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Sample records for birch betula platyphylla

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis of Phenotypic Changes in Birch (Betula platyphylla Autotetraploids

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    Gui-Feng Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders have focused much attention on polyploid trees because of their importance to forestry. To evaluate the impact of intraspecies genome duplication on the transcriptome, a series of Betula platyphylla autotetraploids and diploids were generated from four full-sib families. The phenotypes and transcriptomes of these autotetraploid individuals were compared with those of diploid trees. Autotetraploids were generally superior in breast-height diameter, volume, leaf, fruit and stoma and were generally inferior in height compared to diploids. Transcriptome data revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to autotetraploidization, which resulted in the upregulation of 7052 unigenes and the downregulation of 3658 unigenes. Pathway analysis revealed that the biosynthesis and signal transduction of indoleacetate (IAA and ethylene were altered after genome duplication, which may have contributed to phenotypic changes. These results shed light on variations in birch autotetraploidization and help identify important genes for the genetic engineering of birch trees.

  2. Overexpression of a MADS-box gene from birch (Betula platyphylla promotes flowering and enhances chloroplast development in transgenic tobacco.

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    Guan-Zheng Qu

    Full Text Available In this study, a MADS-box gene (BpMADS, which is an ortholog of AP1 from Arabidopsis, was isolated from birch (Betula platyphylla. Transgenic Arabidopsis containing a BpMADS promoter::GUS construct was produced, which exhibited strong GUS staining in sepal tissues. Ectopic expression of BpMADS significantly enhanced the flowering of tobacco (35S::BpMADS. In addition, the chloroplasts of transgenic tobacco exhibited much higher growth and division rates, as well rates of photosynthesis, than wild-type. A grafting experiment demonstrated that the flowering time of the scion was not affected by stock that overexpressed BpMADS. In addition, the overexpression of BpMADS resulted in the upregulation of some flowering-related genes in tobacco.

  3. Ectomycorrhizas in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae, and Betula platyphylla var. japonica, an early-successional birch species, in cool-temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Neda, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete that associates with Pinaceae in the Northern Hemisphere and produces prized "matsutake" mushrooms. We questioned whether the symbiont could associate with a birch that is an early-successional species in boreal, cool-temperate, or subalpine forests. In the present study, we demonstrated that T. matsutake can form typical ectomycorrhizas with Betula platyphylla var. japonica; the associations included a Hartig net and a thin but distinct fungal sheath, as well as the rhizospheric mycelial aggregate "shiro" that is required for fruiting in nature. The in vitro shiro also emitted a characteristic aroma. This is the first report of an ectomycorrhizal formation between T. matsutake and a deciduous broad-leaved tree in the boreal or cool-temperate zones that T. matsutake naturally inhabits. PMID:25236465

  4. Analysis of three types of triterpenoids in tetraploid white birches (Betula platyphylla Suk.) and selection of plus trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Wang; Hui Zhao; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Chuanping Yang

    2015-01-01

    Betulin, oleanolic acid, and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoids that have significant medicinal value. Considerable amounts of these triterpenoids are available in the outer bark of white birch. In this study, we used ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to extract triterpenoids from birch bark rapidly and with high efficiency. Using high performance liquid chro-matography (HPLC), three types of triterpenoids were separated and detected. We examined the differences among triterpenoids extracted from diploid versus tetra-ploid white birch. Then, we used factor analysis to screen out tetraploid white birches with comprehensively excel-lent performance. The results indicate that the optimum conditions for extraction include the use of ethanol as an extraction solvent, a solid-to-liquid ratio of 0.1 g/10 ml, ultrasonic power set at 100 W, a temperature of 60 ?C and an extraction time of 15 min. A reversed-phase C18 col-umn (4.6 mm 9 250 mm 9 5 lm) with a column tem-perature of 30 ?C and the mobile phase composed of A (acetonitrile) and B (0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min were used, and the detection wavelength was 195 nm. No significant difference was observed between diploid and tetraploid white birch in terms of the content of three types of triterpenoids (at a confidence level of 0.05). As triterpenoid content, height, and DBH (diameter at breast height) are strongly interre-lated, we used factor analysis to evaluate all individuals, and we screened out six plus trees with excellent com-prehensive characters.

  5. Elevated CO{sub 2} and limited nitrogen nutrition can restrict excitation energy dissipation in photosystem 2 of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) leaves

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    Kitao, M.; Tobita, H.; Maruyama, Y. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Inst., Hokkaido Research Center, Sapporo (Japan); Koike, T. [Hokkaido Univ., Hokkaido Univ. Forests, Sapporo (Japan)

    2005-09-01

    Elevated atmospheric C0{sub 2} concentration [C0{sub 2}] and different levels of nitrogen (N) nutrition can influence the amount of excess excitation energy in photosystem (PS) II and related photosynthetic properties. The interactive effect of two [C0{sub 2}] levels (ambient: 360 {mu}M M{sub -1} and elevated: 720 {mu}M{sub -1}) and two N levels (high: 700 mg N plant{sub -1} and low: 100 mg N plant{sub -1}) on these properties was examined in seedlings of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) using simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [C0{sub 2}], as indicated by a decline in carboxylation efficiency (CE), was observed in plants Brown at elevated [C02] especially under low N. Elevated [C0{sub 2}] resulted in a decrease in area-based leaf N content (N{sub area}) irrespective of N treatment. The adverse effect of elevated [C0{sub 2}] and low N on CE may have been exacerbated by a greater accumulation of leaf sugar and starch contents in these plants leading to a lower electron transport rate (ETR). While these plants also showed higher non-photochemical quenching (Nq{sub p}) that could offset the reduction in energy dissipation through ETR to some extent, they still have a higher risk of photoinhibition from excessive excitation energy in PSII as indicated by a decrease in photochemical quenching (q{sub p}). However, chronic photoinhibition was not observed in plant Grown at elevated [C0{sub 2}] and low N because they showed no difference in F{sub v}F{sub m} (the maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II) from those Brown at ambient [C0{sub 2}] and low N after an overnight dark adaptation. High levels of Nq{sub p} in plants Brown at elevated [C0{sub 2}] and low N reflect a near saturation of thermal energy dissipation. This impaired capacity of photoprotection would render these plants more vulnerable to photoinhibition in the event of additional environmental stresses such as

  6. Twelve Elastic Constants of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Liyu; Lu Zhenyou

    2004-01-01

    Wood elastic constants are needed to describe the elastic behaviors of wood and be taken as an important design parameter for wood-based composite materials and structural materials. This paper clarified the relationships between compliance coefficients and engineering elastic constants combined with orthotropic properties of wood, and twelve elastic constants of Betula platyphylla Suk. were measured by electrical strain gauges. Spreading the adhesive quantity cannot be excessive or too little when the strain flakes were glued. If excessive, the glue layer was too thick which would influence the strain flakes' performance, and if too little, glues plastered were not firm, which could not accurately transmit the strain. Wood as an orthotropic material, its modulus of elasticity and poisson's ratios are related by two formulas:μij /Ei =μji /Ej and μij 0.95) between the reciprocal of elastic modulus MOE-1 and the square of the ratio of depth to length (h/l)2, which indicate that shear modulus values measured were reliable by three point bending experiment.

  7. A New Monoterpene Glucoside from the Leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new monoterpene glucoside, (2E,6Z)-2,6-dimethyl-8-b-D-glucosyloxy-2,6-octadien- oic acid, was isolated from the leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk. The structure was established by spectroscopic data.

  8. PLATYPHYLLIN A, A NOVEL COUMARONE FROM THE LEAVES OF BETULA PLATYPHYLLA SUK.

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    SU-JUAN WANG; YUE-HU PEI; HUI-MING HUA

    2001-01-01

    A novel coumarone, platyphyllin A (1), was isolated from the leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk..The structure elucidation was accomplished by the analysis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 was identified as a new coumarone skeleton, which was first isolated from plants.

  9. Chemical characteristics of surface colour of birch veneer (Betula pendula)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Julkaistu vain painettuna, saatavuus katso Bibid. Published only in printed form, availability see Bibid This thesis investigates the discoloration of veneer produced from silver birch (Betula pendula) logs by means of biochemical and chemical analyses on the veneer and sap obtained from wood which was soaked at varying temperatures (20-70 ˚C). Drastic colour development was confirmed from the sap squeezed from green birch wood. The results from biochemical tests on the sap by sodium dodec...

  10. Exogenous GA₃ Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla.

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    Guo, Huiyan; Wang, Yucheng; Liu, Huizi; Hu, Ping; Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunrui; Wang, Yanmin; Gu, Shan; Yang, Chuanping; Wang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch) seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA₃ and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC), seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA₃ and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol-HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA₃, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA₃-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA₃ treatment, suggesting their role in GA₃-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA₃ induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants. PMID:26404260

  11. Exogenous GA3 Application Enhances Xylem Development and Induces the Expression of Secondary Wall Biosynthesis Related Genes in Betula platyphylla

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    Huiyan Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA is a key signal molecule inducing differentiation of tracheary elements, fibers, and xylogenesis. However the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of GA on xylem elongation and secondary wall development in tree species remain to be determined. In this study, Betula platyphylla (birch seeds were treated with 300 ppm GA3 and/or 300 ppm paclobutrazol (PAC, seed germination was recorded, and transverse sections of hypocotyls were stained with toluidine blue; the two-month-old seedlings were treated with 50 μM GA3 and/or 50 μM PAC, transverse sections of seedling stems were stained using phloroglucinol–HCl, and secondary wall biosynthesis related genes expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that germination percentage, energy and time of seeds, hypocotyl height and seedling fresh weight were enhanced by GA3, and reduced by PAC; the xylem development was wider in GA3-treated plants than in the control; the expression of NAC and MYB transcription factors, CESA, PAL, and GA oxidase was up-regulated during GA3 treatment, suggesting their role in GA3-induced xylem development in the birch. Our results suggest that GA3 induces the expression of secondary wall biosynthesis related genes to trigger xylogenesis in the birch plants.

  12. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

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    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. PMID:27060627

  13. Progeny test of tetraploid Betula platyphylla and preliminary selection of hybrid parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanwen Xu; Yu Liu; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Xiyang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Estimating genetic parameters of parental lines through progeny testing and choosing good hybrid parents are important for genetically improving seed orchard trees. In this study, 24 tetraploid progeny seedlings were used as experimental materials, which came from test cross design:six tetraploid Betula platyphylla lines (Q33, Q13, Q103, Q19, Q83 and Q14) as female parents and four individual B. platyphylla diploid lines (F3, F4, F9 and F11) as male parents were crossed. Variance analysis of height, diame-ter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance showed that the differences between hybrid combinations reached highly significant levels. Using multi-objective decisionmaking, we performed a comprehensive assess-ment of the various hybrid combinations. Using a selection rate of 20% of the standard, five hybrids were selected;their genetic gains in average height, diameter, height-to-diameter ratio, and internodal distance were 20.95, 6.07, 13.07 and 8.96%, respectively. We also analyzed the combining ability and genetic parameter effect values of parents and hybrid combinations. The combined analysis revealed that Q13, Q103, Q33 and Q83 were superior females; F3, F4, and F9 were superior males; and F3 9 Q13, F4 9 Q83 and F9 9 Q33 were superior hybrid combinations. The heights and diameters of these proge-nies were 22.49 and 11.48% greater than average, respectively.

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily

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    Bagnato S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily. We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks or mixed ones (with birch; pure birch stands (typical that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.

  15. Fluctuation of birch (Betula L. pollen seasons in Poland

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    Małgorzata Puc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that induce allergic processes. The fluctuation pattern of birch pollen seasons in selected cities of Poland is presented. Measurements were performed by the volumetric method (Burkard and Lanzoni 2000 pollen samplers. The distributions of the data were not normal (Shapiro–Wilk test and statistical error risk was estimated at a significance level of α = 0.05. Pollen season was defined as the period in which 95% of the annual total catch occurred. The linear trend for the selected features of the pollen season, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variation (V% were also analyzed. During the 12–14 years of study, the beginnings of birch pollen seasons were observed 7–14 days earlier, the ends were noted 5–10 days earlier, and the days with maximum values occurred 7–14 days earlier compared to the long-term data. The left-skewed distribution of the pollen season starts in most sampling sites confirms the short-lasting occurrence of pollen in the air. The threat of birch pollen allergens was high during the pollen seasons. If vegetation is highly diverse, flowering and pollen release are extended in time, spread over different weeks and occur at different times of the day. Flowering time and pollen release are affected by insolation, convection currents, wind, and turbulence. Therefore, pollen seasons are characterized by great inter-annual variability.

  16. White Birch Trees as Resource Species of Russia : Their Distribution, Ecophysiological Features, Multiple Utilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Zyryanova, Olga A.; TERAZAWA, Minoru; KOIKE, TAKAYOSHI; Zyryanov, Vyacheslav I.

    2010-01-01

    Four birch tree species (Betula costata, B. pendula, B. platyphylla, B. pubescens) are traditionally important resource species in Russia. In the article, we discuss their spatial and ecophysiological features, biochemical constituents of the living tissues of the birches such as the wood, outer and inner bark, twigs, leaves, buds, roots. The exudation, tapping periods and sap productivity, exudated birch sap and derived birch tar are also reviewed. We show numerous useful wooden, medicinal, ...

  17. Identification of SSR loci in Betula luminifera using birch EST data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-quan; LI Hai-ying; JIA Qing; HUANG Hua-hong; TONG Zai-kang

    2011-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are generated from single-pass sequencing of randomly picked cDNA clones and can be used for development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites.However,EST databases have been developed for only a small number of species.This paper provides a case study of the utility of freely available birch EST reources for the development of markers necessary for the genetic analysis of Betula luminifera.Based on birch EST data,primers for 80 EST-SSR candidate loci were developed and tested in birch.Of these,59 EST-SSR loci yielded single,stable and clear PCR products.We then tested the utility of those 59 markers in B.luminifera.The results showed 28 (47.6%) yielded stable and clear PCR products for at least one B.luminifera genotype.In addition,this study describes a rapid and inexpensive alternative for the development of SSRs in species with scarce available sequence data.

  18. 以光合效率度量天然白桦种群生态位初探%Primary Probing into Niche of Natural Betula platyphylla Population by Means of Photosynthetic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱民; 祖元刚

    2002-01-01

    In terms of photosynthetic efficiency,which demonstrates the space-time function of plant,niche width of B. Platyphylla population was described.First,on the basis of net photosynthetic amount in certain time,the niche width of a birch was calculated.Then,the realized niche and rudimental niche of B. Platyphylla seedlings,young trees and adult trees were discussed.Finally, the dynamic of niche under special conditions was studied.

  19. BpMADS4 has a central role in inflorescence initiation in silver birch (Betula pendula).

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    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Novak, Anu; Keinonen, Kaija; Porali, Ilkka; Hassinen, Minna; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2007-09-01

    Acceleration of flowering would be beneficial for breeding trees with a long juvenile phase; conversely, inhibition of flowering would prevent the spread of transgenes from the genetically modified trees. We have previously isolated and characterized several MADS genes from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). In this study, we investigated the more detailed function of one of them, BpMADS4, a member of the APETALA1/FRUITFULL group of MADS genes. The expression of BpMADS4 starts at very early stage of the male and female inflorescence development and the activity is high in the apex of the developing inflorescence. Later, some expression is detected in the bracts and in the flower initials. Ectopic expression of BpMADS4 accelerates flowering dramatically in normally flowering clones and also in the early-flowering birch clone, in which the earliest line flowered about 11 days after rooting, when the saplings were only 3 cm high. The birches transformed with the BpMADS4 antisense construct showed remarkable delay in flowering and the number of flowering individuals was reduced. Two of the transformed lines did not show any signs of flower development during our 2-year study, whereas all the control plants formed inflorescences within 107 days. Our results show that BpMADS4 has a critical role in the initiation of birch inflorescence development and that BpMADS4 seems to be involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Therefore, BpMADS4 provides a promising tool for the genetic enhancement of forest trees. PMID:18251933

  20. Slow pyrolysis of birch (Betula) studied with GC/MS and GC/FTIR/FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, M.; Ingemarsson, A.; Pedersen, J.R.; Olsson, J.O. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1999-03-01

    Small samples of wood (15 - 150 mg) from 8 different species of birch (Betula) were pyrolysed at 550{sup o}C. The compounds produced from the pyrolysis were analysed using gas chromatographic (GC) methods: direct injection with GC/FTIR/FID and pre-concentration with GC/MS. A broad distribution of oxygenated organic compounds was formed: aldehydes, acids, ketones, substituted furans and methoxylated phenols. The chromatograms were very similar for all eight species, both with direct injection and pre-concentration. Compared to similar studies for pine and spruces significantly higher amounts were formed in the molecular range 60 - 130 amu. The conifers showed more peaks with a molecular weight above 200 amu. (author)

  1. [Allelopathic effects of the humus soils from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations on 9 kinds of common shrubs and herbs].

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    Huang, Liang-Jia; Liu, Zeng-wen; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Lü, Chen

    2014-06-01

    The humus soils were collected from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations and woodless land separately where the site conditions were basically the same, and taken as medium for potting culture test of 9 kinds of shrubs or herbs in plastic greenhouse to assess the allelopathic effects of humus soils of pure plantations on shrubs or herbs. Humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation significantly inhibited the seed germinations of Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis, decreased the catalase (CAT) activity of M. officinalis, Coronilla varia, M. sativa and Lespedeza davurica, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Caragana kor-shinskii, C. varia and Astragalus adsurgens. The biomass growths of C. varia, Amorpha fruticosa, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens in humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation were significantly decreased by 48.2%, 45.1%, 44.3%, 37.3% and 36.0%, respectively. In addition, humus soil of Q. liaotungensis plantation significantly decreased the germination rates of M. sativa and A. adsurgens, the chlorophyll contents of Vicia villosa, A. fruticosa and M. sativa, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Lespedeza davurica, Caragana korshinskii, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens. The biomass growths of A. adsurgens, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa were significantly decreased by 52.6% , 43.8%, 35.5% and 34.6%, respective- ly. B. platyphylla plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa, while Q. liaotungensis plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, A. adsurgens and A. fruticosa. PMID:25223017

  2. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen

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    van't Westende Wendy PC

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the genome was established by amplification and sequencing of alleles from eight birch species that represent the four subgenera within the genus Betula. Q-TOF LC-MSE was applied to identify which PR-10/Bet v 1 genes are actually expressed in pollen and to determine the relative abundances of individual isoforms in the pollen proteome. Results All examined birch species contained several PR-10 genes. In total, 134 unique sequences were recovered. Sequences were attributed to different genes or pseudogenes that were, in turn, ordered into seven subfamilies. Five subfamilies were common to all birch species. Genes of two subfamilies were expressed in pollen, while each birch species expressed a mixture of isoforms with at least four different isoforms. Isoforms that were similar to isoforms with a high IgE-reactivity (Bet v 1a = PR-10.01A01 were abundant in all species except B. lenta, while the hypoallergenic isoform Bet v 1d (= PR-10.01B01 was only found in B. pendula and its closest relatives. Conclusion Q-TOF LC-MSE allows efficient screening of Bet v 1 isoforms by determining the presence and relative abundance of these isoforms in pollen. B. pendula contains a Bet v 1-mixture in which isoforms with a high and low IgE-reactivity are both abundant. With the possible exception of B. lenta, isoforms identical or very similar to those with a high IgE-reactivity were found in the pollen proteome of all examined birch species. Consequently, these species are also predicted to be allergenic with regard to Bet v 1 related allergies.

  3. Responses of selected birch (Betula pendula Roth) clones to ozone change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, E.

    2003-06-01

    A long-term free air ozone fumigation experiment was conducted to study changes in physiological ozone responses during tree ontogeny and exposure time in ozone sensitive and tolerant clones of European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), originated from south and central Finland. The trees were grown in soil in natural microclimatic conditions under ambient ozone (control) and 1.4-1.7 x ambient (elevated) ozone from May 1996 to October 2001, and were measured for stem and foliage growth, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, stomatal density, visible injuries, foliar starch content and bud formation. After 6 years of exposure, the magnitude of ozone-induced growth reductions in the sensitive clone was 12-48% (significant difference), levels similar or greater than those reported earlier for 2- and 3-year-old saplings undergoing shorter exposures. In the tolerant clone, growth of these larger trees was reduced by 1-38% (significant difference in stem volume), although the saplings had previously been unaffected. In both clones, ozone stress led to significantly reduced leaf-level net photosynthesis but significantly increased stomatal conductance rates during the late summer, resulting in a lower carbon gain for bud formation and the onset of visible foliar injuries. Increasing ozone sensitivity with duration of exposure was explained by a change in growth form (relatively reduced foliage mass), a lower photosynthesis to stomatal conductance ratio during the late summer, and deleterious carry-over effects arising from the reduced number of over-wintering buds. PMID:12803615

  4. Effects of ozone impact on the gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of juvenile birch stems (Betula pendula Roth.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of ozone impact on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of juvenile birch (Betula pendula) stems and leaves were investigated. Significant differences in the response of leaves and stems to ozone were found. In leaves, O3 exposure led to a significant decline in photosynthetic rates, whereas stems revealed an increased dark respiration and a concomitant increase in corticular photosynthesis. In contrast to birch leaves, corticular photosynthesis appeared to support the carbon balance of stems or even of the whole-tree under O3 stress. The differences in the ozone-response between leaves and stems were found to be related to ozone uptake rates, and thus to inherent differences in leaf and stem O3 conductance. - Leaves of birch were more affected by ozone fumigation than corresponding stems, due to a higher ozone uptake rate

  5. Accumulation of Triterpenoids in Betula platyphylla Suspension Culture Induced by a Fungal Elicitor%真菌诱导子促进白桦悬浮细胞三萜的积累

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟俏丽; 范桂枝; 詹亚光

    2011-01-01

    Endophytic fungus of Phomopsis isolated from birch(Betula platyphylla) bark can be used as an elicitor to induce accumulation of triterpenoids in birch cell suspension culture. The change of dry weight and triterpenoids content of birch suspension cell were investigated at early growth phase, exponential growth phase and late growth phase after a fungal elicitor of 40, 100, and 400 (xg-mL"' concentration was added to birch suspension cells. Results showed that different induction schemes all promoted accumulation of triterpenoids, while the treatments reduced the dry weight of birch cells. Suspension cells at exponential growth phase were most easy to be induced, and 40 ng-mL"' fungal elicitor enhanced the triterpenoids content to 29. 47 mg-g"1, increasing by 789$j than that of the control. We investigated changes in pH and conductivity of the medium, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase ( PAL) and peroxidase ( POD) under the optimal induction condition. Results showed that the fungal elicitor induced alkalinization of the medium and increased the conductivity, and significantly increased the activity of PAL and POD of birch suspension cells, which was 5. 70 and S. 74 fold as high as the control after 6 - 10 h of treatment, respectively. These results suggested that fungal elicitation induced defense reaction in birch suspension cell. General phenylpropanoid pathway and oxidative burst might involved in the triterpenoids accumulation induced by the fungal elicitor.%将促进白桦三萜积累的拟茎点霉属的内生真菌诱导子添加到白桦悬浮培养体系中,研究40,100,400pg·mL-1的真菌诱导子对生长初期、指数生长期和生长末期的悬浮细胞干质量和三萜积累的影响.结果表明:真菌诱导子的不同诱导方案均促进白桦悬浮细胞中三萜的积累,而细胞干质量积累却被抑制;其中最佳诱导条件为在指数生长期的白桦细胞中添加40 μg·mL-1的真菌诱导子诱导1天,诱导

  6. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and/or O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO2 and/or O3 on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO2 increased both the number of trees that flowered and the quantity of flowers (260% increase in male flower production), increased seed weight, germination rate, and seedling vigor. Elevated O3 also increased flowering but decreased seed weight and germination rate. In the combination treatment (elevated CO2 + O3) seed weight is decreased (20% reduction) while germination rate was unaffected. The evidence from this study indicates that elevated CO2 may have a largely positive impact on forest tree reproduction and regeneration while elevated O3 will likely have a negative impact. - In this study, we found that elevated CO2 enhances and elevated O3 decreases birch reproduction and early seedling growth

  7. 天然杨-桦次生林空间结构特征%Spatial structural characteristics of natural Populus davidiana - Betula platyphylla secondary forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵芳丽; 余新晓; 宋思铭; 赵阳

    2011-01-01

    运用直径分布和空间结构参数混交度、大小比数和角尺度,分析了木兰围场4 hm2天然杨-桦次生林的空间结构.结果表明:天然杨-桦次生林林分径级结构呈反“J”型曲线;林分平均混交度为0.4,其弱度和零度混交比例达51.6%,山杨、白桦的平均混交度分别为0.25和0.39;以胸径、树高为参数的大小比数基本一致,显示山杨、白桦处于亚优势向中庸的过渡状态;林分水平分布格局与树木起测直径密切相关,当起测直径为1 cm≤DBH<6 cm时,林分呈聚集分布,当起测直径DBH≥6 cm时,林分呈随机分布.%This paper analyzed the spatial structural characteristics of natural Populus davidiana -Betula platyphylla secondary forest in a 4 hm2 plot of Mulan Paddock, based on the diameter distribution and the spatial structure parameters mingling degree, neighborhood comparison, and angle index. In the forest, the diameter distribution of the stands presented as an inverse ' J' curve, the average mingling degree was 0. 4, with the individuals at weak and zero mingling degree reached 51. 6% , and the average mingling degree of P. Davidiana and B. Platyphylla was 0. 25 and 0. 39, respectively. The neighborhood comparison based on the diameter at breast height ( DBH) and tree height was almost the same, suggesting that the P. Davidiana and B. Platyphylla were in the transition state from subdominant to middle. The horizontal distribution pattern had a close relation to the minimum measured DBH, being clustered when the DBH was ≥1 cm and <6 cm, and random when the DBH was ≥6 cm.

