrain its evolution. PMID:26586757

  3. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy. PMID:24844113

  4. Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160138.html Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever? Potentially fatal infection is found in ... often-overlooked infection, and about 160 die from it, the society says. "Valley fever is underdiagnosed in ...

  5. What every Hepatologist should Know about Swine Flu?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

    2009-01-01

    As world is witnessing ever fastest growing pandemic, physicians with various specialties should adopt themselves to the new situation (1). Global death toll of swine flu by November 15, 2009, has raised to 6750. Many of those who died or were hospitalized suffered from comorbid conditions which increased either the severity or the risk of acquiring the disease (2). Swine flu may change the course of many chronic diseases. Thus, all physicians in different disciplines should realize and consi...

  6. Evaluation of the EuroFlu Bulletin: report summary.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C S; Pereyaslov, D.; Antoniadou, E; Meerhoff, T.; Martirosyan, L.

    2010-01-01

    During February and March 2010, WHO/Europe undertook the task of performing an evaluation among EuroFlu Bulletin users, in order to determine its effectiveness. This evaluation took the form of two questionnaires, designed to collect information on use of the Bulletin, gauge the level of satisfaction among users, and gather suggestions for areas where the Bulletin can be enhanced. In addition to the survey, two other tools were used to evaluate the EuroFlu bulletin: the frequency of reporting...

  7. Flu fighters use the Web to track virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantanzaro, Michele

    2009-04-01

    Physicists in Italy have begun analysing data from a new Web-based project that seeks to model how flu spreads through a population. The project, known as Influweb, involved some 2000 ordinary Italians replying over the last six months to a weekly e-mailed questionnaire about their state of health and current geographical location. The project will be able to pin down the spread of flu in real time and with a spatial resolution on the level of a person's postcode.

  8. A Thankful Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜巧玲

    2002-01-01

    One day, I was playing in the woods when I saw a bird standing on a tree branch in the rain. “Poor bird, I thought, ”He has no home. “When I got home, I set down to make a house for the bird so that the bird would not catch rain any longer.

  9. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About CDC Calendar Resources Newsroom Resources Contact Media Relations Frequently Asked Questions Get Email Updates To receive ... For Immediate Release: Thursday, March 27, 2014 Contact: Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces ...

  10. Generation of tissue-specific transgenic birds with lentiviral vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Benjamin B; Lois, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Birds are of great interest for a variety of research purposes, and effective methods for manipulating the avian genome would greatly accelerate progress in fields that rely on birds as model systems for biological research, such as developmental biology and behavioral neurobiology. Here, we describe a simple and effective method for producing transgenic birds. We used lentiviral vectors to produce transgenic quails that express GFP driven by the human synapsin gene I promoter. Expression of ...

  11. Sex-specific population structure, natural selection, and linkage disequilibrium in a wild bird population as revealed by genome-wide microsatellite analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merilä Juha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual dimorphism in ecologically important traits is widespread, yet the differences in the genomic architecture between the two sexes are largely unexplored. We employed a genome-wide multilocus approach to examine the sexual differences in population subdivision, natural selection and linkage disequilibrium (LD in a wild Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus population, using genotypes at a total of 107 autosomal and Z-chromosomal microsatellites. Results Mean observed heterozygosity was significantly higher in females (HO = 0.567 than in males (HO = 0.532, and autosomal markers (HO = 0.561 were more variable than Z-chromosomal markers (HO = 0.512. Genetic differentiation (FST = 0.002, P P FSTvalue for Z-chromosomal (-0.014, 95% CI: -0.025 - -0.011 than for the autosomal loci (0.003, 95% CI: 0.001 - 0.004. Analysis of syntenic marker pairs revealed high levels of LD in both sexes but significantly (P Conclusion We conclude that there are many clear differences in genomic architecture between the sexes studied here which can be at least partly understood in the light of higher dispersal rate of females as compared to males and the unusual structure of the Z-chromosome of the species.

  12. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease. PMID:23360036

  13. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

  14. Learning to Trust Flu Shots: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from the 2009 Swine Flu Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jürgen; Harris, Katherine M

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies consumer learning in influenza vaccination decisions. We examine consumer learning in influenza vaccine demand within a reduced form instrumental variable framework that exploits differences in risk characteristics of different influenza viruses as a natural experiment to distinguish the effects of learning based on previous influenza vaccination experiences from unobserved heterogeneity. The emergence of a new virus strain (influenza A H1N1/09) during the 2009 'Swine flu' pandemic resulted in two different vaccines being recommended for distinct population subgroups with some people, who were not usually targeted by seasonal vaccination programs, being specifically recommended for the new Swine flu vaccine. We use these differences in vaccination targeting to construct instrumental variables for estimating the effect of past influenza vaccination experiences on the demand for pandemic vaccine. We find large causal effects of previous seasonal vaccination on pandemic vaccination. Causal effects of past influenza vaccination experiences on perceived vaccination safety are likely to be an important pathway linking past vaccination experiences with future vaccine uptake. Our results suggest a significant role of learning in vaccination decisions. Current efforts to expand seasonal vaccination may thus have potentially important long-term effects on future influenza vaccination levels and pandemic preparedness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27381724

  15. Delayed Anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine unrelated to known non-viral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J; Horbal, J; Tcheurekdjian, H; Sher, T H; Hostoffer, R

    2015-09-01

    On February 4, 2010 the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices voted for universal flu vaccination to expand protection against the flu throughout the United States. In addition to this administration expansion, six new influenza vaccines have been introduced into the market possibly introducing new allergenic potentials. We report two cases of delayed anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine. PMID:26357001

  16. Developmental characterization and chromosomal mapping of the 5-azacytidine-sensitive fluF locus of Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamame, M; Antequera, F; Santos, E.

    1988-01-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that possesses negligible, if any, levels of methylation in its genome, low concentrations of 5-azacytidine (5-AC) convert a high percentage of the cell population to fluffy phenotypic variants through a heritable modification of a single nuclear gene (M. Tamame, F. Antequera, J. R. Villanueva, and T. Santos, Mol. Cell. Biol. 3:2287-2297, 1983). This new 5-AC-altered locus, designated here fluF1, was mapped as the closest marker to the centromere that has bee...

  17. A Clever Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仰清

    2000-01-01

    A man in Australia had a wonderful bird. There was no other bird like it . It was very,very clever. The bird could say any word --except one. It could not say the name of the town where it was born. The name of that town was Catano.

  18. Determinants of adults' intention to vaccinate against pandemic swine flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Robin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is one of the cornerstones of controlling an influenza pandemic. To optimise vaccination rates in the general population, ways of identifying determinants that influence decisions to have or not to have a vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, this study aimed to predict intention to have a swine influenza vaccination in an adult population in the UK. An extension of the Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework for the study. Methods Three hundred and sixty two adults from the UK, who were not in vaccination priority groups, completed either an online (n = 306 or pen and paper (n = 56 questionnaire. Data were collected from 30th October 2009, just after swine flu vaccination became available in the UK, and concluded on 31st December 2009. The main outcome of interest was future swine flu vaccination intentions. Results The extended Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted 60% of adults' intention to have a swine flu vaccination with attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, anticipating feelings of regret (the impact of missing a vaccination opportunity, intention to have a seasonal vaccine this year, one perceived barrier: "I cannot be bothered to get a swine flu vaccination" and two perceived benefits: "vaccination decreases my chance of getting swine flu or its complications" and "if I get vaccinated for swine flu, I will decrease the frequency of having to consult my doctor," being significant predictors of intention. Black British were less likely to intend to have a vaccination compared to Asian or White respondents. Conclusions Theoretical frameworks which identify determinants that influence decisions to have a pandemic influenza vaccination are useful. The implications of this research are discussed with a view to maximising any future pandemic influenza vaccination uptake using theoretically-driven applications.

  19. Weekly Sex May Prevent Colds And Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛国华

    1999-01-01

    正常的性生活对健康有利,这已经成为人们的共识。但是,究竟如何有利,却缺少有说服力的“证据”。本文为我们提供一个可靠的说法: Having sex once or twice a week gives a boost(推进)to the immune system(免疫系统)that could help ward off(避免)colds and flu. 更让我们惊叹的是研究人员的调查“取证”的方法:他们对11名大学生的唾液进行化验,将其中所含的免疫抗原(antigen)和被调查人上月的性生活次数对照分析。结论就这样出来了。 文中有两点值得注意: healthy sex life≠overactive sex life. 后者比没有性生活的具有更少的免疫抗原! 美国大学生的性生活可以堂而皇之地作如此调查,为国人所难以设想。其中有一个形容词celibate其含义可能是:未婚的。但是,我们却不能把它直译成“未婚的”,因为,那些有性生活的大学生也未必都是“已婚的”!

  20. Archaeopteryx: Dinosaur or Bird?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2011-01-01

    @@ An Archaeopteryx-like theropod dinosaur newly found from western Liaoning Province in northeastern China would make an unusual, if not unwelcome, gift for the 150th birthday of Archaeopteryx, the oldest bird as long-believed by paleontologists: Named as Xiaotingia zhengiis, the new species carries some critical traits suggesting that Archaeopteryx might have actually been a dinosaur.Naturally this breaking news stirred intense controversies.Was "The Oldest Bird" a bird? If not, what makes a bird? With these questions in mind, the author joined an exploration in search of "the real first bird" along with the paleontologists at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) under CAS.

  1. A flu optical immunoassay (ThermoBioStar's FLU OIA): a diagnostic tool for improved influenza management.

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, S P; Cox, C.; Steaffens, J

    2001-01-01

    ThermoBioStar's and Biota's flu optical immunoassay (FLU OIA) is a rapid test designed to diagnose influenza A and B infection using a variety of specimen types. The assay uses highly sensitive thin-film detection methods, coupled with specific monoclonal antibodies to the nucleoprotein. The test is simple to perform, requires no instrumentation and is intended to provide a result within 15 min of test initiation in the 'point-of-care' environment. In initial clinical studies, the assay was d...

  2. FluShuffle and FluResort: new algorithms to identify reassorted strains of the influenza virus by mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lun Aaron TL; Wong Jason WH; Downard Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Influenza is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases known to man. Reassorted strains of the virus pose the greatest risk to both human and animal health and have been associated with all pandemics of the past century, with the possible exception of the 1918 pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort, which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and dire...

  3. SWINE FLU (H1N1 VIRUS, PREVENTION AND THEIR TREATMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Amit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu has been confirmed in a number of countries and it is spreading from human to human, which could lead to what is referred to as a pandemic flu outbreak. Pandemic flu is different from ordinary flu because it’s a new flu virus that appears in humans and spreads very quickly from person to person worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO is closely monitoring cases of swine flu globally to see whether this virus develops into a pandemic. Because it’s a new virus, no one will have immunity to it and everyone could be at risk of catching it. This includes healthy adults as well as older people, young children and those with existing medical conditions. Tamiflu (Oseltamivir and Ralenza (Zanamivir can treat the H1 N1 swine flu strain.

  4. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  5. American Samoa ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabirds, wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, and gulls and terns in American Samoa. Vector polygons...

  6. Social Media Messages in an Emerging Health Crisis: Tweeting Bird Flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Sarah C; Buckner, Marjorie M

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has examined the messages produced about health-related crises on social media platforms and whether these messages contain content that would allow individuals to make sense of a crisis and respond effectively. This study uses the crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC) framework to evaluate the content of messages sent via Twitter during an emerging crisis. Using manual and computer-driven content analysis methods, the study analyzed 25,598 tweets about the H7N9 virus that were produced in April 2013. The study found that a large proportion of messages contained sensemaking information. However, few tweets contained efficacy information that would help individuals respond to the crisis appropriately. Implications and recommendations for practice and future study are discussed. PMID:26192209

  7. Inactivation of various influenza strains to model avian influenza (Bird Flu) with various disinfectant chemistries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberst, R. D.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Souza, Caroline Ann

    2005-12-01

    Due to the grave public health implications and economic impact possible with the emergence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A isolate, H5N1, currently circulating in Asia we have evaluated the efficacy of various disinfectant chemistries against surrogate influenza A strains. Chemistries included in the tests were household bleach, ethanol, Virkon S{reg_sign}, and a modified version of the Sandia National Laboratories developed DF-200 (DF-200d, a diluted version of the standard DF-200 formulation). Validation efforts followed EPA guidelines for evaluating chemical disinfectants against viruses. The efficacy of the various chemistries was determined by infectivity, quantitative RNA, and qualitative protein assays. Additionally, organic challenges using combined poultry feces and litter material were included in the experiments to simulate environments in which decontamination and remediation will likely occur. In all assays, 10% bleach and Sandia DF-200d were the most efficacious treatments against two influenza A isolates (mammalian and avian) as they provided the most rapid and complete inactivation of influenza A viruses.

  8. Expertise for Bird-Flu%专家解析禽流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王代同

    2004-01-01

    据有关专家解释,禽流感是禽流行性感冒的简称,这是一种由甲型流感病毒引起的传染性疾病综合症,被国际兽疫局定为A类传染病。不仅是鸡,其它一些家禽和野鸟都能感染禽流感。按病原体的类型,禽流感可分为高致病性、低致病性和非致病性三大类。非致病性禽流感不会引起

  9. To Defend Ourselves Against the Birds Flu%防控禽流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈永昌

    2006-01-01

    当前,一些国家高致病性禽流感疫情严重,我国的疫情也十分严峻。充分估计防控禽流感工作的艰巨性和复杂性,才能有力,有序,有效地开展好防控工作。

  10. Treatment of bird flu%人禽流感的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏楠; 林江涛

    2004-01-01

    禽流感(avian influenza)是由甲型流感病毒引起的一种禽类急性呼吸道传染病。在甲型流感病毒的众多亚型中H5和H7亚型为高致病性禽流感病毒。自1997年世界上首次证实禽流感H5N1感染人后,相继又发现H9N2和H7N7亚型感染人类。2004年初亚洲流行的禽流感病毒H5Nl再次引起人们的重视。

  11. Outbreak of a New Strain of Flu at a Fair

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-28

    Dr. Karen Wong, an EIS officer with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, discusses her study about flu outbreaks at agricultural fairs.  Created: 2/28/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  12. Things You Can Do to Stay Away from the Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-08

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids can do to help prevent infection with any infectious disease, including H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/8/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM).   Date Released: 5/8/2009.

  13. Flu vaccination in populations with cardio/neurovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    Invited seminar (part of an expert workshop on 'Flu vaccination in Elderly Populations') presenting the evidence based on our research on the link between influenza vaccination and cardiovascular disease including acute myocardial infarction and stroke or transient ischaemic attack and the implications of the findings for clinical practice and policy.

  14. Flu Resistance to Antiviral Drug in North Carolina

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-12-19

    Dr. Katrina Sleeman, Associate Service Fellow at CDC, discusses resistance to an antiviral flu drug in North Carolina.  Created: 12/19/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/19/2011.

  15. "FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

  16. Don't Get, Don't Spread: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting the seasonal flu and spreading it to others.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  17. China's Cool Handling of Avian Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2004-01-01

    ON January 27, 2004,the China National Avian Flu Reference Lab confirmed that in Dingdang Town, Long'an County,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region a duck had died of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to the SARS epidemic last year, this occurrence has been handled coolly and efficiently by the Chinese government and people in general.

  18. Scare of Avian Flu Revisits India: A Bumpy Road Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Kumar Rai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the threat of an avian flu pandemic once again looming over eastern India, issues regarding patents and affordability and accessibility of drugs have taken center stage. The key priority of India should be to remain prepared to address the public health crisis effectively, by stockpiling the drug tamiflu so that it can be easily distributed and administered to the needy.India had been confronted with a serious threat of avian flu in 2005-06, but past experience shows that, despite having some of the broadest and most comprehensive compulsory patent licensing laws, India's policymaking elite shied away from fully exploiting these legal 'flexibilities.' Fortunately, the danger of avian flu did not turn into a substantial public health crisis that year. Under this backdrop, this paper explores various ‘flexibilities’ available in the Indian patent law and suggests short term and long term strategies to effectively tackle the impending danger of an avian flu pandemic, and similar public health crises in future. This paper will discuss potential areas of conflict between the indigenous generic drug firms and the multi-national companies with respect to TRIPS compliance in the event that these flexibilities are exploited. This paper also highlights the administrative constraints and the economic viability of the compulsory licensing system. Finally, this paper shows how political will is often more critical than having well documented provisions in statute books to respond to such situations effectively.

