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Sample records for birch pollen season

  1. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  2. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen

  3. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen.

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    Isabell Müller-Germann

    Full Text Available Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8 and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS. The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm, the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.

  4. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

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    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    a clinical characterization of skin test-positive subjects without symptoms and to ascertain the predictive values of common allergologic tests. METHODS: Asymptomatic adults with positive skin prick test results for birch (n = 15), nonatopic control subjects (n = 25), and birch pollen-allergic patients (n...... = 6) were followed through use of daily diary cards during 3 consecutive birch pollen seasons. At inclusion and at the 3-year follow-up visit, conjunctival and nasal challenges, intradermal late-phase reaction evaluation, and measurement of specific IgE were performed. RESULTS: Asymptomatic sensitized...

  5. Climate change and its impact on birch pollen quantities and the start of the pollen season an example from Switzerland for the period 1969-2006.

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    Frei, Thomas; Gassner, Ewald

    2008-09-01

    As published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global warming is a reality and its impact is huge like the increase of extreme weather events, glacier recession, sea level rise and also effects on human health. Among them allergies to airborne pollen might increase or change in pattern due to the invasion of new allergic plants or due to different behavior of plants like earlier flowering. In this study we used the longest Swiss airborne pollen data set to examine the influence of the temperature increase on the time of flowering. In the case of Basel, where pollen data for 38 years are available, it was shown that due to a temperature increase the start of flowering in the case of birch occurred about 15 days earlier. Apart from a shift of the start of the flowering there is also a trend towards higher annual birch pollen quantities and an increase of the highest daily mean pollen concentrations. Due to global warming and because symptoms may appear earlier in the year people suffering from a pollen allergy might face a new unaccustomed situation.

  6. Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients......-treated group. CONCLUSION: The rBet v 1-based vaccine was safe and effective in treating birch pollen allergy, and induced a highly specific immune response....

  7. Daily home measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic children during natural birch pollen exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, Signe; Sinding, Marianne; Skamstrup, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a sensitive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma. Available methods have restricted measurements to the clinic, giving only a snapshot of the disease, which by nature is highly variable. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate...... the feasibility, repeatability, accuracy, sensitivity, and biologic plausibility of new handheld equipment for FENO measurements. We studied day-to-day home measurements of FENO during the birch pollen season in children with allergy to birch pollen and a history of mild asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis during...... this season, as well as in nonatopic children. METHODS: Eleven children with mild asthma and allergy to birch pollen, performed daily home measurements of FENO for 6 weeks before and during the birch pollen season by using a handheld FENO monitor (NIOX MINO). Additionally, FENO (chemiluminescence equipment...

  8. Oral allergy syndrome to chicory associated with birch pollen allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadot, P.; Kochuyt, A.-M.; van Ree, R.; Ceuppens, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few cases of IgE-mediated chicory allergy with oral, cutaneous, and/or respiratory symptoms are reported. We present 4 patients with inhalant birch pollen allergy and oral allergy syndrome to chicory. IgE-binding proteins in chicory and cross-reactivity with birch pollen were studied.

  9. MACC regional multi-model ensemble simulations of birch pollen dispersion in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofiev, M.; Berger, U.; Prank, M.; Vira, J.; Arteta, J.; Belmonte, J.; Bergmann, K.C.; Chéroux, F.; Elbern, H.; Friese, E.; Galan, C.; Gehrig, R.; Khvorostyanov, D.; Kranenburg, R.; Kumar, U.; Marécal, V.; Meleux, F.; Menut, L.; Pessi, A.M.; Robertson, L.; Ritenberga, O.; Rodinkova, V.; Saarto, A.; Segers, A.; Severova, E.; Sauliene, I.; Siljamo, P.; Steensen, B.M.; Teinemaa, E.; Thibaudon, M.; Peuch, V.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first ensemble modelling experiment in relation to birch pollen in Europe. The seven-model European ensemble of MACC-ENS, tested in trial simulations over the flowering season of 2010, was run through the flowering season of 2013. The simulations have been compared with

  10. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen-allergic......Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...... oral challenges with fresh apple and a questionnaire. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-reactivity was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE, and leukocyte histamine release (HR). Forty patients were included in the final evaluation of the effect of SIT. The challenges were positive in 9 (SCIT), 6...

  11. Ventilation scheme, room location and meteorological factors influence indoor birch pollen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Matiu, Michael; Michaelis, Rico; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Allergenic pollen, often in co-occurrence with air pollutants from traffic and industries aggravating its pollen allergenicity, constitutes a major health risk for the urban population during the pollen season. Airborne pollen concentrations are traditionally monitored with fixed pollen traps mounted >10 m above ground on flat roof tops. However, the personal exposure of allergic people mostly depends on their main residences and the local emission patterns. Consequently, the assessment of indoor pollen is essential for human health since people stay most of the day inside buildings. In our study, hourly indoor birch pollen concentrations were measured on eight days in April 2015 with portable pollen traps in five rooms of a university building at Freising, Germany. A traditional pollen trap on the roof of the building provided the background birch pollen concentration which was compared to the respective outdoor values right in front of the rooms. The office and lab rooms were characterised by different aspects and window ventilation schemes. Meteorological data were equally measured at a nearby climate station and directly in front of the windows. The observed flowering phenology of 56 birch trees in the nearer surrounding partly explained daily peaks in airborne pollen concentrations. As expected, outdoor pollen concentrations were larger than indoor concentrations: Mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio was highest (0.75) in a south oriented room with fully opened window and additional mechanical ventilation, followed by two rooms with fully opened windows orientated to the west and north (0.35, 0.12) and lowest in east oriented neighbouring rooms with tilted window (0.19) and with windows only opened for short ventilation (0.07). The latter two rooms even had a birch tree directly flowering in front of the façade. Hourly I/O ratios depended on meteorology and increased with outside temperature and wind speed oriented perpendicular to the window opening. As also

  12. Pollen Season Trends (1973-2013 in Stockholm Area, Sweden.

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    Tomas Lind

    Full Text Available In the present study, the phenological and quantitative changes in the pollen seasons between 1973 and 2013 in the Stockholm region of Sweden were studied for nine types of pollen (hazel, alder, elm, birch, oak, grass, mugwort, willow and pine. Linear regression models were used to estimate the long term trends in duration, start- and end-dates, peak-values and the yearly accumulated pollen sums of the pollen seasons. The pollen seasons of several arboreal plant species (e.g. birch, oak and pine were found to start significantly earlier today compared to 41 years earlier, and have an earlier peak-date, while the season of other species seemed largely unaffected. However, the long term trends in the end-dates of pollen seasons differed between arboreal and herbaceous species. For herbaceous species (grass and mugwort, a significant change towards later end-dates was observed and the duration of season was found to have increased. A significant trend towards an earlier end-date was found in the majority of the arboreal plant species (i.e. elm, oak, pine and birch, but the length of the season seemed unaffected. A trend towards an increase in yearly concentrations of pollen was observed for several species; however the reasons for this phenomenon cannot be explained unambiguously by the present study design. The trend of increasing yearly mean air temperatures in the Stockholm area may be the reason to changed phenological patterns of pollen seasons.

  13. Are there changes in Germany regarding the start of the pollen season, the season length and the pollen concentration of the most important allergenic pollens?

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    Kaminski, Uwe [Centre for Human Biometeorological Research, Freiburg (Germany). German Meteorological Service; Glod, Tom [Univ. of Trier (Germany). FB Physical Geography

    2011-10-15

    For the regions Northwest, Northeast and Southern Germany we examined the main allergic pollen (Hazel, Alder, Birch, grasses and Mugwort) for trends on the basis of the pollen counts of the Pollen Information Service (PID) reference-stations. From these stations information about changes on the start of the pollen season, the season length and the total amount as well as the peak-concentration of pollen during the last years (1988-2009 for Northwest and Southern Germany and 1994-2009 for Northeast Germany) are examined. Possible trends are analysed by means of the Mann-Kendall test for their significance. The results demonstrate that the changes, regarding the start of the pollen season and the total pollen amount, are strongest in Southern and Northeast Germany. Data show for all regions that tree pollen becomes the significant allergen. (orig.)

  14. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

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    Skjøth, C. A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Emberlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts >80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts ( n = 60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  15. Impact of urbanization of the proteome of birch pollen and its chemotactic activity on human granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryce, M.; Drews, O.; Schenk, M.F.; Menzel, A.; Estrella, N.; Weichenmeier, I.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Buters, J.; Ring, J.; Gorg, A.; Behrendt, H.; Traidl-Hoffmann, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies reveal a dramatic increase in allergies in the last decades. Air pollution is considered to be one of the factors responsible for this augmentation. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of urbanization on birch pollen. The birch pollen proteome was

  16. [Oral Allergy Syndrome Following Soy Milk Ingestion in Patients with Birch Pollen Allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Asakura, Kohji; Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Persons allergic to birch pollen often report oral and pharyngeal hypersensitivity to fruit and vegetables, due to immunological cross-reactivity between pollen and foods. This phenomenon is referred to as the oral allergy syndrome (GAS). Such cross-reactive antigen reactions mainly involve Bet v 1, which is the major birch-pollen allergen, and partially involve birch-pollen profilin Bet v 2. Soybean contains Bet v 1-related antigen (Gly m 4), and soy milk often causes the OAS with severe symptoms such as precordial and abdominal burning sensation because soy milk undergoes little denaturation, and this water-soluble liquid is consumed by most people rather quickly. We evaluated the frequency of the oAS after ingestion of soymilk and examined IgE antibodies to various allergens. A total of 167 patients [122 women, 45 men; age range, 4-72 years (mean age, 32 years)], who had experienced GAS episodes and had IgE birch--pollen antibodies, were interviewed. Using the CAP system, we examined IgE antibodies to birch pollen and other allergens. Of 167 patients, 161 were examined for IgE antibodies to Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Gly m 4, and soybean. We evaluated the frequency of the GAS after soy milk ingestion based on reports by GAS patients with birch pollen allergy, and evaluated the positive rates of some of the IgE antibodies. Among the 167 patients with birch-pollen allergy and GAS on ingestion of any of the foods, there were 16 cases (10%) with OAS following soy milk ingestion. In addition, the foods that caused OAS most often were apples (123 cases, 74%), peaches (67%), and cherries (55%), followed by pears (37%) and kiwi (37%). A higher CAP class for birch pollen, Bet v 1, Gly m 4, and soybean was associated with a higher prevalence of OAS to soy milk. Of 15 patients who had GAS on ingestion of soy milk and had birch-pollen allergy, 47% (7cases) were CAP class 1 for soybean and only 7% (case) was CAP class c2, whereas 93% (14cases) were CAP class 1 for Gly m 4, and 87% (3

  17. Sustained efficacy and safety of a 300IR daily dose of a sublingual solution of birch pollen allergen extract in adults with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

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    Worm, Margitta; Rak, Sabina; de Blay, Frédéric; Malling, Hans-Jorgen; Melac, Michel; Cadic, Véronique; Zeldin, Robert K

    2014-02-11

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) due to birch pollen is a growing health concern in Europe. Here, we report the efficacy and safety of 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution administered discontinuously for 2 consecutive years to patients with birch-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Birch pollen-allergic adults were randomized in this double blind study to 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution or placebo, daily, starting 4 months before and continuing through the pollen season for two pollen seasons. Randomization was stratified according to the presence or absence of oral allergy syndrome (OAS). The primary efficacy endpoint was the Average Adjusted Symptom Score (AAdSS) over the second pollen season and was analyzed by ANCOVA. Secondary efficacy endpoints included the AAdSS over the first pollen period. Safety was evaluated by means of adverse event monitoring. 574 patients (284 in the active group and 290 in the placebo group) were randomized and 496 completed the study. Over the second pollen period, the least square (LS) mean AAdSS was significantly lower in the 300IR group than in the placebo group (LS mean difference -2.04, 95% CI [-2.69, -1.40], (p mouth edema. There were no reports of anaphylaxis. Pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution demonstrated sustained clinical efficacy over 2 pollen seasons and was well tolerated in adults with birch pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Efficacy results were consistent in patients with and without oral allergy syndrome. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01731249.

  18. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fölster-Holst R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 5Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route. Keywords: aeroallergens, atopic eczema, seasonality, skin antigen-presenting cells, skin barrier penetration

  19. Glutathione-S-transferase: a minor allergen in birch pollen due to limited release from hydrated pollen.

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    Stephan Deifl

    Full Text Available Recently, a protein homologous to glutathione-S-transferases (GST was detected in prominent amounts in birch pollen by proteomic profiling. As members of the GST family are relevant allergens in mites, cockroach and fungi we investigated the allergenic relevance of GST from birch (bGST.bGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. Sera from 217 birch pollen-allergic patients were tested for IgE-reactivity to bGST by ELISA. The mediator-releasing activity of bGST was analysed with IgE-loaded rat basophil leukaemia cells (RBL expressing human FcεRI. BALB/c mice were immunized with bGST or Bet v 1. Antibody and T cell responses to either protein were assessed. IgE-cross-reactivity between bGST with GST from house dust mite, Der p 8, was studied with murine and human sera in ELISA. The release kinetics of bGST and Bet v 1 from birch pollen were assessed in water, simulated lung fluid, 0.9% NaCl and PBS. Eluted proteins were quantified by ELISA and analysed by immunoblotting.Only 13% of 217 birch pollen-allergic patients showed IgE-reactivity to bGST. In RBL assays bGST induced mediator release. Immunization of mice with bGST induced specific IgE and a Th2-dominated cellular immune response comparably to immunization with Bet v 1. bGST did not cross-react with Der p 8. In contrast to Bet v 1, only low amounts of bGST were released from pollen grains upon incubation in water and the different physiological solutions.Although bGST is abundant in birch pollen, immunogenic in mice and able to induce mediator release from effector cells passively loaded with specific IgE, it is a minor allergen for birch pollen-allergic patients. We refer this discrepancy to its limited release from hydrated pollen. Hence, bGST is an example demonstrating that allergenicity depends mainly on rapid elution from airborne particles.

  20. Can we improve pollen season definitions by using the symptom load index in addition to pollen counts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, Katharina; Kmenta, Maximilian; Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Berger, Uwe; Jäger, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Airborne pollen measurements are the foundation of aerobiological research and provide essential raw data for various disciplines. Pollen itself should be considered a relevant factor in air quality. Symptom data shed light on the relationship of pollen allergy and pollination. The aim of this study is to assess the spatial variation of local, regional and national symptom datasets. Ten pollen season definitions are used to calculate the symptom load index for the birch and grass pollen seasons (2013–2014) in Austria. (1) Local, (2) regional and (3) national symptom datasets are used to examine spatial variations and a consistent pattern was found. In conclusion, national datasets are suitable for first insights where no sufficient local or regional dataset is available and season definitions based on percentages provide a practical solution, as they can be applied in regions with different pollen loads and produce more constant results. - Highlights: • The definition of the pollen season has an impact on the calculated symptom load. • Pollen season definitions based on percentages of total pollen are a practical solution. • The symptom load index is a robust tool to assess the allergy burden in a population. • Local, regional and national burdens of pollen allergy sufferers are comparable. - The symptom load index is a robust tool to assess the allergy burden in a population. Local, regional and national burdens of pollen allergy sufferers are comparable

  1. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

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    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. An investigation of the possible immunological relationship between allergen extracts from birch pollen, hazelnut, potato and apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Løwenstein, H

    1978-01-01

    In a retrospective study on selected group of patients, the coincidence of birch pollen allergy and a clinically relevant positive prick test reaction to apples and potatoes was confirmed. Immunochemical comparison using the crossed line immunoelectrophoresis technique (CLIE) confirmed partial...... identity between birch pollen and hazelnut. By the same method no partial immunological identity between birch pollen and extracts and fresh peel from apples and potatoes was found. However, both apples and potatoes gave rise to non-immunological affinity precipitates. On this basis it is discussed...

  3. Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen

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    B. G. Pummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation of bioaerosols (bacteria, pollen, spores, etc. is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate, is not yet fully understood. Here we show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behaviour. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. Far more intriguingly, it has turned out that water, which has been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. The ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so presumably augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. Our experiments lead to the conclusion that pollen ice nuclei, in contrast to bacterial and fungal ice nucleating proteins, are non-proteinaceous compounds.

  4. Numerical simulation of birch pollen dispersion with an operational weather forecast system.

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    Vogel, Heike; Pauling, Andreas; Vogel, Bernhard

    2008-11-01

    We included a parameterisation of the emissions of pollen grains into the comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. In addition, a detailed density distribution of birch trees within Switzerland was derived. Based on these new developments, we carried out numerical simulations of the dispersion of pollen grains for an episode that occurred in April 2006 over Switzerland and the adjacent regions. Since COSMO-ART is based on the operational forecast model of the German Weather Service, we are presenting a feasibility study of daily pollen forecast based on methods which have been developed during the last two decades for the treatment of anthropogenic aerosol. A comparison of the model results and very detailed pollen counts documents the current possibilities and the shortcomings of the method and gives hints for necessary improvements.

  5. Pollen immunotherapy reduces the development of asthma in children with seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis (the PAT-study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Christian; Dreborg, Sten; Ferdousi, Hosne A

    2002-01-01

    rhinoconjunctivitis. METHODS: From 6 pediatric allergy centers, 205 children aged 6 to 14 years (mean age, 10.7 years) with grass and/or birch pollen allergy but without any other clinically important allergy were randomized either to receive specific immunotherapy for 3 years or to an open control group. All...... provocation tests were carried out during the season(s) and during the winter. RESULTS: Before the start of immunotherapy, 20% of the children had mild asthma symptoms during the pollen season(s). Among those without asthma, the actively treated children had significantly fewer asthma symptoms after 3 years...

  6. Sustained efficacy and safety of a 300IR daily dose of a sublingual solution of birch pollen allergen extract in adults with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Worm, Margitta; Rak, Sabina; de Blay, Frédéric; Malling, Hans-Jorgen; Melac, Michel; Cadic, Véronique; Zeldin, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) due to birch pollen is a growing health concern in Europe. Here, we report the efficacy and safety of 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution administered discontinuously for 2 consecutive years to patients with birch-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Methods Birch pollen-allergic adults were randomized in this double blind study to 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution or placebo, daily, starting 4 months before and continuing through the ...

  7. Exposure to high doses of birch pollen during pregnancy, and risk of sensitization and atopic disease in the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlström, A; Lilja, G; Pershagen, G; Hedlin, G

    2003-09-01

    The role of maternal allergen exposure during pregnancy in sensitization and development of atopic disease in the child remains controversial. In the spring of 1993, extremely high levels of birch pollen were recorded in Stockholm, Sweden. In 1994, the corresponding pollen levels were low. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of exposure during pregnancy to high/low doses of birch pollen on the risk of sensitization and development of atopic disease in children. In addition, a comparison was made with children exposed to birch pollen in early infancy. Three hundred and eighty-seven children with atopic heredity, born in Stockholm in July-October 1993 or 1994 (mothers exposed during pregnancy), were investigated at age 4.5 years. The children were clinically examined and were skin prick tested (SPT) with inhalant and food allergens. IgE antibodies (RAST) against birch pollen and recombinant birch pollen allergen (rBet v 1) were analysed in serum. A comparison was made with a similar group of children exposed during the same incident, but in the first 3 months of life, in 1993. The children of mothers high-dose exposed during pregnancy in 1993 tended to be more sensitized (SPT > or = 3 mm) to birch pollen than the children with low-dose exposure during the corresponding period in 1994 (7.6 and 4.6%, respectively, OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 0.7-4.1). A similar but weak tendency was seen for positive RAST analyses (> or =0.35 kU/l) against birch pollen and rBet v 1. Children of mothers high-dose exposed during pregnancy were significantly less sensitized to birch pollen than the children high-dose exposed in early infancy (17.9%, OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.7). There was an overall trend towards a slightly increased prevalence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis in the group with mothers high-dose exposed during pregnancy, compared to those with low exposure. Exposure of the mother during pregnancy to high levels of birch pollen

  8. Oxidative Processing Lowers the Ice Nucleation Activity of Birch and Alder Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gute, Ellen; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2018-02-01

    Pollen carry water extractable compounds with ice nucleating (IN) activity. This study investigates whether the hydroxyl radical, as the major atmospheric oxidant, can affect the IN activity of silver birch and grey alder subpollen particles under in-cloud conditions for deposition freezing mode conditions at 234 K. It is found that oxidation increases the supersaturation ratio with respect to ice necessary for the onset of ice nucleation and decreases the fraction of particles which initiate ice nucleation. This reduction of IN activity under equivalent oxidation conditions does not occur with a mineral dust sample (Arizona Test Dust). Chemical analysis of fresh and oxidized pollen material indicates a change of molecular structure with a loss of conjugation and an increase in oxidized functional groups, such as carbonyls. This is the first demonstration that in-cloud oxidation may lower the IN abilities of biological particles such as pollen.

  9. NMR resonance assignments of a hypoallergenic isoform of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammer, Linda; Grutsch, Sarina; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima; Tollinger, Martin

    2017-10-01

    In Northern America and Europe a great number of people are suffering from birch pollen allergy and pollen related food allergies. The trigger for these immunological reactions is the 17.5 kDa major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, which belongs to the family of PR-10 (pathogenesis-related) proteins. In nature, Bet v 1 occurs as a mixture of various isoforms that possess different immunological properties despite their high sequence identities. Bet v 1.0102 (Bet v 1d), which is investigated here, is a hypoallergenic isoform of Bet v 1 and a potential candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy. We assigned the backbone and side chain 1 H, 13 C and 15 N resonances of this protein and predicted its secondary structure. The NMR-chemical shift data indicate that Bet v 1.0102 is composed of three α-helices and a seven stranded β-sheet, in agreement with the known structure of the hyperallergenic isoform Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1a). Our resonance assignments create the foundation for detailed characterization of the dynamic properties of Bet v 1 isoforms by NMR relaxation measurements.

  10. Ara h 8, a Bet v 1-homologous allergen from peanut, is a major allergen in patients with combined birch pollen and peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, D.; Akkerdaas, J.; Ballmer-Weber, B.K.; Vogel, L.; Wensing, M.; Becker, W.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Knulst, A.C.; Helbling, A.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van; Vieths, S.

    2004-01-01

    We recently described patients with soybean allergy mainly mediated by cross-reactivity to birch pollen allergens. A majority of those patients were reported to have peanut allergy. We sought to study the occurrence of peanut allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen and characterized the Bet v

  11. Ara h 8, a Bet v 1-homologous allergen from peanut, is a major allergen in patients with combined birch pollen and peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, Diana; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K.; Vogel, Lothar; Wensing, Marjolein; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Koppelman, Stef J.; Knulst, André C.; Helbling, Arthur; Hefle, Susan L.; van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently described patients with soybean allergy mainly mediated by cross-reactivity to birch pollen allergens. A majority of those patients were reported to have peanut allergy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the occurrence of peanut allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen and

  12. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America...

  13. Cooking birch pollen-related food: divergent consequences for IgE- and T cell-mediated reactivity in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohle, Barbara; Zwölfer, Bettina; Heratizadeh, Annice; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Antonia, Yuliya Dall; Alter, Mareike; Keller, Walter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Werfel, Thomas; Ebner, Christof

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 cross-reacts with homologous food allergens, resulting in IgE-mediated oral allergy syndromes (OASs). To avoid this food, allergy allergologists and guidebooks advise patients to consume birch pollen-related foods after heating. OBJECTIVE: We

  14. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....

  15. Possible role of climate changes in variations in pollen seasons and allergic sensitizations during 27 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano, Renato; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2010-03-01

    Climate changes may affect the quality and amount of airborne allergenic pollens. The direct assessment of such an effect requires long observation periods and a restricted geographic area. To assess variations in pollens and allergic sensitizations across 27 years in relation to climate change in a specific region. We recorded pollen counts, season durations, and prevalences of sensitizations for 5 major pollens (birch, cypress, olive, grass, and Parietaria) in western Liguria between 1981 and 2007. Pollen counts were performed using a Hirst-type trap, and sensitizations were assessed by means of skin prick testing. Meteorologic data for the same period included average temperatures, direct radiation, humidity, number of sunny days, and rainfall. There was a progressive increase in the duration of the pollen seasons for Parietaria (+85 days), olive (+18 days), and cypress (+18 days), with an overall advance of their start dates. For Parietaria, there was an advance of 2 months in 2006 vs 1981. Also, the total pollen load progressively increased for the considered species (approximately 25% on average) except for grasses. Percentages of patients sensitized to the pollens increased throughout the years, whereas the percentage of individuals sensitized to house dust mite remained stable. These behaviors paralleled the constant increase in direct radiation, temperature, and number of days with a temperature greater than 30 degrees C. The progressive climate changes, with increased temperatures, may modify the global pollen load and affect the rate of allergic sensitization across long periods.

  16. Suitability of temperature sum models to simulate the flowering period of birches on regional scale as basis for realistic predictions of the allergenic potential of atmospheric pollen loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernath, Christian; Hauck, Julia; Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Heinlein, Florian; Priesack, Eckart

    2014-05-01

    Persons susceptible to allergenic pollen grains need to apply suppressive pharmacy before the occurrence of the first allergy symptoms. Patient targeted medication could be improved if forecasts of the allergenic potential of pollen (biochemical composition of the pollen grain) and the onset, duration, and end of the pollen season are precise on regional scale. In plant tissue the biochemical composition may change within hours due to the resource availability for plant growth and plant internal nutrient re-mobilization. As these processes highly depend on both, the environmental conditions and the development stage of a plant, precise simulations of the onset and duration of the flowering period are crucial to determine the allergenic potential of tissues and pollen. Here, dynamic plant models that consider the dependence of the chemical composition of tissue on the development stage of the plant embedded in process-based ecosystem models seem promising tools; however, today dynamic plant growth is widely ignored in simulations of atmospheric pollen loads. In this study we raise the question whether frequently applied temperature sum models (TSM) could precisely simulate the plant development stages in case of birches on regional scale. These TSM integrate average temperatures above a base temperature below which no further plant development is assumed. In this study, we therefore tested the ability of TSM to simulate the flowering period of birches on more than 100 sites in Bavaria, Germany over a period of three years (2010-2012). Our simulations indicate that the often applied base temperatures between 2.3°C and 3.5°C for the integration of daily or hourly average temperatures, respectively, in Europe are too high to adequately simulate the onset of birch flowering in Bavaria where a base temperature of 1°C seems more convenient. A more regional calibration of the models to sub-regions in Bavaria with comparable climatic conditions could further improve the

  17. Prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy by mucosal treatment with multi-allergen-chimers in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hoflehner

    Full Text Available Among birch pollen allergic patients up to 70% develop allergic reactions to Bet v 1-homologue food allergens such as Api g 1 (celery or Dau c 1 (carrot, termed as birch pollen-related food allergy. In most cases, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen extracts does not reduce allergic symptoms to the homologue food allergens. We therefore genetically engineered a multi-allergen chimer and tested if mucosal treatment with this construct could represent a novel approach for prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy.BALB/c mice were poly-sensitized with a mixture of Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 followed by a sublingual challenge with carrot, celery and birch pollen extracts. For prevention of allergy sensitization an allergen chimer composed of immunodominant T cell epitopes of Api g 1 and Dau c 1 linked to the whole Bet v 1 allergen, was intranasally applied prior to sensitization.Intranasal pretreatment with the allergen chimer led to significantly decreased antigen-specific IgE-dependent β-hexosaminidase release, but enhanced allergen-specific IgG2a and IgA antibodies. Accordingly, IL-4 levels in spleen cell cultures and IL-5 levels in restimulated spleen and cervical lymph node cell cultures were markedly reduced, while IFN-γ levels were increased. Immunomodulation was associated with increased IL-10, TGF-β and Foxp3 mRNA levels in NALT and Foxp3 in oral mucosal tissues. Treatment with anti-TGF-β, anti-IL10R or anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the suppression of allergic responses induced by the chimer.Our results indicate that mucosal application of the allergen chimer led to decreased Th2 immune responses against Bet v 1 and its homologue food allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 by regulatory and Th1-biased immune responses. These data suggest that mucosal treatment with a multi-allergen vaccine could be a promising treatment strategy to prevent birch pollen-related food allergy.

  18. Prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy by mucosal treatment with multi-allergen-chimers in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Hufnagl, Karin; Schabussova, Irma; Jasinska, Joanna; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bohle, Barbara; Maizels, Rick M; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Among birch pollen allergic patients up to 70% develop allergic reactions to Bet v 1-homologue food allergens such as Api g 1 (celery) or Dau c 1 (carrot), termed as birch pollen-related food allergy. In most cases, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen extracts does not reduce allergic symptoms to the homologue food allergens. We therefore genetically engineered a multi-allergen chimer and tested if mucosal treatment with this construct could represent a novel approach for prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy. BALB/c mice were poly-sensitized with a mixture of Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 followed by a sublingual challenge with carrot, celery and birch pollen extracts. For prevention of allergy sensitization an allergen chimer composed of immunodominant T cell epitopes of Api g 1 and Dau c 1 linked to the whole Bet v 1 allergen, was intranasally applied prior to sensitization. Intranasal pretreatment with the allergen chimer led to significantly decreased antigen-specific IgE-dependent β-hexosaminidase release, but enhanced allergen-specific IgG2a and IgA antibodies. Accordingly, IL-4 levels in spleen cell cultures and IL-5 levels in restimulated spleen and cervical lymph node cell cultures were markedly reduced, while IFN-γ levels were increased. Immunomodulation was associated with increased IL-10, TGF-β and Foxp3 mRNA levels in NALT and Foxp3 in oral mucosal tissues. Treatment with anti-TGF-β, anti-IL10R or anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the suppression of allergic responses induced by the chimer. Our results indicate that mucosal application of the allergen chimer led to decreased Th2 immune responses against Bet v 1 and its homologue food allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 by regulatory and Th1-biased immune responses. These data suggest that mucosal treatment with a multi-allergen vaccine could be a promising treatment strategy to prevent birch pollen-related food allergy.

  19. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Orby, P.V.; Skjoth, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  20. The Major Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1 Induces Different Responses in Dendritic Cells of Birch Pollen Allergic and Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Lengger, Nina; Svoboda, Martin; Rigby, Neil; Bublin, Merima; Gaier, Sonja; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs) of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals. PMID:25635684

  1. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Smole

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals.

  2. Pollen immunotherapy reduces the development of asthma in children with seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis (the PAT-study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Christian; Dreborg, Sten; Ferdousi, Hosne A

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with allergic rhinitis are likely to develop asthma. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether specific immunotherapy can prevent the development of asthma and reduce bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children with seasonal allergic...... rhinoconjunctivitis. METHODS: From 6 pediatric allergy centers, 205 children aged 6 to 14 years (mean age, 10.7 years) with grass and/or birch pollen allergy but without any other clinically important allergy were randomized either to receive specific immunotherapy for 3 years or to an open control group. All...

  3. Monitoring, modelling and forecasting of the pollen season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheifinger, Helfried; Belmonte, Jordina; Buters, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    The section about monitoring covers the development of phenological networks, remote sensing of the season cycle of the vegetation, the emergence of the science of aerobiology and, more specifically, aeropalynology, pollen sampling instruments, pollen counting techniques, applications...... of aeropalynology in agriculture and the European Pollen Information System. Three data sources are directly related with aeropalynology: phenological observations, pollen counts and remote sensing of the vegetation activity. The main future challenge is the assimilation of these data streams into numerical pollen...... forecast systems. Over the last decades consistent monitoring efforts of various national networks have created a wealth of pollen concentration time series. These constitute a nearly untouched treasure, which is still to be exploited to investigate questions concerning pollen emission, transport...

  4. A model to predict the beginning of the pollen season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    1991-01-01

    In order to predict the beginning of the pollen season, a model comprising the Utah phenoclirnatography Chill Unit (CU) and ASYMCUR-Growing Degree Hour (GDH) submodels were used to predict the first bloom in Alms, Ulttirrs and Berirln. The model relates environmental temperatures to rest completion...... and bud development. As phenologic parameter 14 years of pollen counts were used. The observed datcs for the beginning of the pollen seasons were defined from the pollen counts and compared with the model prediction. The CU and GDH submodels were used as: 1. A fixed day model, using only the GDH model...... for fruit trees are generally applicable, and give a reasonable description of the growth processes of other trees. This type of model can therefore be of value in predicting the start of the pollen season. The predicted dates were generally within 3-5 days of the observed. Finally the possibility of frost...

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 in complex with a murine monoclonal IgG Fab' fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, M D; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Gajhede, M

    1999-01-01

    of the clinical symptoms of allergy. In order to study the structural basis of allergen-antibody interaction, a complex between the major birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 and a Fab' fragment isolated from the murine monoclonal Bet v 1 antibody BV16 has been crystallized. Complex crystals belong to space group P1...

  6. Change in Ragweed Pollen Season, 1995-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This figure shows how the length of ragweed pollen season changed at 11 locations in the central United States and Canada between 1995 and 2015. Data were provided...

  7. Networked web-cameras monitor congruent seasonal development of birches with phenological field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems' potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support various analyses of ecosystem functioning. We established a network of cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation in boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted on 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. In this study, we used cameras at 11 of these sites to investigate how well networked cameras detect phenological development of birches (Betula spp.) along the latitudinal gradient. Birches are interesting focal species for the analyses as they are common throughout Finland. In our cameras they often appear in smaller quantities within dominant species in the images. Here, we tested whether small scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of color indices and changes therein. We compared automatically derived phenological dates from these birch image elements to visually determined dates from the same image time series, and to independent observations recorded in the phenological monitoring network from the same region. Automatically extracted season start dates based on the change of green color fraction in the spring corresponded well with the visually interpreted start of season, and field observed budburst dates. During the declining season, red color fraction turned out to be superior over green color based indices in predicting leaf yellowing and fall. The latitudinal gradients derived using automated phenological date extraction corresponded well with gradients based on phenological field observations from the same region. We conclude that already small and scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of key phenological dates for birch species. Devising cameras for species specific analyses of phenological timing will be useful for

  8. The impact of nitration on the structure and immunogenicity of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Ackaert

    Full Text Available Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue. We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs and primary DCs (primDCs stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  9. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 and CJLP243 alleviates birch pollen-induced allergic rhinitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S-P; Oh, H-N; Choi, C-Y; Ahn, H; Yun, H S; Chung, Y M; Kim, B; Lee, S J; Chun, T

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of selected probiotics in a mouse model of birch pollen (BP)-induced allergic rhinitis. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 and CJLP243 ameliorated the symptoms of BP-induced allergic rhinitis by reducing airway hyperresponsiveness, and both the histological scores and the number of infiltrated cells in the nasal cavities and lungs. Compared with those from vehicle-treated mice, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and draining lymph node samples from CJLP133 and CJLP243-administrated mice showed diminished numbers of immune cells, increased secretion of a Th1-type cytokine (IFN-γ) and decreased production of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13). Consistent with these results, levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, serum IgE and BP-specific serum IgG1 were decreased, whereas secretion of IFN-γ and BP-specific serum IgG2a was augmented upon administration of CJLP133 and CJLP243 in mice. Oral administration of L. plantarum CJLP133 and CJLP243 alleviates symptoms of BP-induced allergic rhinitis in mice by recovering Th1/Th2 balance via enhancement of the Th1-type immune response. Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 and CJLP243 have therapeutic effects on BP-induced allergic rhinitis in an animal model. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Detection and analysis of unusual features in the structural model and structure-factor data of a birch pollen allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2012-04-01

    Physically improbable features in the model of the birch pollen structure Bet v 1d (PDB entry 3k78) are faithfully reproduced in electron density generated with the deposited structure factors, but these structure factors themselves exhibit properties that are characteristic of data calculated from a simple model and are inconsistent with the data and error model obtained through experimental measurements. The refinement of the 3k78 model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphous structure different from the deposited model with an implausibly small R value (0.019). The abnormal refinement is compared with normal refinement of an isomorphous variant structure of Bet v 1l (PDB entry 1fm4). A variety of analytical tools, including the application of Diederichs plots, Rσ plots and bulk-solvent analysis are discussed as promising aids in validation. The examination of the Bet v 1d structure also cautions against the practice of indicating poorly defined protein chain residues through zero occupancies. The recommendation to preserve diffraction images is amplified. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography. All rights reserved.

  11. Cloning of the minor allergen Api g 4 profilin from celery (Apium graveolens) and its cross-reactivity with birch pollen profilin Bet v 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, S; Wangorsch, A; Haustein, D; Vieths, S

    2000-07-01

    Profilin is a panallergen that is recognized by IgE from about 20% of birch pollen- and plant food-allergic patients. A subgroup of celery-allergic patients shows IgE-reactivity with this minor allergen. To investigate the IgE-binding potential and cross-reactivity of celery profilin at the molecular level, this study was aimed at the cloning and immunological characterization of this allergen. Cloning, expression and purification of profilin from celery tuber to characterize its immunological properties and its cross-reactivity with birch pollen profilin. Cloning of celery profilin was performed by polymerase chain reaction using degenerated primers and a 5'RACE method for the identification of the unknown 5'-end of the cDNA. Expression was carried out in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using a modified vector pET-30a. The recombinant profilin was purified by affinity chromatography on poly L-proline coupled to sepharose. Immunological characterization was performed by immunoblotting, EAST and IgE-inhibition experiments. The coding region of the cDNA of celery profilin was identified as a 399-bp open reading frame, coding for a protein of 133 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 14.3 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein showed high identity with other plant profilins (71-82%) recently described as allergens. Celery profilin was isolated as highly pure nonfusion protein. The IgE-reactivity of celery profilin was similar to that of natural protein. Seven of 17 celery-allergic patients tested presented specific IgE-antibodies to the recombinant protein tested by immunoblotting. Inhibition experiments showed high cross-reactivity of IgE with both profilins from celery and birch pollen. Moreover, the biological activity of recombinant celery profilin was demonstrated by a histamine release assay. Celery profilin is an important allergenic compound in celery and shows high homology to birch pollen profilin, Bet v 2. According to the

  12. Comparative studies on tree pollen allergens. X. Further purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses of the major allergen of birch pollen (Betula verrucosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, H; Elsayed, S

    1986-01-01

    The previously isolated major allergen of birch pollen (fraction BV45), Int. Archs Allergy appl. Immun. 68: 70-78 (1982), was further purified by recycling chromatography. The purified preparation was run on a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) TSK-G-2000 gel filtration chromatography column and, finally, on paper high-volt electrophoresis. The protein recovered met the homogeneity criteria required for performing the N-terminal sequence analysis. The allergenic and antigenic reactivities of the HPLC-purified protein, designated BV45B, was examined. A single homogeneous precipitation line in crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) was shown. Specific IgE-inhibition tests and immuno-autoradiographic prints indicated that this allergen could bind reaginic IgE specificially and with good affinity. The homogeneity of BV45B was examined by isoelectric focusing (IEF). Several minor bands of pI differences of less than 0.1 units were visible, demonstrating the existence of some molecular variants of this protein. The N-terminal sequence analysis of the molecule was performed, and the following four amino acids were tentatively shown by sequential cleavage: NH2-Ala-Gly-Ile-Val-. The demonstration of one dominant N-terminal 1-dimethyl-amino-5-naphthalene sulphonyl (DNS)-amino acid by polyamide thin-layer chromatography at each sequence step confirmed that the N-terminal residue of the protein was not blocked; the heterogeneity shown by the IEF system was merely due to the presence of several homologous polymorphic proteins with identical N-terminal amino acid, the adequacy of the purification repertoire used.

  13. [Questionnaire about the intake of and hypersensitivity to fruits, vegetables and nuts including birch pollen related foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Asakura, Kohji; Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2013-07-01

    In Hokkaido and Scandinavia, birch pollen allergic persons are common and they often report oral and pharyngeal hypersensitivity to fruits and vegetables (oral allergy syndrome, OAS), because of immunological cross-reactivity. In Scandinavia, nuts as well as Rosaceae fruits such as apples were the foods most often reported to elicit symptoms. On the other hand, nuts are minor foods causing hypersensitivity in Japan. Even in Japan, regional differences of foods causing hypersensitivity have been reported, which may be related to the regional differences of elementary habit and pollen dispersion. In the present study, we evaluated the intake history of the foods and the frequency of food hypersensitivity in adults from the general population. Three hundreds and thirty nine subjects (20-67 years old) took part in the study. With a questionnaire survey, we asked them about their intake history and hypersensitive symptoms for 33 kinds of fruit, vegetables, and nuts. 30% of subjects had eaten Brazil nuts, 80% had eaten pomegranates, and 81% had eaten hazelnuts. And over 95% of subjects had eaten the other 30 foods. Those who had lived in Hokkaido for more than 20 years had a higher frequency of plum consumption than the others. Those who had lived in Hokkaido for more than 20 years had a lower frequency of loquat, fig and pomegranate consumption than the others. Food hypersensitivity was found in 52 subjects (15.3%). The most common symptom was OAS (46 subjects, 13.6%), and foods most frequently causing OAS were peach (21 subjects, 6.2%), cherry (19 subjects, 5.6%) and apple (17 subjects, 5.0%). 26 subjects (7.7%) reported OAS to Rosaceae fruits. The ratio of having OAS to consuming Rosaceae fruits was 11.0% in the group who had lived in Hokkaido for more than 20 years, which was higher than the group who has lived in Hokkaido for less than 20 years. The intake history of hazelnuts and Brazil nuts was very low, with a correspondingly low frequency of food

  14. Models to predict the start of the airborne pollen season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Consolata; Caramiello, Rosanna; Migliavacca, Mirco; Busetto, Lorenzo; Mercalli, Luca; Colombo, Roberto; Richardson, Andrew D.

    2015-07-01

    Aerobiological data can be used as indirect but reliable measures of flowering phenology to analyze the response of plant species to ongoing climate changes. The aims of this study are to evaluate the performance of several phenological models for predicting the pollen start of season (PSS) in seven spring-flowering trees ( Alnus glutinosa, Acer negundo, Carpinus betulus, Platanus occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Alnus viridis, and Castanea sativa) and in two summer-flowering herbaceous species ( Artemisia vulgaris and Ambrosia artemisiifolia) by using a 26-year aerobiological data set collected in Turin (Northern Italy). Data showed a reduced interannual variability of the PSS in the summer-flowering species compared to the spring-flowering ones. Spring warming models with photoperiod limitation performed best for the greater majority of the studied species, while chilling class models were selected only for the early spring flowering species. For Ambrosia and Artemisia, spring warming models were also selected as the best models, indicating that temperature sums are positively related to flowering. However, the poor variance explained by the models suggests that further analyses have to be carried out in order to develop better models for predicting the PSS in these two species. Modeling the pollen season start on a very wide data set provided a new opportunity to highlight the limits of models in elucidating the environmental factors driving the pollen season start when some factors are always fulfilled, as chilling or photoperiod or when the variance is very poor and is not explained by the models.

  15. Efficacy of sublingual vectorized recombinant Bet v 1a in a mouse model of birch pollen allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourdot, Sophie; Airouche, Sabi; Berjont, Nathalie; Moussu, Hélène; Betbeder, Didier; Nony, Emmanuel; Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2013-05-28

    Second generation sublingual allergy vaccines based upon recombinant allergens combined with vector systems are being developed as an alternative to conventional allergen extracts. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant form of the major allergen Bet v 1a (rBet v 1a) formulated as a mucoadhesive particle in a preclinical model of birch pollen (BP) respiratory allergy. BALB/c mice were sensitized to BP extracts by intraperitoneal injections followed by aerosol exposures. Sensitized mice underwent sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) twice a week for eight weeks with either a BP extract or rBet v 1a formulated in amylopectin-based microparticles (MPA). SLIT efficacy was assessed using whole body plethysmography, lung histology and cell counts in broncho-alveolar lavages (BAL) as read outs. BP and/or rBet v 1a-specific T cell and antibody responses were monitored in lung and serum, respectively. IgA levels were measured in saliva. Mice sensitized to BP exhibit chronic airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), lung inflammation (documented by compliance and resistance measurements), eosinophil infiltrates in BAL, as well as Bet v 1-specific Th2 biased responses. Both SLIT with soluble rBet v 1a (50μg/dose) and BP extract (equivalent to 50μg rBet v 1 per dose) lead to a significant reduction in AHR, lung eosinophilia and Th2 responses. A sub-optimal dose of 5μg of rBet v 1a displays a similar level of efficacy with a significant decrease of Th2 responses when formulated with MPA microparticles. In addition, allergen vectorization with mucoadhesive particles allows a faster reduction in AHR in sensitized animals. We demonstrate in a murine model of chronic BP respiratory allergy the efficacy of SLIT with vectorized rBet v 1a. Thus, combining recombinant allergens with mucoadhesive vector systems paves the ground for improved second generation sublingual allergy vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seed set variation in wildClarkiapopulations: teasing apart the effects of seasonal resource depletion, pollen quality, and pollen quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Alisa A; Mazer, Susan J; Ivey, Christopher T

    2016-09-01

    In habitats where resource availability declines during the growing season , selection may favor early-flowering individuals. Under such ephemerally favorable conditions, late-blooming species (and individuals) may be particularly vulnerable to resource limitation of seed production. In California, a region prone to seasonal drought, members of the annual genus Clarkia are among the last to flower in the spring. We compared pollen limitation (PL) of seed set and outcrossing rates between early- and late-flowering individuals in two mixed-mating Clarkia taxa to detect whether flowering time is associated with changes in seed set due to resource depletion, PL, or increased selfing. In 2008-2010, we hand-pollinated one flower on a total of 1855 individual plants either Early (near the onset of flowering) or Late (near the end of flowering) in the flowering season and compared seed set to adjacent, open-pollinated flowers on the same stem. To assess the contribution of pollen quality to reproduction, we first (2008) used allozymes to estimate outcrossing rates of seeds produced by Early and Late open-pollinated flowers. Second (2009), we conducted an anther-removal experiment to estimate self-pollen deposition. Seed set in Clarkia unguiculata was not pollen-limited. Clarkia xantiana ssp . xantiana was pollen-limited in 2008 and 2010, but not 2009. PL did not differ between Early and Late treatments. In both taxa, seed set of Early flowers was greater than Late flowers, but not due to PL in the latter. Reproduction was generally pollinator-dependent. Most pollen deposition was xenogamous, and outcrossing rates were >0.7 - and similar between Early and Late periods. These results suggest that pollen receipt and pollen quality remain seasonally consistent. By contrast, the resources necessary to provision seeds decline, reducing the fitness benefits associated with resource allocation to ovules.

  17. Grass pollen seasons in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Myszkowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the estimation of Poaceae pollen seasons in Poland in selected areas. The aim of the study was to present the long-term variability of the start, end and duration of grass pollen seasons and the seasonal pollen index (SPI in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions over pollen seasons. The study was performed in eight Polish cities in 1992–2014 (the common seasons were 2003–2012. Pollen season start was relatively stable in the studied period, the seasons began about the 10th of May, a bit earlier in the south part of Poland. Pollen season ends were more changeable in comparison to the season start and fluctuated from the middle of July to the middle of September. SPI clearly depended on temperature and precipitation in April–August. Daily maximum pollen concentrations were achieved between the end of May and the first decade of July and no evident relationship between this day and weather conditions was found, apart from 2004.

  18. The population and seasonal dynamics of weevils developing in the soil of birch stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Kula

    2003-01-01

    Curculionidae developing in the soil of birch stands in an air-polluted region were classified using the method of soil photoeclectors on the basis of their population dynamics (1986-2000) and phenology of their emergence from where they developed. In the course of 15 years we saw two evident culminations in the population density of Polydrusus undatus...

  19. Reactions of airway epithelial cells to birch pollen grains previously exposed to in situ atmospheric Pb concentrations: a preliminary assay of allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Bosch-Cano, Floriane; Millon, Laurence; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Franchi, Marielle; Bernard, Nadine

    2012-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that interactions between pollen grains and environmental pollutants, especially air pollutants, could be of critical importance with regard to the increase in allergic responses observed in the past decades. Using birch pollen grains (BPG), a major allergy source in European countries, and lead (Pb), a highly toxic metal trace element (MTE) present in urban areas, the immune response of human epithelial cells exposed to BPG or to Pb-associated BPG was compared. The cellular response after exposure either to BPG, BPG exposed to 30 mg/L of Pb (BPG-30), or BPG exposed to 60 mg/L of Pb (BPG-60) was evaluated after two time lapses (2 and 6 h) by measuring mRNA levels of four mediators, including two inflammatory (interleukin-8 and interleukin-6) and two allergic (interleukin-5 [IL-5] and interleukin-13) cytokines. After 2 h of exposure, significant upregulation of the IL-5 gene was observed after exposure to BPG-60 in comparison with exposure to BPG and BPG-30 (N (IL-5) = 1.9, Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.003). After 6 h of exposure, significant upregulation of the IL-5 gene was observed after exposure to BPG-30 with N (IL-5) = 1.8 and to BPG-60 with N (IL-5) = 2.3 (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.0029) in comparison with exposure to BPG. This first attempt to investigate the influence of pollution by MTE on pollen grain showed a dose-time-dependent increase in IL-5 gene expression after exposure to BPG combined to Pb.

  20. Chimeras of Bet v 1 and Api g 1 reveal heterogeneous IgE responses in patients with birch pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepp, Barbara; Lengger, Nina; Bublin, Merima; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Characterization of IgE-binding epitopes of allergens and determination of their patient-specific relevance is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of allergy. We sought to assess the contribution of specific surface areas of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to binding IgE of individual patients. Four distinct areas of Bet v 1 representing in total 81% of its surface were grafted onto the scaffold of its homolog, Api g 1.0101, to yield the chimeras Api-Bet-1 to Api-Bet-4. The chimeras were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. IgE binding of 64 sera from Bet v 1-sensitized subjects with birch pollen allergy was determined by using direct ELISA. Specificity was assessed by means of inhibition ELISA. rApi g 1.0101, Api-Bet-1, Api-Bet-2, Api-Bet-3, and Api-Bet-4 bound IgE from 44%, 89%, 80%, 78%, and 48% of the patients, respectively. By comparing the amount of IgE binding to the chimeras and to rApi g 1.0101, 81%, 70%, 75%, and 45% of the patients showed significantly enhanced IgE binding to Api-Bet-1, Api-Bet-2, Api-Bet-3, and Api-Bet-4, respectively. The minority (8%) of the sera revealed enhanced IgE binding exclusively to a single chimera, whereas 31% showed increased IgE binding to all 4 chimeras compared with rApi g 1.0101. The chimeras inhibited up to 70% of IgE binding to rBet v 1.0101, confirming the specific IgE recognition of the grafted regions. The Bet v 1-specific IgE response is polyclonal, and epitopes are spread across the entire Bet v 1 surface. Furthermore, the IgE recognition profile of Bet v 1 is highly patient specific. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The value of pre- and co-seasonal sublingual immunotherapy in pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demoly, Pascal; Calderon, Moises A; Casale, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    (i.e. pre-seasonal alone, co-seasonal alone or pre- and co-seasonal). Pre-and co-seasonal regimens are typically used for sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) and have economic and compliance advantages over perennial (year-round) regimens. However, these advantages must not come at the expensive......Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a guidelines-approved, disease-modifying treatment option for respiratory allergies, including allergic rhinitis (AR) induced by pollen. The various AIT regimens employed to date in pollen-induced AR can be classified as continuous (i.e. year-round) or discontinuous...

  2. Statistical approach to the analysis of olive long-term pollen season trends in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mozo, H; Yaezel, L; Oteros, J; Galán, C

    2014-03-01

    Analysis of long-term airborne pollen counts makes it possible not only to chart pollen-season trends but also to track changing patterns in flowering phenology. Changes in higher plant response over a long interval are considered among the most valuable bioindicators of climate change impact. Phenological-trend models can also provide information regarding crop production and pollen-allergen emission. The interest of this information makes essential the election of the statistical analysis for time series study. We analysed trends and variations in the olive flowering season over a 30-year period (1982-2011) in southern Europe (Córdoba, Spain), focussing on: annual Pollen Index (PI); Pollen Season Start (PSS), Peak Date (PD), Pollen Season End (PSE) and Pollen Season Duration (PSD). Apart from the traditional Linear Regression analysis, a Seasonal-Trend Decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL) and an ARIMA model were performed. Linear regression results indicated a trend toward delayed PSE and earlier PSS and PD, probably influenced by the rise in temperature. These changes are provoking longer flowering periods in the study area. The use of the STL technique provided a clearer picture of phenological behaviour. Data decomposition on pollination dynamics enabled the trend toward an alternate bearing cycle to be distinguished from the influence of other stochastic fluctuations. Results pointed to show a rising trend in pollen production. With a view toward forecasting future phenological trends, ARIMA models were constructed to predict PSD, PSS and PI until 2016. Projections displayed a better goodness of fit than those derived from linear regression. Findings suggest that olive reproductive cycle is changing considerably over the last 30years due to climate change. Further conclusions are that STL improves the effectiveness of traditional linear regression in trend analysis, and ARIMA models can provide reliable trend projections for future years taking into

  3. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-10-01

    The olive tree ( Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  4. Variability within the 10-year pollen rain of a seasonal neotropical forest and its implications for paleoenvironmental and phenological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselhorst, Derek S; Moreno, J Enrique; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-01-01

    Tropical paleoecologists use a combination of mud-water interface and modern pollen rain samples (local samples of airborne pollen) to interpret compositional changes within fossil pollen records. Taxonomic similarities between the composition of modern assemblages and fossil samples are the basis of reconstructing paleoclimates and paleoenvironments. Surface sediment samples reflect a time-averaged accumulation of pollen spanning several years or more. Due to experimental constraints, modern pollen rain samples are generally collected over shorter timeframes (1-3 years) and are therefore less likely to capture the full range of natural variability in pollen rain composition and abundance. This potentially biases paleoenvironmental interpretations based on modern pollen rain transfer functions. To determine the degree to which short-term environmental change affects the composition of the aerial pollen flux of Neotropical forests, we sampled ten years of the seasonal pollen rain from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and compared it to climatic and environmental data over the same ten-year span. We establish that the pollen rain effectively captured the strong seasonality and stratification of pollen flow within the forest canopy and that individual taxa had variable sensitivity to seasonal and annual changes in environmental conditions, manifested as changes in pollen productivity. We conclude that modern pollen rain samples capture the reproductive response of moist tropical plants to short-term environmental change, but that consequently, pollen rain-based calibrations need to include longer sampling periods (≥7 years) to reflect the full range of natural variability in the pollen output of a forest and simulate the time-averaging present in sediment samples. Our results also demonstrate that over the long-term, pollen traps placed in the forest understory are representative samples of the pollen output of both canopy and understory vegetation. Aerial pollen traps

  5. Aeroallergen analyses and their clinical relevance. II. Sampling by high-volume airsampler with immunochemical quantification versus Burkard pollen trap sampling with morphologic quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C R; Weeke, E R; Nielsen, J

    1992-01-01

    operated 24 h a day. They were placed less than 5 m apart, and estimation of the pollen amount was made on a day-to-day basis during the pollen seasons, and on a weekly basis outside the seasons. The occurrence of the 3 clinically most important allergenic types of pollen, birch, grass, and mugwort......, was analysed, and close correlations between the 2 sampling techniques were found (rs 0.5-0.8, p 1 SQ-U/m3, respectively...