  8. Influence of meteorological parameters and air pollution on hourly fluctuation of birch (Betula L.) and ash (Fraxinus L.) airborne pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puc, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that originate allergic processes. Knowledge of intradiurnal variation of the atmospheric pollen may be useful for the treatment and prevention of pollen allergies. Intradiurnal fluctuation of hourly pollen counts in 24 h are related to the daily rhythm of anther opening, and modified by various interacting factors. Flowering and pollen production of individual species are influenced by genetic, phenological, ecological, meteorological and climatic factors. Estimation of the intradiurnal variability in the pollen count permits evaluation of the threat posed by allergens over a given area. Measurements performed in Szczecin over a period of 7 years (2006-2012) permitted analysis of hourly variation of the pollen count of birch (Betula) and ash (Fraxinus) in 24 h, and evaluation of the impact of weather conditions and the concentration of gas air pollutants on the intradiurnal patterns of both taxa. Aerobiological monitoring was conducted using a Hirst volumetric trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000). Consecutive phases during the day were defined as 1, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 99% of annual total pollen. The analysis revealed that 50% of total daily pollen was noted at 14:00 for Betula and Fraxinus. The hourly distribution of birch pollen count skewed to the left and the majority of pollen of this taxon appears in the air in the first 12 hours of the day. However, for ash, the hourly distribution of pollen count skewed to the right. Statistically significant correlation was noted between the Betula and Fraxinus pollen concentration and the mean air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, air pressure, total radiation and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)). PMID:23311785

  9. The Evaluation of CP-001 (a Standardized Herbal Mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus for Cytochrome P450-Related Herb-Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Hyun Yoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of CP-001, a standardized herbal mixture of Houttuynia cordata, Rehmannia glutinosa, Betula platyphylla, and Rubus coreanus, on cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme-mediated drug metabolism was investigated in vitro to evaluate the potential for herb-drug interactions. CP-001 was tested at concentrations of 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 μg/mL. A CYP-specific substrate mixture was incubated with CP-001 in human liver microsomes, and the metabolites generated by each CYP-specific metabolic reaction were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. CP-001 seemed to slightly inhibit some CYP isozymes, but the IC50 values for all CYP isozymes were greater than 100 μg/mL. Furthermore, CP-001 did not exhibit time-dependent CYP inhibitory activities, indicating that it does not act as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP enzymes. In conclusion, the effects of CP-001 on CYP isozyme activities were negligible at the concentrations tested. Therefore, the likelihood of herbal mixture-drug interaction is considered minimal.

  10. The effect of exogenous sugar solution and high concentration of CO2 on the contents of sugar and protein of Betula platyphylla leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYu-mei; YANGChuan-ping; WANGShu-juan; WUYue-liang; WANGWen-zhang

    2003-01-01

    The content of total sugar,sucrose,fructose and protein in the leaves of 3-yr.-old Betula platyphylla was measured after the treatment by three exogenous sugar solutions(sucrose,fructose,glucose) and three high concentrations of CO2(700,1400,2100μL·L-1) for about a month in 1998.The results showed that spraying three exogenous sugar solutions increased markedly the content of sugar and protein of leaves under 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2.The effect of spraying exogenous sucrose solution was the best among the three exogenous sugars.The treatment of spraying exogenous sugar solution and 2100μL·L-1 CO2 constrained the accumulation of total sugar and protein of leaves.There was no difference in protein content of leaves when spraying glucose and fructose solutions under 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2.The treatrnent of 2100μL·L-1 CO2 concentration significantly increased the contents of total sugar,sucrose,fructose,and protein of leaves compared with that of the 700μL·L-1 and 1400μL·L-1 CO2 except the plants spraying fructose solution.there was positive correlation between the content of sugar of leaves and CO2 concentration when spraying same exogenous sugar solution.

  11. Responses in the start of Betula (birch) pollen seasons to recent changes in spring temperatures across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberlin, J.; Detandt, M.; Gehrig, R.; Jaeger, S.; Nolard, N.; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A.

    2002-07-01

    A shift in the timing of birch pollen seasons is important because it is well known to be a significant aeroallergen, especially in NW Europe where it is a notable cause of hay fever and pollen-related asthma. The research reported in this paper aims to investigate temporal patterns in the start dates of Betula (birch) pollen seasons at selected sites across Europe. In particular it investigates relationships between the changes in start dates and changes in spring temperatures over approximately the last 20 years. Daily birch pollen counts were used from Kevo, Turku, London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna, for the core period from 1982 to 1999 and, in some cases, from 1970 to 2000. The sites represent a range of biogeographical situations from just within the Arctic Circle through to North West Maritime and Continental Europe. Pollen samples were taken with Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Weather data were obtained from the sites nearest to the pollen traps. The timing of birch pollen seasons is known to depend mostly on a non-linear balance between the winter chilling required to break dormancy, and spring temperatures. Pollen start dates and monthly mean temperatures for January through to May were compiled to 5-year running means to examine trends. The start dates for the next 10 years were calculated from regression equations for each site, on the speculative basis that the current trends would continue. The analyses show regional contrasts. Kevo shows a marked trend towards cooler springs and later starts. If this continues the mean start date will become about 6 days later over the next 10 years. Turku exhibits cyclic patterns in start dates. A current trend towards earlier starts is expected to continue until 2007, followed by another fluctuation. London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna show very similar patterns in the trends towards earlier start dates. If the trend continues the mean start dates at these sites will advance by about 6 days over the next 10

  12. The Effects of Surface Roughness on Adhesion Strength of Coated Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Birch (Betula L. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina VITOSYTĖ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of surface roughness impact on adhesion properties, the samples of dried ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and birch (Betula L. wood were used. Before wood finishing, the surfaces of the samples were sanded. In order to get different surface roughness the abrasive material of P80, P120, P150, P180, P220 and P240 grit was used. The parameters of surface roughness Ra, Rz and Rmax were measured in three directions: along the wood grain, across the grain and in the angle of 45º. Comparison of the results showed the non-linear dependency of roughness parameters. Afterwards the wood surface was coated with three different acrylic-polyurethane coating systems (1 layer of varnish without primer, 1 layer of primer and 1 layer of varnish, and 1 layer of primer and 2 layers of varnish. The adhesion strength was assessed using the pull-off method. Also the nature of the fracture was evaluated. It was determined that the peculiarities of surface roughness, coating system type and wood species signally results the values of the adhesion strength.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3094

  13. Effects of long-term open-field ozone exposure on leaf phenolics of European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A; Loponen, J; Pihlaja, K; Oksanen, E

    2001-05-01

    The response of phenolic compounds as a result of long-term low open-field ozone exposure was studied in ozone-sensitive and ozone-tolerant clones of European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). The saplings were exposed to 1.5-1.6 times the ambient (elevated) ozone and ambient air (as control) over three growing seasons from May 1996 until August 1998. Quantification by modified Folin-Ciocalteau assay showed a 16.2% increase in total phenolics in elevated ozone plants as compared to that in controls and a corresponding 9.9% increase of 10 phenolic compounds quantified by HPLC. Five nonflavonoids and five flavonoids showed 8.4% and 11.4% increases, respectively. The phenolic results indicated slightly higher ozone sensitivity of clone 5 as compared to clone 2. The most ozone-responsive phenolic compounds in clone 2 and clone 5 were (+)-catechin (CT), chlorogenic acid (CGA), 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (5CQA), 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3CQA), myricetin galactopyranoside (MG), quercetin-3-O-glucuronopyranoside (QGR), and quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranoside (QA). Increased phenolic content in ozone-exposed plants was related to impaired growth and accelerated leaf senescence, indicated by enhanced autumn leaf yellowing and lower chlorophyll and Mg content. The change in carbon allocation towards defensive phenolics at the expense of growth was greater in the ozone-sensitive clone as compared to tolerant clone. PMID:11471939

  14. Effects of long-term, elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on phytochemicals in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2002-12-01

    Long-term outdoor experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation on secondary metabolites (phenolics and terpenoids) and the main soluble sugars (sucrose, raffinose and glucose) in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) saplings. Saplings were exposed to a constant 50% increase in erythemal UV irradiance (UV-B(CIE); based on the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) erythemal action spectrum) and a small increase in UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) for three growing seasons in an irradiation field in central Finland. Two control groups were used: saplings exposed to ambient radiation and saplings exposed to slightly increased UV-A radiation. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose and glucose in bark were higher in UV-treated saplings than in saplings grown in ambient radiation, indicating that stem carbohydrate metabolism was changed by long-term elevated UV radiation. Saplings in the elevated UV-A + UV-B radiation treatment and the UV-A radiation control treatment had significantly increased concentrations of certain UV-absorbing phenolics, such as salidroside, 3,4'-dihydroxypropiophenone-3-glucoside, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compared with saplings in ambient radiation. In contrast, the radiation treatments had no effect on the non-UV-B-absorbing terpenoids, papyriferic acid and deacetylpapyriferic acid. We conclude that plant parts, in addition to leaves, accumulate specific phenolic UV-filters in response to UV radiation exposure. PMID:12464579

  15. Stimulated production of steroids in Inonotus obliquus by host factors from birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Xia; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus. PMID:25027706

  16. Modelling of the spring phenological phases of the Silver birch Betula pendula and Bird cherry Padus racemosa in Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Kalvāne, Gunta; Bitāne, Māra; Cepīte-Frišfelde, Daiga; Sīle, Tija; Seņņikovs, Juris

    2014-05-01

    The air temperature is the strongest driving factor of the plant development during spring time in moderate climate conditions. However other factors such as the air temperature during the dormancy period and light conditions can play a role as well. The full potential of the recent and historical phenological observation data can be utilised by modelling tools. We have calibrated seven phenological models described in scientific literature to calculate the likely dates leaf unfolding and start of flowering of the Silver birch Betula pendula and bird cherry Padus racemosa (Kalvāns at al, accepted). Phenological observations are derived from voluntary observation network for period 1960-2009 in Latvia. The number of used observations for each phase range from 149 to 172. Air temperature data measured in meteorological stations closest to the corresponding phenological observation sites are obtained from Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. We used 33 random data subsamples for model calibration to produce a range of model coefficients enabling the estimation of the phenological model uncertainty. It is found that the best reproduction of the observational data are obtained using a simple linear degree day model considering daily minimum and maximum temperature and more complex sigmoidal model honouring the need for low temperatures for dormancy release (UniChill, Chuine, 2000). The median calibration base temperature in the degree day model for the silver birch leaf unfolding is 5.6°C and for start of the flowering 6.7°C; for the bird cherry the corresponding base temperatures are 3.2°C and 3.4°C. The calibrated models and air temperature archive data derived from the Danish Meteorological Institute is used to simulate the respective phase onset in the Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in 2009. Significant regional differences between modelled phase onset times are observed. There is a wide regional variation of the model uncertainty as well

  17. Birch (Betula spp.) wood biochar is a potential soil amendment to reduce glyphosate leaching in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner, Marleena; Hallman, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Kemppainen, Riitta; Rämö, Sari; Tiilikkala, Kari; Setälä, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine), a commonly used herbicide in agriculture can leach to deeper soil layers and settle in surface- and ground waters. To mitigate the leaching of pesticides and nutrients, biochar has been suggested as a potential soil amendment due to its ability to sorb both organic and inorganic substances. However, the efficiency of biochar in retaining agro-chemicals in the soil is likely to vary with feedstock material and pyrolysis conditions. A greenhouse pot experiment, mimicking a crop rotation cycle of three plant genera, was established to study the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the ability of birch (Betula sp.) wood originated biochar to reduce the leaching of (i) glyphosate, (ii) its primary degradation product AMPA and (iii) phosphorus from the soil. The biochar types used were produced at three different temperatures: 300 °C (BC300), 375 °C (BC375) and 475 °C (BC475). Compared to the control treatment without biochar, the leaching of glyphosate was reduced by 81%, 74% and 58% in BC300, BC375 and BC475 treated soils, respectively. The respective values for AMPA were 46%, 39% and 23%. Biochar had no significant effect on the retention of water-soluble phosphorus in the soil. Our results corroborate earlier findings on pesticides, suggesting that biochar amendment to the soil is a promising way to reduce also the leaching of glyphosate. Importantly, the ability of biochar to adsorb agro-chemicals depends on the temperature at which feedstock is pyrolysed. PMID:26342266

  18. Responses of two birch ( Betula pendula Roth) clones to different ozone profiles with similar AOT40 exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Toini

    Saplings of two clones of European white birch ( Betula pendula Roth) were exposed to three different ozone profiles resulting in same AOT40 value of 13-14 ppm h in a chamber experiment. The sensitive clone 5 and the more tolerant clone 2 were growing (1) under filtered air (=control), or (2) were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 24 h d -1 (=profile 1), (3) to 100 ppb ozone for 12 h d -1 at 8:00-20:00 (=profile 2), or (4) to 200 ppb ozone for 4.5 h d -1 at 9:30-14:00 (=profile 3) for 20 d. The saplings were determined for growth, visible leaf injuries, stomatal conductance, and concentrations of Rubisco, chlorophyll and carotenoids. Growth responses and induction of visible foliar injuries under different ozone profiles were variable, resulting in 4-17% lower dry mass of shoot, 16-46% reduction in stem height increment and 11-43% increase in visible injuries in clone 5, which was accompanied by higher leaf turnover rate under profile 3 indicating compensation growth. In clone 2, ozone-induced responses ranged from slight stimulation in stem height growth to 13% decrease in dry mass of shoot and 2-16% increase in visible injuries. Daytime stomatal conductance rates were lowered by 14-54% in clone 5 and 9-74% in clone 2, depending on profile. The additional power-weighted analyses revealed that high peak concentrations and exposure shape were important for induction of visible injuries in both clones and reduction in stomatal conductance in clone 5, whereas growth reductions were rather related to total cumulative exposure. The results indicate that profile of ozone exposure, night-time stomatal conductance (24 h flux), and recovery time for defence and compensations reactions should not be ignored in plant response and ozone flux modelling.

  19. The long range transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Poland and Germany causes significant pre-season concentrations in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.; Sommer, J.; Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    In Denmark, where birch pollen is considered to be among the most important allergenic pollen, about one million people suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis. In Denmark, the official reported pollen forecast is based on the daily weather forecast, the pollen calendar and local 24-h measurements. Birch pollen has the potential for long-range transport but the present Danish pollen forecast does not account for birch pollen being transported into the country from distant sources.. Long-range transport episodes are intermittent and often out of the main pollen season, where individuals in general will be medically unprotected. Here we use an integrated approach to investigate whether or not Denmark receives significant quantities of birch pollen from Poland and Germany before local trees start to flower. In 2006 we used a combination of phenological observations and pollen measurements in Poland (Poznań) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Seasonal and diurnal variations in birch pollen measurement from Copenhagen (2000-2006) were examined with the aim of identifying pre-seasonal episodes originating from long-range transport. The 2.5% accumulation method was used for identifying start of season. If daily pollen counts exceeded 30 grains/m3 either before the local flowering season began or on the actual start day, the episode was chosen for investigation with back trajectory analysis. A birch forest inventory for Northern Europe was produced and implemented in DEHM-Pollen along with a simple unified pollen release model SUPREME to investigate the 2006 campaign in detail. In 2006, full flowering took place in Poznan between 20th and 28th of April and daily concentrations varied between 739 and 2169 grains/m3. In Copenhagen phenological observations showed that local flowering was initiated the 2nd of May. In Copenhagen several episodes with pollen concentrations at 108, 244 and 41 grains/m3 were recorded the 23rd, 26th and 27th of April, respectively. Back-trajectory analysis

  20. Spatial Pattern Analysis of Individuals in Different Age-classes of Betula platyphylla in Huoshan Mountain of Shanxi Province%山西霍山白桦种群不同龄级立木的点格局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何艳华; 闫明; 武丽君; 张直峰; 毕润成

    2011-01-01

    Betula platyphylla is a pioneer plant and is distributed intensively in Huoshan mountain. One 50 m x 50 m quadrat was established in Qiliyu from which we recorded the DBH of each individual and the spatial points of all individuals were mapped. The data were analyzed by point pattern analysis. All individuals were divided into four DBH classes; DBH I (DBH≤ 7 cm);DBH Ⅱ (7 cm 21 cm).The results of this study showed; (1) The densities of four age-classes varied in the order: age-class n >age-class Ⅲ >age-class Ⅰ>age-class Ⅳ. The middle age-classes Ⅱ and Ⅲ had many more individuals than age-classes I and Ⅳ, which indicated that the population was currently in decline. (2) The individuals of all age-classes focused on clumping distribution in space, except the age-class Ⅰ. The feature of clumping distribution became more significant with increasing age. (3) The relationships between individuals in different age-classes were significantly correlated with each other on a small scale,but became non-significant with increasing scale,except for age-classes I and n ,age-classes Ⅱ and Ⅲ,and age-classes n and Ⅳ.%以山西霍山地区的先锋树种之一白桦( Betula platyphylla)为研究对象,在霍山七里峪林场典型地段设置一个50 m×50 m的样方,应用点格局分析方法对其不同龄级(Ⅰ级、Ⅱ级、Ⅲ级和Ⅳ级)个体的分布格局及相互关系进行了研究.结果表明:(1)白桦种群不同龄级的个体间密度也不相同,中间龄级Ⅱ级(7 cm< DBH≤14 cm)和Ⅲ级(14 cm <DBH≤21 cm)的密度较大,幼龄和老龄个体密度小,年龄结构为衰退型;(2)除Ⅰ级(DBH≤7 cm)外,其余3个龄级集群分布特征比较明显,且随着龄级的增加,集群特征有更明显的趋势;(3)除Ⅰ级和Ⅱ级、Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级、Ⅱ级和Ⅳ级(DBH >21 cm)之外,其余龄级间基本都是小尺度下负关联,并随尺度的增大关联性逐渐变得不显著.

  1. Effects of light intensity and duration on leaf hydraulic conductance and distribution of resistance in shoots of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne; Ounapuu, Eele; Kupper, Priit

    2008-11-01

    Variation in leaf hydraulic conductance (K(L)) and distribution of resistance in response to light intensity and duration were examined in shoots of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). K(L) was determined on detached shoots using the evaporative flux method (transpiration was measured with a porometer and water potential drop with a pressure chamber). Although K(L) depended on light duration per se, its dynamics was largely determined by leaf temperature (T(L)). Both upper-crown leaves and branches developed in well-illuminated environment exhibited higher hydraulic efficiency compared with the lower crown, accounting for vertical trends of apparent soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance in canopy of silver birch revealed in our previous studies. K(L) varied significantly with light intensity, the highest values for both shade and sun foliage were recorded at photosynthetic photon flux density of 330 micromol m(-2) s(-1). Light responses of K(L) were associated evidently with an irradiance-mediated effect on extravascular tissues involving regulation of cell membrane aquaporins. Effects of irradiance on K(L) resulted in changes of Psi(L), bringing about considerable alteration in partitioning of the resistance between leaves and branch (leafless shoot stem): the contribution of leaves to the shoot total resistance decreased from 94% at -1.0 MPa to 75% at -0.2 MPa. Treatment with HgCl2 decreased hydraulic conductance of both leaves and branches, implying that condition of bordered pit membranes or shoot living tissues may be involved in responses of xylem conductance to Hg2+. PMID:18513374

  2. A Preliminary Pharmacokinetic Study of Betulin, the Main Pentacyclic Triterpene from Extract of Outer Bark of Birch (Betulae alba cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie N. Laszczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades triterpenes have attracted attention because of their pharmacological potential. Triterpene extract (TE from outer bark of birch consisting mainly of betulin is able to form an oleogel which was successfully tested in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Some aspects of TE in vitro pharmacology are already known. Now we show preliminary pharmacokinetics of betulin and results of a subchronic toxicity study of TE in rats and dogs. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the TE-triterpenes (< 0.1 μg/mL respectively, for pharmacokinetic studies it was suspended in sesame oil (rats, i.p. and PEG 400 / 0.9 % NaCl (dogs, s.c.. I.p. administered, betulin, the main component of TE, shows time dependency over a period of 4 h and reaches a dose-independent serum level of 0.13 μg/mL. Dose dependency was observed with s.c. administration. At 300 mg/kg a maximum plasma concentration of 0.33 μg/mL betulin was detected after 28 daily applications. The subchronic toxicity study showed no toxicity of TE in rats (i.p. and dogs (s.c.. In conclusion, triterpene extract from birch bark is safe, its betulin is bioavailable and in addition to published triterpene biological activities TE provides high potential for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.

  3. Metal resistance in populations of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) from a metal-contaminated region and neighbouring non-contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal resistance in populations of Acer rubrum and Betula papyrifera in the industrially contaminated region of Sudbury, Ontario, was compared with resistance in populations from neighbouring uncontaminated regions. In two one-season experiments, seedlings were grown outdoors on contaminated (mainly Cu, Ni) and uncontaminated substrates. Sudbury populations of both species responded less to contamination than populations from uncontaminated regions. In A. rubrum this difference was small. For both species, Sudbury plants were smaller when grown on uncontaminated substrate. B. papyrifera from Sudbury grew better on contaminated substrate than the other populations. There is indication of variation in metal resistance within the populations from the non-contaminated regions. The data shows that trees may develop adaptive resistance to heavy metals, but the low degree of resistance indicates that the development of such resistances are slower than observed for herbaceous species with shorter generation times. - Highlights: ► Metal resistance in trees from an industrially contaminated region was investigated. ► Both red maple and white birch have developed some degree of resistance. ► There is indication of a cost for resistance. ► Populations from non-contaminated regions show variation in response to contamination. - Adaptive metal resistance can also develop in trees with long generation times, but the degree of resistance is lower than for herbaceous species from the same region.

  4. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Frank J. [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Pechmann, Ildiko [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, State University, 113 University Avenue, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)], E-mail: pildiko@andromeda.rutgers.edu; Bogden, John D. [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States); Grabosky, Jason [Urban Forestry Program, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, State University, 14 College Farm Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Weis, Peddrick [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey - N. J. Medical School, P.O. Box 1709, Newark, NJ 07101-1709 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield.

  5. Soil metal concentrations and productivity of Betula populifolia (gray birch) as measured by field spectrometry and incremental annual growth in an abandoned urban Brownfield in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A forested brownfield within Liberty State Park, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA, has soils with arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc and vanadium at concentrations above those considered ambient for the area. Using both satellite imagery and field spectral measurements, this study examines plant productivity at the assemblage and individual specimen level. Longer term growth trends (basal area increase in tree cores) were also studied. Leaf chlorophyll content within the hardwood assemblage showed a threshold model for metal tolerance, decreasing significantly beyond a soil total metal load (TML) of 3.0. Biomass production (calculated with RG - Red/Green Ratio Index) in Betula populifolia (gray birch), the co-dominant tree species, had an inverse relationship with the Zn concentration in leaf tissue during the growing season. Growth of B. populifolia exhibited a significant relationship with TML. Assemblage level NDVI and individual tree NDVI also had significant decreases with increasing TML. Ecosystem function measured as plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load. - Ecosystem function as measured by plant production is impaired at a critical soil metal load (TML above 3) in northern hardwood assemblages growing in a metal-contaminated brownfield

  6. Cultivable actinomycetes from rhizosphere of birch (Betula pendula) growing on a coal mine dump in Silets, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostash, Bohdan; Gren, Tetiana; Hrubskyy, Yaroslav; Tistechok, Stepan; Beshley, Stepan; Baranov, Volodymyr; Fedorenko, Victor

    2014-08-01

    Five actinomycete strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of birch, one of a few native tree forms capable of thriving on the upper level of a coal mine dump near the village of Silets (Lvivska region, Ukraine). No such strains were isolated from surrounding gangue, or from nearby grass Calamagrostis epigeios. Using 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis of cell wall aminoacids, four of these strains were shown to belong to genus Streptomyces and one to be Amycolatopsis. The isolates were able to produce siderophores and antibacterial compounds. In comparison to the reference strain Streptomyces coelicolor M145, certain rhizospheric isolates displayed somewhat increased survival in the presence of copper, iron(III), or chromium(VI) salts. The Amycolatopsis isolate was also shown to accumulate significant quantities of heavy metals from waste extracts. Possible roles of the described strains in coal mine dump ecology are discussed. PMID:23686352

  7. Physiological responses of birch (Betula pendula) to ozone: a comparison between open-soil-grown trees exposed for six growing seasons and potted seedlings exposed for one season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Elina

    2003-06-01

    Physiological responses of 4-year-old potted saplings of an O3-tolerant clone of Betula pendula Roth to short-term ozone (O3) exposure (one growing season) were compared with those of 6-year-old open-soil-grown trees of the same clone fumigated with O3 for six growing seasons. In the 2001 growing season, both groups of plants were exposed to ambient (control) and 1.6x ambient (elevated) O3 concentration under similar microclimatic conditions in a free air O3 exposure facility. Growth, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, stomatal density, visible foliar injury, starch and nutrient concentrations, bud formation and differences in O3 responses between lower, middle and upper sections of the canopy were determined. The potted saplings were unaffected by elevated O3 concentration, whereas the open-soil-grown trees showed a 3-38% reduction in shoot growth, a 22% reduction in number of overwintering buds, a 26-65% decrease in autumnal net photosynthesis, 30% and 20-23% reductions in starch and nitrogen concentrations of senescing leaves, respectively, and disturbances in stomatal conductance. The greater O3 sensitivity of open-soil-grown trees compared with potted saplings was a result of senescence-related physiological factors. First, a lower net photosynthesis to stomatal conductance ratio in open-soil-grown trees at the end of the season promoted O3 uptake and decreased photosynthetic gain, leading to the onset of visible foliar injuries. Second, decreased carbohydrate reserves may have resulted in deleterious carry-over effects arising from the reduced formation of over-wintering buds. Finally, the leaf-level O3 load was higher for open-soil-grown trees than for potted saplings because of slower leaf senescence in the trees. Thus, O3 sensitivity in European white birch increases with increasing exposure time and tree size. PMID:12750053

  8. Individual variability of seeds radiosensitivity in two species of Betula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interspecific variability of the seed radiosensitivity of common birch (Betula verrucosa) and of while birch (Betula pubescens) have been studied experimentally. Seeds from different trees of both birch species differ considerably in sowing properties and in the response to γ radiation. Level of variability of seed germination and of seedlings ability to survive in the variant without radiation effect is lower for the common birch (Betula verrucosa). Presowing irradiation of seeds in dose of 40 krad causes the increase of the level of seed germination of commmon birch (Betula verrucosa) in 6 times and of white birch (Betula pubescens) in 2 times. No differences are found in dose dependence between two series of different-ploid birch according to averaged values of seed germination for each excerpt

  9. Growth response of downy birch (Betula pubescens) to moisture treatment at an cut-over peat bog in the Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lanta, Vojtěch; Hazuková, I.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2005), s. 247-256. ISSN 0003-3847 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Betula pubescens * cut-over peatland * increment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.315, year: 2005

  10. Ontogeny and environment as determinants of the secondary chemistry of three species of white birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Jaana; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Rousi, Matti; Heinonen, Jaakko; Tahvanainen, Jorma

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates variation in the secondary chemistry of the bark of three closely related, winter-dormant species of white birch (Betula resinifera, B. pendula, and B. platyphylla) at different ontogenetic stages by using different plant parts (top and base). The experimental birches were grown for 4 years in two growing conditions (pot and field) at different nutrient levels. There was considerable species-specific quantitative and qualitative variation in the secondary chemicals in bark, but this was also affected by fertilization and the age of the plant. In general, there was greater chemical diversity in saplings than in seedlings. The study revealed three new components, secoisolariciresinol 9-O-beta-glucopyranoside and two of its derivatives, that have not been reported previously for the bark of white birches. Principal component analysis showed that the species studied had a similar chemical composition at the juvenile stage, but as the plants grew, they became more clearly differentiated, which indicates that the species of older plants can be identified by chemotaxonomy. Evidently, the secondary chemistry of birches is under genetic control, but it is affected by properties of growing conditions and ontogeny. PMID:16195842

  11. Bioconversion of Birch Wood Hemicellulose Hydrolyzate to Xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Shimotori, Yasutaka; Nakatani, Hisayuki; Harada, Akira; Aoyama, Masakazu

    2015-06-01

    A sugar solution containing 42.9 g l(-1) of xylose was prepared from the wood of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) by hydrolysis with 3 % sulfuric acid with a liquor-to-solid ratio of 4 (g g(-1)) at 120 °C for 1 h. During the acid hydrolysis, undesirable by-products were generated, such as acetic acid, furfural, and low-molecular-weight phenols, which inhibit bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. These inhibitors were successfully removed from the hydrolyzate by sorption onto a steam-activated charcoal followed by treatment with an anion exchange resin. Bioconversion of the detoxified hydrolyzate to xylitol by the yeast Candida magnoliae was investigated under the microaerobic conditions. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) varied from 9.6 to 22.3 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). The best fermentative performance of C. magnoliae in the birch wood hydrolyzate (xylitol yield 0.74 g xylitol g xylose(-1); volumetric productivity 1.0 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at the OTR of 12.6 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). PMID:25894947

  12. Short-term effects of fire disturbance on greanhouse gases emission from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland in Xiaoxing' an Mountains,Northeast China%火干扰对小兴安岭白桦沼泽温室气体排放的短期影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟长城; 张博文; 韩丽冬; 于丽丽; 顾韩

    2011-01-01

    By the methods of static chamber and gas chromatography, this paper studied the effects of fire disturbance on the seasonal dynamics and source/sink functions of CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions from Betula platyphylla-forested wetland as well as their relations with environmental factors in Xiaoxing' an Mountains of China. In growth season, slight fire disturbance on the wetland induced an increase of air temperature and ground surface temperature by 1.8- 3.9 ℃ and a decrease of water table by 6.3 cm; while heavy fire disturbance led to an increase of air temperature and 0-40 cm soil temperature by 1.4-3.8 ℃ and a decrease of water table by 33.9 cm. Under slight or no fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed by the wetland soil in spring but emitted in summcr and autumn; under heavy fire disturbance, the CH4 was absorbed in spring and summer but emitted in autumn. The CO2 flux had a seasonal variation of summer > spring= autumn under no fire disturbance, but of summer > autumn > spring under fire disturbance; and the N2O flux varied in the order of spring > summer > autumn under no fire disturbance, but of autumn > spring > summcr under slight fire disturbance, and of summer > spring= autumn under heavy fire disturbance.At unburned site, the CO2 flux was significantly positively correlated with air temperature and ground surface temperature; at slightly burned site, the CO2 flux had significant positive correlations with air temperature, 5-10 cm soil temperature, and water table; at heavily burned sites, there was a significant positive correlation between CO2 flux and 5-40 cm soil temperature. Fire disturbance made the CH4 emission increased by 169.5% at lightly burned site or turned into weak CH4 sink at heavily burned site, and made the CO2 and N2O emissions and the global warming potential (GWP) at burned sites decreased by 21.2% -34.7% , 65.6% -95.8% , and 22.9% -36.6% respectively, compared with those at unburned site. Therefore

  13. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen allergen is Bet ν 1, which is the conventional allergen name for the birch pollen proteins of a large group of proteins otherwise known as PR-10 proteins. Individuals that suffer from birch pollen al...