  19. Evaluation of the EuroFlu Bulletin: report summary.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, C.S.; Pereyaslov, D.; Antoniadou, E.; Meerhoff, T.; Martirosyan, L.

    2010-01-01

    During February and March 2010, WHO/Europe undertook the task of performing an evaluation among EuroFlu Bulletin users, in order to determine its effectiveness. This evaluation took the form of two questionnaires, designed to collect information on use of the Bulletin, gauge the level of satisfactio

  20. Guidance for Schools on the Recent Flu Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The document provides a transcript of a conference call moderated by Bill Modzeleski, Director of the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The focus of the call was the recent outbreak of swine flu in Mexico and the United States. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actions and recommendations to the education community were discussed. A comparison…

  1. H1N1 Flu and Antiviral Drugs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-02

    This podcast discusses the use of antiviral drugs for treating and preventing the H1N1 flu virus.  Created: 5/2/2009 by Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Influenza Division (CCID/NCIRD/ID).   Date Released: 5/2/2009.

  2. New Flu Virus in Pigs Exhibited at Fairs in Ohio

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-21

    Dr. Andrew Bowman, a graduate research assistant in the Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine at The Ohio State University, discusses his study about flu virus in pigs at agricultural fairs.  Created: 5/21/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2013.

  3. Novel H1N1 Flu and Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    This podcast gives tips to stay healthy and help prevent infection with novel H1N1 flu if your child or someone you know is going to camp.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  4. Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal. Results Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naïve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p < 0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72. Conclusions Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results. PMID:25077431

  5. Ancient DNA reveals elephant birds and kiwi are sister taxa and clarifies ratite bird evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Llamas, Bastien; Soubrier, Julien; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Worthy, Trevor H; Wood, Jamie; Lee, Michael S Y; Cooper, Alan

    2014-05-23

    The evolution of the ratite birds has been widely attributed to vicariant speciation, driven by the Cretaceous breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. The early isolation of Africa and Madagascar implies that the ostrich and extinct Madagascan elephant birds (Aepyornithidae) should be the oldest ratite lineages. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of two elephant birds and performed phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that these birds are the closest relatives of the New Zealand kiwi and are distant from the basal ratite lineage of ostriches. This unexpected result strongly contradicts continental vicariance and instead supports flighted dispersal in all major ratite lineages. We suggest that convergence toward gigantism and flightlessness was facilitated by early Tertiary expansion into the diurnal herbivory niche after the extinction of the dinosaurs. PMID:24855267

  6. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  7. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis). PMID:26350315

  8. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  9. The Design of Compass/BeiDou Navigation Satellite Terminal for Migrant Bird Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A terminal of Compass Navigation Satellite System (CNSS, which can not only support BeiDou-1 and BeiDou-2 but also support Global Positioning System (GPS, is designed to research the activities of the migrant birds, with our novel design of a multiband antenna. By a high-density integration, this terminal is designed with a compact size and light weight. When the terminal is assembled to a whooper swan, its flying trace is recorded by the CNSS, which is in agreement with that of GPS. The flying route map based on the CNSS is useful to check the situation and habit of the migrant bird, which is important for animal protection and bird flu outbreak prediction.

  10. What Is Bird Flu?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢连香

    2004-01-01

    What is bird flu? It's a form of influenza believed to strike all birds. Though poultry (家禽)are believed to be especially prone to (倾向于)humans, no human-to-human transmission(传播) has been reported.

  11. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  12. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew;

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... appeal. However, some studies have found birds to perform relatively poorly as indicators. We therefore ask how the effectiveness of this approach can be improved by supplementing data on birds with information on other taxa. 2. Here, we explore two strategies using (i) species data for other taxa...... areas identified on the basis of birds alone performed well in representing overall species diversity where birds were relatively speciose compared to the other taxa in the data sets. Adding species data for one taxon increased surrogate effectiveness better than adding genus- and family-level data...

  13. The Impacts of Flu/Cold Incidents and Retail OJ Promotion on OJ Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examine the impacts of retail promotions and flu/cold incidences on the demand for orange juice using weekly Nielsen grocery orange juice sales statistics and the flu/cold incidences reported by Surveillance Data Inc. The cross-section time-series pooling technique proposed by Parks was used to estimate the demand parameters. Results show that flu/cold incidences increased the effectiveness of retail promotions on the demand for orange juice.

  14. Impacts of Flu/Cold Incidences and Retail Orange Juice Promotion on Orange Juice Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Brown, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examine the impacts of retail promotions and flu/cold incidences on the demand for orange juice using weekly Nielsen grocery orange juice sales statistics and the flu/cold incidences reported by Surveillance Data Inc. The cross-section time-series pooling technique proposed by Parks was used to estimate the demand parameters. Results show that flu/cold incidences increased the effectiveness of retail promotions on the demand for orange juice.

  15. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Alsharifi, Mohammed; Furuya, Yoichi; Bowden, Timothy R.; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Trinidad, Lee; Boyle, David B.; Müllbacher, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that γ-ray inactivated flu virus ...

  16. Are Pink Slips Better Than Flu Shots? The Effects of Employment on Influenza Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz; Erik Nesson; Joshua Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The seasonal influenza virus afflicts between five and twenty percent of the U.S. population each year, imposing significant costs on those who fall ill, their families, employers, and the health care system. The flu is transmitted via droplet spread or close contact, and certain environments, such as schools or offices, promote transmission. In this paper, we examine whether increases in labor market activities are associated with an increased incidence of the flu. Flu data come from the Cen...

  17. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Alsharifi; Yoichi Furuya; Bowden, Timothy R.; Mario Lobigs; Aulikki Koskinen; Matthias Regner; Lee Trinidad; Boyle, David B.; Arno Müllbacher

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that gamma-ray inactivated flu v...

  18. Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

  19. Evaluation of the Xpert Flu Rapid PCR Assay in High-Risk Emergency Department Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsamakis, Alexandra; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Forman, Michael; Hardick, Justin; Kidambi, Pranav; Amin, Sharmeen; Gupta, Alisha; Rothman, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the performance of Cepheid's GeneXpert Xpert Flu assay in a target population of 281 adults presenting to the emergency department with an acute respiratory illness who met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for recommended antiviral treatment. Compared with the Prodesse ProFlu+ assay, Xpert Flu had an overall sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.2%. PMID:25253792

  20. Novel Insights into Chromosome Evolution in Birds, Archosaurs, and Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho T; Damas, Joana; Auvil, Loretta; Li, Cai; Jarvis, Erich D; Burt, David W; Griffin, Darren K; Larkin, Denis M

    2016-01-01

    Homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) and evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs) in mammalian chromosomes are enriched for distinct DNA features, contributing to distinct phenotypes. To reveal HSB and EBR roles in avian evolution, we performed a sequence-based comparison of 21 avian and 5 outgroup species using recently sequenced genomes across the avian family tree and a newly-developed algorithm. We identified EBRs and HSBs in ancestral bird, archosaurian (bird, crocodile, and dinosaur), and reptile chromosomes. Genes involved in the regulation of gene expression and biosynthetic processes were preferably located in HSBs, including for example, avian-specific HSBs enriched for genes involved in limb development. Within birds, some lineage-specific EBRs rearranged genes were related to distinct phenotypes, such as forebrain development in parrots. Our findings provide novel evolutionary insights into genome evolution in birds, particularly on how chromosome rearrangements likely contributed to the formation of novel phenotypes. PMID:27401172

  1. Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, and seasonal influenza in Japan under social and demographic influence: review and analysis using the two-population model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    When cumulative numbers of patients (X) and deaths (Y) associated with an influenza epidemic are plotted using the log-log scale, the plots fall on an ascending straight line generally expressed as logY = k(logX - logN0). For the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the slope k was ~0.6 for Mexico and ~2 for other countries. The two-population model was proposed to explain this phenomenon (Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:279-88; Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:411-2; and Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:482-4). The current article reviews and analyzes previous influenza epidemics in Japan to examine whether the two-population model is applicable to them. The slope k was found to be ~2 for the Spanish flu during 1918-1920 and the Asian flu during 1957-1958, and ~1 for the Hong Kong flu and seasonal influenza prior to 1960-1961; however, k was ~0.6 for seasonal influenza after 1960-1961. This transition of the slope k of seasonal influenza plots from ~1 to ~0.6 corresponded to the shift in influenza mortality toward the older age groups and a drastic reduction in infant mortality rates due to improvements in the standard of living during the 1950s and 1960s. All the above observations could be well explained by reconstitution of the influenza epidemic based on the two-population model. PMID:25056069

  2. HEALTH CARE DATA WAREHOUSE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR INFLUENZA (FLU) DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Rajib Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Data Warehouse is the most reliable technology used by the company for planning, forecasting and management. Critical business management data was contained in several unrelated and disconnected databases, both internally managed and from external sources. Client was unable to view the data from an integrated viewpoint. The data warehousing is one of the best technique to integrate data. This paper presents the Influenza (Flu) diseases specific data warehouse architecture for h...

  3. Preschool Flu Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-06

    In the U.S., many young children go to day-care centers and preschools. These environments put them at higher risk for influenza, including potential serious complications, such as hospitalization and even death. An annual flu vaccine is recommended for all children six months and older. In this podcast, Dr. Erin Kennedy discusses the importance of getting your preschooler vaccinated against influenza.  Created: 3/6/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  4. Strategies for Fighting Pandemic Flu in Developing Countries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-04

    Countries throughout the world are preparing for the next influenza pandemic. Developing countries face special challenges because they don't have antiviral drugs or vaccines that more developed countries have. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Dan Jernigan discusses new and innovative approaches that may help developing countries fight pandemic flu when it emerges.  Created: 3/4/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/4/2009.

  5. Pregnant Women: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  6. What every Hepatologist should Know about Swine Flu?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available As world is witnessing ever fastest growing pandemic, physicians with various specialties should adopt themselves to the new situation (1. Global death toll of swine flu by November 15, 2009, has raised to 6750. Many of those who died or were hospitalized suffered from comorbid conditions which increased either the severity or the risk of acquiring the disease (2. Swine flu may change the course of many chronic diseases. Thus, all physicians in different disciplines should realize and consider the impact of the current pandemic on their daily practice.As the new pandemic flu virus 2009 (H1N1 has been circulating only in the past nine months, there is still not much evidence on the interaction of this pandemic with chronic diseases. However, presumably, much of this interaction is expected to be similar to other circulating influenza type A viruses. But there are clear differences with the current pandemic , for example, near one-third of severe cases had no underlying conditions and their median age was much lower than the usual seasonal flu (3.Hepatologists caring for both acute and chronic liver diseases anywhere in the world would probably see much about this interaction in upcoming months and even years. In this review, we tried to somehow classify our current knowledge on possible interactions between swine flu and various liver diseases. Much of the described effects are from the older evidence mostly related to influenza type A, and as was mentioned before, with expansion of the current pandemic and growing our knowledge about the nature of this new virus, these suggestions might be changed later on.Liver damage by flu virus.Liver damage with influenza virus has been shown in animal models. Indeed, the mouse/influenza B virus is a well-established model for Reye's syndrome with a histological picture resembling human disease including microvesicular steatosis and minimal inflammation (4. The primary infected cells in these animals are

  7. Christmas Island birds returning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  8. Oxyspiruriasis in zoo birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellayan, S; Jeffery, J; Oothuman, P; Zahedi, M; Krishnasamy, M; Paramaswaran, S; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-06-01

    Oxyspiruriasis caused by the bird eyeworm, Oxyspirura mansoni, a thelaziid nematode, in three species of pheasants, 3 Chrysolophus pictus (golden pheasant), 7 Lophura nycthemera (silver pheasant) and 9 Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant) in Zoo Negara Malaysia are reported. Birds with the disease were treated with a solution of 0.5% iodine or 0.5% lysol. Antistress powder for 4 days in water and non-strep vitamin powder in water was also provided. Control measures included removal of the cockroach intermediate host, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Surinam cockroach) from the vicinity of the birds. The golden pheasant is a new host for O. mansoni in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:22735854

  9. A flu optical immunoassay (ThermoBioStar's FLU OIA): a diagnostic tool for improved influenza management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, S P; Cox, C; Steaffens, J

    2001-01-01

    ThermoBioStar's and Biota's flu optical immunoassay (FLU OIA) is a rapid test designed to diagnose influenza A and B infection using a variety of specimen types. The assay uses highly sensitive thin-film detection methods, coupled with specific monoclonal antibodies to the nucleoprotein. The test is simple to perform, requires no instrumentation and is intended to provide a result within 15 min of test initiation in the 'point-of-care' environment. In initial clinical studies, the assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to culture in identifying infected individuals. Subsequent independent studies using a variety of sample types have demonstrated sensitivity ranging from 48 to 100% and specificities ranging from 93 to 97%. In addition to detecting human strains, this assay has been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of avian and non-human mammalian influenza viruses. The FLU OIA test has been used in large-scale surveillance schemes intended to provide rapid epidemiological data during normal influenza seasons and has demonstrated the potential for fulfilling a similar role for multispecies surveillance in, for example, conditions that offer challenges for conventional virus isolation methods. Conceivably, such use should facilitate the timely recognition of influenza outbreaks and prioritization of positive specimens for more conventional, laboratory characterization, leading to improved interpandemic surveillance and rapid reaction in the face of the next pandemic. PMID:11779392

  10. Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC) data as flu activity indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98). PMID:22952719

  11. Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC data as flu activity indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Patwardhan

    Full Text Available The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r' for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011 was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94. The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r' was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98.

  12. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on ...

  13. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  14. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  15. MOXD2, a Gene Possibly Associated with Olfaction, Is Frequently Inactivated in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chul Jun; Choi, Dongjin; Park, Dong-Bin; Kim, Hyein; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate MOXD2 encodes a monooxygenase DBH-like 2 protein that could be involved in neurotransmitter metabolism, potentially during olfactory transduction. Loss of MOXD2 in apes and whales has been proposed to be associated with evolution of olfaction in these clades. We analyzed 57 bird genomes to identify MOXD2 sequences and found frequent loss of MOXD2 in 38 birds. Among the 57 birds, 19 species appeared to have an intact MOXD2 that encoded a full-length protein; 32 birds had a gene with open reading frame-disrupting point mutations and/or exon deletions; and the remaining 6 species did not show any MOXD2 sequence, suggesting a whole-gene deletion. Notably, among 10 passerine birds examined, 9 species shared a common genomic deletion that spanned several exons, implying the gene loss occurred in a common ancestor of these birds. However, 2 closely related penguin species, each of which had an inactive MOXD2, did not share any mutation, suggesting an independent loss after their divergence. Distribution of the 38 birds without an intact MOXD2 in the bird phylogenetic tree clearly indicates that MOXD2 loss is widespread and independent in bird lineages. We propose that widespread MOXD2 loss in some bird lineages may be implicated in the evolution of olfactory perception in these birds. PMID:27074048

  16. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D.

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further...

  17. Time To Talk About Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z 5 Tips: Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say? Share: It's that time of year again— ... But do they really work? What does the science say? Vaccination is the best ... natural product is useful against the flu. Zinc taken ...

  18. ‘Tis the Season for Flu Vaccine (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-12-10

    Flu season typically runs from late fall through early spring. In this podcast, Dr. Lisa Grohskopf discusses the importance of getting vaccinated against the flu.  Created: 12/10/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 12/10/2015.

  19. Swine flu-have we learnt any lesson from the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sankalp; Rawal, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The world has suffered the pandemics due to swine flu in the past. The present epidemic in India has claimed many lives. Even, after the first outbreak of swine flu in 2009 no concrete efforts are done to prevent this infection. There is an urgent need to take radical steps to prevent such epidemics. PMID:26848365

  20. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  1. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Felix

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork. We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu" in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180 or Europe (N = 148. Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A show large regional differences in anxiety, with Malaysians more anxious and more likely to reduce travel and to buy masks and food. Discussions with family and friends may reinforce existing anxiety levels. Particular groups (homosexuals, prostitutes, the homeless are perceived as at greater risk, potentially leading to increased prejudice during a pandemic. Europeans underestimated mortality of seasonal flu, and require more information about the protection given by seasonal flu inoculation.