  6. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota; Katarzyna, Leśkiewicz; Katarzyna, Piotrowicz; Katarzyna, Borycka; Kazimiera, Chłopek; Łukasz, Grewling; Idalia, Kasprzyk; Barbara, Majkowska-Wojciechowska; Małgorzata, Malkiewicz; Małgorzata, Nowak; Krystyna, Piotrowska-Weryszko; Małgorzata, Puc; Elżbieta, Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-04-01

    The Asteraceae family is one of the largest families, comprising 67 genera and 264 species in Poland. However, only a few genera, including Artemisia and Ambrosia are potential allergenic sources. The aim of the study was to estimate how often and to what degree Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons co-occur intensifying human health risk, and how synoptic situations influence frequency of days with high pollen concentrations of both taxa. Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen data were collected, using the volumetric method, at 8 sites in Poland. Daily concentrations of Artemisia pollen equal to 30 grains or more and Ambrosia pollen equal to 10 grains or more were accepted as high values. Concentrations of more than 10 pollen grains were defined as high in the case of Ambrosia because its allergenicity is considered higher. High concentrations were confronted with synoptic situations. Analysis was performed on the basis of two calendars on circulation types of atmosphere in Poland (Niedźwiedź, 2006, 2015). Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons is being found most often, when Ambrosia pollen season starts in the first half of August. If it happens in the last 10 days of August high pollen concentrations of Artemisia and Ambrosia do not occur at the same days. At three sites (Sosnowiec, Rzeszów, Lublin) high Ambrosia pollen concentrations during the Artemisia pollen season appear more often than in other sites under question. The high Artemisia pollen concentrations occur, when continental or polar maritime old air masses inflow into Poland. The impact of air masses on high Ambrosia pollen concentrations depends on site localizations. It is likely, that in the south-eastern part of Poland high Ambrosia pollen concentrations result from the pollen transport from east-south-south-westerly directions and the local sources. Co-occurrence of both taxa pollen seasons depends on the air masses inflow and appears more often in a south-eastern part of Poland.

  7. Allergic asthmatics show divergent lipid mediator profiles from healthy controls both at baseline and following birch pollen provocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Lundström

    Full Text Available Asthma is a respiratory tract disorder characterized by airway hyper-reactivity and chronic inflammation. Allergic asthma is associated with the production of allergen-specific IgE and expansion of allergen-specific T-cell populations. Progression of allergic inflammation is driven by T-helper type 2 (Th2 mediators and is associated with alterations in the levels of lipid mediators.Responses of the respiratory system to birch allergen provocation in allergic asthmatics were investigated. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the bronchoalveolar lumen to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators associated with allergen challenge in allergic asthmatics.Eighty-seven lipid mediators representing the cyclooxygenase (COX, lipoxygenase (LOX and cytochrome P450 (CYP metabolic pathways were screened via LC-MS/MS following off-line extraction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Multivariate statistics using OPLS were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin data in combination with immunological markers.Thirty-two oxylipins were quantified, with baseline asthmatics possessing a different oxylipin profile relative to healthy individuals that became more distinct following allergen provocation. The most prominent differences included 15-LOX-derived ω-3 and ω-6 oxylipins. Shared-and-Unique-Structures (SUS-plot modeling showed a correlation (R(2 = 0.7 between OPLS models for baseline asthmatics (R(2Y[cum] = 0.87, Q(2[cum] = 0.51 and allergen-provoked asthmatics (R(2Y[cum] = 0.95, Q(2[cum] = 0.73, with the majority of quantified lipid mediators and cytokines contributing equally to both groups. Unique structures for allergen provocation included leukotrienes (LTB(4 and 6-trans-LTB(4, CYP-derivatives of linoleic acid (epoxides/diols, and IL-10.Differences in asthmatic relative to healthy profiles suggest a role for 15-LOX products of both ω-6 and ω-3 origin in allergic inflammation. Prominent differences at baseline levels indicate

  8. Allergic Asthmatics Show Divergent Lipid Mediator Profiles from Healthy Controls Both at Baseline and following Birch Pollen Provocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Susanna L.; Yang, Jun; Källberg, Henrik J.; Thunberg, Sarah; Gafvelin, Guro; Haeggström, Jesper Z.; Grönneberg, Reidar; Grunewald, Johan; van Hage, Marianne; Hammock, Bruce D.; Eklund, Anders; Wheelock, Åsa M.; Wheelock, Craig E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a respiratory tract disorder characterized by airway hyper-reactivity and chronic inflammation. Allergic asthma is associated with the production of allergen-specific IgE and expansion of allergen-specific T-cell populations. Progression of allergic inflammation is driven by T-helper type 2 (Th2) mediators and is associated with alterations in the levels of lipid mediators. Objectives Responses of the respiratory system to birch allergen provocation in allergic asthmatics were investigated. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the bronchoalveolar lumen to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators associated with allergen challenge in allergic asthmatics. Methods Eighty-seven lipid mediators representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways were screened via LC-MS/MS following off-line extraction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Multivariate statistics using OPLS were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin data in combination with immunological markers. Results Thirty-two oxylipins were quantified, with baseline asthmatics possessing a different oxylipin profile relative to healthy individuals that became more distinct following allergen provocation. The most prominent differences included 15-LOX-derived ω-3 and ω-6 oxylipins. Shared-and-Unique-Structures (SUS)-plot modeling showed a correlation (R2 = 0.7) between OPLS models for baseline asthmatics (R2Y[cum] = 0.87, Q2[cum] = 0.51) and allergen-provoked asthmatics (R2Y[cum] = 0.95, Q2[cum] = 0.73), with the majority of quantified lipid mediators and cytokines contributing equally to both groups. Unique structures for allergen provocation included leukotrienes (LTB4 and 6-trans-LTB4), CYP-derivatives of linoleic acid (epoxides/diols), and IL-10. Conclusions Differences in asthmatic relative to healthy profiles suggest a role for 15-LOX products of both ω-6 and ω-3 origin in allergic

  9. Season and landscape composition affect pollen foraging distances and habitat use of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Nadja; Molitor, Anna Maria; Schiele, Susanne; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-09-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) show a large variation in foraging distances and use a broad range of plant species as pollen resources, even in regions with intensive agriculture. However, it is unknown how increasing areas of mass-flowering crops like oilseed rape (Brassica napus; OSR) or a decrease of seminatural habitats (SNH) change the temporal and spatial availability of pollen resources for honey bee colonies, and thus foraging distances and frequency in different habitat types. We studied pollen foraging of honey bee colonies in 16 agricultural landscapes with independent gradients of OSR and SNH area within 2 km and used waggle dances and digital geographic maps with major land cover types to reveal the distance and visited habitat type on a landscape level. Mean pollen foraging distance of 1347 decoded bee dances was 1015 m (± 26 m; SEM). In spring, increasing area of flowering OSR within 2 km reduced mean pollen foraging distances from 1324 m to only 435 m. In summer, increasing cover of SNH areas close to the colonies (within 200 m radius) reduced mean pollen foraging distances from 846 to 469 m. Frequency of pollen foragers per habitat type, measured as the number of dances per hour and hectare, was equally high for SNH, grassland, and OSR fields, but lower for other crops and forests. In landscapes with a small proportion of SNH a significantly higher density of pollen foragers on SNH was observed, indicating that pollen resources in such simple agricultural landscapes are more limited. Overall, we conclude that SNH and mass-flowering crops can reduce foraging distances of honey bee colonies at different scales and seasons with possible benefits for the performance of honey bee colonies. Further, mixed agricultural landscapes with a high proportion of SNH reduce foraging densities of honey bees in SNH and thus possible competition for pollen resources. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  11. Cor a 1-reactive T cells and IgE are predominantly cross-reactive to Bet v 1 in patients with birch pollen-associated food allergy to hazelnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Claudia; Scheurer, Stephan; Rost, Kathrin; Graulich, Edith; Jamin, Annette; Foetisch, Kay; Saloga, Joachim; Vieths, Stefan; Steinbrink, Kerstin; Adler, Henric S

    2013-05-01

    IgE- and T-cell cross-reactivity contribute to the birch pollen-food syndrome. We performed a comprehensive analysis of T-cell cross-reactivity in primary cell cultures, facilitating the identification of allergen-specific T-cell subpopulations from individual patients. Patients with birch pollen allergy and associated food allergy to hazelnuts, carrots, or both were analyzed for IgE cross-reactivity, T-cell responses, and T-cell cross-reactivity to recombinant Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1; birch), Cor a 1.0401 (Cor a 1; hazelnut), and Dau c 1.0104 (Dau c 1; carrot). A novel flow cytometry-based method using a 2-step staining process with fluorescent dyes was established to identify subpopulations of cross-reactive T cells. IgE-binding inhibition tests of individual sera revealed that the vast majority of Cor a 1-reactive IgE was cross-reactive to Bet v 1, whereas Bet v 1-reactive IgE was only partially inhibited by preincubation with Cor a 1. Primary stimulation of T cells with Bet v 1 or Cor a 1 resulted in a significant increase in specific responses to Cor a 1 or Bet v 1 after secondary stimulation, respectively, indicating T-cell cross-reactivity between birch and hazelnut allergens in all patients of the study cohort. Preactivation with Dau c 1 induced less pronounced effects. A novel flow cytometry-based proliferation assay identified a predominant Cor a 1/Bet v 1-cross-reactive T-cell subpopulation within highly Bet v 1/Cor a 1-responsive T cells. Analysis of primary allergen-specific T cells combined with flow cytometry-based proliferation assays facilitates investigation of allergen-specific T-cell subpopulations in subjects and might be helpful to evaluate the effect of birch-specific immunotherapy on pollen-associated food allergies. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Flowering phenology and pollen seasons of Corylus spp. in Lublin (Poland, 2008-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2008-2011, phenological observations of flowering of male inflorescences were carried out in seven taxa from the genus Corylus: C. americana, C. avellana, C. avellana ‘Contorta’, C. avellana ‘Pendula’, C. × colurnoides, C. cornuta, C. maxima, grown in the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Botanical Garden in Lublin. Simultaneously, the hazel pollen seasons in the atmosphere of Lublin were analysed using a Durham sampler. The aim of the work was to assess the flowering in seven Corylus taxa in relation to selected meteorological elements and to describe the pollen seasons in the years 2008-2011. During the study years, the annual phenological cycles in the studied Corylus taxa differed markedly in terms of timing of the onset of the successive flowering phases. During the four years of observations, the earliest beginning of hazel flowering was found at the end of January, whereas the latest – at the end of March. The earliest full bloom took place in the first decade of February, and the latest – in the first decade of April. The end of flowering was reported in February or in the first or second decade of April. Each year, C. avellana was the first to produce flowers and it was subsequently followed by C. americana, C. × colurnoides, C. maxima, C. avellana ‘Pendula’, C. avellana ‘Contorta’, and C. cornuta. The pollen seasons in the study period began at the end of January, in the second decade of February, or in the first decade of March. The end of the pollen seasons most frequently took place in the first or second decade of April. The length of the pollen seasons ranged from 38 to 49 days, while the length of the flowering periods in the individual taxa was 22 days on average. During the four study years, the onset of flowering in C. avellana and the beginning of the pollen season coincided on the same day, whereas the onset of flowering in the other taxa was usually reported after the beginning of the

  13. [The effect of climate change on pollen allergy in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weger, Letty A; Hiemstra, Pieter S

    2009-01-01

    Climate change can exert a range of effects on pollen, which might have consequences for pollen-allergic patients. New allergenic pollen types might appear in the Netherlands, like common ragweed and olive, which result in allergy patients developing allergies that scarcely occur in the Netherlands at present. Trees, such as birches and planes, might produce larger quantities of pollen, which could result in more severe symptoms. The pollen season might become longer thereby extending the period in which patients suffer from allergy symptoms. This extension of the pollen season could be due to a prolonged flowering period of certain species, e.g. grasses, or the appearance of new species that flower in late summer, e.g. common ragweed. Climate change could cause an increase in heavy thunderstorms on summer days in the grass pollen season, which are known to increase the chance of asthma exacerbations.

  14. Pollen

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and climate derived from pollen found in lake and ocean sediments. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  15. Second generation antihistamines in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis due to Parietaria and cypress pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, L; Caiaffa, M F; Di Paola, R; De Michele, G; Bariletto, G; Iudice, A; Tursi, A

    2001-12-01

    Second generation antihistamines have been employed in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis for many years. However, their effects on two distinctive Mediterranean allergic conditions, viz. Parietaria pollinosis and cypress pollinosis, have been scarcely investigated, so far. A comparative efficacy and side effect trial of astemizole and terfenadine in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis due to either Parietaria or cypress pollen was carried out in 27 adult patients, according to a double-blind, double-dummy parallel-group design. Airborne pollen monitoring allowed comparison of symptom scores with pollen counts. Seven patients (26%) withdrew, due to poor symptom control. In contrast, in a subset of 15 patients who completed the trial, treatment led to a substantial and statistically significant decline in symptom severity in both the astemizole and the terfenadine study group. However, no statistically significant inter-group differences could be detected. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Application of decision tree algorithms for discriminating among woody plant taxa based on the pollen season characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubik-Komar Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify whether and which parameters of the atmospheric pollen season can distinguish between pollen types, the ranges of parameter values that delineate classes of taxa, and finally which taxa are similar to others within the domain of these parameter ranges. Decision tree algorithms were applied and the best tree was chosen to describe the rules of pollen classification. The study material consisted of airborne pollen grains of the following eight taxa: Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus, Cupressaceae, Fraxinus, Populus and Ulmus. Research was conducted in Lublin in eastern Poland during 2001-2013. The following six atmospheric pollen season parameters were analyzed: season start and end, duration, maximum daily pollen concentration, date of maximum pollen concentration, and the Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI. Four algorithms were used in data analysis and the J4.8 algorithm was chosen as the best for taxa classification, date of the end of season and the SPI value belonging to characteristics that served most to discriminate between pollen types. Based on the classification tree, the following four groups of taxa were identified: (i Ulmus; (ii Corylus, Alnus, Populus; (iii Betula; and (iv Carpinus, Fraxinus, Cupressaceae.

  17. IgE and allergen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4recognize similar epitopes of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, N; von Loetzen, C S; Subbarayal, B; Möbs, C; Vogel, L; Hoffmann, A; Fötisch, K; Koutsouridou, A; Randow, S; Völker, E; Seutter von Loetzen, A; Rösch, P; Vieths, S; Pfützner, W; Bohle, B; Schiller, D

    2017-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen generates Bet v 1-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G 4 which blocks IgE-mediated hypersensitivity mechanisms. Whether IgG 4 specific for Bet v 1a competes with IgE for identical epitopes or whether novel epitope specificities of IgG 4 antibodies are developed is under debate. We sought to analyze the epitope specificities of IgE and IgG 4 antibodies from sera of patients who received AIT. 15 sera of patients (13/15 received AIT) with Bet v 1a-specific IgE and IgG 4 were analyzed. The structural arrangements of recombinant (r)Bet v 1a and rBet v 1a _11x , modified in five potential epitopes, were analyzed by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IgE binding to Bet v 1 was assessed by ELISA and mediator release assays. Competitive binding of monoclonal antibodies specific for Bet v 1a and serum IgE/IgG 4 to rBet v 1a and serum antibody binding to a non-allergenic Bet v 1-type model protein presenting an individual epitope for IgE was analyzed in ELISA and western blot. rBet v 1a _11x had a Bet v 1a - similar secondary and tertiary structure. Monomeric dispersion of rBet v 1a _11x was concentration and buffer-dependent. Up to 1500-fold increase in the EC 50 for IgE-mediated mediator release induced by rBet v 1a _11x was determined. The reduction of IgE and IgG 4 binding to rBet v 1a _11x was comparable in 67% (10/15) of sera. Bet v 1a-specific monoclonal antibodies inhibited binding of serum IgE and IgG 4 to 66.1% and 64.9%, respectively. Serum IgE and IgG 4 bound specifically to an individual epitope presented by our model protein in 33% (5/15) of sera. Patients receiving AIT develop Bet v 1a-specific IgG 4 which competes with IgE for partly identical or largely overlapping epitopes. The similarities of epitopes for IgE and IgG 4 might stimulate the development of epitope-specific diagnostics and therapeutics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy. Induction of affinity-matured or blocking IgG antibodies does not account for the reduced binding of IgE to Bet v 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe

    2003-01-01

    (Betula verrucosa) (Bet v 1), the major allergen in birch pollen, to serum IgG and IgE, separately and in competition. Sera from six birch pollen-allergic patients were obtained before and after 5 years of SAV, and binding was assessed with 125I-Bet v 1. Before SAV, IgG bound more than eight times...... the amount of Bet v 1 compared with IgE, and together they accounted for more than 85% of the serum binding capacity. While SAV induced minimal changes in IgE binding, the IgG binding capacities increased 6-32 times. In contrast, the binding avidities (K(d) 28-40pM) changed less than 20%, pre- and post......-SAV IgG provided similar inhibition of Bet v 1 binding to IgE at equimolar levels, and cross inhibition studies between IgG and IgE showed low inter-individual differences. Following SAV, all sera reduced Bet v 1 binding to CD23(+) cells, correlating with reduced binding of Bet v 1 to IgE (P...

  19. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy. Induction of affinity-matured or blocking IgG antibodies does not account for the reduced binding of IgE to Bet v 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe

    2003-01-01

    (Betula verrucosa) (Bet v 1), the major allergen in birch pollen, to serum IgG and IgE, separately and in competition. Sera from six birch pollen-allergic patients were obtained before and after 5 years of SAV, and binding was assessed with 125I-Bet v 1. Before SAV, IgG bound more than eight times...... the amount of Bet v 1 compared with IgE, and together they accounted for more than 85% of the serum binding capacity. While SAV induced minimal changes in IgE binding, the IgG binding capacities increased 6-32 times. In contrast, the binding avidities (K(d) 28-40pM) changed less than 20%, pre- and post......-SAV IgG provided similar inhibition of Bet v 1 binding to IgE at equimolar levels, and cross inhibition studies between IgG and IgE showed low inter-individual differences. Following SAV, all sera reduced Bet v 1 binding to CD23(+) cells, correlating with reduced binding of Bet v 1 to IgE (P

  20. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  1. Honey bee foraging ecology: Season but not landscape diversity shapes the amount and diversity of collected pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Nadja; Keller, Alexander; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2017-01-01

    The availability of pollen in agricultural landscapes is essential for the successful growth and reproduction of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.). The quantity and diversity of collected pollen can influence the growth and health of honey bee colonies, but little is known about the influence of landscape structure on pollen diet. In a field experiment, we rotated 16 honey bee colonies across 16 agricultural landscapes, used traps to collect samples of collected pollen and observed intra-colonial dance communication to gain information about foraging distances. DNA metabarcoding was applied to analyze mixed pollen samples. Neither the amount of collected pollen nor pollen diversity was related to landscape diversity. However, we found a strong seasonal variation in the amount and diversity of collected pollen in all sites independent of landscape diversity. The observed increase in foraging distances with decreasing landscape diversity suggests that honey bees compensated for lower landscape diversity by increasing their pollen foraging range in order to maintain pollen amount and diversity. Our results underscore the importance of a diverse pollen diet for honey bee colonies. Agri-environmental schemes aiming to support pollinators should focus on possible spatial and temporal gaps in pollen availability and diversity in agricultural landscapes.

  2. Honey bee foraging ecology: Season but not landscape diversity shapes the amount and diversity of collected pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Danner

    Full Text Available The availability of pollen in agricultural landscapes is essential for the successful growth and reproduction of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.. The quantity and diversity of collected pollen can influence the growth and health of honey bee colonies, but little is known about the influence of landscape structure on pollen diet. In a field experiment, we rotated 16 honey bee colonies across 16 agricultural landscapes, used traps to collect samples of collected pollen and observed intra-colonial dance communication to gain information about foraging distances. DNA metabarcoding was applied to analyze mixed pollen samples. Neither the amount of collected pollen nor pollen diversity was related to landscape diversity. However, we found a strong seasonal variation in the amount and diversity of collected pollen in all sites independent of landscape diversity. The observed increase in foraging distances with decreasing landscape diversity suggests that honey bees compensated for lower landscape diversity by increasing their pollen foraging range in order to maintain pollen amount and diversity. Our results underscore the importance of a diverse pollen diet for honey bee colonies. Agri-environmental schemes aiming to support pollinators should focus on possible spatial and temporal gaps in pollen availability and diversity in agricultural landscapes.

  3. Ice Nuclei from Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgitsch, Laura; Seifried, Teresa; Winkler, Philipp; Schmale, David, III; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    While the importance of heterogeneous ice nucleation in the atmosphere is known, we still know very little about the substances triggering these freezing events. Recent findings support the theory that biological ice nuclei (IN) exhibit the ability to play an important role in these processes. Huffman et al. (2013) showed a burst of biological IN over woodlands triggered by rain events. Birch pollen are known to release a high number of efficient IN if incubated in water (Pummer et al. 2012). Therefore birches are of interest in our research on this topic. Plants native to the timberline, such as birch trees, have to cope with very cold climatic conditions, rendering freezing avoidance impossible. These plants trigger freezing in their extracellular spaces to control the freezing process and avoid intracellular freezing, which would have lethal consequences. The plants hereby try to freeze at a temperature well above homogeneous freezing temperatures but still at temperatures low enough to not be effected by brief night frosts. To achieve this, IN are an important tool. The specific objective of our work was to study the potential sources and distribution of IN in birch trees. We collected leaves, fruit, bark, and trunk cores from a series of mature birch trees in Tyrol, Austria at different altitudes and sampling sites. We also collected samples from a birch tree in an urban park in Vienna, Austria. Our data show a sampling site dependence and the distribution of IN throughout the tree. Our data suggest that leaves, bark, and wood of birch can function as a source of IN, which are easily extracted with water. The IN are therefore not restricted to pollen. Hence, the amount of IN, which can be released from birch trees, is tremendous and has been underrated so far. Future work aims to elucidate the nature, contribution, and potential ecological roles of IN from birch trees in different habitats. Huffman, J.A., Prenni, A.J., DeMott, P.J., Pöhlker, C., Mason, R

  4. Nasal and bronchial response to exercise in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis out of the pollen season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmancı, Koray; Urhan, Barıs; Anıl, Hülya; Kocak, Abdulkadır

    2015-02-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a type I allergic disease of the nasal mucosa, and is characterized by paroxysmal sneezing, watery rhinorrhea, and nasal blockage. In seasonal allergic rhinitis subjects, even subthreshold allergen doses have been found to cause inflammatory cell infiltration in the nasal mucosa. This study aimed to investigate the presence of nasal obstructions and symptoms in seasonal allergic rhinitis subjects by assessing an exercise challenge test (ECT) outside of the pollen season. Twenty patients and 20 healthy children who were admitted to the Osmangazi University Medical School Pediatric Allergy Clinic were included in the study in a pollen free season. The total nasal airflow and visual analog scale (for rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, sneezing, and itching) and pulmonary function tests were evaluated before and after each ECT. The nasal airflow and resistance changes were evaluated with anterior rhinomanometry. Eight patients and one healthy child had nasal obstructions after the ECT. There was a significant difference in the exercise-induced nasal obstructions between the 2 groups (p = 0.02). Eighteen children with exposure to tobacco smoke in the patient and control groups had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow 25% to 75% (FEF25-75 ) values than the children without exposure to tobacco smoke. The prevalence of exercise-induced nasal obstruction in children with seasonal rhinitis out of the pollen season is 40%. We showed that minimal persistent inflammation and nasal symptoms can also be diagnosed in rhinitis children in a symptom-free period. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  5. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C G; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is associated with increased levels of allergen-specific IgG in serum. However, it is not clear to what extent qualitative changes in the allergen binding capacity of IgG may be induced as well.......Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is associated with increased levels of allergen-specific IgG in serum. However, it is not clear to what extent qualitative changes in the allergen binding capacity of IgG may be induced as well....

  6. Influence of airborne pollen counts and length of pollen season of selected allergenic plants on the concentration of sIgE antibodies on the population of Bratislava, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ščevková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The association between airborne pollen counts or duration of pollen season and allergy symptoms is not always distinguished. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between pollen exposure (annual total pollen quantity and main pollen season length of selected allergenic plants in the atmosphere of Bratislava, and concentration of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE in serum of patients with seasonal allergy during 2002–2003. Materials and methods. The concentration of pollen was monitored by a Burkard volumetric pollen trap. At the same time, 198 pollen allergic patients were testing to determine the values of sIgE antibodies against selected pollen allergens; a panel of 8 purified allergens was used. Results. The highest percentages of sensitization were detected for Poaceae and [i]Ambrosia[/i] pollen allergens. The most abundant airborne pollen types were Urticaceae, [i]Betula[/i], [i]Populus[/i], Fraxinus, Pinus and Poaceae. The length of the pollen season varied. The longest pollen season was that of the [i]Plantago[/i] – 105 days, and the shortest, [i]Corylus[/i] – 20 days. A significant correlation was found between annual total pollen quantity and median sIgE values, especially in 2002. Conclusions. A strong and significant positive correlation was observed between pollen counts, excluding [i]Betula[/i], and sIgE levels in both analysed years. The correlation was weaker and negative in the case of length of pollen season and sIgE values.

  7. Harvesting Season and Botanical Origin Interferes in Production and Nutritional Composition of Bee Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA F. NEGRÃO

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bee pollen production, its botanical origin and chemical composition when collected in different seasons. Our results indicate that higher proteins (22.80 ± 3.09% and flavonoids (2789.87 ± 1396.00 μg 100g-1 levels were obtained in the winter season, which also showed greater pollen production (134.50 ± 35.70 grams and predominance of the Myrtaceae family. As for spring we found high concentrations of lipids (4.62 ± 2.26% and low ash content (2.22 ± 0.39%. Regarding the amino acid composition and vitamin C content, we found no differences between the averages throughout the seasons. Our results highlight the importance of understanding not only the botanical origin and the chemical composition of bee pollen, but also the harvesting frequency of this product by bees, so that it becomes possible to supplement the colonies in times of natural food resources shortage.

  8. Pollen production in selected species of anemophilous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study, structural features of flowers of the following allergenic plant species were analysed: Betula verrucosa, Secale cereale, Rumex acetosella, Plantago major and Artemisia vulgaris. Pollen production was established by calculating the number of pollen grains produced by the stamen, flower and inflorescence. The dates of occurrence and pollen grains concentration in the air of Lublin were determined. A positive correlation was found between the length of anthers and the number of pollen grains produced. The largest number of pollen grains per anther is produced by Secale cereale (22 360, whereas the smallest one by Plantago major (5 870. The other species produced intermediate numbers of pollen grains in the anther: Betula verrucosa - 11 160, Rumex acetosella - 10 850, Artemisia vulgaris - 9 580. The birch pollen season in Lublin lasts about a month, and pollen of this taxon reaches the highest airborne concentrations among the studied taxa. Low values of pollen concentrations are characteristic for rye and plantain, whereas slightly higher values are recorded for sorrel pollen. Mugwort pollen reaches high concentrations which are noted at the beginning of August.

  9. Seasonal Local Allergic Rhinitis in Areas With High Concentrations of Grass Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca-Lopez, N; Campo, P; Salas, M; García Rodríguez, C; Palomares, F; Blanca, M; Canto, G; Feo Brito, F; Rondon, C

    2016-01-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is a phenotype of allergic rhinitis characterized by the presence of a localized immune response in the nasal mucosa of patients with negative skin prick test (SPT) results and undetectable serum specific IgE (sIgE). It unknown whether LAR is limited to areas with low or moderate aeroallergen exposure. To explore the presence of LAR and the clinical and immunological characteristics of this entity in geographic areas with high grass pollen loads. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in 2 hospitals in central Spain (Madrid and Ciudad Real). Sixty-one patients with seasonal rhinitis and negative SPT results and undetectable serum sIgE were evaluated using a clinical questionnaire, determination of serum total IgE, and a nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) with Phleum species. The response to NAPT was monitored using assessment of nasal symptoms, acoustic rhinometry, and determination of sIgE, tryptase, and eosinophil cationic protein in the nasal cavity. Seasonal LAR was detected in 37 patients (61%) using the techniques described above. Eleven percent of patients with LAR were adolescents or children, and 14% reported onset of rhinitis in childhood. Most patients reported persistent-moderate seasonal nasal symptoms, and 41% reported worsening of the disease during the last 2 years. Conjunctivitis was the most common comorbidity, affecting 95% of cases. LAR to grass pollen is relevant in patients with seasonal symptoms indicative of allergic rhinitis but with a negative skin test result who live in areas with high allergenic pollen loads. This entity should be included the differential diagnosis of rhinitis.

  10. Quercus pollen season dynamics in the Iberian peninsula: response to meteorological parameters and possible consequences of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Galan, Carmen; Jato, Victoria; Belmonte, Jordina; de la Guardia, Consuelo; Fernandez, Delia; Gutierrez, Montserrat; Aira, M; Roure, Joan; Ruiz, Luis; Trigo, Mar; Dominguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    The main characteristics of the Quercus pollination season were studied in 14 different localities of the Iberian Peninsula from 1992-2004. Results show that Quercus flowering season has tended to start earlier in recent years, probably due to the increased temperatures in the pre-flowering period, detected at study sites over the second half of the 20th century. A Growing Degree Days forecasting model was used, together with future meteorological data forecast using the Regional Climate Model developed by the Hadley Meteorological Centre, in order to determine the expected advance in the start of Quercus pollination in future years. At each study site, airborne pollen curves presented a similar pattern in all study years, with different peaks over the season attributable in many cases to the presence of several species. High pollen concentrations were recorded, particularly at Mediterranean sites. This study also proposes forecasting models to predict both daily pollen values and annual pollen emission. All models were externally validated using data for 2001 and 2004, with acceptable results. Finally, the impact of the highly-likely climate change on Iberian Quercus pollen concentration values was studied by applying RCM meteorological data for different future years, 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2099. Results indicate that under a doubled CO(2) scenario at the end of the 21st century Quercus pollination season could start on average one month earlier and airborne pollen concentrations will increase by 50 % with respect to current levels, with higher values in Mediterranean inland areas.

  11. Seasonal dynamics of chemokine receptors and CD62L in subjects with asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch and grass pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2006-01-01

    Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) has been shown to be a risk factor for respiratory allergic disease. CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L have all been assigned a role in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Memory T-cell expression of CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L has not hitherto been investigated in subjects...

  12. Strain-specific immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum strains on birch-pollen-allergic subjects out of season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Vissers, Y.M.; Smit, B.A.; Jongen, J.M.J.; Meulen, E.T.; Zwijsen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic diseases are increasing world-wide, and according to the hygiene hypothesis may be related to a decreased exposure to environmental bacteria. Probiotic bacteria are recognized for their immunomodulating properties, and may benefit allergy patients. In vitro studies reveal

  13. Bee Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollen Extract, Buckwheat Pollen, Extrait de Pollen d’Abeille, Honeybee Pollen, Honey Bee Pollen, Maize Pollen, Pine Pollen, Polen de Abeja, Pollen, Pollen d'Abeille, Pollen d’Abeille de Miel, Pollen de Sarrasin.

  14. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mercuri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change.

  15. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Fornaciari, Rita; Florenzano, Assunta

    2016-01-01

    Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region) that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change. PMID:27929423

  16. Influence of the Collection Season on Production, Size, and Chemical Composition of Bee Pollen Produced by Apis Mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrão Adriana F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate how the collection period affects and influences the production, chemical composition, and size of bee pollen loads (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, greater than 2.0 mm. The results showed there was a predominance of pollen loads with a diameter greater than 2.0 mm in all the production seasons. For all the seasons, there were no differences in protein content between the particle sizes. But when comparing 0.5 mm during the different periods, there were significant differences; the highest value was found during the winter (24.39 ± 3.7%. As far as lipids and crude fiber are concerned, we obtained differences between the same granulometry sizes for the spring and summer seasons. As for ashes, the results showed differences between different particle sizes for the summer and autumn seasons. Our results have shown that regardless of pollen particle size, its quality was not altered, suggesting that smaller loads can be commercially used by containing nutritional quality or else be used by beekeepers as a supplement during periods of food scarcity.

  17. Studies on the abnormality of embryo sac and pollen fertility in aurotetraploid rice during different growing seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Jilanfan, S.; Changmin, W.; Peng, Z.; Xiang-dong, X.

    2010-01-01

    Auto tetraploid rice has a great genetic potential but low seed setting rate is the major encumbrance in its use. Embryo sac fertility and pollen fertility are the most important factors which affect the seed setting rate in auto tetraploid rice. Whole mount eosin B-staining confocal laser scanning microscopy (WE-CLSM) was used to study the fertility and abnormalities in embryo sacs of diploid and auto tetraploid rice during different seasons. The results indicated that the embryo sac fertility (64.5%) was much low in auto tetraploid than that in diploid rice (86%), and five main types of abnormal embryo sac were found in all 10 auto tetraploid rice. Moreover, some other type abnormal embryo sacs were also observed in auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac without female germ unit and embryo sac degeneration were the most frequent types of abnormalities in auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac fertility ranged from 49.3% to 79.3%, pollen fertility ranged from 56.2 to 85.9%, and seed setting rate varied from 12.5 to 69.01% in various genotypes of auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac and pollen fertility were found to have a significant correlation with seed setting rate. Seasons have significant effect on pollen and embryo sac fertility in both type of rice. All the auto tetraploid lines exhibited different types of embryo sac abnormalities which indicated that these might be related to different genotypes. (author)

  18. Seasonal and intradiurnal variation of airborne pollen concentrations in Bodrum, SW Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosunoglu, Aycan; Bicakci, Adem

    2015-04-01

    An aeropalynological study was performed in Bodrum, the famous tourism center in southwestern Turkey with a Hirst-type volumetric 7-day pollen and spore trap for 2 years (2007-2008). In Bodrum, 25,099 pollen grains as a mean value belonging to 41 taxa were recorded annually during the study period, and pollen grains from woody plant taxa had the largest atmospheric contribution of 86.99% and 24 taxa. However, 17 herbaceous plant taxa constituted 12.82% of the annual total pollen count, and 0.19% were unidentified. An average annual pollen index of 22.66% was recorded in March, despite differences from year to year. The highest pollen variability of 34 taxa was recorded in April and May. Predominant pollen types belonged to Cupressaceae/Taxaceae (42.73%), Quercus (15.95%), Pinus (9.78%), Olea europaea (9.04%), Poaceae (5.50%), Betula (1.82%), Pistacia (1.74%), Morus (1.72%), Urticaceae (1.46%), and Plantago (1.28%) and generated 91.03 of the annual total. In total, 32.59% of the mean annual total pollen index was recorded in the morning, and less pollen was recorded in the evening (18.71%). Maximum pollen concentration was recorded between 11:00 and 12:00 a.m.

  19. The phenological phases of flowering and pollen seasons of spring flowering tree taxa against a background of meteorological conditions in Kraków, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Stępalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.

  20. A meta-analysis of sublingual allergen immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy in pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Devillier, Philippe; Dreyfus, Jean-François; Demoly, Pascal; Calderón, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundThe capacity of sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) to provide effective symptom relief in pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis is often questioned, despite evidence of clinical efficacy from meta-analyses and well-powered, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. In the absence of direct, head-to-head, comparative trials of SLIT and symptomatic medication, only indirect comparisons are possible.MethodsWe performed a meta-analysi...

  1. Satellite Phenology Observations Inform Peak Season of Allergenic Grass Pollen Aerobiology across Two Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A. R.; Devadas, R.; Davies, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pollen exposure and prevalence of allergenic diseases have increased in many parts of the world during the last 30 years, with exposure to aeroallergen grass pollen expected to intensify with climate change, raising increased concerns for allergic diseases. The primary contributing factors to higher allergenic plant species presence are thought to be climate change, land conversion, and biotic mixing of species. Conventional methods for monitoring airborne pollen are hampered by a lack of sampling sites and heavily rely on meteorology with less attention to land cover updates and monitoring of key allergenic species phenology stages. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative method to overcome the restrictive coverage afforded by in situ pollen networks by virtue of its synoptic coverage and repeatability of measurements that enable timely updates of land cover and land use information and monitoring landscape dynamics and interactions with human activity and climate. In this study, we assessed the potential of satellite observations of urban/peri-urban environments to directly inform landscape conditions conducive to pollen emissions. We found satellite measurements of grass cover phenological evolution to be highly correlated with in situ aerobiological grass pollen concentrations in five urban centres located across two hemispheres (Australia and France). Satellite greenness data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were found to be strongly synchronous with grass pollen aerobiology in both temperate grass dominated sites (France and Melbourne), as well as in Sydney, where multiple pollen peaks coincided with the presence of subtropical grasses. Employing general additive models (GAM), the satellite phenology data provided strong predictive capabilities to inform airborne pollen levels and forecast periods of grass pollen emissions at all five sites. Satellite phenology offer promising opportunities of improving public health risk

  2. Changes in the concentration of pollen over an 11-year period in a Polish urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majkowska-Wojciechowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that climate change can influence plant reproductive systems and have an impact on the increase in allergenic pollen in atmospheric air; highly allergenic pollen may intensify the allergic response in people. The aim of our study was to evaluate the seasonal dynamic concentration of the most allergenic pollen taxa, i.e., the following trees: Alnus, Corylus, Betula, and herbaceous plants: grasses (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Ambrosia, in the long-term period of 2003–2013 in the city of Lodz, Poland. Weekly airborne pollen concentrations were evaluated with a volumetric Lansoni pollen trap. The beginning and the end of the season were calculated by the 98% method. The birch (Betula pollen was at the highest level and accounted for 79%, followed by alder (Alnus – 19%, and hazel (Corylus – 2%. Among the herbaceous taxa, grasses (Poaceae pollen dominated – 79%, followed by mugwort (Artemisia – 18%, and ragweed (Ambrosia – 3%. Our findings indicate a lack of qualitative and quantitative change in the pollen produced over the 11-year period.

  3. A meta-analysis of sublingual allergen immunotherapy and pharmacotherapy in pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillier, Philippe; Dreyfus, Jean-François; Demoly, Pascal; Calderón, Moisés A

    2014-05-01

    The capacity of sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) to provide effective symptom relief in pollen-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis is often questioned, despite evidence of clinical efficacy from meta-analyses and well-powered, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. In the absence of direct, head-to-head, comparative trials of SLIT and symptomatic medication, only indirect comparisons are possible. We performed a meta-analysis of classes of products (second-generation H1-antihistamines, nasal corticosteroids and grass pollen SLIT tablet formulations) and single products (the azelastine-fluticasone combination MP29-02, and the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast) for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis in adults, adolescents and/or children. We searched the literature for large (n >100 in the smallest treatment arm) double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. For each drug or drug class, we performed a meta-analysis of the effect on symptom scores. For each selected trial, we calculated the relative clinical impact (according to a previously published method) on the basis of the reported post-treatment or season-long nasal or total symptom scores: 100 × (scorePlacebo - scoreActive)/scorePlacebo. Twenty-eight publications on symptomatic medication trials and ten on SLIT trials met our selection criteria (total number of patients: n = 21,223). The Hedges' g values from the meta-analyses confirmed the presence of a treatment effect for all drug classes. In an indirect comparison, the weighted mean (range) relative clinical impacts were -29.6% (-23% to -37%) for five-grass pollen SLIT tablets, -19.2% (-6% to -29%) for timothy pollen SLIT tablets, -23.5% (-7% to -54%) for nasal corticosteroids, -17.1% (-15% to -20%) for MP29-02, -15.0% (-3% to -26%) for H1-antihistamines and -6.5% (-3% to -10%) for montelukast. In an indirect comparison, grass pollen SLIT tablets had a greater mean relative clinical impact

  4. Pollen food syndrome amongst children with seasonal allergic rhinitis attending allergy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludman, Sian; Jafari-Mamaghani, Mehrdad; Ebling, Rosemary; Fox, Adam T; Lack, Gideon; Du Toit, George

    2016-03-01

    There is limited information regarding the onset and sensitization patterns of pollen food syndrome (PFS) in children. The aim was to explore this within children referred to a specialist allergy clinic at a London Tertiary Hospital. A total of 54 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) were enrolled in equal numbers in three age groups; 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 years. Families completed a questionnaire on rhinitis, food symptoms and quality of life. Children underwent skin prick testing (SPT) to fresh fruits, nuts and a blood test for microarray analysis. Clinical diagnosis of PFS was made in 26/54 (48%), increasing with age (group 1 = 3 (17%), group 2 = 9 (50%), group 3 = 14 (78%) (p = 0.03)). Microarray demonstrates children aged 2.8 years sensitized to pan-allergens and 4.5 years symptomatic to pan-allergens. Peach, cherry, carrot and strawberry SPT had the highest sensitivity and NPV at 100%. The sensitivity of PR10 molecules on microarray was 92%, PPV 62% and NPV 87%. Microarray confirmed 69% of allergens on clinical history compared to 61% by SPT. Microarray and SPT had a 19% false-negative rate. The quality-of-life data showed moderate impact across all domains, and patients with PFS were significantly more likely to have increased anxiety over time spent preparing food (p = 0.029). We demonstrate that SAR occurs in children from 1.4 years and PFS from 4.5 years with a changing pattern of pan-allergen sensitization. Microarray and SPT have moderate concordance in confirming allergens. PFS impacts negatively on quality of life and should be assessed in all paediatric allergy patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Clinical and immunological effects of vitamin D supplementation during the pollen season in children with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzyńska, Joanna; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Błażej; Majak, Paweł; Podlecka, Daniela; Woicka-Kolejwa, Katarzyna; Stelmach, Iwona

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a potential contributing factor in patients with allergic diseases. We compared the clinical and immunological effects of vitamin D supplementation to placebo during the pollen season in children with allergic rhinitis. Thirty-eight children aged 5-12, sensitive to grass pollen, participated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Children received either vitamin D 1000 IU daily supplementation or placebo. We studied symptoms/medication score, lung function, exhaled nitric oxide concentration (FENO), methacholine bronchial provocation test and serum level of 25(OH)D, as well as; CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, TLR4, IL-1, IL-6, TNF and the IL-10 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) levels in cell culture supernatants. Vitamin D therapy was effective in reduction of the symptoms/medication score ( p = 0.0371). In vitamin D group an increase in the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells (7.06 vs. 10.5%; p = 0.0013) and serum 25(OH)D concentration (49.6 vs. 96.6 ng/ml; p = 0.0001) and in control group an increase in FENO (15.6 vs. 21 ppb; p = 0.0331) and serum 25(OH)D level were observed (82.9 vs. 100.3 ng/ml; p = 0.0003).We revealed a higher increase from baseline in the percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the vitamin D group compared to the control group ( p = 0.0058). A significant correlation between CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cell induction and FENO reduction in the vitamin D group was observed ( p = 0.0217). Vitamin D 1000 IU as a supplementary treatment of grass pollen allergy in children with allergic rhinitis during the pollen season significantly reduced the symptoms/medication score. The study revealed an immunological effect of vitamin D.

  6. Silvical characteristics of sweet birch (Betula lenta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1958-01-01

    Sweet birch (Betula lenta) is also known as black birch and cherry birch. It is commercially less important than the two principal members of the genus, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera).

  7. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Duhl, T.; Salam, M. T.; House, J. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Avol, E. L.; Gilliland, F. D.; Guenther, A.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California (USA) for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to

  8. Linking pollen deposition and snow accumulation on the Alto dell'Ortles glacier (South Tyrol, Italy) for sub-seasonal dating of a firn temperate core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festi, Daniela; Carturan, Luca; Kofler, Werner; dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; de Blasi, Fabrizio; Cazorzi, Federico; Bucher, Edith; Mair, Volkmar; Gabrielli, Paolo; Oeggl, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Dating of ice cores from temperate non-polar glaciers is challenging and often problematic. However, a proper timescale is essential for a correct interpretation of the proxies measured in the cores. Here, we introduce a new method developed to obtain a sub-seasonal timescale relying on statistically measured similarities between pollen spectra obtained from core samples and daily airborne pollen monitoring samples collected in the same area. This approach was developed on a 10 m core retrieved from the temperate-firn portion of Alto dell'Ortles glacier (Eastern Italian Alps), for which a 5-year annual/seasonal timescale already exists. The aim was to considerably improve this timescale, reaching the highest possible temporal resolution and testing the efficiency and limits of pollen as a chronological tool. A test of the new timescale was performed by comparing our results to the output (date of layer formation) of the mass balance model EISModel, during the period encompassed by the timescale. The correspondence of the results supports the new sub-seasonal timescale based on pollen analysis. This comparison also allows us to draw important conclusions on the post-depositional effects of meltwater percolation on the pollen content of the firn core as well as on the climatic interpretation of the pollen signal.

  9. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  10. Climate change impact on the olive pollen season in Mediterranean areas of Italy: air quality in late spring from an allergenic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio; Ruga, Luigia; Romano, Bruno; Fornaciari, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that there are many effects of climate change on aeroallergens, and thus on allergic diseases in humans. In the Mediterranean region, despite the importance of the olive tree for production, there is high allergenicity of olive pollen and related risks to human health. Aerobiological sampling techniques can be used to analyse the pollinosis phenomenon through determination of mean daily pollen concentrations per cubic metre of air. The present study was carried out from 1999 to 2008 in 16 olive-growing areas in Italy, to update the information on the pollinosis characteristics of Olea europaea in the study areas. The analysis of the average flowering season over the study period highlights a temporal scaling of pollen in the atmosphere that depends on the different climatic characteristics. This is mainly dependent on temperature, and in part, determined by latitude. Generally, the levels of O. europaea pollen in the atmosphere are higher from mid-April to the end of June, with the period of greatest risk to human health due to this olive pollen in this area currently limited primarily to the last 10 days of May. However, the pollen season can move, depending on the climate scenario considered, and data here can be used to determine potential time shifts in pollinosis that might cause more precocious asthma and allergy problems. The allergy season for this type of pollen might be significantly precocious in future decades (20-30 days earlier in the year), which will impact on the severity and duration of allergies attributable to olive tree pollen.

  11. Aerobiological study of pollen and mold in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Oh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large number of allergic individuals, inhalant allergens are important causative and triggering agents in respiratory allergies. It is essential to survey the pollen and mold around the patient’s environment for the diagnosis and treatment of airborne allergy. Rotorod samplers were installed at well-ventilated places in seven collecting stations in Seoul, the capital of Korea, which has a population of 12 million. Airborne particles carrying allergens were collected daily from each station for 2 years (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1997. After being stained with Calberla’s fuchsin, they were identified, counted and recorded. The weather in Seoul was also recorded. Pollen was found from the middle of February through to the end of December. The peak date for pollen was 12 May (peak mean daily count: 701 grains/m3/day and for mold it was 23 June (peak mean daily count: 936 spores/m3/day. Alder, birch, pine, oak, maple, elm, juniper, willow, and gingko trees were prevalent during the tree season, lasting from the middle of February to late July. Then sagebrush, ragweed, Japanese hop, and pigweed followed during the weed season, which lasts from the middle of July to the end of December. In skin prick test results, house dust mite was the most common positive allergen in Seoul, followed by cockroach. Among the pollens, mugwort was the most common positive, followed by ragweed mix, alder, birch, and grasses mix. Among the molds, there were high counts of Cladosporium and Alternaria during the year, excluding January. Ascospore of Lepto-spheria was highest during the monsoon season.

  12. Comparative long-term trend analysis of daily weather conditions with daily pollen concentrations in Brussels, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; De Smedt, Tom; Delcloo, Andy; Simons, Koen; Hoebeke, Lucie; Verstraeten, Caroline; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2018-03-01

    A clear rise in seasonal and annual temperatures, a gradual increase of total radiation, and a relative trend of change in seasonal precipitation have been observed for the last four decades in Brussels (Belgium). These local modifications may have a direct and indirect public health impact by altering the timing and intensity of allergenic pollen seasons. In this study, we assessed the statistical correlations (Spearman's test) between pollen concentration and meteorological conditions by using long-term daily datasets of 11 pollen types (8 trees and 3 herbaceous plants) and 10 meteorological parameters observed in Brussels between 1982 and 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of change in the annual cycle of the same selected pollen types by the Mann-Kendall test. We revealed an overall trend of increase in daily airborne tree pollen (except for the European beech tree) and an overall trend of decrease in daily airborne pollen from herbaceous plants (except for Urticaceae). These results revealed an earlier onset of the flowering period for birch, oak, ash, plane, grasses, and Urticaceae. Finally, the rates of change in pollen annual cycles were shown to be associated with the rates of change in the annual cycles of several meteorological parameters such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall.

  13. Comparative long-term trend analysis of daily weather conditions with daily pollen concentrations in Brussels, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; De Smedt, Tom; Delcloo, Andy; Simons, Koen; Hoebeke, Lucie; Verstraeten, Caroline; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2017-10-01

    A clear rise in seasonal and annual temperatures, a gradual increase of total radiation, and a relative trend of change in seasonal precipitation have been observed for the last four decades in Brussels (Belgium). These local modifications may have a direct and indirect public health impact by altering the timing and intensity of allergenic pollen seasons. In this study, we assessed the statistical correlations (Spearman's test) between pollen concentration and meteorological conditions by using long-term daily datasets of 11 pollen types (8 trees and 3 herbaceous plants) and 10 meteorological parameters observed in Brussels between 1982 and 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of change in the annual cycle of the same selected pollen types by the Mann-Kendall test. We revealed an overall trend of increase in daily airborne tree pollen (except for the European beech tree) and an overall trend of decrease in daily airborne pollen from herbaceous plants (except for Urticaceae). These results revealed an earlier onset of the flowering period for birch, oak, ash, plane, grasses, and Urticaceae. Finally, the rates of change in pollen annual cycles were shown to be associated with the rates of change in the annual cycles of several meteorological parameters such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall.

  14. The influence of felling season and log-soaking temperature on the wetting and phenol formaldehyde adhesive bonding characteristics of birch veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Pekka Saranpää; Martin Ohlmeyer; Mark Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Most adhesive studies employing wood veneer as the substrate assume that it is a relatively uniform material if wood species and veneer thickness are constant. In the present study, veneers from rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) were produced from logs harvested in spring, autumn and winter, and soaked at 20°C and 70°C prior to peeling. Firstly...

  15. Seasonal variations of sugars in atmospheric particulate matter from Gosan, Jeju Island: Significant contributions of airborne pollen and Asian dust in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kobayashi, Minoru; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2012-08-01

    Sugars are important water-soluble organic constituents of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In order to better understand the sources and seasonal variations of sugars in aerosols, primary saccharides (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and trehalose) and sugar alcohols (arabitol and mannitol), together with levoglucosan, have been studied in ambient aerosols at Gosan, Jeju Island in the western North Pacific, the downwind region of the Asian outflow, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the sugar composition varied seasonally with a total concentration range of 6.8-1760 ng m-3 (mean 246 ng m-3). The total identified sugars had the highest concentration in April, the spring bloom season at Jeju Island, when sucrose contributed up to 80% of the total sugars. The dominance of sucrose was also detected in pollen samples, suggesting that pollen can contribute significantly to sucrose in aerosols during the spring bloom. The seasonal variation of trehalose is consistent with those of non-sea-salt Ca2+ and δ13C of total carbon with elevated levels during the Asian dust storm events. This study indicates that sugar compounds in atmospheric PM over East Asia can be derived from biomass burning, Asian dust, and primary biological aerosols such as fungal spores and pollen. Furthermore, this study supports the idea that sucrose could be used as a tracer for airborne pollen grains, and trehalose as a tracer for Asian dust outflow.