  14. Genome-scale transcriptome analysis in response to nitric oxide in birch cells: implications of the triterpene biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fansuo Zeng

    Full Text Available Evidence supporting nitric oxide (NO as a mediator of plant biochemistry continues to grow, but its functions at the molecular level remains poorly understood and, in some cases, controversial. To study the role of NO at the transcriptional level in Betula platyphylla cells, we conducted a genome-scale transcriptome analysis of these cells. The transcriptome of untreated birch cells and those treated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP were analyzed using the Solexa sequencing. Data were collected by sequencing cDNA libraries of birch cells, which had a long period to adapt to the suspension culture conditions before SNP-treated cells and untreated cells were sampled. Among the 34,100 UniGenes detected, BLASTX search revealed that 20,631 genes showed significant (E-values≤10-5 sequence similarity with proteins from the NR-database. Numerous expressed sequence tags (i.e., 1374 were identified as differentially expressed between the 12 h SNP-treated cells and control cells samples: 403 up-regulated and 971 down-regulated. From this, we specifically examined a core set of NO-related transcripts. The altered expression levels of several transcripts, as determined by transcriptome analysis, was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The results of transcriptome analysis, gene expression quantification, the content of triterpenoid and activities of defensive enzymes elucidated NO has a significant effect on many processes including triterpenoid production, carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis.

  15. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen al

  16. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang Vincent L; Tiimonen Heidi; Mäkelä Riina; Vuosku Jaana; Saranpää Pekka; Laakso Tapio; Edesi Jaanika; Niemi Karoliina; Sutela Suvi; Koskimäki Janne; Suorsa Marja; Julkunen-Tiitto Riitta; Häggman Hely

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch li...

  17. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  18. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  19. FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY OF BETULA PENDULA LEAVES AS A BIOINDICATOR OF AEROTECHNOGENIC POLLUTION OF AGROLANDSCAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Lobkov, V.; Vetrova, J.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of our research was to determine the variability model and fluctuating asymmetry indices of the metric signs of Betula pendula as a typical species which grow uniformly in the Orel region and Orel.The following problems were solved:to collect material in the planting of silver birch in two areas;to determine the parameters of Betula pendula leaf blade and the level of its asymmetry; to explore the basic statistical properties of the asymmetry parameters of the individual feature...

  20. Stature of Sub-arctic Birch in Relation to Growth Rate, Lifespan and Tree Form

    OpenAIRE

    JÓNSSON, THORBERGUR HJALTI

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sub-arctic mountain birch Betula pubescens var. pumila communities in the North Atlantic region are of variable stature, ranging from prostrate scrubs to forests with trees up to 12 m high. Four hypotheses were tested, relating growth and population characteristics of sub-arctic birch woodland and scrub to tree stature; i.e. the variable stature of birch woods is due to differences in (1) the mean growth rate; (2) the age-related patterns of growth rate; (3) the life exp...

  1. Photosynthetic downregulation in leaves of the Japanese white birch grown under elevated CO{sub 2} concentration does not change their temperature-dependent susceptibility to photoinhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, M.; Tobita, H.; Yazaki, K.; Kitao, M. [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute. Dept. of Plant Ecology, Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, M.; Koike, T. [Hokkaido Univ.. Dept. of Forest Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    To determine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) on the temperature-dependent photosynthetic properties, we measured gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence at various leaf temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 deg. C) in 1-year-old seedlings of the Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica), grown in a phytotron under natural daylight at two [CO{sub 2}] levels (ambient: 400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} and elevated: 800 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) and limited N availability (90 mg N plant{sup -1}). Plants grown under elevated [CO{sub 2}] exhibited photosynthetic downregulation, indicated by a decrease in the carboxylation capacity of Rubisco. At temperatures above 30 deg. C, the net photosynthetic rates of elevated-CO{sub 2}-grown plants exceeded those grown under ambient [CO{sub 2}] when compared at their growth [CO{sub 2}]. Electron transport rates were significantly lower in elevated-CO{sub 2}-grown plants than ambient-CO{sub 2}-grown ones at temperatures below 25 deg. C. However, no significant difference was observed in the fraction of excess light energy [(1 - q{sub P})x F{sub v}'/F{sub m}'] between CO{sub 2} treatments across the temperature range. The quantum yield of regulated non-photochemical energy loss was significantly higher in elevated-CO{sub 2}-grown plants than ambient, when compared at their respective growth [CO{sub 2}] below 25 deg. C. These results suggest that elevated-CO{sub 2}-induced downregulation might not exacerbate the temperature-dependent susceptibility to photoinhibition, because reduced energy consumption by electron transport was compensated for by increased thermal energy dissipation at low temperatures. (Author)

  2. Effects of artificial defoliation and simulated insect damage on the growth of Betula pendula saplings

    OpenAIRE

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I; Araminiene V; Stakenas V

    2016-01-01

    One-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) saplings were subjected to artificial insect damage and defoliations of varying intensities, and subsequent growth indexes, biomass allocation patterns and photosynthesis were monitored during a 60-day period. Seven treatments were conducted in which the leaves of saplings were perforated with three or six holes per each leaf, and damaged by clipping one-third of each leaf, or they received 25, 50 and 75% defoliations during a single growing sea...

  3. Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae); Terpenos isolados de Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francieli Casassa Vieira de; Marques, Fabio Goncalves; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: smoliveira@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Zamuner, Maria Lucilia Motinha [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2009-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated. (author)

  4. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Vincent L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L. caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr., and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus.

  5. Ecological variation of radiosensitivity in the seeds of Betula verrucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on variation of radiosensitivity in the seeds of common birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh). Investigations were carried on in three types of forest-whortleberry birch grove (the top of the hill), mountain cranberry (the middle part of the hill), mixed grass (the bottom of the hill). The seeds in each area were picked from 10 well fruit bearing trees (from the middle part of top). Air-dry seeds were irradiated by 137Cs gamma-rays with 10, 20, 4 krad doses at 138 r/min dose rate. The seeds were let germinate under conditions of natural lighting and room temperatures. Radiosensitivity was evaluated from seed germination and seeding survival, and radiosensitivity variability level - with the help of variation ratio. It was established that differences in radiosensitivity among trees of different types of forest for seed germination and seeding survival of common birch, were not revealed. Radiosensitivity variation, resulted from heterogeneity of ecological conditions in different areas, is lower, than the level of individual variability of this property inside each planting

  6. Cadmium accumulation and its effect on the in vitro growth of woody fleabane and mycorrhized white birch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Cd on woody fleabane (Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter) and white birch (Betula celtiberica Rothm. and Vasc.) was examined. Woody fleabane and white birch were grown in vitro in Murashige, T., Skoog, F., [1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-479] (MS) plus Cd (10 mg Cd kg-1) and except for root length in white birch, plant development was inhibited when Cd was added. Cd accumulation in above-ground tissues showed differences among clones, reaching 1300 and 463 mg Cd kg-1 dry wt. in selected clones of woody fleabane and white birch, respectively. Tolerance of Paxillus filamentosus (Scop) Fr. to Cd was also examined before mycorrhization. Plants of mycorrhized white birch grown in the presence of Cd had a better development and accumulated more Cd in their shoots than the non-mycorrhized ones. The use of selected clones of woody fleabane and the mycorrhization of white birch enhance extraction efficiency from contaminated soils in phytoremediation programs. - The high accumulation of Cd observed in selected clones of Dittrichia viscosa and mycorrhized Betula celtiberica grown in vitro implies a potential application for phytoextraction

  7. Cadmium accumulation and its effect on the in vitro growth of woody fleabane and mycorrhized white birch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.; Bertrand, A.; Casares, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, R. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Oviedo University, Julian Claveria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Gonzalez, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: aidag@uniovi.es; Tames, R.S. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The effect of Cd on woody fleabane (Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter) and white birch (Betula celtiberica Rothm. and Vasc.) was examined. Woody fleabane and white birch were grown in vitro in Murashige, T., Skoog, F., [1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-479] (MS) plus Cd (10 mg Cd kg{sup -1}) and except for root length in white birch, plant development was inhibited when Cd was added. Cd accumulation in above-ground tissues showed differences among clones, reaching 1300 and 463 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry wt. in selected clones of woody fleabane and white birch, respectively. Tolerance of Paxillus filamentosus (Scop) Fr. to Cd was also examined before mycorrhization. Plants of mycorrhized white birch grown in the presence of Cd had a better development and accumulated more Cd in their shoots than the non-mycorrhized ones. The use of selected clones of woody fleabane and the mycorrhization of white birch enhance extraction efficiency from contaminated soils in phytoremediation programs. - The high accumulation of Cd observed in selected clones of Dittrichia viscosa and mycorrhized Betula celtiberica grown in vitro implies a potential application for phytoextraction.

  8. Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting of Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.R.; Letchford, T. [Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada). Red Rock Research Station; Comeau, P.G. [BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC (Canada); Coopersmith, D. [BC Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Foliar responses of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) to thinning were studied in a 35-yr-old mixed stand of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and conifers. The stand regenerated naturally after a wildfire with a canopy dominated by paper birch (average height 9.8 m) and an understorey dominated by subalpine fir (average height 1.6 m). The stand was thinned to four densities of birch: 0, 600 and 1200 stems ha{sup -1} and control (Unthinned at 2300-6400 stems ha{sup -1}) in the autumn of 1995. The understorey conifers, mainly subalpine fir, were thinned to 1200 stems ha{sup -1}. The study used a completely randomized split-plot design. Three sample trees were systematically selected from each treatment replicate and each tree stratum (upper, intermediate and lower understorey). One-year-old and older age class needles were collected from one south-facing branch within the fifth whorl from the tree top. Thinning of paper birch significantly (p<0.001) increased leaf area and dry weight per 100 needles for intermediate and short trees except in the 0 birch treatment. Understorey subalpine fir trees in 600 stems ha{sup -1} birch (T3) had the largest leaf area and leaf dry weight per 100 1-yr-old needles. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased from unthinned (T1) to 0 birch (T4). Lower understorey trees had the largest SLA. One-year-old needles had significantly higher N, P and K concentrations in all the thinning treatments. These responses are consistent with the shade tolerance of subalpine fir. The results suggest that when managing a paper birch-conifers mixed wood forest it may be of benefit to understorey conifers to leave a birch canopy as a nursing crop.

  9. Phenolic compounds of the inner bark of Betula pendula: seasonal and genetic variation and induction by wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari; Helander, Marjo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2012-11-01

    The contents of individual phenolic compounds in the inner bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Samples from 21 mature trees originating from three micropropagated parent trees were collected six times over a 1-year period. Significant seasonal variation in the quantities of ten compounds and four chromatographically unresolved compound pairs was found. A majority of the compounds also exhibited significant quantitative variation among birch clones. There were no qualitative differences associated with the season or among the clones. However, wounding of the bark induced the production of new types of bark phenolics: several ellagitannins were detected in the callus tissues of birch for the first time. PMID:23065107

  10. Effects of artificial defoliation and simulated insect damage on the growth of Betula pendula saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth saplings were subjected to artificial insect damage and defoliations of varying intensities, and subsequent growth indexes, biomass allocation patterns and photosynthesis were monitored during a 60-day period. Seven treatments were conducted in which the leaves of saplings were perforated with three or six holes per each leaf, and damaged by clipping one-third of each leaf, or they received 25, 50 and 75% defoliations during a single growing season (from April to August of 2014. Simulated insect damage and artificial defoliation decreased growth. The 75% defoliation significantly reduced the total dry mass of birch saplings at harvest by 30%, while such reduction did not influence the total productivity. The dry mass of leaves was reduced by 45% when saplings were defoliated by 75% compared to not defoliated saplings. Moreover, the total production of leaves significantly increased in the 75% defoliated saplings compared with control saplings. Artificial defoliation increased the relative biomass allocation to foliage, and this was more evident in defoliated than in mechanically insect-damaged saplings. Despite losing 25, 50 or 75% of leaf mass due to clipping, defoliated birch saplings recovered similar dry masses and root/shoot ratios by harvest as the non-defoliated saplings. Perforation and clipping parts of the leaves, as well as the artificial defoliations, caused the regrowth of biomass that did not significantly change compared to healthy silver birch saplings, and this phenomenon could be assessed as equal-compensatory growth.

  11. Diplycosia platyphylla (Ericaceae), a new species from Mindanao, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, Peter; Amoroso, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Diplycosia platyphylla P.W.Fritsch, a new species from Mindanao Island, Philippines, is described and illustrated. This species is most similar to the Bornean D. urceolata but differs by its green or slightly flushed pink petioles 4–7 mm long, wider leaf blades, acute calyx lobe apices, and lavender mature fruiting calyx. The new species is known only from a single collection made from Mount Apo in North Cotabato Province, southern Mindanao.

  12. Terpenes isolated of Coussarea platyphylla Muell. Arg. (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and steroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated. (author)

  13. DYNAMICS AND DISTINCTIONS IN CONCENTRATION OF THE BASIC PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF LEAVES OF THE BIRCH GROWING IN IMPURE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-01-01

    The complex of features of influence of external factors on frame of the basic photosynthetic pigments of a sheet plate of a birch is discussed. Besides, specificity of influence of the infectious pathological stress-factor – xylotroph basidial macromycet (facultative saprotroph) a tinder fungus bevelled – on the content of a chlorophyll of phylum a, b, their sums, lipochromes, an interrelation of pigments in sheet plates of trees Betula pendula Roth. is shown.

  14. DYNAMICS AND DISTINCTIONS IN CONCENTRATION OF THE BASIC PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF LEAVES OF THE BIRCH GROWING IN IMPURE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex of features of influence of external factors on frame of the basic photosynthetic pigments of a sheet plate of a birch is discussed. Besides, specificity of influence of the infectious pathological stress-factor – xylotroph basidial macromycet (facultative saprotroph a tinder fungus bevelled – on the content of a chlorophyll of phylum a, b, their sums, lipochromes, an interrelation of pigments in sheet plates of trees Betula pendula Roth. is shown.

  15. Spatial heterogeneity in the timing of birch budburst in response to future climate warming in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, Amelia; Zottele, Fabio; Gleeson, Emily; Donnelly, Alison

    2014-05-01

    In order to predict the impact of future climate warming on trees it is important to quantify the effect climate has on their development. Our understanding of the phenological response to environmental drivers has given rise to various mathematical models of the annual growth cycle of plants. These models simulate the timing of phenophases by quantifying the relationship between development and its triggers, typically temperature. In addition, other environmental variables have an important role in determining the timing of budburst. For example, photoperiod has been shown to have a strong influence on phenological events of a number of tree species, including Betula pubescens (birch). A recently developed model for birch (DORMPHOT), which integrates the effects of temperature and photoperiod on budburst, was applied to future temperature projections from a 19-member ensemble of regional climate simulations (on a 25 km grid) generated as part of the ENSEMBLES project, to simulate the timing of birch budburst in Ireland each year up to the end of the present century. Gridded temperature time series data from the climate simulations were used as input to the DORMPHOT model to simulate future budburst timing. The results showed an advancing trend in the timing of birch budburst over most regions in Ireland up to 2100. Interestingly, this trend appeared greater in the northeast of the country than in the southwest, where budburst is currently relatively early. These results could have implications for future forest planning, species distribution modeling, and the birch allergy season.

  16. Ecological and phytopathological status of birch stands on the territory of Krasnoyarsk group of districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarintsev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available According to inspection data, the health and vital status of birch (Betula pendula Roth. stands in Krasnoyarsk group of lands (southern part of Central Siberia were estimated (established as satisfactory in general; about half of birch stands near urbanized areas were weakened. The condition of stands decreased significantly with increased recreation use, the effect of technogenic pollution was negligible. The most valuable (important representatives of pathogenic biota identified on birch trees were infestations of necrotic cancer and rot diseases. In birch stands the bacterial dropsy was found to be widespread (agent of infection – Erwinia multivora Scz.-Parf, occurrence of the disease ranged from a single ill tree up to 10–38 % of the stands. The birch stands in taiga areas were affected to a greater extent than in forest-steppe; there were high yield class stands on moist soils. Prevalence of bacteriosis rose with increasing stand age and density and not dependent on recreation use level. Trees with dropsy are dead in fact or potentially. In taiga birch forests the infection and rot of roots was caused by honey agaric (Armillaria mellea sensu lato, that lead to single or, rarely, group tree drying and the fungus usually eliminated already weakened trees. Wood biomass was destroyed by complex of aphyllophorous Hymenomycetes, their hemiparasitic species caused stem rots that decreased stand marketability and also resulted in rot-realated wind-break accumulation. Occurrence of rot was significantly higher in second growth birch stands, possibly above 20 %; the relationship between rot prevalence and forest assessment was not revealed.

  17. Tree competition and species coexistence in a Quercus--Betula forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ji-hua; Mi, Xiang-cheng; Liu, Can-ran; Ma, Ke-ping

    2006-09-01

    The population size structure, growth dynamics and mode of competition among adult trees (≥ 4 cm DBH) of six abundant tree species in a 5 ha study plot of a temperate deciduous forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China were investigated using diffusion and growth dynamics models. In the year of 2000, two dominant species, Quercus liaotungensis and Betula dahurica accounted for ca. 68.69% of the total basal area and 52.71% of the total density of adult plants. Q. liaotungensis, Populus davidiana and Acer mono exhibited inverse J-shaped DBH distributions whereas Betula dahurica, B. platyphylla and Salix caprea had unimodal DBH distributions. One-sided interspecific competition was detected between some species combinations at the scale of the 5 ha study plot, and the competitive effect was mainly size-dependent rather than from species-specific interactions with large individuals in the canopy layer out competing smaller individuals in the understory. Symmetric competition was found between Q. liaotungensis and A. mono only. However, considering the straight line relationship of G ( t, x) - √{D(t, x)}, which suggests that competitive asymmetry is very low or absent, combined with the relatively low mortality of trees with a DBH larger than 4 cm, we speculate that asymmetric interspecific competition was not important in structuring this tree community. Regeneration characteristics of each species are most likely important in regulating species coexistence and stand dynamics in this forest.

  18. 长白山次生杨桦林树木短期死亡动态%Short-term death dynamics of trees in natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭臣; 郝占庆; 叶吉; 蔺菲; 原作强; 邢丁亮; 师帅; 王绪高

    2013-01-01

    Taking the 5 hm2 sampling plot in the natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, and based on the two census data in 2005 and 2010, an analysis was made on the main tree species composition and quantity, size class distribution of dead individuals, and regeneration characteristics of .the main tree species in different habitat types of the plot in 2005-2010. In the five years, the species number of the individuals with DBH≥1 cm increased from 46 to 47, among which, 3 species were newly appeared, and 2 species were disappeared. The number of the individuals changed from 16509 to 15027, among which, 2150 individuals died, accounting for 13% of the whole individuals in 2005, and 668 individuals were newly increased. The basal area of the trees increased from 28. 79 m2 ·m-2 to 30. 55 m2·m-2, with that of 41 species increased while that of 6 species decreased. The decrease of the basal area of Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana accounted for 72.3% of the total decrease. Small individuals had higher mortality, as compared with large ones, and the mortality of the individuals with DBH<5 cm occupied 65% of the total. B. platyphylla and P. davidiana contributed most in the dead individuals with large DBH. No difference was observed in the tree mortality among different habitat types, but the mortality of the individuals widi different size classes showed greater variation.%以长白山次生杨桦林5 hm2样地为对象,以2005和2010年两次调查数据为基础资料,分析了2005-2010年间样地主要树种的组成、数量,死亡个体的径级分布,以及不同生境类型下主要树种的更新特征.结果表明:研究期间,样地内树木胸径(DBH)≥1 cm的独立个体的树种数由46种增至47种,新增3个树种,2个树种因仅有的一个个体死亡而消失;独立个体数由16509株减少为15027株,其中,死亡个体数2150株,占2005年个体总数的13%,新增个体数668株,净减少1482个个体

  19. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehelean Cristina A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%. Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, A2780 (ovarian carcinoma, HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma, by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts.

  20. Bud flush phenology and nursery carryover effect of paper birch provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh is an ecologically valuable species with a broad geographic distribution across the North America. Its diversity, versatility and enduring nature make it an ideal candidate for a selective breeding program in this region. However, an understanding of the genecology of this species is fundamental to deploy it successfully. Ten paper birch provenances were collected from British Columbia (BC, Canada and northern Idaho (USA along elevational transects to determine whether observed bud flush phenology was due to genetics and /or environmental variation or their interaction. Seedlings were grown at three different nurseries: University of Idaho (46°44’N, Landing (50°17’N and Little Forestry (54°00’N and planted in a randomized single tree interlocking block design in three common gardens at Sandpoint, ID (48°13’N, Skimikin, BC (50°45’N and Red Rock, BC (53°45’N. Results indicate that variation in the timing of bud flush is a complex interaction among local genetic characteristics and environmental conditions of the growing site. Birch bud flush followed a general geographic trend where provenances at the southern common garden (Sandpoint required less time (Day of Year, DoY and fewer growing degree days (GDD compared to central (Skimikin and northern (Red Rock common gardens. Although there were significant differences in the timing of bud flush among provenances along an elevational gradient, none of the regions showed the expected linear elevational cline, trends were inconsistent. Further, birch bud flush was significantly influenced by nursery displacement effects in the initial year of establishment but disappeared within three years. These results provide an opportunity to characterize bud flush phenology of paper birch and would be useful for improving operational paper birch seed transfer programs in BC.

  1. Determining the age of young silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) trees growing on former agricultural

    OpenAIRE

    Tkaczyk, Miłosz; Tomusiak, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In Poland, according to the law (amendment of the act of 21st May 2010) – on the provision of information on the environment and its protection, public participation in environmental protection and environmental impact assessments etc. (Official Law Journal article 08.199.1227, as amended) – the owner can cut down trees without permission, if they do not exceed the age of 10 years old. However, if an owner happens to cuts down a tree on his property without knowing the age of the ...

  2. Biomonitoring Study of Air Pollution with Betula pendula Roth., from Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active biomonitoring with tree, herbaceous, moss and lichen species for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. All reported results here are preliminary. Betula pendula was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution in Plovdiv. Eight sampling sites in the urban roadside, city center and suburban areas were investigated. Chlorophyll content was determined as essential and sensitive physiological parameter. The concentrations of 26 micro and macroelements were analyzed by FAAS and ICPMS. Maximum for chlorophyll was found in the birch leaves from west part of the town, minimum – in these from north part. More significant variations were detected for Ni, Mn, B, Cr, Co, Fe, Bi, Cd, Al, Zn. Highest concentrations of 12 elements were found in the samples, collected from the central area of Plovdiv.