  2. Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare…

  3. Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

  4. Demystifying FluMist, a new intranasal, live influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2003-09-01

    FluMist--a cold-adapted, live-attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza virus vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on June 17, 2003--has been shown to be safe and effective, but its role in the general prevention of influenza is yet to be defined. Intranasal administration is expected to be more acceptable than parenteral, particularly in children, but the potential for the shedding of live virus may pose a risk to anyone with a compromised immune system. PMID:14518575

  5. Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

  6. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  7. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  8. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blower Sally

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1, formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0. The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1 has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918–1919 pandemic strain (mean R0~2: range 1.4 to 2.8 and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1. By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza.

  9. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements...... in when and where the bird compensated for the displacement. The last paper investigates effects of habitat shading on the performance of light-level based geolocation and compares experimental data with data from real tracking studies. This illustrates some of the potential problems and limitations...

  10. [Birds' sense of direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohtola, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Birds utilize several distinct sensory systems in a flexible manner in their navigation. When navigating with the help of landmarks, location of the sun and stars, or polarization image of the dome of the sky, they resort to vision. The significance of olfaction in long-range navigation has been under debate, even though its significance in local orientation is well documented. The hearing in birds extends to the infrasound region. It has been assumed that they are able to hear the infrasounds generated in the mountains and seaside and navigate by using them. Of the senses of birds, the most exotic one is the ability to sense magnetic fields of the earth. PMID:27522832

  11. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:17766290

  12. THE AVIAN FLU IMPACT ON THE ROMANIAN POULTRY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius Stanciu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat represents one of the most dynamic branches of the local meat production. The poultry sector represents a good quality protein source, at an acceptable price as compared to other animal production domains. There has been an ascending evolution of the sector after the year 2000, although there appeared a series of discontinuities that affected agricultural production, mainly on a short-term basis. The Avian Flu led to 190 million euros’ worth losses at the level of Romanian national economy. Low consumption due to the impact was a short-term consequence, being rapidly amortized by the Romanian producers. The lack of some business continuity insurance measures can further affect the poultry meat sector, which does not have the necessary robustness needed in case of larger shocks. The following article proposes an analysis of the Avian Flu crisis economic effects on the Romanian meat sector, and it is part of a general framework of research regarding the Romanian food chain resilience to critical situations.

  13. Birds build camouflaged nests

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Ida Elizabeth; Muth, Felicity; Morgan, Kate; Meddle, Simone L.; Healy, Susan Denise

    2014-01-01

    This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) (BB/I019502/1 to S.D.H. and S.L.M.) and by Roslin Institute Strategic Grant funding from the BBSRC (to S.L.M). It is assumed that many birds attempt to conceal their nests by using camouflage. To our knowledge, however, no previous experimental studies have explicitly tested this assumption. To explore whether birds choose materials that match the background colors of nest sites to reduce the cons...

  14. Comparative genomic data of the Avian Phylogenomics Project

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Bo; Li, Cai; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Wang, Jun; Avian Genome Consortium

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolutionary relationships of modern birds are among the most challenging to understand in systematic biology and have been debated for centuries. To address this challenge, we assembled or collected the genomes of 48 avian species spanning most orders of birds, including all Neognathae and two of the five Palaeognathae orders, and used the genomes to construct a genome-scale avian phylogenetic tree and perform comparative genomics analyses (Jarvis et al. in press; Zhang et al....

  15. Conserved syntenic clusters of protein coding genes are missing in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, Peter V; Wirthlin, Morgan; Wilhelm, Larry; Minx, Patrick; Lazar, Nathan H.; Carbone, Lucia; Warren, Wesley C.; MELLO, CLAUDIO V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Birds are one of the most highly successful and diverse groups of vertebrates, having evolved a number of distinct characteristics, including feathers and wings, a sturdy lightweight skeleton and unique respiratory and urinary/excretion systems. However, the genetic basis of these traits is poorly understood. Results Using comparative genomics based on extensive searches of 60 avian genomes, we have found that birds lack approximately 274 protein coding genes that are present in th...

  16. Comparison of Cepheid Xpert Flu/RSV XC and BioFire FilmArray for Detection of Influenza A, Influenza B, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrenbrock, Mark G; Matushek, Scott; Boonlayangoor, Sue; Tesic, Vera; Beavis, Kathleen G; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella

    2016-07-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC was compared to the FilmArray respiratory panel for detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), using 128 nasopharyngeal swabs. Positive agreements were 100% for Flu A and RSV and 92.3% for Flu B. The Xpert may be useful in clinical situations when extensive testing is not required and may serve an important role in laboratories already performing broader respiratory panel testing. PMID:27098956

  17. Chinese and Foreign Bird Lovers Watch Birds in Deyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (SIFA) and the Chengdu Bird Watching Society, 60 Chinese and foreign bird lovers went to Deyang, a city in Sichuan Province that had suffered grave damages in the Wenchuan earthquake, to watch birds,

  18. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Rachel E; Mediratta, Rishi P; Xie, James; Kambhampati, Swetha; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Montacute, Tamara; Zhang, Michael; Zaw, Catherine; He, Jimmy; Sanchez, Magali; Pischel, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful servicelearning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students' attitudes about population health, highlights the program's outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. PMID:26170731

  19. Healthy Bodies, Toxic Medicines: College Students and the Rhetorics of Flu Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Heidi Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines flu vaccination beliefs and practices produced during a survey of undergraduate students in Spring 2012 (IRB#10-732). This research uses the methods of rhetorical analysis — or the study of persuasive features and arguments used in language — to examine statements respondents made regarding flu and flu vaccine. In these responses, students generated unique categories of arguments about the perceived dangers of flu vaccination, including the assertion that vaccines cause disease (including illnesses and conditions other than flu), that vaccines are toxic medicines, and that vaccines carry unknown, population-wide risks that are inadequately acknowledged. This study provides insight into vaccination beliefs and rationales among a population at risk of flu (college students) and suggests that further study of this population may yield important keys to addressing flu vaccine concerns as expressed by college students. Rhetorical analysis also offers a useful set of methods to understanding vaccination beliefs and practices, adding to existing methods of study and analysis of vaccination practices and beliefs in medicine and public health. PMID:25506277

  20. Synanthropic birds and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pepe, Paola; Fioretti, Alessandro; Caputo, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the Campania region of southern Italy. Birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (Columba livia), 15 common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (Corvus corone). Each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. Ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. In particular, chewing lice were recovered with a prevalence of 100%, whereas Pseudolynchia canariensis (Hippoboscidae) were found only in pigeons with a prevalence of 80%. Regarding endoparasites, a total of seven helminth species were identified: three nematodes (Ascaridia columbae, Capillaria columbae, Physaloptera alata), one cestoda (Raillietina tetragona), one trematoda (Cardiocephalus longicollis), and two acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus globocaudatus and Centrorhynchus buteonis). The findings of the present study add data to the parasitologic scenario of synanthropic birds. This is important because parasitic infection can lead to serious health problems when combined with other factors and may affect flying performance and predatory effectiveness. PMID:24597118

  1. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not beau

  2. The Evaluations of Swine Flu Magnitudes in TV News: A Comparative Analysis of Paired Influenza Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Po-Lin; Meng, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how major TV news networks covered two flu pandemics in 1976 and 2009 in terms of news frames, mortality exemplars, mortality subject attributes, vaccination, evaluation approaches, and news sources. Results showed that the first pandemic was frequently framed with the medical/scientific and political/legal issues, while the second pandemic was emphasized with the health risk issue in TV news. Both flu pandemics were regularly reported with mortality exemplars, but the focus in the first pandemic was on the flu virus threat and vaccination side effects, while the vaccination shortage was frequently revealed in the second outbreak. PMID:26075542

  3. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

    OpenAIRE

    Neto Felix; Haque Shamsul; Goodwin Robin; Myers Lynn B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert l...

  4. PHA urges parents to get 'at risk' children vaccinated against seasonal flu

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    The Public Health Agency is urging Northern Ireland parents to make sure children in 'at risk' groups get their flu vaccine early.The message has been issued to parents and carers of children as the PHA's seasonal flu vaccination programme gets underway for 2011/12.It is very important that children with any condition that puts them more at risk of the complications of flu get the vaccine.These 'at risk' conditions include:chronic lung conditions such as asthma;chest infections that have requ...

  5. Long migration flights of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight. (paper)

  6. Science Is for the Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Susan Ade

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a five-month interdisciplinary bird study that she designed for her seventh-grade students that combines life science, technology, writing, art, mathematics, social studies and literature. The driving force behind this yearly unit is the BirdSleuth eBird program (formerly the Cornell University Classroom…

  7. Birding--Fun and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This feature article presents the basics of birding, or bird watching, and discusses its appeal, especially to serious birders. A section on "citizen scientists" explains organizations that collect data on birds and describes projects they organize. Other sections discuss the legacy of John James Audubon and the bald eagle.

  8. Birds and wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, Rowena

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Climate change, perhaps more accurately described as climate disruption, is considered to be a major long-term threat to biodiversity, with a high probability that the underlying cause is due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy is an important component of a programme of measures to combat further climate change, to include improved energy efficiency and demand management. Wind energy is the most advanced renewable energy source and is a global industry onshore and, increasingly, offshore. However, as with any form of energy generation, wind energy also has potential environmental costs which have to be balanced against benefits. The environmental impacts on birds derive from the following: collision risk, in particular from the moving rotor blades; displacement arising from disturbance during construction, operation or decommissioning; habitat loss or change leading to alteration of food availability; barrier effects leading to deviation of long distance migratory flights or disruption of local flights between feeding, nesting, and roosting/loafing locations. Not all species of birds, or individuals within a species, are equally susceptible to negative interactions with wind turbines, and neither are the population consequences of impacts equivalent. Of greatest concern are bird species of conservation concern that exhibit behaviours that place them at risk of an adverse impact, notably when that impact leads to a reduction in population size that is unlikely to be compensated for. In particular, cumulative impacts arising from multiple wind farms or wind farms in combination with other developments are of concern. There has been a welcome increase in research effort and peer-reviewed publications on the subject of birds and wind energy in recent years. Increasing our understanding of impacts is essential to delivering possible solutions and this paper reviews current knowledge for birds. (Author)

  9. 4价流感活疫苗FluMist(R)Quadrivalent%The quadrivalent live influenza vaccine FluMist(R) Quadrivalent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗玉发; 李波

    2012-01-01

    鼻用型4价流感活疫苗FluMist(R) Quadrivalent是在3价流感活疫苗FluMist基础上加入另一种乙型流感病毒株组合而成.2012年2月29日,美国FDA批准其用于预防2~49岁人群的季节性流行性感冒.文中对其非临床毒理学研究、药效学、临床研究、药物相互作用以及禁忌症等作一综述.%FluMist(R) Quadrivalent is a live intranasal influenza vaccine consisting of trivalent vaccine FluMist and another type B influenza virus. On 29th Febuary, 2012, the vaccine was approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration to prevent seasonal influenza in the population aged 2 ~49. The nonclinical toxicology, phar-macodynamics, clinical studies, drug interactions and contraindications of FluMist(R) Quadrivalent were reviewed in this paper.

  10. HEALTH CARE DATA WAREHOUSE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR INFLUENZA (FLU DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Dutta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data Warehouse is the most reliable technology used by the company for planning, forecasting and management. Critical business management data was contained in several unrelated and disconnected databases, both internally managed and from external sources. Client was unable to view the data from an integrated viewpoint. The data warehousing is one of the best technique to integrate data. This paper presents the Influenza (Flu diseases specific data warehouse architecture for health care. This could be used by the database administrator or executive manager, doctors, nurses, other staff members of the health care. Health care data warehouse is mostly important to integrate different data format from different data source. All information about patient including their medical test reports are store in the database, the executive manager needs to access those data and make a report. By seeing the report, the doctor takes action.

  11. Flu pandemics: homeopathic prophylaxis and definition of the epidemic genius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Marino

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on viral genetics establish swine-H1N1 – responsible for the ongoing pandemics – as a remainder or continuation of the agent causing the flu epidemics of 1918. This study aimed at analyzing whether this common etiology also result in significant correlations of clinical manifestations. To do so, data were collected to compare the clinical evolution of cases in the 1918 and 2009 epidemics.  This historical revision was the ground for evaluating the response to treatment including homeopathy in the former epidemics. It is discussed the convenience of including homeopathic prophylaxis grounded on the diagnosis of the epidemic genius among public health actions.

  12. Got the Flu (or Mumps)? Check the Eigenvalue!

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, B Aditya; Faloutsos, Michalis; Valler, Nicholas; Faloutsos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    For a given, arbitrary graph, what is the epidemic threshold? That is, under what conditions will a virus result in an epidemic? We provide the super-model theorem, which generalizes older results in two important, orthogonal dimensions. The theorem shows that (a) for a wide range of virus propagation models (VPM) that include all virus propagation models in standard literature (say, [8][5]), and (b) for any contact graph, the answer always depends on the first eigenvalue of the connectivity matrix. We give the proof of the theorem, arithmetic examples for popular VPMs, like flu (SIS), mumps (SIR), SIRS and more. We also show the implications of our discovery: easy (although sometimes counter-intuitive) answers to `what-if' questions; easier design and evaluation of immunization policies, and significantly faster agent-based simulations.

  13. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  14. Google flu trends: correlation with emergency department influenza rates and crowding metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Trish Perl; Richard Rothman; Darren Mareiniss; Amir Mohareb; Yu-Hsiang Hsieh; Scott Levin; Jesse Pines; Andrea Dugas; Charlotte Gaydos

    2011-01-01

    City-level Google Flu Trends, a novel Internet-based influenza surveillance tool, shows strong correlation with influenza cases, emergency department influenzalike illness visits, and several emergency department crowding measures, validating its use as an emergency department surveillance tool.

  15. A Natural Product as Drug Lead against both SARS and Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with colleagues of Singapore Polytechnic, CAS scientists have discovered a natural product from fruits that could be a drug lead to battle both severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and flu viruses.

  16. JouFLU: upgrades to the fiber linked unit for optical recombination (FLUOR) interferometric beam combiner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, N. J.; Lhomé, E.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination (FLUOR) is a precision interferometric beam combiner operating at the CHARA Array on Mt. Wilson, CA. It has recently been upgraded as part of a mission known as "Jouvence of FLUOR" or JouFLU. As part of this program JouFLU has new mechanic stages and optical payloads, new alignment systems, and new command/control software. Furthermore, new capabilities have been implemented such as a Fourier Transform Spectrograph (FTS) mode and spectral dispersion mode. These upgrades provide new capabilities to JouFLU as well as improving statistical precision and increasing observing efficiency. With these new systems, measurements of interferometric visibility to the level of 0.1% precision are expected on targets as faint as 6th magnitude in the K band. Here we detail the upgrades of JouFLU and report on its current status.

  17. Comparative genomic data of the Avian Phylogenomics Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Bo; Li, Cai;

    2014-01-01

    in phylogenomics and comparative genomics. FINDINGS: The 38 bird genomes were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled using a whole genome shotgun strategy. The 48 genomes were categorized into two groups according to the N50 scaffold size of the assemblies: a high depth group comprising 23...

  18. Medicinal plants indicated for flu and colds in the South of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marjoriê da Costa Mendieta; Rita Maria Heck; Silvana Ceolin; Andrieli Daiane Zdanski de Souza; Natália Rosiely Costa Vargas; Manuelle Arias Piriz; Anelise Miritz Borges

    2015-01-01

    We sought to know the medicinal plants used for flu and colds by farmers from the South of Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare it with scientific evidence. This descriptive study was conducted with 12 farmers living at Ilha dos Marinheiros, in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis, comparing the results with the scientific literature. Thirteen plants were cited as used for cold and flu: Achyrocline satureioides, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicu...