  16. Occupational allergy to flowers: immunoblot analysis of allergens in freesia, gerbera and chrysanthemum pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Toorenenbergen, A W

    2014-10-01

    High exposure to pollen from ornamental flowers can induce an IgE-mediated occupational allergy in florists and horticulture workers. We investigated IgE-binding antigens in chrysanthemum, freesia and gerbera pollen by immunoblot analysis and analysed the cross-reactivity of these pollen with birch, grass and mugwort pollen. In immunoblots with chrysanthemum pollen, major IgE-binding structures were seen with a molecular weight (MW) of approximately 25, 45 and 65 kD. In the immunoblots with freesia pollen, IgE from freesia pollen was directed against two proteins with an MW of approximately 15 kD. Most sera showed IgE binding to an approximately 15 kD band in gerbera pollen; with some sera additional bands were seen in the range of 30-50 kD. IgE binding to chrysanthemum pollen was inhibited by mugwort pollen only, whereas IgE binding to freesia pollen was suppressed by birch, grass and mugwort pollen. The inhibitory activity of birch and grass pollen extract on IgE binding to gerbera pollen extract was serum dependent and ranged from no inhibition to complete inhibition. Occupational exposure to many different flowers induced IgE against all three types of pollen. Exposure in greenhouses to gerbera flowers elicited mainly IgE against gerbera pollen. Mugwort pollen extract inhibited IgE binding to pollen from all three flowers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Seasonal fluctuations of airborne pollen grains count and its correlation with climatic factors from khairpur; sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, A.; Khan, M.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first aerobiological survey of Khairpur, Sindh. The survey was conducted from January-December, 2011 using Burkard's Seven Days Volumetric Spore trap. A total of 4559 pollen/m3 were recorded belonging to 33 plant families and 41 pollen types. The major pollen types were Poaceae (13.84%), Amaranthaceae/ Chenopodiaceae (10.40%), Cyperus rotundus (7.61%); Prosopis juliflora (6.19%), Brassica campestris (4.91%), Typha angustifolia (4.89%), Tamarix indica (4.43%), Eucalyptus globules (4.28%), Conocarpus erectus (3.73%), Asteraceae (3.01%), Guaicum officinale (2.94%), Azadirachta indica (2.74%), Malvaceae (2.15%) and Phoenix dactylifera (1.84%) constituting more than 70% of total pollen catch. The highest pollen grains concentration was observed in May-2011 with 880 pollen/m3 count while second highest pollen concentration was detected in September 2011 with 682 pollen/m3. The lowest count was found in December- 2011. Climatic factors like wind speed, average temperature, humidity and rainfall were correlated with the pollen counts. Different pollen types showed significant positive correlation with average temperature while negative correlation with humidity and wind speed. (author)

  18. Holocene pollen record from Lake Sokoch, interior Kamchatka (Russia), and its paleobotanical and paleoclimatic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirksen, Veronika; Dirksen, Oleg; van den Bogaard, Christel; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    A pollen record, obtained from sediments of Lake Sokoch in mountain interior of the Kamchatka Peninsula, covers the last ca. 9600 years (all ages are given in calibrated years BP). Variations in local components, including pollen, spores and non-pollen palynomorphs, and related changes in sedimentation document the lake development from initially seepage and shallow basin to deeper lake during the mid Holocene and then to the hydrologically open system during the late Holocene. The studies of volcanic ashes from the lake sediment core show their complex depositional histories. Lake Sokoch occupies a former proglacial basin between two terminal moraines of the LGM time. The undated basal part of record before ca. 9600 year BP, however, does not reflect properly cold conditions. At that time, although shrublands and tundra dominated, stone birch and white birch forests have already settled in surroundings; the presence of alder woodland indicates wet and maritime-like climate. The subsequent forest advance suggesting warmer conditions was interrupted by the ca. 8000-7600 year BP spell of cooler climate. The following culmination of warmth is bracketed by the evidence of the first maximal forest extent between ca. 7400 and 5100 year BP. During that time, dramatic retreat of alder forest suggests a turn from maritime-like to more continental climate conditions. The cool and wet pulse after ca. 5100 year BP was pronounced as forests retreat while shrublands, meadows and bogs extended. An expansion of white birch forest since ca. 3500 year BP reflected the onset of drier climate, strengthening continentality and seasonal contrast. The second maximum of forests dominated by both stone and white birches occurred between ca. 2200 and 1700 year BP and indicated warming in association with relatively dry and increasingly continental climate. The following period was wetter and cooler, and minor outbreak of alder forest around ca. 1500 year BP suggests a short-term return of

  19. Comparison of the effects of desloratadine 5-mg daily and placebo on nasal airflow and seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms induced by grass pollen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, F; Stübner, P; Zieglmeyer, R; Harris, A G

    2003-06-01

    Nasal congestion is a chronic symptom of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) that is often difficult to treat with antihistamines. Desloratadine, a new, potent, H1-receptor antagonist has been shown to decrease nasal congestion in clinical trials and to maintain nasal airflow in response to grass pollen exposure. We compared the effects of desloratadine 5 mg and placebo on nasal airflow, nasal secretion weights and SAR symptoms, including nasal congestion, in patients exposed to grass pollen in an environmental exposure unit. Forty-six grass pollen allergic SAR patients received desloratadine or placebo for 7 days, followed by a 10-day washout, and then crossed over to the other treatment for 7 days. A 6-h allergen exposure was performed at the end of each treatment period. Desloratadine was significantly superior to placebo in maintaining nasal airflow (P pollen allergen.

  20. Insect enemies of birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Conklin

    1969-01-01

    Native birches are subject to attack by insects at all stages of growth from the germinating seedling to the mature tree. All parts of the tree—roots, stem, branches, foliage, and even the developing seed—may be utilized as feeding sites by insects of one kind or another. An enumeration of the many insects recorded in the literature as feeders on...

  1. Characteristics of T-cell and B-cell immune respoonses to pollen allergens in Bulgarian patients with pollinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIVKA KOSTOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the pollen allergens and identification of the main T-cell and B-cell epitopes is of crucial importance, since the clarification of the cellular and molecular mechanisms will allow long-term control of this type allergic diseases and development of safe immunotherapeutic medication. The objective of this study was to identify which pollen allergens are responsible for the T-cell activation in atopic patients with pollinosis and to determine whether the same allergens are responsible for the IgE-mediated reactions. Thirty-seven patients with pollinosis and thirteen non-allergic subjects were recruited. Peripheral blood samples were collected out of the pollen season. T-cell responses (IFN-γ production towards different pollen allergens and levels of pollen specific IgE and IgG in the sera were measured by ELISA. The T-cell reactivity in most patients was directed towards the grass pollen B1, tree pollen I and autumn pollen B5. 70% of the allergic individuals responded to allergens from Lolium perenne, 84% to Dactylis glomerata, 11% to Phleum pratense, 65% to Betula pendula and 70% to Taxus baccata. Elevated serum levels of specific IgE in the allergic patients (p<0.01 were measured against the tree pollen I and autumn pollen, which include widespread deciduous trees (birch, willow, poplar and yew and Artemisia absinthium, respectively. Our results show that the T-cell reactivity and antibody responses may be directed towards different or the same allergens. In addition, we propose that short synthetic peptides, which contain overlapping T- and B-cell epitopes can be used for specific immunotherapy treatment if they lack antibody recognition domains.

  2. 5-grass pollen tablets achieve disease control in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis unresponsive to drugs: a real-life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastorello EA

    2013-12-01

    of mild intermittent allergic rhinitis before SLIT. After SLIT, 33 patients had mild intermittent allergic rhinitis, none had moderate to severe intermittent allergic rhinitis, seven had mild persistent allergic rhinitis, and seven had moderate to severe persistent allergic rhinitis. The mean medication score decreased from 4.2±1.3 before to 2.4±2.0 after SLIT (P<0.01, representing a reduction of 42%. The response to treatment before SLIT was judged as poor by 70% of patients and very poor by 30%. Patient satisfaction was significantly increased after SLIT (P<0.01.Conclusion: In real life, most patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis not responsive to drug treatment can achieve control of the condition with one season of treatment using 5-grass pollen tablets.Keywords: grass pollen, rhinitis, drug resistance, allergen immunotherapy, effectiveness, patient satisfaction

  3. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hay fever and pollen counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has ... MD, FAAAAI Seasonal allergic rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air ...

  4. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J; Worm, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis....

  5. Budburst phenology of white birch in industrially polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V.; Eraenen, Janne K.; Zverev, Vitali E.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of environmental contamination on plant seasonal development have only rarely been properly documented. Monitoring of leaf growth in mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk hinted advanced budburst phenology in most polluted sites. However, under laboratory conditions budburst of birch twigs cut in late winter from trees naturally growing around three point polluters (nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, aluminium factory at Kandalaksha, and iron pellet plant at Kostomuksha) showed no relationship with distance from the emission source. In a greenhouse experiment, budburst phenology of mountain birch seedlings grown in unpolluted soil did not depend on seedling origin (from heavily polluted vs. clean sites), whereas seedlings in metal-contaminated soil demonstrated delayed budburst. These results allow to attribute advanced budburst phenology of white birch in severely polluted sites to modified microclimate, rather than to pollution impact on plant physiology or genetics. - Advanced budburst phenology in white birch in severely polluted sites is explained by modified microclimate, not by pollution impact on plant physiology

  6. Coincidence of pollen season with the first fetal trimester together with early pet exposure is associated with sensitization to cat and dog allergens in early childhood: A Finnish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrhönen, K; Kulmala, P; Näyhä, S

    2018-03-01

    Children whose 11th fetal week falls in pollen season (spring) reportedly have an increased risk of sensitization to food allergens. No such finding has been reported for pet allergens. The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the incidence of pet (dog and cat) sensitization according to the season of the 11th fetal week and (ii) whether the association between pet exposure and respective sensitization is modified by the coincidence of the 11th fetal week with pollen season. The study population comprised all children (born between 2001 and 2006) in the province of South Karelia, Finland (N = 5920). Their data of immunoglobulin E antibodies and skin prick tests to pet allergens (N = 538) were collected from patient records and linked with questionnaire data on pet exposure. The seasonal incidence peak of cat sensitization was observed in children whose 11th fetal week occurred in June (7.4%) and that of dog sensitization in April (3.8%) and June (4.7%). The relative rate (RR) for cat sensitization was 2.92 (95% CI 1.40-6.08) in children with cat exposure alone, 8.53 (4.07-17.86) in children with cat and fetal pollen exposures and 0.61 (0.20-1.83) in children exposed to pollen alone, compared with children without these exposures. The respective RRs for dog sensitization were 2.17 (1.13-4.19), 4.40 (2.19-8.83) and 1.65 (0.77-3.53). Coincidence of the first fetal trimester with pollen season strengthens the association between pet exposure and respective sensitization. Pollen exposure at early pregnancy may deviate immune system towards Th2-type reactivity promoting development of specific allergy in case allergen exposure occurred. Therefore, primary prevention of allergic diseases may need to begin during early pregnancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. SUBLINGUAL SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF HAY FEVER CAUSED BY TREE POLLEN IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Gaiduk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigation of effectiveness and safety of sublingual allergen specific immunotherapy (slit with tree pollen mixture for hay fever treatment in children are presented in the article. 42 children 4 to 18 years old with hay fever (allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, pollen asthma were included in the study. Birch, alder and hazel pollen sensitization was proved by skin prick test (positive in 5 patients and strongly positive in 37. 2 courses of slit out of flowering season were conducted in every child. Total dose of allergen was 43321 ± 73 PNU (3990 to 120 000 PNU after 1st course of slit, and 93 850 ± 128 PNU (8750 to 249 000 PNU after 2nd course. Effectiveness of the 1st course of slit was 3,5 points out of 4,0 and of the 2nd course — 3,8 points. Disease remission was registered in 59,5% patients after the 1st course of slit and in 83,3% patients after the 2nd course. Local side effects (tongue and throat itching, nausea and o edema of lips and systemic side effects (rhinorrhea, eye itching, fatiguability and bronchospasm of mild severity did not lead to treatment cessation. Slit is highly effective and safe method for hay fever treatment in children.Key words: pollen sensitization, sublingual allergen specific immunotherapy, children.

  8. Heat requirement for the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in several sites in Andalusia and the effect of the expected future climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, C; García-Mozo, H; Vázquez, L; Ruiz, L; de la Guardia, C Díaz; Trigo, M M

    2005-01-01

    Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean region, especially in Andalusia, in southern Spain. A thermal model has been developed for forecasting the start of the olive tree pollen season at five localities in Andalusia: Cordoba, Priego, Jaen, Granada and Malaga using airborne pollen and meteorological data from 1982 to 2001. Threshold temperatures varied between 5 degrees C and 12.5 degrees C depending on bio-geographical characteristics. The external validity of the results was tested using the data for the year 2002 as an independent variable and it confirmed the model's accuracy with only a few days difference from predicted values. All the localities had increasingly earlier start dates during the study period. This could confirm that olive flower phenology can be considered as a sensitive indicator of the effects of climate fluctuations in the Mediterranean area. The theoretical impact of the predicted climatic warming on the olive's flowering phenology at the end of the century is also proposed by applying Regional Climate Model data. A general advance, from 1 to 3 weeks could be expected, although this advance will be more pronounced in mid-altitude inland areas.

  9. Lactobacillus strains differentially modulate cytokine production by hPBMC from pollen allergic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Y.M.; Snel, J.; Zuurendonk, P.F.; Kleerebezem, M.; Wichers, H.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential immunomodulatory effect of six Lactobacillus strains on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) isolated from allergic patients. hPBMC from patients allergic to birch pollen or grass pollen were cultured in vitro in the presence or

  10. Pollen counts in the television media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberson, J E; Murray, L W; Frenz, D A

    1997-01-01

    Allergists routinely supply pollen counts to television stations to assist allergy sufferers and to publicize their medical practices. This investigation examined how widely pollen counts are used in television news programming. The authors telephoned the news director or a meteorologist at 121 broadcast television stations in the nation's 30 largest Designated Market Areas (DMAs). They were asked if pollen counts were included or would be included in news programming during the 1995 pollen season. At least one television station in 28 DMAs included pollen counts in news programming. All five stations in the Washington, DC, DMA aired pollen counts; however, no stations in the Pittsburgh or Milwaukee DMAs carried pollen information. Approximately 49 million television households have access to pollen counts through a broadcast television station. Because these data appear important to television stations and to the public, the authors outline four measures to assure the reliability and meaningfulness of pollen information.

  11. Next generation immunotherapy for tree pollen allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Heiland, Teri

    2017-10-03

    Tree pollen induced allergies are one of the major medical and public health burdens in the industrialized world. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy (AIT) through subcutaneous injection or sublingual delivery is the only approved therapy with curative potential to pollen induced allergies. AIT often is associated with severe side effects and requires long-term treatment. Safer, more effective and convenient allergen specific immunotherapies remain an unmet need. In this review article, we discuss the current progress in applying protein and peptide-based approaches and DNA vaccines to the clinical challenges posed by tree pollen allergies through the lens of preclinical animal models and clinical trials, with an emphasis on the birch and Japanese red cedar pollen induced allergies.

  12. Birch regeneration: a stochastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1968-01-01

    The regeneration of a clearcutting with paper or yellow birch is expressed as an elementary stochastic (probabalistic) model that is computationally similar to an absorbing Markov chain. In the general case, the model contains 29 states beginning with the development of a flower (ament) and terminating with the abortion of a flower or seed, or the development of an...

  13. Terrestrial climate variability and seasonality changes in the Mediterranean region between 15 000 and 4000 years BP deduced from marine pollen records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dormoy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollen-based climate reconstructions were performed on two high-resolution pollen marines cores from the Alboran and Aegean Seas in order to unravel the climatic variability in the coastal settings of the Mediterranean region between 15 000 and 4000 years BP (the Lateglacial, and early to mid-Holocene. The quantitative climate reconstructions for the Alboran and Aegean Sea records focus mainly on the reconstruction of the seasonality changes (temperatures and precipitation, a crucial parameter in the Mediterranean region. This study is based on a multi-method approach comprising 3 methods: the Modern Analogues Technique (MAT, the recent Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling/Generalized Additive Model method (NMDS/GAM and Partial Least Squares regression (PLS. The climate signal inferred from this comparative approach confirms that cold and dry conditions prevailed in the Mediterranean region during the Oldest and Younger Dryas periods, while temperate conditions prevailed during the Bølling/Allerød and the Holocene. Our records suggest a West/East gradient of decreasing precipitation across the Mediterranean region during the cooler Late-glacial and early Holocene periods, similar to present-day conditions. Winter precipitation was highest during warm intervals and lowest during cooling phases. Several short-lived cool intervals (i.e. Older Dryas, another oscillation after this one (GI-1c2, Gerzensee/Preboreal Oscillations, 8.2 ka event, Bond events connected to the North Atlantic climate system are documented in the Alboran and Aegean Sea records indicating that the climate oscillations associated with the successive steps of the deglaciation in the North Atlantic area occurred in both the western and eastern Mediterranean regions. This observation confirms the presence of strong climatic linkages between the North Atlantic and Mediterranean regions.

  14. Preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines suppresses IL-5 but not IL-33 mRNA expression in the nasal mucosa of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by Japanese cedar pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Ogishi, Hirotaka; Kuroda, Wakana; Hattori, Masashi; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2012-04-01

    These findings suggest that the down-regulation of interleukin (IL)-5 gene expression in collaboration with the suppression of histamine H(1) receptor (H1R) gene expression in the nasal mucosa provides the basis for better therapeutic effects of preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis caused by Japanese cedar pollen. The effects of prophylactic administration of antihistamines on the expression of IL-5 and IL-33 mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the patients with pollinosis were investigated. Eight patients had already visited the hospital before the peak pollen period and started preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines. Seventeen patients who first visited the hospital during the peak pollen period were designated as the no treatment group. After local anesthesia, nasal mucosa was obtained by scraping the inferior concha with a small spatula during the peak pollen period. During the peak pollen period, the expression of IL-5 mRNA, but not that of IL-33 mRNA, in the nasal mucosa of patients receiving preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines was significantly lower in comparison with that of patients without treatment. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the expression of IL-5 mRNA and the nasal symptoms or the expression of H1R mRNA.

  15. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (Rye I and Rye II). II. Longitudinal variation of antibody levels in relation to symptomatology and pollen exposure and correction of seasonally elevated antibody levels to basal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1987-11-01

    This study used a standardized, dialyzed, Lolium perenne (ryegrass) pollen extract and two of its well-characterized components, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II), to characterize the longitudinal variation of both IgE and IgG antibody (Ab) levels, as well as total serum IgE levels, in 20 grass-allergic subjects followed for 13 months. Ab levels declined toward a basal level just before, and increased just after, the grass-pollination season, returning to the same basal level just before the next grass-pollination season. The least complex allergen, Lol II, demonstrated the most uniform pattern of variation in both IgE and IgG Ab levels. Total serum IgE levels demonstrated the least regular pattern of variation. Grass-pollen counts were strongly correlated with symptom-medication scores for these subjects (rs = 0.87). Initial values were correlated with the rise in total IgE and IgE Ab to Lol II across the grass-pollen season. Skin test results were correlated with initial IgE Ab levels for L. perenne pollen extract and Lol II. Finally, a procedure for correcting IgE Ab levels to basal values was proposed and tested. The correction procedure, for each IgE Ab, was based on the average rise during the grass-pollination season (or average decline after the grass-pollination season) observed for all subjects with that IgE Ab.

  16. Lol p I-induced IL-4 and IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of atopic and nonatopic subjects during and out of the pollen season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, R; Akoum, A; Hébert, J

    1993-04-01

    The reciprocal effects of IL-4 and IFN-gamma on IgE synthesis have been well established. It has also been shown that these two lymphokines are secreted by different subsets of CD4+ T cells (TH1 and TH2), and that TH2 helper T lymphocytes could be involved in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. But little is known about the effects of an allergen on the profile of lymphokine synthesis by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of allergic and nonallergic subjects. We studied the production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma by PBMCs of atopic and nonatopic donors after in vitro stimulation by the group 1 allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Lol p I), during and out of the grass pollen season. On natural exposure to pollen, Lol p I-induced IL-4 production was observed only with atopic donors (6 of 8), whereas the synthesis of IFN-gamma was observed for all nonatopic donors (7 of 7) and most allergic patients (5 of 7). At the time of the study, higher amounts of IFN-gamma were produced by PBMCs of nonatopic donors than by PBMCs of atopic patients. Out of the pollen season the production of IL-4 was not observed either by atopic (n = 11) or by nonatopic subjects (n = 5). On the other hand, IFN-gamma was produced by PBMCs of most subjects (atopic, 10 of 11; nonatopic, 5 of 5), but at the time of the study no difference was observed between the two groups. These results show that Lol p I induces different profiles of IL-4 and IFN-gamma production by PBMCs of atopic and nonatopic subjects. In atopic subjects this profile of lymphokine synthesis is influenced by the natural exposure to pollen, which is in keeping with the seasonal rise of IgE antibodies.

  17. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    The skin prick test is the allergologic test of choice, but asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens is common. However, no data in the literature describe the clinical phenotype of asymptomatic sensitized adults.......The skin prick test is the allergologic test of choice, but asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens is common. However, no data in the literature describe the clinical phenotype of asymptomatic sensitized adults....

  18. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    The skin prick test is the allergologic test of choice, but asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens is common. However, no data in the literature describe the clinical phenotype of asymptomatic sensitized adults....

  19. Non-density dependent pollen dispersal of Shorea maxwelliana (Dipterocarpaceae revealed by a Bayesian mating model based on paternity analysis in two synchronized flowering seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Masuda

    Full Text Available Pollinator syndrome is one of the most important determinants regulating pollen dispersal in tropical tree species. It has been widely accepted that the reproduction of tropical forest species, especially dipterocarps that rely on insects with weak flight for their pollination, is positively density-dependent. However differences in pollinator syndrome should affect pollen dispersal patterns and, consequently, influence genetic diversity via the mating process. We examined the pollen dispersal pattern and mating system of Shorea maxwelliana, the flowers of which are larger than those of Shorea species belonging to section Mutica which are thought to be pollinated by thrips (weak flyers. A Bayesian mating model based on the paternity of seeds collected from mother trees during sporadic and mass flowering events revealed that the estimated pollen dispersal kernel and average pollen dispersal distance were similar for both flowering events. This evidence suggests that the putative pollinators - small beetles and weevils - effectively contribute to pollen dispersal and help to maintain a high outcrossing rate even during sporadic flowering events. However, the reduction in pollen donors during a sporadic event results in a reduction in effective pollen donors, which should lead to lower genetic diversity in the next generation derived from seeds produced during such an event. Although sporadic flowering has been considered less effective for outcrossing in Shorea species that depend on thrips for their pollination, effective pollen dispersal by the small beetles and weevils ensures outcrossing during periods of low flowering tree density, as occurs in a sporadic flowering event.

  20. Birch's Law for fluid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaner, J.W.; Hixson, R.S.; Winkler, M.A.; Boness, D.A.; Brown, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    By comparing acoustic velocities in fluid metals over a very wide range of densities we have established Birch's Law as an approximate representation over the entire liquid range. For a given liquid metal the acoustic velocity is close to linear in density, with a slope determined by the atomic weight. The measurements include isobaric expansion to less than half normal density, ultrasonics on molten metals at 1 atmosphere, and shock melted metals to greater than twice normal density

  1. Mimotopes for Api g 5, a Relevant Cross-reactive Allergen, in the Celery-Mugwort-Birch-Spice Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukschal, Anna; Wallmann, Julia; Bublin, Merima; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Mothes-Luksch, Nadine; Breiteneder, Heimo; Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2016-03-01

    In the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome, a significant proportion of IgE is directed against high molecular weight (HMW) glycoproteins, including the celery allergen Api g 5. BIP3, a monoclonal antibody originally raised against birch pollen, recognizes HMW allergens in birch and mugwort pollens, celery, and Apiaceae spices. Our aim was to generate mimotopes using BIP3 for immunization against the HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice cross reactivity syndrome. Mimotopes were selected from a random-peptide display library by BIP3 and applied in IgE inhibition assays. The 3 phage clones with the highest inhibitory capacity were chosen for immunization of BALB/c mice. Mouse immune sera were tested for IgG binding to blotted birch pollen extract and used for inhibiting patients' IgE binding. Furthermore, sera were tested for binding to Api g 5, to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a second glycoprotein, or to non-glycosylated control allergen Phl p 5 in ELISA, and the specific Api g 5-specific IgG titers were determined. Three rounds of biopanning resulted in phage clones exhibiting 7 different sequences including 1 dominant, 1-6-cyclo-CHKLRCDKAIA. Three phage clones had the capacity to inhibit human IgE binding and induced IgG to the HMW antigen when used for immunizing BALB/c mice. The induced BIP3-mimotope IgG reached titers of 1:500 specifically to Api g 5, but hardly reacted to glycoprotein HRP, revealing a minor role of carbohydrates in their epitope. The mimotopes characterized in this study mimic the epitope of BIP3 relevant for Api g 5, one of the cross-reactive HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome. BIP3 mimotopes may be used in the future for hyposensitization in this clinical syndrome by virtue of good and specific immunogenicity.

  2. Linking pollen deposition and snow accumulation on the Alto dell'Ortles glacier (South Tyrol, Italy) for sub-seasonal dating of a firn core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festi, Daniela; Carturan, Luca; Kofler, Werner; dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; de Blasi, Fabrizio; Cazorzi, Federico; Bucher, Edith; Mair, Volkmar; Gabrielli, Paolo; Oeggl, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Dating of ice cores from non-polar glaciers is challenging and often problematic. Yet, a proper timescale is essential for a correct interpretation of the proxies measured in the cores. Here we present a multi-disciplinary approach developed to obtain a high resolution timescale for a 10 m firn core retrieved from the Alto dell'Ortles Glacier (Italy). Results indicate that the core encompasses five accumulation years. A high resolution timescale was established by means of statistical analyses, comparing glacier pollen assemblages with daily pollen monitoring assemblages from Solda (base of Mt. Ortles). Ortles snow samples are characterised by their depth and pollen spectra, while Solda's samples are characterised by their pollen spectra and specific date. Thus, by finding for an Ortles sample the most similar Solda's sample according to their pollen content, we established a direct depth-to-day link. In this way every snow sample containing pollen has been dated. Finally, the timescale was compared with results from a mass balance model run at the drilling site. The comparison of the two independent dating methods enabled a better understanding of depositional and post depositional processes affecting pollen, dD, snow and firn at the study site. Finally, we provide an example of useful application of the timescale related to the direct comparison of measured meteorological parameters and the stable isotopes composition of the core.

  3. The clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M.; Hansen, T.K.; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2005-01-01

    season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults and to examine the diagnostic value of skin-prick test (SPT), histamine release and specific IgE compared with the outcome......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described cross-reactivity between fresh fruits, vegetables and pollen. However, no data demonstrates the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults with and without symptoms in the pollen...... to fruits and vegetables in pollen-sensitized adults, but also a discrepancy between the prevalence of sensitization to fruits and vegetables and the clinical relevance in different pollen-sensitized groups with symptoms in the pollen season as a significant factor....

  4. Management of birch for aesthetics and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Noyes

    1969-01-01

    When paper birch and yellow birch are managed for aesthetic and recreation purposes, timber values become secondary, although in some instances compatibility exists among the several objectives. At times, timber and wood-products production is excluded entirely in the interests of aesthetics and recreation. In keying forest-management practices to the appearance...

  5. Pollen season of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and temperature trends at two German monitoring sites over a more than 30-year period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simoleit, A.; Wachter, R.; Gauger, U.; Werchan, M.; Werchan, Barbora; Zuberbier, T.; Bergmann, K.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2016), s. 489-497 ISSN 0393-5965 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : annual pollen index * mast year * climate change Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.202, year: 2016

  6. Practical aspects of daily pollen census

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarles van Ufford, W.J.

    1967-01-01

    It is important for diagnostic purposes to keep a daily pollen count. Correlating this with hayfever symptoms, it is then possible to gain insights into critical hours and circumstances which favor an outbreak. Thus we learn to predict the severity of a pollen season and to take preventive measures.

  7. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  8. Olive (Olea europea) and privet (Ligustrum vulgare) pollen allergens. Identification and cross-reactivity with grass pollen proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, B A; Panzani, R C; Bass, D; Zerboni, R

    1992-10-01

    Protein blotting studies showed that three olive pollen components with mol. wts approximately 18-19, 20 and 40 kD can be considered to be major allergens. For privet pollen, the highest recognition frequencies were for allergens of mol. wts approximately 20, approximately 19, approximately 40 and approximately 70 kD. When results with the 62 subjects examined were separated into groups corresponding to their geographical locations, viz. Italy, France and Australia, subjects sensitized to olive, but not other pollens (some Italian subjects), were found to show higher frequencies of recognition of major olive allergens than subjects sensitized to olive pollen via cross-reacting allergens from unrelated pollen sources (the Australian and French subjects). Blotting, adsorption and elution and inhibition studies clearly demonstrated allergenic cross-reactivity (that is, antigenic cross-reactivity detected by IgE antibodies) between olive, privet, ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and couch grass (Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon) pollen components. As with our previous findings with birch pollen, we conclude that the presence of pollen-reactive IgE antibodies may not necessarily be a true reflection of the sensitizing pollen species.

  9. [Identification of airborne pollen and airborne particles with pollen allergen (Cry j 1, Dac g) by aeroallergen immunoblotting technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuichi; Nagoya, Takao; Ohta, Nobuo

    2002-08-01

    After collection of airborne particles with a seven-day recording volumetric spore trap (Burkard model) using optically clear, pressure sensitive acrylic adhesive tapes, a dry PVDF membrane was pressed down firmly onto the adhesive tape, antigen-antibody reaction was performed in full contact with the tapes and PVDF membrane. Dark purple spots from airborne pollen allergens were examined under a light microscope to evaluate the form of pollens and particles wit h the antigenicity. It is clarified that identification of the form of pollens with the antigencity is possible not only pollens with the antigenicity but a pollen has already lost its shape, and it is also clarified that some airborne particular matters have the pollen antigencity. Airborne samples were collected during the Cryptomeria japonica or grass pollen season. Samples collected during the C. japonica pollen season were treated with anti-Cry j 1 monoclonal antibody, and those during the grass pollen season with anti-Dac g rabbit IgG. Samples collected during the C. japonica and the grass pollen peak season were treated with antibodies from sera of pollinosis patients. Spots originated not only from relevant pollen grains but also from parts of airborne particular matter have the pollen antigenicity and some spots could not observed for any kind of particles.

  10. Aerobiology and pollen allergy in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.; Raza, S.M.; Khan, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pollen allergies affect a significant proportion of Islamabad residents. Many patients with pollen allergy Are hospitalized in Islamabad in spring (February to April), fall seasons (July to September) and after monsoons. To determine the type and concentration of airborne pollens causing allergic diseases in the susceptible patients in Islamabad. The study was conducted from January 2005 to December 2006 and Burkard Volumetric Spore Trap' provided by the World Allergy Organization was used. This spore trap was placed in the F-10 area of Islamabad and samples were collected on weekly basis during the whole study period. To obtain the sample, the spore trap drum was loaded with a strip of sticky tape every week. The sampled sticky tape was then collected each week at a specified time and replaced with a fresh strip of sticky tape, which was then collected next week. This cycle , continued for whole study period. From each sample seven permanent slides were made and mounted with gelevitol mounting media; The slides were then examined microscopically. A total of 702 individuals irrespective of age or gender were included in the study. Skin prick tests were performed for pollens using allergen extracts of Hollister-Steir, USA and the results were recorded. The two flowering seasons in Islamabad i.e., spring and fall caused maximum pollen allergies. The Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) tree in spring, and the Cannabis sativa (bhang) weed in the fall season, Produced the highest seasonal pollen counts. In the spring season of 2005, Broussonetia papyrifera produced the highest pollen count, (73%) of the total pollen count, with a maximum count of 1390 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 20th of March, while in 2006, it accounted for 75% of the total pollen-count with a maximum count of 1430 pollen/cu meter of air/hour on 10th of March. in fall Season of 2005, Cannabis sativa produced maximum pollen counts of 85 pollens/cu meter of air/hr on 18th of August, while in 2006

  11. [The epidemiology of pollen allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Caillaud, D

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis can be established through surveys performed in a sample of the general population. These surveys are based on a questionnaire, which could lead to an overestimate of prevalence rates, and on measurements of specific IgE, which need to be interpreted in the light of the responses to the questionnaire. Such surveys are few in France and need to be updated. Risk factors for seasonal allergic rhinitis are genetic, epigenetic and environmental. Relationships between exposure to pollen and health can be documented through ecological and panel surveys. Panel surveys may give information on threshold levels and dose-response relationships. In addition to pollen exposure, global warming and air pollutants act as cofactors. Monitoring of both pollen exposure and its health effects should be encouraged and strengthened. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of birch for wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel P. Shaw

    1969-01-01

    The list of wildlife species known to prefer paper birch and yellow birch as food ls a long one. To mention a few: beavers and porcupines chew on the bark and wood; sapsuckers feed on the sap; other songbirds—notably the redpoll, pine siskin, and chikadee—relish the seeds; ruffed grouse eat the catkins, buds, and seeds (in northern Maine and Canada...

  13. Paper birch decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, microclimate, and birch stand conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980’s. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  14. High exposure to endotoxin in farming is associated with less new-onset pollen sensitisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Grethe; Schlünssen, Vivi; Doekes, Gert

    2018-01-01

    of 1113 young Danish farmers and rural controls, with a mean age of 19 years at baseline. Sensitisation to birch pollen, grass pollen, cat dander and house dust mite was measured by specific IgE levels in serum samples from baseline and at 15 years' follow-up. Changes in sensitisation were analysed...... was not associated with significant changes in cat dander and house dust mite sensitisation. CONCLUSIONS: High exposure to endotoxin during young adulthood appears to protect against new onset of pollen sensitisation, independent of childhood farm exposure....

  15. Climate warming and the decline of Taxus airborne pollen in urban pollen rain (Emilia Romagna, northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, A M; Torri, P; Casini, E; Olmi, L

    2013-01-01

    Woody plant performance in a changing global environment has always been at the centre of palaeoenvironmental and long-term climate reconstructions carried out by means of pollen analysis. In Mediterranean regions, Taxus constitutes the highest percentage in past pollen diagrams from cold or cool periods, and therefore it is generally considered a good index to infer climate features from past records. However, a comparison of these inferences with the true current trends in pollen production has not been attemped until now. This study reports the decline of airborne pollen of Taxus observed in Emilia Romagna, a region of northern Italy, during the period 1990-2007. Phenological observations on four male specimens and microscopic examination of fresh pollen were made in order to check Taxus flowering time and pollen morphology. Airborne pollen was monitored through continuous sampling with a Hirst volumetric sampler. In the 18-year long period of investigation, Taxus pollen production has decreased, while total woody pollen abundance in air has increased. The trend of the Taxus pollen season shows a delay at the beginning, a shortening of the pollen period, and an advance of the end of the pollen season. This was interpreted as a response to climate warming. In particular, Taxus follows the behaviour of winter-flowering plants, and therefore earlier pollination is favoured at low autumn temperatures, while late pollination occurs more often, most likely after warm autumn temperatures. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Pollen analyses for pollination research, unacetolyzed pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen D. Jones

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollinators feed on the pollen, nectar, and other plant exudates that are associated with flowers. As a result of this feeding activity, pollen becomes attached to them. Analysis of this pollen can reveal what they eat, their dispersal patterns in and around cropping systems, and their role in pollination. However, finding pollen on and or in a pollinator depends on the technique used to recover pollen. Two very easy techniques are described in detail that have been used to recover pollen from a variety of pollinators including beneficial and harmful insects, spiders, bats, and other pollinators. These techniques can be used to recover pollen from internal tissues (gut, alimentary canal, crop, etc., external tissues (proboscis, legs, eyes, etc., or both. By using the proper technique, better pollen recovery can be made and thus better data can be obtained about the pollinators, the foods they eat, the plants they pollinate, their migration routes and source zones.

  17. season.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Makoba bay, there is net flux of water from the bay to the open ocean during wet season. Residual salt fluxes between the bay and the open ocean indicate advective salt export. Exchange of water between the bay with the open ocean plays a role of replacing exported salt via mixing. ..... The human impact on the.

  18. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  19. Posttranslational modification of Birch and Ragweed allergen proteins by common gas phase pollutants, NO2 and O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Pope, F.; Bloss, W.

    2015-12-01

    The global incidence of hay fever has been rising for decades, however, the underlying reasons behind this rise remain unclear. It is hypothesized that exposure of pollen to common gas phase pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), increases the allergenicity of the pollen and thus increases hay fever incidence. Since atmospheric pollutants tend to have greater concentrations within urban areas (in particular NO2) the hypothesis suggests that greater allergenicity should occur in urban areas. Indeed, several studies do suggest higher hay fever incidence within urban areas compared to rural areas. Previous published work suggests a link between increased allergies with changes in the chemical composition of the pollen protein via posttranslational modification of the protein. This study investigates the posttranslational modification of two highly allergenic pollen species (Birch and Ragweed) that are common in Europe. Within the laboratory, we expose pollen grains to atmospherically relevant exposures of gas phase NO2, O3 and other common gas phase oxidants under a range of environmentally relevant conditions. The effects of the environmentally relevant exposures on the biochemistry of the pollen grains were probed using a proteomic approach (liquid chromatography coupled ultra-high resolution spectrometer). Our findings indicate the interaction between gas phase pollutants and pollen cause protein specific modifications; in particular, nitration occurs upon tyrosine residues and nitrosylation on cysteine residues. Possibly, these modifications may affect the immune response of the pollen protein, which may suggest a possible reason for increased allergies in reaction to such biologically altered protein. The laboratory-derived results will be supported with a time series analysis of asthma incidence rates for the London area, which take into account the pollen count, and pollutant concentrations. The implications of the results will be discussed

  20. Variaciones en la estacionalidad de polen y esporas fúngicas en la atmósfera de la ciudad de La Plata (Argentina Seasonal variation of pollen and fungal spores in the atmosphere of Plata city (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S Nitiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los primeros datos sobre variaciones estacionales de polen y esporas fúngicas en su conjunto en la atmósfera de la ciudad de La Plata durante julio 2000 / junio 2001. El total de bioaerosoles fue de 201889.15 de los cuales el 15% correspondió a 54 tipos polínicos y el 85% a 79 tipos esporales. El Índice Polínico estuvo dado en un 74% por Polen Arbóreo (PA y en un 26% por Polen Herbáceo (PNA. La máxima concentración de PA tuvo lugar en septiembre con granos provenientes de Platanus y Fraxinus. El PNA presentó dos picos, el primero en diciembre procedente de Poaceae y el segundo en marzo debido a Ambrosia. Con respecto al componente fúngico, se identificaron esporas de Oomycota, Zygomycota, Myxomycota, Ascomycota y Basidiomycota. Estos bioaerosoles estuvieron presentes durante todo el año y en altas concentraciones siendo más abundantes en verano - otoño Las mitosporas de Hongos Imperfectos dominan la nube superando el 44% del total del Índice Esporal. El máximo aporte se registró en febrero dado por las esporas de Cladosporium. Se identificaron dos períodos estacionales en los cuales se hallan simultáneamente altas concentraciones de polen y esporas fúngicas. El primero se desarrolla en primavera y está integrado por Platanus, Fraxinus y Aspergillus / Penicillium y el segundo es estival e involucra a Ambrosia, Alternaria y Cladosporium.We present the first data on representativeness and seasonal variation of pollen and fungal spores as a whole in the atmosphere of the city of La Plata during july 2000 / june 2001. Total was 201889.15 bioaerosols, 15% of which was contributed by 54 pollen types and 85% by 79 spore types. The Pollinic Index came from arboreal pollen (PA in 74% and herbaceous pollen (PNA in 26%. The PA maximum concentration took place in september due to Platanus and Fraxinus. The PNA presented two peaks, one in december due to Poaceae, and the other one in march from Ambrosia. In regard to the

  1. Rapid Crustal Uplift at Birch Bay, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, B. L.; Kelsey, H. M.; Blakely, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Geomorphology and coastal marsh stratigraphy suggest late Holocene uplift of the shoreline at Birch Bay, located northwest of Bellingham, Washington, during an earthquake on a shallow fault. LiDAR images show a raised, late Holocene shoreline along Birch Bay, with ~1 m of elevation difference between the modern shoreline and the inferred paleoshoreline. Commercial seismic reflection images reveal an anticline in Tertiary and possibly Quaternary deposits underlying Birch Bay. NW-trending magnetic anomalies are likely associated with the Birch Bay anticline and other nearby structures. Taken together, the geophysical data and lidar images suggest uplift of young deposits along a NW-trending blind reverse fault. Stratigraphy from Terrell Creek marsh, located just south of Birch Bay, shows freshwater peat buried by lower intertidal muds, indicating local submergence ~1300 yr BP. Stratigraphy of a 70-cm sediment core from Birch Bay marsh, sitting astride the anticline imaged with seismic reflection data, shows mud buried by detrital peat. One radiocarbon age from the core places the abrupt change from mud to peat prior to 1520-1700 yr BP. We divide fossil diatom assemblages straddling the mud-peat contact at Birch Bay into three zones. The oldest zone consists primarily of intertidal and marine diatoms, dominated by Paralia sulcata, Scoleoneis tumida, Grammataphora oceanica, and Gyrosigma balticum. An intermediate zone, beginning at the sharp contact between mud and overlying peat, consists of a mixture of brackish marsh and freshwater species, dominated by Diploneis interrupta, with lesser amounts of Aulacoseira sp., Pinnularia viridis, Eunotia pectinalis, and Paralia sulcata. A third and youngest zone lies in the upper half of the peat and is dominated by poorly preserved freshwater diatoms, mostly Aulacoseira cf. crassapuntata, Pinnularia viridis, P. maior, Eunotia pectinalis, and E. praerupta. Paleoecological inferences, based on distributions of modern diatoms

  2. Investigation of heterogeneous ice nucleation in pollen suspensions and washing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischmeier, Katharina; Budke, Carsten; Koop, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Biological particles such as pollen often show ice nucleation activity at temperatures higher than -20 °C. Immersion freezing experiments of pollen washing water demonstrate comparable ice nucleation behaviour as water containing the whole pollen bodies (Pummer et al., 2012). It was suggested that polysaccharide molecules leached from the grains are responsible for the ice nucleation. Here, heterogeneous ice nucleation in birch pollen suspensions and their washing water was investigated by two different experimental methods. The optical freezing array BINARY (Bielefeld Ice Nucleation ARraY) allows the direct observation of freezing of microliter-sized droplets. The IN spectra obtained from such experiments with birch pollen suspensions over a large concentration range indicate several different ice nucleation active species, two of which are present also in the washing water. The latter was probed also in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experiments of emulsified sub-picoliter droplets. Due to the small droplet size in the emulsion samples and at small concentration of IN in the washing water, such DSC experiments can exhibit the ice nucleation behaviour of a single nucleus. The two heterogeneous freezing signals observed in the DSC thermograms can be assigned to two different kinds of ice nuclei, confirming the observation from the BINARY measurements, and also previous studies on Swedish birch pollen washing water (Augustin et al., 2012). The authors gratefully acknowledge funding by the German Research Foundation (DFG) through the project BIOCLOUDS (KO 2944/1-1) and through the research unit INUIT (FOR 1525) under KO 2944/2-1. We particularly thank our INUIT partners for fruitful collaboration and sharing of ideas and IN samples. S. Augustin, H. Wex, D. Niedermeier, B. Pummer, H. Grothe, S. Hartmann, L. Tomsche, T. Clauss, J. Voigtländer, K. Ignatius, and F. Stratmann, Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10989

  3. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in pollen and pollen products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Michael; Heil, Sandra; Hasslauer, Iris; Schmidt, Lukas; von der Ohe, Katharina; Theuring, Claudine; Reinhard, Annika; Schreier, Peter; Beuerle, Till

    2010-02-01

    Recently, 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) ester alkaloids, found predominantly as their N-oxides (PANOs, pyrrolizidine N-oxides), have been reported in both honey and in pollen obtained directly from PA plants and pollen loads collected by bees, raising the possibility of health risks for consumers of these products. We confirm these findings in regard to floral pollen, using pollen collected directly from flowers of the known PA plants Senecio jacobaea, S. vernalis, Echium vulgare and pollinia of Phalaenopsis hybrids, and we extend analyses of 1,2-unsaturated PAs and 1,2-unsaturated PANOs to include bee-pollen products currently being sold in supermarkets and on the Internet as food supplements. PA content of floral pollen ranged from 0.5 to 5 mg/g. The highest values were observed in pollen obtained from Senecio species. Up to 95% of the PAs are found as PANOs. Detailed studies with S. vernalis revealed unique PA patterns in pollen and flowers. While seneciphylline was the most prominent PA in S. vernalis pollen, the flowers were dominated by senecionine. To analyze trace amounts of 1,2-unsaturated PAs in pollen products, our previously elaborated method consisting of strong cation exchange-SPE, two reduction steps followed by silylation and subsequent capillary high-resolution GC-MS using SIM mode was applied. In total, 55 commercially available pollen products were analyzed. Seventeen (31%) samples contained 1,2-unsaturated PAs in the range from 1.08 to 16.35 microg/g, calculated as retronecine equivalents. The 1,2-unsaturated PA content of pollen products is expressed in terms of a single sum parameter and no background information such as foraged plants, pollen analysis, etc. was needed to analyze the samples. The detection limit of overall procedure and the reliable quantitation limit were 0.003 and 0.01 microg/g, respectively.

  4. Pollen evidence for late pleistocene bering land bridge environments from Norton Sound, Northeastern Bering Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, T.A.; Phillips, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    After more than half a century of paleoenvironmental investigations, disagreements persist as to the nature of vegetation type and climate of the Bering land bridge (BLB) during the late Wisconsin (Sartan) glacial interval. Few data exist from sites on the former land bridge, now submerged under the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Two hypotheses have emerged during the past decade. The first, based on pollen data from Bering Sea islands and adjacent mainlands of western Alaska and Northeast Siberia, represents the likely predominant vegetation on the Bering land bridge during full-glacial conditions: graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation associated with cold, dry winters and cool, dry summer climate. The second hypothesis suggests that dwarf birch-shrub-herb tundra formed a broad belt across the BLB, and that mesic vegetation was associated with cold, snowier winters and moist, cool summers. As a step towards resolving this controversy, a sediment core from Norton Sound, northeastern Bering Sea was radiocarbon dated and analyzed for pollen content. Two pollen zones were identified. The older, bracketed by radiocarbon ages of 29,500 and 11,515 14C yr BP, contains pollen assemblages composed of grass, sedge, wormwood, willow, and a variety of herb (forb) taxa. These assemblages are interpreted to represent graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation that developed under an arid, cool climate regime. The younger pollen zone sediments were deposited about 11,515 14C yr BP, when rising sea level had begun to flood the BLB. This younger pollen zone contains pollen of birch, willow, heaths, aquatic plants, and spores of sphagnum moss. This is interpreted to represent a Lateglacial dwarf birch-heath-willow-herb tundra vegetation, likely associated with a wetter climate with deeper winter snows, and moist, cool summers. This record supports the first hypothesis, that graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation extended into the lowlands of the BLB during full glacial conditions of the

  5. Pollensomes as Natural Vehicles for Pollen Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Noela; De Linares, Concepción; Sanz, María L; Gamboa, Pedro; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Batanero, Eva

    2015-07-15

    Olive (Olea europaea) pollen constitutes one of the most important allergen sources in the Mediterranean countries and some areas of the United States, South Africa, and Australia. Recently, we provided evidence that olive pollen releases nanovesicles of respirable size, named generically pollensomes, during in vitro germination. Olive pollensomes contain allergens, such as Ole e 1, Ole e 11, and Ole e 12, suggesting a possible role in allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of pollensomes to the allergic reaction. We show that pollensomes exhibit allergenic activity in terms of patients' IgE-binding capacity, human basophil activation, and positive skin reaction in sensitized patients. Furthermore, allergen-containing pollensomes have been isolated from three clinically relevant nonphylogenetically related species: birch (Betula verrucosa), pine (Pinus sylvestris), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Most interesting, pollensomes were isolated from aerobiological samples collected with an eight-stage cascade impactor collector, indicating that pollensomes secretion is a naturally occurring phenomenon. Our findings indicate that pollensomes may represent widespread vehicles for pollen allergens, with potential implications in the allergic reaction. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Optimization of conditions for in vitro pollen germination and pollen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen germination and pollen tube growth might have a significant effect on fruit and seed production. This study was conducted to investigate the best medium for pollen germination and pollen tube growth of date palm male. Significant differences in percentages of pollen germination and pollen tube growth were ...

  7. Effect of meteorological parameters on Poaceae pollen in the atmosphere of Tetouan (NW Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulaich, Nadia; Achmakh, Lamiaa; Bouziane, Hassan; Trigo, M. Mar; Recio, Marta; Kadiri, Mohamed; Cabezudo, Baltasar; Riadi, Hassane; Kazzaz, Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    Poaceae pollen is one of the most prevalent aeroallergens causing allergenic reactions. The aim of this study was to characterise the grass pollen season in Tetouan during the years 2008-2010, to analyse the effect of some meteorological parameters on the incidence of the airborne Poaceae pollen, and to establish forecasting variables for daily pollen concentrations. Aerobiological sampling was undertaken over three seasons using the volumetric method. The pollen season started in April and showed the highest pollen index in May and June, when the maximum temperature ranged from 23 to 27 °C, respectively. The annual pollen score recorded varied from year to year between 2,588 and 5,404. The main pollen season lasted 114-173 days, with peak days occurring mainly in May; the highest concentration reached 308 pollen grains/m3. Air temperature was the most important meteorological parameter and correlated positively to daily pollen concentration increase. An increase in relative humidity and precipitation was usually related to a decrease in airborne pollen content. External validation of the models performed using data from 2011 showed that Poaceae pollen concentration can be highly predicted (64.2-78.6 %) from the maximum temperature, its mean concentration for the same day in other years, and its concentration recorded on the previous day. Sensitive patients suffering allergy to Poaceae pollen are at moderate to highest risk of manifesting allergic symptoms to grass pollen over 33-42 days. The results obtained provide new information on the quantitative contribution of the Poaceae pollen to the airborne pollen of Tetouan and on its temporal distribution. Airborne pollen can be surveyed and forecast in order to warn the atopic population.

  8. The Banyan and the Birch Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Taeube, Florian A.

    Theoretical and empirical research on entrepreneurial networks is largely outcome-oriented and little integrated with family firm research. In this paper, we draw on social network and entrepreneurship literatures in order to investigate how family businesses build and make use of a variety of em...... compared to the plain structure of a birch tree describing Hollywood, where embedded ties can be different from familial ties....

  9. A note on the pollen representation of ivy (Hedera helix L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, S

    2001-01-01

    Pollen productivity and dispersal of ivy (Hedera helix) is discussed on the basis of a simple surface sample study in a situation that has been followed for about 30 yr. The pollen production of a special ivy plant was estimated for the flowering season of 1998. Hedera pollen dispersal was followed

  10. Flowering phenology and bumblebee-mediated pollen flow in Phyteuma nigrum (Campanulaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, MM; Richards, KW

    1997-01-01

    Pollen dispersal varies substantially during the flowering period. When can we expect the largest distances of pollen flow or the best period for outcrossing? Several aspects determining pollen flow are measured during the flowering season of the rare plant species Phyteuma nigrum. This

  11. The pollen complex from postglacial sediments of the Laptev Sea as a bioindicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidina, O. D.

    2014-05-01

    The first results of comparison of palynological analysis (pollen of terrestrial plants), SEM analysis of pollen morphology, and radiocarbon age dating (AMS14C) of sediments of the eastern shelf of the Laptev Sea show that the diverse taxonomic composition of pollen spectra provides an integrated idea of the vegetation and climate of the region over 11.2 calendar kiloyears. It is found that phases of the tree and shrub vegetation development (maxima of pollen of Betula sect. Nanae and Pinus s/g Haploxylon) correspond to the warm epochs in the Holocene. It is obvious that birch phytocoenoses first settled in the southern tundra subzone with increasing temperature, and then coniferous communities of forest tundra. An occurrence of pollen of shrubby birches (Nanae) suggests compliance of permafrost landscapes with cold climate conditions, i.e., with an annual average temperature of -2°C and amount of precipitation of less than 500 mm. Owing to a progressive increase in summer temperatures, dwarf cedar and pine communities advanced toward the seashore. The SEM analysis results show that a significant proportion of regional coniferous pollen belongs to representatives of Pinus pumila (Pall.) and P. sylvestris L. In addition, the SEM study of the exine of Pinus sylvestris L. and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel pollen grains confirmed polymorphism in coniferous pollen. According to the inverse relationship between climate and vegetation, frequent climate fluctuations that are typical of progressive and differential postglacial transgression were revealed. An increase in arboreal pollen transfer onto the shelf later than 9.1 cal. ka coincides with the time of forest boundary migration to the north due to the warming of the Earth's climate. At that time, the tundra vegetation was replaced by forest-tundra vegetation, the maximum stage of sea transgression began, and there appeared a trend of increasing temperature and moisture.

  12. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41250085X; Donders, T.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872; Bijl, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314028110; Wagner, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/173870783

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  13. Molecular characterization of Api g 1, the major allergen of celery (Apium graveolens), and its immunological and structural relationships to a group of 17-kDa tree pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder, H; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; O'Riordain, G; Susani, M; Ahorn, H; Ebner, C; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1995-10-15

    Individuals suffering from immediate hypersensitivity (type-I allergy) to a particular pollen frequently display intolerance to several foods of plant origin. In this respect, individuals sensitized to birch pollen and/or mugwort pollen frequently display type-I allergic symptoms after ingestion of celery. In this study, we expressed the major allergenic protein of celery, Api g 1, which is responsible for the birch-celery syndrome, in the form of a non-fusion protein. The open reading frame of the cDNA of Api g 1 codes for a protein of 153 amino acids with a molecular mass of 16.2 kDa and 40% identity (60% similarity) to the major allergen of birch pollen, Bet v 1. Furthermore, Api g 1 exhibited similar characteristics to (a) two proteins in parsley induced by fungal infection, (b) the major tree pollen allergens and (c) pathogenesis-related and stress-induced proteins in other plant species. The reactivity of recombinant Api g 1 with IgE antibodies present in sera from celery intolerant patients was comparable to that of the natural celery allergen. Cross-reactivity with Bet v 1 was proven by cross-inhibition experiments, which provides further support for the existence of the birch-celery syndrome and for the suggestion that allergies to some vegetable foods are epiphenomena to allergies caused by inhalation of tree pollen.

  14. Ultra short pre-seasonal subcutaneous immunotherapy and pre-coseasonal sublingual immunotherapy for pollen allergy: an evaluation of patient's preference in real life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, G; Pappacoda, A; Dimatteo, M; Scolari, C; Riario-Sforza, G G; Incorvaia, C

    2013-08-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) efficacy and safety by subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) route is supported by literature data. Pre-coseasonal treatment is currently the more accepted option for pollen immunotherapy in terms of costs and patient's compliance. This retrospective study evaluated the patient's preference concerning subcutaneous or sublingual route in pre-coseasonal treatment. We evaluated 145 patients (79 males, 66 females, age ranging from 14 to 69 years), suffering from moderate-severe rhino-conjunctivitis or mild bronchial asthma and with homogeneous characteristic according to allergic disease severity. We proposed either SLIT, with extracts by different producers, or SCIT with Pollinex 4 (Allergy Therapeutics, Worthing, UK), a product designed for ultra-short administration in 4 injections, highlighting for each kind of SIT the major practical advantages or burdens. Of 145 patients, 72 chose Pollinex 4 SCIT and 73 chose SLIT. SCIT-treated patients received a total of 90 vaccines (18 patients had double course of SCIT). SLIT-treated patients received a total of 87 vaccines (14 patients had double course of SLIT). In the SCIT group, there were 49 males and 23 females; in the SLIT group, there were 30 males and 43 females. Mean age was 36.5 years in SCIT group and 28.5 years in SLIT group. Males preferred SCIT (49 of 72 patients) and females preferred SLIT (43 of 73 patients). No severe reaction was observed either in SCIT or SLIT group. Patients are active subjects in decisional process. Trying to apply in real life the indications coming from guidelines about patient's preference is an important matter. In our patients SCIT with ultra short schedule and SLIT are similarly preferred.