  3. Fire drives transcontinental variation in tree birch defense against browsing by snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, John P; Clausen, Thomas P; Swihart, Robert K; Landhäusser, Simon M; Stevens, Michael T; Hawkins, Christopher D B; Carrière, Suzanne; Kirilenko, Andrei P; Veitch, Alasdair M; Popko, Richard A; Cleland, David T; Williams, Joseph H; Jakubas, Walter J; Carlson, Michael R; Bodony, Karin Lehmkuhl; Cebrian, Merben; Paragi, Thomas F; Picone, Peter M; Moore, Jeffrey E; Packee, Edmond C; Malone, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Fire has been the dominant disturbance in boreal America since the Pleistocene, resulting in a spatial mosaic in which the most fire occurs in the continental northwest. Spatial variation in snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) density reflects the fire mosaic. Because fire initiates secondary forest succession, a fire mosaic creates variation in the abundance of early successional plants that snowshoe hares eat in winter, leading to geographic variation in hare density. We hypothesize that fire is the template for a geographic mosaic of natural selection: where fire is greatest and hares are most abundant, hare browsing has most strongly selected juvenile-phase woody plants for defense. We tested the hypothesis at multiple spatial scales using Alaska birch (Betula neoalaskana) and white birch (Betula papyrifera). We also examined five alternative hypotheses for geographic variation in antibrowsing defense. The fire-hare-defense hypothesis was supported at transcontinental, regional, and local scales; alternative hypotheses were rejected. Our results link transcontinental variation in species interactions to an abiotic environmental driver, fire. Intakes of defense toxins by Alaskan hares exceed those by Wisconsin hares, suggesting that the proposed selection mosaic may coincide with a geographic mosaic of coevolution. PMID:19422319

  4. Is the Growth of Birch at the UPPER Timberline in the Himalayas Limited By Moisture or By Temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, E.; Dawadi, B.; Pederson, N.; Eckstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    Birch (Betula) trees and forests are found across much of the temperate and boreal zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Yet, despite being an ecologically-significant genus, it is much less-well studied compared to common genera like Pinus, Picea, Juniperus, Quercus, and Fagus. In the Himalayas, Himalayan birch (Betula utilis) is a widespread, important broadleaf timberline species that survives in mountain rain shadows via access to water from snowmelt. Because precipitation in the Nepalese Himalayas decreases with increasing elevation, we hypothesized that the growth of birch at the upper timberlines between 3,900 and 4,150 m a.s.l. is primarily limited by moisture availability rather than by low temperature. To verify this assumption, a total of 292 increment cores were extracted from 211 birch trees at nine timberline sites. The synchronous occurrence of narrow rings and high inter-series correlations within and among sites evidenced a reliable cross-dating and a common climatic signal in the tree-ring widths variations. From March-May, all nine tree-ring width site chronologies showed a strongly positive response to total precipitation and a less strongly negative response to temperature. During the instrumental meteorological record (after 1960), years with a high percentage of missing rings coincided with pre-monsoon drought events. Periods of below-average growth are in phase with well-known drought events all over monsoon Asia, showing additional evidence that Himalayan birch growth at the upper timberlines is persistently limited by moisture availability. Our study describes the rare case of a drought-induced altitudinal timberline that is composed by a broadleaf tree species.

  5. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pushpa; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Baleshwar; Upreti, D. K.; Rana, T. S.; Datta, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB), in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A). Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer. PMID:27453990

  6. Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients...

  7. Wood properties of Populus and Betula in long-term exposure to elevated CO₂ and O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiainen, Katri; Saranpää, Pekka; Lundqvist, Sven-Olof; Kubiske, Mark E; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2014-06-01

    We studied the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3 on radial growth and wood properties of four trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) saplings. The material for the study was collected from the Aspen FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) experiment in Rhinelander (WI, USA). Trees had been exposed to four treatments [control, elevated CO2 (560 ppm), elevated O3 (1.5 times ambient) and combined CO2 + O3 ] during growing seasons 1998-2008. Most treatment responses were observed in the early phase of experiment. Our results show that the CO2- and O3-exposed aspen trees displayed a differential balance between efficiency and safety of water transport. Under elevated CO2, radial growth was enhanced and the trees had fewer but hydraulically more efficient larger diameter vessels. In contrast, elevated O3 decreased radial growth and the diameters of vessels and fibres. Clone-specific decrease in wood density and cell wall thickness was observed under elevated CO2 . In birch, the treatments had no major impacts on wood anatomy or wood density. Our study indicates that short-term impact studies conducted with young seedlings may not give a realistic view of long-term ecosystem responses. PMID:24372544

  8. Birch's Law for fluid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By comparing acoustic velocities in fluid metals over a very wide range of densities we have established Birch's Law as an approximate representation over the entire liquid range. For a given liquid metal the acoustic velocity is close to linear in density, with a slope determined by the atomic weight. The measurements include isobaric expansion to less than half normal density, ultrasonics on molten metals at 1 atmosphere, and shock melted metals to greater than twice normal density

  9. Icelandic Birch Polyploids—The Case of a Perfect Fit in Genome Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anamthawat-Jónsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two birch species coexist in Iceland, dwarf birch Betula nana and tree birch B. pubescens. Both species are variable morphologically, which has been shown to be due to introgressive hybridization via interspecific hybrids. The aim of this study was to examine if the introgression could be related to genome size. We characterized 42 plants from Bifröst woodland morphologically and cytogenetically. The population consisted of diploid B. nana (38%, tetraploid B. pubescens (55%, and triploid hybrids (7%. Genome size was measured from 12 plants, using Feulgen DNA image densitometry (FDM on spring leaf buds and flow cytometry (FCM with dormant winter twigs. The use of winter twigs for FCM is novel. The average 1C-values for diploid, triploid, and tetraploid plants were 448, 666, and 882 Mbp, respectively. Monoploid genome sizes were found to be statistically constant among ploidy levels. This stability is in contrast to the different taxonomic positions of the di- and tetraploids and also contrasts with the frequent occurrence of genome downsizing in polyploids.

  10. Determining the Composition of Lignins in Different Tissues of Silver Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstedt, Kurt V.; Saranpää, Pekka; Tapanila, Tarja; Immanen, Juha; Alonso Serra, Juan Antonio; Nieminen, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative lignin analyses were carried out on material from the trunks of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) trees. Two types of material were analyzed. First, whole birch trunk pieces were cryosectioned into cork cambium, non-conductive phloem, the cambial zone (conductive phloem, cambium and differentiating xylem), lignified xylem and the previous year’s xylem; material that would show differences in lignin amount and quality. Second, clonal material from one natural birch population was analyzed to show variations between individuals and between the lignin analysis methods. The different tissues showed marked differences in lignin amount and the syringyl:guaiacyl (S/G) ratio. In the non-conductive phloem tissue containing sclereids, the S/G ratio was very low, and typical for phloem fibers and in the newly-formed xylem, as well as in the previous year’s xylem, the ratio lay between five and seven, typical for broadleaf tree xylem. Clonal material consisting of 88 stems was used to calculate the S/G ratios from the thioacidolysis and CuO methods, which correlated positively with an R2 value of 0.43. Comparisons of the methods indicate clearly that the CuO method is a good alternative to study the monomeric composition and S/G ratio of wood lignins. PMID:27135322

  11. Bioaccumulation of arsenic and cadmium in birch and lime from the Bor region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Šerbula, Snežana S; Tošić, Snežana B; Pavlović, Aleksandra N; Petrović, Jelena V

    2013-11-01

    Copper production in the Bor region (east Serbia) during the last 100 years has influenced the quality of soil, water, and air. This pollution has endangered not only the biotope but all living organisms, including humans. Contents of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) were analyzed in Betula sp. (birch) and Tillia sp. (lime) within the Bor region with the aim to investigate the bioaccumulation of these highly toxic, nonessential trace elements in selected plants, which may be important for biomonitoring and bioremediation purposes. The results of statistical data analysis showed that several factors influenced the bioaccumulation of trace elements in the examined plants, of which soil pH, soil content, and mechanism of accumulation were the main factors. The greatest As and Cd concentrations were found in plant material from the Bor center sampling site in the urban/industrial zone, which is in close proximity to the pollution source, due to the greatest metal concentrations in soil and the lowest soil pH. The low values of biological accumulation coefficients (bioconcentration factor mobility ratio <1) pointed to a low rate of uptake and accumulation of As and Cd in lime and birch. Trace elements showed different patterns of behavior and accumulation in the trees. Lime showed a high ability of assimilation through leaves, whereas birch showed a better potential to express a linear correlation between concentrations in plant parts and soil. PMID:23963120

  12. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (C

  13. Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Demirci

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively found were α-copaene (12% and 10%, germacrene D (11% and 18% and δ-cadinene (11% and 15% in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation.

  14. Essential Oil of Betula pendula Roth. Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Betül; Paper, Dietrich H; Demirci, Fatih; Can Başer, K Hüsnü; Franz, Gerhard

    2004-12-01

    The essential oil of Betula pendula Roth. buds was obtained using both hydrodistillation and microdistillation techniques and their chemical compositions were analyzed using both gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, more than 50 compounds were identified representing 80% and 92% for hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively. The main components (by hydrodistillation and microdistillation, respectively) found were alpha-copaene (12% and 10%), germacrene D (11% and 18%) and delta-cadinene (11% and 15%) in the analyzed essential oils. The microdistillation technique proved to be a useful tool and compliant alternative when compared to hydrodistillation. PMID:15841263

  15. Comparison of {sup 226}Ra nuclide from soil by three woody species Betula pendula, Sambucus nigra and Alnus glutinosa during the vegetation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR and Crop Research Institute, Rozvojova 263, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Tykva, Richard [Department of Radioisotopes, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, Flemingovo nam. 2, 166 10 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vankova, Radomira [Laboratory of Hormonal Regulations in Plants, Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, Rozvojova 263, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Tomas [Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Joint Laboratory of Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR and Crop Research Institute, Rozvojova 263, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: vanek@ueb.cas.cz

    2007-09-15

    The uptake of {sup 226}Ra from the contaminated soil was compared in three woody species: alder (Alnus glutinosa), birch (Betula pendula) and elder (Sambucus nigra). The {sup 226}Ra activities increased during the vegetation periods (in 2003, 2004 and 2005) both in the leaves and flowers + seeds. The highest accumulation was found in birch, reaching 0.41 Bq/g DW in the leaves (at the end of the vegetation period in 2003). The lowest {sup 226}Ra accumulation was determined in alder. The extent of {sup 226}Ra accumulation in the leaves of woody species demonstrates that these pioneer woody species can be used as remediation alternative to the use of herbs, provided that the removal of fallen leaves could be achieved in the end of vegetation period.

  16. Quantification of C uptake in subarctic birch forest after setback by an extreme insect outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heliasz, Michal; Johansson, Torbjörn; Lindroth, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    ) forests in northern Scandinavia cyclically every 9–10 years and occasionally (50–150 years) extreme population densities can threaten ecosystem stability. Here we report impacts on C balance following a 2004 outbreak where a widespread area of Lake Torneträsk catchment was severely defoliated. We show......The carbon dynamics of northern natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the global carbon balance. Periodic disturbances to these dynamics include insect herbivory. Larvae of autumn and winter moths (Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata) defoliate mountain birch (Betula pubescens...... that in the growing season of 2004 the forest was a much smaller net sink of C than in a reference year, most likely due to lower gross photosynthesis. Ecosystem respiration in 2004 was smaller and less sensitive to air temperature at nighttime relative to 2006. The difference in growing season uptake...

  17. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  18. Impact of Wetting/Oven-Drying Cycles on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Birch Plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooru, M.; Kasepuu, K.; Kask, R.; Lille, H.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore some physical and mechanical properties and the dimensional stability of birch (Betula sp.) nine-ply veneers glued with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) after 10 cycles of soaking/oven-drying. The properties to be determined were bending strength (BS), modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE), Janka hardness (JH) and thickness swelling (TS), which were tested according to the European Standards (EN). An analytical equation was used for approximation of the change in the physical and mechanical properties of the samples depending on the number of cycles. It was shown that the values of the studied properties were affected most by the first soaking and drying cycles after which BS and MOE decreased continuously while the values of JH and TS stabilized. After 10 cycles the final values of BS, MOE, JH and TS accounted for 75-81%, 95%, 82% and 98.5% of the initial values, respectively.

  19. Development and in-house validation of an allergen-specific ELISA for quantification of Bet v 4 in diagnostic and therapeutic birch allergen products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehus, Oliver; Zimmer, Julia; Döring, Sascha; Führer, Frank; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Holzhauser, Thomas; Neske, Florian; Strecker, Daniel; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Vieths, Stefan; Kaul, Susanne

    2015-02-01

    Birch (Betula) pollen is a major cause of allergy in northern and central Europe. The allergenic potency of products for diagnosis and therapy of birch pollen allergy is adjusted nearly exclusively to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Although every fifth patient is additionally sensitized to Bet v 4, both content and variability of this minor allergen in birch allergen products remain unclear due to a lack of simple and cost-effective quantitative methods. This study aimed to develop and in-house validate the first Bet v 4-specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Based on a murine monoclonal antibody in combination with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum, the ELISA proved to be highly sensitive, with a lower limit of quantification of 30 pg/ml Bet v 4. After confirmation of satisfactory accuracy, reproducibility, and robustness, the ELISA was utilized to quantify Bet v 4 in 30 authorized birch allergen products. The allergen was detected in all samples tested, ranging from 0.2 to 4.4 μg/ml. No significant correlation of Bet v 4 was found with the respective amount of Bet v 1. In contrast to Bet v 1, also no correlation of Bet v 4 with total protein content or total allergenic activity could be observed. Thus, it seems presently unfeasible to base birch allergen product standardization additionally on Bet v 4. In light of these results, the continuous monitoring of Bet v 4 in birch allergen products with the presented ELISA will provide a basis for the understanding of the clinical relevance of minor allergens. PMID:25572690

  20. Difference of Litter Carbon Densityi n Natural Secondary Birches-Mongolian Oak Forest%天然次生白桦林蒙古栎林凋落物碳密度的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁壮; 尚杰

    2015-01-01

    We measured and calculated the carbon density of litter fall in natural secondary birch -mongolian oak forest in the north of Changbai Mountain and Zhangguangcai Mountain .The litter carbon density in 42-year-old birch forest was 2.477 t· hm-2· a-1, and 1.049 t· hm-2· a-1 for 20-year-old birch forest, with difference of 136.13%.Litter carbon density in 20-year -old Mongolic oak forest was 0.948 t· hm-2 · a-1 , and 2.686 t· hm-2 · a-1for the 50-year-old Mongolic oak forest , with the deviation of 183.33%, and with the significance ANOVA result of ( P0.05) although in quantitative terms .The average value of carbon density in litter organs showed outstanding difference (P<0 .05) with leaf, branch, skin, fruit, dung, and ovum in the proper order , and the value rose with the forest age .Seasonal trend of carbon density in birch and Mongolic oak forest was regular and was divided into three stages according to the characteristics of carbon density trend , that was litter fall in growing season , litter fall in stop grow-ing season and winter dormancy with the highest value in the stop growing season , and the lowest in the winter dormancy .%在长白山北部、张广才岭西坡,东北林业大学老山人工林实验站,测试与计算天然次生白桦林( Betu-la platyphylla Suk.)和蒙古栎林(Quercus mongolica Fisch.ex Ledeb.)凋落物碳密度。结果表明:20年生白桦林凋落物碳密度为1.049 t· hm-2· a-1,42年生白桦林凋落物碳密度为2.477 t· hm-2· a-1,相差136.13%;20年生蒙古栎林凋落物碳密度为0.948 t· hm-2· a-1,50年生蒙古栎林凋落物碳密度为2.686 t· hm-2· a-1,相差183.33%;经方差分析,均相差显著( P<0.05),说明林龄是影响碳密度变化的主要因素。2种林分类型凋落物碳密度的变化,经方差分析均无显著(P >0.05),在数量上虽有小的差异,但在理论上没有变化。不同

  1. Fungal Assemblages in Different Habitats in an Erman’s Birch Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng; Sun, Huaibo; Shen, Congcong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of fungal diversity using deeply sequenced marker genes suggest that most fungal taxa are locally distributed. However, little is known about the extent of overlap and niche partitions in total fungal communities or functional guilds within distinct habitats on a local forest scale. Here, we compared fungal communities in endosphere (leaf interior), phyllosphere (leaf interior and associated surface area) and soil samples from an Erman’s birch forest in Changbai Mountain, China. Community structures were significantly differentiated in terms of habitat, with soil having the highest fungal richness and phylogenetic diversity. Endophytic and phyllosphere fungi of Betula ermanii were more phylogenetically clustered compared with the corresponding soil fungi, indicating the ability of that host plants to filter and select their fungal partners. Furthermore, the majority of soil fungal taxa were soil specialists, while the dominant endosphere and phyllosphere taxa were aboveground generalists, with soil and plant foliage only sharing <8.2% fungal taxa. Most of the fungal taxa could be assigned to different functional guilds; however, the assigned guilds showed significant habitat specificity with variation in relative abundance. Collectively, the fungal assemblages in this Erman’s birch forest were strictly niche specialized and constrained by weak migration among habitats. The findings suggest that phylogenetic relatedness and functional guilds’ assignment can effectively interpret the certain ecological processes.

  2. Constitutive Model of Single Root System’s Resistance to Tensile Stress - Taking Pinus tabulaeformis, Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica and Larix gmelinii as Experimental Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Lihua Chen; Pinghua Wang; Yuanjun Yang; Jia He

    2014-01-01

    A constitutive model for the stress-strain relationship of single forest root system was developed in order to provide theoretical foundations for the mechanisms of soil-reinforcement by root system and offer a reliable basis for the analysis of root tensile strength character. This study started a general form of linear and non-linear stress-strain relation that was mathematically defined by four boundary conditions observed in typical tensile tests of single roots. The parameters of the mod...

  3. Parasitic fungi of the genera Betula and Salix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Adamska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2001-2004, the occurrence of parasitic fungi of plants of the genera Betula and Salix growing in the Słowiński National Park was investigated. The plant species examined included B. pubescens, B. pendula, S. aurita, S. caprea, S. cinerea, S. fragilis, and S. repens. Plants of the genus Betula were affected by 9 species of parasiting fungi. In Poland, three of them (Microsphaera ornata var. europaea, Phyllactinia guttata, Melampsoridium betulinum occur commonly, five (Asteroma leptothyrioides, Discula betulina, Fusicladium betulae, Phyllosticta betulina, Septoria betulina are rare, and Septoria betulae-odoratae has not been recorded to date. Three species, Asteroma leptothyrioides, Fusicladium betulae, Phyllosticta betulina, were found on new plant hosts. Plants of the genus Salix were attacked by 8 species of parasiting fungi. Four of them (Melampsora allii-fragilis, M. caprearum, M. epitea, Uncinula adunca var. adunca are common in Poland, four (Marssonina salicicola, Phyllosticta salicicola, Septoria salicicola, Trimmatostroma betulinum rarely occur here. Uncinula adunca var. adunca, Marssonina salicicola, Phyllosticta salicicola, Septoria salicicola and Trimmatostroma betulinum were associated with the plant species not reported earlier to be their hosts.

  4. Christian Birch - den korrupte konferensråd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2005-01-01

      http://www.sidensaxo.dk/fileadmin/saxo-abstract-uploads/christian_birch_den_korrupte_konferensraad_2005_3.pdf......  http://www.sidensaxo.dk/fileadmin/saxo-abstract-uploads/christian_birch_den_korrupte_konferensraad_2005_3.pdf...

  5. Interspecific differences in foliar 1 PAHs load between Scots pine, birch, and wild rosemary from three polish peat bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mętrak, Monika; Aneta, Ekonomiuk; Wiłkomirski, Bogusław; Staszewski, Tomasz; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles are one of the most commonly used bioindicators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Therefore, the main objective of the current research was the assessment of PAHs accumulation potential of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in comparison to wild rosemary (Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja) and birch (Betula spp.) leaves. Our study was carried out on three peat bogs subjected to different degree of anthropopression, which gave us also the opportunity to identify local emission sources. Pine needles had the lowest accumulation potential from all the studied species. The highest accumulation potential, and hence carcinogenic potential, was observed for wild rosemary leaves. As far as emission sources are concerned, the most pronounced influence on atmospheric PAHs loads had traditional charcoal production, resulting in great influx of heavy PAHs. Observed seasonal changes in PAHs concentrations followed the pattern of winter increase, caused mainly by heating season, and summer decrease, caused mainly by volatilization of light PAHs. PMID:27393196

  6. Composición del aceite esencial de Cunila platyphylla Epling (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Loreto Bordignon, Sergio Augusto de; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Spitzer, Volker

    1998-01-01

    El aceite esericial de Cunila platyphylla, especie nativa del sur de Brasil, fue analizado por cromatografía de gases (GC), cromatografía en fase gaseosa acoplada a espectrometría de masa (GC/MS) y resonancia magnética nuclear de carbono 13 (13C-RMN). El principal constituyente del aceite de las hojas es la pulegona (71,2%). Otros compuestos encontrados en cantidades significantes son el limoneno (23%) y el lindo1 (l,4%).

  7. Ficus platyphylla promotes fertility in female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Ugwah-Oguejiofor Chinenye J; Bello Shaibu O; Okolo Raymond U; Etuk Emmanuel U; Ugwah Michael O; Igbokwe Vincent U

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ficus platyphylla Delile (family- Moracea) commonly called gutta percha tree is a deciduous plant found in savannah areas. It grows widely in the Northern part of Nigeria, up to 60 ft. high and is known as 'gamji' by the Hausas. The seeds, bark and leaves have been used traditionally in combination to promote fertility. Scientifically, the plant has been shown to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and CNS effects. The present study was to validate the use of this plant to p...

  8. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  9. Dyeing of Silk with Anthocyanins Dyes Extract from Liriope platyphylla Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new source of natural anthocyanins dyes, from Liriope platyphylla fruit, is proposed. This paper analyzes the dye extracts, the primary color components of the extracts, the color features of the extracts under different pH conditions, and their application in silk dyeing. The research shows that, nine anthocyanins are found in  L. platyphylla fruits by analyzing the results of the HPLC/DAD, MS, and MS/MS spectra. The five major anthocyanins related to delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives take up 91.72% of total anthocyanin contents. The color of the solution is red under acidic condition (pH < 3.0 and stays in yellow under alkaline condition with pH values above 7.0. The dye extracts applied to silk fabric with mordant free dyeing show different color under different pH conditions, changing between purple, blue, green, and yellow. However, the dyed colors is light and the dyeing rate is low. Metal mordant such as Sn in chelation enhances the dye depth and improves the fastness of the dyed silk fabrics, especially in silk fabrics dyed by premordanting and metamordanting.

  10. Assessing the Effect of Leaf Litter Diversity on the Decomposition and Associated Diversity of Fungal Assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Gao; Fengfeng Kang; Tianyu Li; Xiaoshuai Song; Weihong Zhao; Xiaowen Yu; Hairong Han

    2015-01-01

    Although the effect of litter mixture on decomposition has been well documented, few studies have examined the relationships between richness and relative abundance of leaf species in litter mixture and changes in universal fungal communities during the decomposition process in temperate forests. In this study, we used the litterbag method and included three leaf litter species, i.e., aspen (Populus davidiana Dode), birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) and oak (Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Led...

  11. Volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2015-09-01

    Climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. We compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silver birch (Betula pendula (Roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. Micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (Joensuu 62°N) and northern (Kolari 67°N) sites. We collected VOCs emitted by shoots and assessed levels of herbivore damage of three genotypes of each provenance on three occasions at the central site and four occasions at the northern site. In 2012, trees of all provenances growing at the central site had higher total VOC emission rates than the same provenances growing at the northern site; in 2013 the reverse was true, thus indicating a variable effect of latitude. Trees of the southern provenance had lower VOC emission rates than trees of the central and northern provenances during both sampling years. However, northward or southward translocation itself had no significant effect on the total VOC emission rates, and no clear effect on insect herbivore damage. When VOC blend composition was studied, trees of all provenances usually emitted more green leaf volatiles at the northern site and more sesquiterpenes at the central site. The monoterpene composition of emissions from trees of the central provenance was distinct from that of the other provenances. In summary, provenance translocation did not have a clear effect in the short-term on VOC emissions and herbivory was not usually intense at the lower latitude. Our data did not support the hypothesis that trees growing at lower latitudes would experience more intense herbivory, and therefore allocate resources to chemical defence in the form of inducible VOC emissions. PMID:26093370

  12. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Müller-Germann

    Full Text Available Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8 and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS. The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm, the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.

  13. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Belousova, Irina A; Yushkova, Yuliya V; Morosov, Sergey V; Chernyak, Elena I; Glupov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids. PMID:25816371

  14. Wood properties of trembling aspen and paper birch after 5 years of exposure to elevated concentrations of CO(2) and O(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiainen, Katri; Kaakinen, Seija; Warsta, Elina; Kubiske, Mark E; Nelson, Neil D; Sober, Jaak; Karnosky, David F; Saranpää, Pekka; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]) and ozone ([O(3)]) on radial growth, wood chemistry and structure of five 5-year-old trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and the wood chemistry of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.). Material for the study was collected from the Aspen FACE (free-air CO(2) enrichment) experiment in Rhinelander, WI, where the saplings had been exposed to four treatments: control, elevated [CO(2)] (560 ppm), elevated [O(3)] (1.5 x ambient) and their combination for five growing seasons. Wood properties of both species were altered in response to exposure to the treatments. In aspen, elevated [CO(2)] decreased uronic acids (constituents of, e.g., hemicellulose) and tended to increase stem diameter. In response to elevated [O(3)] exposure, acid-soluble lignin concentration decreased and vessel lumen diameter tended to decrease. Elevated [O(3)] increased the concentration of acetone-soluble extractives in paper birch, but tended to decrease the concentration of these compounds in aspen. In paper birch, elevated [CO(2)] decreased and elevated [O(3)] increased starch concentration. The responses of wood properties to 5 years of fumigation differed from those previously reported after 3 years of fumigation. PMID:18316312

  15. The effect of increased air humidity on fine root and rhizome biomass and turnover of silver birch forest ecosystem - a FAHM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostonen, I.; Kupper, P.; Sõber, J.; Aosaar, J.; Varik, M.; Lõhmus, K.

    2012-04-01

    A facility for free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) was established to investigate the effect of increased air humidity on belowground biomass and turnover in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) forest ecosystems with respect to rising air humidity predicted for Northern Europe. Fine root and rhizomes are short-lived and recognized as the most important component contributing to below-ground C fluxes in forests. The FAHM system enables air relative humidity to be increased on average 7 units (%) over the ambient level during mist fumigation. The experimental site contains humidified (H) and control (C) plots; each plot contains sectors with diverse "forest" understory and early successional grasses. The trees were planted in 2006, humidification started in spring 2008, and soil cores to study fine root and rhizome biomass and turnover were taken in 2007, 2009 and 2010. In July 2009, total fine root and rhizome biomass was 8 tons per ha in C and 16 tons per ha in H plots. The roots of understory formed 86% in C and 93% H plots, respectively. Our preliminary data suggest that the increased humidity affected more the roots of understory plants: fine root and rhizome biomass and production increased approximately twice by increasing air humidity. However, the tendency was similar for fine root biomass and production of silver birch. Fine root turnover speeded up for both silver birch and understory roots in H plots. Hence, changes in air humidity can significantly affect forest carbon cycling.