  19. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana Manjunatha; Suresh Bada Math; Girish Baburao Kulkarni; Santosh Kumar Chaturvedi

    2011-01-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ′PUBMED′ to search for published articles with differen...

  20. ClassyFlu: Classification of Influenza A Viruses with Discriminatively Trained Profile-HMMs

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Bulla, Ingo; Ziller, Mario; Pohlmann, Anne; Harder, Timm; Stanke, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and rapid characterization of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences with respect to subtype and clade is at the basis of extended diagnostic services and implicit to molecular epidemiologic studies. ClassyFlu is a new tool and web service for the classification of IAV sequences of the HA and NA gene into subtypes and phylogenetic clades using discriminatively trained profile hidden Markov models (HMMs), one for each subtype or clade. ClassyFlu me...

  1. The biotherapics Influenzinum and Oscilococcinum in the treatment of influenza virus flu

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira; Carla Holandino; Ana Luiza Marques de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The influenza virus flu is a widespread illness which is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. About 20% of children and 5% of adults are infected with this virus every year. The disease is highly contagious and its transmission occurs by saliva particles of the infected person, expelled by breathing, talking and coughing [1]. Flu pandemics are generally caused by the appearance of a new subtype of the virus in humans, which occurs as a result of the existing...

  2. Complex bird clocks.

    OpenAIRE

    Gwinner, E.; Brandstätter, R

    2001-01-01

    The circadian pacemaking system of birds comprises three major components: (i) the pineal gland, which rhythmically synthesizes and secretes melatonin; (ii) a hypothalamic region, possibly equivalent to the mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei; and (iii) the retinae of the eyes. These components jointly interact, stabilize and amplify each other to produce a highly self-sustained circadian output. Their relative contribution to overt rhythmicity appears to differ between species and the system ma...

  3. Directing STUPID FUCKING BIRD

    OpenAIRE

    Burris, Katherine Carton

    2014-01-01

    In my final year as an undergraduate at the University of California, Santa Cruz, I proposed to direct STUPID FUCKING BIRD (an adaption by Aaron Posner of Chekhov's The Seagull) in the Experimental Theater. This capstone thesis details the motivations behind my selection of this play, the decision to direct, the technical preparations involved in its staging, and a brief analysis of Posner's text as an adaptation and response to Chekhov's nineteenth century classic. Taking his cue from Chekh...

  4. Free like Birds (?)

    OpenAIRE

    Kukubajska, Marija Emilija

    2015-01-01

    Intro to performance 7th International conference on Knowledge and power FREE like BIRDS (?) is a project of the interdisciplinary and multi-media Art-Po concept established in 1973, and performed on variety of issues over the years. From the American children hospitals activity (Columbia University, to Asia-Pacific museum in Pasadena, Gallery Kubaiski No. Hollywood, California, the University of La Jolla Marmount, California Wignal Museum, Irvine Fine Arts Center, Vietnamese New Yea...

  5. A Review on “Kapa Sura Kudineer”-A Siddha Formulary Prediction for Swine Flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillaivanan. S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Siddha medicine is one of the oldest medical systems in the world. This system is most commonly practicing in India especially in southern regions. Siddha medicines become popular nowadays because of various outbreaks of communicable and very infectious diseases like chikungunya, dengue, swine flu etc. These diseases of viral origin are very challenge to the modern world because of lack of ideal anti-viral therapy. Pandemic flu is different from ordinary flu because it’s a new flu virus that appears in humans and spreads very quickly from person to person worldwide. Because it’s a new virus, no one will have immunity to it and everyone could be at risk of catching it. This includes healthy adults as well as older people, young children and those with existing medical conditions. The polyherbal decoction Kapa Sura Kudineer (KSK is a well-known one in this series next to Nilavembu kudineer (NVK. This KSK is introduced for the prevention and the management of Swine flu. And the people of Tamil Nadu are very attentive about this Siddha drug KSK because to prevent and protect from the deadly life threatening disease, Swine flu. Here, an attempt has been made to review the explored ethno pharmacological activities of the ingredients of KSK to strengthen the scientific facts favoring this formulation.

  6. Isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome: A rare side effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Pandit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced flu-like syndrome is very rare. It is mainly produced by rifampicin. We report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB that developed isoniazid-induced flu-like syndrome, but could be cured with a modified regimen replacing isoniazid with levofloxacin. A 10-year-old girl with PTB was treated with isoniazid (H, rifampicin (R, ethambutol (E, and pyrazinamide (Z. She developed features of flu from the sixth day. Symptoms recurred everyday within 1 h of drug ingestion and subsided automatically by next 12 h. After admission, HREZ were continued. She developed symptoms of flu after 1 h of drug ingestion. Antitubercular therapy (ATT was stopped and symptoms subsided automatically. Individual drug was started one by one after three days. Severe symptoms of flu developed after taking isoniazid, while other drugs were tolerated well. Levofloxacin was used as an alternative to isoniazid. She was cured after 6 months of chemotherapy. Isoniazid can possibly cause flu-like syndrome and the treating physician should be aware of this possible side effect when using ATT.

  7. Waiting for the flu: cognitive inertia and the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This study looks at public awareness and understanding of the Spanish flu in the United States between June 1918, when the flu became "Spanish," and the end of September when the deadly second wave reached the majority of the country. Based on an extensive reading of local newspapers, it finds a near universal lack of preparation or panic or other signs of personal concern among those in the unaffected areas, despite extensive and potentially worrying coverage of the flu's progress. The normal reaction to news of the inexorable approach of a pandemic of uncertain virulence is anxiety and action. The Spanish flu produced neither in the uninfected areas for a month. The most likely reason appears to be cognitive inertia-the tendency of existing beliefs or habits of thought to blind people to changed realities. This inertia grew out of the widespread understanding of flu as a seasonal visitor that while frequently unpleasant almost never killed the strong and otherwise healthy. This view of the flu was powerful enough that it blinded many in the unaffected regions to the threat for weeks even in the face of daily or near daily coverage of the pandemic's spread. PMID:24957069

  8. Knowledge and Awareness of Eye Flu among the Dentists and Dental Auxiliaries of Udaipur City, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva and has 4 main causes-viruses, bacteria, allergens, and irritants. Among these, bacterial conjunctivitis is most common and is contagious, especially when the dentist is working with the infected person, and that person spreads the same to the other patient. Methods: A pretested questionnaire survey was conducted among 152 subjects (those who were present at the time of survey aged 18 to 60 years of Udaipur city, Rajasthan in March 2012. Ethical clearance was obtained from relevant authority. Written informed consent was obtained from study participants. Results: All (80 dentists and 72 dental auxiliaries the subjects returned the questionnaire. Regarding previous experience of eye flu, 67 (44.08% participants reported that they had been infected with eye flu previously. Majority 123 (80.92% of participants agreed that virus or bacteria caused eye flu. Majority of 145 (95.39% of the participants agreed that the eye turns red during eye flu. One hundred and twenty three (80.92% subjects replied that the dental treatment for a patient infected with eye flu should be delayed till the symptoms subside. Conclusions: Eye flu being an occupational hazard among dentists, personal ophthalmic prophylactic care is a must which helps in prevention of spread of infection to other patients and family members.

  9. Knowledge and Awareness of Eye Flu among the Dentists and Dental Auxiliaries of Udaipur City, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Nagesh; Patel, Rahul; Reddy, Jaddu Jyothirmai; Singh, Sopan; Sharma, Ashish; Multani, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva and has 4 main causes-viruses, bacteria, allergens, and irritants. Among these, bacterial conjunctivitis is most common and is contagious, especially when the dentist is working with the infected person, and that person spreads the same to the other patient. Methods: A pretested questionnaire survey was conducted among 152 subjects (those who were present at the time of survey) aged 18 to 60 years of Udaipur city, Rajasthan in March 2012. Ethical clearance was obtained from relevant authority. Written informed consent was obtained from study participants. Results: All (80 dentists and 72 dental auxiliaries) the subjects returned the questionnaire. Regarding previous experience of eye flu, 67 (44.08%) participants reported that they had been infected with eye flu previously. Majority 123 (80.92%) of participants agreed that virus or bacteria caused eye flu. Majority of 145 (95.39%) of the participants agreed that the eye turns red during eye flu. One hundred and twenty three (80.92%) subjects replied that the dental treatment for a patient infected with eye flu should be delayed till the symptoms subside. Conclusions: Eye flu being an occupational hazard among dentists, personal ophthalmic prophylactic care is a must which helps in prevention of spread of infection to other patients and family members. PMID:25105007

  10. The United Kingdom 2009 Swine Flu Outbreak As Recorded in Real Time by General Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershel Jick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Initially the course of the 2009 swine flu pandemic was uncertain and impossible to predict with any confidence. An effective prospective data resource exists in the United Kingdom (UK that could have been utilized to describe the scope and extent of the swine flu outbreak as it unfolded. We describe the 2009 swine flu outbreak in the UK as recorded daily by general practitioners and the potential use of this database for real-time tracking of flu outbreaks. Methods. Using the General Practice Research Database, a real-time general practice, electronic database, we estimated influenza incidence from July 1998 to September 2009 according to age, region, and calendar time. Results. From 1998 to2008, influenza outbreaks regularly occurred yearly from October to March, but did not typically occur from April to September until the swine flu outbreak began in April 2009. The weekly incidence rose gradually, peaking at the end of July, and the outbreak had largely dissipated by early September. Conclusions. The UK swine flu outbreak, recorded in real time by a large group of general practitioners, was mild and limited in time. Simultaneous online access seemed feasible and could have provided additional clinical-based evidence at an early planning stage of the outbreak.

  11. Does Work Stress Predict the Occurrence of Cold, Flu and Minor Illness Symptoms in Clinical Psychology Trainees?

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Anna C; Sheffield, David

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the three/four-day lagged relationship between daily work stress and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and other minor illness symptoms. Methods: Twenty-four postgraduate clinical psychology trainees completed work stress, cold/flu symptoms and somatic symptoms checklists daily for four weeks. Results: Increases in work stress were observed two days prior to a cold/flu episode but not three or four days preceding a cold/flu episode. Work stress wa...

  12. Clinical Evaluation of the ZstatFlu-II Test: a Chemiluminescent Rapid Diagnostic Test for Influenza Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Marilyn S.; Abel, David M.; Ballam, Yolanda J.; Otto, Mary K.; Nickell, Angela F.; Pence, Lisa M.; Appleman, James R.; Shimasaki, Craig D.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.

    2002-01-01

    Exploiting the high sensitivity of the chemiluminescence phenomenon, an accurate and sensitive point-of-care test, called the ZstatFlu-II test (ZymeTx, Inc., Oklahoma City, Okla.), was developed to detect influenza virus infections. The ZstatFlu-II test takes 20 min and requires approximately 2 min of “hands-on” time for operational steps. The ZstatFlu-II test does not distinguish between infections with influenza virus types A and B. ZstatFlu-II test results are printed on Polaroid High-Spee...

  13. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  14. Migratory birds, ticks, and Bartonella

    OpenAIRE

    Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Thomas G.T. Jaenson; Ehrenborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tickborne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds....

  15. The smallest avian genomes are found in hummingbirds

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, T. Ryan; Andrews, Chandler B; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Witt, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    It has often been suggested that the genome sizes of birds are constrained relative to other tetrapods owing to the high metabolic demands of powered flight and the link between nuclear DNA content and red blood cell size. This hypothesis predicts that hummingbirds, which engage in energy-intensive hovering flight, will display especially constrained genomes even relative to other birds. We report genome size measurements for 37 species of hummingbirds that confirm this prediction. Our result...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  17. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  20. Pretty Bird by Bob Sinclair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recently I was reminded of a story which my mother swears is trus (though she doesn t call me Bobby muchanymore):Back in 1958,when I was just past four years old,my parents gave me a young parakeet.My mother determinedthat our parakeet would learn to talk,and to this end sat at the microphone of a borrowed tape recorder for a full 1/2hour,saying over and over again:“Pretty bird!Pretty bird!Pretty bird!Pretty bird!...”and so on.The resultingtaped message was played for our parakeet at least once pe...

  1. Fish and Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秀波

    2010-01-01

    人物:B——Bird L——Little Fish M——Mother Fish N——Narracor(旁白)道具:角色头饰 N:一条生活在河里的Little Fish对天空充满了好奇,一心想飞到天空去看看。此时,Little Fish正依偎在Mother Fish身边,好奇地望着天空。

  2. Public views of the uk media and government reaction to the 2009 swine flu pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Emily

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first cases of influenza A/H1N1 (swine flu were confirmed in the UK on 27th April 2009, after a novel virus first identified in Mexico rapidly evolved into a pandemic. The swine flu outbreak was the first pandemic in more than 40 years and for many, their first encounter with a major influenza outbreak. This study examines public understandings of the pandemic, exploring how people deciphered the threat and perceived they could control the risks. Methods Purposive sampling was used to recruit seventy three people (61 women and 12 men to take part in 14 focus group discussions around the time of the second wave in swine flu cases. Results These discussions showed that there was little evidence of the public over-reacting, that people believed the threat of contracting swine flu was inevitable, and that they assessed their own self-efficacy for protecting against it to be low. Respondents assessed a greater risk to their health from the vaccine than from the disease. Such findings could have led to apathy about following the UK Governments recommended health protective behaviours, and a sub-optimal level of vaccine uptake. More generally, people were confused about the difference between seasonal influenza and swine flu and their vaccines. Conclusions This research suggests a gap in public understandings which could hinder attempts to communicate about novel flu viruses in the future. There was general support for the government's handling of the pandemic, although its public awareness campaign was deemed ineffectual as few people changed their current hand hygiene practices. There was less support for the media who were deemed to have over-reported the swine flu pandemic.

  3. The biotherapics Influenzinum and Oscilococcinum in the treatment of influenza virus flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monteiro Siqueira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The influenza virus flu is a widespread illness which is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. About 20% of children and 5% of adults are infected with this virus every year. The disease is highly contagious and its transmission occurs by saliva particles of the infected person, expelled by breathing, talking and coughing [1]. Flu pandemics are generally caused by the appearance of a new subtype of the virus in humans, which occurs as a result of the existing flu in animal species transmitted to humans [2]. Despite the fact there are antiviral drugs, the virus develops mutations, creating resistance to these drugs in few days. Thus, the development of new therapies, including homeopathy, that can prevent and/or treat this disease becomes increasingly necessary. In this scenario, biotherapics appear as drugs that are made from biological products, such as secretions, tissues, organs whose compounding follows the homeopathic pharmacopeia. Objective: This study is a literature review on the treatment of flu with biotherapics used in clinical medicine, namely Influenzinum and Oscilococcinum. Method: Studies on the prescription of biotherapics for the prevention and cure of the flu as well as literature about the history and evolution of Homeopathy were reviewed in the present work. Influenzinum is a biotherapic made from the influenza vaccine from Pasteur Laboratory, while Oscillococcinum is obtained from the lysate of the liver and heart of the goose Anas barbaries. Results: Preliminary results showed that both medicines are widely used in clinical medicine. Influenzinum 9CH is prescribed for flu prevention and treatment, while Oscilococcinum is more used to reduce the severe symptoms in patients who already have the flu. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is possible to say that Influenzinum has a very important role in the prevention and cure of the influenza and Oscilococcinnum is useful in the relief of the

  4. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal RE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rachel E Rizal,1,* Rishi P Mediratta,1,* James Xie,1 Swetha Kambhampati,1 Kelsey Hills-Evans,1 Tamara Montacute,1 Michael Zhang,1 Catherine Zaw,2 Jimmy He,2 Magali Sanchez,2 Lauren Pischel1 1Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 2Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful service-learning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students' attitudes about population health, highlights the program’s outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. Keywords: immunizations, vaccine delivery, vaccinations 

  5. Can Novel Flu Surveillance Be Conducted With Limited Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Alan; Schulte, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective This project was organized to facilitate discussions on whether successful novel flu surveillance can be conducted by jurisdictions with limited resources. The discussions will focus on gathering opinions regarding the best combination of surveillance systems to quickly and efficiently identify the presence of influenza A (H3N2)v and other novel influenza viruses in circulation. Introduction The past decade has witnessed rapid development and implementation of numerous syndromic and other advanced surveillance systems to supplement traditional laboratory testing to identify the presence of novel influenza strains and track the impact on local populations. While much of the development and widespread implementation of these systems had been supported by public health preparedness funding, the loss of these monies has greatly constrained the ability of public health agencies to staff and maintain these systems. The periodic appearance of novel flu viruses, such as H3N2v, requires agencies to carefully choose which systems will provide the most cost-effective data to support their public health practice. Methods This project will be facilitated by an experienced public health practitioner who has conducted surveillance for a variety of disease agents. Additional public health practitioners are being recruited among members of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) Public Health Practice Committee (PHPC) to contribute information on comparative approaches to cost effective surveillance. Questions were selected for discussion and responses will be collected from influenza surveillance coordinators using a web-based survey tool managed by ISDS staff on behalf of the PHPC. Survey responses and subsequent recommendations will be presented at a PHPC meeting. Results Initial questions selected for the survey tool and subsequent discussions include: What surveillance systems does your agency use for conducting influenza surveillance? Which

  6. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  7. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye;

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size......, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this...... pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits....