  15. Horse chestnut pollen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić Dušica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality of horse chestnut, expressed as pollen productivity, viability and germination was studied. Anthers of horse chestnut genotypes had pollen production from 3.66 to 5.06 x 103 pollen grains per anther, depending of genotype. Also, pollen of horse chestnut Ah1-Ah4 genotypes showed different viability (from 56 to 68%, after staining with fluorescein diacetate. Pollen germination of Ah1-Ah4 genotypes varied from 50-66% on basic medium. Inclusion of polyethylene glycol-PEG from 10%, 15% and 20% v/w increased pollen germination. The best results were achieved on medium with the largest PEG concentration. On these medium 76-91% pollen grains were germinated, depending of genotype. The best pollen quality, for all tested parameters, had genotype Ah2. Knowledge about morphology, production, viability, in vitro germination, tube growth as well as pollen: ovule ratio can be of great importance for future pollen biology studies. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173015

  16. Pollen-related allergy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Spieksma, F T; Liccardi, G; Jäger, S; Russo, M; Kontou-Fili, K; Nikkels, H; Wüthrich, B; Bonini, S

    1998-06-01

    The increasing mobility of Europeans for business and leisure has led to a need for reliable information about exposure to seasonal airborne allergens during travel abroad. Over the last 10 years or so, aeropalynologic and allergologic studies have progressed to meet this need, and extensive international networks now provide regular pollen and hay-fever forecasts. Europe is a geographically complex continent with a widely diverse climate and a wide spectrum of vegetation. Consequently, pollen calendars differ from one area to another; however, on the whole, pollination starts in spring and ends in autumn. Grass pollen is by far the most frequent cause of pollinosis in Europe. In northern Europe, pollen from species of the family Betulaceae is a major cause of the disorder. In contrast, the mild winters and dry summers of Mediterranean areas favor the production of pollen types that are rarely found in central and northern areas of the continent (e.g., the genera Parietaria, Olea, and Cupressus). Clinical and aerobiologic studies show that the pollen map of Europe is changing also as a result of cultural factors (e.g., importation of plants for urban parklands) and greater international travel (e.g., the expansion of the ragweed genus Ambrosia in France, northern Italy, Austria, and Hungary). Studies on allergen-carrying paucimicronic or submicronic airborne particles, which penetrate deep into the lung, are having a relevant impact on our understanding of pollinosis and its distribution throughout Europe.

  17. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch plants indicated that the ...

  18. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch.

  19. Induction of Eosinophilic Esophagitis by Sublingual Pollen Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Miehlke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT is increasingly investigated and utilized for the treatment of food and pollen allergies. Previous case reports suggested that eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE might develop as a long-term complication in children after completion of oral immunotherapy. Here, we describe a 44-year-old female with a medical history of pollinosis who for the first time in her life developed complete manifestation of EoE (peak eosinophils 164/high power field 4 weeks after initiation of SLIT using specific soluble allergens (hazelnut, birch, alder according to previous specific serum IgE testing. After discontinuation of SLIT, EoE resolved completely within 4 weeks without any other medical intervention. During a follow-up of 12 months the patient remained free of any esophageal symptoms. This is the first case report demonstrating a close and therefore likely causative association between pollen SLIT and EoE in an adult patient.

  20. Induction of eosinophilic esophagitis by sublingual pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehlke, Stephan; Alpan, Oral; Schröder, Sören; Straumann, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is increasingly investigated and utilized for the treatment of food and pollen allergies. Previous case reports suggested that eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) might develop as a long-term complication in children after completion of oral immunotherapy. Here, we describe a 44-year-old female with a medical history of pollinosis who for the first time in her life developed complete manifestation of EoE (peak eosinophils 164/high power field) 4 weeks after initiation of SLIT using specific soluble allergens (hazelnut, birch, alder) according to previous specific serum IgE testing. After discontinuation of SLIT, EoE resolved completely within 4 weeks without any other medical intervention. During a follow-up of 12 months the patient remained free of any esophageal symptoms. This is the first case report demonstrating a close and therefore likely causative association between pollen SLIT and EoE in an adult patient.

  1. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p allergic rhinitis and PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  2. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up the majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, a region subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of four branches, each from a different individual tree, were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of the sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission potential in 2006 was almost 2600 ng gdw−1 h−1 (3.5 pmol gdw−1 s−1 while in 2007 α-farnesene was not detected at all. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last for several years.

  3. BIRCH: A user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fristensky Brian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. Conclusion BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.

  4. BIRCH: a user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristensky, Brian

    2007-02-09

    Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy) is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment) graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.

  5. Establishing an Alaskan birch syrup industry: Birch Syrup—It’s the Un-maple!TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlene. Cameron

    2001-01-01

    Ten years ago a small group of Alaskans began commercial production of birch syrup from the sap of the paper birch, Betula papyrifera, and established an industry that is expanding in response to demand and has the potential to make a significant contribution to Alaska's economy. There are still many problems to be solved; research and...

  6. 75 FR 51987 - Birch Power Company and Sorenson Engineering; Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Company and Sorenson Engineering; Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C.; Notice of Application... Leasing, L.L.C. (transferees) filed an application for transfer of license for the Birch Creek... Sorenson Leasing L.L.C., 5203 South 11th East, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83404, phone (208) 589-6908. FERC Contact...

  7. In vitro suppression of lymphocyte activation in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and pollen-related asthma by cetirizine or azelastine in combination with ginkgolide B or astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Fadia F; Haines, D; Al-Awadhi, R; Arifhodzic, N; Abal, A; Azeamouzi, C; Al-Sharah, S; Tosaki, A

    2012-06-01

    Novel strategies are evaluated for management of allergic rhinitis and asthma in patients co-afflicted with both disorders. It is hypothesized that the platelet activating factor receptor antagonist ginkgolide B (GB) and the carotenoid antioxidant astaxanthin (ASX) interact with antihistamines cetirizine dihydrochloride (CTZ) and azelastine (AZE) to potentiate their ability to downregulate potentially pathological immune activation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asthmatics and healthy subjects, cultured 24 hours with 50 μg/ml phytohemaglutinin (PHA) or PHA plus each drug are analyzed by flow cytometry for expression of CD25+ or HLA-DR+ by CD3+ (T cells). Results are reported as stimulation indices for CD3+CD25+ (SICD3+CD25+) and CD3+HLA-DR+ (SICD3+HLADR+) cells in cultures treated with PHA alone, versus cultures treated with both PHA and drugs. Optimal suppression of activated cells was observed in cultures stimulated with ASX 10-6 M + CTZ 10-6 M (SICD3+CD25+, p = 0.016; SICD3+HLADR, p = 0.012); ASX 10-6 M + AZE 10-6 M (SICD3+CD25+, p = 0.012; SICD3+HLADR, p = 0.015); GB 10-6 M + CTZ 10-6 M (SICD3+CD25+, p = 0.024, SICD3+HLADR+, p = 0.019). Results demonstrate improved activity of antihistamines by 2 phytochemicals, suggesting dosing strategies for animal trials of ASX- or GB-augmented formulations for seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  8. On the causes of variability in amounts of airborne grass pollen in Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morton, Julian; Bye, John; Pezza, Alexandre; Newbigin, Edward

    2011-07-01

    In Melbourne, Australia, airborne grass pollen is the predominant cause of hay fever (seasonal rhinitis) during late spring and early summer, with levels of airborne grass pollen also influencing hospital admissions for asthma. In order to improve predictions of conditions that are potentially hazardous to susceptible individuals, we have sought to better understand the causes of diurnal, intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability of atmospheric grass pollen concentrations (APC) by analysing grass pollen count data for Melbourne for 16 grass pollen seasons from 1991 to 2008 (except 1994 and 1995). Some of notable features identified in this analysis were that on days when either extreme (>100 pollen grains m-3) or high (50-100 pollen grains m-3) levels of grass pollen were recorded the winds were of continental origin. In contrast, on days with a low ( 100 pollen grains m-3) during the study period were characterised by an average downward vertical wind anomaly in the surface boundary layer over Melbourne. Together these findings form a basis for a fine resolution atmospheric general circulation model for grass pollen in Melbourne's air that can be used to predict daily (and hourly) APC. This information will be useful to those sectors of Melbourne's population that suffer from allergic problems.

  9. Spatial variation of modern pollen in Oregon and southern Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minckley; Whitlock

    2000-10-01

    Surface sediments from 95 lakes provide information on the spatial variation of modern pollen spectra in Oregon and southern Washington. Percentages for 13 pollen types were compared within and between vegetation zones to characterize regional patterns of pollen spectra. The percentage data were also compared with climate variables to determine relationships between pollen percentages and regional climate gradients. The composition of modern pollen spectra corresponds well with the distribution of the pollen producers. Most pollen assemblages were generally dominated by Pinus, but those west of the Cascade Range were dominated by Alnus. Low percentages of Pseudotsuga/Larix, Tsuga mertensiana, Abies, and Picea pollen coincided with local occurrence of the trees. The distributions of the pollen data were arranged along gradients of temperature and effective moisture. West of the Cascade Range, Alnus, Tsuga heterophylla, Pseudotsuga/Larix, and Cupressaceae pollen were abundant and correlate well with moderate temperature and high effective moisture. In the shrub-steppe and woodlands east of the Cascade Range, where effective moisture is low, Artemisia, Cupressaceae, and Pinus pollen were dominant. At high elevations, Pinus, T. mertensiana, Abies, and Picea were common pollen types in areas with short growing seasons and high effective moisture. Pollen percentages collected from lake surface sediments, moss polsters, and soils were compared within a number of vegetation types to assess their similarity. The three types of sample yielded similar results for forested areas, but lake sediment samples from upper- and lower-treeline sites captured a more regional picture of the vegetation.

  10. Regional Difference of Causative Pollen in Children with Allergic Rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate role of common pollen in Korean school-aged children with allergic rhinitis (AR) in 5 provinces (Incheon Metropolitan City-Gyeonggi Province, Chungcheongbuk-do, Gwangju Metropolitan City, Busan Metropolitan City, and Jeju Special Self-Governing Province), using a questionnaire and skin prick test, and to assess the differences among the residential regions. Among the enrolled 14,678 total children, 1,641 (22.0%) had AR. The sensitization rate to pollen (38.7%) was the second highest among examined allergens and significant differences were in the sensitization rates to trees, weeds, and grasses among the 5 provinces (P < 0.05). The sensitization to trees (25.2%) was the highest common among the pollen types and significant differences also were observed in the sensitization rates to alder, birch, Japanese cedar, oak, and elm among the 5 provinces. The sensitization rate to weeds (19.9%) was the second highest and significant differences were observed in the sensitization rate to Japanese hop, mugwort, and ragweed among the 5 provinces. The sensitization rate to house dust mite was 86.8%, the highest among examined allergens and that to Dermatophagoides farinae exhibited regional differences (P = 0.003) but not to D. farinae (P = 0.584). The sensitization rate to mold (13.5%) was the highest in Jeju and lowest in Busan, and a statistically significant difference was detected among the 5 provinces. These results support that examined pollen allergens are strongly associated with residential region due to regional causative pollen differences among children with AR within Korea to investigate the main pollen allergens. PMID:28480649

  11. Ecological features of flowers and the amount of pollen released in Corylus avellana (L. and Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazel and alder bloom as one of the first plants in climatic conditions of Poland. In the present study, detailed observations were made of the structure of flowers of Corylus avellana L. and Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. Pollen yield of the abovementioned species was determined. The number of pollen grains in the theca, anther, flower and inflorescence was calculated. A comparison was made of the number of pollen grains of these taxa recorded during the atmospheric pollen seasons analysed over a period of 8 years in the conditions of Lublin. The study demonstrates that pollen yield of the common hazel inflorescence was 66 mg, whereas for black alder it was 120 mg. It was found that the number of pollen grains produced by the alder inflorescence was 2.2 times higher than by the hazel inflorescence. The atmospheric pollen season of the studied plant taxa was recorded at similar dates, but alder pollen was in much larger concentrations.

  12. Age-dependent sensitization to the 7S-vicilin-like protein Cor a 11 from hazelnut (Corylus avellana) in a birch-endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, M M; Hagendorens, M M; Trashin, S; Cucu, T; De Meulenaer, B; Devreese, B; Bridts, C H; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2012-01-01

    Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) allergy exhibits age and geographically distinct sensitization patterns that have not yet been fully resolved. To study sensitization to Cor a 11 in different age groups of hazelnut-allergic patients and infants with atopic dermatitis (AD) sensitized to hazelnut in a birch-endemic region. Sera from 80 hazelnut-allergic patients, 33 infants under 1 year of age with AD (24 sensitized and 9 not sensitized to hazelnut), 32 healthy control individuals, and 29 birch pollen-allergic but hazelnut-tolerant individuals were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) E reactivity to Cor a 11 by ImmunoCAP. IgE reactivity to Cor a 1.01, Cor a 1.04, Cor a 8, and Cor a 9 was studied by ISAC microarray. Forty patients (22 preschool children, 10 schoolchildren, and 8 adults) with systemic reactions on consumption of hazelnut were sensitized to Cor a 11 (respective rates of 36%, 40%, and 12.5%). Forty patients (6 preschool children, 10 schoolchildren, and 24 adults) reported oral allergy syndrome but only 2 of them (of preschool age) were sensitized to Cor a 11. Two (8%) of the AD infants sensitized to hazelnut showed IgE reactivity to Cor a 11. This reactivity was not observed in any of the AD infants without sensitization to hazelnut, in any of the birch-pollen allergic patients without hazelnut allergy, or in any of the healthy control individuals. Sensitization to Cor a 11 in a birch-endemic region is predominantly found in children with severe hazelnut allergy, a finding that is consistent with observations concerning sensitization to Cor a 9.

  13. Grass pollen symptoms interfere with the recollection of birch pollen symptoms - a prospective study of suspected, asymptomatic skin sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) is a risk factor for the development of allergic symptoms. A meticulous definition of this condition requires a systematic assessment of clinical symptoms before inclusion....

  14. Long-Term Storage of Yellow and Paper Birch Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knud E. Clausen

    1975-01-01

    Storage of yellow and paper birch seeds for 12 years does not appear practical but seed visibility can usually be maintained for at least 8 years, if the seeds are kept in closed containers at 36? to 40?F.

  15. Gnomonia canker, shoot blight, and leaf spot of yellow birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Jr. Kessler

    1978-01-01

    Describes a canker, shoot blight, and leaf spot disease of yellow birch seedlings in the northern Great Lakes region and tells how and when trees become infected by the fungal causal agent, Gnomonia setacea.

  16. FAGALES POLLEN IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF TIMIŞOARA, ROMANIA (2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the first aerobiological monitoring results for Fagales in the city of Timişoara (Romania using a volumetric spore-trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000 which is now the most commonly used aerobiologic measurement instrument in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of Fagales pollen occurrence in outdoor environment of Timişoara by measuring daily pollen concentrations. The concept of the atmospheric pollen season was used. Sampling was carried out during 8 years, starting in 2000 until 2007. Fagales allergenic pollen appear in the area of Timişoara only from the end of January to the end of May. The data showed that during the early spring the atmospheric pollen season for these allergenic species is highly variable. There were considerable variations in start date, atmospheric pollen season, peak concentration, date of peak. The concentration of airborne Fagales pollen in Timişoara and the correlations with some meteorological parameters have been examined. Daily pollen concentrations presented negative correlation with daily average relative humidity, and slightly positive with wind speed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Fagales pollen concentrations represent important values in the atmosphere of Timişoara, which means they may to cause pollinosis in its population. The best-represented pollen type through the entire period was Betula.

  17. How honey bees carry pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  18. Airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Sheng Ng, Chris Fook; Konishi, Shoko; Koyanagi, Ai; Watanabe, Chiho

    2017-05-01

    Prior research has indicated that pollen might be linked to suicide mortality although the few studies that have been undertaken to date have produced conflicting findings and been limited to Western settings. This study examined the association between the level of airborne pollen and suicide mortality in Tokyo, Japan in the period from 2001 to 2011. The daily number of suicide deaths was obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, with pollen data being obtained from the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health. A time-stratified case-crossover study was performed to examine the association between different levels of pollen concentration and suicide mortality. During the study period there were 5185 male and 2332 female suicides in the pollen season (February to April). For men there was no association between airborne pollen and suicide mortality. For women, compared to when there was no airborne pollen, the same-day (lag 0) pollen level of 30 to Tokyo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variations in pollen counts largely explained by climate and weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Stephan; Damialis, Athanasios; Estrella, Nicole; Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    The interaction between climate and vegetation is well studied within phenology. Climatic / weather conditions affect e.g. flowering date, length of vegetation period, start and end of the season and the plant growth. Besides phenological stages also pollen counts can be used to investigate the interaction between climate and vegetation. Pollen emission and distribution is directly influenced by temperature, wind speed, wind direction and humidity/precipitation. The objective of this project is to study daily/sub daily variations in pollen counts of woody and herbaceous plant species along an altitudinal gradient with different climatic conditions during the vegetation period. Measurements of pollen were carried out with three volumetric pollen traps installed at the altitudes 450 m a.s.l (Freising), 700 m a.s.l (Garmisch-Partenkirchen), and 2700 m a.s.l (Schneefernerhaus near Zugspitze) representing gradient from north of Munich towards the highest mountain of Germany. Airborne pollen concentrations were recorded during the years 2014-2015. The altitudinal range of these three stations accompanied by different microclimates ("space for time approach") can be used as proxy for climate change and to assess its impact on pollen counts and thus allergenic risk for human health. For example the pollen season is shortened and pollen amount is reduced at higher sites. For detailed investigations pollen of the species Plantago, Quercus, Poaceae, Cupressaceae, Cyperacea, Betula and Platanus were chosen, because those are found in appropriate quantities. In general, pollen captured in the pollen traps to a certain extent has its origin from the immediate surrounding. Thus, it mirrors local species distribution. But furthermore the distance of pollen transport is also based on (micro-) climatic conditions, land cover and topography. The pollen trap shortly below the summit of Zugspitze (Schneefernerhaus) has an alpine environment without vegetation nearby. Therefore, this

  20. Airborne pollen spectrum and hay fever type prevalence in Vinnitsa, central Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valeriivna Rodinkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main pollen spectrum in relation to patients’ sensitivity determined in the ambient air of Vinnitsa city located in central Ukraine. The study performed by gravimetric sampling in the years 1999–2000 and by volumetric sampling in the years 2009–2014 showed that Urtica, Betula, Pinus, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Juglans, Carpinus, Populus, Quercus, Acer, Salix, Poaceae, Amarathaceae, and Polygonaceae pollen grains are prevalent among the airborne allergen types in the urban atmosphere. The principal pollen types remain the same but over time their quantities have changed. The relative abundance of Carpinus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen decreased while the fraction of Urtica pollen increased in the last decade. From 50 to 69 pollen types were determined in the ambient air depending on the season. From 24 to 27 pollen types represented woody plants and from 22 to 46 pollen types belonged to the herbaceous plants. A considerable decrease in herbal pollen types is noted in the Vinnitsa air at present. It was shown that children were sensitive to weed pollen grains, including ragweed, mugwort, and grass, while adults were more sensitive to tree and grass pollen grains. Further studies of the pollen spectrum in the ambient air of this city are required in order to control the hay fever symptoms.

  1. Airborne pollen in Funchal city, (Madeira Island, Portugal) - First pollinic calendar and allergic risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Irene Câmara

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, pollen calendars are useful tools for clinical guidance intended for allergy sufferers, because they can be used to prevent and manage allergic respiratory diseases, thus improving the quality of life. An aeropalinological study was performed in the city of Funchal with the purpose of establishing a pollen calendar and determining allergic risk, based on a seven year study (2003-2009). The airborne pollen monitoring was carried out with a Hirst type volumetric spore trap, following well-established guidelines. The mean annual pollen index was 1,635.09 and comprised 42 different pollen types. Airborne pollen levels were higher between March - June, accounting for 57.9% of the annual counts. Arboreal pollen grains (52.72%) prevailed in the atmosphere together with herbs and grasses (44.64%), while fern spores (2.29%) and unidentified pollen (0.35%) were scarce. The main pollen types were Urticaceae (20.64%), Poaceae (16.02%), Cupressaceae (13.61%), Pinaceae (9.07%), Myrtaceae (5.93%) and Ericaceae (5.02%). The pollen calendar comprised a total of 14 taxa and is similar to Mediterranean regions, with the exception of Olea europaea, Quercus sp., Betula sp. and Alnus sp. pollen types which are rare or absent. The main pollen season of major pollen taxa is significantly longer in Funchal (on average 239 days) than other European sites, especially for Urticaceae and Poaceae, but the pollen peaks were substantially lower. The pollen calendar for Funchal is the first ever created for Madeira region. Taking into account the low pollen index and number of allergy-risk days recorded (39 days in 7 years), the air quality of Funchal can be considered good.

  2. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000489.htm Allergies, asthma, and pollen To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is ...

  3. A 10-year climatology of pollen aerosol for the continental United States: implications for aerosol-climate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    Our current understanding of biological particles and their role in the climate system is uncertain. Pollen, a primary biological aerosol particle, has been understudied in the context of climate and atmospheric science because of its coarse size (10-100 µm). Local coarse grain pollen concentrations can reach up to 10,000 grains m-3, and when ruptured by wet or turbulent atmospheric conditions, can produce fine particles (sub-pollen particles, 10-1000 nm) that may increase pollen's lifetime in the atmosphere. Therefore, pollen contributes to both coarse and fine particle loads in the atmosphere that may have climatic impacts. During peak pollen emissions season, what impacts does pollen have on aerosol concentrations in the atmosphere and their indirect forcing? Here we use a model of accurately timed and scaled pollen and sub-pollen particle emissions with climate-dependent phenological dates for four plant functional types (deciduous broadleaf, evergreen needleleaf, grass and ragweed) that dominate emissions across the continental United States. Terrestrial pollen emissions are coupled with the land component of a regional climate model (RegCM4-CLM), and are transported as atmospheric tracers that are allowed interact with radiation and clouds, accounting for the direct and indirect effects of pollen. A ten-year climatology of pollen emissions and climate interactions is calculated for both pollen grains and sub-pollen particles. Its implications for the local and overall radiation budget, aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions and regional climate are discussed.

  4. Clinical efficacy of sublingual and subcutaneous birch pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khinchi, M S; Poulsen, Lars K.; Carat, F

    2004-01-01

    Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed.......Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed....

  5. An operational phenological model for numerical pollen prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifinger, Helfried

    2010-05-01

    The general prevalence of seasonal allergic rhinitis is estimated to be about 15% in Europe, and still increasing. Pre-emptive measures require both the reliable assessment of production and release of various pollen species and the forecasting of their atmospheric dispersion. For this purpose numerical pollen prediction schemes are being developed by a number of European weather services in order to supplement and improve the qualitative pollen prediction systems by state of the art instruments. Pollen emission is spatially and temporally highly variable throughout the vegetation period and not directly observed, which precludes a straightforward application of dispersion models to simulate pollen transport. Even the beginning and end of flowering, which indicates the time period of potential pollen emission, is not (yet) available in real time. One way to create a proxy for the beginning, the course and the end of the pollen emission is its simulation as function of real time temperature observations. In this work the European phenological data set of the COST725 initiative forms the basis of modelling the beginning of flowering of 15 species, some of which emit allergic pollen. In order to keep the problem as simple as possible for the sake of spatial interpolation, a 3 parameter temperature sum model was implemented in a real time operational procedure, which calculates the spatial distribution of the entry dates for the current day and 24, 48 and 72 hours in advance. As stand alone phenological model and combined with back trajectories it is thought to support the qualitative pollen prediction scheme at the Austrian national weather service. Apart from that it is planned to incorporate it in a numerical pollen dispersion model. More details, open questions and first results of the operation phenological model will be discussed and presented.

  6. Pollen exposure and hospitalization due to asthma exacerbations: daily time series in a European city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Nicholas J.; Alcock, Ian; Wheeler, Benedict W.; Hajat, Shakoor; Sarran, Christophe; Clewlow, Yolanda; McInnes, Rachel N.; Hemming, Deborah; White, Mathew; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fleming, Lora E.

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to pollen can contribute to increased hospital admissions for asthma exacerbation. This study applied an ecological time series analysis to examine associations between atmospheric concentrations of different pollen types and the risk of hospitalization for asthma in London from 2005 to 2011. The analysis examined short-term associations between daily pollen counts and hospital admissions in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, and allowed for time lags between exposure and admission. Models were adjusted for temperature, precipitation, humidity, day of week, and air pollutants. Analyses revealed an association between daily counts (continuous) of grass pollen and adult hospital admissions for asthma in London, with a 4-5-day lag. When grass pollen concentrations were categorized into Met Office pollen `alert' levels, `very high' days (vs. `low') were associated with increased admissions 2-5 days later, peaking at an incidence rate ratio of 1.46 (95%, CI 1.20-1.78) at 3 days. Increased admissions were also associated with `high' versus `low' pollen days at a 3-day lag. Results from tree pollen models were inconclusive and likely to have been affected by the shorter pollen seasons and consequent limited number of observation days with higher tree pollen concentrations. Future reductions in asthma hospitalizations may be achieved by better understanding of environmental risks, informing improved alert systems and supporting patients to take preventive measures.

  7. Dynamic Behaviour of Birch and Sequoia at High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragov, A. M.; Lomunov, A. K.; Sergeichev, I. V.; Gray, G. T.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents results of the dynamic mechanical response of for two structural woods, i.e. birch and sequoia. Monotonic and cyclic compression testing at room temperature of these materials was performed using a modified Kolsky method; a 20-mm diameter split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). The birch and sequoia specimens were loaded parallel and orthogonal to the grain of the wood, as well as, at other angles relative to the wood grain. The dynamic mechanical behavior of the two woods was measured as a function of loading orientation under a uniaxial stress state as well as under circumferential confinement using a collar surrounding the sample to quantify the effect of lateral confinement on mechanical behavior. The loading and unloading responses of both woods were found to exhibit nonlinear behavior and a strong dependency on the strain rate of loading. The dynamic stress-strain responses of the birch and sequoia showed a strong influence of grain orientation of the flow stress and fracture behavior. Examination of the damage evolution and fracture responses of the birch and sequoia displayed a strong dependence on grain orientation. Cyclic dynamic loading data, obtained using a modification of the original SHPB testing method, is also presented for the two structural woods studied. In addition to the SHPB tests, plane-wave Shockwave loading experiments were conducted and the shock adiabates for birch was obtained.

  8. Analysis of airborne ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. pollen in Timisoara, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia artemisiifolia (ragweed is an annual, herbaceous, with high invasive potential, wind-pollinated plant that is important allergenic weed belonging to the Asteraceae plant family. Allergenic airpollen can interact with other components of environmental global change in a synergic way increasing the risks to public health. Analysis of the pollen count was performed on the basis of the data collected in Timişoara in the season of 2004. Airborne ragweed pollen concentrations, measured continuously with a volumetric method are compared with respect to both their quantitative and seasonal aspects. A weekly programmed Hirst spore-trap was used to sample airborne pollen grains, calibrated to handle a flow of 10 L/min of air, which roughly corresponds to a human breathing rhythm. In Timisoara the Lanzoni model was used. The daily quantities of pollen are expressed as numbers of pollen grains per cubic meter of air per day (PG/m3.The pollen seasons show 3 main parts: tree season (February–April, grass season (May–July, weed season (July–October. In September 65,71% of the total aeropollen concentration is due to Ambrosia. The highest concentration of ragweed pollen was 220 PG/m3.Ambrosia artemisiifolia have a pronounced invasive character. Since 1910, having been spread all over the country, it has become the most common weed in Romania. There is an urgent need to organize interventions to stop ragweed expansion and to clear the areas already polluted.

  9. Increasing Juniperus virginiana L. pollen in the Tulsa atmosphere: long-term trends, variability, and influence of meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flonard, Michaela; Lo, Esther; Levetin, Estelle

    2018-02-01

    In the Tulsa area, the Cupressaceae is largely represented by eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). The encroachment of this species into the grasslands of Oklahoma has been well documented, and it is believed this trend will continue. The pollen is known to be allergenic and is a major component of the Tulsa atmosphere in February and March. This study examined airborne Cupressaceae pollen data from 1987 to 2016 to determine long-term trends, pollen seasonal variability, and influence of meteorological variables on airborne pollen concentrations. Pollen was collected through means of a Burkard sampler and analyzed with microscopy. Daily pollen concentrations and yearly pollen metrics showed a high degree of variability. In addition, there were significant increases over time in the seasonal pollen index and in peak concentrations. These increases parallel the increasing population of J. virginiana in the region. Pollen data were split into pre- and post-peak categories for statistical analyses, which revealed significant differences in correlations of the two datasets when analyzed with meteorological conditions. While temperature and dew point, among others were significant in both datasets, other factors, like relative humidity, were significant only in one dataset. Analyses using wind direction showed that southerly and southwestern winds contributed to increased pollen concentrations. This study confirms that J. virginiana pollen has become an increasing risk for individuals sensitive to this pollen and emphasizes the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in other areas.

  10. Increasing Juniperus virginiana L. pollen in the Tulsa atmosphere: long-term trends, variability, and influence of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flonard, Michaela; Lo, Esther; Levetin, Estelle

    2018-02-01

    In the Tulsa area, the Cupressaceae is largely represented by eastern red cedar ( Juniperus virginiana L.). The encroachment of this species into the grasslands of Oklahoma has been well documented, and it is believed this trend will continue. The pollen is known to be allergenic and is a major component of the Tulsa atmosphere in February and March. This study examined airborne Cupressaceae pollen data from 1987 to 2016 to determine long-term trends, pollen seasonal variability, and influence of meteorological variables on airborne pollen concentrations. Pollen was collected through means of a Burkard sampler and analyzed with microscopy. Daily pollen concentrations and yearly pollen metrics showed a high degree of variability. In addition, there were significant increases over time in the seasonal pollen index and in peak concentrations. These increases parallel the increasing population of J. virginiana in the region. Pollen data were split into pre- and post-peak categories for statistical analyses, which revealed significant differences in correlations of the two datasets when analyzed with meteorological conditions. While temperature and dew point, among others were significant in both datasets, other factors, like relative humidity, were significant only in one dataset. Analyses using wind direction showed that southerly and southwestern winds contributed to increased pollen concentrations. This study confirms that J. virginiana pollen has become an increasing risk for individuals sensitive to this pollen and emphasizes the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in other areas.

  11. Effect of collection time on the viability of banana pollen grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the pollen viability of six improved diploid banana plants (AA) collected in different periods of the day, in two seasons of the year (winter and summer), using in vitro germination test and staining. Pollen grains collected at 8 am (anthesis), 10 am, 12 pm, 2 pm and 4 pm were evaluated ...

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RECENT POLLEN DEPOSITION AND AIRBORNE POLLEN CONCENTRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPIEKSMA, FTM; NIKKELS, BH; BOTTEMA, S

    In the reconstruction of past or recent vegetation the study of deposited pollen plays an important role. As reference value, very often the pollen content of moss polsters (''moss cushions'') is assessed to estimate the pollen deposition (''influx'') from the air. Recently, the data from

  13. Detection of airborne allergen (Pla a 1 in relation to Platanus pollen in Córdoba, South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación Alcázar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Córdoba is one of the Spanish cities with the highest records of plane tree pollen grains in the air. Clinical studies have identified[i] Platanus[/i] as a major cause of pollinosis. This fact provokes an important public health problem during early spring when these trees bloom. The objective of the study is to evaluate the correlation between airborne pollen counts and Pla a 1 aeroallergen concentrations in Córdoba, to elucidate if airborne pollen can be an accurate measure that helps to explain the prevalence of allergenic symptoms. Pollen sampling was performed during 2011–2012 using a Hirst-type sampler. Daily average concentration of pollen grains (pollen grains/m 3 was obtained following the methodology proposed by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone was used for the aeroallergen quantification. Allergenic particles were measured by ELISA using specific antibodies Pla a 1. The trend of[i] Platanus[/i] pollen was characterized by a marked seasonality, reaching high concentrations in a short period of time. Airborne pollen and aeroallergen follow similar trends. The overlapping profile between both variables during both years shows that pollen and Pla a 1 are significantly correlated. The highest significant correlation coefficients were obtained during 2011 and for the post peak. Although some studies have found notable divergence between pollen and allergen concentrations in the air, in the case of [i]Platanus[/i] in Córdoba, similar aerobiological dynamics between pollen and Pla a 1 have been found. Allergenic activity was found only during the plane tree pollen season, showing a close relationship with daily pollen concentrations. The obtained pollen potency was similar for both years of study. The results suggest that the allergenic response in sensitive patients to plane tree pollen coincide with the presence and magnitude of airborne pollen.

  14. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Gerorge Peel, Robert; Kennedy, Roy

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre...... street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found...... source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were...

  15. Assessment of Salix spp. pollen availability to insects based on aerobiological investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen and nectar produced by flowers of species from the genus Salix are an important source of food for various insect groups in early spring. Most willows are entomophilous species; however, substantial amounts of airborne Salix pollen can be noted. The aim of the study was to evaluate the content of pollen of this taxon in the air of Lublin (central-east Poland in 2001–2016 and to identify the period of its greatest availability to insects. In 2015, we compared the course of the Salix pollen season in Lublin (51°14'37" N; 22°32'25" E and in the Roztoczański National Park (50°34'57" N; 23°04'24" E, Poland. We found that the date of the pollen season onset fluctuated greatly between March 16 and April 17. The greatest availability of Salix pollen to insects was noted from the end of the first 10-day-period of April to the first 10-day-period of May. The mean annual sum of airborne Salix pollen grains was 833. In Lublin, Salix pollen accounted for ca. 1.25% of the total airborne pollen content of different plant taxa. The investigations have demonstrated a 2-year cycle of Salix pollen abundance. The comparison of the pollen seasons in Lublin and in the Roztoczański National Park indicates that considerably greater amounts of pollen occur in the urban area than in the air of the Roztoczański National Park.

  16. A prognostic pollen emissions model for climate models (PECM1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Wozniak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We develop a prognostic model called Pollen Emissions for Climate Models (PECM for use within regional and global climate models to simulate pollen counts over the seasonal cycle based on geography, vegetation type, and meteorological parameters. Using modern surface pollen count data, empirical relationships between prior-year annual average temperature and pollen season start dates and end dates are developed for deciduous broadleaf trees (Acer, Alnus, Betula, Fraxinus, Morus, Platanus, Populus, Quercus, Ulmus, evergreen needleleaf trees (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, grasses (Poaceae; C3, C4, and ragweed (Ambrosia. This regression model explains as much as 57 % of the variance in pollen phenological dates, and it is used to create a climate-flexible phenology that can be used to study the response of wind-driven pollen emissions to climate change. The emissions model is evaluated in the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4 over the continental United States by prescribing an emission potential from PECM and transporting pollen as aerosol tracers. We evaluate two different pollen emissions scenarios in the model using (1 a taxa-specific land cover database, phenology, and emission potential, and (2 a plant functional type (PFT land cover, phenology, and emission potential. The simulated surface pollen concentrations for both simulations are evaluated against observed surface pollen counts in five climatic subregions. Given prescribed pollen emissions, the RegCM4 simulates observed concentrations within an order of magnitude, although the performance of the simulations in any subregion is strongly related to the land cover representation and the number of observation sites used to create the empirical phenological relationship. The taxa-based model provides a better representation of the phenology of tree-based pollen counts than the PFT-based model; however, we note that the PFT-based version provides a useful and climate-flexible emissions

  17. A prognostic pollen emissions model for climate models (PECM1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Matthew C.; Steiner, Allison L.

    2017-11-01

    We develop a prognostic model called Pollen Emissions for Climate Models (PECM) for use within regional and global climate models to simulate pollen counts over the seasonal cycle based on geography, vegetation type, and meteorological parameters. Using modern surface pollen count data, empirical relationships between prior-year annual average temperature and pollen season start dates and end dates are developed for deciduous broadleaf trees (Acer, Alnus, Betula, Fraxinus, Morus, Platanus, Populus, Quercus, Ulmus), evergreen needleleaf trees (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae), grasses (Poaceae; C3, C4), and ragweed (Ambrosia). This regression model explains as much as 57 % of the variance in pollen phenological dates, and it is used to create a climate-flexible phenology that can be used to study the response of wind-driven pollen emissions to climate change. The emissions model is evaluated in the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) over the continental United States by prescribing an emission potential from PECM and transporting pollen as aerosol tracers. We evaluate two different pollen emissions scenarios in the model using (1) a taxa-specific land cover database, phenology, and emission potential, and (2) a plant functional type (PFT) land cover, phenology, and emission potential. The simulated surface pollen concentrations for both simulations are evaluated against observed surface pollen counts in five climatic subregions. Given prescribed pollen emissions, the RegCM4 simulates observed concentrations within an order of magnitude, although the performance of the simulations in any subregion is strongly related to the land cover representation and the number of observation sites used to create the empirical phenological relationship. The taxa-based model provides a better representation of the phenology of tree-based pollen counts than the PFT-based model; however, we note that the PFT-based version provides a useful and climate-flexible emissions model for the

  18. Root-Crown Relations of Young Sugar Maple and Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Young forest-grown sugar maple and yellow birch (1 to 6 inches d.b.h.) crowns were mapped and roots excavated. Crown dimensions were compared. Sugar maple roots usually terminated within a few feet of the crown perimeter. Yellow birch roots frequently terminated well outside crown perimeters and roots of birch were more irregularly distributed than those of maple....

  19. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for character-marked cabinets from Alaska birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geof Donovan; David. Nicholls

    2003-01-01

    Alaska birch lumber has a higher occurrence of defects (knots, bark pockets, flecks, spalting, etc.) when compared to competing hardwoods. These defects are a disadvantage when birch lumber is graded under standard National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA) grading rules. This paper examines whether defects and other character markings found in birch lumber may be an...

  20. Searching for a trace of Artemisia campestris pollen in the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Grewling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determinate whether Artemisia campestris was present in the vicinity of 8 pollen monitoring stations in Poland by examining temporal variations in daily average airborne Artemisia pollen data recorded by Hirst type volumetric traps. Three day moving averages of airborne Artemisia pollen were examined by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results show that Artemisia pollen seasons in Poland generally display similar unimodal patterns (correlation coefficients r > 0.900; P < 0.05. The only exception was the Artemisia pollen concentration noted in the outskirts of Poznań (Morasko, where the bimodal pattern was revealed. Correlations between Artemisia pollen data recorded at Poznań-Morasko and the other Polish sites were the lowest in the investigated dataset; this was particularly noticeable in the second part of pollen season (r ~0.730. We show that the typical bimodal pattern in Artemisia pollen seasons, which is characteristic of the presence of both A. vulgaris (first peak and A. campestris (second peak, does not occur at the majority of sites in Poland and is restricted to the outskirts of Poznań. In fact, it was noted that the pollen monitoring site in Poznań-Centre, just 8 km from Morasko, only exhibited one peak (attributed to A. vulgaris. This shows that the influence of A. campestris on airborne pollen season curves is limited and can be largely disregarded. In addition, this study supports previous records showing that the spatial distribution of airborne Artemisia pollen within a city (urban-rural gradient can vary markedly, depending on the species composition.

  1. Mycobionta of birch and birch stump roots and its possible effect on the infection by Armillaria spp. I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zygorhynchus moelleri was the dominating species on/in roots of 2 year-old stumps of the 49 year-old birches. Trichoderma viride was more frequently found in the fine roots of living birches than in the fine roots of stumps though its population increased in thick roots of stumps. Occasionally the fungus also occurred on the surface of fine roots of stumps. Z. moelleri is known to produce indole 3-ethanol and indole-3 acetic acid which stimulate the growth of A. ostoyae rhizomorphs and phenoloxidizing enzymes which play an important role in the degradation of the wood. It seems that the accumulation of Z. moelleri and absence of bigger populations of T. viride on/in roots of 2-year-old stumps of the 49 year-old birches may result in an increase of their susceptibility to Armillaria infection.

  2. Hybridizing pines with diluted pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1967-01-01

    Diluted pollens would have many uses by the tree breeder. Dilutions would be particularly advantageous in making many controlled pollinations with a limited amount of pollen. They also would be useful in artificial mass pollinations of orchards or single trees. Diluted pollens might help overcome troublesome genetic barriers to crossing. Feasibility o,f using diluted...

  3. Germination and storage of pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.

    1955-01-01

    Germination of pear pollen markedly improved when boric acid was added to the medium. The pollen was more sensitive to boron in water than in 10 % sugar solution. Supplying weak solutions of boron to pear branches before flowering resulted in a good germination of the pollen in sugar solution

  4. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  5. Managing Your Seasonal Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Managing Your Seasonal Allergies Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Allergic ... and avoid collecting pollen on them. Fast Facts Allergies are reactions of your immune system to one ...

  6. General trends in airborne pollen production and pollination periods at a Mediterranean site (Badajoz, southwest Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormo-Molina, R; Gonzalo-Garijo, M A; Silva-Palacios, I; Muñoz-Rodríguez, A F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine trends in the airborne pollen concentration and pollination period for the principal sources of pollen in Badajoz (southwest Spain) over 15 years of monitoring (1994-2008). Airborne pollen was monitored by continuous sampling with a Hirst volumetric sampler. Pollen trends were investigated by linear regression and correlation analysis using mean annual and monthly pollen concentrations. The aerobiological results were compared with meteorological data (temperature and rainfall). During the study period, the mean total annual rainfall was 66.2 mm lower than normal and the mean annual temperature 0.8 degrees C higher than normal. No temporal trend was found for total airborne pollen concentration, but differences were observed for monthly data, namely, an increase in January, February, and May and a decrease in March and June. For the different pollen types studied, there was a general trend toward increased values in the month with the highest values, and this trend seemed to be related to temperature.The beginning of the main pollen season occurred later, and the end occurred sooner; therefore, the main pollen season seems to be shorter. Our data reflect trends in the response of plants to changing rainfall stress patterns in Mediterranean countries, and these trends seem to be different from those of temperate countries. Nonetheless, a longer study period will be required to confirm these preliminary conclusions.

  7. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  8. Effect of Antihistamine Eye Drops on the Conjunctival Provocation Test with Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Dake

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: Preadministration of antihistamine eye drops suppressed the symptoms induced by the allergen, which suggests that this is an effective early therapy for Japanese cedar pollinosis, if it is started before the pollen season. However, self-protection by patients using a mask may not be effective enough to suppress nasal symptoms during the pollen season, requiring them to additionally wear glasses to avoid exposure to the allergen.

  9. Some physical and mechanical properties of African birch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of locally manufactured or waste materials in structural buildings without loss of performance is very crucial to the growth of developing countries. This report provides the results of some physical and mechanical property tests carried out on air dried African birch (Anogeissus leiocarpus) timber grown in Nigeria.

  10. Timber resource of Minnesota's Aspen-Birch Unit, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Arnold J. Ostrom

    1979-01-01

    The fourth inventory of Minnesota's Aspen-Birch Unit shows solid gains in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1962 and 1977, but a 13% decline in commercial forest area. This report gives statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area a well as timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, and use.

  11. Paper birch (Wiigwaas) of the Lake States, 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Dale Gormanson; Jonathan Gilbert; Alexandra Wrobel; Marla R. Emery; Michael J. Dockry

    2015-01-01

    Data on paper birch (Betula papyrifera L.; wiigwaas in the Ojibwe language), collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service on forested lands in the Great Lakes region (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) from 1980 through 2010, are reported. Also presented are results and analysis of a supplemental inventory...

  12. Impacts of air pollution exposure on the allergenic properties of Arizona cypress pollens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahali, Y.; Pourpak, Z.; Moin, M.; Zare, A.; Majd, A.

    2009-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions correlated with the increasing trend of pollen-induced respiratory allergies. Numerous works have investigated the role of pollutants in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases but impacts of anthropogenic pollution on pollen allergenic properties are still poorly understood. The objective of this survey was to evaluate impacts of the traffic-related pollution on the structure and allergenic protein content of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica, CA) pollens, recognized as a rising cause of seasonal allergy in various regions worldwide. According to our results, traffic-related air pollution by its direct effects on the elemental composition of pollens considerably increased the fragility of the pollen exine, causing numerous cracks in its surface and facilitating pollen content liberation. Pollen grains were also covered by numerous submicronic orbicules which may act as effective vectors for pollen-released components into the lower regions of respiratory organs. On the other hand, this study provides us reliable explications about the low efficiency of standard commercial allergens in the diagnosis of the Arizona cypress pollen allergy in Tehran. Although traffic related pollution affects the allergenic components of CA pollens, the repercussions on the respiratory health of urban populations have yet to be clarified and need further investigations.

  13. Impacts of air pollution exposure on the allergenic properties of Arizona cypress pollens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahali, Y; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M; Zare, A; Majd, A

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that urbanization and high levels of vehicle emissions correlated with the increasing trend of pollen-induced respiratory allergies. Numerous works have investigated the role of pollutants in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases but impacts of anthropogenic pollution on pollen allergenic properties are still poorly understood. The objective of this survey was to evaluate impacts of the traffic-related pollution on the structure and allergenic protein content of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica, CA) pollens, recognized as a rising cause of seasonal allergy in various regions worldwide. According to our results, traffic-related air pollution by its direct effects on the elemental composition of pollens considerably increased the fragility of the pollen exine, causing numerous cracks in its surface and facilitating pollen content liberation. Pollen grains were also covered by numerous submicronic orbicules which may act as effective vectors for pollen-released components into the lower regions of respiratory organs. On the other hand, this study provides us reliable explications about the low efficiency of standard commercial allergens in the diagnosis of the Arizona cypress pollen allergy in Tehran. Although traffic related pollution affects the allergenic components of CA pollens, the repercussions on the respiratory health of urban populations have yet to be clarified and need further investigations.

  14. Five-grass pollen 300IR SLIT tablets: efficacy and safety in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Agertoft, Lone; Seidenberg, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of five-grass pollen 300IR sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets (Stallergènes SA, France) have previously been demonstrated in paediatric patients. This report presents additional data concerning efficacy at pollen peak, efficacy and safety according to age, nasal...... and ocular symptoms, use of rescue medication, satisfaction with treatment and compliance. Children (5-11 yr) and adolescents (12-17 yr) with grass pollen-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were included in a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and received either a 300IR five......-grass pollen tablet or placebo daily in a pre- (4 months) and co-seasonal protocol. The severity of six symptoms (sneezing, rhinorrhoea, nasal congestion, nasal and ocular pruritis, and tearing) was scored, and rescue medication use was recorded daily during the pollen season. Patient satisfaction was recorded...

  15. Region-specific sensitivity of anemophilous pollen deposition to temperature and precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Timme H; Hagemans, Kimberley; Dekker, Stefan C; de Weger, Letty A; de Klerk, Pim; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values), and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1), as well as in the growing season (T), are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [Pprediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (Pprecipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural archives reflect annual past climate variability, and can be used in palaeoecological and -climatological studies to bridge between population- and species-scale responses to climate forcing.

  16. Evaluation of Pollen Apps Forecasts: The Need for Quality Control in an eHealth Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastl, Katharina; Berger, Uwe; Kmenta, Maximilian

    2017-05-08

    Pollen forecasts are highly valuable for allergen avoidance and thus raising the quality of life of persons concerned by pollen allergies. They are considered as valuable free services for the public. Careful scientific evaluation of pollen forecasts in terms of accurateness and reliability has not been available till date. The aim of this study was to analyze 9 mobile apps, which deliver pollen information and pollen forecasts, with a focus on their accurateness regarding the prediction of the pollen load in the grass pollen season 2016 to assess their usefulness for pollen allergy sufferers. The following number of apps was evaluated for each location: 3 apps for Vienna (Austria), 4 apps for Berlin (Germany), and 1 app each for Basel (Switzerland) and London (United Kingdom). All mobile apps were freely available. Today's grass pollen forecast was compared throughout the defined grass pollen season at each respective location with measured grass pollen concentrations. Hit rates were calculated for the exact performance and for a tolerance in a range of ±2 and ±4 pollen per cubic meter. In general, for most apps, hit rates score around 50% (6 apps). It was found that 1 app showed better results, whereas 3 apps performed less well. Hit rates increased when calculated with tolerances for most apps. In contrast, the forecast for the "readiness to flower" for grasses was performed at a sufficiently accurate level, although only two apps provided such a forecast. The last of those forecasts coincided with the first moderate grass pollen load on the predicted day or 3 days after and performed even from about a month before well within the range of 3 days. Advertisement was present in 3 of the 9 analyzed apps, whereas an imprint mentioning institutions with experience in pollen forecasting was present in only three other apps. The quality of pollen forecasts is in need of improvement, and quality control for pollen forecasts is recommended to avoid potential harm to

  17. Biometeorological and autoregressive indices for predicting olive pollen intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Hervás, C; Galán, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on modelling to predict airborne olive pollen season severity, expressed as a pollen index (PI), in Córdoba province (southern Spain) several weeks prior to the pollen season start. Using a 29-year database (1982-2010), a multivariate regression model based on five indices-the index-based model-was built to enhance the efficacy of prediction models. Four of the indices used were biometeorological indices: thermal index, pre-flowering hydric index, dormancy hydric index and summer index; the fifth was an autoregressive cyclicity index based on pollen data from previous years. The extreme weather events characteristic of the Mediterranean climate were also taken into account by applying different adjustment criteria. The results obtained with this model were compared with those yielded by a traditional meteorological-based model built using multivariate regression analysis of simple meteorological-related variables. The performance of the models (confidence intervals, significance levels and standard errors) was compared, and they were also validated using the bootstrap method. The index-based model built on biometeorological and cyclicity indices was found to perform better for olive pollen forecasting purposes than the traditional meteorological-based model.

  18. Modern pollen and stomate deposition in lake surface sediments from across the treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, B R.; MacDonald, G M.

    2001-04-01

    We sampled and analyzed surface sediments from 31 lakes along a latitudinal transect crossing the coniferous treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. The major vegetation zones along the transect were tundra, birch-forest tundra, pine-forest tundra, and forest. The results indicate that the major vegetation types in our study area have distinct pollen spectra. Sum-of-squares cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) groupings of pollen sites correspond to the major vegetation zones. PCA ordination of taxa indicates that the first axis separates taxa typical of the forest zone (Pinus, Picea) from taxa typical of tundra and forest-tundra zones (Polypodiaceae, Ericaceae, and Betula). The current position of the coniferous treeline, defined in our region by Pinus sylvestris, occurs roughly where Pinus pollen values reach 35% or greater. Arboreal pollen (AP)/non-arboreal pollen (NAP) ratios were calculated for each site and plotted against geographic distance along the transect. AP/NAP ratios of 7 or greater are found within pine-forest tundra and forest vegetation zones. Pinus stomates (dispersed stomatal guard cells) are absent from sites north of the coniferous treeline and all but two samples from the forested sites contain stomates. Stomate concentrations among the samples are highly variable and range from 10 to 458 per ml and positively correlate with the changing Pinus pollen values.

  19. [Skin sensitization to pollens in Morocco. Multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazidi, A A; Nejjari, C; Bartal, M

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of skin sensitization to certain pollens in some regions of Morocco. This multicentric study involving 10 centres included a consecutive series of 640 patients consulting for the first time between february and april 1998 for asthma and/or rhinitis and/or conjunctivitis. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with stallerpointes (Stallergenes) and interpreted according to standard procedures. Pollinosis was ascertained when SPT was positive to one or more pollens. Epi-Info was used to analyze the data. SPT were positive in 75.9% and prevalence of sensitization to pollens was equal to 28% (179 cases). It ranked second after house dust mites (63%), olive, 5 grass, cupressus, parietaria and corylus sensitization were encountered in 19.8%, 10.9%, 3.8%, 1.7% and 1.3% respectively. Prevalence of sensitization to pollens didn't vary significatively according to age: 25.4% in females versus 31.1% in males (p = 0.13). Prevalence of pollen sensitization was 26.6% in case of asthma versus 30.9% in non asthmatics patients (p = 0.30), 30.1% in case of rhinitis versus 16.9% in non rhinitics (p = 0.009), 36.4% in case of conjunctivitis versus 22.7% in case without conjunctivitis (p Tanger (27.3%), Rabat (21.8%), Safi (21.3%), Casablanca (11.6%) and El Jadida (10%). The prevalence was up to 84.3% when symptoms were predominant in spring versus 16.8% in other seasons (p < 0.0001). Thus, although SPT did not include numerous other pollens, olive pollinosis seems to be prevalent in Morocco, followed by allergy to grass pollen. Such studies need to be carried out in line with pollen count.

  20. Grass Pollen Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Rosa

    1959-01-01

    Heat and pH stability studies and experiments with organic solvents show that the A-antigens discussed in the preceding paper (Augustin, 1959c) are much more labile than the I- (`inner ring') antigens. Breakdown products and/or aggregates are produced which no longer precipitate with antisera to the original extracts, but act as inhibitors. Solutions of pollen allergens, on the other hand, are found to withstand even autoclaving for 15 min. at 20 atm. and vigorous boiling over the naked flame of a bunsen burner. None of the carbohydrates tested has a demonstrable effect on skin reactivity which is, however, destroyed by crystalline pepsin, crystalline trypsin, a crystalline mould protease and a tissue protease (a partially purified extract from rabbit spleen). It follows that the bulk of the allergens—if not all—are proteins. The relation of skin reactivity, immuno-electrophoretic patterns, carbohydrate and protein reactions to the selective destruction of the pollen antigens is investigated. Pollen components prove to have a somewhat wider range of electrophoretic mobilities than serum proteins and are probably as complicated a mixture. The most and least highly negatively charged components are without skin reactivity in allergic subjects. The skin reactive allergens appear to have the mobilities of α- and β-globulins. Not all the hay fever subjects react equally to all the components, and Cocksfoot and Timothy activity patterns vary in different subjects. ImagesFIG. 5 PMID:13795119

  1. Urbanity as a determinant of exposure to grass pollen in Helsinki Metropolitan area, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugg, Timo T; Hjort, Jan; Antikainen, Harri; Rusanen, Jarmo; Tuokila, Mirkka; Korkonen, Sanna; Weckström, Jan; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the levels of exposure to grass pollen in urban environments. We assessed the spatio-temporal variation of grass pollen concentrations and the role of urbanity as a determinant of grass pollen exposure in the Helsinki Metropolitan area. We monitored grass pollen concentrations in 2013 at 16 sites during the peak pollen season by using rotorod-type samplers at the breathing height. The sites were in the cities of Helsinki and Espoo, Finland, and formed city-specific lines that represented urban-rural gradient. The monitoring sites were both visually and based on land use data ranked as high to low (graded 1 to 8) pollen area. The lowest grass pollen concentrations were observed in the most urban sites compared to the least urban sites (mean 3.6 vs. 6.8 grains/m3 in Helsinki; Pdeterminant of pollen exposure in two Finnish cities. Pollen exposure can periodically reach such high levels even in the most urban environments that can cause allergic reactions among individuals with allergies.