  16. Ficus platyphylla promotes fertility in female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwah-Oguejiofor Chinenye J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ficus platyphylla Delile (family- Moracea commonly called gutta percha tree is a deciduous plant found in savannah areas. It grows widely in the Northern part of Nigeria, up to 60 ft. high and is known as 'gamji' by the Hausas. The seeds, bark and leaves have been used traditionally in combination to promote fertility. Scientifically, the plant has been shown to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and CNS effects. The present study was to validate the use of this plant to promote fertility in female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain using various fertility parameters. Methods Female Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain weighing between 150-180 g were randomly selected and divided into two major groups. Each group was subdivided into 5 treatment groups of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg BW of aqueous extract of F. platyphylla and a control group of 5 ml/kg of distilled water. A positive control of clomiphene citrate was used. Treatment of the first group was discontinued after 15 days prior to mating (pre-mating treatment group, while the other was treated continuously till delivery (continuous treatment group. At the 10th day, females were sacrificed and implantation sites were checked and embryos counted. Upon delivery, litter sizes were determined and the pups weighed and checked for deformities. Other reproductive indices were calculated. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and students T-test. Proportions were analysed by Chi square. Statistical evaluations were performed using STATS programs and Graphpad prism, and a difference was considered statistically significant at P Results There was a significant reduction in the percentage post implantation losses of both the pre-treatment and the continuous treatment groups when compared to their distil water controls. The litter size of the pre-treatment group was similar to the distil water group while at 400 mg/kg, the continuous treatment group showed an increase in the litter

  17. Phytochemical Investigation, Isolation and Characterization of Betulin from Bark of Betula Utilis

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Joshi; Gyanendra Kumar Saxena; Vikas Singh; Ekta Arya; Rahul Pratap Singh

    2013-01-01

    Betula utilis is a hardy perennial plant of moderate size up to 20 M in height, forming the upper limit of forest vegetation. It inhabitates along the Himalayan range from Bhutan westwards, ascending to an altitude of 4200 M. The bark of Betula utilis contains sitosterol, betulin, betulic acid, oleanolic acid, acetyloleanolic acid, lupeol, lupenone, methyl betulonate, methyl betulate and a new triterpenoid karachic acid. The ethanolic extract of powdered drug of Betula utilis was prepared. Mo...

  18. Antimalaria Effect of the Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus platyphylla Del

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isma'il Shittu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimalarial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla Del was evaluated against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Nontreated, experimental control mice died of fulminant parasitemia from day 7 to 9 post-infection but mice treated with the extract at 300 mg/kg showed markedly reduced parasitaemia bouts of 43.50% and a mean survival time of 28 days postinfection. The plant extract prevented a drastic reduction in PCV showing its efficacy in ameliorating anaemic conditions in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Histological examination of liver tissues of treated and untreated mice further supports the antimalaria potential of this plant. This observation validates the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria.

  19. Phytochemicals and Estrogen-Receptor Agonists from the Aerial Parts of Liriope platyphylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Tsai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One new benzofuran, (2R-(2',4'-dihydroxybenzyl-6,7-methylenedioxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (1, one new phenylisocoumarin, 3-(2'-hydroxyphenyl-6,8-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-isocoumarin (2, and one new benzofuroisocoumarin, platyphyllarin C (3, were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Liriope platyphylla aerial parts, along with seventeen known compounds. The structures of the isolates were established by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with the literature data. The results indicated that structures 1–3 are uncommon in Nature. Benzofuroisocoumarin 4, flavonoids 9, 10, and 13–15, and homoisoflavonoids 19 and 20 exhibited significant binding activity to estrogen-receptor α and/or β as demonstrated by the SEAP reporter assay system in an MCF-7 cell-line.

  20. A mechanistic analysis of the Birch Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Howard E

    2012-02-21

    The Birch Reduction is one of the main reactions of organic chemistry. The reaction involves the reaction of dissolving metals in ammonia with aromatic compounds to produce 1,4-cyclohexadienes. Discovered by Arthur Birch in 1944, the reaction occupies 300 pages in Organic Reactions to describe its synthetic versatility. Thus, it is remarkable that the reaction mechanism has been so very controversial and only relatively recently has been firmly established. Perhaps this is not that surprising, since the reaction also has many unusual and esoteric mechanistic facets. Here, I provide a description of how I have applied ever-evolving levels of quantum mechanics and a novel experimental test to understand details of the mechanism and the origins of the selectivities observed in the Birch reduction. The reaction involves an initial radical anion resulting from introduction of an electron from the blue liquid ammonia solution of free electrons formed by the dissolution of Li or related metals. This radical anion is protonated by an alcohol and then further reduced to a carbanion. Finally, the carbanion is protonated using a second proton to afford a nonconjugated cyclohexadiene. The regiochemistry depends on substituents present. With 18 resonance structures in the case of anisole radical anion, prediction of the initial protonation site would seem difficult. Nevertheless, computational methods from Hückel theory through modern density functional calculations do correctly predict the site of protonation. An esoteric test established this mechanism experimentally. The nature of the carbanion also is of mechanistic interest, and the preponderance of the resonance structure shown was revealed from Hückel calculations involving variable bond orders. For the trianion from benzoic acid, parallel questions about structure are apparent, and have been answered. Some mechanistic questions are answered experimentally and some by modern computations. Recently, our mechanistic

  1. BIRCH: A user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fristensky Brian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. Conclusion BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.

  2. 75 FR 51987 - Birch Power Company and Sorenson Engineering; Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Sorenson Leasing L.L.C.; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions... (transferors) and Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing, L.L.C. (transferees) filed an application for..., Birch Power Company, Sorenson Engineering, and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C., 5203 South 11th East,...

  3. Two new phenylbutanoids from inner bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari; Karonen, Maarit; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2008-02-01

    Two phenylbutanoids, 7-{3R-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl] beta-glucopyranosid-O-6-yl} 4-O-beta-glucopyranosylvanillin and 3-beta-glucopyranosyloxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butanone were isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of the inner bark of Betula pendula. Their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The complete assignment of proton and carbon signals was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments: selective 1D TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and DQF-COSY. PMID:18098157

  4. Procyanidin xylosides from the bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2012-04-01

    A procyanidin dimer xyloside, catechin-(4α→8)-7-O-β-xylopyranosyl-catechin, was isolated from the inner bark of Betula pendula and its structure was determined using 1D and 2D NMR, CD and high-resolution ESIMS. Interestingly, the 7-O-β-xylopyranose unit was found to be present in the lower terminal unit of the dimer. In addition to this procyanidin dimer xyloside, an entire series of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin xylosides was detected. Their structures were investigated by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-HRESIMS. Procyanidin glycosides are still rarely found in nature. PMID:22273040

  5. The blocking activity of birch pollen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 is not qualitatively superior to that of other IgG subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnaes, Anne M; Bødtger, Uffe; Larsen, Jørgen N; Svenson, Morten

    2004-01-01

    for the clinical efficacy of SIT. In this study, fractionated serum samples from 14 SIT-treated birch pollen allergic individuals enabled determination of the inhibitory capacity of IgG4 alone versus non-IgG4 IgG. Allergen-binding activities of IgG and the IgG-mediated inhibition of allergen binding...... to autologous IgE were detected using 125I-labelled rBet v 1.2801, a recombinant variant of the major allergen of Betula verrucosa pollen. Results show that IgG4-depletion resulted in equivalent reductions in binding and blocking activities. In contrast, a significant but less than two-fold higher...

  6. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    birch skin prick test weal diameter of > or =4 mm, a positive conjunctival provocation test result, and specific IgE of > or =CAP class 2, as well as with the presence of other allergies. Specific IgE of > or =CAP class 2 was 87.5% predictive for allergy development, whereas a negative conjunctival...... risk is any subject with target organ sensitivity, an elevated specific IgE level, and/or a skin prick test weal diameter of >4 mm....

  7. Stomatal regulation, structural acclimation and metabolic shift towards defensive compounds reduce O3 load in birch under chronic O3 stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, E.; Riikonen, J.; Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Maenpaa, M.; Rousi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Northern forests are encountering new threats due to continuously increasing load of oxidative stress, e.g. due to rising tropospheric O3 levels, and simultaneous climate warming, which is more intense in northern latitudes as compared to global means. The proportion of silver birch (Betula pendula) in Finnish forests is expected to increase with climate warming. Unfortunately, we have growing evidence that the vitality and the carbon sink strength of birch trees are weakened under chronic O3 stress. In this study we investigated the effects of slightly elevated O3 concentration (1.3 x the ambient), temperature (T) and their combination on the antioxidant defense, gas exchange and leaf growth of Betula pendula saplings (clone 12) growing in open-field conditions over two growing seasons. The plants were measured for SLA (specific leaf area), total leaf area, net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), maximum rate of carboxylation (Vc,max), maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax), relative stomatal limitation to photosynthesis (ls), dark respiration (Rd), apoplastic concentrations of AA (ascorbic acid), DHA (dehydroascobate) and total ascorbate, the redox state of apoplastic ascorbate, and total antioxidant capacity. Elevated O3 enhanced the total antioxidant capacity in the apoplast in the first year of the experiment at the ambient T. However, during the second year of the experiment, the saplings responded to elevated O3 level by closing the stomata and by developing leaves with a lower leaf area per mass, rather than by accumulating ascorbate in the apoplast. O3 did not affect the total leaf area, whereas Pn was slightly and gs significantly reduced in the second year. Elevated T enhanced the total leaf area, Pn and Vc,max, redox state of ascorbate and total antioxidant capacity in the apoplast. The effects of T and O3 on total leaf area and net photosynthesis were counteractive. We were not able to detect significant differences in Rd between the

  8. Methods for estimating production and utilization of paper birch saplings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Development of technique to estimate browse production and utilization. Developed a set of methods for estimating annual production and utilization of paper birch...

  9. Address Points, birch, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'birch'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  10. The effect of u.v.-B radiation on u.v.-absorbing secondary metabolites in birch seedlings grown under simulated forest soil conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings were grown under enhanced u.v.-B radiation and simulated forest-soil conditions, after which individual secondary metabolites were determined in the leaves. It was found that not all of the u.v.-absorbing secondary metabolites of the seedlings responded to supplementary u.v.-B radiation. Under increased u.v.-B radiation, significant increases in concentration were observed only for the major flavonoid, quercitrin, the minor fiavonoid, myricetin-3-galactoside, and for chlorogenic acid. On the other hand, 3,4′dihydroxypropiophenone-3-β-D-glucopyranoside decreased under u.v.-B irradiation. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the leaves changed during the growing season (between two harvests) but this change was not related to u.v.-B enhancement. A low availability of mineral nutrients did not impair the capacity of the seedlings to accumulate u.v.-protecting phenolic compounds under increased u.v.-B radiation. The growth conditions used might have affected the intracellular concentrations of secondary metabolites, and thus furnished the birch seedlings with an increased tolerance of u.v.-B radiation. These findings point to the significance of certain phenolic components in the protection of deciduous trees against u.v.-B radiation. (author)

  11. Effect of air pollutant NO2 on Betula pendula, Ostrya carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus pollen fertility and human allergenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen of Betula pendula, Ostrya carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus was exposed in vitro to two levels of NO2 (about 0.034 and 0.067 ppm) – both below current atmospheric hour-limit value acceptable for human health protection in Europe (0.11 ppm for NO2). Experiments were performed under artificial solar light with temperature and relative humidity continuously monitored. The viability, germination and total soluble proteins of all the pollen samples exposed to NO2 decreased significantly when compared with the non-exposed. The polypeptide profiles of all the pollen samples showed bands between 15 and 70 kDa and the exposure to NO2 did not produce any detectable changes in these profiles. However, the immunodetection assays indicated higher IgE recognition by patient sera sensitized to the pollen extracts from all exposed samples in comparison to the non-exposed samples. The common reactive bands to the three pollen samples correspond to 58 and 17 kDa proteins. -- Highlights: • A synthetic atmosphere containing relatively low levels of the air pollutant NO2 was simulated. • Betulaceae pollen was in vitro exposed to low levels of atmospheric NO2 pollutant. • The fertility of the Betulaceae pollen exposed to NO2 decreased significantly. • The human allergenicity of the Betulaceae pollen exposed to NO2 increased. -- When the pollen of birch trees were exposed to low levels of air pollutant NO2, a decrease in the fertility, and an increase on the allergic reactivity, were observed

  12. Selective Solvents for Extraction of Triterpenes from Betula Pendula Outer Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Pāže, A; Zandersons, J; Rižikovs, J; Dobele, G.; Jurkjāne, V; Spince, B

    2013-01-01

    The volume of birch plywood production in Latvia is illustrated by the 208 000 m3 of plywood sold in 2011 and about 562 000 m3 of processed birch veneer blocks. Wood residues such as bark, veneer shorts, cut off ends and others are used as a fuel. It would be more expedient to increase the birch wood utilisation degree by involving also birch outer bark in the processing cycle. It makes up 2% of the veneer blocks’ mass. At the J.S.C. “Latvijas Finieris”, about 6000 t per year of graded and mi...

  13. Red Liriope platyphylla stimulated the insulin secretion through the regulation of calcium concentration in rat insulinoma cells and animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Young-Ju; Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Im, Dong-Soon; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Red L. platyphylla (RLP) on calcium and glucose levels during insulin secretion. To achieve this, alteration of insulin and calcium concentrations was measured in rat insulinoma-1 (INS-1) cells and animal models in response to RLP treatment. In INS-1 cells, maximum secretion of insulin was detected upon treatment with 200 µg/mL of RLP for 20 min. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, effectively inhibited insulin secretion from ...

  14. Responses of gas exchange and plant hydraulic conductance to water deficit in silver birch trees growing under increasing atmospheric humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Arne; Kupper, Priit

    2013-04-01

    Climate change scenarios predict increase in air temperature by 3.5-5° C and precipitation by 5-30% in boreal and northern temperate regions of Europe by the end of the century. On the other hand, climate extremes including heat waves and droughts are projected to become more frequent and last longer across Europe over the 21st century. Increasing atmospheric humidity inevitably occurring with more frequent rainfall events reduce water fluxes through the vegetation, and have an effect on the structure of leaves and vascular tissues, plant hydraulic properties, biomass allocation, nutrient uptake and growth (Tullus et al. 2012). We investigated fast and long-term effects of water deficit on plant water status, gas exchange and hydraulic conductance on saplings of silver birch (Betula pendula) growing under artificially manipulated air humidity in an experimental forest ecosystem at the Free Air Humidity Manipulation site (http://www.lote.ut.ee/FAHM/in-english; Kupper et al. 2011). Fast-developing water deficit was imposed by letting cut sample branches to dehydrate in open-air conditions, long-term water deficit was generated by seasonal drought. The fast-imposed water deficit estimated by leaf (ΨL) or branch water status (ΨB) had highly significant (P

  15. Variability of some morphological traits of one-year old red oak, black walnut, birch and wild pear seedlings in the nurseries of Jastrebac region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five morphological and quantitative characteristics of one-year old seedlings of Red oak (Quercus rubra L, Black walnut (Juglans nigra L, Wild pear (Pyrus pygrowser Borkh and Birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh were studied. The seedlings were produced and cultivated in the controlled conditions of the nursery in the region of Jastrebac, by the classical method. Aboveground seedling height, root collar diameter, root length, number of secondary roots and the leaf assimilation area were analysed. Intraspecific and interspecific variability of morphological features of the above species were assessed by the comparative analysis and statistical methods The comparative analysis shows the great individual variability of seedlings, which can indicate their genetic potential, adaptation to environment conditions, further spontaneous selection and the development in natural conditions. This justifies the need of the quality assessment and the first selection already in the nursery, in order to ensure the quality planting material and to reduce the risk of afforestation failure One-year old birch seedlings have the lowest average height (18.8 cm. Black walnut and Wild pear seedlings are approximately twice as high, and Red oak about 2.5 times higher. At the same time Red oak seedlings have for about one-fourth greater height than Black walnut, and for one-third greater height than Wild pear. Wild pear seedlings attain the averagely twice larger root collar diameter than Birch (2.8 cm, Red oak seedlings about 2.5 times larger diameter, and Black walnut 3.5 times larger diameter. Black walnut has a larger root collar diameter than Red oak for about one third, and almost twice larger than Wild pear. Birch, Red oak and Wild pear have almost twice longer root (1.8-1.9 times, Black walnut about 2.25 times longer. The total assimilation area of a Birch seedling is averagely 89.0 cm2. Compared to birch, wild pear has approximately double assimilation area per tree, Red

  16. The growth process of natural poplar-birch forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Shibo; LUO Xu; LUO Yuliang

    2006-01-01

    With a combination of permanent and temporary sample plots,we investigated the growth conditions of natural poplar-birch forests.The forests were divided into four site classes,using statistical and analytical techniques in a quantitative model,in descending order where site class I was the best.On this basis,the growth of natural poplar-birch forests in the different site classes was studied.The growth processes of height and diameter at breast height were divided into three stages:a fast growing period,a stable growing period and a slow growing period.Results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the directive cultivation of natural poplar-birch forests.

  17. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl;

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen...... (SLIT), and 8 (placebo) patients after treatment compared to 10, 4, and 10 patients, respectively, before SIT. The symptom scores to apple during challenges decreased in all groups, but only significantly in the placebo group (p = 0.03). As evaluated by the questionnaire, the severity of food allergy in......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...

  18. Allergen immunotherapy for birch pollen-allergic patients: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe; Floch, Véronique Bordas-Le; Airouche, Sabi; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    As of today, allergen immunotherapy is performed with aqueous natural allergen extracts. Recombinant allergen vaccines are not yet commercially available, although they could provide patients with well-defined and highly consistent drug substances. As Bet v 1 is the major allergen involved in birch pollen allergy, with more than 95% of patients sensitized to this allergen, pharmaceutical-grade recombinant Bet v 1-based vaccines were produced and clinically tested. Herein, we compare the clinical results and modes of action of treatments based on either a birch pollen extract or recombinant Bet v 1 expressed as hypoallergenic or natural-like molecules. We also discuss the future of allergen immunotherapy with improved drugs intended for birch pollen-allergic patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis. PMID:27140409

  19. Birch Creek, Alaska, a wild and scenic river analysis: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Upper Birch Creek, Alaska possessed values which qualify it for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. The upper Birch Creek and its immediate...

  20. Recycling of wood- and peat-ash. A successful way to establish full plant cover and dense birch stand on a cut-away peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huotari, N.

    2012-07-01

    Mechanical harvesting of peat changes the original mire ecosystem completely, and without active measures these areas may remain non-vegetated even for decades. Afforestation is one of the most popular after-use options for cut-away peatlands in Finland since it has both economic and aesthetic values. Recycling of wood-ash as a fertilizer has been studied extensively in peatlands drained for forestry. Wood-ash is reported to promote tree growth in these areas without any significant negative impact to the environment and could, therefore, be a suitable option also on cut-away peatlands. However, the environmental effects of ash-fertilization on cut-away areas and on ground vegetation are not fully understood. The impact of wood- and peat-ash application on the early establishment of ground vegetation and downy birch (Betula pubescens) seedlings and on post-fertilization element concentrations in plants and peat substrate were studied in a cut-away peatland. Six treatments of wood-ash, peat-ash, biotite or Forest PK-fertilizer were replicated in three blocks in different mixtures and quantities corresponding to 50 kg ha-1 of phosphorus. All the fertilizers accelerated the revegetation of the bare peat surface significantly, whereas the establishment of plants in the unfertilized area was non-existent even several years after the peat harvesting had ceased. The most striking difference between the wood- and peat-ash-fertilizers and the commercial Forest PK-fertilizer was the extensive coverage of fire-loving moss species in all the areas where ash was spread. Wood- and peat-ash application also accelerated the germination and early establishment of downy birch seedlings more efficiently than the PK-fertilizer. Ground vegetation proved to be highly important in increasing the early biomass production and carbon sequestration on ash-fertilized cut-away peatland. In addition, the below-ground biomass was equal to the above-ground biomass, or even greater. Both wood- and

  1. Morphology of Betula pendula var. carelica bark at the pre-reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda N. Nikolaeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in bark morphology at the pre-reproductive stage of Karelian birch are for the first time considered in connection with the type of trunk surface. The bark surface in Karelian birch changes with age from smooth to fissured. At the pre-reproductive stage Karelian birch has smooth bark with different types of exfoliation of the phellem surface layers, and tubercular specimens feature locally fissured bark on muffs at the very onset of their formation, as well as early rhytidome formation. Morphology of the bark tissues complex is a reflection of direction and intensity of the internal processes of the plant.

  2. Red Liriope platyphylla stimulated the insulin secretion through the regulation of calcium concentration in rat insulinoma cells and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Young-Ju; Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Im, Dong-Soon; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Red L. platyphylla (RLP) on calcium and glucose levels during insulin secretion. To achieve this, alteration of insulin and calcium concentrations was measured in rat insulinoma-1 (INS-1) cells and animal models in response to RLP treatment. In INS-1 cells, maximum secretion of insulin was detected upon treatment with 200 µg/mL of RLP for 20 min. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, effectively inhibited insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Regarding calcium levels, the maximum concentration of intracellular calcium in INS-1 cells was obtained by treatment with 100 µg/mL of RLP, whereas this level was reduced under conditions of 200 µg/mL of RLP. Further, RLP-treated INS-1 cells showed a higher level of intracellular calcium than that of L. platyphylla (LP), Korea White Ginseng (KWG), or Korea Red Ginseng (KRG)-treated cells. This RLP-induced increase in intracellular calcium was abrogated but not completely abolished upon treatment with 40 µM nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the insulin level was dramatically elevated upon co-treatment with high concentrations of glucose and RLP, whereas it was maintained at a low level in response to glucose and RLP co-treatment at low concentrations. In an animal experiment, the serum concentration of calcium increased or decreased upon RLP treatment according to glucose level compared to vehicle treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that insulin secretion induced by RLP treatment may be tightly correlated with calcium regulation, which suggests RLP is an excellent candidate for diabetes treatment. PMID:23825481

  3. Dynamics of Betula ermanni population in subalpine vegetation in Changbai Mountain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chunjing; Han Shijie; Wang Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    Betula ermanni population was divided into three groups: the upper population (2 000~2 200 m), the middle population (1 700~2000 m), and the down population (1 400~1 700 m) in Changbai Mountain. The dynamics of Betula ermanni populations in subalpine vegetation are studied and the population life table,fecundity schedule, survival curves, age structure, and fecundity curves were established. The results showed that the middle population is obviously the transition from the upper population to the down population.

  4. CO2 elevation improves photosynthetic performance in progressive warming environment in white birch seedlings [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouren Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula paperifera Mash seedlings were exposed to progressively warming in greenhouses under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations for 5 months to explore boreal tree species’ potential capacity to acclimate to global climate warming and CO2 elevation. In situ foliar gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at temperatures of 26oC and 37oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn at both measurement temperatures, and Pn at 37oC was higher than that at 26oC under elevated CO2. Stomatal conductance (gs was lower at 37oC than at 26oC, while transpiration rate (E was higher at 37oC than that at 26oC. Elevated CO2 significantly increased instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE at both 26oC and 37oC, but WUE was markedly enhanced at 37oC under elevated CO2. The effect of temperature on maximal carboxylation rate (Vcmax, PAR-saturated electron transport rate (Jmax and triose phosphate utilization (TPU varied with CO2, and the Vcmax and Jmax were significantly higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. However, there were no significant interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on TPU. The actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (DF/ Fm’, total photosynthetic linear electron transport rate through PSII (JT and the partitioning of JT to carboxylation (Jc were higher at 37oC than at 26oC under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 significantly suppressed the partitioning of JT to oxygenation (Jo/JT. The data suggest that the CO2 elevation and progressive warming greatly enhanced photosynthesis in white birch seedlings in an interactive fashion.

  5. BIRCH: A user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system

    OpenAIRE

    Fristensky Brian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hiera...

  6. Effects of birch tar oils on soil organisms and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hagner, Marleena; Pasanen, Tiina; Lindqvist, Bengt; Lindqvist, Isa; Tiilikkala, Kari; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Setala, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    The use of birch tar oil (BTO) is a new innovation in plant and animal protection working against various weeds, harmful insects and rodents. Due to its novelty as a biocide/repellent/plant protection product, no comprehensive information on the effects of BTO on non-target soil organisms is available. In this study we examined the impact of BTO on non-target soil organisms (enchytraeids, nematodes and soil microbes) and plants using laboratory toxicity tests and field experiments. In additio...

  7. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Persson,; Olof Dahlman,; Ann-Christine Albertsson

    2012-01-01

    Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan) isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes) were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch lengt...

  8. Retranslocation of foliar nutrients of deciduous tree seedlings in different soil condition under free-air O3 enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Shi C; Eguchi N; Meng F; Watanabe T.; Satoh F; Koike T.

    2016-01-01

    Retranslocation is the amount of an element that is depleted from old plant components and is provided for new growth. Leaf senescence is usually accelerated at elevated O3 (eO3), and leaf shedding is influenced by soil nutrient availability (and acidification). In this study, we focused on the net retranslocation and allocation dynamics of foliar nutrients (N, P, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Al) to investigate the effect of eO3 on birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica), oak (Quercus mongolica var...

  9. Phytochemical Investigation, Isolation and Characterization of Betulin from Bark of Betula Utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Joshi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Betula utilis is a hardy perennial plant of moderate size up to 20 M in height, forming the upper limit of forest vegetation. It inhabitates along the Himalayan range from Bhutan westwards, ascending to an altitude of 4200 M. The bark of Betula utilis contains sitosterol, betulin, betulic acid, oleanolic acid, acetyloleanolic acid, lupeol, lupenone, methyl betulonate, methyl betulate and a new triterpenoid karachic acid. The ethanolic extract of powdered drug of Betula utilis was prepared. Most of the constituents were found to be present in the ethanolic extract. Thus it was concluded that constituents of Betula utilis bark are more soluble in polar solvents. The ethanolic extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins and triterpenes. After identification of crude extract, the main work was to isolate the desired compound (betulin. So, fractionation of ethanolic extract was done by suspending it in water and then extracted it with n-hexane and dichloromethane. Betulin was isolated from dichloromethane fraction using column chromatography. Ethyl acetate and n-hexane in various ratios (1:10; 1:5; 1:3; 1:2 was used as eluent for separation of desired compound from the dichloromethane fraction. After isolation of desired compound, it was subjected to characterization. For characterization studies; melting range, TLC and spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, Mass and NMR were utilized.

  10. The correlation of the maximum intensity of fluorescence with pigment characteristics of leaves of Betula pendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoruev, V. V.; Zavorueva, E. N.

    2015-11-01

    Using fluorimeter Junior PAM (Heinz Walz GmbH, Germany) the fluorescence parameters of leaves of Betula pendula are investigated. A linear dependence of the maximum fluorescence (Fm) of leaves from the ratio of total chlorophylls concentration to concentration of carotenoids is obtained. Such dependence is found for samples collected during the period of vegetation and for simultaneous selection of colored leaves.