  8. Nudges or mandates? The ethics of mandatory flu vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alex; Phung, Connie

    2015-05-21

    According to the CDC report for the 2012-2013 influenza season, there was a modest increase in the vaccination coverage rate among healthcare workers from 67% in 2011-2012, to 72% in 2012-2013 to the current 75% coverage. This is still far from reaching the US National Healthy People 2020 goal of 90% hospitals vaccination rates. The reported increase in coverage is attributed to the growing number of healthcare facilities with vaccination requirements with average rates of 96.5%. However, a few other public health interventions stir so much controversy and debate as vaccination mandates. The opposition stems from the belief that a mandatory flu shot policy violates an individual right to refuse unwanted treatment. This article outlines the historic push to achieve higher vaccination rates among healthcare professionals and a number of ethical issues arising from attempts to implement vaccination mandates. It then turns to a review of cognitive biases relevant in the context of decisions about influenza vaccination (omission bias, ambiguity aversion, present bias etc.) The article suggests that a successful strategy for policy-makers and others hoping to increase vaccination rates is to design a "choice architecture" that influences behavior of healthcare professionals without foreclosing other options. Nudges incentivize vaccinations and help better align vaccination intentions with near-term actions. PMID:25869886

  9. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  10. Evaluation of a Rapid Optical Immunoassay for Influenza Viruses (FLU OIA Test) in Comparison with Cell Culture and Reverse Transcription-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Guy; Hardy, Isabelle; Kress, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    The FLU OIA test was evaluated with 146 throat swab specimens from subjects with a flu-like illness in six Canadian clinics during the 1999–2000 flu season. The rate of positivity of the FLU OIA test (41.5%) was significantly lower than that of cell culture (55.2%) or reverse transcription-PCR (55.9%) during a season in which only influenza A virus was detected. PMID:11158137

  11. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Nielsen, Henrik Ib

    2011-01-01

    , with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These 'in progress' INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks....

  12. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  13. Migration in birds and fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, J.

    1949-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the periodical movements in animals called migrations is chiefly based on observations on birds. By and by, however, a number of facts concerning migration in other animal groups have been assembled and it seems worth while to compare them with those known for birds. There i

  14. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharifi, Mohammed; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Trinidad, Lee; Boyle, David B.; Müllbacher, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that γ-ray inactivated flu virus can induce cross-reactive Tc cell responses. Methodology/Principal Finding Here, we report that intranasal administration of purified γ-ray inactivated human influenza A virus preparations (γ-Flu) effectively induces heterotypic and cross-protective immunity. A single intranasal administration of γ-A/PR8[H1N1] protects mice against lethal H5N1 and other heterotypic infections. Conclusions/Significance Intranasal γ-Flu represents a unique approach for a cross-protective vaccine against both seasonal as well as possible future pandemic influenza A virus infections. PMID:19401775

  15. Intranasal flu vaccine protective against seasonal and H5N1 avian influenza infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alsharifi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza A (flu virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that gamma-ray inactivated flu virus can induce cross-reactive Tc cell responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here, we report that intranasal administration of purified gamma-ray inactivated human influenza A virus preparations (gamma-Flu effectively induces heterotypic and cross-protective immunity. A single intranasal administration of gamma-A/PR8[H1N1] protects mice against lethal H5N1 and other heterotypic infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Intranasal gamma-Flu represents a unique approach for a cross-protective vaccine against both seasonal as well as possible future pandemic influenza A virus infections.

  16. Knowledge and Awareness about H1N1 Flu in Urban Adult Population of Vadodara, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Francis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge and awareness about H1N1 flu in urban population of 18 years and aboveof Vadodara, India.Methods: A pre-designed self-rated instrument survey was conducted among 100 adults of 18 years and abovethrough a cross-sectional study design and a descriptive analysis was performed.Results: Present study showed that a substantial number of participants have adequate knowledge regardingcausative organism (87%, mode of spread (45% and prevention (83%. Majority of participants (96% wouldconsult doctor for management of H1N1 flu and also participants (82% believe that hand washing is most importantpreventable measure for H1N1 flu.Conclusion: Although there is an appropriate knowledge and awareness regarding various aspects of H1N1 fluamong urban adult population still, active interventions are required in all areas of H1N1 flu pandemic not only toimprove their knowledge and awareness regarding H1N1 flu of urban adults but also for rural adults.

  17. Influenza virus,influenza and bird flu%流感病毒与人流感和禽流感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志毅

    2006-01-01

    流行性感冒(简称:流感)是严重危害动物和人类健康的一类疾病,引起流感的罪魁祸首就是流感病毒.以下就流感病毒的生物学性状、致病性、防治等方面的特点加以简述.

  18. WT-bird. A novel bird impact detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, J.P.; Westra, C.A.; Korterink, H.; Curvers, A. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2002-11-01

    An important implementation issue for wind farms is the risk of bird collision. Much of the existing knowledge on birds and wind energy is based on studies of onshore sites. With respect to wind energy implementation especially offshore, more information about the environmental impact is needed. Several countries carrying out environmental base line studies focused on offshore wind farm sites. Monitoring wildlife is very labour intensive. Therefore, ECN develops a computer based efficient environmental monitoring tool. The aim is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate a noise monitoring system, which identifies bird impacts and also indicates the species. The system must be relatively inexpensive, robust and applicable for offshore conditions. The system identifies bird impacts by noise measurements and a camera identifies the specific species. The system can also distinguish between turbine specific sounds and a real collision against tower, nacelle and rotor. The WT-Bird detection system built by ECN appears to be a very promising way to detect bird collisions against wind turbines. The first experimental results are good. This way of detecting the collisions of birds can be very useful for the future implementation of offshore wind farms.

  19. Finding a new drug and vaccine for emerging swine flu: What is the concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitWiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok 10160Abstract: Influenza is a well known infection of the respiratory system. The main clinical manifestations of influenza include fever, sore throat, headache, cough, coryza, and malaise. Apart from the well known classical influenza, there are also groups of influenza virus infections that are called “atypical infection”. These infections are usually due to a novel influenza virus infection. In early 2009, an emerging novel influenza originating from Mexico called swine flu was reported. The World Health Organization noted a level VI precaution, the highest level precaution possible, for this newest influenza virus infection. As of June 2009, it is not known if this disease will be successfully controlled. Finding new drugs and vaccine for the emerging swine flu is still required to cope with this emerging worldwide problem.Keywords: swine flu, drug, vaccine, concept

  20. Indoor Staying During Winter Season Makes People More Susceptible to Flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B; Thapa, K

    2016-01-01

    An infectious diseases caused by RNA virus, the influenza is also commonly known as Flu. It mainly transmitted through air by coughs or sneezes of infected. The symptoms of flu like fever and headache are the result of the huge amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (such as interferon or tumor necrosis factor) produced from influenza-infected cells. The activated vitamin has extreme effects on human immunity. Vitamin D prevents too much release of cytokines and chemokines. Staying much time indoor, away from contact of sunlight during winter season lowers the vitamin D level in human body. Thus, the chance of getting flu increases in winter season. Formulation of policy regarding vitamin D supplementation in diet for people such as elderly and with low sunlight exposure is hereby recommended. It will be beneficial to reduce influenza related morbidity and mortality during winter season. PMID:27426715

  1. Infection with influenza a virus leads to flu antigen-induced cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, Susanne M; Hahn, Christian; Wohlleben, Gisela; Teufel, Martin; Major, Tamas; Moll, Heidrun; Bröcker, Eva-B; Erb, Klaus J

    2002-04-01

    It is well established, that viral infections may trigger urticaria or allergic asthma; however, as viral infections induce T helper 1 polarized responses, which lead to the inhibition of T helper 2 cell development, the opposite would be plausible. We wanted to investigate how viral infections may mediate allergic symptoms in a mouse model; therefore, we infected BALB/C mice with influenza A virus intranasally. Histologic analyses of lung sections and bronchoalveolar lavages were performed. In addition, cells from the mediastinal lymph nodes were restimulated in vitro to analyze which types of cytokines were induced by the flu infection. Furthermore, flu-specific antibody titers were determined and local anaphylaxis was measured after rechallenge with flu antigen. We found that airways inflammation consisted predominately of macrophages and lymphocytes, whereas only a few eosinophils were observed. interferon-gamma but no interleukin-4 and little interleukin-5 could be detected in the culture supernatants from in vitro restimulated T cells from the draining lymph nodes. The antibody response was characterized by high levels of virus-specific IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG1 and, surprisingly, low levels of virus-specific IgE antibodies. Interestingly, flu-infected mice developed active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis after rechallenge with flu-antigen. As the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction persisted over 48 h and was significantly lower after passive transfer of the serum, which was IgE depleted, local anaphylaxis seemed to be mediated predominately by specific IgE antibodies. Taken together, our results demonstrate that mice infected with flu virus develop virus-specific mast cell degranulation in the skin. Our results may also have implications for the pathogenesis of urticaria or other atopic disorders in humans. PMID:11918711

  2. Incidence and detection of beak and feather disease virus in psittacine birds in the UAE

    OpenAIRE

    F. Hakimuddin; Abidi, F; Jafer, O; Li, C; U. Wernery; Ch. Hebel; K. Khazanehdari

    2016-01-01

    Beak and feather disease is caused by Circovirus, which affects actively growing beak and feather cells of avian species. The disease affects mainly young birds while older birds may overcome the disease with few lasting effects. Due to lack of treatment, the only way to control the disease is through hygiene and early diagnosis. As a diagnostic tool, we have established a Taqman probe based real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of the viral genome in psittacine birds in UAE and reported...

  3. Prisons' preparedness for pandemic flu and the ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Hoff, G; Fedosejeva, R; Mihailescu, L

    2009-06-01

    In Europe at any given time there are about 1,8 million people imprisoned in penal institutions. About 1 million personnel are working in prisons. With prisons, from the start there are fundamental problems in many parts of Europe. Poor housing conditions in prisons and a high proportion of prisoners who already suffer from severe health problems mean the chance of an outbreak in prison during a pandemic must be quite high. We expect it can be up to 90%. In this article we explain what the characteristics are of the prison population from a health point of view. A high rate of detainees suffers from mental health disorders and/or addiction. A high prevalence of communicable and infectious diseases is the rule, not an exception. According to the European Prison Rules and many other international rules, statements and documents prison health care should be an integral part of the public health system of any country. However, it has to be accepted that the prison population is the least popular in society and in politics. In reality in many countries in Europe the situation in prison cannot meet the level strived for by the European Prison Rules. We compare preparedness on pandemic flu in The Netherlands, Latvia and Romania. We explore the problems and ethical issues that may arise if a pandemic breaks out. There are three ethical dilemmas that require consideration: equivalence of care and prisoners' right to health care; prisoners' interests verses society's interests; countries in need and calls for bilateral help. PMID:19482323

  4. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product. CONCLUSIONS: International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of

  5. Risky Zoographies: The Limits of Place in Avian Flu Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Porter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.

  6. OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos Marc; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this col...

  7. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: a fatal complication of swine flu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC) is a rare condition characterized by the presence of multifocal symmetrical brain lesions involving mainly thalami, brainstem, cerebellum and white matter. ANEC is a serious and life threatening complication of simple viral infections. We present a case of a young child who developed this condition with classical clinical and radiological findings consistent with ANEC, secondary to swine flu (H1N1). He needed ventilatory support and had profound motor and intellectual deficit on discharge. We report this case with aim of raising awareness about this fatal complication of swine flu which has become a global health care issue these days. (author)

  8. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  9. Anatomy of a Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  10. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  11. Angels, Demons, Birds and Dinosaurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Christopher Jacob

    2010-01-01

    of birds, setting the international agenda for research in bird evolution for the next 40 years. In Denmark, however, Heilmann's highly original work was generally ignored or even ridiculed by zoologists. This article demonstrates how Heilmann's artistic abilities played an important role in securing him...... international renown as a palaeontologist, while at the same time his lack of scientific credentials led to his complete isolation from the Danish zoological establishment. And it suggests that Heilmann's unyielding efforts to solve the riddle of bird evolution in the borderland between art and science...

  12. Ancient horizontal transfers of retrotransposons between birds and ancestors of human pathogenic nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Alexander; Witt, Christopher C.; Menger, Juliana; Sadanandan, Keren R.; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gerth, Michael; Weigert, Anne; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Mudge, Joann; Edwards, Scott V.; Rheindt, Frank E.

    2016-01-01

    Parasite host switches may trigger disease emergence, but prehistoric host ranges are often unknowable. Lymphatic filariasis and loiasis are major human diseases caused by the insect-borne filarial nematodes Brugia, Wuchereria and Loa. Here we show that the genomes of these nematodes and seven tropical bird lineages exclusively share a novel retrotransposon, AviRTE, resulting from horizontal transfer (HT). AviRTE subfamilies exhibit 83–99% nucleotide identity between genomes, and their phylogenetic distribution, paleobiogeography and invasion times suggest that HTs involved filarial nematodes. The HTs between bird and nematode genomes took place in two pantropical waves, >25–22 million years ago (Myr ago) involving the Brugia/Wuchereria lineage and >20–17 Myr ago involving the Loa lineage. Contrary to the expectation from the mammal-dominated host range of filarial nematodes, we hypothesize that these major human pathogens may have independently evolved from bird endoparasites that formerly infected the global breadth of avian biodiversity. PMID:27097561

  13. Ancient horizontal transfers of retrotransposons between birds and ancestors of human pathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Alexander; Witt, Christopher C; Menger, Juliana; Sadanandan, Keren R; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gerth, Michael; Weigert, Anne; McGuire, Jimmy A; Mudge, Joann; Edwards, Scott V; Rheindt, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    Parasite host switches may trigger disease emergence, but prehistoric host ranges are often unknowable. Lymphatic filariasis and loiasis are major human diseases caused by the insect-borne filarial nematodes Brugia, Wuchereria and Loa. Here we show that the genomes of these nematodes and seven tropical bird lineages exclusively share a novel retrotransposon, AviRTE, resulting from horizontal transfer (HT). AviRTE subfamilies exhibit 83-99% nucleotide identity between genomes, and their phylogenetic distribution, paleobiogeography and invasion times suggest that HTs involved filarial nematodes. The HTs between bird and nematode genomes took place in two pantropical waves, >25-22 million years ago (Myr ago) involving the Brugia/Wuchereria lineage and >20-17 Myr ago involving the Loa lineage. Contrary to the expectation from the mammal-dominated host range of filarial nematodes, we hypothesize that these major human pathogens may have independently evolved from bird endoparasites that formerly infected the global breadth of avian biodiversity. PMID:27097561

  14. 21 CFR 1240.65 - Psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food and... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican...

  15. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  16. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL will design, fabricate, and fully characterize a 640x512 format HOT-BIRD FPA with increased quantum efficiency and extended spectral coverage. Unlike the small...