  2. Airborne plane-tree (Platanus hispanica) pollen distribution in the city of Córdoba, South-western Spain, and possible implications on pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar, P; Cariñanos, P; De Castro, C; Guerra, F; Moreno, C; Dominguez-Vilches, E; Galán, C

    2004-01-01

    Plane-trees are widely grown in Spain as ornaments. This taxon releases large amounts of pollen into the air and this pollen type seems to have proved implications on pollinosis. The aim of this study was to analyse airborne Platanus pollen content in the air of C6rdoba (South-western Spain) over the last 10 years, and its distribution in different areas of the city, as well as to consider possible implications regarding pollen allergies. Results revealed that Platanus pollen concentrations have been at their highest over the last 5 years. Within the city, the lowest pollen concentrations were in Northern areas of the city. Nevertheless, concentrations high enough to be of risk are reached over the whole city. All the patients studied presented symptoms during the Platanus pollen season. We can therefore conclude that plane pollen presents a risk for the whole city although symptoms are more intense and persistent in districts with a higher number of plane-trees. Platanus allergy is a particular problem for city-dwellers, where these trees are commonly used as ornamentals.

  3. The weak effects of climatic change on Plantago pollen concentration: 17 years of monitoring in Northwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Parrado, Zulima; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa Ma.; Vega-Maray, Ana Ma.; Fuertes-Rodríguez, Carmen Reyes; Fernández-González, Delia

    2014-09-01

    Plantago L. species are very common in nitrified areas such as roadsides and their pollen is a major cause of pollinosis in temperate regions. In this study, we sampled airborne pollen grains in the city of León (NW, Spain) from January 1995 to December 2011, by using a Burkard® 7-day-recording trap. The percentage of Plantago pollen compared to the total pollen count ranged from 11 % (1997) to 3 % (2006) in the period under study. Peak pollen concentrations were recorded in May and June. Our 17-year analysis failed to disclose significant changes in the seasonal trend of plantain pollen concentration. In addition, there were no important changes in the start dates of pollen release and the meteorological parameters analyzed did not show significant variations in their usual trends. We analyzed the influence of several meteorological parameters on Plantago pollen concentration to explain the differences in pollen concentration trends during the study. Our results show that temperature, sun hours, evaporation, and relative humidity are the meteorological parameters best correlated to the behavior of Plantago pollen grains. In general, the years with low pollen concentrations correspond to the years with less precipitation or higher temperatures. We calculated the approximate Plantago flowering dates using the cumulative sum of daily maximum temperatures and compared them with the real bloom dates. The differences obtained were 4 days in 2009, 3 days in 2010, and 1 day in 2011 considering the complete period of pollination.

  4. Acute toxicity of birch tar oil on aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HAGNER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch tar oil (BTO is a by-product of processing birch wood in a pyrolysis system. Accumulating evidence suggests the suitability of BTO as a biocide or repellent in terrestrial environments for the control of weeds, insects, molluscs and rodents. Once applied as biocide, BTO may end up, either through run-off or leaching, in aquatic systems and may have adverse effects on non-target organisms. As very little is known about the toxicity of BTO to aquatic organisms, the present study investigated acute toxicity (LC50/EC50 of BTO for eight aquatic organisms. Bioassays with the Asellus aquaticus (crustacean, Lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta worm, Daphnia magna (crustacean, Lymnea sp. (mollusc, Lemna minor (vascular plant, Danio rerio (fish, Scenedesmus gracilis (algae, and Vibrio fischeri (bacterium were performed according to ISO, OECD or USEPA-guidelines. The results indicated that BTO was practically nontoxic to most aquatic organisms as the median effective BTO concentrations against most organisms were >150 mg L-1. In conclusion, our toxicity tests showed that aquatic organisms are to some extent, invariably sensitive to birch tar oil, but suggest that BTO does not pose a severe hazard to aquatic biota. We deduce that, unless BTOs are not applied in the immediate vicinity of water bodies, no special precaution is required.;

  5. Pollen characteristics and in vitro pollen germination of Cedrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Sources1020: Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakultesi Yayinlari, Ankara p.155. Siregar IB, Sweet GB (2000).The Impact of extraction and storage conditions on the viability of radiata pine pollen. Silva Genetica, 49: 10-14. Stairs GR, Troendle V (1967). Male bud pollen radiosensitivity in selected conifer Species.

  6. Pollen characteristics and in vitro pollen germination of Cedrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to determine the germination characteristics, pollen tube developments, effects of germination media and temperature and incubation durations of the pollens obtained from the four clones (11342, 11344, 11345 and 11351) of Cedrus libani A. Rich. (Lebanon Cedrus) obtained from clonal seed orchard (with ...

  7. Mycobionta of birch and birch stump roots and its possible effect on the infection by Armillaria spp. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the differences in size and structure of mycobionta communities occurring in soil and on/i n roots of a 30 year-old birch and its stumps 2 years after cutting of the trees. Special attention was paid to the occurrence of Zygorhynchus moelleri and Trichoderma viride. The first species due to the metabolites produced may presumably stimulate the infection by Armlllaria. The second species is a well-known antagonist of Armillaria, Z. moelleri accounted only for 2.6, l.3 and 9.l % of the total number of isolates in rhizoplane as well as in the fine and thick roots of stumps, respectively. Trlchodcrma viride and T. virens were present in roots of Hve birch and its stumps only occasionally. The relatively big population of Mycelium radicis atrovirens- particularly in the fine roots of stumps is attributed to their high vitality and relatively lower level of root decomposition. It seems that the rate of stump root decomposilion does not favour their colonization by Z. moelleri and its supposed contribution in enhancing the infection by Armillaria might not be so distinct as on stumps of 49-year-old birches.

  8. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in patients with different clinical profiles of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Montagut, A; Melac, M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal dose of grass pollen tablets for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients was previously established in a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 628 adults. Patients were randomized to receive once-daily 5-grass...... pollen sublingual tablets of 100 IR (index of reactivity), 300 IR or 500 IR, or placebo starting 4 months before the pollen season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this complementary analysis was to determine whether 300 IR 5-grass pollen SLIT-tablets is effective in different subtypes of patients who are allergic...

  9. Array-based profiling of ragweed and mugwort pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermaier, G; Wopfner, N; Wallner, M; Egger, M; Didierlaurent, A; Regl, G; Aberger, F; Lang, R; Ferreira, F; Hawranek, T

    2008-11-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) pollen is the main cause of allergic reactions in late summer and autumn. The differential diagnosis between ragweed and mugwort pollen allergy is a frequent problem encountered by allergologists in areas where both plants are present due to shared antigenic structures and overlapping flowering seasons. To evaluate the sensitization pattern of weed allergic patients towards a large panel of purified allergens in the microarray format and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Eight ragweed and six mugwort pollen allergens were purified from natural source or expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Allergens were spotted on protein microarray slides or coated onto ELISA plates. Sera from 19 ragweed and/or mugwort allergic individuals were used to determine the reactivity towards single molecules in both assays. All ragweed allergic individuals were sensitized to Amb a 1, among them 30% were monosensitized to the major ragweed allergen. Art v 1 and Art v 3 were recognized by 89% of mugwort pollen-allergic patients. Extensive cross-reactivity was observed for both patient groups mainly involving the pan-allergens profilin and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins. Comparable IgE profiles were obtained with both allergen microarray and ELISA methods. Molecule-based diagnosis provides essential information for the differential diagnosis between ragweed and mugwort pollen allergy and for the selection of the appropriate allergen source for specific immunotherapy.

  10. Increase in pollen sensitization in Swedish adults and protective effect of keeping animals in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerg, A; Ekerljung, L; Eriksson, J; Näslund, J; Sjölander, S; Rönmark, E; Dahl, Å; Holmberg, K; Wennergren, G; Torén, K; Borres, M P; Lötvall, J; Lundbäck, B

    2016-10-01

    To date, most studies of the 'allergy epidemic' have been based on self-reported data. There is still limited knowledge on time trends in allergic sensitization, especially among adults. To study allergic sensitization, its risk factors and time trends in prevalence. Within West Sweden Asthma Study (WSAS), a population-based sample of 788 adults (17-60 years) underwent skin prick tests (SPTs) for 11 aeroallergens 2009-2012. Specific IgE was analysed in 750 of the participants. Those aged 20-46 years (n = 379) were compared with the European Community Respiratory Health Survey sample aged 20-46 year from the same area (n = 591) in 1991-1992. Among those aged 20-46 years, the prevalence of positive SPT to pollen increased, timothy from 17.1% to 29.0% (P < 0.001) and birch from 15.6% to 23.7% (P = 0.002) between 1991-1992 and 2009-2012. Measurements of specific IgE confirmed these increases. Prevalence of sensitization to all other tested allergens was unchanged. In the full WSAS sample aged 17-60 years, any positive SPT was seen in 41.9%, and the dominating sensitizers were pollen (34.3%), animals (22.8%) and mites (12.6%). Pollen sensitization was strongly associated with rhinitis, whereas indoor allergens were more associated with asthma. Growing up with livestock or furred pets decreased the risk of sensitization, adjusted odds ratio 0.53 (0.28-0.995) and 0.68 (0.47-0.98), respectively. Pollen sensitization has increased in Swedish adults since the early 1990s, while the prevalence of sensitization to other allergens has remained unchanged. This is one plausible explanation for the increase in rhinitis 1990-2008 in Swedish adults, during which time the prevalence of asthma, which is more associated with perennial allergens, was stable. Contact with animals in childhood seems to reduce the risk of sensitization well into adulthood. One major factor contributing to the rise in pollen allergy is a significant increase in levels of birch and grass pollen over the past

  11. [Sensitization to Castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern Extremadura (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmes Martín, P M; Moreno Ancillo, A; Domínguez Noche, C; Gutiérrez Vivas, A; Belmonte Soler, J; Roure Nolla, J M

    2005-01-01

    Castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. In our geographical area (Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain) Castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen. To determine the atmospheric fluctuations and prevalence of patients sensitized to Castanea pollen in our region and to compare this sensitization with sensitizations to other pollens. Patients with respiratory symptoms attending our outpatient clinic for the first time in 2003 were studied. The patients underwent skin prick tests with commercial extracts of a battery of inhalants including Castanea sativa pollen. Serologic specific IgE to Castanea sativa pollen was determined using the CAP system (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Uppsala, Sweden). Airborne pollen counts in our city were obtained using Cour collection apparatus over a 4-year period (2000 to 2003). The most predominant pollens detected were (mean of the maximal weekly concentrations over 4 years in pollen grains/m3): Quercus 968, Poacea 660, Olea 325, Platanus 229, Pinus 126, Cupresaceae 117, Plantago 109, Alnus 41, Populus 40, Castanea 32. We studied 346 patients (mean age: 24.1 years). In 210 patients with a diagnosis of pollinosis, the percentages of sensitization were: Dactylis glomerata 80.4%, Olea europea 71.9%, Fraxinus excelsior 68%, Plantago lanceolata 62.8%, Chenopodium album 60.9%, Robinia pseudoacacia 49%, Artemisia vulgaris 43.8%, Platanus acerifolia 36.6%, Parietaria judaica 36.1%, Populus nigra 32.3%, Betula alba 27.6%, Quercus ilex 21.4%, Alnus glutinosa 20.9%, Cupressus arizonica 7.6% and Castanea sativa 7.1%. Fifteen patients were sensitized to Castanea sativa and 14 had seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Ten patients had serum specific IgE to Castanea pollen (maximum value: 17.4 Ku/l). Castanea pollen is present in our area in large amounts from the 23rd to the 28th weeks of the year, with a peak pollen count in the 25th week. The most important allergenic pollens in northern Extremadura

  12. Impact of land cover changes and climate on the main airborne pollen types in Southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mozo, Herminia; Oteros, Jose Antonio; Galán, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Airborne pollen concentrations strongly correlate with flowering intensity of wind-pollinated species growing at and around monitoring sites. The pollen spectrum, and the variations in its composition and concentrations, is influenced by climatic features and by available nutritional resources but it is also determined by land use and its changes. The first factor influence is well known on aerobiological researches but the impact of land cover changes has been scarcely studied until now. This paper reports on a study carried out in Southern Spain (Córdoba city) examining airborne pollen trends over a 15-year period and it explores the possible links both to changes in land use and to climate variations. The Seasonal-Trend Decomposition procedure based on Loess (STL) which decomposes long-term data series into smaller seasonal component patterns was applied. Trends were compared with recorded changes in land use at varying distances from the city in order to determine their possible influence on pollen-count variations. The influence of climate-related factors was determined by means of non-parametric correlation analysis. The STL method proved highly effective for extracting trend components from pollen time series, because their features vary widely and can change quickly in a short term. Results revealed mixed trends depending on the taxa and reflecting fluctuations in land cover and/or climate. A significant rising trend in Olea pollen counts was observed, attributable both to the increasing olive-growing area but also to changes in temperature and rainfall. Poaceae pollen concentrations also increased, due largely to an expansion of heterogeneous agricultural areas and to an increase in pollen season length positively influenced by rainfall and temperature. By contrast, the significant declining trend observed for pollen from ruderal taxa, such as Amaranthaceae, Rumex, Plantago and Urticaceae, may be linked to changes in urban planning strategies with a

  13. Pollen rain and pollen representation across a forest-páramo ecotone in northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2009-01-01

    Modern pollen spectra were studied in forest and páramo vegetation from the Guandera area, northern Ecuador. Pollen representation was estimated by comparing the presence of plant taxa from a recent vegetation survey with the pollen spectra in moss polsters and pollen traps. In total, 73 pollen taxa

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MAIZE POLLEN TRANSCRIPTOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollen is a primary vehicle for transgene flow from engineered plants to their non-transgenic, native or weedy relatives. Hence, gene flow will be affected by pollen fitness (e.g., how well a particular pollen grain can outcompete other pollen present on the stigma and complete ...

  15. Model for forecasting Olea europaea L. airborne pollen in South-West Andalusia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, C.; Cariñanos, Paloma; García-Mozo, Herminia; Alcázar, Purificación; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    Data on predicted average and maximum airborne pollen concentrations and the dates on which these maximum values are expected are of undoubted value to allergists and allergy sufferers, as well as to agronomists. This paper reports on the development of predictive models for calculating total annual pollen output, on the basis of pollen and weather data compiled over the last 19 years (1982-2000) for Córdoba (Spain). Models were tested in order to predict the 2000 pollen season; in addition, and in view of the heavy rainfall recorded in spring 2000, the 1982-1998 data set was used to test the model for 1999. The results of the multiple regression analysis show that the variables exerting the greatest influence on the pollen index were rainfall in March and temperatures over the months prior to the flowering period. For prediction of maximum values and dates on which these values might be expected, the start of the pollen season was used as an additional independent variable. Temperature proved the best variable for this prediction. Results improved when the 5-day moving average was taken into account. Testing of the predictive model for 1999 and 2000 yielded fairly similar results. In both cases, the difference between expected and observed pollen data was no greater than 10%. However, significant differences were recorded between forecast and expected maximum and minimum values, owing to the influence of rainfall during the flowering period.

  16. Physicochemical composition and antioxidant potential of bee pollen from different botanical sources in Alagoas, Brazil

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    Maria Raphaella dos Santos Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bee pollen results from the mixture of pollen and floral nectar with the salivary substances of bees and has increasingly been used as a food with therapeutic properties. In this study, 30 samples of bee pollen from Apis mellifera apiaries in three mesoregions of Alagoas (Brazil - Mata Atlântica, South Coast and Caatinga, were collected during the dry season of 2008/09 and analysed. Mata Atlântica and Caatinga had good production of bee pollen. In the same season, Mata Atlântica contained a higher diversity of pollen types for feeding bees with a predominance of herbaceous pollen (63%, whereas the Caatinga samples contained monofloral pollen. Physicochemical data were analysed with the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis statistical test. The Caatinga samples were analysed to determine their contents of total phenolic compounds (25.85 ± 10.80 mg gallic acid eq/g and flavonoids (45.62 ± 32.19 mg quercetin eq/g and their antioxidant activity (for instance, 70.62 ± 4.50% in the DPPH test, which were possibly affected by the environmental conditions of this biome.

  17. Anemophilous plant pollen in spring specific honeys from the Rzeszów area

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    Katarzyna Ceglińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprises pollen analyses of 23 samples of spring specific honeys collected from apiaries situated in 12 communes in the Rzeszów area during the 2005-2006 apicultural season. Forty two pollen taxa were identified in the examined material, of which 31 nectariferous and 11 non-nectariferous anemophilous plants. Among the nectariferous plants, the highest pollen frequency was found for Brassicaceae (others (95.7%, Rubus type (91.3% and Prunus type (86.9%. The presence of anemophilous pollen grains was recorded in all the samples, with Poaceae reaching the highest frequency (69.8%. The frequency of over 50% was characteristic of Quercus and Rumex, while the lowest frequency (less than 10% was recorded for Cerealia, Corylus avellana and Humulus lupulus. The highest participation was found for Quercus, whose pollen grains constituted as much as 80% of anemophilous pollen grains in a single sample. The lowest participation (below 3% was found for Rumex, Pinus and Artemisia. Among all the taxa of pollen grains found in a single sample, Poaceae pollen reached the highest share of anemophilous pollen in a sample of honey from fruit trees (10%, whereas Quercus pollen in one honey from Brassica napus (7.8% and in one honey from Acer (4.5%. The pollen share of the remaining anemophilous taxa in the examined honeys ranged between 0.2% and 2.9%. The identified anemophilous taxa belong to 10 botanical families. In 19 out of 23 examined samples of honeys, small indicators of honeydew were discovered.

  18. Region-specific sensitivity of anemophilous pollen deposition to temperature and precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timme H Donders

    Full Text Available Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values, and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1, as well as in the growing season (T, are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [P<0.05[ and 0.58 [P<0.0001]; TJuli-1 rs between 0.32 [P<0.05[ and 0.56 [P<0.0001] in the annual pollen influx of wind-pollinated plants. Total annual pollen prediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (P<0.0001. The effect of precipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural

  19. Variations in the Availability of Pollen Resources Affect Honey Bee Health.

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    Garance Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Intensive agricultural systems often expose honey bees (Apis mellifera L. to large temporal variations in the availability (quantity, quality and diversity of nutritional resources. Such nutritional irregularity is expected to affect honey bee health. We therefore tested under laboratory conditions the effect of such variation in pollen availability on honey bee health (survival and nursing physiology-hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin expression. We fed honey bees with different diets composed of pollen pellets collected by honey bees in an agricultural landscape of western France. Slight drops (5-10% in the availability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. pollen resulted in significant reductions of all tested variables. Despite some variations in taxonomic diversity and nutritional quality, the pollen mixes harvested over the season had a similar positive influence on honey bee health, except for the one collected in late July that induced poor survival and nursing physiology. This period coincided with the mass-flowering of maize (Zea mays L., an anemophilous crop which produces poor-quality pollen. Therefore, changes in bee health were not connected to variations in pollen diversity but rather to variations in pollen depletion and quality, such as can be encountered in an intensive agricultural system of western France. Finally, even though pollen can be available ad libitum during the mass-flowering of some crops (e.g. maize, it can fail to provide bees with diet adequate for their development.

  20. Variations in the Availability of Pollen Resources Affect Honey Bee Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Alaux, Cédric; Le Conte, Yves; Odoux, Jean-François; Pioz, Maryline; Vaissière, Bernard E; Belzunces, Luc P; Decourtye, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Intensive agricultural systems often expose honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to large temporal variations in the availability (quantity, quality and diversity) of nutritional resources. Such nutritional irregularity is expected to affect honey bee health. We therefore tested under laboratory conditions the effect of such variation in pollen availability on honey bee health (survival and nursing physiology-hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin expression). We fed honey bees with different diets composed of pollen pellets collected by honey bees in an agricultural landscape of western France. Slight drops (5-10%) in the availability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) pollen resulted in significant reductions of all tested variables. Despite some variations in taxonomic diversity and nutritional quality, the pollen mixes harvested over the season had a similar positive influence on honey bee health, except for the one collected in late July that induced poor survival and nursing physiology. This period coincided with the mass-flowering of maize (Zea mays L.), an anemophilous crop which produces poor-quality pollen. Therefore, changes in bee health were not connected to variations in pollen diversity but rather to variations in pollen depletion and quality, such as can be encountered in an intensive agricultural system of western France. Finally, even though pollen can be available ad libitum during the mass-flowering of some crops (e.g. maize), it can fail to provide bees with diet adequate for their development.

  1. Phenology of flowering and pollen release of selected herbaceous plants in Szczecin and Gudowo (Western Pomerania and the risk of pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kruczek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the course of the pollen season of selected allergenic taxa (Secale spp., Rumex spp., Plantago spp., Urtica spp., Artemisia spp., Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae in Szczecin (2009 and Gudowo (Western Pomerania, Poland (2009–2010, and also the flowering pattern of Chenopodium album, Artemisia vulgaris and Secale spp. Pollen deposition was studied by the gravimetric method using a Durham sampler. In 2010 the flowering period of the studied taxa was shorter than in 2009 and its onset was observed later; the maximum values of daily pollen deposition were lower. Pollen grains of most of the taxa studied appeared in the atmosphere of the city earlier than in the rural area, but in the rural area significantly higher values of daily deposition were recorded. The effect of weather conditions on pollen fall in Szczecin in 2009 was analysed. Statistically significant positive correlations with pollen deposition were found only with maximum, minimum, and mean air temperature, dew point and maximum wind speed, while a negative correlation was found with precipitation and – only for Rumex pollen grains – with air humidity and pressure.

  2. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth in ZP maize lines

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    Cerović Radosav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on the in vitro pollen germination at 26°, 28°, 32° and 35°C for 24h of male parental lines, pollen tube growth in vivo in cross pollination of female and male parental lines that make couples in four hybrids: ZP 504 su (♀ ZPPL 51 × ♂ ZPPL 67; ZP 677 (♀ ZPPL 17 × ♂ ZPPL 201; ZP 704 (♀ ZPPL 109 × ♂ ZPPL 79, ZP 611 k (♀ ZPPL 126 × ♂ ZPPL 105, and the open pollination of female parental lines of the above mentioned hybrids. Pollen germination in vitro and pollen tube growth dynamics in vivo showed different genotypic specificities with the tests applied. The obtained results were discussed in the context of reproductive biology of ZP maize lines and aimed to create the preconditions for successful management and direction of the process in practice - seed production in certain environmental conditions.

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily

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    Bagnato S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily. We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks or mixed ones (with birch; pure birch stands (typical that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.

  4. The Impacts of Maximum Temperature and Climate Change to Current and Future Pollen Distribution in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kendrovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. The goal of the present paper was to assess the impact of current and future burden of the ambient temperature to pollen distributions in Skopje. METHODS. In the study we have evaluated a correlation between the concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere of Skopje and maximum temperature, during the vegetation period of 1996, 2003, 2007 and 2009 as a current burden in context of climate change. For our analysis we have selected 9 representative of each phytoallergen group (trees, grasses, weeds. The concentration of pollen grains has been monitored by a Lanzoni volumetric pollen trap. The correlation between the concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere and selected meteorological variable from weekly monitoring has been studied with the help of linear regression and correlation coefficients. RESULTS. The prevalence of the sensibilization of standard pollen allergens in Skopje during the some period shows increasing from 16,9% in 1996 to 19,8% in 2009. We detect differences in onset of flowering, maximum and end of the length of seasons for pollen. The pollen distributions and risk increases in 3 main periods: early spring, spring and summer which are the main cause of allergies during these seasons. The largest increase of air temperature due to climate change in Skopje is expected in the summer season. CONCLUSION. The impacts of climate change by increasing of the temperature in the next decades very likely will include impacts on pollen production and differences in current pollen season. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 35-40

  5. Climate Change and Future Pollen Allergy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Iain R; Jones, Natalia R; Agnew, Maureen; Goodess, Clare M; Giorgi, Filippo; Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Semenov, Mikhail A; Solomon, Fabien; Storkey, Jonathan; Vautard, Robert; Epstein, Michelle M

    2017-03-01

    Globally, pollen allergy is a major public health problem, but a fundamental unknown is the likely impact of climate change. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the consequences of climate change upon pollen allergy in humans. We produced quantitative estimates of the potential impact of climate change upon pollen allergy in humans, focusing upon common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia ) in Europe. A process-based model estimated the change in ragweed's range under climate change. A second model simulated current and future ragweed pollen levels. These findings were translated into health burdens using a dose-response curve generated from a systematic review and from current and future population data. Models considered two different suites of regional climate/pollen models, two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios [Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5], and three different plant invasion scenarios. Our primary estimates indicated that sensitization to ragweed will more than double in Europe, from 33 to 77 million people, by 2041-2060. According to our projections, sensitization will increase in countries with an existing ragweed problem (e.g., Hungary, the Balkans), but the greatest proportional increases will occur where sensitization is uncommon (e.g., Germany, Poland, France). Higher pollen concentrations and a longer pollen season may also increase the severity of symptoms. Our model projections were driven predominantly by changes in climate (66%) but were also influenced by current trends in the spread of this invasive plant species. Assumptions about the rate at which ragweed spreads throughout Europe had a large influence upon the results. Our quantitative estimates indicate that ragweed pollen allergy will become a common health problem across Europe, expanding into areas where it is currently uncommon. Control of ragweed spread may be an important adaptation strategy in response to climate change. Citation: Lake IR

  6. Pollen as a possible pathway for the dissemination of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinide and bacterial canker of kiwifruit

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    Rodanthi TONTOU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pollen collected in a kiwifruit orchard with symptoms of bacterial canker and naturally contaminated by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa, was used to pollinate an experimental orchard, in order to confirm its role, under commercial orchard conditions, in disseminating the pathogen and, possibly, contributing to disease spread. A pollen lot, certified free from Psa, was used with the same methods as a control. Two pollination techniques were used: dusting (dry pollen and spraying (pollen suspension in water. The orchard was monitored during 2 years from experimental pollination, with regular sampling of flowers, fruits, leaves, and vines, to check for Psa as an epiphyte or endophyte, and for bacterial canker symptoms. Psa was recovered from flowers, fruitlets and leaves during the first season, mainly in plots where contaminated pollen had been sprayed in water suspension. From early August until harvesting time (mid-October, Psa detection was possible only on leaves. No symptoms developed during the first season after pollination. No endophytic Psa was detected in pruned vines in the following winter. During the second season, detection and isolation of Psa was erratic, but direct isolation was achieved from four plots. During the second season after pollination, typical leaf symptoms were observed on a few vines, and Psa was isolated and identified. Our results suggest that Psa could be disseminated via contaminated kiwifruit pollen as a pathway for spread of bacterial canker. However, further pollination experiments are needed to establish, beyond any doubt, whether contaminated pollen may contribute to possible disease outbreaks.

  7. Sensitization rates of airborne pollen and mold in children

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    So Hyun Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Aeroallergens are important causative factors of allergic diseases. Previous studies on aeroallergen sensitization rates investigated patients groups that had visited pediatric allergy clinics. In contrast, we investigated sensitization rates in a general population group of elementary school to teenage students in Incheon, Jeju, and Ulsan. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; After obtaining parental consent, skin-prick tests were performed on 5,094 students between March and June 2010. Elementary school students were tested for 18 common aeroallergens, whereas middle and high school students were tested for 25 allergens. The 25 allergens included &lt;I&gt;Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae&lt;/I&gt;, pollen (birch, alder, oak, Japanese cedar, pine, willow, elm, maple, Bermuda grass, timothy grass, rye grass, orchard grass, meadow grass, vernal grass, mugwort, Japanese hop, fat hen, ragweed, and plantain, and mold (&lt;I&gt;Penicillatum, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Alternaria&lt;/I&gt;. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The sensitization rates in descending order were 25.79% (&lt;I&gt;D. pteronyssinus&lt;/I&gt; , 18.66% (&lt;I&gt;D. farinae&lt;/I&gt; , 6.20% (mugwort, and 4.07% (willow in Incheon; 33.35% (&lt;I&gt;D. pteronyssinus&lt;/I&gt; , 24.78% (&lt;I&gt;D. farinae&lt;/I&gt;, 15.36% (Japanese cedar, and 7.33% (Alternaria in Jeju; and 32.79% (D. pteronyssinus, 30.27% (D. farinae, 10.13% (alder, and 8.68% (birch in Ulsan. The dust mite allergen showed the highest sensitization rate among the 3 regions. The sensitization rate of tree pollen was the highest in Ulsan, whereas that of Alternaria was the highest in Jeju. The ragweed sensitization rates were 0.99% in Incheon, 1.07% in Jeju, and 0.81% in Ulsan. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The

  8. Effect of gamma rays doses on pollen germination, polysiphony and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula Schiede et Deppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katiyar, S.R.; Chauhan, Y.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula. Pollen germination and pollen tube elongation are stimulated by low doses of radiation. Although higher doses of radiation inhibit the germination of pollen, pollen tube elongation remains unaffected. Thus in Pinus patula pollen tube elongation is less radiosensitive than pollen germination. Compared to control pollen, irradiated pollen produced more number of long pollen tubes. Therefore pollen tube size can be improved using low doses of radiation. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tables

  9. Geochemistry of the Birch Creek Drainage Basin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Shawn A.; Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting studies to describe the chemical character of ground water that moves as underflow from drainage basins into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRPA) system at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the effects of these recharge waters on the geochemistry of the ESRPA system. Each of these recharge waters has a hydrochemical character related to geochemical processes, especially water-rock interactions, that occur during migration to the ESRPA. Results of these studies will benefit ongoing and planned geochemical modeling of the ESRPA at the INEEL by providing model input on the hydrochemical character of water from each drainage basin. During 2000, water samples were collected from five wells and one surface-water site in the Birch Creek drainage basin and analyzed for selected inorganic constituents, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, measurements of gross alpha and beta radioactivity, and stable isotopes. Four duplicate samples also were collected for quality assurance. Results, which include analyses of samples previously collected from four other sites, in the basin, show that most water from the Birch Creek drainage basin has a calcium-magnesium bicarbonate character. The Birch Creek Valley can be divided roughly into three hydrologic areas. In the northern part, ground water is forced to the surface by a basalt barrier and the sampling sites were either surface water or shallow wells. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple evaporation models, simple calcite-carbon dioxide models, or complex models involving carbonate and silicate minerals. The central part of the valley is filled by sedimentary material and the sampling sites were wells that are deeper than those in the northern part. Water chemistry in this area was characterized by simple calcite-dolomite-carbon dioxide

  10. Pollen analyses for pollination research, acetolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen D. Jones

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the pollen associated with pollinators can reveal their role in pollination, the habitats and plants they visit, from where they migrated, what they eat, and dispersal patterns in and around cropping systems. However, finding pollen on and or in a pollinator depends on the technique used to recover the pollen. Acetolysis can be used to recover pollen from internal insect tissues (gut, alimentary canal, crop, etc., external tissues (proboscis, legs, eyes, etc. or both. Acetolysis is the best technique for recovering pollen because any tissue is dissolved and lipids and debris are removed from the sample and the pollen grains. This makes the diagnostic characteristics of the pollen grains more visible so that accurate pollen identification can be made. By using the proper technique, better pollen recovery can be made and thus better data can be obtained.

  11. Pollen Forecast and Dispersion Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Monica; Di Giuseppe, Fabio; Medaglia, Carlo Maria; Travaglini, Alessandro; Tocci, Raffaella; Brighetti, M. Antonia; Petitta, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is monitoring, mapping and forecast of pollen distribution for the city of Rome using in-situ measurements of 10 species of common allergenic pollens and measurements of PM10. The production of daily concentration maps, associated to a mobile phone app, are innovative compared to existing dedicated services to people who suffer from respiratory allergies. The dispersal pollen is one of the most well-known causes of allergic disease that is manifested by disorders of the respiratory functions. Allergies are the third leading cause of chronic disease and it is estimated that tens millions of people in Italy suffer from it. Recent works reveal that during the last few years there was a progressive increase of affected subjects, especially in urban areas. This situation may depend: on the ability to transport of pollutants, on the ability to react between pollutants and pollen and from a combination of other irritants, existing in densely populated and polluted urban areas. The methodology used to produce maps is based on in-situ measurements time series relative to 2012, obtained from networks of air quality and pollen stations in the metropolitan area of Rome. The monitoring station aerobiological of University of Rome "Tor Vergata" is located at the Department of Biology. The instrument used to pollen monitoring is a volumetric sampler type Hirst (Hirst 1952), Model 2000 VPPS Lanzoni; the data acquisition is carried out as reported in Standard UNI 11008:2004 - "Qualità dell'aria - Metodo di campionamento e conteggio dei granuli pollinici e delle spore fungine aerodisperse" - the protocol that describes the procedure for measuring of the concentration of pollen grains and fungal spores dispersed into the atmosphere, and reported in the "Manuale di gestione e qualità della R.I.M.A" (Travaglini et. al. 2009). All 10 allergenic pollen are monitored since 1996. At Tor Vergata university is also operating a meteorological station (SP2000, CAE

  12. Identification of mutations in the genes for the pollen allergens of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midoro-Horiuti, T; Goldblum, R M; Brooks, E G

    2001-05-01

    Cedar pollens are important causes of seasonal allergic disease in diverse geographical areas. However, pollens from different families and species vary in their propensity to induce allergic responses. To compare the structure of potential allergens from eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) pollen with those of the highly allergenic cedar (mountain cedar, J. ashei) pollens. The cDNAs for potential pollen allergens, Jun v 1 and Jun v 3, were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced. Expression of the native proteins in pollen was characterized by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. The cDNA sequence for one potential major allergen, Jun v 1, was highly homologous to those of the other cedar pollens. The second potential allergen, Jun v 3, was also highly homologous to its counterpart in mountain cedar, but a stop codon in the mRNA would result in a protein of only 91 amino acids, which would lack potential N-glycosylation sites and the IgE binding epitopes of the 199 amino acid homologue from mountain cedar pollen, Jun a 3. IgE from the sera of patients with hypersensitivity to cedar pollen bound to eastern red cedar proteins of four different sizes. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis indicated that two of these proteins (43 and 30 kDa) were either isoforms or processed Jun v 1. No Jun v 3 protein was detected. The N-terminal sequence of an additional 145-kDa allergen, termed Jun v 4, was not homologous to any previously described allergens. These findings suggest that mutations in the genes or post-translational modifications of two potentially allergenic proteins might help to explain why the pollen of eastern red cedar is reported to be less allergenic than those of other members of Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae families.

  13. Knockin' on pollen's door: live cell imaging of early polarization events in germinating Arabidopsis pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Frank; Konrad, Sebastian S. A.; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tubes are an excellent system for studying the cellular dynamics and complex signaling pathways that coordinate polarized tip growth. Although several signaling mechanisms acting in the tip-growing pollen tube have been described, our knowledge on the subcellular and molecular events during pollen germination and growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane is rather scarce. To simultaneously track germinating pollen from up to 12 genetically different plants we developed an inexpensive and easy mounting technique, suitable for every standard microscope setup. We performed high magnification live-cell imaging during Arabidopsis pollen activation, germination, and the establishment of pollen tube tip growth by using fluorescent marker lines labeling either the pollen cytoplasm, vesicles, the actin cytoskeleton or the sperm cell nuclei and membranes. Our studies revealed distinctive vesicle and F-actin polarization during pollen activation and characteristic growth kinetics during pollen germination and pollen tube formation. Initially, the germinating Arabidopsis pollen tube grows slowly and forms a uniform roundish bulge, followed by a transition phase with vesicles heavily accumulating at the growth site before switching to rapid tip growth. Furthermore, we found the two sperm cells to be transported into the pollen tube after the phase of rapid tip growth has been initiated. The method presented here is suitable to quantitatively study subcellular events during Arabidopsis pollen germination and growth, and for the detailed analysis of pollen mutants with respect to pollen polarization, bulging, or growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane. PMID:25954283

  14. Pollen count and presentation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Brittany; Nian, Hui; Sloan, Chantel; Byrd, James Brian; Woodard-Grice, Alencia; Yu, Chang; Stone, Elizabeth; Steven, Gary; Hartert, Tina; Teo, Koon K; Pare, Guillaume; McCarty, Catherine A; Brown, Nancy J

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-associated angioedema is increased in patients with seasonal allergies. We tested the hypothesis that patients with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema present during months when pollen counts are increased. Cohort analysis examined the month of presentation of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema and pollen counts in the ambulatory and hospital setting. Patients with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema were ascertained through (1) an observational study of patients presenting to Vanderbilt University Medical Center, (2) patients presenting to the Marshfield Clinic and participating in the Marshfield Clinic Personalized Medicine Research Project, and (3) patients enrolled in The Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET). Measurements include date of presentation of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema, population exposure to ACE inhibitor by date, and local pollen counts by date. At Vanderbilt, the rate of angioedema was significantly associated with tree pollen months (P = .01 from χ(2) test). When separate analyses were conducted in patients with a history of seasonal allergies and patients without, the rate of ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema was increased during tree pollen months only in patients with a history of seasonal allergies (P = .002). In Marshfield, the rate of angioedema was significantly associated with ragweed pollen months (P = .025). In ONTARGET, a positive trend was observed between the ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema rate and grass season, although it was not statistically significant (P = .057). Patients with ACE inhibitor-associated angioedema are more likely to present with this adverse drug event during months when pollen counts are increased. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical fingerprinting identifies Echium vulgare, Eupatorium cannabinum and Senecio spp. as plant species mainly responsible for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in bee-collected pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Christina; Kilchenmann, Verena; Reinhard, Hans; Droz, Benoit; Lucchetti, Matteo Angelo; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Zoller, Otmar

    2018-02-01

    Various studies have shown that bee-collected pollen sold as nutritional supplements may contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and, thus, pose a potential health risk for consumers. The level of contamination may vary according to its geographical and botanical origin. Here, the PA content of pollen produced in Switzerland was studied and 32 commercially available bee-collected pollen supplements produced between 2010 and 2014 were analysed. In addition, at what time period bees collect PA-containing pollen was investigated. Hence, this study looked into the occurrence of PAs in pollen samples collected daily during two-to-three consecutive seasons. Furthermore, the PA spectrum in pollen was compared to the spectrum found in flower heads of PA-plants to unambiguously identify plants responsible for PA contamination of pollen. The PA concentration of commercial and daily collected pollen was determined by target analysis using an HPLC-MS/MS system, allowing the detection of 18 different PAs and PA N-oxides found in the genera Echium, Eupatorium and Senecio, while the comparison of the PA spectrum in pollen and flower heads was performed by LC-HR-MS, allowing the detection of all PA types in a sample, including saturated, non-carcinogenic PAs. Of the commercially available pollen, 31% contained PAs with a mean concentration of 319 ng/g, mainly Echium- and Eupatorium-type PAs, while the PA concentrations were below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in 69% of the pollen samples. Bees collected pollen containing Echium-type PAs mainly in June and July, while they gathered pollen containing Eupatorium-type PAs from mid-July to August. Senecio-type PAs appeared from June to September. Comparison of the PA array in pollen and plants identified E. vulgare and E. cannabinum as the main plants responsible for PA contamination of Swiss bee-collected pollen, and to a lesser extent also identified plants belonging to the genus Senecio.

  16. Coconut (Cocos nucifera l.) pollen cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karun, A; Sjini, K K; Niral, V; Amarnth, C H; Remya, P; Rajesh, M K; Samsudeen, K; Jerard, B A; Engelmann, F

    2014-01-01

    Coconut genetic resources are threatened by pests and pathogens, natural hazards and human activities. Cryopreservation is the only method allowing the safe and cost-effective long-term conservation of recalcitrant seed species such as coconut. The objective of this work was to test the effect of cryopreservation and of cryostorage duration on coconut pollen germination and fertility. Pollen of two coconut varieties (West Coast Tall WWCTW and Chowghat Orange Dwarf CODC) was collected in March-May over three successive years, desiccated to 7.5 % moisture content (FW) and cryopreserved by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Germination and pollen tube length (PTL) of desiccated and cryopreserved pollen were not significantly different for both WCT and COD over the three harvest months of the three consecutive years of study. Pollen germination ranged from 24 to 32 % in desiccated pollen whereas it was between 26 and 29 % in cryopreserved COD pollen. In the case of WCT, germination ranged from 30 to 31 % in desiccated pollen, while it was between 28 and 32 % in cryopreserved pollen. PTL of cryopreserved pollen ranged between 224-390 nm and 226-396 mm for COD and WCT, respectively. Germination of COD pollen varied between 29.0 and 44.1 % after 4 years and 1.0/1.5 years cryostorage, respectively. Germination of WCT pollen did not change significantly between 0 and 6 years cryostorage, being comprised between 32 (24 h) and 40 % (1.5 years). Germination and vigour of cryopreserved pollen were generally higher compared to that of pollen dried in oven and non-cryopreserved. Normal seed set was observed in COD and WCT palms using pollen cryostored for 6 months and 4 years. Cryopreserved pollen of five Tall and five Dwarf accessions displayed 24-31 % and 25-49 % germination, respectively. These results show that it is now possible to establish pollen cryobanks to contribute to coconut germplasm long-term conservation.

  17. Pollen morphology and viability in Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVERTON H. SOUZA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pollen morphology characterization is important in taxonomy, conservation and plant breeding, and pollen viability studies can support breeding programs. This study investigated pollen morphology and male fertility in 18 species of Bromeliaceae with ornamental potential. For morphological characterization, pollen grains were acetolyzed and characterization of exine was done using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pollen viability was investigated by in vitro germination and histochemical tests. Species belonging to Aechmea and Ananas genera presented medium size pollen, except for Ae. fasciata, with large pollen. Al. nahoumii, P. sagenarius and the Vriesea species analyzed showed large pollen, except for V. carinata, with very large pollen. Pollen of Aechmea, Ananas and P. sagenarius presented bilateral symmetry, diporate, exine varying from tectate to semitectate. Al. nahoumii and Vriesea species presented pollen with bilateral symmetry, monocolpate; exine was semitectate, reticulate and heterobrochate. Germination percentage and tube growth were greater in SM and BKM media. Histochemical tests showed pollen viability above 70% for all species, except for Ananas sp. (40%. Pollen morphology is important for the identification of species, especially in this family, which contains a large number of species. High rates of viability favor fertilization and seed production, essential for efficient hybrid production and conservation.

  18. Pollen morphology and viability in Bromeliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Everton H; Souza, Fernanda V D; Rossi, Mônica L; Packer, Renan M; Cruz-Barros, Maria Amelia V; Martinelli, Adriana P

    2017-01-01

    Pollen morphology characterization is important in taxonomy, conservation and plant breeding, and pollen viability studies can support breeding programs. This study investigated pollen morphology and male fertility in 18 species of Bromeliaceae with ornamental potential. For morphological characterization, pollen grains were acetolyzed and characterization of exine was done using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Pollen viability was investigated by in vitro germination and histochemical tests. Species belonging to Aechmea and Ananas genera presented medium size pollen, except for Ae. fasciata, with large pollen. Al. nahoumii, P. sagenarius and the Vriesea species analyzed showed large pollen, except for V. carinata, with very large pollen. Pollen of Aechmea, Ananas and P. sagenarius presented bilateral symmetry, diporate, exine varying from tectate to semitectate. Al. nahoumii and Vriesea species presented pollen with bilateral symmetry, monocolpate; exine was semitectate, reticulate and heterobrochate. Germination percentage and tube growth were greater in SM and BKM media. Histochemical tests showed pollen viability above 70% for all species, except for Ananas sp. (40%). Pollen morphology is important for the identification of species, especially in this family, which contains a large number of species. High rates of viability favor fertilization and seed production, essential for efficient hybrid production and conservation.

  19. The pollen spectrum of honeys of Lipnik Gmina (Świętokrzyskie Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Stawiarz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2003 and 2004 apicultural seasons, 25 samples of honeys were collected in 10 localities of Lipnik (świętokrzyskie Province countryside. Pollen analysis was made according to the requirements of the International Commission for Bee Botany IUSB (Louveaux et al., 1978. There were identified pollen of 85 taxa in the examined samples of honeys: pollen of 62 nectariferous and 23 non-nectariferous plants. Participation of non-nectariferous plant pollen in particular samples ranged between 0.3 and 28.4%. Among the nectariferous plant pollen, the highest pollen frequency (above 50% have been stated for Brassicaceae (with Brassica napus, Prunus type, Trifolium repens, Anthriscus type, Salix, Aesculus, Rubus type, Tilia, Taraxacum type, Galeopsis and Heracleum type, among non-nectariferous plans: Poaceae, Papaver and Fragaria. On average, a particular honey contained 16 pollen types of nectariferous plants (range 7-26 and 7 of non-nectariferous (range 1-13. Among the examined samples, there were 11 specific honeys: 7 compatible with the Polish Standard - 4 samples of Brassica napus honeys, 2 Robinia pseudacacia, 1 Tilia, and 4 samples of honeys out of his this standard. There were 3 Galeopsis honeys and 1 honey from Phacelia. The remaining 14 samples were classified as multifloral honeys compatible with the Polish Standard. The woods and scrubs as well as meadows and pastures supplied main sources of honeybee flow in the examined area.

  20. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    , less than 10 milligrams per liter, in median suspended-sediment concentration for either basin. During low-flow conditions in 2004 and 2005, previously mined areas investigated on Harrison Creek and on Frying Pan Creek did not contribute substantial suspended sediments to sample sites downstream from the mined areas. No substantial mining-related water- or sediment-quality problems were detected at any of the sites investigated in the upper Birch Creek watershed during low-flow conditions. Average annual streamflow and precipitation were near normal in 2002 and 2003. Drought conditions, extreme forest fire impact, and low annual streamflow set apart the 2004 and 2005 summer seasons. Daily mean streamflow for upper Birch Creek varied throughout the period of record-from maximums of about 1,000 cubic feet per second to minimums of about 20 cubic feet per second. Streamflow increased and decreased rapidly in response to rainfall and rapid snowmelt events because the steep slopes, thin soil cover, and permafrost areas in the watershed have little capacity to retain runoff. Median suspended-sediment concentrations for the 115 paired samples from Frying Pan Creek and 101 paired samples from Harrison Creek were less than the 20 milligrams per liter total maximum daily load. The total maximum daily load was set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the upper Birch Creek basin in 1996. Suspended-sediment paired-sample data were collected using automated samplers in 2004 and 2005, primarily during low-flow conditions. Suspended-sediment concentrations in grab samples from miscellaneous sites ranged from less than 1 milligram per liter during low-flow conditions to 1,386 milligrams per liter during a high-flow event on upper Birch Creek. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at six sites on Harrison Creek, two sites on Frying Pan Creek, and one site on upper Birch Creek. Trace-element concentrations of mercury, lead, and zinc in streambed sedimen

  1. National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: May 01, 2018 Location: San Antonio (2), ... 30/2018 ( click here to view ). Our Allergen Report Email Service can automatically email you daily pollen ...

  2. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervahauta, Arja I. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: arja.tervahauta@uku.fi; Fortelius, Carola [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Tuomainen, Marjo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Akerman, Marja-Leena [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Rantalainen, Kimmo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sipilae, Timo [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehesranta, Satu J.; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Kaerenlampi, Sirpa [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Yrjaelae, Kim [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p {<=} 0.01), i.e. 88% of total PAHs, was observed in the more sandy soil planted with birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. - Birch can enhance degradation of PAH compounds in the rhizosphere.

  3. Pollen loads of eucalypt and other pollen types in birds in NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Calviño-Cancela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the amount of pollen of eucalypt and pollen of other types for birds captured in two bird ringing stations for 14 months (March 2014 to April 2015 in NW Spain. Common and latin names of all birds species captured, together with the number of captured individuals (N, prevalence of eucalypt pollen (percentage of individuals with eucalypt pollen and of pollen of other types and average pollen loads per individual for eucalypt and other pollen types is presented. See [1] for further information and discussion.

  4. Evidence of pollen tubes in paleozoic pteridosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, G W

    1972-02-18

    A saccate pollen grain with a branched pollen tube has been discovered within the pollen chamber of a fossil seed-fern ovule of Middle Pennsylvanian age. This suggests that microgametophytes comparable to those of living gymnosperms were produced by some Paleozoic pteridosperms.

  5. Pollen characteristics and in vitro pollen germination of Cedrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... 1Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directory, Ankara, Turkey. 2Zonguldak Karaelmas ... germination rate in MS medium was achieved in clone no.11342 with 84.77% among the pollen samples of 2005. On the other hand ... Among these species, Cedrus libani A. Rich. (Lebanon. Cedar) is a ...

  6. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Avalos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis, dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads, and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon. Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of

  7. Effect of artificial feeders on pollen loads of the hummingbirds of Cerro de la Muerte, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gerardo; Soto, Alejandra; Alfaro, Willy

    2012-03-01

    Although sugar-water feeders are commonly used by enthusiasts to attract hummingbirds, little is known about how they affect hummingbird behavior and flower use. We studied the highland hummingbird assemblage of Cerro de La Muerte, Costa Rica, both at a site with permanent feeders (La Georgina Restaurant) and further from it. We examined how feeder use and monopolization affected seasonal changes in pollen loads during four sampling periods, including dry and wet seasons, from 2003-2005. We expected that species monopolizing the feeders would carry little or no pollen whatsoever, and would have pollen loads characterized by low floral diversity, in contrast with species less dependent on feeders. We obtained pollen samples from 183 individuals of four hummingbird species captured around the feeders using mist nets, which were compared with a pollen reference collection of plants with a pollination syndrome by hummingbirds. The same methods were implemented at a site 3km away from the feeders. Feeder usage was quantified by counting the number of times hummingbirds drank from the feeders in periods of 4min separated by 1min. The effects of hummingbird species and season on pollen load categories were assessed using a nominal logistic regression. The alpha species at the site, the Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis), dominated the feeders during the dry season. Meanwhile, in the wet season, feeder usage was more evenly distributed across species, with the exception of the Volcano Hummingbird, Selasphorus flammula, which occupies the last place in the dominance hierarchy. Pollen loads of hummingbirds captured near feeders were low in abundance (more than 50% of captured individuals had zero or low pollen loads), and low in species richness (96% of the hummingbirds with pollen from only one plant genus, Centropogon). Overall pollen loads increased during the dry season coinciding with peaks in flower availability, although the majority of captured

  8. Performance of moth larvae on birch in relation to altitude, climate, host quality and parasitoids

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, T.; Neuvonen, S.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract We studied topographical and year-to-year variation in the performance (pupal weights, survival) and larval parasitism of Epirrita autumnata larvae feeding on mountain birch in northernmost Finland in 1993-1996. We found differences in both food plant quality and parasitism between sites ranging from 80 m to 320 m above sea level. Variation in food plant quality had particularly marked effects on larval survival. The advanced phenology of the birches in relation to the start of the l...

  9. Study on the Modification of Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Using Birch Xylan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjia Han; Chuanshan Zhao; Thomas Elder; Rendang Yang; Dongho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Jeffery Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, birch xylan was deposited onto elementally chlorine free (ECF) bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp, and the corresponding changes in physical properties were determined. An aqueous 5% birch xylan solution at pH 9 was added to 5 wt% slurry of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers, with stirring at 70 C for 15 min after which the pH was adjusted to 5–6. The xylan...

  10. A Stratigraphic Pollen Record from a Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest, Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, A.; Harley, G. L.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Truong, J. T.; Obelcz, J.; Caporaso, A.

    2017-12-01

    Stratigraphic pollen analysis was performed on a layer of preserved peat found near the bottom of a 4.75m vibracore taken in 18m of water off the coast of Orange Beach, Alabama. The core was taken from a site where the remains of a previously buried bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) forest was discovered after wave action, likely from Hurricane Ivan in 2004, scoured and removed the overlying Holocene/late Pleistocene sand sheet. Many of the cypress stumps found at the site are still in growth position, and rooted in the preserved terrestrial soils below. Radiocarbon dating of the peat recovered in core DF1 suggests that the sediment is likely Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), or earlier. We hypothesize that the site was quickly buried and preserved by floodplain aggradation associated with sea-level rise that occurred near the end of MIS 3. This rare find provides an opportunity to study in situ fossil pollen from a glacial refugium in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Pollen results from the lowermost sections within the peat layer show an assemblage consistent with a bald cypress/tupelo gum (Nyssa aquatica) backwater. This is eventually replaced by a more open, possibly brackish, environment, dominated by grasses (Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae). During this change however, there is a brief but very interesting period where the pollen assemblage is likely analogous to the modern day Atlantic Coastal Plain Blackwater Levee/Bar Forests of North and South Carolina. In this modern assemblage, as well as the core samples, birch (Betula), oak (Quercus) and bald cypress are the dominant taxa, along with a strong presence of alder (Alnus), grasses and sedges. We hypothesize that these bar forests formed on areas of higher ground, which resulted from floodplain aggradation that accompanied sea level rise at the end of MIS 3.

  11. Safety of Grass Pollen Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Rhinitis in Concomitant Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahadevan, A; Cusack, R; Lane, S J

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR) occurs predominantly as a result of grass pollen allergy. Grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been proven effective in treating AR1. SLIT is currently licensed for use in AR with concomitant stable mild asthma. There is evidence that SLIT improves asthma control when primarily used to treat AR2. The aim was to assess the safety of SLIT in patients with severe seasonal allergic rhinitis who have co-existing stable mild asthma. The secondary aim was to determine whether asthma control improved post SLIT. There was no deterioration in asthma control after 6-36 months of SLIT. 27/30 (90%) patients' asthma control remained stable or indeed improved (p < 0.021). Of this 15 (50%) patients' asthma improved. There was no statistically significant change in their asthma pharmacotherapy after SLIT (p = 0.059). In conclusion, grass pollen SLIT is safe and can potentially treat dual allergic rhinitis- mild asthmatic patients.

  12. Vegetation of birch and aspen forests in the Pinega State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Popov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pinega State Nature Reserve (Russia is located in the Arkhangelsk region in the northern taiga subzone. Together with spruce forests and mires, birch forests represent one of the most wide-spread plant communities of its territory. Birch forests cover 24.6% of the Reserve's area. Aspen forests are rare plant communities in the Pinega Reserve. These forests cover only 0.9% of the whole Reserve's area. The birch and aspen forests vegetation has been classified based on 82 relevès. Eleven associations could be distinguished, which represent six groups of associations. Detailed characteristics of these syntaxa are provided including their biodiversity analysis. The analysis allowed establishing that the revealed syntaxa differ in relation to habitat environmental conditions: e.g., soil moisture, trophicity, nitrogen saturation and soil acidity. Sphagnum and blueberry birch forests proved to be the poorest in nitrogen, in contrast to the richest humidoherbaceous and broad-grassed groups of birch forest associations. Broad-grassed birch forests in the Pinega Reserve inhabit the most drained locations, while humidoherbaceous and Sphagnum forests occur in lesser drained locations.