  11. Spatiotemporal models for predicting high pollen concentration level of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosad, Jakub

    2016-06-01

    Corylus, Alnus, and Betula trees are among the most important sources of allergic pollen in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere and have a large impact on the quality of life and productivity of allergy sufferers. Therefore, it is important to predict high pollen concentrations, both in time and space. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate spatiotemporal models for predicting high Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen concentration levels, based on gridded meteorological data. Aerobiological monitoring was carried out in 11 cities in Poland and gathered, depending on the site, between 2 and 16 years of measurements. According to the first allergy symptoms during exposure, a high pollen count level was established for each taxon. An optimizing probability threshold technique was used for mitigation of the problem of imbalance in the pollen concentration levels. For each taxon, the model was built using a random forest method. The study revealed the possibility of moderately reliable prediction of Corylus and highly reliable prediction of Alnus and Betula high pollen concentration levels, using preprocessed gridded meteorological data. Cumulative growing degree days and potential evaporation proved to be two of the most important predictor variables in the models. The final models predicted not only for single locations but also for continuous areas. Furthermore, the proposed modeling framework could be used to predict high pollen concentrations of Corylus, Alnus, Betula, and other taxa, and in other countries.

  12. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy. Induction of affinity-matured or blocking IgG antibodies does not account for the reduced binding of IgE to Bet v 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K; Rieneck, Klaus; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    (Betula verrucosa) (Bet v 1), the major allergen in birch pollen, to serum IgG and IgE, separately and in competition. Sera from six birch pollen-allergic patients were obtained before and after 5 years of SAV, and binding was assessed with 125I-Bet v 1. Before SAV, IgG bound more than eight times the...... amount of Bet v 1 compared with IgE, and together they accounted for more than 85% of the serum binding capacity. While SAV induced minimal changes in IgE binding, the IgG binding capacities increased 6-32 times. In contrast, the binding avidities (K(d) 28-40pM) changed less than 20%, pre- and post......-SAV IgG provided similar inhibition of Bet v 1 binding to IgE at equimolar levels, and cross inhibition studies between IgG and IgE showed low inter-individual differences. Following SAV, all sera reduced Bet v 1 binding to CD23(+) cells, correlating with reduced binding of Bet v 1 to IgE (P...

  13. Comparative Carbon and Water Relations of Betula nana and Poa pratensis in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, S. M. P.; Sullivan, P. F.; Welker, J. M.; Post, E.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion of woody shrubs throughout much of the Arctic in recent decades is a common observation in response to climate change. However, we lack a complete understanding of how woody shrubs differ physiologically from neighboring species and how these differences may confer competitive advantages to woody shrubs as the climate continues to change. At a site in West Greenland, we combined detailed leaf physiological measurements with stable isotope analysis of plant leaf material, xylem water and soil water to elucidate the processes governing seasonal carbon (C) gain in the two dominant plant species at our study site: Betula nana and Poa pratensis. We hypothesized that cooler, drier soils beneath the Betula canopy would result in greater drought sensitivity during times of high atmospheric demand (i.e. greater water vapor pressure deficit; VPD), which would manifest in reduced leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), reduced stomatal conductance (gs) and a negative relationship between leaf Δ13C and Δ18O in accordance with the dual-isotope conceptual model. Data collected over two consecutive growing seasons, however, revealed greater drought sensitivity in Poa, which displayed a dramatic reduction in Amax and gs during periods of high VPD, along with reduced leaf Δ13C. Additionally, leaf Δ13C and Δ18O were negatively correlated in Poa, suggesting strong stomatal influence on Δ13C. Conversely, we found no relationship between leaf Δ13C and Δ18O in Betula, indicating that seasonal variation in Δ13C may have been driven primarily by changes in photosynthesis. Our results suggest that, although Poa maintains greater average leaf-level photosynthesis, this species is more susceptible to drought than Betula. Meanwhile, it may be that Betula employs a strategy to avoid drought stress and maintain steady, yet conservative, C gain. This strategy may enable growth to continue during warm and dry conditions, conferring a competitive advantage for Betula in

  14. Detection of prognostic factors for oral allergy syndrome in patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asero, R; Massironi, F; Velati, C

    1996-02-01

    To determine why a significant proportion of birch pollen-sensitive patients do not have the oral allergy syndrome (OAS), possible predictive in vivo or in vitro tests for OAS were sought in a large retrospective and prospective follow-up study performed in 283 patients with clinical evidence of birch pollen hypersensitivity. OAS was associated with more severe respiratory symptoms and with higher birch-specific and total IgE levels; moreover, its onset was clearly related to duration of birch pollinosis. The prospective part of this study, performed in 63 patients without OAS, confirmed these findings and highlighted the very high negative predictive value of both skin prick tests with fresh foods and RAST with food allergens. This work suggests that about 15% of patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity are not prone to OAS and that their anti-birch IgE might be directed against determinants that do not crossreact with food allergens. PMID:8621846

  15. Attempts at active protection of Inonotus obliquus by inoculating birches with its mycelium

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Piętka; Andrzej Grzywacz

    2013-01-01

    Practical application of active protection methods of Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát. was examined. Thirty live birches and 15 birch stem sections were artificially inoculated with the fungal mycelium in the Mińsk Forest District (E Poland). The mycelium of I. obliquus was not recorded in the felled test trees and birch stem sections upon the completion of the experiment. Artificial introduction of I. obliquus in the natural environment faces significant problems caused by strong competition f...

  16. Organic matter characteristics in boreal forest soils under stands of silver birch, Norway spruce, and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolander, A.; Kitunen, V.

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to study how tree species and a tree species mixture affect microbial C and N transformations and two major plant secondary compound groups, terpenes and phenolic compounds in soil. The study site was a tree-species experiment in middle-eastern part of Finland containing plots of 43-year-old silver birch, Norway spruce and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch (22 and 37 % birch of the total stem number). Soil was podzol and humus type mor. Samples were taken from the organic layer. C and N in the microbial biomass, rates of C mineralization (CO2 evolution), net N mineralization and nitrification, and concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds, condensed tannins and different kind of terpenes were measured. Amounts of C and N in the microbial biomass and the rates of C mineralization and net N mineralization were all lower under spruce than birch, and particularly net N mineralization was stimulated by birch mixture. Concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds were on a similar level, irrespective of tree species. However, there were less low-molecular-weight phenolics and more high-molecular-weight phenolics under spruce than birch. Concentrations of condensed tannins and both sesqui- and diterpenes were all higher under spruce than birch but the concentrations of triterpenes were similar in all soils. The difference between tree species was greatest with monoterpenes which were measured from both organic layer and soil atmosphere: high concentrations under spruce and negligible under birch. Birch mixture tended to decrease the concentrations of condensed tannins and mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes.

  17. Gene expression responses of paper birch to elevated O3 and CO2 during leaf maturation and senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Parviainen, J.; Ruhanen, H.; Brosché, M.; Keinanen, M.; Thakur, R. C.; Kolehmainen, M.; Kangasjarvi, J.; Oksanen, E.; Karnosky, D. F.; Vapaavuori, E.

    2009-12-01

    Forest trees are exposed to increasing concentrations of O3 and CO2 simultaneously. The rise of concentration in these gases causes changes in the gene expression of trees, which can be small in acclimated trees, but yet pivotal for the metabolism of the trees. We have studied the response of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) leaf gene expression to elevated O3 and CO2 concentrations during leaf maturation and senescence. The hypotheses were:(1) Elevated O3 induces oxidative stress in leaves. During long O3-exposure repair mechanisms are activated. Because chemical defense requires energy and carbon uptake is reduced, leaf senescence is activated earlier. Alternatively, the senescence-associated processes, remobilization and storage of carbohydrates and nutrients, may not be completed. (2) In the combination of elevated CO2+O3, the O3-caused damages are not seen or they are smaller, due to closure of the stomata under elevated CO2 and decreased O3 uptake by the leaves. On the other hand, elevated CO2 may provide energy and increase defense chemicals, enabling leaves to repair the O3-caused damages. Gene expression responses of paper birch leaves to elevated O3 and CO2 were studied with microarray analyses. Samples were collected from the long-term O3 and CO2 fumigation experiment Aspen FACE in Rhinelander, WI, USA (http://aspenface.mtu.edu/). The site contains 12 FACE rings receiving CO2, O3, CO2+O3, and ambient air (controls). Birches have been exposed to elevated CO2 (550ppm) and O3 (1.5X ambient) since 1998. Leaf samples were collected in July, August and September 2004. The cDNA-microarrays used for hybridizations consisted of Populus euphratica ESTs representing ca 6500 different genes. In order to detect similar gene expression patterns within samplings and treatments, the microarray data was analyzed with multivariate methods; clustering with Self-Organizing Map, finding optimal cluster grouping by K-means clustering and visualizing the results with Sammon

  18. Specific probiotics alleviate allergic rhinitis during the birch pollen season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur C Ouwehand; Merja Nermes; Maria Carmen Collado; Nina Rautonen; Seppo Salminen; Erika Isolauri

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether birch pollen allergy symptoms are linked with gut microbiota changes and whether probiotics have an effect on these. METHODS: Forty seven children with confirmed birch pollen allergy were randomized to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus ( L. acidophi lus) NCFMTM (ATCC 700396) and Bifidobacterium lactis ( B. lactis) Bl-04 (ATCC SD5219) or placebo in a double-blind manner for 4 mo, starting prior to onset of the birch pollen season. Symptoms were recorded in a diary. Blood samples were taken for analysis of cytokines and eosinophils. Fecal samples were analysed for microbiota components, calprotectin and IgA. Nasal swabs were taken for analysis of eosinophils.RESULTS: The pollen season induced a reduction in Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and Bacteroides which could not be prevented by the probiotic intervention. During the intervention, significantly higher numbers 106 bacteria/g feces ( P < 0.0001) were observed in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group. During May, there was a tendency for fewer subjects,(76.2% vs 95.2%, P = 0.078) to report runny nose,while during June, fewer subjects, 11.1% vs 33.3%,reported nasal blocking in the probiotics group ( P = 0.101). Concomitantly, fewer subjects in the probiotic group had infiltration of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa compared to the placebo group, 57.1%vs 95% ( P = 0.013). Eye symptoms tended to be slightly more frequent in the probiotic group, 12.5 d [interquartile range (IQR) 6-18] vs 7.5 d (IQR 0-11.5)( P = 0.066) during May. Fecal IgA was increased in the placebo group during the pollen season; this increase was prevented by the probiotics ( P = 0.028).CONCLUSION: Birch pollen allergy was shown to be associated with changes in fecal microbiota composition. The specific combination of probiotics used was shown to prevent the pollen-induced infiltration of eosinophils into the nasal mucosa, and indicated a trend for reduced nasal symptoms.

  19. Selective suppression of antibody production with the aid of radiolabelled birch pollen allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the clonal selection theory we intended to prevent the development of artificially induced birch pollen allergy in rabbits with the aid of of the radiolabelled pollen allergen (75-1000 μCi125 I-pollen/animal) intravenously administered prior to pollen sensitization. The birch pollen allergen, in accordance with Burnet's working hypothesis, reacts only with a genetically determining B cell subpopulation. The fixation of the radiolabelled birch pollen allergen to the receptors of the competent B cell clone causes the lesion of the latter. Compared with the control group, this group of rabbits showed an extensive suppression of anaphylactic reagin-like PCA-antibodies, and haemagglutinating antibodies in the blood as well as in nasal secretion. In addition, we tried to influence the already ongoing synthesis of the antibodies with the aid of a subsequent intravenously administered radiolabelled birch pollen allergen (750-1000μCi125 I-pollen/animal). An intensive suppression of the synthesis of antibodies could also be proved in this case. The simultaneous immunization of the control rabbits with birch pollen and egg albumin resulted in the production of antibodies against both antigens, as expected. The hot-labelled birch pollen antigen intravenously injected before or after immunization with egg albumin and birch pollen led selectively to suppression of anti-birch-pollen PCA antibodies. The synthesis of anti-egg albumin PCA antibodies was unaffected. (author)

  20. CORRELATION OF CONTENT ASCORBIC ACID IN THE ASSIMILATION APPARATUS BETULA PENDULA ROTH. WITH AGENT BY PATHOLOGICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-01-01

    Features of influence of set of anthropogenic factors and phytopathologic state of tree Betula pendula on concentration of ascorbic acid in it assimilation apparatus are considered. By criterion of influence Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pilat and to presence pollution adaptable ability of a plant to action stressful factors, and also possibility of development of the mechanisms which are responsible for inhibition of biosynthesis of ascorbic acid estimated. It is shown that from all analyse...

  1. Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari

    2013-02-01

    Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644

  2. Attempts at active protection of Inonotus obliquus by inoculating birches with its mycelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piętka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Practical application of active protection methods of Inonotus obliquus (Fr. Pilát. was examined. Thirty live birches and 15 birch stem sections were artificially inoculated with the fungal mycelium in the Mińsk Forest District (E Poland. The mycelium of I. obliquus was not recorded in the felled test trees and birch stem sections upon the completion of the experiment. Artificial introduction of I. obliquus in the natural environment faces significant problems caused by strong competition from other birch wood-decay fungi. As in vitro studies show (individual biotic effect determination, the fungi examined, occurring on birch trees in nature, are dominant species in relation to I. obliquus.

  3. Change in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Abdelghani; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe; Druart, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization. PMID:26595095

  4. ALKALINE PRETREATMENT OF SPRUCE AND BIRCH TO IMPROVE BIOETHANOL AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Jeihanipour

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline pretreatment with NaOH under mild operating conditions was used to improve ethanol and biogas production from softwood spruce and hardwood birch. The pretreatments were carried out at different temperatures between minus 15 and 100ºC with 7.0% w/w NaOH solution for 2 h. The pretreated materials were then enzymatically hydrolyzed and subsequently fermented to ethanol or anaerobically digested to biogas. In general, the pretreatment was more successful for both ethanol and biogas production from the hardwood birch than the softwood spruce. The pretreatment resulted in significant reduction of hemicellulose and the crystallinity of cellulose, which might be responsible for improved enzymatic hydrolyses of birch from 6.9% to 82.3% and spruce from 14.1% to 35.7%. These results were obtained with pretreatment at 100°C for birch and 5°C for spruce. Subsequently, the best ethanol yield obtained was 0.08 g/g of the spruce while pretreated at 100°C, and 0.17 g/g of the birch treated at 100°C. On the other hand, digestion of untreated birch and spruce resulted in methane yields of 250 and 30 l/kg VS of the wood species, respectively. The pretreatment of the wood species at the best conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 83% and 74% improvement in methane production from birch and spruce.

  5. Sound velocities of hot dense iron: Birch's law revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zhao, Jiyong; Shen, Guoyin; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2005-06-24

    Sound velocities of hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) were measured at pressures up to 73 gigapascals and at temperatures up to 1700 kelvin with nuclear inelastic x-ray scattering in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The compressional-wave velocities (VP) and shear-wave velocities (VS) of hcp-Fe decreased significantly with increasing temperature under moderately high pressures. VP and VS under high pressures and temperatures thus cannot be fitted to a linear relation, Birch's law, which has been used to extrapolate measured sound velocities to densities of iron in Earth's interior. This result means that there are more light elements in Earth's core than have been inferred from linear extrapolation at room temperature. PMID:15976298

  6. Protective Role of Flavonoids and Lipophilic Compounds from Jatropha platyphylla on the Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammation in Macrophage Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriz-Pérez, Dulce L; Bang, Woo Young; Nair, Vimal; Angulo-Escalante, Miguel A; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Heredia, J Basilio

    2016-03-01

    Seventeen polyphenols (e.g, apigenin, genistein, and luteolin glycosides) and 11 lipophilic compounds (e.g., fatty acids, sterols, and terpenes) were detected by LC-MS/MS-ESI and GC-MS, respectively, in Jatropha platyphylla. Extracts from pulp, kernel, and leaves and fractions were studied to know their effect on some pro-inflammatory mediators. Phenolic and lipophilic extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on ROS and NO production while not affecting mitochondrial activity or superoxide generation rate in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, NO production was also diminished by lipophilic leaf fractions F1 and F2 with the latter fraction showing a greater effect and composed mainly of sterols and terpene. Furthermore, total extracts showed nonselective inhibitions against cyclooxygenase COX-1 and COX-2 activities. All together, these results suggest that J. platyphylla extracts have potential in treating inflammatory diseases and their activity is mediated by flavonoids and lipophilic compounds. PMID:26872073

  7. CORRELATION OF CONTENT ASCORBIC ACID IN THE ASSIMILATION APPARATUS BETULA PENDULA ROTH. WITH AGENT BY PATHOLOGICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Features of influence of set of anthropogenic factors and phytopathologic state of tree Betula pendula on concentration of ascorbic acid in it assimilation apparatus are considered. By criterion of influence Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr. Pilat and to presence pollution adaptable ability of a plant to action stressful factors, and also possibility of development of the mechanisms which are responsible for inhibition of biosynthesis of ascorbic acid estimated. It is shown that from all analysed in the yielded work abiotic and biotic factors most essentially the pathogenic factor affects change of concentration of ascorbic acid in sheet plates of trees concerning norm.

  8. Fruit wall anatomical structure of the genus Betula section Lenta (Betulaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Olga V. Yatsenko; Igor O. Yatsenko

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of the Lentae are referred to lower syncarpous nuts. Unlike most birches, the three-lobed scales in section Lentae stay attached to the axis for a long time. The fruit wall is differentiated into epicarp (derivative of outer tissues of inferior ovary, the tissues of receptacular origin) and the pericarp itself (mesocarp and the endocarp derivating from the ovary wall). The epicarp consists of two zones: epidermis and subepidermal zone. Two-four layers of larger sclerenchymatous cel...

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF CATIONIZED BIRCH XYLAN ON WET AND DRY STRENGTH OF FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Kataja-aho,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cationized birch xylan was prepared and its use as a papermaking chemical was evaluated. The focus was on studying the effects of cationized birch xylan on the wet and dry strength of fine paper. The results of the laboratory experiments show that the addition of 3 percent of cationized birch xylan to birch kraft pulp improved the initial wet strength of the web by 30 percent compared to base stock at a solids content of 55%. Furthermore, the tensile stiffness of the wet web increased by approximately a third and the dry tensile strength improved by 26%, while the dry elastic modulus was not changed. The improvements in the strength properties were clear when compared to the base stock, but not as high as achieved with conventionally used cationized starch. The difference between the xylan and starch is most likely due to the shorter polymer chain length of the cationized xylan.

  10. Basophil histamine release in patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity with and without allergic symptoms to fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Galleani, M; Jeep, S; Pilz, B; Baisch, A; Kunkel, G

    1992-12-01

    Histamine release (HR) studies were performed in 40 birch pollen-allergic patients (positive case history, positive SPT, positive birch pollen-specific serum IgE: RAST > or = 3) with (n = 20, A) and without (n = 20, B) fruit hypersensitivity, and 10 nonatopic volunteers (C). Several fruit allergens were used and characterized by protein determination and immunoblot techniques. Dose-dependent HR (apple peel = apple pulp > peach = cherry) was demonstrated in both allergic groups, but to a higher extent in patients with fruit allergy (P < 0.01). Increased basophil sensitivity to birch pollen was found in the group with fruit allergy (P < 0.001). Strong correlations between the mediator response induced by several fruits indicate common allergens within the extracts. We conclude that fruit-related symptoms require not only high specific serum IgE, but a strong cellular sensitization to birch pollen allergens together with an increased cellular reactivity to fruit allergens. PMID:1283657

  11. Changes in flowering of birch in the Czech Republic in recent 25 years (1991–2015 in connection with meteorological variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Hajkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of long-term phenological observations of silver birch (Betula pendula during the years 1991–2015 across the phenological network of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI – Český hydrometeorologický ústav. The data assembled over this period were used for identification of timing of generative phenophases associated with pollen release into the air: inflorescence emergence 10%, beginning of flowering 10%, beginning of flowering 50%, beginning of flowering 100%, and end of flowering. The stations are situated at altitudes from 155 m (Doksany to 1102 m (Modrava. The average timing of beginning of flowering 10% was 8th April (Lednice = lowland station and 14th May (Modrava = mountain station; the average timing of beginning of flowering 50% was 12th April (Lednice and 20th May (Modrava; the average timing of beginning of flowering 100% was 18th April (Lednice and 22nd May (Modrava, and the average timing of end of flowering was 26th April (Lednice and 28th May (Modrava. The totals of effective temperatures above 5°C (TS5 and sums of daily precipitation were used as a bio-climatological criterion for assessment of the dependence of phenological phases on meteorological variables. The average sums of TS5 and the average sums of daily precipitation total were as follows: 61.0–80.8°C, 82.8–327.4 mm (inflorescence emergence; 105.2–106.4°C, 85.9–365.2 mm (beginning of flowering 10%; 124.8–130.8°C, 89.8–385.9 mm (beginning of flowering 50%; 144.7–158.6°C, 95.2–390.7 mm (beginning of flowering 100%; and 181.6–223.8°C, 104.7–427.4 mm (end of flowering. Synoptic situations occurring during interphase intervals were obtained – the most often found synoptic situations were B (stationary trough over Central Europe, Bp (east travelling trough, NEa (northeast anticyclonic situation, Sa (south anticyclonic situation and SWc2 (southwest cyclonic situation moving northeast to eastwards. The

  12. Allocation of carbon to growth and secondary metabolites in birch seedlings under UV-B radiation and CO{sub 2} exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavola, A.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Univ. of Joensuu, Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland); Rosa, T.M. de la [Univ. of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, Joensuu (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    In plants, the allocation of carbon to secondary metabolites has been shown to be determined by both the availability of resources (e.g., CO{sub 2} concentration) and by specific stress factors (e.g., ultraviolet [UV]-radiation). It has been suggested that, in combination, CO{sub 2} and UV-B radiation may differentially affect plant growth and morphogenic parameters, and elevated CO{sub 2} may ameliorate the effects of UV-B radiation, In the present work, the effects of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and UV-B radiation on growth and the accumulation of different types of secondary metabolites were studied in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). Seedlings were exposed to 350 and 700 {mu} mol mol{sup -1} of CO{sub 2} in a greenhouse. At both CO{sub 2} levels, additional UV-B was either present (8.16 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} of biologically effective UV-B irradiance) or absent. The time course of accumulation of individual secondary compounds and the shifts in allocation of carbon between biomass and the secondary metabolites (phenolic acids, flavonoids, condensed tannins) were studied during a 1-month-long exposure. Additionally, the activities of enzymes (L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase [PAL], EC 4.3.1.5; peroxidase, EC 1.11.1.7; polyphenol oxidase, EC 1.10.3.1) were determined for leaves. UV-B radiation significantly increased biomass, PAL activity, and the accumulation of phenolic acids and flavonoids in seedlings. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentration increased the activities of all the enzymes studied and the accumulation of condensed tannins in leaves, especially with UV-B radiation. Because the observed UV-B induction of flavonoids was smaller under a high CO{sub 2} concentration, it was suggested that the excess of carbon in the atmosphere may moderate the effect of UV-B by increasing the metabolic activity of leaves (high enzyme activities) and by changing the allocation of internal carbon between different primary and secondary metabolites in the

  13. Exposure to birch pollen and development of atopic disease in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Kihlström, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Background In 1993 extremely high levels of birch pollen were recorded in Stockholm, Sweden. This provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of aeroallergen exposure on the early immune response. Objective To assess the influence of exposure to birch pollen during pregnancy and early infancy, on the allergen-specific IgE- and IgG4-antibody (ab) response and development of atopic disease in children. Methods A total of 970 children with atopic heredity and born in ...

  14. High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Guo-dong; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Kong, Xing-ai; Song, Zhi-jing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Birch pollen sensitization and associated pollen-food syndrome among Chinese allergic patients have not been investigated. Methods: Sera from 203 allergic patients from the northern part of China and collected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pollen extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4 specif...

  15. Damping properties of sequoia and birch under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease mechanic effect on loads being transported, shock load limiters (dampers) are being widely used today. Usually, the materials having 'stress-strain' diagrams (σ-ε) of compression with a substantial portion, where σ = const., are used as dampers. Most widely used are dampers made of foam polystyrene having just the same compression diagram. Similar strain diagrams can be enlisted for some porous materials, timber under cross compression, perforated metallic crushers and some others. By selecting damper material, the level of transmitted to the protected object pressures can be varied from several to hundreds MPa. Timber, as being widely used and featuring good technologic properties together with low cost, becomes an attractive material to be used as the limiter of shock loads. This paper presents the results of stress-strain sequoia properties (USA deliverable) and birch properties (Volgo-Vyatski region) at dynamic (v = 10 m/s) and quasistatic (v ≅ 10-4 m/s) loading rates. The samples (diameter 25 x 25 mm) cut at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 90 deg. angle relative to their fibre were tested on one-axis compression at -30, +20 and +65 deg. C and fixed humidity (ω = 6-7%). Dynamic tests employed Kolsky method performed at the facility including Hopkinson's compound rod (Zukas et al.,1985). Sample loading was executed by trapezoidal pulsed pressure created by the explosive device. Samples were heated and cooled by special thermostats. (authors)

  16. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Persson,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch length. The thermal properties of the polylactide-grafted xylan depended on the branch length. Short branches resulted in fully amorphous materials with a glass transition temperature of about 48 to 55°C, whereas long polylactide branches resulted in semi-crystalline materials with melting points of about 130°C. Using mixtures of L-lactide and D/L-lactide in the monomer feed further altered the thermal properties. The degradation temperatures of the polylactide-grafted xylans were higher than that of the unmodified xylan, with degradation temperatures of about 300°C and 250°C, respectively. Tensile testing showed increased elongation at break with increasing branch length. The proposed method thus enables tailor-making of copolymers with specific thermal and mechanical properties.

  17. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B.; Faustmann, S.; Kopp, S.; Wolkersdorfer, M.; Bohle, B

    2015-01-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients w...

  18. m-BIRCH: an online clustering approach for computer vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Siddharth K.; Dana, Kristin J.

    2015-03-01

    We adapt a classic online clustering algorithm called Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies (BIRCH), to incrementally cluster large datasets of features commonly used in multimedia and computer vision. We call the adapted version modified-BIRCH (m-BIRCH). The algorithm uses only a fraction of the dataset memory to perform clustering, and updates the clustering decisions when new data comes in. Modifications made in m-BIRCH enable data driven parameter selection and effectively handle varying density regions in the feature space. Data driven parameter selection automatically controls the level of coarseness of the data summarization. Effective handling of varying density regions is necessary to well represent the different density regions in data summarization. We use m-BIRCH to cluster 840K color SIFT descriptors, and 60K outlier corrupted grayscale patches. We use the algorithm to cluster datasets consisting of challenging non-convex clustering patterns. Our implementation of the algorithm provides an useful clustering tool and is made publicly available.