  17. Evolutionary Dynamics of Intron Size, Genome Size, and Physiological Correlates in Archosaurs

    OpenAIRE

    Waltari, Eric; Edwards, Scott

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that intron and genome sizes in birds are reduced in comparison with mammals because of the metabolic demands of flight. To test this hypothesis, we examined the sizes of 14 introns in a nonflying relative of birds, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and in 19 flighted and flightless birds in 12 taxonomic orders. Our results indicate that a substantial fraction (66%) of the reduction in intron size as well as in genome size had already occurred in nonfly...

  18. The design of a survey questionnaire to measure perceptions and behaviour during an influenza pandemic: the Flu TElephone Survey Template (FluTEST)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, G.J.; Bakhshi, S.; Amlôt, R.; Fear, N.; Potts, H W W; Michie, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the 2009–10 influenza (flu) pandemic, surveys to assess behaviour among the general public were designed quickly and suffered from methodological deficits as a result. To facilitate survey work in a future pandemic we (1) identified variables relating to behaviour, perceptions and presence of symptoms that were of relevance to policy-makers and other public health experts; (2) tested and refined the wording of questions to measure these variables; (3) assessed the reliabili...

  19. Structural Colors of Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cecilia; Dushkina, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    Structural colors create iridescent colors in bird feathers. The goal is to understand why structural colors act the way they do in certain situations. The research conducted over the course of the fall semester was to understand the optical phenomenon producing colors in individual barbules. Through the use of a polarizing optical microscope, certain hypotheses were built to explain certain phenomenon. Using a dark field illumination involving light acting at wide angles in microscopy, the barbules were not affected by polarization. So it can be suggested that the barbules have certain characteristics, possibly internal, which prevents wide-angle polarization. More recently, it was found that the barbules, when stacked upon one another, create a discoloration at the cross over point. It can be suggested that the barbules act as thin films and create a situation of thin film interference. More data will be taken using the Scanning Electron Microscope as well as getting cross sectional data to help understand the internal characteristics of the barbules. From the support of the Neimeyer-Hodgson Grant, Chris Stull, and Millersville University of Pennsylvania.

  20. Birds and bornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susan L; Delnatte, Pauline; Guo, Jianhua; Heatley, J Jill; Tizard, Ian; Smith, Dale A

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, avian bornaviruses (ABV) were identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is a significant condition of captive parrots first identified in the late 1970s. ABV infection has subsequently been shown to be widespread in wild waterfowl across the United States and Canada where the virus infects 10-20% of some populations of ducks, geese and swans. In most cases birds appear to be healthy and unaffected by the presence of the virus; however, infection can also result in severe non-suppurative encephalitis and lesions similar to those seen in parrots with PDD. ABVs are genetically diverse with seven identified genotypes in parrots and one in canaries. A unique goose genotype (ABV-CG) predominates in waterfowl in Canada and the northern United States. ABV appears to be endemic in North American waterfowl, in comparison to what appears to be an emerging disease in parrots. It is not known whether ABV can spread between waterfowl and parrots. The discovery of ABV infection in North American waterfowl suggests that European waterfowl should be evaluated for the presence of ABV, and also as a possible reservoir species for Borna disease virus (BDV), a related neurotropic virus affecting horses and sheep in central Europe. Although investigations have suggested that BDV is likely derived from a wildlife reservoir, for which the shrew and water vole are currently prime candidates, we suggest that the existence of other mammalian and avian reservoirs should not be discounted. PMID:23253163

  1. Trypanosomes of some Fennoscandian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Bennett

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear measurements and derived indices of trypanosomes from species of Fennoscandian birds were compared to those reported form Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, T. ontarioensis and T. paddae. The trypanosomes encountered in the Fennoscandian birds were identified as T. avium from Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, T. everetti from the great tit Parus major and collared flycatcher F. albicollis and T. ontarioensis from the collared flycatcher; T. paddae was not seen.

  2. Migratory birds and influenza virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    Brno : ÚBO AV ČR, 2006 - (Procházka, P.; Sedláček, J.). s. 22-24 ISBN 80-903329-5-1. [Workshop of the Southeastern European Bird Migration Network (SEEN) /8./. 02.02.2006-05.02.2006, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : migratory birds * influenza virus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  3. Orientation and navigation in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwman, H.

    1998-01-01

    How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  4. Orientation and navigation in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bouwman

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  5. Dynamic evolution of the alpha (α) and beta (β) keratins has accompanied integument diversification and the adaptation of birds into novel lifestyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenwold, Matthew J.; Bao, Weier; Jarvis, Erich D.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vertebrate skin appendages are constructed of keratins produced by multigene families. Alpha (α) keratins are found in all vertebrates, while beta (β) keratins are found exclusively in reptiles and birds. We have studied the molecular evolution of these gene families in the genomes of...... adaptation of birds into multiple ecological niches.......BACKGROUND: Vertebrate skin appendages are constructed of keratins produced by multigene families. Alpha (α) keratins are found in all vertebrates, while beta (β) keratins are found exclusively in reptiles and birds. We have studied the molecular evolution of these gene families in the genomes of...... 48 phylogenetically diverse birds and their expression in the scales and feathers of the chicken. RESULTS: We found that the total number of α-keratins is lower in birds than mammals and non-avian reptiles, yet two α-keratin genes (KRT42 and KRT75) have expanded in birds. The β-keratins, however...

  6. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe illness, and at times can lead to death. Children younger than five, but especially children younger than 2 years old, and children and adolescents with chronic health conditions are at ... in hospital stays and even death. The best way to prevent the flu is ...

  7. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Manjunatha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19. The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ′PUBMED′ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND. Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson′s disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research.

  8. How to Prevent Getting and Spreading Novel H1N1 Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to prevent giving and getting novel H1N1 flu.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of the Director.   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  9. 108 Development of universal vaccines against flu: reality and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmarov, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are the main antigens for obtaining traditional flu vaccines due to their high immunogenicity and ability to induce generation of neutralizing antibodies. High genetically instability of influenza virus provides antigenic diversity of these glycoproteins between strains. Subunit vaccines based on one of these surface antigens are characterized by narrow specificity. Modern vaccines should provide protection against several or all subtypes of influenza A viruses. In addition sporadic influenza outbreaks of newly emerged influenza A viruses may cause the next pandemic. Today there are no flu vaccines of a wide range of action, so-called “universal” vaccines. Several flu vaccines with a broad cross-protectivity are tested in different phases of clinical trials. In this report the analysis of the modern researches directed on creation of flu “universal” vaccines including data obtained by researchers of Gamaleya institute of epidemiology and microbiology is carried out. Genetic immunization technology is used for development of “universal” vaccine. Recombinant pseudoadenoviral particles coding of influenza virus conservative antigens were used as a vector for gene delivery. Polypeptide, containing hemagglutinin conservative epitopes, was used in addition to traditional influenza conservative antigens M1, M2 and NP. Animal experiments demonstrated that developed vaccines were very efficient against different influenza subtypes (80%–100% survivability).

  10. FLU IN CHILDREN AFTER A PANDEMIC IN ST. PETERSBURG GENERAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dondurey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flu monitoring was carried out in children’s general hospital in St. Petersburg within three epidemic seasons (2010–2011, 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. 1916 patients under the age of 18 years were examined with the complex of virologic tests . The natural decreasing of flu incidence and predominant diagnosing in etiologic structure one of the virus serotypes [in the first A(H1N1pdm09, in the second — A(H3N2] have been observed during the first two years after a pandemic. In the third season restoration of the main characteristics of epidemic flu situation were detected: polietiology with annual change of serotypes proportions, late start (winter and spring, majority of younger children among hospitalaized patients and a mild course of disease. The most probable candidates [viruses of a subtype A(H3N2] are revealed as a causal factor of significant increasing of disease incidence with the severe forms in the near future. Laboratory data were confirmed by increase in frequency of the complicated by pneumonia ARI at hospitalized patients during the periods of their maximum registration. All isolates received during the study were corresponded to the referens-strains included in vaccines. Thus, timely and appropriate vaccination during the studied period had to become an effective protection against a flu.

  11. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)<...

  12. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  13. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  14. Swine-Flu Scare Offers Lessons for Study-Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…

  15. Novel H1N1 Flu - Creating a Safe and Healthy Workplace

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-20

    This podcast helps businesses understand how novel H1N1 flu can affect their business and how to keep their workers and worksites safe.  Created: 5/20/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/20/2009.

  16. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Gumus

    Full Text Available The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  17. No consistent effects of prenatal or neonatal exposure to Spanish flu on late-life mortality in 24 developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cohen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We test the effects of early life exposure to disease on later health by looking for differences in late-life mortality in cohorts born around the 1918-1919 flu pandemic using data from the Human Mortality Database for 24 countries. After controlling for age, period, and sex effects, residual mortality rates did not differ systematically for flu cohorts relative to surrounding cohorts. We calculate at most a 20-day reduction in life expectancy for flu cohorts; likely values are much smaller. Estimates of influenza incidence during the pandemic suggest that exposure was high enough for this to be a robust negative result.

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  6. Dynamic evolution of the alpha (α) and beta (β) keratins has accompanied integument diversification and the adaptation of birds into novel lifestyles

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwold, Matthew J.; Bao, Weier; Jarvis, Erich D.; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zhang, Guojie; Sawyer, Roger H

    2014-01-01

    Background Vertebrate skin appendages are constructed of keratins produced by multigene families. Alpha (α) keratins are found in all vertebrates, while beta (β) keratins are found exclusively in reptiles and birds. We have studied the molecular evolution of these gene families in the genomes of 48 phylogenetically diverse birds and their expression in the scales and feathers of the chicken. Results We found that the total number of α-keratins is lower in birds than mammals and non-avian rept...

  7. Do birds sleep in flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2006-09-01

    The following review examines the evidence for sleep in flying birds. The daily need to sleep in most animals has led to the common belief that birds, such as the common swift ( Apus apus), which spend the night on the wing, sleep in flight. The electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings required to detect sleep in flight have not been performed, however, rendering the evidence for sleep in flight circumstantial. The neurophysiology of sleep and flight suggests that some types of sleep might be compatible with flight. As in mammals, birds exhibit two types of sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. Whereas, SWS can occur in one or both brain hemispheres at a time, REM sleep only occurs bihemispherically. During unihemispheric SWS, the eye connected to the awake hemisphere remains open, a state that may allow birds to visually navigate during sleep in flight. Bihemispheric SWS may also be possible during flight when constant visual monitoring of the environment is unnecessary. Nevertheless, the reduction in muscle tone that usually accompanies REM sleep makes it unlikely that birds enter this state in flight. Upon landing, birds may need to recover the components of sleep that are incompatible with flight. Periods of undisturbed postflight recovery sleep may be essential for maintaining adaptive brain function during wakefulness. The recent miniaturization of EEG recording devices now makes it possible to measure brain activity in flight. Determining if and how birds sleep in flight will contribute to our understanding of a largely unexplored aspect of avian behavior and may also provide insight into the function of sleep.

  8. Talking about colds and flu: the lay diagnosis of two common illnesses among older British people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Lindsay; Evans, Meirion R; Prout, Hayley

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on a study of the ways in which 54 older people in South Wales (UK) talk about the symptoms and causes of cold and influenza (flu). The study was designed to understand why older people might reject or accept the offer of seasonal flu vaccine, and in the course of the interviews respondents were also asked to express their views about the nature and causes of the two key illnesses. The latter are among the most common infections in human beings. In terms of the biomedical paradigm the common cold is caused by numerous respiratory viruses, whilst flu is caused by the influenza virus. Medical diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds without laboratory confirmation. Symptoms of flu include sudden onset of fever and cough, and colds are characterized by sneezing, sore throat, and runny nose, but in practice the symptoms often overlap. In this study we examine the degree by which the views of lay people with respect to both diagnosis and epidemiology diverge with that which is evident in biomedical discourse. Our results indicate that whilst most of the identified symptoms are common to lay and professional people, the former integrate symptoms into a markedly different observational frame from the latter. And as far as causation is concerned it is clear that lay people emphasize the role of 'resistance' and 'immunity' at least as much as 'infection' in accounting for the onset of colds and flu. The data are analyzed using novel methods that focus on the co-occurrence of concepts and are displayed as semantic networks. As well as reporting on its findings the authors draw out some implications of the study for social scientific and policy discussions concerning lay diagnosis, lay expertise and the concept of an expert patient. PMID:21186076

  9. Dosage compensation is less effective in birds than in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoh Yuichiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animals with heteromorphic sex chromosomes, dosage compensation of sex-chromosome genes is thought to be critical for species survival. Diverse molecular mechanisms have evolved to effectively balance the expressed dose of X-linked genes between XX and XY animals, and to balance expression of X and autosomal genes. Dosage compensation is not understood in birds, in which females (ZW and males (ZZ differ in the number of Z chromosomes. Results Using microarray analysis, we compared the male:female ratio of expression of sets of Z-linked and autosomal genes in two bird species, zebra finch and chicken, and in two mammalian species, mouse and human. Male:female ratios of expression were significantly higher for Z genes than for autosomal genes in several finch and chicken tissues. In contrast, in mouse and human the male:female ratio of expression of X-linked genes is quite similar to that of autosomal genes, indicating effective dosage compensation even in humans, in which a significant percentage of genes escape X-inactivation. Conclusion Birds represent an unprecedented case in which genes on one sex chromosome are expressed on average at constitutively higher levels in one sex compared with the other. Sex-chromosome dosage compensation is surprisingly ineffective in birds, suggesting that some genomes can do without effective sex-specific sex-chromosome dosage compensation mechanisms.

  10. Ancient horizontal transfers of retrotransposons between birds and ancestors of human pathogenic nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Alexander; Witt, Christopher C.; Menger, Juliana; Sadanandan, Keren R.; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gerth, Michael; Weigert, Anne; McGuire, Jimmy A; Mudge, Joann; Scott V. Edwards; Rheindt, Frank E.

    2016-01-01

    Parasite host switches may trigger disease emergence, but prehistoric host ranges are often unknowable. Lymphatic filariasis and loiasis are major human diseases caused by the insect-borne filarial nematodes Brugia, Wuchereria and Loa. Here we show that the genomes of these nematodes and seven tropical bird lineages exclusively share a novel retrotransposon, AviRTE, resulting from horizontal transfer (HT). AviRTE subfamilies exhibit 83–99% nucleotide identity between genomes, and their phylog...

  11. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America is...

  12. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had production for the family (86.44%) or as pet or hobby birds (42.27%). The backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds. PMID:22856180

  13. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Ashley L Fowlkes; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correla...

  14. Lessons from the past: Familial aggregation analysis of fatal pandemic influenza (Spanish flu) in Iceland in 1918

    OpenAIRE

    Gottfredsson, Magnús; Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Jónsson, Stefán; Kristjánsson, Már; Kristjánsson, Kristleifur; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Löve, Arthur; Blöndal, Thorsteinn; Viboud, Cécile; Thorvaldsson, Sverrir; Helgason, Agnar; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Stefánsson, Kári; Jónsdóttir, Ingileif

    2008-01-01

    The pandemic influenza of 1918 (Spanish flu) killed 21–50 million people globally, including in Iceland, where the characteristics and spread of the epidemic were well documented. It has been postulated that genetic host factors may have contributed to this high mortality. We identified 455 individuals who died of the Spanish flu in Iceland during a 6-week period during the winter of 1918, representing >92% of all fatal domestic cases mentioned by historical accounts. The highest case fatalit...

  15. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaio, Michael A.; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A + B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse ...

  16. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Hong Zhou; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Influenza activity data from 2003-04 through 2007-08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's corre...

  17. Evaluation of the directigen FluA+B test for rapid diagnosis of influenza virus type A and B infections

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, K. H.; Maldeis, N; Pope, W; Yup, A.; Ozinskas, A.; Gill, J; Seto, W. H.; Shortridge, K. F.; Peiris, J. S. M.