  13. Proteomics of pollen development and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shaojun; Wang, Tai; Yan, Xiufeng; Chen, Sixue

    2007-12-01

    In higher plants, pollen grains represent the vestiges of a highly reduced male gametophyte generation. After germination, the pollen tube delivers the sperm cells by tip-growing to the embryo sac for fertilization. Besides the intrinsic importance for sexual reproduction, pollen development and germination serve as an attractive system to address important questions related to cell division, cell differentiation, polar growth, cell-cell interaction, and cell fate. Recently, pollen functional specification has been well-studied using multidisciplinary approaches. Here, we review recent advances in proteomics of pollen development and germination.

  14. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Pas n 1, the major allergen of Bahia grass Paspalum notatum pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Janet M; Mittag, Diana; Dang, Thanh D; Symons, Karen; Voskamp, Astrid; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-12-01

    Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is a clinically important subtropical grass with a prolonged pollination season from spring to autumn. We aimed to clone and characterise the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1. Grass pollen-allergic patients presenting to a tertiary hospital allergy clinic were tested for IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract by skin prick testing, ImmunoCAP, ELISA and immunoblotting. Using primers deduced from the N-terminal peptide sequence of a group 1 allergen of Bahia grass pollen extract separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the complete Pas n 1 cDNA was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and cloned. Biological relevance of recombinant Pas n 1 expressed in Escherichia coli was assessed by serum IgE reactivity and basophil activation. Twenty-nine of 34 (85%) consecutive patients presenting with grass pollen allergy were skin prick test positive to Bahia grass pollen. The Pas n 1 cDNA has sequence homology with the beta-expansin 1 glycoprotein family and is more closely related to the maize pollen group 1 allergen (85% identity) than to ryegrass Lol p 1 or Timothy grass Phl p 1 (64 and 66% identity, respectively). rPas n 1 reacted with serum IgE in 47 of 55 (85%) Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients, activated basophils and inhibited serum IgE reactivity with the 29 kDa band of Bahia grass pollen extract. In conclusion the cDNA for the major group 1 allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass pollen, Pas n 1, was identified and cloned. rPas n 1 is immunologically active and is a valuable reagent for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy.

  15. A Simple, Inexpensive Pollen Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. E. Hoekstra

    1965-01-01

    Pollen plays a role of vital importance in the sexual reproduction of all plants but it is especially important in forestry. With few exceptions, sexual reproduction is the only link between succeeding generations in the forest. To be sure, vegetative reproduction is important for special purposes, but it will probably not be used on a mass scale in timber...

  16. Comparative Pollen Development in Dioscoreales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, P.; Furness, C.; Merckx, V.; Wilkin, P.; Smets, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pollen and orbicule ontogeny in representatives of three genera of Dioscoreales—Narthecium ossifragum Huds. (Nartheciaceae), Tacca artocarpifolia Seem. and Tacca chantrieri Andre´ (Dioscoreaceae), and Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin (Dioscoreaceae)—is described and illustrated using LM,

  17. Pollen grains are efficient cloud condensation nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, F D, E-mail: fdp21@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    This letter presents a laboratory study investigating the ability of pollen grains to act as cloud condensation nuclei. The hygroscopicity of pollen is measured under subsaturated relative humidities using an electrodynamic balance. It is found, along with other results, that pollen exhibits bulk uptake of water under subsaturated conditions. Through the use of an environmental scanning electron microscope it was observed that the surface of pollen is wettable at high subsaturated humidities. The hygroscopic response of the pollen to subsaturated relative humidities is parametrized using {kappa}-Koehler theory and values of the parameter {kappa} for pollen are between 0.05 and 0.1. It is found that while pollen grains are only moderately hygroscopic, they can activate at critical supersaturations of 0.001% and lower, and thus pollen grains will readily act as cloud condensation nuclei. While the number density of pollen grains is too low for them to represent a significant global source of cloud condensation nuclei, the large sizes of pollen grains suggest that they will be an important source of giant cloud condensation nuclei. Low temperature work using the environmental scanning electron microscope indicated that pollen grains do not act as deposition ice nuclei at temperatures warmer than - 15 deg. C.

  18. Prolonged efficacy of the 300IR 5-grass pollen tablet up to 2 years after treatment cessation, as measured by a recommended daily combined score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, Alain; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Worm, Margitta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 300IR (index of reactivity) 5-grass pollen tablet has favorable short-term and sustained clinical efficacy in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Here, we report maintenance of efficacy and safety over 2 years following treatment discontinuation....... METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter Phase 3 trial in patients aged 18-50 years with ARC. During study years 1-3, patients received a daily sublingual tablet containing either 300IR 5-grass pollen extract or placebo, according to a discontinuous pre...... medication score (DRMS). RESULTS: 633 patients with ARC were randomized to placebo (n = 219) or 300IR 5-grass pollen tablet, beginning 4 months (4 M, n = 207) or 2 months (2 M, n = 207) prior to the estimated start of the grass pollen season and continuing until season's end. During the first post...

  19. Taraxacum officinale pollen depresses seed set of montane wildflowers through pollen allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Loughnan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant species that share pollinators can suffer from interspecific pollen deposition. Male reproductive success is inevitably reduced by the loss of pollen to flowers of another species. Female reproductive success can be affected by reduced stigmatic area or, more strongly, through allelopathic effects by which the admixture of some foreign pollen reduces seed or fruit set. We tested for allelopathic effects of Taraxacum officinale (Asteracaeae pollen on the seed set of montane wildflowers Erythronium grandiflorum (Liliaceae and Erysimum capitatum (Brassicaceae, by hand-pollinating plants with pollen mixtures. Taraxacum is a common invasive species, which produces allelopathic chemicals in its root and vegetative tissue, making it a likely candidate for pollen allelopathy. Flowers of both species produced fewer well-developed seeds when pollinated with pollen mixtures containing Taraxacum pollen. The pollen-allelopathic potential of weedy dandelion may add to its ability to disrupt communities that it invades.

  20. Pollen selection under acid rain stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate whether acid rain stress induces pollen selection in nature, three different approaches were used, based on the assumption that the response of pollen grains to acid rain is controlled by an acid sensitive gene product. Germination of pollen from homozygous and heterozygous individuals under acid rain stress was examined to detect any differences in rate of germination between populations of homogeneous and heterogeneous pollen grains. In vitro and in vivo bulked segregant analysis using RAPDs was used to search for differences in DNA constitution between the survivors of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed pollen populations in vitro and between the progenies of acid rain stressed and non-acid rain stressed populations during pollination, respectively. No evidence for the pollen selection under acid rain stress was obtained in any of the test systems. Inhibition of protein synthesis using cycloheximide led to significant reduction of tube elongation at 4 hr and had no effect on pollen germination at any time interval tested. Total proteins extracted from control and acid rain stressed pollen grain populations exhibited no differences. The reduction of corn pollen germination in vitro under acid rain stress was mainly due to pollen rupture. The present data indicates the reduction of pollen germination and tube growth under acid rain stress may be a physiological response rather than a genetic response. A simple, nontoxic, and effective method to separate germinated from ungerminated pollen grains has been developed using pollen from corn (Zea mays, L. cv. Pioneer 3747). The separated germinated pollen grains retained viability and continued tube growth when placed in culture medium.

  1. Changes in the concentration of grass pollen in the atmosphere of Poznań

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Golińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of grass pollen during the vegetation season in the atmosphere of Poznań against the background of the content of pollen of other plants and mould fungi. Observations were conducted in 1997. Concentrations of pollen grains and spores of mould fungi in the atmosphere were assessed by the volumetric method. For this purpose, the Burkard apparatus (Seven-Day Recording Volumetric Spore Trap was set up on the roof of the 8-storey high building of the Maximum College of the Agricultural University in Poznań. The continuous, 24-hour work of the apparatus made possible to monitor concentrations of allergenic pollen throughout the experiment. The tape was glued to a microscopic glass and evaluated under the light microscope. The number of pollen grains and mould spores on individual sections (2 mm per hour of the tape allowed determining their concentration per 1 m3 of air. Microscopic evaluation was conducted every 24 hours, collecting analytical material from the trap at 10 a.m. in which pollen and spores were determined. From among many wind pollinated taksons of plants, species from the grass family - because of their long period of pollination and clinical significance - play an important role in the structure of allergenic pollen in the atmosphere of Poznań. The highest concentration of grass pollen was recorded during the period from the end of May to the end of the first decade of July. From then on, the concentration of grass pollen in the air dropped rapidly and remained on a low level, not exceeding 7.5 pollen grains calculated per 1 m3 air per 24 hours. The higher concentration of grass pollen was recorded on June 29th - 360.4 grains · m-3. In terms of 24-hour period, the highest concentrations of the pollen grains in the air on a day without rain occurred between 9 and 11 a.m., whereas the lowest - at night.

  2. Stomatal regulation, structural acclimation and metabolic shift towards defensive compounds reduce O3 load in birch under chronic O3 stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, E.; Riikonen, J.; Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Maenpaa, M.; Rousi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Northern forests are encountering new threats due to continuously increasing load of oxidative stress, e.g. due to rising tropospheric O3 levels, and simultaneous climate warming, which is more intense in northern latitudes as compared to global means. The proportion of silver birch (Betula pendula) in Finnish forests is expected to increase with climate warming. Unfortunately, we have growing evidence that the vitality and the carbon sink strength of birch trees are weakened under chronic O3 stress. In this study we investigated the effects of slightly elevated O3 concentration (1.3 x the ambient), temperature (T) and their combination on the antioxidant defense, gas exchange and leaf growth of Betula pendula saplings (clone 12) growing in open-field conditions over two growing seasons. The plants were measured for SLA (specific leaf area), total leaf area, net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vc,max), maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax), relative stomatal limitation to photosynthesis (ls), dark respiration (Rd), apoplastic concentrations of AA (ascorbic acid), DHA (dehydroascobate) and total ascorbate, the redox state of apoplastic ascorbate, and total antioxidant capacity. Elevated O3 enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in the apoplast in the first year of the experiment at the ambient T. However, during the second year of the experiment, the saplings responded to elevated O3 level by closing the stomata and by developing leaves with a lower leaf area per mass, rather than by accumulating ascorbate in the apoplast. O3 did not affect the total leaf area, whereas Pn was slightly and gs significantly reduced in the second year. Elevated T enhanced the total leaf area, Pn and Vc,max, redox state of ascorbate and total antioxidant capacity in the apoplast. The effects of T and O3 on total leaf area and net photosynthesis were counteractive. We were not able to detect significant differences in Rd between the

  3. BASALIT trial: double-blind placebo-controlled allergen immunotherapy with rBet v 1-FV in birch-related soya allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treudler, R; Franke, A; Schmiedeknecht, A; Ballmer-Weber, B; Worm, M; Werfel, T; Jappe, U; Biedermann, T; Schmitt, J; Brehler, R; Kleinheinz, A; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Brüning, H; Ruëff, F; Ring, J; Saloga, J; Schäkel, K; Holzhauser, T; Vieths, S; Simon, J C

    2017-08-01

    Conflicting results exist on the effect of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) on pollen-related food allergy. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of one-year AIT with the folding variant (FV) of recombinant (r) Bet v 1 on birch-related soya allergy. Of 138 subjects with Bet v 1 sensitization, 82 were positive at double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with soya. A total of 56 of 82 were randomized in the ratio of 2:1 (active: placebo). Per-protocol population (PPP) had received ≥150 μg of allergen or placebo preparation. lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL), postinterventional occurrence of objective signs (objS) at any dose level, sIgE/IgG4 against Bet v 1 and Gly m 4. Between-group changes were investigated (ancova, Mann-Whitney U-test, Fisher exact test). Baseline characteristics including LOAELs were comparable in both groups with objS and subjS occurring in 82% and 95% of active (n = 38) vs 78% and 83% of placebo group (n = 18). After AIT, objS occurred in 24% and 47%, respectively. LOAEL group differences showed a beneficial tendency (P = 0.081) for LOAEL objective in PPP (30 active, 15 placebo). sIgG4 raised only in active group (Bet v 1: P = 0.054, Gly m 4: P = 0.037), and no relevant changes occurred for sIgE. Only 56% of the intended sample size was recruited. For the first time, we present data on the effect of rBet v 1-FV on birch-related soya allergy. rBet v 1-FV AIT induced significant immunogenic effects. Clinical assessment showed a tendency in favour of the active group but did not reach statistical significance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Damping properties of sequoia and birch under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshakov, A.P.; Gerdjukov, N.N.; Zotov, E.V.; Novikov, S.A.; Sinitsin, V.A.; Scherbak, Y.I.

    1998-01-01

    The decrease mechanic effect on loads being transported, shock load limiters (dampers) are being widely used today. Usually, the materials having 'stress-strain' diagrams (σ-ε) of compression with a substantial portion, where σ = const., are used as dampers. Most widely used are dampers made of foam polystyrene having just the same compression diagram. Similar strain diagrams can be enlisted for some porous materials, timber under cross compression, perforated metallic crushers and some others. By selecting damper material, the level of transmitted to the protected object pressures can be varied from several to hundreds MPa. Timber, as being widely used and featuring good technologic properties together with low cost, becomes an attractive material to be used as the limiter of shock loads. This paper presents the results of stress-strain sequoia properties (USA deliverable) and birch properties (Volgo-Vyatski region) at dynamic (v = 10 m/s) and quasistatic (v ≅ 10 -4 m/s) loading rates. The samples (diameter 25 x 25 mm) cut at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 90 deg. angle relative to their fibre were tested on one-axis compression at -30, +20 and +65 deg. C and fixed humidity (ω = 6-7%). Dynamic tests employed Kolsky method performed at the facility including Hopkinson's compound rod (Zukas et al.,1985). Sample loading was executed by trapezoidal pulsed pressure created by the explosive device. Samples were heated and cooled by special thermostats. (authors)

  5. The impact of birch seedlings on evapotranspiration from a mined peatland: an experimental study in southern Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dense stands of birch (Betula spp. on abandoned peat workings have often been identified as potential barriers to site restoration, but little research has been conducted to evaluate their impact on water resources. The objective of this experimental study was to determine whether birch seedlings established on an abandoned mined peatland in eastern Canada had a significant impact on evapotranspiration. Transpiration rates from birch seedlings planted in containers filled with Sphagnum compost were measured gravimetrically. Unplanted containers were used to similarly measure evaporation rates from bare peat. On average, the measured rates of evaporation (per unit area from peat were 2.5 times the rates of transpiration from birch leaves. However, if the total leaf area of a dense birch population established on an abandoned mined peatland is considered, the total amount of water lost through birch transpiration could be higher than that lost by evaporation from the peat surface. This study provides a rough estimate of potential water losses due to birch seedling transpiration, and indicates that a dense population of birch on a mined peatland may influence site hydrology even at the early establishment phase (seedlings. Consequently, recently abandoned mined peatlands should be restored rapidly to prevent the establishment of birch trees.

  6. Climate warming feedback from mountain birch forest expansion: reduced albedo dominates carbon uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Heleen A; Bryn, Anders; Hofgaard, Annika; Karstensen, Jonas; Kvalevåg, Maria M; Peters, Glen P

    2014-07-01

    Expanding high-elevation and high-latitude forest has contrasting climate feedbacks through carbon sequestration (cooling) and reduced surface reflectance (warming), which are yet poorly quantified. Here, we present an empirically based projection of mountain birch forest expansion in south-central Norway under climate change and absence of land use. Climate effects of carbon sequestration and albedo change are compared using four emission metrics. Forest expansion was modeled for a projected 2.6 °C increase in summer temperature in 2100, with associated reduced snow cover. We find that the current (year 2000) forest line of the region is circa 100 m lower than its climatic potential due to land-use history. In the future scenarios, forest cover increased from 12% to 27% between 2000 and 2100, resulting in a 59% increase in biomass carbon storage and an albedo change from 0.46 to 0.30. Forest expansion in 2100 was behind its climatic potential, forest migration rates being the primary limiting factor. In 2100, the warming caused by lower albedo from expanding forest was 10 to 17 times stronger than the cooling effect from carbon sequestration for all emission metrics considered. Reduced snow cover further exacerbated the net warming feedback. The warming effect is considerably stronger than previously reported for boreal forest cover, because of the typically low biomass density in mountain forests and the large changes in albedo of snow-covered tundra areas. The positive climate feedback of high-latitude and high-elevation expanding forests with seasonal snow cover exceeds those of afforestation at lower elevation, and calls for further attention of both modelers and empiricists. The inclusion and upscaling of these climate feedbacks from mountain forests into global models is warranted to assess the potential global impacts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ecological and phytopathological status of birch stands on the territory of Krasnoyarsk group of districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarintsev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available According to inspection data, the health and vital status of birch (Betula pendula Roth. stands in Krasnoyarsk group of lands (southern part of Central Siberia were estimated (established as satisfactory in general; about half of birch stands near urbanized areas were weakened. The condition of stands decreased significantly with increased recreation use, the effect of technogenic pollution was negligible. The most valuable (important representatives of pathogenic biota identified on birch trees were infestations of necrotic cancer and rot diseases. In birch stands the bacterial dropsy was found to be widespread (agent of infection – Erwinia multivora Scz.-Parf, occurrence of the disease ranged from a single ill tree up to 10–38 % of the stands. The birch stands in taiga areas were affected to a greater extent than in forest-steppe; there were high yield class stands on moist soils. Prevalence of bacteriosis rose with increasing stand age and density and not dependent on recreation use level. Trees with dropsy are dead in fact or potentially. In taiga birch forests the infection and rot of roots was caused by honey agaric (Armillaria mellea sensu lato, that lead to single or, rarely, group tree drying and the fungus usually eliminated already weakened trees. Wood biomass was destroyed by complex of aphyllophorous Hymenomycetes, their hemiparasitic species caused stem rots that decreased stand marketability and also resulted in rot-realated wind-break accumulation. Occurrence of rot was significantly higher in second growth birch stands, possibly above 20 %; the relationship between rot prevalence and forest assessment was not revealed.

  8. Pollen development in Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae. Implications for the evolution of aggregated pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hormaza Jose I

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most flowering plants, pollen is dispersed as monads. However, aggregated pollen shedding in groups of four or more pollen grains has arisen independently several times during angiosperm evolution. The reasons behind this phenomenon are largely unknown. In this study, we followed pollen development in Annona cherimola, a basal angiosperm species that releases pollen in groups of four, to investigate how pollen ontogeny may explain the rise and establishment of this character. We followed pollen development using immunolocalization and cytochemical characterization of changes occurring from anther differentiation to pollen dehiscence. Results Our results show that, following tetrad formation, a delay in the dissolution of the pollen mother cell wall and tapetal chamber is a key event that holds the four microspores together in a confined tapetal chamber, allowing them to rotate and then bind through the aperture sites through small pectin bridges, followed by joint sporopollenin deposition. Conclusion Pollen grouping could be the result of relatively minor ontogenetic changes beneficial for pollen transfer or/and protection from desiccation. Comparison of these events with those recorded in the recent pollen developmental mutants in Arabidopsis indicates that several failures during tetrad dissolution may convert to a common recurring phenotype that has evolved independently several times, whenever this grouping conferred advantages for pollen transfer.

  9. Pollen development in Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae). Implications for the evolution of aggregated pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Jorge; Testillano, Pilar S; Risueño, Maria C; Hormaza, Jose I; Herrero, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background In most flowering plants, pollen is dispersed as monads. However, aggregated pollen shedding in groups of four or more pollen grains has arisen independently several times during angiosperm evolution. The reasons behind this phenomenon are largely unknown. In this study, we followed pollen development in Annona cherimola, a basal angiosperm species that releases pollen in groups of four, to investigate how pollen ontogeny may explain the rise and establishment of this character. We followed pollen development using immunolocalization and cytochemical characterization of changes occurring from anther differentiation to pollen dehiscence. Results Our results show that, following tetrad formation, a delay in the dissolution of the pollen mother cell wall and tapetal chamber is a key event that holds the four microspores together in a confined tapetal chamber, allowing them to rotate and then bind through the aperture sites through small pectin bridges, followed by joint sporopollenin deposition. Conclusion Pollen grouping could be the result of relatively minor ontogenetic changes beneficial for pollen transfer or/and protection from desiccation. Comparison of these events with those recorded in the recent pollen developmental mutants in Arabidopsis indicates that several failures during tetrad dissolution may convert to a common recurring phenotype that has evolved independently several times, whenever this grouping conferred advantages for pollen transfer. PMID:19874617

  10. The long pollen tube journey and in vitro pollen germination of Phalaenopsis orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jhun-Chen; Fang, Su-Chiung

    2016-06-01

    Pollen biology in P. aphrodite. Orchids have a distinct reproductive program. Pollination triggers ovule development and differentiation within flowers, and fertilization occurs days to months after pollination. It is unclear how pollen tubes travel through the developing ovaries during ovule development and when pollen tubes arrive at the mature embryo sac to achieve fertilization. Here, we report a robust staining protocol to image and record the timing of pollen germination, progressive growth of pollen tubes in ovaries, and arrival of pollen tubes at embryo sacs in Phalaenopsis aphrodite. The pollen germinated and pollen tubes entered the ovary 3 days after pollination. Pollen tubes continued to grow and filled the entire cavity of the ovary as the ovary elongated and ovules developed. Pollen tubes were found to enter the matured embryo sacs at approximately 60-65 days after pollination in an acropetal manner. Moreover, these temporal changes in developmental events such as growth of pollen tubes and fertilization were associated with expression of molecular markers. In addition, we developed an in vitro pollen germination protocol, which is valuable to enable studies on pollen tube guidance and tip growth regulation in Phalaenopsis orchids and possibly in other orchid species.

  11. Pollen parameters estimates of genetic variability among newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates of some pollen parameters where used to assess the genetic diversity among some newly selected Nigerian Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Standard procedures were used to determine the pollen parameters such as: percentage pollen fertility, percentage pollen sterility, pollen diameters as well as anther ...

  12. Potential health risk of allergenic pollen with climate change associated spreading capacity: Ragweed and olive sensitization in two German federal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflich, Conny; Balakirski, Galina; Hajdu, Zuzanna; Baron, Jens Malte; Kaiser, Lorraine; Czaja, Katharina; Merk, Hans F; Gerdsen, Sarah; Strassen, Ulrich; Bas, Murat; Bier, Henning; Dott, Wolfgang; Mücke, Hans-Guido; Straff, Wolfgang; Chaker, Adam; Röseler, Stefani

    2016-05-01

    Global climate changes may influence the geographical spread of allergenic plants thus causing new allergen challenges. Allergy patients from two German federal states were compared for their status quo sensitization to ragweed, an establishing allergen, olive, a non-established allergen, and the native allergens birch, mugwort, and ash. Between 2011 and 2013, 476 adult allergy patients per region were recruited. Patients completed a questionnaire, participated in a medical interview, and underwent skin prick testing and blood withdrawal for analysis of specific IgE to allergen components (ISAC technology). Data on regional pollen load from 2006 to 2011 were acquired from the German Pollen Information Service Foundation. Prick test reactivity to ragweed and ash, respectively, was lower in Bavaria than in NRW (ragweed: p=0.001, aOR=0.54; ash: p=0.001, aOR=0.59), whereas prick test reactivity to olive was higher (p=0.000, aOR=3.09). Prick test reactivity to birch and mugwort, respectively, did not significantly differ. 1% (1/127) of patients with prick test reactivity to ragweed showed sIgE to Amb a 1, and 65% (86/132) of olive-but-not-ash reactive patients showed sIgE to Ole e 1 (NRW: 67%, Bavaria: 65%; p=0.823, OR=0.91). Regional differences in sensitization pattern were neither explainable by cross-reactivity to pollen pan-allergens nor non-exposure variables nor by reported plant population or pollen data. Spread of ragweed and particularly olive may result in prompt occurrence of allergic symptoms. Early identification of invasive allergens due to climate change does need time and spatial close meshed measurement of respective indicator allergens and sensitization pattern. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. Pollen evidence for a mid-Holocene East Asian summer monsoon maximum in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ruilin; Xiao, Jule; Fan, Jiawei; Zhang, Shengrui; Yamagata, Hideki

    2017-11-01

    There is a controversy regarding whether the high precipitation delivered by an intensified East Asian summer monsoon occurred during the early Holocene, or during the middle Holocene, especially in the context of the monsoonal margin region. The conflicting views on the subject may be caused by chronological uncertainties and ambiguities in the interpretation of different climate proxies measured in different sedimentary sequences. Here, we present a detailed record of the Holocene evolution of vegetation in northern China based on a high-resolution pollen record from Dali Lake, located near the modern summer monsoon limit. From 12,000-8300 cal BP, the sandy land landscape changed from desert to open elm forest and shrubland, while dry steppe dominated the hilly lands and patches of birch forest developed in the mountains. Between 8300 and 6000 cal BP, elm forest was extensively distributed in the sandy lands, while typical steppe covered the hilly lands and mixed coniferous-broadleaved forests expanded in the mountains. Our pollen evidence contradicts the view that the monsoonal rainfall increased during the early Holocene; rather, it indicates that the East Asian summer monsoon did not become intensified until ∼8000 cal BP in northern China. The low precipitation during the early Holocene can be attributed to the boundary conditions, i.e., to the remnant high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and the relatively low global sea level.

  14. [Effect of climatic changes on the phenology of plants and the presence of pollen in the air in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiter, D; Bernard, B; Defila, C; Gehrig, R

    2002-04-01

    The phenologic observations carried out in Switzerland since 1951 show a clear tendency to the earlier appearance of the spring phases of development of the vegetation during last decades. As these phases are strongly influenced by the temperature, these results reinforce the hypothesis according to which the climatic reheating in progress strongly influences the development of the vegetation. The flowering and the release of the pollen of the plants allergens are significant phenologic phases for human health. Modifications in their dates of manifestation lead to a displacement of the periods of allergic risk. The analysis of the aerobiologic data of the Swiss stations over one duration of more than 20 years showed that the species which flower in winter and in spring were subject to the influence of the soft winters of the years 1990 to 2000. In certain areas the pollen of birch, for example, is nowadays waited on average 3 weeks earlier than 20 years ago, whereas the pollen of ash appears with one month in advance. The phenologic and aeropalynologic studies thus prove sensitive witnesses of the climatic change in progress. This last intervenes like an indirect but significant component of human health, in particular when the field of the allergies is considered.

  15. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T.; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Karnosky, David F.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO 2 and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO 2 protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO 2 increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO 2 treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO 2 were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO 2 . Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO 2 confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  16. m-BIRCH: an online clustering approach for computer vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Siddharth K.; Dana, Kristin J.

    2015-03-01

    We adapt a classic online clustering algorithm called Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies (BIRCH), to incrementally cluster large datasets of features commonly used in multimedia and computer vision. We call the adapted version modified-BIRCH (m-BIRCH). The algorithm uses only a fraction of the dataset memory to perform clustering, and updates the clustering decisions when new data comes in. Modifications made in m-BIRCH enable data driven parameter selection and effectively handle varying density regions in the feature space. Data driven parameter selection automatically controls the level of coarseness of the data summarization. Effective handling of varying density regions is necessary to well represent the different density regions in data summarization. We use m-BIRCH to cluster 840K color SIFT descriptors, and 60K outlier corrupted grayscale patches. We use the algorithm to cluster datasets consisting of challenging non-convex clustering patterns. Our implementation of the algorithm provides an useful clustering tool and is made publicly available.

  17. The Puzzling Origin of the Acquaintance between Charlotte Lennox and Thomas Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Hamilton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have puzzled over the origin of the relationship between Charlotte Lennox and Thomas Birch. That the two shared a cordial professional relationship in 1759 is not surprising, but it is unclear how and when Birch obtained the poem "The Dream, an ode by Miss Ramsey of 15" (ca. 1744-45 for his manuscript collection. Possibly Edward Cave, publisher of The Gentleman’s Magazine, or other professional associates such as Samuel Johnson or Samuel Richardson supplied it. But archival evidence indicates that Lady Isabella Finch, Lennox’s earliest patroness, was in contact with Birch in 1749, raising the question of whether she could have given Birch the poem. However, a different type of connection between Lennox and Birch is suggested by Lennox’s first novel, The Life of Harriot Stuart, written by Herself (1750, which mentions William Chillingworth, Isaac Barrow, and John Tillotson as theological influences. Lennox may have known of these three seventeenth-century divines through Birch’s biographical work on them.

  18. Birch mixture in spruce forest - a method to reduce the effects of acidification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Kristina.

    1996-01-01

    Acidification has lately been focus of increased attention in the business, industrial and public sectors. One measure that can prevent further acidification is the liming of forest soils. Another strategy would be to increase the admixture of deciduous tree species in conifer forest. This paper deals with the latter problem. From ecological and economical standpoints, the tree species offering the most advantageous admixture in Sweden would be birch, Betula pendula, and Norway spruce, Picea abies. Birch trees help to increase soil pH, while decreasing atmospheric deposition and protecting young spruce seedling from frost. The use of birch admixture need to be 50% or more to get required effect. This will lead to a reduction in spruce wood production. This need not to be a problem, however, since birch pulp will probably become more valuable in the future. The admixed forests have a higher biological diversity and are of greater value for recreation. Although spruce production on acidified sited is still high, further atmospheric deposition could lead to declines in production. Forest soils will eventually sustain serious damage if acid deposition continues to increase, which will require new alternatives for wood production be found. A high admixture of birch can offer a temporary respite if emission and deposition continue, but cannot completely compensate for the acidifying effects of present deposition levels. 26 refs, 2 figs

  19. The coexistence of bicellular and tricellular pollen in Annona cherimola (Annonaceae): Implications for pollen evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lora, Jorge; Herrero Romero, María; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Most angiosperms release bicellular pollen. However, in about one-third of extant angiosperms, the second pollen mitosis occurs before anthesis such that pollen is tricellular upon release. The shift from bicellular to tricellular development has occurred several times independently, but its causes are largely unknown. In this work, we observed the coexistence of both kinds of pollen at anther dehiscence in Annona cherimola, a species that belongs to the basal angiosperm family Annonaceae. Ex...

  20. Trends in prevalence of allergic rhinitis and correlation with pollen counts in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Thomas; Gassner, Ewald

    2008-11-01

    In recent decades, a large number of epidemiological studies investigating the change of prevalence of hay fever showed an increase in the occurrence of this disease. However, other studies carried out in the 1990s yielded contradictory results. Many environmental factors have been hypothesized to contribute to the increasing hay fever rate, including both indoor and ambient air pollution, reduced exposure to microbial stimulation and changes in diets. However, the observed increase has not convincingly been explained by any of these factors and there is limited evidence of changes in exposure to these risk factors over time. Additionally, recent studies show that no further increase in asthma, hay fever and atopic sensitisation in adolescents and adults has been observed during the 1990s and the beginning of the new century. As the pattern of pollen counts has changed over the years, partly due to the global warming but also as a consequence of a change in the use of land, the changing prevalence of hay fever might partly be driven by this different pollen exposure. Epidemiological data for hay fever in Switzerland are available from 1926 until 2000 (with large gaps between 1926 and 1958 and 1958 to 1986) whereas pollen data are available from 1969 until the present. This allows an investigation as to whether these data are correlated provided the same time spans are compared. It would also be feasible to correlate the pollen data with meteorological data which, however, is not the subject of our investigation. Our study focuses on analyzing time series of pollen counts and of pollen season lengths in order to identify their trends, and to ascertain whether there is a relationship between these trends and the changes in the hay fever prevalence. It is shown in this paper that the pollen exposure has been decreasing in Basel since the beginning of the 1990s whereas the rate of the hay fever prevalence in Switzerland remained approximately unchanged in this period

  1. Five-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablet for the treatment of grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: 5 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Alain; Wahn, Ulrich; Horak, Friedrich; Cox, Linda S

    2014-10-01

    Oralair(®) (OA) (Stallergenes, Antony, France) is a unique pre- and co-seasonal 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablet launched in 2008, and now approved in 31 countries worldwide for the treatment of grass-pollen allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis. OA is the first oral treatment with a consistent, well-balanced allergen extract that mimics natural exposure and sensitization. A wealth of data exists from over 5 years of clinical and real-world experience demonstrating the efficacy and safety of OA for grass-pollen-allergy treatment. OA is highly effective from the first pollen season in all patient subgroups, including children and those with comorbid mild asthma, irrespective of sensitization status and symptom severity. OA also has sustained long-term benefits for symptom control and quality of life. This article provides an overview of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacology of OA; its efficacy, safety, tolerability and cost-effectiveness for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis and its role in clinical practice.

  2. Importance of saprotrophic freshwater fungi for pollen degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wurzbacher

    Full Text Available Fungi and bacteria are the major organic matter (OM decomposers in aquatic ecosystems. While bacteria are regarded as primary mineralizers in the pelagic zone of lakes and oceans, fungi dominate OM decomposition in streams and wetlands. Recent findings indicate that fungal communities are also active in lakes, but little is known about their diversity and interactions with bacteria. Therefore, the decomposer niche overlap of saprotrophic fungi and bacteria was studied on pollen (as a seasonally recurring source of fine particulate OM by performing microcosm experiments with three different lake types. Special emphasis was placed on analysis of fungal community composition and diversity. We hypothesized that (I pollen select for small saprotrophic fungi and at the same time for typical particle-associated bacteria; (II fungal communities form specific free-living and attached sub-communities in each lake type; (III the ratio between fungi or bacteria on pollen is controlled by the lake's chemistry. Bacteria-to-fungi ratios were determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR, and bacterial and fungal diversity were studied by clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprints. A protease assay was used to identify functional differences between treatments. For generalization, systematic differences in bacteria-to-fungi ratios were analyzed with a dataset from the nearby Baltic Sea rivers. High abundances of Chytridiomycota as well as occurrences of Cryptomycota and yeast-like fungi confirm the decomposer niche overlap of saprotrophic fungi and bacteria on pollen. As hypothesized, microbial communities consistently differed between the lake types and exhibited functional differences. Bacteria-to-fungi ratios correlated well with parameters such as organic carbon and pH. The importance of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen for bacteria-to-fungi ratios was supported by the Baltic Sea river dataset. Our findings highlight the fact

  3. Seed set, pollen morphology and pollen surface composition response to heat stress in field pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yunfei; Lahlali, Rachid; Karunakaran, Chithra; Kumar, Saroj; Davis, Arthur R; Bueckert, Rosalind A

    2015-11-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a major legume crop grown in a semi-arid climate in Western Canada, where heat stress affects pollination, seed set and yield. Seed set and pod growth characteristics, along with in vitro percentage pollen germination, pollen tube growth and pollen surface composition, were measured in two pea cultivars (CDC Golden and CDC Sage) subjected to five maximum temperature regimes ranging from 24 to 36 °C. Heat stress reduced percentage pollen germination, pollen tube length, pod length, seed number per pod, and the seed-ovule ratio. Percentage pollen germination of CDC Sage was greater than CDC Golden at 36 °C. No visible morphological differences in pollen grains or the pollen surface were observed between the heat and control-treated pea. However, pollen wall (intine) thickness increased due to heat stress. Mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance (MIR-ATR) spectra revealed that the chemical composition (lipid, proteins and carbohydrates) of each cultivar's pollen grains responded differently to heat stress. The lipid region of the pollen coat and exine of CDC Sage was more stable compared with CDC Golden at 36 °C. Secondary derivatives of ATR spectra indicated the presence of two lipid types, with different amounts present in pollen grains from each cultivar. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  5. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  6. Early Pollen Sensitization in Children Is Dependent upon Regional Aeroallergen Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aeroallergen sensitization occurs at an earlier age than previously noted. The purpose of this paper was to identify which pollens cause early sensitization in young children presenting with rhinitis symptoms. Methods. This paper was a retrospective analysis of skin test results from 2- to 8-year-old patients presenting with a history consistent with allergic rhinitis. Patients were tested to aeroallergens common to the Great Basin along with a histamine and saline control. Pollen counts were obtained from a Reno, NV-certified counting station. Results. 123 children less than 8 years of age were identified. Over 50% of these children were sensitized to at least one aeroallergen. Chemopodaciae, timothy, alfalfa, black walnut, olive, mountain cedar and willow were predominating sensitizing aeroallergens of the Great Basin Region. Pollen counts were notable for a early spring peak for the tree season, grass season in May and weed season in August. Pollen levels continued to November at low levels. Discussion. Aeroallergens causing early sensitization differed from those which had predominately been reported in other regions of the United States. Pediatric allergists should consider performing a local review of sensitizing aeroallergens in their region to assist with identification and management of allergic rhinitis in their youngest patients. Please make style changes as appropriate.

  7. Experimental studies on mushroom and pollen drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan; Olgun, Hayati; Ayhan, Teoman [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Trabzon (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    In this study, drying periods of mushrooms and pollens (for Anzer honey) were investigated. The experiments of mushrooms were carried out under both laboratory and shady- and sunny-atmospheric conditions and those of pollens were conducted in the drying cupboard heated by electric heater and under sunny atmospheric conditions. The temperature of the drying cupboard was regulated at 45degC during the drying experiment of pollen. The mass loss of pollens and the temperature of each shelf including pollens in the drying cupboard were measured. Drying curves of mushrooms and pollens for each experiment and the variation of the mass change ratio, the moisture ratio of pollens and the temperatures in the shelves with drying time were presented, respectively. Furthermore, their equations of drying curves and the average experimental uncertainty ratios were calculated based on the experimental results. It was concluded that mushrooms can be dried in the cupboards by using hot air at 50degC in a time period of 5-6 h, and the dried must be protected in vacuum, and the pollens also must be dried at temperatures between 40 and 45degC in a time period of 2.5-3 h without their losing the colour, flavour, smell and structure. The average experimental uncertainty ratio of mushrooms and pollens during the drying process were calculated to be 22 and 18% respectively. (Author)

  8. [A VALIDATION STUDY OF THE IMPROVED PRODUCT FOR MEASURING JAPANESE CYPRESS POLLEN-SPECIFIC IgE (THERMO SCIENTIFIC™ImmunoCAP™ImmunoCAP JAPANESE CYPRESS POLLEN-SPECIFIC IgE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Syuji; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    Japanese cypress pollen is a major causative allergen of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Japan. Although ImmunoCAP-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) reagent Japanese cypress pollen has been widely used as a diagnostic aid, its sensitivity requires enhancement. This study evaluated an improved version of this reagent. Serum samples from 61 subjects who underwent Japanese cypress pollen exposure testing in an environmental challenge chamber in Chiba University were assessed using the conventional ImmunoCAPspecific IgE Japanese cypress pollen product and the improved product. In addition, specific IgE for Cha o 1 and Cha o 2, the primary allergen components of Japanese cypress pollen, was evaluated and their reactivity to specific IgE was compared between the conventional and improved products. The antibody titer of the improved product was approximately 1.8-fold that of the conventional product. In addition, higher correlations with Cha o 1 and Cha o 2 were observed for the improved product than for the conventional product. The clinical sensitivity (≥class 2) in 56 exposure test-positive subjects was better for the improved product (80.4%) than for the conventional product (71.4%). An improvement of the ImmunoCAP-specific IgE reagent Japanese cypress pollen resulted in enhanced Japanese cypress pollen-specific IgE sensitivity. The primary reason for this appeared to be an improved Cha o 1- and Cha o 2-specific IgE detectability.

  9. Potential role of soil calcium in recovery of paper birch following ice storm injury in Vermont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher F. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, an increased number of mature paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and heart-leafed paper birch (B. papyrifera var. cordifolia (Regel) Fern.) in northeastern United States forests have exhibited decline symptoms including foliar loss, reduced fine branching, and tree mortality. We assessed crown health, radial...

  10. Aerodynamics and pollen ultrastructure in Ephedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinder, Kristina; Niklas, Karl J; Rydin, Catarina

    2015-03-01

    Pollen dispersal is affected by the terminal settling velocity (Ut) of the grains, which is determined by their size, bulk density, and by atmospheric conditions. The likelihood that wind-dispersed pollen is captured by ovulate organs is influenced by the aerodynamic environment created around and by ovulate organs. We investigated pollen ultrastructure and Ut of Ephedra foeminea (purported to be entomophilous), and simulated the capture efficiency of its ovules. Results were compared with those from previously studied anemophilous Ephedra species.• Ut was determined using stroboscopic photography of pollen in free fall. The acceleration field around an "average" ovule was calculated, and inflight behavior of pollen grains was predicted using computer simulations. Pollen morphology and ultrastructure were investigated using SEM and STEM.• Pollen wall ultrastructure was correlated with Ut in Ephedra. The relative proportion and amount of granules in the infratectum determine pollen bulk densities, and (together with overall size) determine Ut and thus dispersal capability. Computer simulations failed to reveal any functional traits favoring anemophilous pollen capture in E. foeminea.• The fast Ut and dense ultrastructure of E. foeminea pollen are consistent with functional traits that distinguish entomophilous species from anemophilous species. In anemophilous Ephedra species, ovulate organs create an aerodynamic microenvironment that directs airborne pollen to the pollination drops. In E. foeminea, no such microenvironment is created. Ephedroid palynomorphs from the Cretaceous share the ultrastructural characteristics of E. foeminea, and at least some may, therefore, have been produced by insect-pollinated plants. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. De novo post-pollen mitosis II tobacco pollen tube transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Hafidh, S. (Said); Breznenová, K. (Katarína); Honys, D. (David)

    2012-01-01

    In our previous study we applied the Agilent 44K tobacco gene chip to introduce and analyze the tobacco male gametophyte transcriptome in mature pollen and 4h pollen tubes. Here we extended our analysis post-pollen mitosis II (PMII) by including a new data set obtained from more advanced stage of the ongoing progamic phase – pollen tubes cultivated in vitro for 24 h. Pollen mitosis II marks key events in the control of male gametophyte development, the production of two sperm cells. In bicell...

  12. Pollen productivity and morphology of pollen grains in two cultivars of honeyberry (Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast. Pojark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bożek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2004-2006, investigations on the abundance of pollen production in two cultivars of Lonicera kamtschatica (Sevast. Pojark. - Atut and Duet, were conducted at the Felin Experimental Farm of the Agricultural University in Lublin. Moreover, the viability of pollen grains was estimated and measurements of their size were taken. Ten flowers of both studied cultivars supplied 11.42 mg of pollen and the average pollen productivity per 1 ha of a several-years-old plantation was 30.04 kg. The pollen of the observed plants was eagerly collected by honey bees. Pollen grains of both cultivars are suboblate. Considering their size, they can be described as large ones (P=47.55 µm, E=60.37 µm. Pollen viability for both cultivars is high, about 95%.

  13. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. PMID:26819967

  14. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sénéchal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed.

  15. Meteorological and landscape influences on pollen beetle immigration into oilseed rape crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skellern, Matthew P; Welham, Sue J; Watts, Nigel P; Cook, Samantha M

    2017-04-01

    Heavy reliance on pesticide inputs to maintain crop yields has been an important aspect of agricultural intensification. Insecticide use has had detrimental impacts on pollinators and natural pest control agents, contributing to a decline in associated ecosystem services, and has also led to resistance development in pest populations. Throughout Europe, in oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) crops, prophylactic use of insecticides against pollen beetles ( Meligethes aeneus F. also known as Brassicogethes aeneus ) has led to such issues, and there is an urgent need to develop more sustainable pest management practices for the crop. Although advice is available to oilseed rape growers regarding control thresholds, it may not be adhered to due to the expense of pollen beetle monitoring relative to the inexpensive cost of pyrethroid insecticides. Thus, the key to reducing prophylactic insecticide applications may lie with improved, less labour intensive methods of pollen beetle monitoring. For these to be realized, a better understanding is needed of the effects of agri-landscape features and meteorological conditions on pollen beetle immigration into the crop. In this study, based on data from four years of pollen beetle monitoring on a total of 41 field sites, we model the effects of meteorological (wind speed and direction, rainfall and accumulated temperature) and landscape (areas of woodland, residential gardens, the current and previous seasons' oilseed rape crops, and lengths of hedgerows and treelines) variables on directional sticky trap catches, at both the single trap and field scales. Meteorological variables, particularly accumulated temperature and wind speed were more important than landscape variables in predicting the abundance of pollen beetles immigrating into OSR fields. Sticky traps that were facing downwind caught more beetles than those that were facing across-wind or upwind; this is the first study to show at a landscape-scale, direct evidence for

  16. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid

  17. Pollen Evolution in Yams (Dioscorea: Dioscoreaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, P.; Wilkin, P.; Furness, C.; Huysmans, S.; Smets, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pollen character evolution in yams (Dioscorea: Dioscoreaceae) was investigated in relation to the phylogeny obtained from a recent combined analysis of rbcL and matK gene sequences. The following characters were evaluated: pollen size, aperture number, sexine ornamentation, perforation density, and

  18. A combinatorial approach to angiosperm pollen morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-11-30

    Angiosperms (flowering plants) are strikingly diverse. This is clearly expressed in the morphology of their pollen grains, which are characterized by enormous variety in their shape and patterning. In this paper, I approach angiosperm pollen morphology from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics. This involves generating angiosperm pollen morphotypes by algorithmically combining character states and enumerating the results of these combinations. I use this approach to generate 3 643 200 pollen morphotypes, which I visualize using a parallel-coordinates plot. This represents a raw morphospace. To compare real-world and theoretical morphologies, I map the pollen of 1008 species of Neotropical angiosperms growing on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, onto this raw morphospace. This highlights that, in addition to their well-documented taxonomic diversity, Neotropical rainforests also represent an enormous reservoir of morphological diversity. Angiosperm pollen morphospace at BCI has been filled mostly by pollen morphotypes that are unique to single plant species. Repetition of pollen morphotypes among higher taxa at BCI reflects both constraint and convergence. This combinatorial approach to morphology addresses the complexity that results from large numbers of discrete character combinations and could be employed in any situation where organismal form can be captured by discrete morphological characters. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  20. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  1. MICROBIAL QUALITY OF HONEY MIXTURE WITH POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was evaluation of microbial quality in raw materials (honey, pollen and evaluation of microbial quality in honey mixture with pollen (2.91 % and 3.85 % and also dynamics of microbial groups in honey mixtures with pollen after 14 days storage at the room temperature (approximately 25 °C and in cold store (8 °C. We used dilution plating method for testing of samples. Detections of total plate microbial count (aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, sporulating bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp., Lactobacillus sp. and microscopic fungi were performed. In general, counts of microorganisms decreased in honey mixture with pollen compared to raw pollen and these counts increased compared to natural honey. Total plate count was 5.37 log KTJ.g-1 in pollen; 1.36 log KTJ.g-1 in honey; 2.97 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen and 2.04 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen. Coliform bacteria were detected in pollen (1.77 log KTJ.g-1. Then, we found coliform bacteria in one sample of honey mixtures with pollen (2.91 % - 1.00 log KTJ.g-1.Bifidobacterium species were detected only in raw pollen. We did not findLactobacillus sp. in any of the samples. Microscopic fungi were detected on two cultivating media. Yeasts were present in pollen sample (average 5.39 log KTJ.g-1, honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 2.51 log KTJ.g-1 and honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (average 1.58 log KTJ.g-1. Filamentous microscopic fungi were detectable in pollen (average 3.38 log KTJ.g-1, in honey (only on one medium: 1.00 log KTJ.g-1, in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 1.15 log KTJ.g-1 and in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (1.71 %. Raw pollen contained microscopic fungi as Absidiasp., Mucor sp., Alternaria sp. andEmericella nidulans. Honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen after storage (14 days contained lower microbial counts when compared with the sample

  2. Pollination potential of male bumble bees (Bombus impatiens: movement patterns and pollen-transfer efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Thomson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many plant species rely on female bumble bee workers for pollen transfer. However, male bumble bees, which differ both behaviourally and morphologically from female workers, also visit many species of flowering plants and may transfer pollen differently. Males can outnumber workers on some plants, particularly those that flower late in the season. In laboratory experiments, we compared the movement patterns of male bees and female workers on an artificial flower array. We also compared the pollen transfer efficiency of males and workers foraging on Brassica rapa flowers. Males travelled between patches of flowers more often than workers, which may be an effective method for reducing geitonogamy in plants. Males also had lower foraging rates, longer flower handling time, and transferred more pollen from one B. rapa flower to the next than workers did. These caste-based differences in pollinating behaviour suggest that, under certain circumstances and on a per-visit basis, male bumble bees may be better pollen vectors than female foragers. Furthermore, our results emphasize the need to avoid species-wide generalizations of pollinator effectiveness.

  3. Honey Bee Workers That Are Pollen Stressed as Larvae Become Poor Foragers and Waggle Dancers as Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Hailey N.; Mattila, Heather R.

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees’ access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults). Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus our findings

  4. Honey bee workers that are pollen stressed as larvae become poor foragers and waggle dancers as adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailey N Scofield

    Full Text Available The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera. Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees' access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults. Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus

  5. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidants from slow pyrolysis bio-oil of birch wood: Application for biodiesel and biobased lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch wood was slowly pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and biochar. Slow pyrolysis conditions including reaction temperature, residence time, and particle size of the feed were optimized to maximize bio-oil yield. Particle size had an insignificant effect, whereas yields of up to 56% were achieved using...

  7. Growth Response of Seedling Yellow Birch to Humus-Soil Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs; Robert R. Oberg

    1966-01-01

    Previous observations of the establishment of yellow birch have cited the importance of mixed humus-mineral soil seedbeds. Godman and Krefting pointed out that both germination and growth were enhanced. Subsequent studies have shown that while germination in the absence of competition is adequate on mineral soil of a Podzol A under a wide variety of light and...

  8. Estimating the spread rate of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer using fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni Antikainen; Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mari Levirinne; Mark Hughes

    2015-01-01

    In plywood production, human operators find it difficult to precisely monitor the spread rate of adhesive in real-time. In this study, macroscopic fluorescence was used to estimate spread rate (SR) of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer. This method could be an option when developing automated real-time SR measurement for...

  9. 78 FR 50410 - Birch Power Company; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Project] Birch Power Company; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement Rule..., the Secretary may establish a restricted service list for a particular phase or issue in a proceeding. The restricted service list should contain the names of persons on the service list who, in the...

  10. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehelean Cristina A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%. Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, A2780 (ovarian carcinoma, HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma, by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts.

  11. The distribution of lignin in white birch wood as determined by bromination with TEM-EDXA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saka, S.; Goring, D.A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorbance and bromine uptake were measured on various morphological regions of birch wood. To facilitate precise comparison, observations were made on identical locations in successive cross sections. From the data, the concentration of lignin and the ratio of the guaiacyl to syringyl residues were determined. The results obtained were then compared with the previous findings from the use of UV microscopy alone

  12. High-Titer Methane from Organosolv-Pretreated Spruce and Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact of fossil fuels and the increased demand for renewable energy sources has led to the use of novel raw material sources. Lignocellulosic biomass could serve as a possible raw material for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. This work is aimed at using forest biomass, both softwood (spruce and hardwood (birch, as a raw material for anaerobic digestion. We examined the effect of different operational conditions for the organosolv pretreatment (ethanol content, duration of treatment, and addition of acid catalyst on the methane yield. In addition, we investigated the effect of addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion. We found that inclusion of an acid catalyst during organosolv pretreatment improved the yields from spruce, but it did not affect the yields from birch. Shorter duration of treatment was advantageous with both materials. Methane yields from spruce were higher with lower ethanol content whereas higher ethanol content was more beneficial for birch. The highest yields obtained were 185 mL CH4/g VS from spruce and 259.9 mL CH4/g VS from birch. Addition of cellulolytic enzymes improved these yields to 266.6 mL CH4/g VS and 284.2 mL CH4/g VS, respectively.

  13. Polyoxometalate delignification of birch kraft pulp and effect on residual lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biljana Bujanovic; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph; Rajai H. Atalla

    2011-01-01

    To advance the understanding of delignification with polyoxometalates (POMs) that have been explored for use in bleaching of chemical pulps, the transformation of lignin during anaerobic treatment of birch kraft pulp with an equilibrated POM mixture composed of Na5(+2)[SiV1(-0.1)MoW10(+0.1)O

  14. Shading and root-shoot relations in saplings of silver birch, pedunculate oak and beech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, van A.F.M.; Clerkx, A.P.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) can regenerate successfully under a canopy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Shading reduces plant growth and modifies plant form, two related aspects. This study focuses on the effects of

  15. Influence of edging practices on cutting yields of Alaska birch lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; J.W. Funck; C.C. Brunner; J.E. Reeb

    2009-01-01

    Birch lumber is often characterized by a high degree of knots, bark pockets, heartwood, and other features which force sawmill owners to decide whether to edge and trim boards to produce standard grade lumber vs. proprietary grade character-marked lumber. In addition, the edging strategies used with irregularly shaped flitches can greatly influence cut-stock recovery....

  16. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  17. Leaf N resorption efficiency and litter N mineralization rate have a genotypic tradeoff in a silver birch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikola, Juha; Silfver, Tarja; Paaso, Ulla; Possen, Boy J M H; Rousi, Matti

    2018-02-07

    Plants enhance N use efficiency by resorbing N from senescing leaves. This can affect litter N mineralization rate due to the C:N-ratio requirements of microbial growth. We examined genotypic links between leaf N resorption and litter mineralization by collecting leaves and litter from 19 Betula pendula genotypes and following the N release of litter patches on forest ground. We found significant genotypic variation for N resorption efficiency, litter N concentration, cumulative three-year patch N-input and litter N release with high broad-sense heritabilities (H 2  = 0.28-0.65). The genotype means of N resorption efficiency varied from 46% to 65% and correlated negatively with the genotype means of litter N concentration, cumulative patch N-input and litter N release. NH 4 + yield under patches had a positive genotypic correlation with the cumulative patch N-input. During the first year of litter decomposition, genotypes varied from N immobilization (max 2.71 mg/g dry litter) to N release (max 1.41 mg/g dry litter), creating a genotypic tradeoff between the N conserved by resorption and the N available for root uptake during the growing season. We speculate that this tradeoff is one likely reason for the remarkably wide genotypic range of N resorption efficiencies in our birch population. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Honey bees preferentially consume freshly-stored pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mark J; Brown, Nicholas; Goodall, Craig; Downs, Alexandra M; Sheenan, Timothy H; Anderson, Kirk E

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) collect and store both honey and pollen in preserved forms. Pollen storage involves the addition of honey or nectar and oral secretions to pollen granules. It is controversial whether the duration of pollen storage alters the palatability or nutritive value of the pollen storage medium. We examined how bees utilize different-aged stored pollen during an extended pollen flow. The deposition of pollen into wax cells and subsequent consumption were monitored daily on 18 brood frames from 6 colonies over an 8d observation period. Despite a greater abundance of older stored pollen cells on brood frames, bees showed a marked preference for the consumption of freshly-stored pollen. Two to four day-old pollen cell contents were significantly more likely to be consumed, while pollen cell contents more than seven days old were eaten at much lower rates. Similar experiments that controlled for cell abundance and spatial effects using cage assays yielded the same result. One day-old stored pollen was consumed approximately three times more often than 10d-old stored pollen, and two times more often than 5d-old stored pollen. These consumption preferences for freshly-stored pollen occurred despite a lack of clear developmental advantages. Young adult workers reared for 7 days on 1d-, 5d-, or 10d-old stored pollen showed no difference in body mass, stored pollen consumption, hindgut fecal material accumulation, or hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) protein titers, suggesting that different-aged pollen stores did not vary in their nutritional value to adult bees. These findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis promoting a period of microbially-mediated, "beebread maturation" that results in greater palatability or nutritive value for aged pollen stores. Rather, stored pollen that is not eaten in the first few days accumulates as excess stores preserved in a less preferred, but nutritionally-similar state.