  19. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO2 and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO2 protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO2 increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO2 treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO2 were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO2. Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO2 confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  20. Fungi and bacteria associated with the wet and brown wood in trunk of Betula pendula trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and fungi were isolated from external and internal zone of brown and water saturated wood of trunk of Betula pendula trees aged 44-46. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the bacterial and fungal populations were found between both the zones. Populations of bacteria increased towards the internal sapwood, contrary to the fungi which more frequently colonised the external zone. The most common bacteria were Pseudomonas spp. (mainly P.fluorescens biovar I whereas Bacillus macerans, B. alvei and Erwinia heibicola were able to degrade the polygalacturonic acid and pectin gels. In case of the fungi population, the most common (more than 3% colonising the external zone were successively: Phialophora fastigiata, Trichoderma harzianum, Alternaria alternata, Mortierella isabellina, Cladosporium herbarum, T. viride, C. cladosporioides and Melanconium betulinum. In the community of fungi occurring in the internal zone, the most common (more than 6.5% were:Cladosporium herbarum, Phialophora lagerbergii and Ph.fastigiata.

  1. Estudo químico de extratos de folhas de Betula celtiberica Rothm. & Vasc.

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Ana Patrícia Abrantes

    2013-01-01

    O período de estágio final, inserido no Plano de Estudos do Mestrado em Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade da Beira Interior, permitiu desenvolver competências técnicas, clínicas e deontológicas necessárias ao exercício da profissão farmacêutica. O presente trabalho encontra-se dividido em duas componentes, sendo a primeira o projeto de investigação de mestrado intitulado “Estudo Químico de Extratos de folhas de Betula celtiberica Rothm. & Vasc.” e a segunda o Relatório de Estágio em F...

  2. Carbon gain and bud physiology in Populus tremuloides and Betula papyrifera grown under long-term exposure to elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riikonen, J. [Kuopio Univ., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Kets, K.; Sober, A. [Tartu Univ., Tartu (Estonia). Inst. of Botany and Ecology; Darbah, J.; Karnosky, D.F. [Michigan Technical Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science; Oksanen, E. [Joensuu Univ., Joensuu (Finland). Faculty of Biosciences; Vapaavuori, E. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Suonenjoki (Finland). Suonenjoki Research Inst.; Kubiske, M.E.; Nelson, N. [USDA Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). Forestry Sciences Laboratory

    2008-02-15

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) enhances photosynthesis by increasing carboxylation rates and decreasing the rate of photorespiration. While elevated CO{sub 2} has the potential to increase frost hardiness in trees by increasing bud size and concentrations of cryoprotective soluble sugars in overwintering organs, little is known about the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on late-season photosynthesis. This study examined 3 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones and 3 paper birch (Betula papyrifera) grown at a site with elevated CO{sub 2} and ozone (O{sub 3}) applied singly and in combination. Gas exchange was studied throughout the eighth growing season. The study also examined specific leaf area and size in September and final size, carbohydrate, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and water concentrations in November. The timing of leaf abscission was also studied, as well as bud burst and the development of leaf area index the following Spring. Results of the study showed that net photosynthesis was enhanced by between 49 and 73 per cent with elevated levels of CO{sub 2}, and decreased by between 13 and 30 per cent with elevated O{sub 3}. Elevated CO{sub 2} delayed leaf abscission and increased the ratio of monosaccharides in aspen buds. Total carbon concentrations in overwintering buds were unaffected by the treatments. It was concluded that elevated CO{sub 2} ameliorated the effects of elevated O{sub 2}, but had the potential to alter C metabolism of overwintering buds. 50 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Allometries for Widely Spaced Populus ssp. and Betula ssp. in Nurse Crop Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Stark

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurse crops of widely spaced pioneer trees are a silvicultural approach to protect the regeneration of frost sensitive target tree species. If overstorey nurse crops are harvested, they can provide additional short-term benefits through increased biomass production, e.g., for bioenergy. However, the intensification of biomass exports from forests might impact negatively on ecosystem nutrient pools. Thus, precise allometric biomass equations are required to quantify biomass and nutrient removals. Since an analysis of published allometric equations developed for typical, dense aspen or birch forests showed that the tree height-to-diameter ratio correlated positively and the proportion of branch biomass negatively with stand density, we developed new allometric biomass equations for widely spaced aspen and birch growing at 4 x 4 m spacing. These equations yielded a root mean squared error of 13% when predicting total aboveground woody biomass for our sample trees. In contrast, the corresponding root mean squared error produced by allometric biomass equations from the literature ranged between 17% to 106% of actual dry biomass. Our results show that specific allometric biomass equations are needed for widely spaced pioneer trees both for accurate estimates of biomass and the nutrients contained within.

  4. DNA extraction of birch leaves by improved CTAB method and optimization of its ISSR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN hua; YANG Chuan-ping; WEI Zhi-gang; JIANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    The basic method of DNA extraction (CTAB) was improved as the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method and used to extract the DNA of birch leaved in this experiment. Results showed that the improved method is suitable not only for genomic DNA extraction of birch but also for that of other plants. The purity of genomic DNA extracted by the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method is higher than that by one time STE-CTAB method, and it does not need the process of RNase. The factors of influencing ISSR system were explored based on the genomic DNA of birch extracted by the two methods. The optimal conditions for ISSR system were determined as follows: cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 94℃, annealing for 30 s at 51 ℃, extension for 30 s at 72℃, and a final 7 min extension at 72 ℃.

  5. Computational verification of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for individual elliptic curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Grigor; Jorza, Andrei; Patrikis, Stefan; Stein, William A.; Tarnita, Corina

    2009-12-01

    We describe theorems and computational methods for verifying the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula for specific elliptic curves over mathbb{Q} of analytic ranks 0 and 1 . We apply our techniques to show that if E is a non-CM elliptic curve over mathbb{Q} of conductor leq 1000 and rank 0 or 1 , then the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula for the leading coefficient of the L -series is true for E , up to odd primes that divide either Tamagawa numbers of E or the degree of some rational cyclic isogeny with domain E . Since the rank part of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture is a theorem for curves of analytic rank 0 or 1 , this completely verifies the full conjecture for these curves up to the primes excluded above.

  6. 78 FR 43189 - Birch Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... containing two turbine-generator units for a total installed capacity of 48,000 kilowatts; (3) a 200-foot... Energy Regulatory Commission Birch Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Applicant: Birch Power Company. e. Name of Project: Demopolis Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project....

  7. [Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus on the human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibnev, V A; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, M P; Kalnina, L B; Nosik, D N

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of aqueous and water-alcohol extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus have antiviral effect against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral properties of low toxic extracts were manifested in the concentration of 5.0 μg/ml upon simultaneous application with the virus in the lymphoblastoid cells culture MT-4. The extract of the birch fungus can be used for development of new antiviral drugs, inhibitors of HIV-replication when used both in the form of individual drugs and as a part of complex therapy. PMID:26182655

  8. The effect of fire disturbance on short-term soil respiration in typical forest of Greater Xing’an Range, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Sun; Tongxin Hu; Ji Hong Kim; Futao Guo; Hong Song; Xinshuang Lv; Haiqing Hu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fire disturbance on short-term soil respiration in birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) and larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) forests in Greater Xing’an range, northeastern China for further understanding of its effect on the carbon cycle in ecosystems. Our study show that post-fire soil respiration rates in B. platyphylla and L. gmelinii forests were reduced by 14%and 10%, respectively. In contrast, the soil heterotrophic respiration rates in the two types of forest were similar in post-fire and control plots. After fire, the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration was dramatically reduced. Variation in soil respiration rates was explained by soil moisture (W) and soil tem-perature (T) at a depth of 5 cm. Exponential regression fitted T and W models explained Rs rates in B. platyphylla control and post-fire plots (83.1% and 86.2%) and L. gmelinii control and post-fire plots (83.7%and 88.7%). In addition, the short-term temperature coefficients in B.

  9. Identification of genes differentially expressed in extraradical mycelium and ectomycorrhizal roots during Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula ectomycorrhizal symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    MOREL,M; Jacob, C; Kohler, A.; Johansson, Tomas; Martin, Francis; Chalot, Michel; Brun, Annick

    2005-01-01

    The development of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis leads to drastic changes in gene expression in both partners. However, little is known about the spatial regulation of symbiosis-regulated genes. Using cDNA array profiling, we compared the levels of expression of fungal genes corresponding to approximately 1,200 expressed sequenced tags in the ectomycorrhizal root tips (ECM) and the connected extraradical mycelium (EM) for the Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula ectomycorrhizal association grown on ...

  10. Effects of reindeer on the re-establishment of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia in a subarctic meadow

    OpenAIRE

    Michael den Herder; Pekka Niemelä

    2003-01-01

    The effect of reindeer browsing on the regeneration of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia was studied in a subarctic meadow in Finnish Lapland. The aim of the study was to see whether tree recovery from seeds is possible under heavy reindeer-browsing pressure. After removal of the ground and field layer vegetation in 1986, two exclosures were established so that the effect of reindeer on the secondary succession, starting from seeds, could be studied. The size and the...

  11. Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia Ten Years prior to Clinical Diagnosis: Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Lundquist, Anders; Nordin, Annelie; Nyberg, Lars; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Adolfsson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111) and group 2 after 1-10 years ...

  12. Why linear Birch and U/sub s/-U/sub p/ expansions work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equivalence of the Birch-Murnoghan equation to a linear U/sub s/-U/sub p/ equation was illustrated in the previous paper. Here it is shown in a direct manner how the virial theorem boundary localization of valence electron kinetic energy changes lead to the convergence of the Eulerian strain expansion about the zero-pressure state

  13. Antioxidants from slow pyrolysis bio-oil of birch wood: Application for biodiesel and biobased lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch wood was slowly pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and biochar. Slow pyrolysis conditions including reaction temperature, residence time, and particle size of the feed were optimized to maximize bio-oil yield. Particle size had an insignificant effect, whereas yields of up to 56% were achieved using...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of birch wood xylan succinoylated in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Plackett, David

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of birch wood xylan was undertaken in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4mimCl) using three different long-chain succinic anhydrides: n-octenyl succinic anhydride (n-OSA), n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride (n-DDSA) and n-octadecenyl succinic anhydrid...

  15. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. PMID:26443126

  16. Disappearing population of Betula humilis Schrk. on the Maliszewskie Lake, NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrzanowska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Betula humilis Schrk. is an endangered glacial relict inhabiting wet meadows, natural and drained fens. One of its declining populations is located on the Maliszewskie Lake (the Wizna swamp, north-eastern Poland. The goal of the present study was to estimate the number of B. humilis individuals in this locality. In the Maliszewskie Lake population, 59 ramets, grouped into three clusters, were found. Twelve nuclear microsatellite loci were chosen to genotype 52 ramets. The analysis revealed that all the shoots within the single cluster had the same genotypes at the loci considered. This means that each cluster constituted one genetically distinct individual; thus, there were only three individuals of B. humilis in the studied population. The maintenance of the B. humilis population in the Maliszewskie Lake area requires urgent active protection involving removal of the shading vegetation. In fact, the entire Maliszewskie Lake is worthy of protection because of its hitherto unexplained origin and the occurrence of many endangered bird species.

  17. Genetic and environmental determinants of insect herbivore community structure in a Betula pendula population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfver, Tarja; Rousi, Matti; Oksanen, Elina; Roininen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that intraspecific genetic variation of plants may have a profound effect on the herbivorous communities which depend on them. However less is known about the relative importance of intraspecific variation compared to other ecological factors, for example environmental variation or the effects of herbivore damage. We randomly selected 22 Betula pendula genotypes from a local population (block) variation on a local scale, while on a regional scale, genotypic and environmental (site) variation accounted for 4-14% of the arthropod community structure. The genetic effects were modified by environmental variation on both a local and regional scale over one study year, and locally, the largest part of the variation (38%) could be explained by the genotype × environment (block) interactions. Suppression of insect herbivores during one growing season led to changed arthropod community structure in the following growing season, but this effect was minimal and could explain only 4% of the total variation in insect community structure. Our results suggest that both genetic and environmental factors are important determinants of the community structure of herbivorous insects. Together these mechanisms appear to maintain the high diversity of insects in B. pendula forest ecosystems. PMID:24715977

  18. Glutathione-S-Transferase: A Minor Allergen in Birch Pollen due to Limited Release from Hydrated Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Deifl; Christian Zwicker; Eva Vejvar; Claudia Kitzmüller; Gabriele Gadermaier; Birgit Nagl; Susanne Vrtala; Peter Briza; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.; Beatrice Jahn-Schmid; Fatima Ferreira; Barbara Bohle

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, a protein homologous to glutathione-S-transferases (GST) was detected in prominent amounts in birch pollen by proteomic profiling. As members of the GST family are relevant allergens in mites, cockroach and fungi we investigated the allergenic relevance of GST from birch (bGST). Methodology bGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. Sera from 217 birch pollen-allergic patients were tested for IgE-reactivity to bGST by ELISA. T...

  19. Sustained efficacy and safety of a 300IR daily dose of a sublingual solution of birch pollen allergen extract in adults with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Worm, Margitta; Rak, Sabina; de Blay, Frédéric; Malling, Hans-Jorgen; Melac, Michel; Cadic, Véronique; Zeldin, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) due to birch pollen is a growing health concern in Europe. Here, we report the efficacy and safety of 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution administered discontinuously for 2 consecutive years to patients with birch-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Methods Birch pollen-allergic adults were randomized in this double blind study to 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution or placebo, daily, starting 4 months before and continuing through the ...

  20. The results of fluorescence spectrums of oak and birch leaves investigation from the 30-km influenced zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a long-term research of laser induced fluorescence of foliage tree' leaves (oak, birch) that grow in different conditions of radioactive pollution (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP) are presented

  1. Community structure and regeneration types of Betula dahurica forest in Badaling forest center of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yong; Zheng Zhi-hua; Zhang Zhi-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Using plant community analysis methods, we analyzed the floristic characteristics, species composition, community structure, population structure, and spatial distribution patterns of a Betula dahurica forest on the "1238" mountain of Badaling in Beijing, China. The results show that: 1) There are 33 plant species in the B. dahurica community, including 18 woody plant species. The B. dahurica forest is a monodominant community with 75.9% dominance. 2) Based on diameter at breast height (DBH)size class distribution, the population structure of B. dahurica and Acer mono-two heliophyllous and pioneer tree species is cascade-type, with both in an increasing stage. The population structure of Tilia mandshurica and T. mongolica, two shade-tolerant tree species, is inverse-J type, and they have more young seedling individuals and regenerate more stably. They are associated species of the pioneer tree species. The population structure of Quercus mongolica, as the associated species of climax species in the community, is sporadic, and its regeneration is fluctuating and random. Fraxinus rhynchophylla is a shade-tolerant tree species which has a unibar population structure and climax characteristics of pioneer tree species. The relative frequency of young seedlings reached 0.4.3) The dominant species B. dahurica is still in an increasing stage, and the regeneration of other species is steady or partly influences the community, putting the community in the pioneer species stage. From the population structure and distribution frequency ofF. rhynchophylla, the B. dahurica forest will approach to a climax state in the future.

  2. Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Bollschweiler, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    Vessel chronologies in ring-porous species have been successfully employed in the past to extract the climate signal from tree rings. Environmental signals recorded in vessels of ring-porous species have also been used in previous studies to reconstruct discrete events of drought, flooding and insect defoliation. However, very little is known about the ability of diffuse-porous species to record environmental signals in their xylem cells. Moreover, time series of wood anatomical features have only rarely been used to reconstruct former geomorphic events. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the wood anatomical response of diffuse-porous Alnus incana (L.) Moench and Betula pendula Roth to debris-flow-induced wounding. Tree microscopic response to wounding was assessed through the analysis of wood anatomical differences between injured rings formed in the debris-flow event year and uninjured rings formed in the previous year. The two ring types were examined close and opposite to the injury in order to determine whether wound effects on xylem cells decrease with increasing tangential distance from the injury. Image analysis was used to measure vessel parameters as well as fiber and parenchyma cell (FPC) parameters. The results of this study indicate that injured rings are characterized by smaller vessels as compared with uninjured rings. By contrast, FPC parameters were not found to significantly differ between injured and uninjured rings. Vessel and FPC parameters mainly remained constant with increasing tangential distance from the injury, except for a higher proportion of vessel lumen area opposite to the injury within A. incana. This study highlights the existence of anatomical tree-ring signatures-in the form of smaller vessels-related to past debris-flow activity and addresses a new methodological approach to date injuries inflicted on trees by geomorphic processes. PMID:20639516

  3. Seventeen-year trends in spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens in a boreal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero

    2016-08-01

    Trends in the timing of spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens were investigated in the southern, middle, and northern boreal zones in Finland. The field observations were carried out at 21 sites in the Finnish National Phenological Network in 1997-2013. The effective temperature sum of the thermal growth period, i.e. the sum of the positive differences between diurnal mean temperatures and 5 °C (ETS1), increased annually on average by 6-7 degree day units. Timing of bud burst remained constant in the southern and middle boreal zones but advanced annually by 0.5 day in the northern boreal zone. The effective temperature sum at bud burst (ETS2) showed no trend in the southern and middle boreal zones, whereas ETS2 increased on average from 20-30 to 50 degree day units in the northern boreal zone, almost to the same level as in the other zones. Increase in ETS2 indicates that the trees did not start their growth in very early spring despite warmer spring temperatures. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall remained almost constant in the southern boreal zones, whereas these advanced annually by 0.3 and 0.6 day in the middle boreal zone and by 0.6 and 0.4 day in the northern boreal zone, respectively. The duration of the growth period remained constant in all boreal zones. The results indicate high buffering capacity of B. pubescens against temperature changes. The study also shows the importance of the duration of phenological studies: some trends in spring phenophases had levelled out, while new trends in autumn phases had emerged after earlier studies in the same network for a shorter observation period.

  4. Seventeen-year trends in spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens in a boreal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero

    2015-12-01

    Trends in the timing of spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens were investigated in the southern, middle, and northern boreal zones in Finland. The field observations were carried out at 21 sites in the Finnish National Phenological Network in 1997-2013. The effective temperature sum of the thermal growth period, i.e. the sum of the positive differences between diurnal mean temperatures and 5 °C (ETS1), increased annually on average by 6-7 degree day units. Timing of bud burst remained constant in the southern and middle boreal zones but advanced annually by 0.5 day in the northern boreal zone. The effective temperature sum at bud burst (ETS2) showed no trend in the southern and middle boreal zones, whereas ETS2 increased on average from 20-30 to 50 degree day units in the northern boreal zone, almost to the same level as in the other zones. Increase in ETS2 indicates that the trees did not start their growth in very early spring despite warmer spring temperatures. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall remained almost constant in the southern boreal zones, whereas these advanced annually by 0.3 and 0.6 day in the middle boreal zone and by 0.6 and 0.4 day in the northern boreal zone, respectively. The duration of the growth period remained constant in all boreal zones. The results indicate high buffering capacity of B. pubescens against temperature changes. The study also shows the importance of the duration of phenological studies: some trends in spring phenophases had levelled out, while new trends in autumn phases had emerged after earlier studies in the same network for a shorter observation period.

  5. Influence of Biomass Pretreatment Process Time on Furfural Extraction from Birch Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazdausks, Prans; Puke, Maris; Vedernikovs, Nikolajs; Kruma, Irena

    2013-12-01

    Furfural is a biomass derived-chemical that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis was used for hemicelluloses secession from birch wood. The reaction was investigated at different biomass treatment times (10-90 min, increasing it by 10 min). We found that the greatest amount of furfural 1.4-2.6%, which is 9.7-17.7% from theoretical possible yield, was formed in the first 30 min of the beginning of birch wood pentoses monosaccharide dehydration, but the greatest yield of furfural 10.3%, which is 70.0% from the theoretical yield, can be obtained after 90 min. Given that furfural yield generally does not exceed 50% from the theoretical amount, the result can be considered as very good.

  6. EFFECT OF BIRCH KRAFT PULP PRIMARY FINES ON BLEACHING AND SHEET PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Anneli Asikainen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By removing the primary fines from an oxygen-delignified mill birch pulp, a fiber fraction was obtained having low metals content and no extractives. After DEDeD bleaching the fiber fraction had somewhat higher brightness and better brightness stability than the birch pulp containing the primary fines. The fines fraction was enriched with lignin, extractives, xylan, and metals. Bleaching the fines fraction in a QQP sequence did not affect the extractives, whereas a ZeQP sequence clearly reduced the extractives content. In a biorefinery concept, the fines fraction could be utilized as a source of xylan, fatty acids, sterols, and betulinol. Another possibility is to use the fines fraction unbleached or separately bleached as a bonding material in various fiber furnishes.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Suzuki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1 infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8.

  8. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Karnaouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, 13C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes.

  9. Reduced VOC emissions from birch sawdust dried in a steam drier at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstrom, K.M. [Karlstad Univ., Karlstad (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy Systems, Div. of Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics

    2003-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the quantity and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from birch sawdust when it is dried in a steam dryer at atmospheric pressure. Sawdust is commonly dried for production of wood pellets and particle board. VOCs, which are emitted during the drying process, contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and other hazardous photochemical oxidants. The chemical composition of VOCs emitted from drying softwood is different from that emitted during the drying of hardwoods such as birch. The dryer used in this study was a pilot scale spouted bed in continuous operation. Sawdust was dried to different moisture contents. Two drying medium temperatures (170 degrees C and 200 degrees C) were applied. The results were then compared to the emissions from softwoods dried under similar conditions.

  10. EFFECTS OF HOT WATER EXTRACTION IN A BATCH REACTOR ON THE DELIGNIFICATION OF BIRCH WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Borrega; Kaarlo Nieminen; Herbert Sixta

    2011-01-01

    The amount of residual lignin in birch wood after a hot water extraction in a batch reactor was investigated as a function of extraction temperature and time. A kinetic model fitting the experimental data was then developed to explain delignification of wood during a hot water treatment. Results showed that delignification kinetics involves simultaneous degradation and condensation reactions, with degradation of lignin being much faster than its condensation. Native lignin in wood was success...

  11. The role of gut microflora in mucosal tolerance induction to birch pollen in mouse allergy model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana; Repa, A.; Schwarzer, Martin; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Štěpánková, Renata; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Wiedermann, U.

    Herborn: Old Herborn University, 2009 - (Heidt, P.; Hanson, L.; Tlaskalová, H.; Rusch, V.), s. 11-19 ISBN 3-923022-33-6 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200710; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA ČR GA303/06/0974; GA ČR GA303/08/0367 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : germ-free * microbiota * birch pollen Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiromu; Takashima, Yuya; Ishiguri, Futoshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuo; Yokota, Shinso

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1) infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA)-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were i...

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromu Suzuki; Yuya Takashima; Futoshi Ishiguri; Nobuo Yoshizawa; Shinso Yokota

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1) infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA)-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were ...

  14. Why linear Birch and U/sub s/-U/sub p/ expansions work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equivalence of the Birch-Murnaghan equation to a linear U/sub s/-U/sub p/ equation was illustrated in the previous paper. Here we show in a direct manner how the virial theorem and the effect of core exclusion on valence electron kinetic energy changes lead to the convergence of the Eulerian strain expansion about the zero-pressure state. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Preliminary tests with a birch wood pellets up-draft air gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Alejandro; Suarez, José; Björnbom, Emilia; Zanzi Vigouroux, Rolando

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden and Cuba a variety of biomass have being investigated for energyconversion through termochemical processes into solid, liquids and gaseous products. Biomass gasification in fixed bed seem to be attractive option for the conversion ofagricultural and forest residues into gases suitable for use as alternative fuel in gasengines in rural areas, heat or electricity production. This paper discusses the performance characteristics of a up - draft gasifier withBirch wood pellets. The bench...

  16. Analysis of aspen-and-birch separated small woods’ vegetation in North Steppe of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Nazarenko; I. M. Loza

    2010-01-01

    Conducted analysis of forest vegetation has allowed selecting and specifying classification and typological units of the aspen-and-birch separated small woods, which have statistically significant difference of ecotopic and coenotic parameters. Those parameters of studied forest ecosystems are characterised. Existence of the lines of hygrogenic and edaphogenic substitution, and succession rows are described. Phytoindication description of ecological factors’ pivotal conditions is presented. D...

  17. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric C. Xu; Yajun Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes.The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  18. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EricC.Xu; YajunZhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes. The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  19. Drying and wetting of Mediterranean soils stimulates decomposition and carbon dioxide emission: the "Birch effect".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Paul; Rey, Ana; Petsikos, Charalampos; Wingate, Lisa; Rayment, Mark; Pereira, João; Banza, João; David, Jorge; Miglietta, Franco; Borghetti, Marco; Manca, Giovanni; Valentini, Riccardo

    2007-07-01

    Observations on the net carbon exchange of forests in the European Mediterranean region, measured recently by the eddy covariance method, have revived interest in a phenomenon first characterized on agricultural and forest soils in East Africa in the 1950s and 1960s by H. F. Birch and now often referred to as the "Birch effect." When soils become dry during summer because of lack of rain, as is common in regions with Mediterranean climate, or are dried in the laboratory in controlled conditions, and are then rewetted by precipitation or irrigation, there is a burst of decomposition, mineralization and release of inorganic nitrogen and CO(2). In forests in Mediterranean climates in southern Europe, this effect has been observed with eddy covariance techniques and soil respiration chambers at the stand and small plot scales, respectively. Following the early work of Birch, laboratory incubations of soils at controlled temperatures and water contents have been used to characterize CO(2) release following the rewetting of dry soils. A simple empirical model based on laboratory incubations demonstrates that the amount of carbon mineralized over one year can be predicted from soil temperature and precipitation regime, provided that carbon lost as CO(2) is taken into account. We show that the amount of carbon returned to the atmosphere following soil rewetting can reduce significantly the annual net carbon gain by Mediterranean forests. PMID:17403645

  20. EFFECT OF THERMAL TREATMENT ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BIRCH AND ASPEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Kocaefe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature treatment of wood is one of the alternatives to chemical treatment. During this process, the wood is heated to higher temperatures than those of conventional drying. The wood structure changes due to decomposition of hemicelluloses, ramification of lignin, and crystallization of cellulose. The wood becomes less hygroscopic. These changes improve the dimensional stability of wood, increase its resistance to micro-organisms, darken its color, and modify its hardness. However, wood also might loose some of its elasticity. Consequently, the heat treatment conditions have to be optimized. Therefore, it is important to understand the transformation of the chemical structure of wood caused by the treatment. In this study, the modification of the surface composition of the wood was followed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and inverse gas chromatography (IGC under different experimental conditions. The effect of maximum treatment temperatures on the chemical composition of Canadian birch and aspen as well as the correlations between their chemical transformation and different mechanical properties are presented. FTIR analysis results showed that the heat treatment affected the chemical composition of birch more compared to that of aspen. The results of IGC tests illustrated that the surfaces of the aspen and birch became more basic with heat treatment. The mechanical properties were affected by degradation of hemicellulose, ramification of lignin and cellulose crystallization.