    2002-01-01

    Directigen FluA+B (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.), a new rapid test for the detection of influenza virus types A and B, was evaluated with nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens collected from 250 patients in comparison with culture and direct fluorescent antigen (DFA) detection tests. The patients studied were predominantly children, 80% being ≤6 years old. Specimens negative by culture but positive by the Directigen FluA+B or DFA tests were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR to resolve t...

  18. Application of Directigen FLU-A for the detection of influenza A virus in human and nonhuman specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan-Poirier, K A; Katz, J M; Webster, R. G.; Kawaoka, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Directigen FLU-A, a new enzyme immunoassay membrane test, rapidly detects influenza A virus antigen in specimens from patients. Nasopharyngeal washes and pharyngeal gargles were used to determine the effectiveness of the assay as applied to different types of routinely collected clinical samples. All specimens had been previously shown to contain influenza A virus by virus isolation in tissue culture. Directigen FLU-A was 90% sensitive (95% confidence interval, 56 to 99.7%) with nasopharyngea...

  19. Pelacakan Kasus Flu Burung pada Ayam dengan Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction* (DETECTION OF AVIAN INFLUENZA IN CHICKENS BY REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza (AI or Bird Flu is a fatal zoonotic disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza(HPAI virus of H5N1 sub-type. The disease is still endemic in Indonesia. This study was conducted toinvestigate AI cases in chickens in Bali. Virus isolation was performed in 9 day-old embryonated chickeneggs, and then followed by serologic testing by haemaglutination (HA and Haemaglutination Inhibition(HI assay using standard microtiter procedure. All of the samples were further tested with reversetrancriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. All work has been done in the Biomedical and MolecularBiology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar, during the period2009-2011. A total of ten samples were examined A total of ten chicken samples consisting of 6 fieldsamples and 4 meat samples have been confirmed to be AIV H5N1. All field cases showed clinical signsand gross pathology that were typical to the infection of avian influenza. The result indicates that AI casesare still prevalent among chickens in Bali.

  20. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B. PMID:22841669

  1. Application of Directigen FLU-A for the detection of influenza A virus in human and nonhuman specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Poirier, K A; Katz, J M; Webster, R G; Kawaoka, Y

    1992-01-01

    Directigen FLU-A, a new enzyme immunoassay membrane test, rapidly detects influenza A virus antigen in specimens from patients. Nasopharyngeal washes and pharyngeal gargles were used to determine the effectiveness of the assay as applied to different types of routinely collected clinical samples. All specimens had been previously shown to contain influenza A virus by virus isolation in tissue culture. Directigen FLU-A was 90% sensitive (95% confidence interval, 56 to 99.7%) with nasopharyngeal washes but only 39% sensitive (95% confidence interval, 17 to 64%) with pharyngeal gargles (P = 0.018) when used with samples containing similar amounts of infectious virus (50% tissue culture infective dose, 1.0 to 4.5). The intensity of the positive reaction with Directigen FLU-A did not correlate with the amount of virus in the specimens. Directigen FLU-A was found to detect cell-associated antigen more readily than free virus; only 20 infected cells were required to identify cell-associated influenza A virus antigen, whereas the limit of detection for free virus was 1.63 x 10(3) infectious virus particles. These findings suggest that Directigen FLU-A detects the cell-associated antigen present in clinical specimens rather than free virus. In addition, Directigen FLU-A detected avian and swine influenza A viruses in both cloacal swabs (75% sensitivity) and swine lung homogenates (86% sensitivity), indicating its potential usefulness in the surveillance of nonhuman influenza A viruses. PMID:1583103

  2. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  3. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Venier; Mikko Mönkkönen; Robert Howe; Pekka Helle; JoAnn Hanowski; Gerald Niemi; Daniel Welsh

    1998-01-01

    We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance...

  4. Bat predation on nocturnally migrating birds

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Juste, Javier; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Agirre-Mendi, Pablo T.

    2001-01-01

    Bat predation on birds is a very rare phenomenon in nature. Most documented reports of bird-eating bats refer to tropical bats that occasionally capture resting birds. Millions of small birds concentrate and cross over the world's temperate regions during migration, mainly at night, but no nocturnal predators are known to benefit from this enormous food resource. An analysis of 14,000 fecal pellets of the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) reveals that this...

  5. Avian Coronavirus in Wild Aquatic Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, D. K. W.; Leung, C. Y. H.; Gilbert, M.; Joyner, P. H.; Ng, E. M.; Tse, T. M.; Guan, Y; Peiris, J. S. M.; Poon, L.L.M

    2011-01-01

    We detected a high prevalence (12.5%) of novel avian coronaviruses in aquatic wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses of these coronaviruses suggest that there is a diversity of gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses circulating in birds. Gammacoronaviruses were found predominantly in Anseriformes birds, whereas deltacoronaviruses could be detected in Ciconiiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Anseriformes birds in this study. We observed that there are frequent interspecies transmissions of gammacorona...

  6. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... authorizing the referenced incidental take in the Federal Register on February 28, 2007 (72 FR 8931). The... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces AGENCY: Fish and... birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty...

  7. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  8. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  9. Prospective and retrospective evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert® Flu/RSV XC assay for rapid detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Nicolas; Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N

    2015-04-01

    A total of 281 clinical specimens (nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates) were tested with the Xpert® Flu/RSV XC. The results were compared to those obtained with the real-time retro transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays routinely used in our laboratory. The Xpert® Flu/RSV XC showed sensitivity/specificity of 97.8%/100% and 97.9%/100% for flu and respiratory syncytial virus, respectively. PMID:25662018

  10. I LIKE LISTENING TO BIRDS SINGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向勤; 廖明娟

    2002-01-01

    Every early morning, birds' happy singing wakes me up. I get dressed quickly and have a wash and brush up, then watch birds and listen to them singing happily in the trees. The singing of different kinds of birds sounds like a piece of beautiful symphonic music. Birds’singing makes me relaxed and happy and it also recalls me something of the Past.

  11. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  12. Velogenic Newcastle disease in imported caged birds.

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo, A.; Robinson, Y; Booth, T.; Munroe, F

    2000-01-01

    Velogenic Newcastle disease was diagnosed in pet birds intended for importation into Canada. Virological and histopathological examination confirmed the presence of the disease. The group of birds was denied entry into Canada. Similar birds illegally imported are a potential source of velogenic Newcastle disease virus and are a threat to domestic poultry.

  13. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  14. Medicinal plants indicated for flu and colds in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoriê da Costa Mendieta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to know the medicinal plants used for flu and colds by farmers from the South of Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare it with scientific evidence. This descriptive study was conducted with 12 farmers living at Ilha dos Marinheiros, in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis, comparing the results with the scientific literature. Thirteen plants were cited as used for cold and flu: Achyrocline satureioides, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Gochnatia polymorpha, Illicium verum, Mentha piperita, Mikania sp., Ocimum selloi, Origanum majorana and Verbena sp. Results show popular knowledge meeting scientific evidence for most indications, seen that 84,6% of cited plants are in agreement with the literature. Thus, we emphasize the richness of popular knowledge, the need of its appreciation and constant approximation of health professionals to this knowledge, integrated with science.

  15. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatignol, Anne; Dubuisson, Jean; Wainberg, Mark A; Cohen, Éric A; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting. PMID:17270043

  16. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Éric A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting.

  17. Xpert Flu for point-of-care diagnosis of human influenza in industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Nicolas; Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory infections, particularly those caused by influenza viruses, represent the third-most important cause of death in the world due to infectious diseases. Nevertheless, despite the enormous publicity attracted by epidemics due to these viruses, laboratory diagnosis, documentation and recording of respiratory diseases is still unsatisfactory. Available diagnostic tests capable of providing results rapidly are either limited and insufficiently sensitive or highly sensitive and specific but insufficiently rapid. Considerable investment and research efforts have been made towards the development of new diagnostics for influenza A and B viruses and the Xpert(®) Flu assay (Cepheid(®), CA, USA) has emerged as one of the most promising. In this article, we review current knowledge of the Xpert Flu test, discuss its potential value as a point-of-care test and outline the potential leads for future development. PMID:24707995

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The results of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study's many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. PMID:27208468

  19. FLU AS PROBLEM COMMON TO ALL MANKIND. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA

    OpenAIRE

    Korovaeva I.V; Kuhar D.I; Popova N.G; Mikhaylenko K.V; Zozulya N.I

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the flu, as one of the most common infectious diseases affecting humanity throughout its history. The data on the structure of A influenza virus and its variability is given historical background for most famous of the pandemics, which inflicted irreparable damage to the population of the Earth, are shown the basic stages of the study for influenza virus. Are considered the types of variability of the A virus influenza, its ability to overcome interspecies barriers that...

  20. Prevalence of influenza and adherence to the anti-flu vaccination among elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Yukio Nakamura; Luane Marques de Mello; Anderson Soares da Silva; Altacílio Aparecido Nunes

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flu, a condition that can affect the elderly by increasing the risk of serious complications can be prevented through vaccination. Estimate the prevalence of signs and symptoms suggestive of influenza in a group of elderly either vaccinated or unvaccinated against influenza was the objective this study. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study performed in a Brazilian City. A structured questionnaire was employed to identify the presence of signs and symptoms of influenza in...

  1. FluKB: A Knowledge-Based System for Influenza Vaccine Target Discovery and Analysis of the Immunological Properties of Influenza Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Sun, Jing;

    2015-01-01

    FluKB is a knowledge-based system focusing on data and analytical tools for influenza vaccine discovery. The main goal of FluKB is to provide access to curated influenza sequence and epitope data and enhance the analysis of influenza sequence diversity and the analysis of targets of immune...... responses. FluKB consists of more than 400,000 influenza protein sequences, known epitope data (357 verified T-cell epitopes, 685 HLA binders, and 16 naturally processed MHC ligands), and a collection of 28 influenza antibodies and their structurally defined B-cell epitopes. FluKB was built using amodular...

  2. The 2014 French health campaign reminds us that “flu must be taken seriously”

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The fact is that 5-10% of the global adult population and 20-30% of children worldwide catch the flu every year. The illness can lead to hospitalisation and death, mainly in people who are considered high-risk (infants, the elderly, and those with chronic illnesses). According to the WHO, every year, flu epidemics are responsible for approximately three to five million cases of serious illness and for 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. Safe and effective vaccines are available and have been used for more than 60 years. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccinat...

  3. A molecular survey of Avian Influenza among captive birds in the city of Tehran between November 2008 and February 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bashar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To determine the potential circulation of avian influenza viruses among different captive bird species, molecular surveillance was conducted at Tehran Zoo, Saiee Park and Pardisan Park of Tehran, Iran. These places are at risk for spread and transmission of influenza virus because of bird species diversity and close contact of birds with humans."nMaterials & Methods: During the influenza season in Tehran, in the cold weather (November 2008-February 2009, 76 cloacae samples were collected from 5 orders of Anseriformes, Galliformes, Columbiformes, Pelicaniformes and Phoenicopteriformes, including 13 bird species plus 5 hybrid species of ducks. Presence of avian influenza genome was monitored with RT-PCR as a sensitive and specific assay. The assay targeted a 132 bp fragment of the conserved M gene of influenza type A."nResults: Influenza type A virus was not detected in samples collected from November 2008 to February 2009. The sensitivity of RT-PCR based on M primers was 0.1ng total RNA. Interestingly, during the study period, there was no report of death or clinical signs of disease among the c aptive birds, whereas the birds did not have vaccinated history against influenza A virus."nConclusion: Although the results could be attributed at least partially to the presence of an undetectable amount of genomic RNA, based upon the sensitivity of the test our findings suggest that no RNA genome of influenza A viruses was present in the samples under study.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus infections in psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, K; Devriese, L A; De Herdt, P; Godard, C; Haesebrouck, F

    2000-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from internal organs of 13 different psittacine birds submitted for necropsy over a period of 6 years. The birds all had lesions consistent with septicaemia. S. aureus isolates included three different phage types. In seven of the 13 birds, concurrent infections with Chlamydophila species, Enterococcus hirae, Candida species, unidentified streptococci and coagulasenegative staphylococci were detected. One bird also had lesions of lymphoid leucosis. Few indications were found that staphylococcosis associated problems may spread epidemically. The present studies suggest that S. aureus is pathogenic for psittacine birds, although it does not seem to be a frequent cause of disease. PMID:19184832

  5. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  6. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples’ relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  7. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  8. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somveille, Marius; Manica, Andrea; Butchart, Stuart H M; Rodrigues, Ana S L

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes) where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective. PMID:23951037

  9. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten;

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the detection...... other relies on the quantum spin dynamics of transient photoinduced radical pairs. Originally suggested by Schulten in 1978 as the basis of the avian magnetic compass sensor, this mechanism gained support from the subsequent observation that the compass is light-dependent. The radical pair hypothesis...... began to attract increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible...

  10. Critical Care of Pet Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey Rowe

    2016-05-01

    Successful care of the critical pet bird patient is dependent on preparation and planning and begins with the veterinarian and hospital staff. An understanding of avian physiology and pathophysiology is key. Physical preparation of the hospital or clinic includes proper equipment and understanding of the procedures necessary to provide therapeutic and supportive care to the avian patient. An overview of patient intake and assessment, intensive care environment, and fluid therapy is included. PMID:27131161

  11. FluTyper-an algorithm for automated typing and subtyping of the influenza virus from high resolution mass spectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwahn Alexander B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High resolution mass spectrometry has been employed to rapidly and accurately type and subtype influenza viruses. The detection of signature peptides with unique theoretical masses enables the unequivocal assignment of the type and subtype of a given strain. This analysis has, to date, required the manual inspection of mass spectra of whole virus and antigen digests. Results A computer algorithm, FluTyper, has been designed and implemented to achieve the automated analysis of MALDI mass spectra recorded for proteolytic digests of the whole influenza virus and antigens. FluTyper incorporates the use of established signature peptides and newly developed naïve Bayes classifiers for four common influenza antigens, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, nucleoprotein, and matrix protein 1, to type and subtype the influenza virus based on their detection within proteolytic peptide mass maps. Theoretical and experimental testing of the classifiers demonstrates their applicability at protein coverage rates normally achievable in mass mapping experiments. The application of FluTyper to whole virus and antigen digests of a range of different strains of the influenza virus is demonstrated. Conclusions FluTyper algorithm facilitates the rapid and automated typing and subtyping of the influenza virus from mass spectral data. The newly developed naïve Bayes classifiers increase the confidence of influenza virus subtyping, especially where signature peptides are not detected. FluTyper is expected to popularize the use of mass spectrometry to characterize influenza viruses.

  12. Whole genome comparative studies between chicken and turkey and their implications for avian genome evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Wilfrid

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics is a powerful means of establishing inter-specific relationships between gene function/location and allows insight into genomic rearrangements, conservation and evolutionary phylogeny. The availability of the complete sequence of the chicken genome has initiated the development of detailed genomic information in other birds including turkey, an agriculturally important species where mapping has hitherto focused on linkage with limited physical information. No molecular study has yet examined conservation of avian microchromosomes, nor differences in copy number variants (CNVs between birds. Results We present a detailed comparative cytogenetic map between chicken and turkey based on reciprocal chromosome painting and mapping of 338 chicken BACs to turkey metaphases. Two inter-chromosomal changes (both involving centromeres and three pericentric inversions have been identified between chicken and turkey; and array CGH identified 16 inter-specific CNVs. Conclusion This is the first study to combine the modalities of zoo-FISH and array CGH between different avian species. The first insight into the conservation of microchromosomes, the first comparative cytogenetic map of any bird and the first appraisal of CNVs between birds is provided. Results suggest that avian genomes have remained relatively stable during evolution compared to mammalian equivalents.

  13. Genetic Analysis of Avian Influenza Virus from Wild Birds and Mallards Reared for Shooting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kurt; Therkildsen, O. R.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Denmark forms a geographical bottleneck along the migration route of many water birds breeding from northeastern Canada to north Siberia that gather to winter in Europe and Africa. Potentially, the concentration of such large numbers of water birds enhances the risk of avian influenza virus (AIV...... the HP H5N1 virus genome showed that it was not related to the LPAIV isolated previously, but closely related to the HPAIV H5 (Asian type) detected in the rest of Europe at that time. Even though only partial sequences were applied, this gave the idea for future full-length sequence studies....