  19. Bee plant inventory and the pollen potentiality of Menagesha Suba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed with the objectives of assessing the pollen yielding plant species and to establish, the flowering phenology of bee plants. Pollen was collected from the zander beehives using the pollen trap fitted to the entrance of beehives for two years. The pollen was identified using light microscope with a 400x ...

  20. Alnus as a disturbing factor in pollen diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1959-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that percentages of pollen in a pollen diagram do not express the exact composition of forests in earlier times. This inaccuracy is due to several factors, for instance the different quantities of pollen produced by plants, the distance of transport etc. A pollen diagram

  1. Comparative pollen analysis of honeys from apiary and open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative pollen analysis of honeys from apiary and open markets in Nigeria and Bénin Republic. ... Eleven honey samples, six from the apiary and five from the open markets, were analysed for their pollen content. Pollen types ... Key words: Pollen, Bees, Guinea savanna, Botanical origin, Honey, Melissopalynology ...

  2. In vitro pollen quantity, viability and germination tests in quince ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) cvs. Ekmek, Esme, Limon, Ege 2, Ege 22, Ege 25 and Quince-A rootstock pollens were collected in April from the unopened pink balloon-stage flowers on mature trees. The pollen amount was between 20063 pollen/flower ('Ege 25') and 11906 pollen/flower ('Limon') with hemacytometer.

  3. Development and validation of a 5-day-ahead hay fever forecast for patients with grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weger, Letty A.; Beerthuizen, Thijs; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Sont, Jacob K.

    2014-08-01

    One-third of the Dutch population suffers from allergic rhinitis, including hay fever. In this study, a 5-day-ahead hay fever forecast was developed and validated for grass pollen allergic patients in the Netherlands. Using multiple regression analysis, a two-step pollen and hay fever symptom prediction model was developed using actual and forecasted weather parameters, grass pollen data and patient symptom diaries. Therefore, 80 patients with a grass pollen allergy rated the severity of their hay fever symptoms during the grass pollen season in 2007 and 2008. First, a grass pollen forecast model was developed using the following predictors: (1) daily means of grass pollen counts of the previous 10 years; (2) grass pollen counts of the previous 2-week period of the current year; and (3) maximum, minimum and mean temperature ( R 2 = 0.76). The second modeling step concerned the forecasting of hay fever symptom severity and included the following predictors: (1) forecasted grass pollen counts; (2) day number of the year; (3) moving average of the grass pollen counts of the previous 2 week-periods; and (4) maximum and mean temperatures ( R 2 = 0.81). Since the daily hay fever forecast is reported in three categories (low-, medium- and high symptom risk), we assessed the agreement between the observed and the 1- to 5-day-ahead predicted risk categories by kappa, which ranged from 65 % to 77 %. These results indicate that a model based on forecasted temperature and grass pollen counts performs well in predicting symptoms of hay fever up to 5 days ahead.

  4. Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About NIEHS Home Page Office of the Director Organizational Structure 2018-2023 Strategic Plan Advisory Boards & Councils Community ... Home Page About NIEHS Office of the Director Organizational Structure 2018-2023 Strategic Plan Advisory Boards & Councils Community ...

  5. Pollen Viability of Aeschynanthus tricolor Hook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitri Garvita Gandadikusumah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeschynanthus (Gesneriaceae is climbing or trailing epiphytes from the tropical forests of South-East Asia. Several species are widely cultivated for their attractive flowers, which usually scarlet with long corolla tubes and probably bird pollinated.This study was carried out on Aeschynanthus tricolor Hook. to determine in vitro germinability of (1 pollen collected from flowers at anthesis, on the day before anthesis, or up to five days after anthesis and (2 pollen collected on the day of anthesis and then stored at -20oC for 127 days. Germinability tests were carried out on pollen grains after stored for four hours in 10% sucrose solution. The highest in vitro germination percentage observed was pollen collected on the day of anthesis (96.3% and the lowest was pollen collected on the fifth day after anthesis (5.6%. The germination percentage of pollen after stored at -20oC was 98% at beginning and 22% after 127 days. From this research we can conclude that pollen of A. tricolor can be successfully collected and then stored for some time, will be practical benefit for plant breeding and conservation purposes.

  6. Pollen structure and function in caesalpinioid legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J

    2016-03-01

    A diverse range of pollen morphologies occurs within the large, paraphyletic legume subfamily Caesalpinioideae, especially among early-branching lineages. Previous studies have hypothesized an association between surface ornamentation and pollination syndrome or other aspects of pollen function such as desiccation tolerance and adaptations to accommodate volume changes. We reviewed caesalpinioid pollen morphology using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in combination with a literature survey of pollination vectors. Pollen structural diversity is greatest in the early-branching tribes Cercideae and Detarieae, whereas Cassieae and Caesalpinieae are relatively low in pollen diversity. Functional structures to counter desiccation include opercula (lids) covering apertures and reduced aperture size. Structures preventing wall rupture during dehydration and rehydration include different forms of colpi (syncolpi, parasyncolpi, pseudocolpi), striate supratectal ornamentation, and columellate or granular wall structures that resist tensile or compressive forces respectively. Specialized aperture structures (Zwischenkörper) may be advantageous for efficient germination of the pollen tube. In Detarieae and Cercideae in particular, there is potential to utilize pollen characters to estimate pollination systems where these are unknown. Supratectal verrucae and gemmae have apparently evolved iteratively in Cercideae and Detarieae. At the species level, there is a potential correlation between striate/verrucate patterns and vertebrate pollination. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera: Reproductive Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. T. Darbah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination, while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%. Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  8. Marker allergens of weed pollen - basic considerations and diagnostic benefits in the clinical routine: Part 16 of the Series Molecular Allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Hawranek, Thomas; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    The term weed is referring to plants used as culinary herbs and medicinal plants as well as ecologically adaptive and invasive segetal plants. In Europe, pollen of ragweed, mugwort, English plantain and pellitory are the main elicitors of weed pollen allergies. Presently, 35 weed pollen allergens have been identified. The most relevant belong to the protein families of pectate lyases, defensin-like proteins, non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and Ole e 1-like proteins. The sensitization frequency depends on geographic regions and might affect more than 50 % of pollen allergic patients in distinct regions. Due to overlapping flowering seasons, similar habitats, polysensitizations and cross-reactive (pan)-allergens, it is difficult to diagnose genuine weed pollen sensitization using pollen extracts. Marker allergens for component-resolved diagnostics are available for the important weed pollen. These are Amb a 1 (ragweed), Art v 1 (mugwort), Pla l 1 (English plantain) and Par j 2 (pellitory). Molecule-based approaches can be used to identify the primary sensitizer and thus enable selection of the appropriate weed pollen extracts for allergen immunotherapy.

  9. A prospective, clinical study on asymptomatic sensitisation and development of allergic rhinitis: high negative predictive value of allergological testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Assing, Kristian; Poulsen, Lars K

    2011-01-01

    performed a prospective, clinical, non-interventional, 2-year follow-up study on subjects (identified by population screening) with seasonal allergic birch or grass pollen rhinitis (n = 52), asymptomatic sensitisation to grass or birch (AS, n = 52) or non-atopic, healthy control subjects (n = 39...

  10. Diurnal variations of airborne pollen concentration and the effect of ambient temperature in three sites of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, B; Torres-Jardón, R; Ramírez-Arriaga, E; Martínez-Bernal, A; Rosas, I

    2016-05-01

    Pollen is an important cause of allergic respiratory ailments in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). However, very little is known if ambient air temperature correlates with the early blooming of plants observed in other urban areas around the world. A research study was conducted during the dry season of 2012-2013 at three representative sites of the MCMA with different urban characteristics with the aim to understand the relationships between the profusion and diversity of pollen against temperature and other meteorological variables and degree of urbanization. Pollen samples were collected using a Hirst-type trap sampler in the sites: Merced (highly urbanized), Iztapalapa (medium-high urbanized) and Coyoacan (moderately urbanized). Urbanization levels were determined using a composite index based on population density, proportion of surface covered by construction and asphalt, and urban heat island intensity. A set of representative pollen sampling tapes were assayed under a light microscope at magnification of ×1,000 and converted to grains per cubic meter. The most representative pollen types found in the three sites were, regardless of urbanization levels were: Fraxinus, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae, Casuarina, Alnus, Myrtaceae, and Pinus. Total pollen concentration was greatest in the moderately urbanized area, although earlier blooming took place at the highly urbanized zone. Total pollen concentration in the medium-high urbanized site has the lowest because the green areas in this zone of MCMA are few. In a diurnal basis, the most abundant pollen types peaked near midday or in the afternoon evening at the three sites. A Spearman test showed a positive correlation among bihourly pollen concentrations, temperature and relative humidity in all sites, but wind speed just correlated in Iztapalapa and Coyoacan. The results obtained suggest that Urban Heat Island Intensity can disturb flowering periods and pollen concentrations, largely in the highly urbanized

  11. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process.

  12. Aerobiological and immunochemical studies on Carica papaya L. pollen: an aeroallergen from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, P; Ghosh, D; Chowdhury, I; Roy, I; Chatterjee, S; Chanda, S; Gupta-Bhattacharya, S

    2005-07-01

    Carica papaya L. is a fruit yielding tree, wildly grown or cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. Its pollen grain has been reported to be airborne and cause immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity. To conduct long-term aerobiological study on Carica pollen, along with aeroallergenic particles originating from it and to identify vis-a-vis characterize an important IgE-reactive component present in this pollen. The seasonal and diurnal periodicities of airborne C. papaya pollen were recorded in a 5-year survey using a Burkard volumetric sampler. The allergenic potential was studied by skin prick tests, IgE-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and also by aeroallergen immunoblotting. The total pollen extract was fractionated by Sephacryl S-200 column, and out of the eluted five fractions, the maximum IgE-reactive fraction (as found in ELISA inhibition) was resolved into five major subfractions in reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The subfraction with optimum IgE reactivity was studied by activity gel, native and nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The homogeneity of the isolated protein fraction was checked by crossed immunoelectrophoresis with rabbit antisera and IgE reactivity was confirmed by ELISA inhibition and immunoblotting using individual patient sera. The Carica pollen occurred in the air round the year with peaks during January and September-October. Among a patient population of 1000, skin-test results showed 27.8% +1 level and 5.6% +2/+3 level reactions. In aeroallergen immunoblotting of exposed Burkard tape segments, the detected allergen spots showed a significant correlation with airborne pollen count recorded. The pollen extract elicited loss of IgE reactivity when treated with reducing agent-like beta-mercaptoethanol and heat, but showed six IgE-reactive components in nonreducing IgE-immunoblot. The fraction 1 eluted from Sephacryl S-200 column showed

  13. Predicting daily ragweed pollen concentrations using Computational Intelligence techniques over two heavily polluted areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csépe, Zoltán; Makra, László; Voukantsis, Dimitris; Matyasovszky, István; Tusnády, Gábor; Karatzas, Kostas; Thibaudon, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Forecasting ragweed pollen concentration is a useful tool for sensitive people in order to prepare in time for high pollen episodes. The aim of the study is to use methods of Computational Intelligence (CI) (Multi-Layer Perceptron, M5P, REPTree, DecisionStump and MLPRegressor) for predicting daily values of Ambrosia pollen concentrations and alarm levels for 1-7 days ahead for Szeged (Hungary) and Lyon (France), respectively. Ten-year daily mean ragweed pollen data (within 1997-2006) are considered for both cities. 10 input variables are used in the models including pollen level or alarm level on the given day, furthermore the serial number of the given day of the year within the pollen season and altogether 8 meteorological variables. The study has novelties as (1) daily alarm thresholds are firstly predicted in the aerobiological literature; (2) data-driven modelling methods including neural networks have never been used in forecasting daily Ambrosia pollen concentration; (3) algorithm J48 has never been used in palynological forecasts; (4) we apply a rarely used technique, namely factor analysis with special transformation, to detect the importance of the influencing variables in defining the pollen levels for 1-7 days ahead. When predicting pollen concentrations, for Szeged Multi-Layer Perceptron models deliver similar results with tree-based models 1 and 2 days ahead; while for Lyon only Multi-Layer Perceptron provides acceptable result. When predicting alarm levels, the performance of Multi-Layer Perceptron is the best for both cities. It is presented that the selection of the optimal method depends on climate, as a function of geographical location and relief. The results show that the more complex CI methods perform well, and their performance is case-specific for ≥2 days forecasting horizon. A determination coefficient of 0.98 (Ambrosia, Szeged, one day and two days ahead) using Multi-Layer Perceptron ranks this model the best one in the literature

  14. A comparison of honey bee-collected pollen from working agricultural lands using light microscopy and ITS metabarcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Cornman, Robert S.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; McDermott-Kubeczko, Margaret; Pettis, Jeff S; Spivak, Marla S; Otto, Clint R.

    2017-01-01

    Taxonomic identification of pollen has historically been accomplished via light microscopy but requires specialized knowledge and reference collections, particularly when identification to lower taxonomic levels is necessary. Recently, next-generation sequencing technology has been used as a cost-effective alternative for identifying bee-collected pollen; however, this novel approach has not been tested on a spatially or temporally robust number of pollen samples. Here, we compare pollen identification results derived from light microscopy and DNA sequencing techniques with samples collected from honey bee colonies embedded within a gradient of intensive agricultural landscapes in the Northern Great Plains throughout the 2010–2011 growing seasons. We demonstrate that at all taxonomic levels, DNA sequencing was able to discern a greater number of taxa, and was particularly useful for the identification of infrequently detected species. Importantly, substantial phenological overlap did occur for commonly detected taxa using either technique, suggesting that DNA sequencing is an appropriate, and enhancing, substitutive technique for accurately capturing the breadth of bee-collected species of pollen present across agricultural landscapes. We also show that honey bees located in high and low intensity agricultural settings forage on dissimilar plants, though with overlap of the most abundantly collected pollen taxa. We highlight practical applications of utilizing sequencing technology, including addressing ecological issues surrounding land use, climate change, importance of taxa relative to abundance, and evaluating the impact of conservation program habitat enhancement efforts.

  15. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...... the pollen season and took place from 1997 to 1999. The freeze-dried apple material was characterized by means of leukocyte histamine release (HR), skin prick test (SPT), and immunoblotting experiments. The study population consisted of birch pollen-allergic patients with a history of rhinitis in the birch......-pollen season and positive specific IgE to birch. For comparison of the DBPCFC models, 65 patients with a positive open oral challenge with apple were selected. In the characterization of the freeze-dried apple material, 46 birch pollen-allergic patients were included. The IgE reactivity to apple was evaluated...

  16. Pollen-projektiga Rootsis / Lembit Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Lembit

    2009-01-01

    Avastusõppe projektist "Pollen" Eesti (2006-2009) mille eesmärk on kõiki lapsi kaasav uurimisõpe. Kevadisel koolivaheajal tutvus kümmekond Eesti õpetajat uurimisõppega Stockholmi kahes algkoolis

  17. Intraspecific variation in pollen viability, germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oleaceae) cultivars 'Koroneiki', 'Mastoidis' and 'Kalamata' was studied with scanning electron microscopy to identify genotype- distinguishing characters that could be employed for morphological cultivar discrimination. Pollen viability and germination ...

  18. Evolutionarily conserved phenylpropanoid pattern on angiosperm pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellenberg, Christin; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The male gametophyte of higher plants appears as a solid box containing the essentials to transmit genetic material to the next generation. These consist of haploid generative cells that are required for reproduction, and an invasive vegetative cell producing the pollen tube, both mechanically protected by a rigid polymer, the pollen wall, and surrounded by a hydrophobic pollen coat. This coat mediates the direct contact to the biotic and abiotic environments. It contains a mixture of compounds required not only for fertilization but also for protection against biotic and abiotic stressors. Among its metabolites, the structural characteristics of two types of phenylpropanoids, hydroxycinnamic acid amides and flavonol glycosides, are highly conserved in Angiosperm pollen. Structural and functional aspects of these compounds will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pollen fertility studies in Jatropha L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sasikala. R; M.Paramathma; R. Kalaiyarasi

    2009-01-01

    Pollen fertility percentage is conducted for 10 Jatropha species and an interspecific backcrossing hybrid between Jatrophacurcas x Jatropha integerrima (BC3F1). Totally nine species namely Jatropha villosa var. villosa , Jatropha villosa var.villosa , Jatropha multifida, Jatropha podagrica, Jatropha maheswarii, Jatropha glandulifera, Jatropha gossypifolia,Jatropha integerrima and Jatropha curcas had more than 84 per cent of pollen fertility. BC3F1 hybrid recorded the highestpollen fertility p...

  20. Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract - Grazax®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Moisés; Brandt, Tove

    2008-12-01

    Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax(®). Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet) for sublingual administration, containing 75,000 SQ-T standardized allergen extract of grass pollen from Phleum pratense. Grazax is indicated for treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinitis and conjunctivitis in adult patients with clinically relevant symptoms and diagnosed with a positive skin prick test and/or specific IgE test to grass pollen. In phase I trials doses from 2,500 to 1,000,000 SQ-T were tested. All doses were well tolerated and 75,000 SQ-T, with approximately 15 mug major allergen protein, was chosen as the optimal dose. Three phase III trials are ongoing, one being a long-term trial. Results from GT-08 trial first and second treatment years showed a reduction of 30% and 36%, respectively, in daily rhino-conjunctivitis symptom scores and a reduction of 38% and 46% of daily rhino-conjunctivitis medication scores compared with placebo over the entire grass pollen season. Subjects treated with Grazax also had an increased number of well days and improved quality of life, and more subjects experienced excellent rhino-conjunctivitis control. The most common adverse events related to Grazax are local reactions, such as pruritus, edema mouth, ear pruritus, throat irritation, and sneezing. We conclude that Grazax is efficacious and safe for treatment of rhino-conjunctivitis due to grass pollen allergy.

  1. Hydrogenated graphenes by birch reduction: influence of electron and proton sources on hydrogenation efficiency, magnetism, and electrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, A.Y.S.; Sofer, Z.; Huber, Š.; Bouša, D.; Maryško, Miroslav; Pumera, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2015), 16828-16838 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogenated graphenes * birch reduction * magnetism * electrochemistry * hydrogenation efficiency Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  2. Plant Sterol Diversity in Pollen from Angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villette, Claire; Berna, Anne; Compagnon, Vincent; Schaller, Hubert

    2015-08-01

    Here we have examined the composition of free sterols and steryl esters of pollen from selected angiosperm species, as a first step towards a comprehensive analysis of sterol biogenesis in the male gametophyte. We detected four major sterol structural groups: cycloartenol derivatives bearing a 9β,19-cyclopropyl group, sterols with a double bond at C-7(8), sterols with a double bond at C-5(6), and stanols. All these groups were unequally distributed among species. However, the distribution of sterols as free sterols or as steryl esters in pollen grains indicated that free sterols were mostly Δ(5)-sterols and that steryl esters were predominantly 9β,19-cyclopropyl sterols. In order to link the sterol composition of a pollen grain at anthesis with the requirement for membrane lipid constituents of the pollen tube, we germinated pollen grains from Nicotiana tabacum, a model plant in reproductive biology. In the presence of radiolabelled mevalonic acid and in a time course series of measurements, we showed that cycloeucalenol was identified as the major neosynthesized sterol. Furthermore, the inhibition of cycloeucalenol neosynthesis by squalestatin was in full agreement with a de novo biogenesis and an apparent truncated pathway in the pollen tube.

  3. Ragweed (Ambrosia) pollen source inventory for Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, G; Skjøth, C A; Šikoparija, B; Smith, M; Berger, U; Essl, F

    2015-08-01

    This study improves the spatial coverage of top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories for Europe by expanding the methodology to Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and the distribution of ragweed plants. The inventory combines annual ragweed pollen counts from 19 pollen-monitoring stations in Austria (2004-2013), 657 geographical observations of Ambrosia plants, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), local knowledge of ragweed ecology and CORINE land cover information from the source area. The highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were generally recorded in the East of Austria where the highest densities of possible growth habitats for Ambrosia were situated. Approximately 99% of all observations of Ambrosia populations were below 745m. The European infection level varies from 0.1% at Freistadt in Northern Austria to 12.8% at Rosalia in Eastern Austria. More top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories are required for other parts of Europe. A method for constructing top-down pollen source inventories for invasive ragweed plants in Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and ragweed distribution. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of pollen nutrition on honey bee health: do pollen quality and diversity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garance Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level, and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification, phenoloxidase (immunity and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism. We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health.

  5. Effect on quality of life of the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lisha; Guan, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Although many patients with allergic rhinitis have symptoms due to sensitization to more than one kind of allergens, and mixed allergen extracts are widely used for immunotherapy, there are few published trials. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of multiple-allergen immunotherapy on improving the symptoms and quality of life of allergic rhinitis patients. We performed a 1-year single-center observation study of subcutaneous immunotherapy using house dust mite extract (n = 12), weed pollen extract (n = 21), or mixed house dust mite/weed pollen extract (n = 11) in 44 allergic rhinitis patients. All the allergens responsible for the symptom of each patient were included in his immunotherapy. Symptom score, medication score, and quality of life of the patients were evaluated before and after 1-year immunotherapy. Quality of life was evaluated with the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. In all 3 groups receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy, significant improvement of symptom score, medication score, and quality of life was found vs. baseline at 1 year, irrespective of the allergen used. In the weed pollen season, the changes of quality of life questionnaire score after 1-year treatment were not significantly different between the weed pollen group (1.55 ± 1.24) and the mixed house dust mite/weed pollen group (1.14 ± 1.01). The same happened in the nonpollen seasons, during which dust mite immunotherapy (1.23 ± 1.63) and mixed immunotherapy (0.60 ± 0.47) did not show significantly different effect on the quality of life. The multiple-allergen immunotherapy might be effective in polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients, and could improve their quality of life. Our result did not show significant difference between the effects of multiple-allergen immunotherapy and mono-allergen immunotherapy.

  6. POLLiCE (POLLen in the iCE): climate history from Adamello ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofori, Antonella; Festi, Daniela; Maggi, Valter; Casarotto, Christian; Bertoni, Elena; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2017-04-01

    Glaciers can be viewed as the most complete and effective past climate and environment archives severely threatened by climate change. These threats are particularly dramatic across European Alps. The Adamello glacier is the largest, 16.4 km2, and deepest, 270 m, Italian glacier. We aim at estimating biodiversity changes over the last centuries in relation to climate and human activities in the Adamello catchment area. We, therefore, recently launched the POLLiCE project (pollice.fmach.it) for specifically targeting the biological component (e.g. pollen, leaves, plant remains) trapped in ice cores. Classical morphological pollen analysis will be accompanied by DNA metabarcoding. This approach has the potential to provide a detailed taxonomical identification - at least genus level- thus circumventing the limitations of microscopic analysis such as time-consuming procedures and shared features of pollen grains among different taxa. Moreover, ice cores are subjected to chemical and physical analyses - stable isotopes, ions, hyperspectral imaging, etc.- for stratigraphic and climatic determination of seasonality. A pilot drilling was conducted on March 2015 and the resulting 5 m core has been analysed in terms of pollen spectrum, stable isotopes and ions in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the study. The first encouraging results showed that even in this superficial core a stratigraphy is evident with indication of seasonality as highlighted by both by pollen taxa and stable isotopes. Finally, DNA has been successfully extracted and amplified with specific DNA barcodes. A medium drilling was performed on April 2016 with the extraction of a 45 m ice core. The analysis of this core constitutes the subject of a specific research project, CALICE*, just funded by Euregio Science Fund (IPN57). The entire depth, 270 m, of the Adamello glacier is scheduled to be drilled in 2018 winter to secure the unique memory archived by the ice. * See EGU2017 poster by Festi et al

  7. Flowering and the Pollen Fertility in Iranian Garlic Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abbasifar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. cannot produce seed because it is a sterile plant. For studying bolting and determination of pollen fertility, 68 Iranian garlic clones were gathered from different parts of Iran and evaluated in Research Field of Horticultural Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. For determining the pollen fertility, some tests including specific RAPD marker, pollen germination, pollen viability detection using acetocarmine and in vitro culture of ovules and fruits were used. Results showed that 37 of Iranian garlic clones could produce scape and inflorescence. The percentage range of pollen stained with acetocarmine was from 0.5 up to 20 percent showing infertility of pollens. Lack of two markers (OPJ121300 and OPJ121700 and pollen tube growth proved the infertility of garlic clones pollen. Fruits and embryo sac were alive for more than two months, showing their potential for producing seeds following pollination with fertile pollens.

  8. Gametophytic Pollen Tube Guidance: Attractant Peptides, Gametic Controls, and Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Pollen tube guidance in flowering plants is a unique and critical process for successful sexual reproduction. The pollen tube that grows from pollen, which is the male gametophyte, precisely navigates to the embryo sac, which is the female gametophyte, within the pistil. Recent advances have clarified the molecular framework of gametophytic pollen tube guidance. Multiple species-specific attractant peptides are secreted from synergid cells, the proper development and function of which are regulated by female gametes. Multiple receptor-like kinases on the pollen tube tip are involved in sensing species-specific attractant peptides. In this Update article, recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism of gametophytic pollen tube guidance is reviewed, including attraction by synergid cells, control of pollen tube guidance by female gametes, and directional growth of the pollen tube by directional cue sensing. Future directions in the study of pollen tube guidance also are discussed. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Arabidopsis adaptor protein 1G is critical for pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chong; Wang, Jia-Gang; Liu, Hai-Hong; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yan

    2017-09-01

    Pollen development is a pre-requisite for sexual reproduction of angiosperms, during which various cellular activities are involved. Pollen development accompanies dynamic remodeling of vacuoles through fission and fusion, disruption of which often compromises pollen viability. We previously reported that the Y subunit of adaptor protein 1 (AP1G) mediates synergid degeneration during pollen tube reception. Here, we demonstrate that AP1G is essential for pollen development. AP1G loss-of-function resulted in male gametophytic lethality due to defective pollen development. By ultrastructural analysis and fluorescence labeling, we demonstrate that AP1G loss-of-function compromised dynamic vacuolar remodeling during pollen development and impaired vacuolar acidification of pollen. Results presented here support a key role of vacuoles in gametophytic pollen development. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Marking live conifer pollen for long-distance dispersal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claire G; von Aderkas, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Study of long-distance dispersal (LDD) theory requires a method for marking live LDD pollen. Such a method must complement the more intensive sampling methods involving molecular cytogenetics, proteomics, and genomics. We have developed a new method for marking live Pinus taeda pollen using two dyes, rhodamine 123 and aniline blue, dissolved in a sucrose solution. Marked and unmarked pollen were compared with respect to in vitro germination, storage, terminal velocity and in vivo pollen-tube penetration of ovules. We found that: (1) both types of marked pollen retained their capacity for germination, (2) both types of marked pollen had similar aerodynamic properties as unmarked pollen controls, (3) marked pollen retained its germination capacity for 48 h, and (4) of the marked pollen, only the aniline-marked pollen penetrated ovules during pollination. Germination declined rapidly for both types of marked pollen after 48 h and before 37 days at -20°C storage, while the unmarked pollen lots retained 93% germination at all stages. Our method for marking live P. taeda pollen is feasible for tracing LDD pollen if released and deposited within 48 h of dye treatment.

  11. Integration for Airborne Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Nickovic, S.; Huete, A.; Budge, A.; Flowers, L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the program is to assess the feasibility of combining a dust transport model with MODIS derived phenology to study pollen transport for integration with a public health decision support system. The use of pollen information has specifically be identified as a critical need by the New Mexico State Health department for inclusion in the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) program. Material and methods: Pollen can be transported great distances. Local observations of plan phenology may be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) is an integrated modeling system designed to accurately describe the dust cycle in the atmosphere. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterization of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particles size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust. Pollen release was estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of key plan species and vegetation communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) provided information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, and pollen release. The resulting deterministic model is useful for predicting and simulating pollen emission and downwind concentration to study details of phenology and meteorology and their dependencies. The proposed linkage in this project provided critical information on the location timing and modeled transport of pollen directly to the EPHT> This information is useful to support the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC)'s National EPHT and the state of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  12. A 12,000-Yr Pollen Record off Cape Hatteras: Pollen Sources and Mechanisms of Pollen Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, F.; Keigwin, L.; Peteet, D.; Costas, S.; Desprat, S.; Oliveira, D.; de Vernal, A.; Voelker, A.; Abrantes, F.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating both marine and terrestrial signals from the same sediment core is one of the primary challenges for understanding the role of ocean-atmosphere coupling throughout past climate changes. It is therefore vital to understand how the pollen signal of a given marine record reflects the vegetation changes of the neighboring continent. The comparison between the pollen record of marine core JPC32 (KNR178JPC32) and available terrestrial pollen sequences from eastern North America over the last 12,170 years indicates that the pollen signature off Cape Hatteras gives an integrated image of the regional vegetation encompassing the Pee Dee river, Chesapeake and Delaware hydrographic basins and is reliable in reconstructing the past climate of the adjacent continent. Extremely high quantities of pollen grains included in the marine sediments off Cape Hatteras were transferred from the continent to the sea, at intervals 10,100-8800 cal yr BP, 8300-7500 cal yr BP, 5800- 4300 cal yr BP and 2100-730 cal yr BP, during storm events favored by episodes of rapid sea-level rise in the eastern coast of US. In contrast, pollen grains export was reduced during 12,170-10,150 cal yr BP and 4200- 2200 cal yr BP, during episodes of intense continental dryness and slow sea level rise episodes or lowstands in the eastern coast of US. The near absence of reworked pollen grains in core JPC32 contrasts with the high quantity of reworked material in nearby but deeper located marine sites, suggesting that the JPC32 recordwas not affected by the DeepWestern Boundary Current (DWBC) since the end of the Younger Dryas and should be considered a key site for studying past climate changes in the western North Atlantic.

  13. Response of winter chemical defense in Alaska paper birch and green alder to manipulation of plant carbon/nutrient balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J P; Chapin, F S; Reichardt, P B; Clausen, T P

    1987-07-01

    Plant carbon/nutrient balance has been implicated as an important factor in plant defensive chemistry and palatability to herbivores. We tested this hypothesis by fertilizing juvenile growth form Alaska paper birch and green alder with N, P and N-plus-P in a balanced 2x2 factorial experiment. Additionally, we shaded unfertilized plants of both species. Fertilization with N and N-plus-P increased growth of Alaska paper birch, reduced the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased the palatability of birch twigs to snowshoe hares. Shading decreased birch growth, decreased the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased twig palatability. These results indicate that the defensive chemistry and palatability of winter-dormant juvenile Alaska paper birch are sensitive to soil fertility and shade. Conversely the defensive chemistry and palatability of green alder twigs to snowshoe hares were not significantly affected by soil fertility or shade. The greater sensitivity of Alaska paper birch defensive chemistry and palatability to snowshoe hares in comparison to green alder is in agreement with the hypothesis that early successional woody plants that are adapted to high resource availability are more plastic in their chemical responses to the physical environment than are species from less favorable environments.

  14. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  15. Integration of Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G.; Levetin, E.; Van de water, P.; Myers, O.; Budge, A. M.; Krapfl, H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Yin 2007) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Yin 2007). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that health effects of pollen can better be tracked for linkage with health outcome data including asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost work days. DREAM is based on the SKIRON/Eta modeling system and the Eta/NCEP regional atmospheric model. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterizations of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particle size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The dust production mechanism is based on the viscous/turbulent mixing, shear-free convection diffusion, and soil moisture. In addition to these sophisticated mechanisms, very high resolution databases, including elevation, soil properties, and vegetation cover are utilized. The DREAM model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust (PREAM). Pollen release will be estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) will provide information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, peak

  16. Pollen of Southeast Asian Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), with an overview of the pollen fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulalacao, L.J.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate pollen morphological descriptions of Alchornea in the literature, which are almost completely based on African and American species, the pollen of eight Southeast Asian species of Alchornea was investigated, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Very little variation

  17. Pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs from the Early Neolithic settlement of La Draga (Girona, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revelles, J.; Burjachs, F.; van Geel, B.

    2016-01-01

    Pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs (NPP) from the Early Neolithic settlement of La Draga have provided new palaeoenvironmental data concerning the establishment of the first farming societies in NE Iberian Peninsula. The analysis of samples from the archaeological profiles allowed the comprehension

  18. Storage and irradiation of Cucumis pollen and their influence on pollen vitality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oost, E.H.; Nijs, A.P.M. den

    1979-01-01

    In connection with an interspecific hybridization programme and a mentor pollen experiment in Cucumis, the optimal storage conditions and in vitro germination medium for both fresh and irradiated pollen of the cultivated cucumber and two wild African Cucumis species have been searched for. (Auth.)

  19. De novo post-pollen mitosis II tobacco pollen tube transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hafidh, Said; Breznenová, Katarína; Honys, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 8 (2012), s. 918-921 ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP501/11/P321; GA ČR GA522/09/0858 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : de novo pollen tube transcriptome * male gametophyte development * pollen tube growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  20. Stability of transgenes in long-term micropropagation of plants of transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fansuo; Qian, Jingjing; Luo, Wei; Zhan, Yaguang; Xin, Ying; Yang, Chuanping

    2010-01-01

    The stability of integration and expression level of transgenes in long-term micropropagation clones of transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) was examined. Multiplexed PCR and reverse primer PCR demonstrated stable integration of transgenes into regenerated plants. Expression levels of the bgt and gus genes among shoot plantlets, subcultured 4, 7, 9 and 15 times, were significantly different. The transcriptional expression level of extraneous genes in regenerated plants decreased with increasing subculture number. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) occured in regenerated transgenic lines. The silencing rate of GUS in the 5th subculture plants was 22-65%. TGS in regenerated plants could be reactivated with 5-azacytidine (Azac) at 50-200 microM. GUS and BGT protein expression was reactivated in the micropropagated transgenic birch plants when treated with Azac. A decrease in expression level with increasing number of subcultures is thus associated with DNA methylation.

  1. Morphological and molecular characteristics of foliar nematode attacking silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chałańska A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aphelenchoides fragariae (Ritzema Bos, 1890 Christie, 1932 was isolated from leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth seedlings proving that the source of infection was anemones plants. This is the first report to our best knowledge showing that the source of nematode infection of a woody plant could be a perennial plant. A. fragariae was identified by morphometric and molecular analyses. Morphological diagnosis based on the bending shape of the tail of males and pronounced apex and rostrum proved to be the most accurate reliable characteristic. On the opposite, the high variability of the mucron shape in female tails made the identification by microscopic analyses difficult. Identification of the species was confirmed by analysis of 28S rDNA sequences. The morphometric data of adults extracted from silver birch was compared with that of nematodes isolated from Anemone hupehensis (Lemoine Lemoine. Males body length varied highly in samples collected from both host plant species.

  2. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Karnaouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, 13C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes.

  3. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.

    2012-01-01

    Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan was comb......Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan...... was combined with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and films were cast with and without glycerol, sorbitol or methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) as plasticizers. Microscopy revealed some NFC agglomeration in the composite films as well as a layered nanocellulose structure. Equilibrium moisture content...

  4. Pollen grain sporoderm and types of dispersal units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Pacini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of gymnosperms and angiosperms may be dispersed in monads, tetrads, polyads, massulae or compact pollinia. The monads and tetrads may form larger clumps of pollen because filiform pollen is tangled while other kinds of pollen can be glued by means of different devices. Exine and intine modify their structure to adapt to pollen dispersing units, exine in some cases can be absent. An additional layer, a thin callosic wall, can be present in some species beneath the intine; this occurs when pollen grains are slightly dehydrated before dispersal.

  5. Early flowering and seed production in a yellow birch progeny test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knud E. Clausen

    1976-01-01

    Trees in a yellow birch progeny test began to bear seed when 7 years old and the proportion of fruiting trees increased in the following 2 years. Male catkins were produced at age 8 and the number of trees with males increased greatly the following years. Although there is much variation between and within families in earliness of flowering and in number of flowers and...

  6. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bilek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the birch tree sap, depending on the addition and concentration of two chemical factors, ie. potassium sorbate and acids: malic, citric or lactic. As in our previous studies we found that the optimal physical parameter to assess the stability of birch sap is turbidity measurement, we used turbidimeter for estimate the effectiveness of shelf life extending. Sensory evaluation was carried out by university sensory panel with 8 skilled people (students and teachers with pre-selection and basic training of sensory methodology. On the other hand artificial perception measurements were realized by electronic nose. Birch tree sap stability without addition of preservatives, both room temperature and refrigerated, is less than three days. The effectiveness of preservation of birch tree sap depends on the concentration of acids. Independently of storage temperature, samples that received stability during the whole one-month storage period, were those with potassium sorbate and three acids in the highest concentrations, ie. malic acid at 0.3%, citric acid at 0.5% and lactic acid at 0.5%. Unfortunately, concentrations of acids, which allow extension of shelf life at least for one month in a room temperature, are characterized by the worst sensory evaluation rating. Thus, they should be corrected by the use of additives for improving the flavor, such as fruit syrups or herbal extracts. On the other hand, additionally storage in a refrigerated conditions allows one-month-stability for the sample with the highest sensory evaluation rating, ie. with the addition of lactic acid at 0.1% and potassium sorbate, which taste not need to be corrected.

  7. Growth and Yield of 15-Year Plantations of Pine, Spruce and Birch in Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugaviete Mudrite

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth data and the potential returns from 15-year-old plantations of pine Pinus sylvestris L. (6 trial sites, spruce Picea abies Karst L. (9 trial sites and silver birch Betula pendula Roth (13 trial sites, established in abandoned agricultural lands in a variety of soil types (sod calcareous, anthrosols, podzolic, podzols, gley, podzolic gley, alluvial, using the planting density 2,500 and 3,300 and also 5,000 trees/ha are analysed.

  8. Root biomass production in young birch stands planted at four spacings on two different sites

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Tord

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of trees above ground influences on the amount of root biomass and a low root biomass might decrease the total biomass production. The amount of biomass for fractions and distribution of downy and silver birch root systems was studied including the root distribution in cardinal points. The allometric relationship between stump diameter (DSH) and stump weight and between DSH and root weight and length for the two species was quantified. The 12-year-old trees had been g...

  9. Elevated Air Humidity Changes Soil Bacterial Community Structure in the Silver Birch Stand

    OpenAIRE

    Truu, Marika; Ostonen, Ivika; Preem, Jens-Konrad; L?hmus, Krista; N?lvak, Hiie; Ligi, Teele; Rosenvald, Katrin; Parts, Kaarin; Kupper, Priit; Truu, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    Soil microbes play a fundamental role in forest ecosystems and respond rapidly to changes in the environment. Simultaneously with the temperature increase the climate change scenarios also predict an intensified hydrological cycle for the Baltic Sea runoff region. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of elevated air humidity on the top soil microbial community structure of a silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) stand by using a free air humidity manipulation facility (FAHM). The bact...

  10. Elevated Air Humidity Changes Soil Bacterial Community Structure in the Silver Birch Stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truu, Marika; Ostonen, Ivika; Preem, Jens-Konrad; Lõhmus, Krista; Nõlvak, Hiie; Ligi, Teele; Rosenvald, Katrin; Parts, Kaarin; Kupper, Priit; Truu, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    Soil microbes play a fundamental role in forest ecosystems and respond rapidly to changes in the environment. Simultaneously with the temperature increase the climate change scenarios also predict an intensified hydrological cycle for the Baltic Sea runoff region. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of elevated air humidity on the top soil microbial community structure of a silver birch ( Betula pendula Roth.) stand by using a free air humidity manipulation facility (FAHM). The bacterial community structures of bulk soil and birch rhizosphere were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing of bacteria-specific16S rRNA gene fragments and quantification of denitrification related genes. The increased air humidity altered both bulk soil and rhizosphere bacterial community structures, and changes in the bacterial communities initiated by elevated air humidity were related to modified soil abiotic and biotic variables. Network analysis revealed that variation in soil bacterial community structural units is explained by altered abiotic conditions such as increased pH value in bulk soil, while in rhizosphere the change in absorptive root morphology had a higher effect. Among root morphological traits, the absorptive root diameter was strongest related to the bacterial community structure. The changes in bacterial community structures under elevated air humidity are associated with shifts in C, N, and P turnover as well as mineral weathering processes in soil. Increased air humidity decreased the nir and nosZ gene abundance in the rhizosphere bacterial community. The potential contribution of the denitrification to the N 2 O emission was not affected by the elevated air humidity in birch stand soil. In addition, the study revealed a strong link between the bacterial community structure, abundance of denitrification related genes, and birch absorptive root morphology in the ecosystem system adaptation to elevated air humidity.

  11. Inter- and intra-specific responses to elevated ozone and chamber climate in northern birches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, S.; Huttunen, S.; Vanhatalo, M.; Pakonen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the responses of micropropagated, northern provenances of downy, mountain and silver birches to elevated ozone (O 3 ) and changing climate using open-top chambers (OTCs). Contrary to our hypothesis, northern birches were sensitive to O 3 , i.e. O 3 levels of 31-36 ppb reduced the leaf and root biomasses by -10%, whereas wood biomass was affected to a lesser extent. The warmer and drier OTC climate enhanced growth in general, though there were differences among the species and clones, e.g. in bud burst and biomass production. Inter- and intra-specific responses to O 3 and changing climate relate to traits such as allocation patterns between the above- and belowground parts (i.e. root/shoot ratio), which further relate to nutrient and water economy. Our experiments may have mimicked future conditions quite well, but only long-term field studies can yield the information needed to forecast responses at both tree and ecosystem levels. - Northern birches are responsive to ambient ozone levels.

  12. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Stefania, E-mail: spas@unipg.it [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima [Department of Molecular Biology, CD Laboratory for Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy, University of Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); D' Amato, Gennaro [Division of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, ' A. Cardarelli' High Speciality Hospital, Naples (Italy); Ederli, Luisa [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O{sub 3} fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O{sub 3} fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O{sub 3}, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O{sub 3} can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. - Highlights: > O{sub 3} reduces the viability of ragweed pollen. > ROS and allergens of ragweed pollen were not affected by O{sub 3} exposure. > O{sub 3} enhances the activity of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. > O{sub 3} increases ragweed pollen allergenicity through NAD(P)H-oxidase stimulation. - This study focuses on the effects of the atmospheric pollutant ozone on ROS content and NAD(P)H oxidase activity of ragweed pollen grains.

  13. Cedar Pollen Aggravates Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood Monozygotic Twin Patients with Allergic Rhino Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Murakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 7-year-old monozygotic twin patients with atopic dermatitis. The HLA haplotypes were HLA A2, A11, B27, B61, DR1, and DR4. Both serum IgE levels and cedar pollen radioallergosorbent test (RAST scores were high in the twins (elder/younger sister: IgE: 5170/3980 IU/ml and Japansese cedar pollen: >100/64.0 in contrast to low mite and food RAST scores (Dermatophagoides Pterygonium; 0.59/0.4 and egg white 9.24/4.6. The patients showed positive immediate (20 min in both sisters and delayed (24 hours in elder sister, 24, 48, 72 hours in younger sister reactions to a scratch test with Japanese cedar pollen. Skin lesions on the face were aggravated and extended to the trunk and extremities during the Japanese cedar pollen season and gradually subsided in summer. Oral provocation with egg white or cow milk showed no exacerbations, and topical corticosteroid did not improve the eczema. In contrast, successful protection from severe scratching behaviors was achieved by use of topical anti-allergic eye drops and wearing nightgowns made by the mother.

  14. Cockroach sensitization mitigates allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptom severity in patients allergic to house dust mites and pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weijing; Jimenez, Fabio; Martinez, Hernan; Harper, Nathan L; Manoharan, Muthu Saravanan; Carrillo, Andrew; Ingale, Puraskar; Liu, Ya-Guang; Ahuja, Seema S; Clark, Robert A; Rather, Cynthia G; Ramirez, Daniel A; Andrews, Charles P; Jacobs, Robert L; Ahuja, Sunil K

    2015-09-01

    Modifiers of symptom severity in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR) are imprecisely characterized. The hygiene hypothesis implicates childhood microbial exposure as a protective factor. Cockroach sensitization (C+) might be a proxy for microbial exposure. We sought to determine whether C+ assayed by means of skin prick tests influenced AR symptom severity in controlled and natural settings. Total symptom scores (TSSs) were recorded by 21 participants with house dust mite allergy (M+) in the natural setting and during repeated exposures of 3 hours per day to house dust mite allergen in an allergen challenge chamber (ACC). In M+ participants the peripheral blood and nasal cells were assayed for T-cell activation and transcriptomic profiles (by using RNA sequencing), respectively. Participants allergic to mountain cedar (n = 21), oak (n = 34), and ragweed (n = 23) recorded TSSs during separate out-of-season exposures to these pollens (any pollen sensitization [P+]) in the ACC; a subset recorded TSSs in the pollination seasons. The hierarchy of TSSs (highest to lowest) among M+ participants tracked the following skin prick test sensitization statuses: M+P+C- > M+P+C+ > M+P-C- > M+P-C+. In nasal cells and peripheral blood the immune/inflammatory responses were rapidly resolved in M+P+C+ compared with M+P+C- participants. Among those allergic to pollen, C+ was associated with a lower TSS during pollen challenges and the pollination season. After aggregated analysis of all 4 ACC studies, C+ status was associated with a 2.8-fold greater likelihood of a lower TSS compared with C- status (odds ratio, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.18-6.67; P = .02). C+ status is associated with mitigation of AR symptom severity in adults with AR. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. More than sixty origins of pantoporate pollen in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieu, Charlotte; Sauquet, Hervé; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Albert, Béatrice

    2017-12-01

    Apertures in pollen grains are key structures of the wall, involved in pollen tube germination and exchanges with the environment. Aperture types in angiosperms are diverse, but pollen with one and three apertures (including monosulcate and tricolpate, respectively) are the two most common types. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic distribution in angiosperms of pollen with many round, scattered apertures called pantoporate pollen. We constructed a morphological data set with species producing pantoporate pollen and representative angiosperm species with other pollen types, sampled from every angiosperm order, with a total of 1260 species distributed in 330 families. This data set was analyzed with parsimony to characterize the phylogenetic distribution of pantoporate pollen in angiosperms. We show that pantoporate pollen is distributed throughout most of the angiosperm tree, including early diverging angiosperms, monocots, and eudicots. However, this pollen type is usually restricted to a few species in a given group, and is seldom fixed at large taxonomical scales, with a few notable exceptions. Pantoporate pollen evolved many times during angiosperm history, but the persistence of this morphology in the long term is infrequent. This distribution pattern could indicate conflicting short-term and long-term selective pressures, pantoporate pollen being selected in the short run, but eliminated in the long run. Biological hypotheses supporting this scenario are discussed, in the context of both theoretical and empirical data on pollen biology. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Sublingual Immunotherapy with a Five-Grass Pollen Tablet in Adult Patients with Allergic Rhinitis: An Open, Prospective, Noninterventional, Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Pfaar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although the safety and efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT with a five-grass pollen tablet have been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials (RCTs, these outcomes must always be evaluated in real-life medical practice. Methods. In a prospective, open-label, noninterventional, “real-life” study in Germany, we evaluated the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of SLIT with a five-grass pollen tablet in adults with grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Results. 808 adults were enrolled between September 2008 and December 2009. 35.3% of the participants experienced at least one adverse drug reaction (ADR, the most common of which were mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. Serious ADRs considered causally related to SLIT treatment occurred in four patients. Overall, the five-grass pollen tablet was considered to have good or very good tolerability by most investigators and patients. Treatment was associated with the relief of nasal, ocular, and bronchial symptoms and decreased symptomatic medication use. However, interpretation of clinical improvements was limited by lower atmospheric grass pollen levels during the study season (relative to the preceding season. Conclusions. In a large population of patients treated in real-life medical practice, SLIT with a five-grass pollen tablet was safe and well tolerated. The patient-reported symptom relief suggests that SLIT was associated with clinical benefits.

  17. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Yáñez, Mónica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy. PMID:26440413

  18. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Orlando; Roa-Roco, Rosa Nair; Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Yáñez, Mónica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy.

  19. Seasonal trends of biogenic terpene emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full annual growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions rates were quantified in a total of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous emissions, producing greater than 95% of BVOC emissions. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term emission dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal emission rates (BER, normalized to 1000μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 30°C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0μgg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1μgg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to total emissions was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from emissions modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped emission pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2) with consideration of the seasonal changes in emission factors illustrated large deviations when emission factors are applied for other seasons than those in which they were experimentally

  20. Pollen and spore monitoring in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buters, J T M; Antunes, C; Galveias, A; Bergmann, K C; Thibaudon, M; Galán, C; Schmidt-Weber, C; Oteros, J

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air quality monitoring is a governmental duty that is widely carried out in order to detect non-biological ("chemical") components in ambient air, such as particles of world and to create an interactive visualization of their distribution. The method employed to collect information was based on: (a) a review of the recent and historical bibliography related to pollen and fungal spore monitoring, and (b) personal surveys of the managers of national and regional monitoring networks. The interactive application was developed using the R programming language. We have created an inventory of the active pollen and spore monitoring stations in the world. There are at least 879 active pollen monitoring stations in the world, most of which are in Europe (> 500). The prevalent monitoring method is based on the Hirst principle (> 600 stations). The inventory is visualised as an interactive and on-line map. It can be searched, its appearance can be adjusted to the users' needs and it is updated regularly, as new stations or changes to those that already exist can be submitted online. The map shows the current situation of pollen and spore monitoring and facilitates collaboration among those individuals who are interested in pollen and spore counts. It might also help to improve the monitoring of biological particles up to the current level employed for non-biological components.

  1. Compound pollen cone in a Paleozoic conifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Castillo, G R; Rothwell, G W; Mapes, G

    2001-06-01

    A rich fossil biota from a Pennsylvanian age deposit of eastern North America contains numerous vegetative and fertile specimens that conform to a single species of primitive walchian conifers. Among the specimens is a compound pollen cone that comprises closely spaced, helically arranged, leaf-like bracts with axillary dwarf shoots. The specimen looks superficially similar to an ultimate vegetative conifer shoot, but there are small appendages in the axil of each bract that represent the fertile dwarf shoots. Dwarf shoots consist of an axis that bears sterile scales and sporophylls with erect pollen sacs. Pollen found in the sacs is monosaccate and conforms to the sporae dispersae genus Potonieisporites Bhardwaj. This cone is a compound shoot system that is morphologically equivalent to the ovulate cones of conifers and to the pollen cones of Paleozoic cordaitaleans and modern gnetophytes. Therefore, it is fundamentally different from the simple pollen cones of other fossil and modern conifers. Discovery of this specimen unexpectedly supports molecular studies that predict a close relationship between Coniferales and Gnetales, and provides fossil evidence to help reconcile the discordant phylogenetic hypotheses of seed plant systematics that have been developed from morphological and molecular data.

  2. Pollen proteomics: from stress physiology to developmental priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Palak; Ghatak, Arindam; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Pollen development and stress. In angiosperms, pollen or pollen grain (male gametophyte) is a highly reduced two- or three-cell structure which plays a decisive role in plant reproduction. Male gametophyte development takes place in anther locules where diploid sporophytic cells undergo meiotic division followed by two consecutive mitotic processes. A desiccated and metabolically quiescent form of mature pollen is released from the anther which lands on the stigma. Pollen tube growth takes place followed by double fertilization. Apart from its importance in sexual reproduction, pollen is also an interesting model system which integrates fundamental cellular processes like cell division, differentiation, fate determination, polar establishment, cell to cell recognition and communication. Recently, pollen functionality has been studied by multidisciplinary approaches which also include OMICS analyses like transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Here, we review recent advances in proteomics of pollen development and propose the process of developmental priming playing a key role to guard highly sensitive developmental processes.

  3. [Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europea in patients with pollen allergy in Zadar County, Croatia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skitarelić, Natasa; Mazzi, Antun; Skitarelić, Neven; Misulić, Josko; Vuletić, Ana

    2010-06-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most common respiratory allergens in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea in pollen allergic patients in the County of Zadar. The study included 671 patients with pollen allergy; 61 % were male and 39 % female. 53.5 % were children aged from 4 to 14 years and 46.5 % adolescents and adults from 15 to 59 years. We took their case history, clinically examined them, and tested using the skin prick test and enzymo-immunologic UniCAP test for specific IgE antibodies. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test. Hypersensitivity to Olea europea pollen was confirmed in 8.8 % patients with pollen allergy. Among them, the most prevalent symptom was rhinitis (58 %). Most hypersensitive patients were urban residents. Only 3 % patients lived on an island. Judging by available data, our findings show the lowest hypersensitivity to olive pollen in the Mediterranean. A comparison with our two earlier studies did not show any fluctuation in this kind of hypersensitivity.

  4. The comparison of pollen abundance in air and honey samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrida Šaulienė; Laura Šukienė; Auste Noreikaite-Merkeliene; Vidmantas Pileckas

    2015-01-01

    Honey as a food has long been used in human nutrition and is still popular. Honey is important because of its therapeutic, prophylactic and strengthening value. Pollen is one of the most decisive components that ensure the quality and type of honey. Modern society becomes more and more sensitive to airborne pollen. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the composition of allergenic plant pollen in natural honey. For this purpose, we studied and compared pollen abundance in honey and air sampl...

  5. Forest tree pollen dispersal via the water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Claire G

    2013-06-01

    Pine pollen (Pinus spp.), along with other atmospheric particles, is dispersed by the water cycle, but this mode of dispersal requires cloud-pollen interactions that depend on taxon-specific biological properties. In the simplest form of this dispersal, pine pollen ascends vertically to altitudes of 2 to 6 km, where a fraction is captured by mixed-phase cloud formation. Captured pollen accretes into frozen droplets, which ultimately descend as rain, snow, or hail. Whether Pinus pollen can still germinate after its exposure to high-altitude freezing is pertinent to (1) how forests adapt to climate change and (2) potential gene flow between genetically modified plantation species and their conspecific relatives. • To address this question, pollen from four Old World and two New World Pinus species were subjected to immersion freezing, a common cloud formation mode, under laboratory conditions. • Some pollen grains immersed at -20°C for 15, 60, or 120 min in either a dehydrated or a water-saturated state were still capable of germination. After exposure, dehydrated pine pollen had higher germination (43.3%) than water-saturated pollen (7.6%). • Pine pollen exposed to freezing during cloud formation can still germinate, raising the question of whether rain-delivered live pollen might be linked to rain-facilitated pollination. Dispersal of live pine pollen via cloud formation and the water cycle itself deserves closer study.

  6. Diversity and conservation in maize pollen: Phenotypes and transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to its crucial role in seed production, pollen serves as a vector for gene flow between plant populations. Recently, pollen was identified as a mechanism for introduction of transgenes into non-transgenic populations. To investigate the genetic basis for pollen fitn...

  7. Pollen Contents Of Commercial Honeys Of Opi, Nsukka, Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen analyses of seven honey samples from Opi-Nsukka Mini market were evaluated for their pollen composition. The results yielded a total of 77 plants belonging to 40 families of flowering plants. Thirty-three plants were identified to the generic level, while thirty-two plants were identified to the specific levels. The pollen ...

  8. Exploring storage protocols for yam ( Dioscorea spp.) pollen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of pollen genebanks allows the conservation of plant genetic resources at the haploid level, pollen genetic manipulations, scheduling of hybrid seed production and improvement of breeding efficiency. To establish pollen storage protocols for various genotypes of West African yams, laboratory experiments ...

  9. Exploring storage protocols for yam (Dioscorea spp.) pollen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Implementation of pollen genebanks allows the conservation of plant genetic resources at the haploid level, pollen genetic manipulations, scheduling of hybrid seed production and improvement of breeding efficiency. To establish pollen storage protocols for various genotypes of West African yams, ...

  10. Pollen loncevity in ecologically different zones of Western Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survival of pollen after dehiscence is an important factor affecting the geneflow. Studies were conducted to investigate the duration of pollen viability in two locations in western Kenya - Eldoret and Kakamega, representing the highland tropical and moist mid-altitude/transitional zones, respectively. Pollen was collected ...

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists have assumed that pollen grains are resistant to alcoholic fermentation, a recent study in food science implies that pollen is a yeast nutrient because pollen-enriched meads produce more alcohol. The experiment presented here explores the potential distortion of the pollen record through fermentation by brewing a traditional, pollen-rich mead with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this experiment, the pollen grains did not undergo any discernible morphological changes nor were distorted in the pollen profile. Any nutrition that the yeast garners from the pollen therefore leaves sporopollenin intact. These results support palynological research on residues of alcoholic beverages and confirms that the fermentation process does not distort the pollen profile of the original substance. The paper concludes with the potential and limits of palynological study to assess fermentation within the archaeological record.

  12. Aerodynamics of saccate pollen and its implications for wind pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendemann, Andrew B; Wang, George; Mertz, Meredith L; McWilliams, Ryan T; Thatcher, Scott L; Osborn, Jeffrey M

    2007-08-01

    Pollen grains of many wind-pollinated plants contain 1-3 air-filled bladders, or sacci. Sacci are thought to help orient the pollen grain in the pollination droplet. Sacci also increase surface area of the pollen grain, yet add minimal mass, thereby increasing dispersal distance; however, this aerodynamic hypothesis has not been tested in a published study. Using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, mathematical modeling, and the saccate pollen of three extant conifers with structurally different pollen grains (Pinus, Falcatifolium, Dacrydium), we developed a computational model to investigate pollen flight. The model calculates terminal settling velocity based on structural characters of the pollen grain, including lengths, widths, and depths of the main body and sacci; angle of saccus rotation; and thicknesses of the saccus wall, endoreticulations, intine, and exine. The settling speeds predicted by the model were empirically validated by stroboscopic photography. This study is the first to quantitatively demonstrate the adaptive significance of sacci for the aerodynamics of wind pollination. Modeling pollen both with and without sacci indicated that sacci can reduce pollen settling speeds, thereby increasing dispersal distance, with the exception of pollen grains having robust endoreticulations and those with thick saccus walls. Furthermore, because the mathematical model is based on structural characters and error propagation methods show that the model yields valid results when sample sizes are small, the flight dynamics of fossil pollen can be investigated. Several fossils were studied, including bisaccate (Pinus, Pteruchus, Caytonanthus), monosaccate (Gothania), and nonsaccate (Monoletes) pollen types.

  13. The relationship of storage and viability of Lily pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, H.K.; Lim, Jin Hee; Cho, Hae Ryong; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted to estimate the pollen viability of eight lily genotypes and optimum storage conditions. Pollen viability was assessed by in vitro germination, FCR (Fluorochromatic raction) test and fruit set test. Pollen grains were stored in the dark chamber where the temperature was

  14. Identification of two highly specific pollen promoters using transcriptomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Strale, Daniela; León, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    The mature pollen grain displays a highly specialized function in angiosperms. Accordingly, the male gametophyte development involves many specific biological activities, making it a complex and unique process in plants. In order to accomplish this, during pollen development, a massive transcriptomic remodeling takes place, indicating the switch from a sporophytic to a gametophytic program and involving the expression of many pollen specific genes. Using microarray databases we selected genes showing pollen-specific accumulation of their mRNAs and confirmed this through RT-PCR. We selected five genes (POLLEN SPECIFIC GENE1-5) to investigate the pollen specificity of their expression. Transcriptional fusions between the putative promoters of these genes and the uidA reporter gene in Arabidopsis confirmed the pollen specific expression for at least two of these genes. The expression of the cytotoxin Barnase controlled by these promoters generated pollen specific ablation and male sterility. Through the selection of pollen specific genes from public datasets, we were able to identify promoter regions that confer pollen expression. The use of the cytotoxin Barnase allowed us to demonstrate its expression is exclusively limited to the pollen. These new promoters provide a powerful tool for the expression of genes exclusively in pollen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Late Holocene Changes in Vegetation of the Mrągowo Lakeland (NE Poland as Registered in the Pollen Record from Lake Salęt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szal Marta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen analysis of sediments from the upper part of bottom deposits from Lake Salęt allowed reconstruction of main stages of the Late Holocene vegetation transformation in the Mrągowo Lake District (from ca. 3600 cal. years BC and to correlate some of these changes with immigration and economic activity of local human groups. Significant spreading of secondary semi-natural birch forest, development of horn beam forest and increasing importance of anthropogenic open communities were the most characteristic features of vegetation evolution. A definite break down of elm took place between 2900 and 2500 cal. years BC, slightly after increased contribution of birch in wood lands. Disappearance of hazel around 1200 cal. years BC, accompanied by expansion of horn beam has been observed and should be linked with activity of the Ząbie-Szestno type culture and the Lusatian culture tribes during the Bronze Age, but not with a climate change. Considerable intensification of settlement processes recorded in the younger part of the Subatlantic chronozone was one of the important reasons that were responsible for quick changes in forest structure. Strong and continued deforestation started as early as the end of the 10th century AD and was substantially intensified in the first half of the 13th century.

  16. Identification of Cha o 3 homolog Cry j 4 from Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) pollen: Limitation of the present Japanese cedar-specific ASIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yuki; Yamada, Akira; Sasaki, Eiji; Utsugi, Teruhiro

    2018-03-07

    About one-third of the Japanese population suffers from Japanese cedar pollinosis, which is frequently accompanied by Japanese cypress pollinosis. Recently, a novel major Japanese cypress pollen allergen, Cha o 3, was discovered. However, whether a Cha o 3 homolog is present in Japanese cedar pollen remains to be determined. Western blot analysis was performed using Cha o 3-specific antiserum. In addition, cloning of the gene encoding Cry j 4 was conducted using total cDNA from the male flower of Japanese cedar trees. Allergen potency and cross-reactivity were investigated using a T-cell proliferation assay, basophil activation test, and ImmunoCAP inhibition assay. A low amount of Cha o 3 homolog protein was detected in Japanese cedar pollen extract. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cry j 4 showed 84% identity to that of Cha o 3. Cross-reactivity between Cry j 4 and Cha o 3 was observed at the T cell and IgE levels. Cry j 4 was discovered as a counterpart allergen of Cha o 3 in Japanese cedar pollen, with a relationship similar to that between Cry j 1-Cha o 1 and Cry j 2-Cha o 2. Our findings also suggest that allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) using Japanese cedar pollen extract does not induce adequate immune tolerance to Cha o 3 due to the low amount of Cry j 4 in Japanese cedar pollen. Therefore, ASIT using Cha o 3 or cypress pollen extract coupled with Japanese cedar pollen extract is required in order to optimally control allergy symptoms during Japanese cypress pollen season. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  18. Recent pollen spectra from the deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forests of Northeastern Minnesota: a study in pollen dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1966-01-01

    Pollen samples were taken along nine transects across local vegetational belts bordering bogs or ponds in overall deciduous and coniferous-deciduous forest regions. Three types of pollen rain are distinguished: local, extralocal, and regional. Local pollen rain is derived from plants that grow at or

  19. Pollen morphology of the dichapetalaceae with special reference to evolutionary trends and mutual relationships of pollen types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.

    Pollen grains of all three genera of Dichapetalaceae (Dichapetalum, Stephanopodium and Tapura) comprising about 150 species have been studied. Twenty-nine pollen types were recognized and the family has to be considered eurypalynous. A key to the pollen types is added. Based on evolutionary trends

  20. Effects of three irradiation methods on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Pinus thunbegii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoping; Yang Lusheng; Chen Suying; Huang Zhiming; Hu Wenying

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 30 keV nitrogen ion beams, UV and γ-rays irradiation on pollen germination and pollen tube growth of Pinus thunbergii were investigated. Results showed that the biological effects induced by ion beam implantation were different from those induced by UV and γ-rays irradiation. The dose response curve of ion implantation treatment presented a particular 'saddle-likepattern, and ion implantation also significantly induced pollen tube tip swelling. These results indicated that low energy ion implantation might work in different way compared to UV and γ-rays irradiation. It was suggested that pollen could be served as an excellent model system to study the underlying mechanisms responsible for biological effects of ion beam irradiation at cellular level. (authors)

  1. Inherent optical properties of pollen particles: a case study for the morning glory pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Yin, Yan

    2016-01-25

    Biological aerosols, such as bacteria, fungal spores, and pollens, play an important role on various atmospheric processes, whereas their inherent optical property is one of the most uncertainties that limit our ability to assess their effects on weather and climate. A numerical model with core-shell structure, hexagonal grids and barbs is developed to represent one kind of realistic pollen particles, and their inherent optical properties are simulated using a pseudo-spectral time domain method. Both the hexagonal grids and barbs substantially affect the modeled pollen optical properties. Results based on the realistic particle model are compared with two equivalent spherical approximations, and the significant differences indicate the importance of considering pollen geometries for their optical properties.

  2. Treatment of grass pollen allergy: focus on a standardized grass allergen extract – Grazax®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Calderón

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Moisés Calderón1, Tove Brandt21Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Royal Brompton Hospital, Imperial College, NHLI, London, UK; 2Group Clinical Development, ALK-Abelló A/S, Hørsholm, DenmarkAbstract: Immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergy that has the potential to alter the natural course of the disease. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT for grass pollen-induced rhino-conjunctivitis has been developed to make immunotherapy available to a broader group of allergic patients. In the largest clinical programme ever conducted with allergen-specific immunotherapy, over 1,700 adults and 260 children have been exposed to Grazax®. Grazax is formulated as an oral lyophilisate (tablet for sublingual administration, containing 75,000 SQ-T standardized allergen extract of grass pollen from Phleum pratense. Grazax is indicated for treatment of grass pollen-induced rhinitis and conjunctivitis in adult patients with clinically relevant symptoms and diagnosed with a positive skin prick test and/or specific IgE test to grass pollen. In phase I trials doses from 2,500 to 1,000,000 SQ-T were tested. All doses were well tolerated and 75,000 SQ-T, with approximately 15 µg major allergen protein, was chosen as the optimal dose. Three phase III trials are ongoing, one being a long-term trial. Results from GT-08 trial first and second treatment years showed a reduction of 30% and 36%, respectively, in daily rhino-conjunctivitis symptom scores and a reduction of 38% and 46% of daily rhinoconjunctivitis medication scores compared with placebo over the entire grass pollen season. Subjects treated with Grazax also had an increased number of well days and improved quality of life, and more subjects experienced excellent rhino-conjunctivitis control. The most common adverse events related to Grazax are local reactions, such as pruritus, edema mouth, ear pruritus, throat irritation, and sneezing. We conclude that Grazax is efficacious and safe for treatment

  3. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  4. Non pollen palynomorphs in pollen slides: their determination and utilization in palaeoecology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jankovská, Vlasta

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, supp.10-11 (2008), s. 488-490 ISSN 1068-7971. [Micropalaeontology: palaeobiological and geological aspects. Novosibirsk, 25.09.2008-27.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0587 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Non pollen palynomorphs * pollen slides * palaeoreconstruction Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2008

  5. Extensive pollen flow but few pollen donors and high reproductive variance in an extremely fragmented landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael G Albaladejo

    Full Text Available Analysing pollen movement is a key to understanding the reproductive system of plant species and how it is influenced by the spatial distribution of potential mating partners in fragmented populations. Here we infer parameters related to levels of pollen movement and diversity of the effective pollen cloud for the wind-pollinated shrub Pistacia lentiscus across a highly disturbed landscape using microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis and the indirect KinDist and Mixed Effect Mating models were used to assess mating patterns, the pollen dispersal kernel, the effective number of males (N(ep and their relative individual fertility, as well as the existence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure in adult plants. All methods showed extensive pollen movement, with high rates of pollen flow from outside the study site (up to 73-93%, fat-tailed dispersal kernels and large average pollination distances (δ = 229-412 m. However, they also agreed in detecting very few pollen donors (N(ep = 4.3-10.2 and a large variance in their reproductive success: 70% of males did not sire any offspring among the studied female plants and 5.5% of males were responsible for 50% of pollinations. Although we did not find reduced levels of genetic diversity, the adult population showed high levels of biparental inbreeding (14% and strong spatial genetic structure (S(p = 0.012, probably due to restricted seed dispersal and scarce safe sites for recruitment. Overall, limited seed dispersal and the scarcity of successful pollen donors can be contributing to generate local pedigrees and to increase inbreeding, the prelude of genetic impoverishment.

  6. Extensive pollen flow but few pollen donors and high reproductive variance in an extremely fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaladejo, Rafael G; Guzmán, Beatriz; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Aparicio, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Analysing pollen movement is a key to understanding the reproductive system of plant species and how it is influenced by the spatial distribution of potential mating partners in fragmented populations. Here we infer parameters related to levels of pollen movement and diversity of the effective pollen cloud for the wind-pollinated shrub Pistacia lentiscus across a highly disturbed landscape using microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis and the indirect KinDist and Mixed Effect Mating models were used to assess mating patterns, the pollen dispersal kernel, the effective number of males (N(ep)) and their relative individual fertility, as well as the existence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure in adult plants. All methods showed extensive pollen movement, with high rates of pollen flow from outside the study site (up to 73-93%), fat-tailed dispersal kernels and large average pollination distances (δ = 229-412 m). However, they also agreed in detecting very few pollen donors (N(ep) = 4.3-10.2) and a large variance in their reproductive success: 70% of males did not sire any offspring among the studied female plants and 5.5% of males were responsible for 50% of pollinations. Although we did not find reduced levels of genetic diversity, the adult population showed high levels of biparental inbreeding (14%) and strong spatial genetic structure (S(p) = 0.012), probably due to restricted seed dispersal and scarce safe sites for recruitment. Overall, limited seed dispersal and the scarcity of successful pollen donors can be contributing to generate local pedigrees and to increase inbreeding, the prelude of genetic impoverishment.

  7. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Response to Nickel Stress in White Birch (Betula papyrifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Theriault

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula papyrifera is a dominant tree species of the Boreal Forest. Recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. Knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. Availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (B. nana enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other Betula species such as B. papyrifera. The main objectives of this study are to 1 develop and characterize the B. papyrifera transcriptome, 2 assess gene expression dynamics of B. papyrifera in response to nickel stress, and 3 describe gene function based on ontology. Nickel resistant and susceptible genotypes were selected and used for transcriptome analysis. A total of 208,058 trinity genes were identified and were assembled to 275,545 total trinity transcripts. The transcripts were mapped to protein sequences and based on best match; we annotated the B. papyrifera genes and assigned gene ontology. In total, 215,700 transcripts were annotated and were compared to the published B. nana genome. Overall, a genomic match for 61% transcripts with the reference genome was found. Expression profiles were generated and 62,587 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the nickel resistant, susceptible, and untreated libraries. The main nickel resistance mechanism in B. papyrifera is a downregulation of genes associated with translation (in ribosome, binding, and transporter activities. Five candidate genes associated to nickel resistance were identified. They include Glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin family protein, putative transmembrane protein and two Nramp transporters. These genes could be useful for genetic engineering of birch trees.

  8. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein. Sriram Ramaswamy. General Article Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 16-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/03/0016-0034 ...

  9. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein. Sriram Ramaswamy. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 106-124. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/12/0106-0124 ...

  10. Changes to airborne pollen counts across Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ziello

    Full Text Available A progressive global increase in the burden of allergic diseases has affected the industrialized world over the last half century and has been reported in the literature. The clinical evidence reveals a general increase in both incidence and prevalence of respiratory diseases, such as allergic rhinitis (common hay fever and asthma. Such phenomena may be related not only to air pollution and changes in lifestyle, but also to an actual increase in airborne quantities of allergenic pollen. Experimental enhancements of carbon dioxide (CO[Formula: see text] have demonstrated changes in pollen amount and allergenicity, but this has rarely been shown in the wider environment. The present analysis of a continental-scale pollen data set reveals an increasing trend in the yearly amount of airborne pollen for many taxa in Europe, which is more pronounced in urban than semi-rural/rural areas. Climate change may contribute to these changes, however increased temperatures do not appear to be a major influencing factor. Instead, we suggest the anthropogenic rise of atmospheric CO[Formula: see text] levels may be influential.

  11. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203 ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuel s farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  12. Stress as a Trigger of Pollen Embryogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žárský, Viktor; Soukupová, H.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2000), s. 411-413 ISSN 1015-5880 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5038907; GA ČR GA206/99/1138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Heat shock proteins * pollen embryogenesis * stress Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  13. Lipids in pollen - They are different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischebeck, Till

    2016-09-01

    During evolution, the male gametophyte of Angiosperms has been severely reduced to the pollen grain, consisting of a vegetative cell containing two sperm cells. This vegetative cell has to deliver the sperm cells from the stigma through the style to the ovule. It does so by producing a pollen tube and elongating it to many centimeters in length in some species, requiring vast amounts of fatty acid and membrane lipid synthesis. In order to optimize this polar tip growth, a unique lipid composition in the pollen has evolved. Pollen tubes produce extraplastidial galactolipids and store triacylglycerols in lipid droplets, probably needed as precursors of glycerolipids or for acyl editing. They also possess special sterol and sphingolipid moieties that might together form microdomains in the membranes. The individual lipid classes, the proteins involved in their synthesis as well as the corresponding Arabidopsis knockout mutant phenotypes are discussed in this review. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The morphology of pollen presenter and polymorphism of pollen grains Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the structure of the pollen presenter of Taraxacum officinale and morphology of pollen grains was conducted based on plant material sampled from three different sites. One of them was a forest meadow situated away from the city, and the other two were located in the city centre of Lublin. Light and electron scanning microscopy were used in the study. The pollen presenter in Taraxacum officinale occurs at the upper part of the style situated over the androecium and on the outer part of the stigma. Numerous unicellular trichomes are found on the entire surface of the epidermis of the presenter. The function of the presenter consists in transferring pollen grains above the androecium and corolla petals. Its activity does not stop after pollen release from anthers. Taraxacum pollen grains represent the Crepis - type. Most frequently, they are tricolporate, radially symmetric and isopolar. In terms of the size, they are included in medium-sized grains. In the material examined, many deformed and asymmetric grains were observed, though they were marked by high viability at the level of 96.5-99%. Grains with the largest average lengths of the equatorial and polar axes were found in plants sampled from the meadow situated out of town. In the plant material from all sites, grains with disturbances of the external structure occurred.

  15. In vitro pollen germination and pollen viability in passion fruit (Passiflora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Passiflora species for ornamental purposes has been recently developed, but little is known about pollen viability and the potential for crossing different species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pollen viability of six Passiflora species collected from different physiological stages of development through in vitro germination and histochemical analysis using dyes. The pollen was collected in three stages (pre-anthesis, anthesis and post-anthesis. Three compositions of culture medium were used to evaluate the in vitro germination, and two dyes (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, or TTC, and Lugol's solution were used for the histochemical analysis. The culture medium containing 0.03% Ca(NO3 4H2O, 0.02% of Mg(SO4 .7H2O, 0.01% of KNO3, 0,01% of H3BO3, 15% sucrose, and 0.8% agar, pH 7.0, showed a higher percentage of pollen grains germinated. Anthesis is the best time to collect pollen because it promotes high viability and germination. The Lugol's solution and TTC dye overestimated the viability of pollen, as all accessions showed high viability indices when compared with the results obtained in vitro.

  16. Evaluation of Holocene pollen records from the Romanian Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu

    2000-05-01

    This study is a critical review of pollen analyses carried out on Holocene sequences from 15 sites in and near the Romanian Plain. Three sites come from natural sediments, 10 sites are from anthropogenic deposits and two are from both anthropogenic and natural settings. The general reconstruction is of a steppe-forest-steppe vegetation through the Holocene. The nature of the deposits, however, casts doubts on this reconstruction. Deposits of archaeological sites generally yield pollen spectra that are influenced by human activities and thus unsuitable for vegetation reconstructions. Loess deposits are also unfavorable for pollen preservation because of high pH and porosity. Consequently, pollen spectra from loess deposits are strongly biased by selective pollen destruction. Research and experiments carried out by several authors suggest that spectra dominated by Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae or Pinus pollen in soils and loess are a result of selective pollen destruction, especially if low pollen concentrations, progressive pollen deterioration or high frequencies of deteriorated or unidentifiable pollen are evidenced. The fact that pollen records from the Romanian Plain come from loess, alkaline peat or archaeological sites reduces their reliability for reconstructions of vegetation. The vegetation history of similar regions in Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey suggests that early Holocene steppe vegetation was gradually replaced by forest or forest-steppe vegetation in the late Holocene. Records from lake sediments are required to find out whether the Holocene vegetation history of the Romanian Plain was similar.

  17. Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles. PMID:22208893

  18. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  19. Pollen features of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. from different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nikolaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study general morphological characteristics of pollen grains of Corylus avellana L. Seven samples of pollen were investigated. Samples were collected from different habitats in Ukraine – from botanical gardens (Kyiv, Kamianets-Podilskyi and natural habitats (Kyiv region, Kamianets-Podilskyi, and Sumy region. We studied such morphological traits of pollen grains as length of polar and equatorial axes, diameter of pores, and shape of the pollen grain (elongation index. Analysis of morphological characters of pollen was carried out using electron microscope. Comparison of data was performed with the data of the base polleninfo.org. During research the differences in these parameters were marked. Pollen grains of C. avellana are generally isopolar, from suboblate to oblate or oblate-spheroidal, and contain 3 pores. The article contains an attempt to explain the size variations noted for the pollen collected from different habitats.

  20. Exceptional preservation of Miocene pollen: plasmolysis captured in salt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durska, W.

    2016-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved Miocene pollen from the Bochnia salt mine of southern Poland is reported herein. The halite deposits within the salt mine belonging to Late Badenian (Miocene) marine evaporites originated in the Paratethys. Rounded and angular structures are present inside pollen grains. On the basis of the similarity with plasmolyzed pollen grains of modern plants, these structures are considered to represent cytoplasms plasmolyzed in the condensed brine prior to fossilization. Two forms of plasmolyzed cytoplasms (concave and convex) can be observed in modern pollen. Both are distinguished in the investigated fossil material. In porate and colporate grains the shape of the plasmolyzed cellular content is concave while in inaperturate it is convex. The plasmolysis form depends on the type of apertures and pollen shape. The percentage of pollen with fossilized cytoplasms within individual taxa is a valuable environmental indicator, as it depends on the proximity of the pollen-producing plant assemblages to the depositional setting. (Author)

  1. Ultrastructure of Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunal pollen grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwadie, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and ultrastructure of Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunall pollen grains. Light microscopic examination revealed that the pollen grains are tri- or tetrazonocoplate grains, approximately as long as broad, measuring 29-um. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed that surface sculpturing of the pollen is scarbate-granulate. Ultrathin sections as examined by transmission electron microscope showed that the pollen contained numerous starch grains, lipid droplets, endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles of dictyosomes. Two layers of the pollen wall were also distinguished, the outer wall (exine) divided into ektexine and endexine as well as the inner layer (intine). The nutritive values of Withania pollen are discussed. The importance of studying the ultrastructure of pollen grains as a new tool in palynology is also discussed. (author)

  2. Super earth interiors and validity of Birch's Law for ultra-high pressure metals and ionic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Lucas Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Super Earths, recently detected by the Kepler Mission, expand the ensemble of known terrestrial planets beyond our Solar System's limited group. Birch's Law and velocity-density systematics have been crucial in constraining our knowledge of the composition of Earth's mantle and core. Recently published static diamond anvil cell experimental measurements of sound velocities in iron, a key deep element in most super Earth models, are inconsistent with each other with regard to the validity of Birch's Law. We examine the range of validity of Birch's Law for several metallic elements, including iron, and ionic solids shocked with a two-stage light gas gun into the ultra-high pressure, temperature fluid state and make comparisons to the recent static data.

  3. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...

  4. PollenCALC: Software for estimation of pollen compatibility of self-incompatible allo- and autotetraploid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea A; Wollenweber, Bernd; Frei, Ursula K

    2012-01-01

    available for predicting pollen haplotype frequencies and pollen compatibility in tetraploid species. Results PollenCALC is a software tool written in C++ programming language that can predict pollen compatibility percentages for polyploid species with a two-locus (S, Z) self-incompatibility system....... The program predicts pollen genotypes and frequencies based on defined meiotic parameters for allo- or autotetraploid species with a gametophytic S-Z SI system. These predictions can be used to obtain expected values for for diploid and for (allo- or autotetraploidy SI grasses. Conclusion The information...

  5. Repeated evolution of tricellular (and bicellular) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph H; Taylor, Mackenzie L; O'Meara, Brian C

    2014-04-01

    Male gametophytes of seed plants are sexually immature at the time they are dispersed as pollen, but approximately 30% of flowering plants have tricellular pollen containing fully formed sperm at anthesis. The classic study of Brewbaker (1967: American Journal of Botany 54: 1069-1083) provided a powerful confirmation of the long-standing hypothesis that tricellular pollen had many parallel and irreversible origins within angiosperms. We readdressed the main questions of that study with modern comparative phylogenetic methods. We used our own and more recent reports to greatly expand the Brewbaker data set. We modeled trait evolution for 2511 species on a time-calibrated angiosperm phylogeny using (1) Binary State Speciation and Extinction (BiSSE), which accounts for the effect of species diversification rates on character transition rates and, (2) the hidden rates model (HRM), which incorporates variation in transition rates across a phylogeny. Seventy percent of species had bicellular pollen. BiSSE found a 1.9-fold higher bicellular to tricellular transition rate than in the reverse direction, and bicellular lineages had a 1.8-fold higher diversification rate than tricellular lineages. HRM found heterogeneity in evolutionary rates, with bidirectional transition rates in three of four rate classes. The tricellular condition is not irreversible. Pollen cell numbers are maintained at intermediate frequencies because lower net diversification rates of tricellular lineages are counterbalanced by slower state shifts to the bicellular condition. That tricellular lineages diversify slowly and give rise to bicellular lineages slowly reflects a linkage between the evolution of sporophyte lifestyles and the developmental lability of male gametophytes.

  6. Evaluation of pollen collected by honey bee, Apis mellifera L. colonies at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt. Part 1: Botanical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Halim M. Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work is the 1st part of 3-part study carried out at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt to evaluate the pollen species collected by honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies during two successive years, 2009 and 2010. Obtained results showed that, in 2009, total amount of trapped pollen (fresh weight was 2354.89 g/colony/year (mean 588.72 g/colony/season, with peaks in summer and spring, while declined in autumn and winter. Correlation between mean maximum and minimum temperatures and weekly pollen weights was highly positive, while it was insignificant for relative humidity. In 2010, total amount of trapped pollen decreased to 1635.36 g/colony/year (mean 408.84 g/colony/season. The largest amounts were collected in summer followed by winter then spring, while least ones were in autumn. Correlation was highly positive between weekly mean of pollen weights and maximum temperature, while it was insignificant for minimum temperature or relative humidity. There were 24 plant species of 16 botanical families from which bees collected pollen. These sources were ranked according to their predominant quantities in the 1st and 2nd years by two numbers, respectively as the following: sesame 1 and 1, maize 2 and 2, clover 3 and 7, sunflower 4 and 8, wild mustard 5 and 3, casuarina 6 and 13, olive 7 and 11, eucalyptus 8 and 4, pumpkin 9 and 9, cocklebur 10 and 5, date palm 11 and 10, chamomile 12 and 12, field bindweed 13 and 6, pepper 14 and 20, coriander 15 and 16, acacia 16 and 24, citrus 17 and 0, marigold 18 and 0, common red 19 and 17, Christ’s thorn 20 and 22, tooth pick 21 and 21, brood bean 22 and 15, belladonna 23 and 23, pea 0 and 14, marjoram 0 and 18 and fennel 0 and 19. The 1st five plants seem to be the main pollen sources for honey bee colonies and consequently pollen producing during the whole year in the tested region. These sources represented 75.61% and 66.95% of the total annual yield in the two surveyed years, respectively.

  7. Identification sources of pollen spectra in dry and wet atmospheric deposition in the forest-steppe zone of Altai Krai (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchinskaya, Natalia; Nenasheva, Galina; Malygina, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Pollen spectra circulating in the atmosphere contain the important information about primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), worldwide interest in which has significantly increased in recent decades [Despres, 2012]. It is related to the fact that many researchers suggest primary aerosols as a condensation nucleus significantly affected on the formation of clouds and precipitation and, consequently, on the hydrological cycle and climate, especially at the regional level [Andreae et al., 2008; Poschlet et al., 2010; Prenni et al., 2009]. We present the comparison of pollen spectra obtained during the dry and wet atmospheric deposition in Altai Krai (Russia) and identification of the sources/regions of their receipts. Altai Krai is located in the center of the Eurasian continent, at the border of several natural and climatic zones. A significant part of the region's territory is characterized as a forest-steppe zone with a lot of natural and anthropogenic landscapes, accompanied by continental climate. It provides a rich diversity of natural vegetation and cultural associations. During last 10 years pollen grains has been monitored in the airspace of Barnaul city (the capital of Altai Krai) located in the central part of the forest-steppe zone). During the monitoring, the attempts to determine the origin of pollen spectra (local or introduced) were made as well. In the long-term average dates of the first wave of dusting in the spring season 2014 Burkard pollen traps were used in order to monitor the airspace in Barnaul, namely dry deposition of pollen grains [Nenasheva, 2013]. To estimate the wet deposition PBAP (pollen), which can reach 80% in the middle latitudes, precipitation sampler were installed close to Burkard pollen traps in order to sample precipitation. The samples were filtered through a filter having a pore diameter of 1 µm, then prepared and examined for the presence of pollen grains. The comparison of the results of pollen analysis of 10 samples

  8. Pollen sources in the Bojanów forest complex identified on honeybee pollen load by microscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Stawiarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine sources of pollen for the honeybee in the Bojanów forest complex, Nowa Dęba Forest District (southeastern Poland. Sampling of pollen loads from bees extended from the beginning of May until the end of September 2016 and was carried out at 7-day intervals using pollen traps mounted at the entrance of beehives. A total of 73 pollen load samples were collected from the study area. Fifty-nine taxa from 31 plant families were identified in the analyzed material. From 4 to 21 taxa (average 9.5 were recorded in one sample. The pollen of Brassicaceae (“others”, Taraxacum type, Solidago type, and Rumex had the highest frequency in the pollen loads examined. Apart from these four taxa, pollen grains of Rubus type, Poaceae (“others”, Calluna, Fagopyrum, Trifolium repens s. l., Phacelia, Aster type, Melampyrum, Quercus, Cornus, and Veronica were recorded in the dominant pollen group. The forest habitat taxa that provided pollen rewards to honeybees in the Bojanów forest complex were the following: Rubus, Calluna, Prunus, Tilia, Frangula alnus, Pinus, Quercus, Cornus, Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix, and Vaccinium. Apart from forest vegetation, the species from meadows and wastelands adjacent to this forest complex, represented by Taraxacum, Rumex, Plantago, Poaceae, Trifolium repens, and Solidago, proved to be an important source of pollen. The study indicates that forest communities are a valuable source of pollen for pollinating insects from early spring through to late fall.

  9. Lilium spp. pollen in China (Liliaceae: taxonomic and phylogenetic implications and pollen evolution related to environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-peng Du

    Full Text Available Recent molecular and karyologic studies have significantly modified delimitation of Lilium. However, despite the importance of pollen evolution in the genus comprehensive studies with electron microscopy and evaluation of pollen evolution are lacking. Therefore, we studied pollen morphology in a sample of 65 individuals from 37 taxa covering all the sections distributed in the world, using scanning electron microscopy. Our collection of 49 individuals from 21 taxa covering all five sections in China was also included in the database. We found pollen tetrads in L. bakerianum. Based on present and previous studies, our results suggest that pollen from L. formosanum should be classified as a new type, Formosanum. Combined with morphological and molecular evidence, pollen sculpture patterns appear to reflect phylogenetic relationships and are useful for species or subsection delimitation. Based on a comprehensive survey and correlation with potential functional implications, we propose the following hypothesis: evolution of an exine sculpture shows pollen type trends from Martagon → Callose → Concolor → Formosanum. The evolutionary trend regarding pollen sculpture and size could be related to selective pressure to adapt to environmental conditions. Pollen size and shape showed a significantly positive correlation with annual precipitation, and smaller pollen grains appear to adapt better in habitats with extreme conditions. Evolution trends in exine sculpture do not appear to be definitively correlated with pollen size and shape.

  10. Lilium spp. pollen in China (Liliaceae): taxonomic and phylogenetic implications and pollen evolution related to environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yun-peng; Wei, Chi; Wang, Zhong-xuan; Li, Shuang; He, Heng-bin; Jia, Gui-xia

    2014-01-01

    Recent molecular and karyologic studies have significantly modified delimitation of Lilium. However, despite the importance of pollen evolution in the genus comprehensive studies with electron microscopy and evaluation of pollen evolution are lacking. Therefore, we studied pollen morphology in a sample of 65 individuals from 37 taxa covering all the sections distributed in the world, using scanning electron microscopy. Our collection of 49 individuals from 21 taxa covering all five sections in China was also included in the database. We found pollen tetrads in L. bakerianum. Based on present and previous studies, our results suggest that pollen from L. formosanum should be classified as a new type, Formosanum. Combined with morphological and molecular evidence, pollen sculpture patterns appear to reflect phylogenetic relationships and are useful for species or subsection delimitation. Based on a comprehensive survey and correlation with potential functional implications, we propose the following hypothesis: evolution of an exine sculpture shows pollen type trends from Martagon → Callose → Concolor → Formosanum. The evolutionary trend regarding pollen sculpture and size could be related to selective pressure to adapt to environmental conditions. Pollen size and shape showed a significantly positive correlation with annual precipitation, and smaller pollen grains appear to adapt better in habitats with extreme conditions. Evolution trends in exine sculpture do not appear to be definitively correlated with pollen size and shape.

  11. Considerations for the preparation of peat samples for palynology, and for the counting of pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Chambers

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Peat deposits are valuable archives for studying palaeoclimate, the history of local and regional vegetation, and human impact. The most widely applied laboratory analytical technique has been palynology (pollen analysis, which is often limited to the study of pollen and a few easily recognisable spores; however, a variety of other microfossils can be studied in peat deposits and can provide information on past environmental conditions. Among the so-called non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs are fungal and algal spores that can be used as indicators for local hydrological changes and trophic conditions. This article provides an overview of aspects to consider and sample preparation methods for pollen, spores and other non-pollen palynomorph microfossils in peat deposits; advice on aids to pollen identification and counting; and a brief guide to the range of NPPs that can be counted from prepared subfossil-pollen microslides.

  12. Identification of sweet chesnut pollen in bee pollen pellet using using molecular analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiarovská

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Castanea sativa posses many characteristics that are used by human for different purposes, not only as a part of the food. One of them is the utilization of the sweet chesnut pollen for its pharmacological benefits. Actually, no information about the DNA based identification of the sweet chesnut exist. Here, an identification of Castanea sativa based on the specific DNA fragment amplification is described for the first time. Sweet chesnut identification was performed in the very complex sample of bee pollen pellets that were identified as to contain sweet chesnut pollen grains by morphological analysis. First, bioinformatic analysis was performed to find a Castanea sativa conservative part of galactol synthase gene. BLAST alignment of the CDS of GolS1 gene was performed by BLASTtn against plants nucleotide sequences in the NCBI database to ensure for the specifity or existing nucleotide differences. Then, specific primers were subsequently designed and PCR amplification was performed. All the PCRs have run in duplicates for pollen pellet sample and two independent samples of Castanea sativa pure pollen. Restriction cleavage of the PCR amplified fragment was performed to confirm the specifity of the obtained PCR product with the positive confirmation as the predicted three restriction fragments were obtained that fully correspond by the length to those from virtual clevage. Restriction endonuclease Hpy166II was used in restriction cleavage analysis. Castanea sativa pollen grains were confirmed reliable in multifloral pollen pellet by PCR and this approach has the potential to be used effectively for the authentication purposes of sweet chesnut.

  13. Performance of moth larvae on birch in relation to altitude, climate, host quality and parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Tarmo; Neuvonen, Seppo

    1999-07-01

    We studied topographical and year-to-year variation in the performance (pupal weights, survival) and larval parasitism of Epirrita autumnata larvae feeding on mountain birch in northernmost Finland in 1993-1996. We found differences in both food plant quality and parasitism between sites ranging from 80 m to 320 m above sea level. Variation in food plant quality had particularly marked effects on larval survival. The advanced phenology of the birches in relation to the start of the larval period reduced pupal weights. Parasitism rates were different between years and between sites. The clearest site differences were in the proportions of different parasitoid species: Eulophus larvarum was most abundant at the lowest-altitude sites, and Cotesia jucunda at the highest. Differences in the performance of E. autumnata were related to temperature conditions: at higher temperatures, survival and the egg production index were lower, and larval parasitism was higher than at lower temperatures. The higher parasitism at higher temperatures was probably due to greater parasitoid activity during warmer days. In the comparison of different sources of spatial and annual variation in the performance of E. autumnata, the most important factor appeared to be egg mortality related to minimum winter temperature, followed by parasitism and, finally, the variation in food plant quality. If, as predicted, the climate gradually warms up, the effects of warmer summers on the outbreaks of E. autumnata suggest a decrease in outbreak intensity.

  14. Inter- and intra-specific responses to elevated ozone and chamber climate in northern birches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, S; Huttunen, S; Vanhatalo, M; Pakonen, T; Hämäläinen, A

    2009-05-01

    We studied the responses of micropropagated, northern provenances of downy, mountain and silver birches to elevated ozone (O(3)) and changing climate using open-top chambers (OTCs). Contrary to our hypothesis, northern birches were sensitive to O(3), i.e. O(3) levels of 31-36 ppb reduced the leaf and root biomasses by -10%, whereas wood biomass was affected to a lesser extent. The warmer and drier OTC climate enhanced growth in general, though there were differences among the species and clones, e.g. in bud burst and biomass production. Inter- and intra-specific responses to O(3) and changing climate relate to traits such as allocation patterns between the above- and belowground parts (i.e. root/shoot ratio), which further relate to nutrient and water economy. Our experiments may have mimicked future conditions quite well, but only long-term field studies can yield the information needed to forecast responses at both tree and ecosystem levels.

  15. Quantification of Model Uncertainty in Modeling Mechanisms of Soil Microbial Respiration Pulses to Simulate Birch Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshall, A. S.; Ye, M.; Niu, G. Y.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2014-12-01

    A Bayesian framework is developed to quantify predictive uncertainty in environmental modeling caused by uncertainty in modeling scenarios, model structures, model parameters, and data. An example of using the framework to quantify model uncertainty is presented to simulate soil microbial respiration pulses in response to episodic rainfall pulses (the "Birch effect"). A total of five models are developed; they evolve from an existing four-carbon (C) pool model to models with additional C pools and recently developed models with explicit representations of soil moisture controls on C degradation and microbial uptake rates. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods with generalized likelihood function (not Gaussian) are used to estimate posterior parameter distributions of the models, and the posterior parameter samples are used to evaluate probabilities of the models. The models with explicit representations of soil moisture controls outperform the other models. The models with additional C pools for accumulation of degraded C in the dry zone of the soil pore space result in a higher probability of reproducing the observed Birch pulses. A cross-validation is conducted to explore predictive performance of model averaging and of individual models. The Bayesian framework is mathematically general and can be applied to a wide range of environmental problems.

  16. Elastic and Strength Properties of Heat-Treated Beech and Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Borůvka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of heat treatment on the elastic and strength properties of two diffuse porous hardwoods, namely Fagus sylvatica and Betula pendula. Two degrees of the heat treatment were used at temperatures of 165 °C and 210 °C. The dynamic and static elasticity modulus, bending strength, impact toughness, hardness, and density were tested. It is already known that an increase in treatment temperature decreases the mechanical properties and, on the other hand, leads to a better shape and dimensional stability. Higher temperatures of the heat treatment correlated with lower elastic and strength properties. In the case of higher temperature treatments, the decline of tested properties was noticeable as a result of serious changes in the chemical composition of wood. It was confirmed that at higher temperature stages of treatment, there was a more pronounced decrease in beech properties compared to those of the birch, which was the most evident in their bending strength and hardness. Our research confirmed that there is no reason to consider birch wood to be of a lesser quality, although it is regarded by foresters as an inferior tree species. After the heat treatment, the wood properties are almost the same as in the case of beech wood.

  17. Dominating IgE-binding epitope of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen, characterized by X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, Michael D; Mirza, Osman; Ipsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    approach to the engineering of allergen molecules with reduced IgE binding. In this study, we describe the identification and modification of a human IgE-binding epitope based on the crystal structure of Bet v 1 in complex with the BV16 Fab' fragment. The epitope occupies approximately 10% of the molecular...... surface area of Bet v 1 and is clearly conformational. A synthetic peptide representing a sequential motif in the epitope (11 of 16 residues) did not inhibit the binding of mAb BV16 to Bet v 1, illustrating limitations in the use of peptides for B cell epitope characterization. The single amino acid...... substitution, Glu(45)-Ser, was introduced in the epitope and completely abolished the binding of mAb BV16 to the Bet v 1 mutant within a concentration range 1000-fold higher than wild type. The mutant also showed up to 50% reduction in the binding of human polyclonal IgE, demonstrating that glutamic acid 45...

  18. Dominating IgE-binding epitope of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen, characterized by X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, Michael D; Mirza, Osman; Ipsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Specific allergy vaccination is an efficient treatment for allergic disease; however, the development of safer vaccines would enable a more general use of the treatment. Determination of molecular structures of allergens and allergen-Ab complexes facilitates epitope mapping and enables a rational...

  19. Neonatal colonization of germ-free mice with Bifidobacterium longum prevents allergic sensitization to major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarzer, Martin; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Schabussova, I.; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Akgün, J.; Wiedermann, U.; Kozáková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 46 (2013), s. 5405-5412 ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0449; GA MŠk 7AMB12AT020 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Allergy * Bifidobacterium * Germ-free mice Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.485, year: 2013

  20. The blocking activity of birch pollen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 is not qualitatively superior to that of other IgG subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnaes, Anne M; Bødtger, Uffe; Larsen, Jørgen N

    2004-01-01

    blocking activity was found in the purified IgG4 fraction. There was no significant difference in the binding avidities (1/K(d)) measured in the two IgG fractions. Thus, it appears that SIT-induced specific IgG4 contributes to the IgG blocking of allergen binding to IgE in a simple quantitative manner...

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 in complex with a murine monoclonal IgG Fab' fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, M D; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Gajhede, M

    1999-01-01

    The human type I allergic response is characterized by the presence of allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). Allergen-mediated cross-linking of receptor-bound IgE on the surface of mast cells and circulating basophils triggers the release of mediators, resulting in the development...

  2. Susceptibility to nasal and oral tolerance induction to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 is not dependent on the presence of the microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Repa, A.; Kozáková, Hana; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Štěpánková, Renata; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Tlaskalová, Helena; Pollak, A.; Wiedermann, U.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2008), s. 50-56 ISSN 0165-2478 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2249; GA ČR GA303/06/0974; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : gnotobiotics * mucosal immunity * allergy Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.858, year: 2008

  3. Pollen Ultrastructure of Genus Dendrobium Orchids as a Learning Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Dwi Apriani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anggrek genus Dendrobium merupakan salah satu genus dari divisi spermatophyta yang merupakan kelompok tumbuhan yang berkembang dengan menggunakan biji. Tumbuhan berbiji tentu memiliki bunga sebagai alat perkembangan generatifnya. Perkembangan generatif pada bunga artinya pertemuan antara sel gamet jantan dan sel gamet betina. Sel gamet betina pada tumbuhan dihasilkan oleh putik, sedangkan sel gamet jantan disebut serbuk sari atau pollen. Genus Dendrobium merupakan salah satu kekayaan alam Indonesia, jumlahnya diperkirakan mencapai 275 spesies. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimana ultrastruktur pollen anggrek genus Dendrobium dari sepuluh spesies yang diamati menggunakan SEM. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan unit pollen untuk semua spesies yaitu kategori pollinia, sedangkan untuk polaritas pollen adalah apolar. Jenis aperture kesepuluh spesies yang diamati mempunyai aperture dengan pola yang tidak beraturan dan lebih dari enam yang disebut colpate. Bentuk pollen dari semua spesies yang diteliti bentuknya adalah subprolate hingga prolate dan ukuran pollen termasuk dalam kategori minuta hingga media. Ornamentasi pollen atau skluptur pollen tidak teridentifikasi dikarenakan ukuran pollen yang terlalu kecil, permukaan pollen terlihat kurang jelas. Sumber belajar yang digunakan adalah atlas.

  4. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 is involved in Arabidopsis pollen grain germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christelle; Bouton, Sophie; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Fabrice, Tohnyui Ndinyanka; Mareck, Alain; Guénin, Stéphanie; Fournet, Françoise; Ringli, Christoph; Pelloux, Jérôme; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    Germination of pollen grains is a crucial step in plant reproduction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the role of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 (PME48), an enzyme implicated in the remodeling of pectins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pollen. A combination of functional genomics, gene expression, in vivo and in vitro pollen germination, immunolabeling, and biochemical analyses was used on wild-type and Atpme48 mutant plants. We showed that AtPME48 is specifically expressed in the male gametophyte and is the second most expressed PME in dry and imbibed pollen grains. Pollen grains from homozygous mutant lines displayed a significant delay in imbibition and germination in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, numerous pollen grains showed two tips emerging instead of one in the wild type. Immunolabeling and Fourier transform infrared analyses showed that the degree of methylesterification of the homogalacturonan was higher in pme48-/- pollen grains. In contrast, the PME activity was lower in pme48-/-, partly due to a reduction of PME48 activity revealed by zymogram. Interestingly, the wild-type phenotype was restored in pme48-/- with the optimum germination medium supplemented with 2.5 mm calcium chloride, suggesting that in the wild-type pollen, the weakly methylesterified homogalacturonan is a source of Ca(2+) necessary for pollen germination. Although pollen-specific PMEs are traditionally associated with pollen tube elongation, this study provides strong evidence that PME48 impacts the mechanical properties of the intine wall during maturation of the pollen grain, which, in turn, influences pollen grain germination. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Origin and Functional Prediction of Pollen Allergens in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miaolin; Xu, Jie; Devis, Deborah; Shi, Jianxin; Ren, Kang; Searle, Iain; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-09-01

    Pollen allergies have long been a major pandemic health problem for human. However, the evolutionary events and biological function of pollen allergens in plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the genome-wide prediction of pollen allergens and their biological function in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the monocotyledonous model plant rice (Oryza sativa). In total, 145 and 107 pollen allergens were predicted from rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. These pollen allergens are putatively involved in stress responses and metabolic processes such as cell wall metabolism during pollen development. Interestingly, these putative pollen allergen genes were derived from large gene families and became diversified during evolution. Sequence analysis across 25 plant species from green alga to angiosperms suggest that about 40% of putative pollen allergenic proteins existed in both lower and higher plants, while other allergens emerged during evolution. Although a high proportion of gene duplication has been observed among allergen-coding genes, our data show that these genes might have undergone purifying selection during evolution. We also observed that epitopes of an allergen might have a biological function, as revealed by comprehensive analysis of two known allergens, expansin and profilin. This implies a crucial role of conserved amino acid residues in both in planta biological function and allergenicity. Finally, a model explaining how pollen allergens were generated and maintained in plants is proposed. Prediction and systematic analysis of pollen allergens in model plants suggest that pollen allergens were evolved by gene duplication and then functional specification. This study provides insight into the phylogenetic and evolutionary scenario of pollen allergens that will be helpful to future characterization and epitope screening of pollen allergens. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of allergic rhinitis or asthma with pollen and chemical pollutants in Szeged, Hungary, 1999-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makra, László; Matyasovszky, István; Bálint, Beatrix; Csépe, Zoltán

    2014-07-01

    The effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants on respiratory hospital admissions for the Szeged region in Southern Hungary is analysed. A 9-year (1999-2007) database includes—besides daily number of respiratory hospital admissions—daily mean concentrations of CO, PM10, NO, NO2, O3 and SO2. Two pollen variables ( Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia) are also included. The analysis was performed for patients with chronic respiratory complaints (allergic rhinitis or asthma bronchiale) for two age categories (adults and the elderly) of males and females. Factor analysis was performed to clarify the relative importance of the pollutant variables affecting respiratory complaints. Using selected low and high quantiles corresponding to probability distributions of respiratory hospital admissions, averages of two data sets of each air pollutant variable were evaluated. Elements of these data sets were chosen according to whether actual daily patient numbers were below or above their quantile value. A nonparametric regression technique was applied to discriminate between extreme and non-extreme numbers of respiratory admissions using pollen and chemical pollutants as explanatory variables. The strongest correlations between extreme patient numbers and pollutants can be observed during the pollen season of Ambrosia, while the pollen-free period exhibits the weakest relationships. The elderly group with asthma bronchiale is characterised by lower correlations between extreme patient numbers and pollutants compared to adults and allergic rhinitis, respectively. The ratio of the number of correct decisions on the exceedance of a quantile resulted in similar conclusions as those obtained by using multiple correlations.

  7. Timing of pollen release and stigma receptivity period of Piper vicosanum: New insights into sexual reproduction of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin-Silva, Adriano; Coelho, Victor Peçanha de Miranda; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Vieira, Milene Faria

    2015-04-01

    Dichogamy is a common characteristic among angiosperms, including Piper species. In this genus, the tiny flowers are morphologically similar and have an asynchronous stamen development. However, there is no information on the duration of stigma receptivity and whether it overlaps with pollen release. To better understand mechanisms of floral function in Piper vicosanum, we provide a detailed characterization of the timing of pollen release from the four stamens and the period of stigma receptivity and exposure mode of the receptive areas. We investigated plants of a natural population in a semideciduous seasonal forest (Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil), based on chemical tests, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Incomplete protogyny-a mechanism that favors outcrossing-was recorded. The period of stigma receptivity was long (14 d), and the sequential exposure and senescence of stigmatic papillae occurred gradually and in a basipetal direction. Pollen release began 2-6 d after the beginning of the pistillate phase, with an average pollen viability of 87.7%, during the bisexual flower phase. Pollen was released for up to 6 d and occurred in one stamen at a time. The fruit set observed in tests of self-pollination indicated self-compatibility. The gradual and sequential exposure of stigmatic papillae in P. vicosanum flowers is described here as the mechanism for the long duration of receptivity. Anther development and pollen release were also sequential. These findings are yet unreported reproductive characteristics of the genus and offer new perspectives for future studies on the floral biology of other Piper species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Satisfaction and quality of life of allergic patients following sublingual five-grass pollen tablet immunotherapy in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Antolín-Amerigo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Five-grass pollen tablet is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC. This trial sought to determine the satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL of patients undergoing this treatment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicentre, observational, naturalistic study, following a discontinuous pre- and coseasonal five-grass pollen regimen over two seasons in Spain (2012, 2013. The HRQoL of the patients was measured with the specific Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ for adults, adolescent (AdolRQLQ, or paediatric (PRQLQ patients. Treatment satisfaction was assessed by the Satisfaction Scale for Patients Receiving Allergen Immunotherapy (ESPIA questionnaire. Patients/investigators were surveyed on beliefs and attitudes towards the five-grass pollen tablet. ARC evolution according to allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA criteria and treatment adherence were evaluated. Results: Among the 591 ARC patients included, the mean (SD HRQoL scores were 1.40 (1.1 in adults, 1.33 (1.1 in adolescents, and 1.15 (1.1 in children, indicating low levels of impairment (scale 0–6. ESPIA answers showed high levels of satisfaction, with an average score of 69.2 (scale 0–100. According to ARIA criteria, 88.2% of patients reported improvement of ARC. Moreover, this was accompanied by a reduced use of symptomatic medication. Adherence to treatment was estimated at 96.8%. In general, both patients and specialists exhibited a positive attitude towards five-grass