  14. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodnomdarjaa Ruuragchaa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the emergence of H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP avian influenza virus (AIV in Asia, numerous efforts worldwide have focused on elucidating the relative roles of wild birds and domestic poultry movement in virus dissemination. In accordance with this a surveillance program for AIV in wild birds was conducted in Mongolia from 2005-2007. An important feature of Mongolia is that there is little domestic poultry production in the country, therefore AIV detection in wild birds would not likely be from spill-over from domestic poultry. Results During 2005-2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for AIV by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR and/or virus isolation. Bird age and health status were recorded. Ninety rRT-PCR AIV positive samples representing 89 individual birds of 19 species including 9 low pathogenicity (LP AIVs were isolated from 6 species. A Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus, a Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus and 2 Ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea were positive for H12N3 LP AIV. H16N3 and H13N6 viruses were isolated from Black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus. A Red-crested pochard (Rhodonessa rufina and 2 Mongolian gulls (Larus vagae mongolicus were positive for H3N6 and H16N6 LP AIV, respectively. Full genomes of each virus isolate were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically and were most closely related to recent European and Asian wild bird lineage AIVs and individual genes loosely grouped by year. Reassortment occurred within and among different years and subtypes. Conclusion Detection and/or isolation of AIV infection in numerous wild bird species, including 2 which have not been previously described as hosts, reinforces the wide host range of AIV within avian species. Reassortment complexity within the genomes indicate the introduction of new AIV strains into wild bird populations annually, however there is enough over-lap of infection for reassortment to occur. Further work is

  15. FluKB: A Knowledge-Based System for Influenza Vaccine Target Discovery and Analysis of the Immunological Properties of Influenza Viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Sun, Jing;

    2015-01-01

    responses. FluKB consists of more than 400,000 influenza protein sequences, known epitope data (357 verified T-cell epitopes, 685 HLA binders, and 16 naturally processed MHC ligands), and a collection of 28 influenza antibodies and their structurally defined B-cell epitopes. FluKB was built using amodular...

  16. Kiwi genome provides insights into evolution of a nocturnal lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Le Duc, Diana; Renaud, Gabriel; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Almén, Markus Sällman; Huynen, Leon; Prohaska, Sonja J.; Ongyerth, Matthias; Bitarello, Barbara D.; Schiöth, Helgi B; Hofreiter, Michael; Stadler, Peter F; Pruefer, Kay; LAMBERT, David; Kelso, Janet; Schoeneberg, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Background Kiwi, comprising five species from the genus Apteryx, are endangered, ground-dwelling bird species endemic to New Zealand. They are the smallest and only nocturnal representatives of the ratites. The timing of kiwi adaptation to a nocturnal niche and the genomic innovations, which shaped sensory systems and morphology to allow this adaptation, are not yet fully understood. Results We sequenced and assembled the brown kiwi genome to 150-fold coverage and annotated the genome using k...

  17. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwyer, Dominic E; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The novel pandemic influenza A (H1H1) 2009 virus spread rapidly around the world in 2009. The paucity of prospective international epidemiologic data on predictors of clinical outcomes with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection stimulated the INSIGHT network, an international network of community......, with 1049 enrollments into the FLU 002 outpatient study and 316 into the FLU 003 hospitalization study. These 'in progress' INSIGHT influenza observational studies may act as a model for obtaining epidemiological, clinical and laboratory information in future international disease outbreaks....

  18. Clinical accuracy of a PLEX-ID flu device for simultaneous detection and identification of influenza viruses A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Lowery, Kristin S; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Schaefer, Virginia C; Chappell, James D; White-Abell, Jill; Quinn, Criziel D; Li, Haijing; Washington, Cicely A; Cromwell, Jenna; Giamanco, Chantel M; Forman, Michael; Holden, Jeffery; Rothman, Richard E; Parker, Michelle L; Ortenberg, Elaine V; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Yea-Lin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections caused by influenza A and B viruses often present nonspecifically, and a rapid, high-throughput laboratory technique that can identify influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. The PLEX-ID Flu assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL) incorporates multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to detect and differentiate influenza A 2009 H1N1 (H1N1-p), seasonal H1N1 (H1N1-s), influenza A H3N2, and influenza B viruses in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens. The clinical performance characteristics of the PLEX-ID Flu assay in symptomatic patients were determined in this multicenter trial. A total of 2,617 prospectively and retrospectively collected NPS specimens from patients with influenza-like illness between February 2008 and 28 May 2010 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each specimen was tested in parallel by the PLEX-ID Flu assay and by the Prodesse ProFLU+ assay (Prodesse Inc., Madison, WI), to detect influenza A and B viruses. Specimens testing positive for influenza A virus by ProFLU+ were subtyped as H1N1-p, H1N1-s, or H3N2 by using the ProFAST+ assay (Gen-Probe Prodesse Inc.). The reproducibility of the PLEX-ID Flu assay ranged from 98.3 to 100.0%, as determined by testing a nine-specimen panel at three clinical sites on each of 5 days. Positive percent agreements (PPAs) and negative percent agreements (NPAs) of the PLEX-ID Flu assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for influenza A virus and 96.0% and 99.9% for influenza B virus, respectively. For the influenza A virus subtyping characterization, the PLEX-ID Flu assay had PPAs and NPAs of 98.3% and 97.5% for H1N1-p, 88.6% and 100.0% for H1N1-s, and 98.0% and 99.9% for H3N2, respectively. The overall agreements between the PLEX-ID and Prodesse ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were 97.1 to 100.0%. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing analysis revealed that 87.5% of 96 discrepant results between the PLEX-ID Flu and ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were found upon

  19. Optimal moult strategies in migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Barta, Zoltán; Mcnamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I; Weber, Thomas P.; Hedenström, Anders; Feró, Orsolya

    2007-01-01

    Avian migration, which involves billions of birds flying vast distances, is known to influence all aspects of avian life. Here we investigate how birds fit moult into an annual cycle determined by the need to migrate. Large variation exists in moulting patterns in relation to migration: for instance, moult can occur after breeding in the summer or after arrival in the wintering quarters. Here we use an optimal annual routine model to investigate why this variation exists. The modelled bird's ...

  20. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel R. Wernand

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The nighttime sky is increasingly illuminated by artificial light sources. Although this ecological light pollution is damaging ecosystems throughout the world, the topic has received relatively little attention. Many nocturnally migrating birds die or lose a large amount of their energy reserves during migration as a result of encountering artificial light sources. This happens, for instance, in the North Sea, where large numbers of nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to the many offshore platforms. Our aim is to develop bird-friendly artificial lighting that meets human demands for safety but does not attract and disorient birds. Our current working hypothesis is that artificial light interferes with the magnetic compass of the birds, one of several orientation mechanisms and especially important during overcast nights. Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  1. Grassland bird surveys in support of the Michigan Breeding Bird Atlas II: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Grassland birds, as a group, have suffered the most severe population declines of any other North American birds (Herkert 1995, Herkert et al. 1996). Compared to...

  2. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  3. Effects of Grassland Bird Management on Nongame Bird Community Structure and Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report includes data on bird/habitat relations, breeding biology, and effects of succession and current management practices on grassland bird communities in...

  4. Flu Near You: An Online Self-reported Influenza Surveillance System in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunara, Rumi; Aman, Susan; Smolinski, Mark; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a participatory system for monitoring the activity of influenza-like-illness among the United States general population. Introduction The emergence of new influenza strains including H1N1, H5N1, H3N2v as well as other respiratory pathogens such as SARS, along with generally weak information about household and community transmission of influenza, enforce the need for augmented influenza surveillance. At the same time, Internet penetration and access has grown, with 82% of American adults using the Internet [1], enabling transfer and communication of information that can be collected and aggregated in near real-time. Surveillance targeted towards influenza in other countries, and towards malaria in India, has previously been executed with good user engagement [2,3]. In this study, we created an online participatory influenza surveillance tool in the United States, called Flu Near You. Methods Volunteer users were primarily solicited via collaboration with the American Public Health Association and their members’ networks starting Oct. 24, 2011. Upon registration, each user is sent a weekly email, taking them to the Flu Near You website. On the website they fill in a short survey asking if they had any of 10 symptoms: fever, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, chills/night sweats, fatigue, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, body aches and headache, in the last week. Users can also enroll their household members and enter information in for them weekly. A map of influenza activity is made available to users, and anyone accessing the website [Figure 1]. On the map, the number of individuals reporting with no symptoms, some symptoms, or Influenza-like illness are visualized, aggregated to the zip code level. Users can also compare the contributed data with other surveillance systems: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Google Flu Trends for the same time period [Figure 1]. We also obtained user feedback through a survey in early

  5. Bird sexing by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Birds are traditionally classified as male or female based on their anatomy and plumage color as judged by the human eye. Knowledge of a bird's gender is important for the veterinary practitioner, the owner and the breeder. The accurate gender determination is essential for proper pairing of birds, and knowing the gender of a bird will allow the veterinarian to rule in or out gender-specific diseases. Several biochemical methods of gender determination have been developed for avian species where otherwise the gender of the birds cannot be determined by their physical appearances or characteristics. In this contribution, we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a suitable tool for a quick and objective determination of the bird's gender. The method is based on differences in chromosome size. Male birds have two Z chromosomes and female birds have a W-chromosome and a Z-chromosome. Each Z-chromosome has approx. 75.000.000 bps whereas the W-chromosome has approx. 260.00 bps. This difference can be detected by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded from germ cells obtained from the feather pulp of chicks as well as from the germinal disk of fertilized but non-bred eggs. Significant changes between cells of male and female birds occur in the region of phosphate vibrations around 1080 and 1120 cm-1.

  6. Habitat size and bird community management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.H.; Robbins, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the results in the literature that show the effect of area of forest on nesting migratory bird species, and to present the results of additional field work that we have conducted in forest habitats in western Maryland. These results indicate the area sensitivity of many long distance migrants. Because 80 to 95 percent of the breeding birds in the northeastern deciduous forest are neotropical migrants, the changes in bird species composition as a result of forest fragmentation can be immense. Management strategies based on habitat size are suggested to assist in maintaining communities of nesting migratory birds.

  7. Determining symptoms for chest radiographs in patients with swine flu (H1N1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question arises about the chest X-ray findings and clinical symptoms in swine flu and about the most important clinical finding when correlated with the chest radiograph. Should physicians order a chest X-ray in each patient suspected of having swine flu? There were 179 patients with a high suspicion of swine flu. All 179 patients had an initial chest radiograph. As many as 65 males (representing 56% of the projected study population) had a normal chest radiograph, while 35 males (representing 55.6% of the study population) had an abnormal chest X-ray. As many as 51 females (representing 44% of the population) had a normal chest X-ray, while 20 females (representing 44% of the study population) had abnormal chest X-rays. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal chest X-ray (CXR). Rapid antigen test was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Fever was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Cough appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Sore throat appears to be a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Chest pain was not a determining factor for normal vs. abnormal CXR. Presence of cough with PCR was statistically significant. In my opinion, chest radiographs in patients with suspected H1N1 should only be obtained if there is a cough or sore throat. Other symptoms associated with H1N1 do not warrant a chest radiograph unless absolutely necessary

  8. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Kelly K Miller; Michael A. Weston

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data ov...

  9. Important bird areas: South Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Andrew; Croxall, John P.; Poncet, Sally; Anthony R Martin; Burton, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The mountainous island of South Georgia, situated in the cold but productive waters of the Southern Ocean, is one of the world’s most important seabird islands. It is estimated that over 100 million individual seabirds are based there, and that there may have been an order of magnitude more before the introduction of rats. South Georgia has 29 species of breeding bird, and is the world’s most important breeding site for six species (Macaroni Penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus, Grey-headed Albatros...

  10. Book review: Birds of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    "Wyoming may very well be one of the least birded states in the U.S." So begins this book, underscoring the challenges in summarizing existing knowledge for a state that falls next to last in human population density. Despite the relative dearth of "binoculars on the ground," especially in more remote areas of the state, the book offers a thorough compilation of relevant details. Much of this information is not readily accessible from other sources, and this book dispenses essential information in a very usable format. 

  11. Swine flu: lessons we need to learn from our global experience

    OpenAIRE

    Collignon, Peter

    2011-01-01

    There are important lessons to be learnt from the recent ‘Swine Flu’ pandemic. Before we call it a pandemic, we need to have appropriate trigger points that involve not only the spread of the virus but also its level of virulence. This was not done for H1N1 (swine flu). We need to ensure that we improve the techniques used in trying to decrease the spread of infection - both in the community and within our hospitals. This means improved infection control and hygiene, and the use o...

  12. [Google Flu Trends--the initial application of big data in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaohui; Zhu, Wenfei; Yang, Lei; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-06-01

    Google Flu Trends (GFT) was the first application of big data in the public health field. GFT was open online in 2009 and attracted worldwide attention immediately. However, GFT failed catching the 2009 pandemic H1N1 and kept overestimating the intensity of influenza-like illness in the 2012-2014 season in the United States. GFT model has been updated for three times since 2009, making its prediction bias controlled. Here, we summarized the mechanism GFT worked, the strategy GFT used to update, and its influence on public health. PMID:26310351

  13. Preparing for swine flu: 10 questions that all nurses need to ask themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Susan; Sutherland, Holly; Spooner, Daniel

    Human swine flu is spreading rapidly and it is timely to reflect on how well we as individuals are prepared for a pandemic. Being prepared includes nurses not only being confident they have a mask that fits but also being practised at putting on and removing personal protective equipment safely. It also involves being familiar with the latest guidance from the Department of Health, having an understanding of the processes in their workplace and an appreciation of some of the ethical challenges if numbers of affected patients overwhelm the health system's resources. This article suggests staff ask themselves 10 questions to assess their level of preparedness. PMID:19788108

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of swine flu contingency policies in healthcare education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Polly

    Swine flu has brought about the need to implement policy quickly, not only in healthcare but also in healthcare education, which has considered greater use of e-learning during potential disruption to classroom teaching. This article looks at measuring the success of these alternative teaching methods by using the known tangible benefits of e-learning. Consideration should also be given to supporting students on placements during this time, and as a consequence, some possible future areas for development are identified. PMID:19791673

  15. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen Éric A; Wainberg Mark A; Dubuisson Jean; Gatignol Anne; Darlix Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    Abstract New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interacti...

  16. Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1)

    OpenAIRE

    Blower Sally; Wagner Bradley G; Coburn Brian J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1) has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 e...

  17. CDC Pregnancy Flu Line: monitoring severe illness among pregnant women with influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Newsome, Kimberly; Williams, Jennifer L.; McIntyre, Anne F.; Denise J Jamieson; Finelli, Lyn; Honein, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the Pregnancy Flu Line during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) pandemic and continued operation through the 2010–11 influenza season to collect reports of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths among pregnant women with influenza. The system documented the severe impact of influenza on pregnant women during both seasons with 181 ICU/survivals and 37 deaths reported during the 2009 fall pandemic wave and 69 ICU/survivals and...

  18. Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)

  19. FLU AS PROBLEM COMMON TO ALL MANKIND. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korovaeva I.V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the flu, as one of the most common infectious diseases affecting humanity throughout its history. The data on the structure of A influenza virus and its variability is given historical background for most famous of the pandemics, which inflicted irreparable damage to the population of the Earth, are shown the basic stages of the study for influenza virus. Are considered the types of variability of the A virus influenza, its ability to overcome interspecies barriers that form the basis of pathogen escape from the immune response. The article shows the promising areas of modern prevention and treatment of this disease

  20. A mechanical design for positioning of gm detector for system of avian flu virus detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical design for positioning of GM detector system has been done. It is used for avian flu detection equipment. The requirements for the design are to protect detection system against shock, portable, and easy to maintain. The mechanical system consists of connectors, cable assemblies, holders, casing, housing and detectors cover. The selected material should have small gamma radiation absorption property in order to give optimum counts for the detector. The design result should give a system that is easy to operate, cheap and easy to assemble. (author)