  1. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haapanala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, area subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of a branch from four individual trees were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission in 2006 was almost 2000 ng gdw−1 h−1 while in 2007 the emission of α-farnesene was negligible. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last several years.

  2. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up the majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, a region subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of four branches, each from a different individual tree, were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of the sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission potential in 2006 was almost 2600 ng gdw−1 h−1 (3.5 pmol gdw−1 s−1 while in 2007 α-farnesene was not detected at all. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last for several years.

  3. Characterization of Changes in Global Genes Expression in the Distal Colon of Loperamide-Induced Constipation SD Rats in Response to the Laxative Effects of Liriope platyphylla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim

    Full Text Available To characterize the changes in global gene expression in the distal colon of constipated SD rats in response to the laxative effects of aqueous extracts of Liriope platyphylla (AEtLP, including isoflavone, saponin, oligosaccharide, succinic acid and hydroxyproline, the total RNA extracted from the distal colon of AEtLP-treated constipation rats was hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays. The AEtLP treated rats showed an increase in the number of stools, mucosa thickness, flat luminal surface thickness, mucin secretion, and crypt number. Overall, compared to the controls, 581 genes were up-regulated and 216 genes were down-regulated by the constipation induced by loperamide in the constipated rats. After the AEtLP treatment, 67 genes were up-regulated and 421 genes were down-regulated. Among the transcripts up-regulated by constipation, 89 were significantly down-regulated and 22 were recovered to the normal levels by the AEtLP treatment. The major genes in the down-regulated categories included Slc9a5, klk10, Fgf15, and Alpi, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Cyp2b2, Ace, G6pc, and Setbp1. On the other hand, after the AEtLP treatment, ten of these genes down-regulated by constipation were up-regulated significantly and five were recovered to the normal levels. The major genes in the up-regulated categories included Serpina3n, Lcn2 and Slc5a8, whereas the major genes in the recovered categories were Tmem45a, Rerg and Rgc32. These results indicate that several gene functional groups and individual genes as constipation biomarkers respond to an AEtLP treatment in constipated model rats.

  4. The pattern of intrapopulational and interpopulational changes of Betula pendula in Iran, based on leaf morphological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Esmaeilpour Poodeh; Kambiz Taheri Abkenar; Ali Aalami; Amireslam Bonyad

    2014-01-01

    Despite superior medicinal properties of Birch, there aren’t any studies reported on its morphological diversity. For the first time, leaf samples were collected from four different sites, each site 10 trees and each tree 30 fertile and sterile shoots and leaves (totally 2400). In analyzing the mean values, the Siahmarz kuh showd the maximum and the Marmishoo minimum size mean. Angle of leaf base and number of veins had minimum and fluctuating asymmetry and distance border had a maximum coeff...

  5. CHANGES OF CUTICLE SURFACE LIPIDS OF POPULUS ITALICA AND BETULA PENDULA CAUSED BY POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrovskaya O. M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arboreal plants intensively accumulate heavy metals, resulting in a corresponding revocation level of physiological processes. The lipid components operate an important role in the formation of plant resistance. Therefore, it was very important to determine the characteristics of lipid peroxidation flow in leaves of arboreal plants, and changes in the composition of cuticle surface lipids at different levels of heavy metal accumulation. Research objects were Populus italica (Du Roi Moench and Betula pendula Roth. of second age group, growing on the industrial site РJSC ‘Kryvyi Rig Factory of minium’ (with strong contamination and in the arboretum of Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden, National Academy of Science of Ukraine (conventional control. Leaves were taken from the middle of the crown southwest exposure in phase of leaf full separation and 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth. It was shown that P. italica maximally accumulated zinc, content of which was increased in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase of leaf growth finishing point relative to the control to 12,6 and 23 times respectively. The accumulation level of heavy metals was typically less significant for assimilation organs of B. pendula compared to P. italica. Thus, the content of zinc and lead in the leaves during the study increased only in 2 times towards control. The leaves of B. pendula, unlike P. italica, more intensively accumulated cadmium in the phase of leaf full separation and on 5-10 day of phase finishing point of their growth (it was 6 and 15 times higher relative to control respectively. It was obviously connected to the fact that the surface texture of poplar leaves may cause intense sticking of dust particles containing heavy metals and penetration into the leaves. The effect of heavy metals in both phases of leaf morphogenesis caused an increase in lipid peroxidation by 40-52% for P. italica and almost by 3 times for B. pendula

  6. Effects of intensive harvesting on forest floor properties in Betula papyrifera stands in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates litter and organic matter production and related site ecology in nine medium to high quality Betula papyrifera stands in three locations in central Newfoundland on a variety of land form and drainage conditions. Three sites, Badger West (BW), Moose Pond (MP) and Middleton Lake (ML) were selected. The ML site has the highest quality (with the best height/age ratio, 18 m/60 yr, and height/DBH ratio, 18 m/30 cm), followed by MP and BW. Litter depth on well developed moders or mulls was usually 2 - 3 cm and varied from 1 - 15 cm. Forest floor depths (measured in 324 profiles) rarely reached 20 cm and was commonly 5 - 10 cm; it varied with position and site. Total and available nutrients indicate that B. papyrifera produces one of the highest-quality organic matter types of the local forest types and is important in improving site quality. The mean N-concentration in green foliage (2.21 %) and trapped litter (1.03 %) was highest at the best quality site ML, followed by MP and BW. The concentration of calcium, 0.85 %, was highest at the poorest quality site. Four years after harvesting, litter depth significantly decreased in all sites and treatments with the exception of the BW whole-tree harvest treatment. Total forest floor depth significantly decreased at all sites in the stem-only harvest treatment as well as the MP whole-tree harvest treatment. There was a significant decrease in available nitrogen following harvesting in both treatments at both the MP and BW sites. Change in available phosphorus was insignificant, with the exception of an increase in the MP stem-only harvest treatment. There was a significant decrease in available potassium at both the ML and BW whole-tree harvest treatments, but a significant increase in the stem-only harvest treatments at ML and MP. There was a significant decrease in available calcium in both treatments at both the MP and BW sites 34 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  7. [Spatial patterns of dominant tree species in sub-alpine Betula-Abies forest in West Sichuan of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ning; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Yu, Hong; Liu, Xing-Liang

    2009-06-01

    Based on the investigation in a 4 hm2 Betula-Abies forest plot in sub-alpine area in West Sichuan of China, and by using point pattern analysis method in terms of O-ring statistics, the spatial patterns of dominant species Betula albo-sinensis and Abies faxoniana in different age classes in study area were analyzed, and the intra- and inter-species associations between these age classes were studied. B. albo-sinensis had a unimodal distribution of its DBH frequency, indicating a declining population, while A. faxoniana had a reverse J-shaped pattern, showing an increasing population. All the big trees of B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana were spatially in random at all scales, while the medium age and small trees were spatially clumped at small scales and tended to be randomly or evenly distributed with increasing spatial scale. The maximum aggregation degree decreased with increasing age class. Spatial association mainly occurred at small scales. A. faxoniana generally showed positive intra-specific association, while B. albo-sinensis generally showed negative intra-specific association. For the two populations, big and small trees had no significant spatial association, but middle age trees had negative spatial association. Negative inter-specific associations of the two populations were commonly found in different age classes. The larger the difference of age class, the stronger the negative inter-specific association. PMID:19795631

  8. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Jacobi, H H;

    2002-01-01

    There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America.......There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....

  9. Leaf and twig litter decomposition of main species in different forests along the north slope of Changbai Mountain,northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhongling; LI Qingkang; ZHENG Jinping; LIU Wande; FAN Chunnan; MA Yuandan; YU Guirui; HAN Shijie

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2003,the litter decomposition dynamics of dominant tree species were conducted using a litterbag burying method in the broadleaf-Korean pine forest,spruce-fir forest and Ermans birch forest,which represents three altitudinal belts in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The spatial and temporal dynamics of litter decomposition and the effects of litter properties were examined.Furthermore,the decomposition trend of different species was simulated by the Olson model,and results showed that annual mass loss rates increased over time,but was not significantly correlated.Leaf decomposition rates increased after decomposing for 638 days (1.75 years),and the order of dry weight remaining rates of leaf litter for different species is:Asian white birch (Betula platyphylla) (24.56%)<Amur linden (Tilia amurensis) (24.81%) < Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)(38.48%)<spruce (Picea jezoensis var. microsperma)(41.15%)< Ermans birch (Betula ermanii) (41.53%)<fir (Abies nephrolepis) (42.62%).The dry weight remaining rates of twig litter was smaller than that of leaf litter,and followed the order of Amur linden (44.98%)<fir (64.62%)<Korean pine (72.07%)<spruce (73.51%)<Asian white birch (77.37%)<Ermans birch (80.35%).The simulation results by the Olson model showed that,in leaf,the 95%-decomposition rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.0 years,and annual decomposition rate (k) followed the order of Amur linden (0.686)>Asian white birch (0.624)>Korean pine (0.441)>spruce (0.406)>fir (0.397)>Ermans birch (0.385);in twig,it ranged from 7.8 to 29.3 years,and k follows the order:Amur linden (0.391)>fir (0.204)>Korean pine (0.176)>spruce (0.157)>Asian white birch (0.148)>Ermans birch (0.102).In general,the differences of decomposition rate are evident between leaf and twig litter and among species,and were higher in broad-leaved species compared with coniferous species at the same elevation,and decreased with the ascending of elevation.

  10. Isolation and identification of plant phenolic compounds in birch leaves: Air pollution stress and leaf phenolics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponen, Jyrki Mikael

    Chromatographic (analytical and preparative HPLC), chemical (hydrolysis) and spectroscopic (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques proved to be suitable tools for the structure identification of plant phenolic compounds. More than 30 individual phenolic compounds were detected and quantified. Detailed information of the structures of individual compounds was determined after isolation from birch leaves. Ten flavonoid glycosides were identified. Two of them, myricetin-3-O-α-L-(acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-α-L-(4/prime'-O-acetyl)- rhamnopyranoside, have been rarely found in birch leaves. Further, some characterized major phenolics with non- flavonoid structures in our study were 1-O-galloyl- β-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose, gallic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, cis- and trans-forms of 3- and 5-p-coumaroylquinic acids. The presence of gallotannin group was evidenced by strong positive correlations between concentrations of these gallotannins (preliminary identified by HPLC and UV spectra) and the protein precipitation capacity of extracts. Content of gallotannins decreased with leaf growth and maturation. It is known that concentrations of phenolic compounds regularly increase in slowly growing stressed plants and therefore, it is natural that they are also sensitive to different forms of air pollution. Total content and the contents of some individual phenolics correlated negatively with the distance from the pollution source in our study area. In addition to comparing absolute concentrations of compounds in question, the within-tree correlations or within-tree variations of the relevant compounds between polluted and control areas were an alternative approach. Differences in pairwise correlations between the investigated leaf phenolic compounds indicated the competition between some gallotannins and p-coumaroylquinic acids on the polluted but not on the control site. Air pollution seems to be a stress factor for birch trees associated with

  11. Adaptive Responses of Birch-Leaved Pear (Pyrus betulaefolia Seedlings to Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sheng WU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One-year-old birch-leaved pear (Pyrus betulaefolia Bunge seedlings were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mmol/L NaCl solutions for 27 days in order to study the effects of salinity stress on photosynthesis, ion accumulation and enzymatic and non-enzymatic scavenging of reactive oxygen species in the seedlings. The research was performed in a greenhouse using potted trees. Salinity stress reduced photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency of leaves of the pear seedlings, but increased transpiration rates and leaf temperature. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical contents increased with increasing NaCl concentrations, a phenomena also observed for malondialdehyde, suggesting that leaves of the pear seedlings suffered from oxidative injury. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities quickly responded by increasing when the pear seedlings were subjected to salinity stress. Total protein content in leaves of the seedlings was restrained by salinity stress, whereas ascorbate content increased. Salinity stress reduced glutathione content once the birch-leaved pear seedlings were exposed to a low level (50 or 100 mmol/L of NaCl, whereas a high level (150 or 200 mmol/L NaCl of salinity stress stimulated the accumulation of glutathione. Salinity stress increased the accumulation of Na+, Cl-, K+ and Mg2+ in the seedlings, but reduced Ca2+ levels and the ratio of other ions to Na+ except K+/Na+ under 50 mmol/L NaCl conditions. This suggests that leaves of birch-leaved pear seedlings possess the capacity for salt exclusion only under 50 mmol/L NaCl conditions, and Ca2+ does not play a fundamental role as a secondary messenger under salinity stress conditions.

  12. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.;

    2012-01-01

    Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan was comb...... independent of the xylan:NFC ratio. Water vapor permeability values of 1.9–2.8·10−11 g Pa−1 m−1 s−1 were found for unplasticized composite films, but these values were significantly reduced in the case of films plasticized with 10–40 wt% sorbitol....

  13. Soil Properties Control Glyphosate Sorption in Soils Amended with Birch Wood Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Møldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos;

    2016-01-01

    agrochemicals such as pesticides. In a fieldbased study at two experimental sites in Denmark (sandy loam soils at Risoe and Kalundborg), we investigated the influence of birch wood biochar with respect to application rate, aging (7–19 months), and physico- chemical soil properties on the sorption coefficient...... with pH and EC. In conclusion, the results show that biochar, despite initially being a poor sorbent for glyphosate, can increase glyphosate sorption in soil. However, the effect of biochar on glyphosate sorption is depends on prevailing soil physicochemical properties....

  14. An investigation of the possible immunological relationship between allergen extracts from birch pollen, hazelnut, potato and apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Løwenstein, H

    1978-01-01

    identity between birch pollen and hazelnut. By the same method no partial immunological identity between birch pollen and extracts and fresh peel from apples and potatoes was found. However, both apples and potatoes gave rise to non-immunological affinity precipitates. On this basis it is discussed......In a retrospective study on selected group of patients, the coincidence of birch pollen allergy and a clinically relevant positive prick test reaction to apples and potatoes was confirmed. Immunochemical comparison using the crossed line immunoelectrophoresis technique (CLIE) confirmed partial......, whether the active agents from apples and potatoes were extremely labile allergens, plant lectins, or low molecular weight substances with a direct or indirect histamine release effect....

  15. Solar UV-B effects on PSII performance in Betula nana are influenced by PAR level and reduced by EDU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge;

    2012-01-01

    The long-term and diurnal responses of photosystem II (PSII) performance to near-ambient UV-B radiation were investigated in High Arctic Betula nana. We conducted an UV exclusion experiment with five replicated blocks consisting of open control (no filter), photosynthetic active radiation and UV...... effects of UV-B. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction curves were used for analysis of OJIP test parameters. Near-ambient UV-B radiation reduced across season maximum quantum yield (TRo /ABS = Fv /Fm ), approximated number of active PSII reaction center (RC/ABS) and the performance index (PIABS ), despite...... in reduced UV-B compared to near-ambient UV-B. This demonstrates current solar UV-B to reduce the PSII performance both on a daily as well as a seasonal basis in this High Arctic species....

  16. Sezonske varijacije koncentracije specifi čnog IgE-a prema alergenu Betula verrucosa, Bet v

    OpenAIRE

    Dodig, Slavica; Petković, Giorgie; Kristić Kirin, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Cilj je ispitati sezonske razlike u koncentraciji ukupnog IgE-a (uIgE-a), specifi čnog IgE-a (sIgE) prema alergenu breze, Betula verrucosa - Bet v, te indeks sIgE-a (I-sIgE) u djece preosjetljive na alergen breze, Bet v. Ispitana su djeca s astmom i/ili rinitisom (N=19), preosjetljiva na alergen Bet v. Standardiziranom fl uoroimunikemijskom metodom UniCAP određena je koncentracija uIgE-a, sIgE-a prema Bet v, te izračunat I-sIgE. Odabrani biomarkeri određivani su u sezoni peludacije b...

  17. CO2 and winter temperature effects on Norway spruce and downy birch : a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of increased winter temperatures and higher carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the growth of downy birch and Norway spruce, both important tree species in the northern forests of Fennoscandia. In the winter of 1992, three-year old seedlings from 3 different latitudinal populations were kept in greenhouses at winter ambient temperatures, and at winter temperatures raised by 4 degrees C. In the spring, the plants were moved to open chambers pre-set at 350 and 650 μmol/mol CO2. The following year, the experiment was repeated with one-year old seedlings. It was shown that at elevated CO2 levels, the shoot elongation rates and biomass was increased. There was a positive influence of winter temperature on shoot and biomass growth in the southern birch population from Norway but a negative effect on plants from Icelandic populations. High winters for spruce ecotypes appeared to reduce shoot growth for the following season. The reduced growth and premature loss was due to a temporary negative carbon balance in needles during unusually warm winters. 34 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale. PMID:25687127

  19. The pattern of intrapopulational and interpopulational changes of Betula pendula in Iran, based on leaf morphological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeilpour Poodeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite superior medicinal properties of Birch, there aren’t any studies reported on its morphological diversity. For the first time, leaf samples were collected from four different sites, each site 10 trees and each tree 30 fertile and sterile shoots and leaves (totally 2400. In analyzing the mean values, the Siahmarz kuh showd the maximum and the Marmishoo minimum size mean. Angle of leaf base and number of veins had minimum and fluctuating asymmetry and distance border had a maximum coefficient of variation, minimum and maximum morphological diversity respectively. Average size of sterile leaf traits was larger than average size of fertile leaf traits. It seemed that Siahmarz Kuh is had the most interapopulation diversity and could apply a transition source to sink. The slightest change in the veins of the population in birch was more strongly controlled by genes. Multivariate analyses of variance indicated high statistical significance of all factors: leaf type, population, type population, tree nested population and type × tree nested population. The cluster analysis identified three clusters, the first cluster contained only Marmishoo trees. Because the majority of the population, geographic distribution of genotypes was not consistent with the grouping that could be due to the influence of environmental factors on morphological traits, so it is recommended to use molecular markers. Canonical discriminant analysis showed that petiole length ratio and fluctuating asymmetry could be used in future research on morphological diversity among populations of B. pendula.

  20. Neonatal colonization by Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum RB 25P strain suppresses sensitization in mice model of birch pollen allergy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doušková, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozáková, Hana

    Kysucke Nove Mesto: Pamida International, 2010. s. 111-111. ISBN 978-80-970168-4-5 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200710; GA MŠk 2B06053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : birch pollen allergy Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  1. Hydrogenated graphenes by birch reduction: influence of electron and proton sources on hydrogenation efficiency, magnetism, and electrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, A.Y.S.; Sofer, Z.; Huber, Š.; Bouša, D.; Maryško, Miroslav; Pumera, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2015), 16828-16838. ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogen ated graphenes * birch reduction * magnetism * electrochemistry * hydrogen ation efficiency Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.731, year: 2014

  2. Effect of microbial colonization on the development of allergic sensitization and mucosal tolerance to birch pollen allergen in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana; Repa, A.; Štěpánková, Renata; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Hufnagel, K.; Wild, C.; Winkler, B.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Wiedermann, U.

    Vienna: Basic Science in Allergology, 2006, s. 28-28. [Congress of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology /25./. Vienna (AT), 10.06.2006-14.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/05/2249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : intestinal microflora * birch pollen allergy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. Comparison of various sampling methods for evaluation of biodiversity of true bugs (Heteroptera) in a birch forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kula, E.; Bryja, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2002), s. 137-147. ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/98/0537; GA MŽP SE/830/3/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Heteroptera * birch forest * biodiversity Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry Impact factor: 0.246, year: 2002

  4. From a traditional medicinal plant to a rational drug: understanding the clinically proven wound healing efficacy of birch bark extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ebeling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birch bark has a long lasting history as a traditional medicinal remedy to accelerate wound healing. Recently, the efficacy of birch bark preparations has also been proven clinically. As active principle pentacyclic triterpenes are generally accepted. Here, we report a comprehensive study on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the wound healing properties of a well-defined birch bark preparation named as TE (triterpene extract as well as the isolated single triterpenes in human primary keratinocytes and porcine ex-vivo wound healing models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show positive wound healing effects of TE and betulin in scratch assay experiments with primary human keratinocytes and in a porcine ex-vivo wound healing model (WHM. Mechanistical studies elucidate that TE and betulin transiently upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cyclooxygenase-2 on gene and protein level. For COX-2 and IL-6 this increase of mRNA is due to an mRNA stabilizing effect of TE and betulin, a process in which p38 MAPK and HuR are involved. TE promotes keratinocyte migration, putatively by increasing the formation of actin filopodia, lamellipodia and stress fibers. Detailed analyses show that the TE components betulin, lupeol and erythrodiol exert this effect even in nanomolar concentrations. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton is dependent on the activation of Rho GTPases. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide insights to understand the molecular mechanism of the clinically proven wound healing effect of birch bark. TE and betulin address the inflammatory phase of wound healing by transient up-regulation of several pro-inflammatory mediators. Further, they enhance migration of keratinocytes, which is essential in the second phase of wound healing. Our results, together with the clinically proven efficacy, identify birch bark as the first medical plant with a high potential to improve wound healing, a field which urgently

  5. Birch inner bark procyanidins can be resolved with enhanced sensitivity by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karonen, Maarit; Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2011-11-01

    A complex mixture of procyanidin aglycones was isolated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography from the silver birch inner bark, which is a polyphenol-rich source of natural antioxidants. Procyanidins were studied by using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography combined with high-resolution ESI-TOF-MS. A good chromatographic separation was achieved and procyanidins eluted according to their increasing degree of polymerization. Individual procyanidins were detected from dimers up to the degree of polymerization of 22 by their negative-ion mass spectra. The results showed that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography can be successfully applied for the analysis of high-molecular-weight procyanidins with enhanced sensitivity in electrospray mass spectrometry. PMID:21998029

  6. Influence of different particle sizes in the bark chemical composition of Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Betula pendula Roth, Picea abies (L.) Karst, Pinus sylvestris L. e Pinus pinea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirra, Inês Martins Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Florestal e dos Recursos Naturais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia The goal of this report is to characterize the bark of five industrially important forest species in Europe - Eucalyptus globulus, Betula pendula, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris e Pinus pinea and to define their potential use as a source of value added chemical products. It was performed the anatomical characterization of bark tissues (dissociated elements), the selective fractionation (si...

  7. What was behind the bark? : An assessment of decay among urban Tilia, Betula and Acer trees felled as hazardous in the Helsinki City area

    OpenAIRE

    Terho, Minna

    2009-01-01

    Old trees growing in urban environments are often felled due to symptoms of mechanical defects that could be hazardous to people and property. The decisions concerning these removals are justified by risk assessments carried out by tree care professionals. The major motivation for this study was to determine the most common profiles of potential hazard characteristics for the three most common urban tree genera in Helsinki City: Tilia, Betula and Acer, and in this way improve management pract...

  8. Ectomycorrhizal Community Structure of Salix and Betula spp. at a Saline Site in Central Poland in Relation to the Seasons and Soil Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Sonia; Piernik, Agnieszka; Thiem, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Saline stress is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting the growth and development of plants and associated microorganisms. While the impact of salinity on associations of arbuscular fungi is relatively well understood, knowledge of the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of trees growing on saline land is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the density and diversity of EM fungi associated with three tree species, Salix alba, Salix caprea and Betula pendula, growing ...

  9. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and nutrition on photosynthetic functions of white birch seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment; Dang, Q.L. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forest and the Forest Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany, Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology

    2006-11-15

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can impact photosynthesis and dry mass production of plants. This study investigated the physiological responses of white birch seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at low and high supplies of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A 2-way factorial experiment was carried out with birch seedlings grown for 4 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced maximal carboxylation rate and photosynthetically active radiation-saturated electron transport rates were measured after 2.5 and 3.5 months of treatment, as well as actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation. Net photosynthetic rate increases were observed as well as increases in photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); photosynthetic N efficiency and P efficiency. Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and the fraction of total photosynthetic linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation were reduced. Low nutrient availability decreased net photosynthetic rates, WUE, and triose phosphate utilization. However, photosynthetic linear electron transport and N use efficiency increased. There were significant interactive effects of CO{sub 2} and nutrition over time, with evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation in response to elevated CO{sub 2} in seedlings receiving high nutrition. Photosynthetic depression in response to low nutrient availability was attributed to biochemical limitation rather than stomatal limitation. Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced leaf N concentration in seedlings receiving low nutrition, but had no significant effect on leaf P or K concentrations. High nutrient availability generally increased area-based leaf N, P and K concentrations but had negligible effects on K after 2.5 months of treatment. Results suggested that increases in electron partitioning to photorespiration in response to low nutrient availability may be related to

  10. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and nutrition on photosynthetic functions of white birch seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can impact photosynthesis and dry mass production of plants. This study investigated the physiological responses of white birch seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) at low and high supplies of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A 2-way factorial experiment was carried out with birch seedlings grown for 4 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated CO2 enhanced maximal carboxylation rate and photosynthetically active radiation-saturated electron transport rates were measured after 2.5 and 3.5 months of treatment, as well as actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation. Net photosynthetic rate increases were observed as well as increases in photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); photosynthetic N efficiency and P efficiency. Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and the fraction of total photosynthetic linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation were reduced. Low nutrient availability decreased net photosynthetic rates, WUE, and triose phosphate utilization. However, photosynthetic linear electron transport and N use efficiency increased. There were significant interactive effects of CO2 and nutrition over time, with evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation in response to elevated CO2 in seedlings receiving high nutrition. Photosynthetic depression in response to low nutrient availability was attributed to biochemical limitation rather than stomatal limitation. Elevated CO2 reduced leaf N concentration in seedlings receiving low nutrition, but had no significant effect on leaf P or K concentrations. High nutrient availability generally increased area-based leaf N, P and K concentrations but had negligible effects on K after 2.5 months of treatment. Results suggested that increases in electron partitioning to photorespiration in response to low nutrient availability may be related to photoprotective mechanisms. Low carboxylation

  11. Genetic diversity of Betula luminifera populations at different elevations in Wuyi Mountain and its association with ecological factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqing XIE; Zhizhen LI; Ruzhu HUANG; Xiangxi XIAO; Yong HUANG

    2009-01-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of 91 genets from four wild populations of Betula luminifera at different eleva-tions in the National Nature Reserve of the Wuyi Mountain,Fujian Province, China. Eighteen random primers (from 139 primers) produced a total of 199 scorable amplified fragments, of which 174 (87.44%) were polymorphic across all individuals. The genetic diversities of B.luminifera at the population level and species level were PPL = 60.05%, h = 0.2242, I= 0.3181 and PPL = 87.44%,h = 0.3442, I= 0.4899, respectively. The value of differ-entiation (Gst= 0.3486) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that there was a relatively high genetic differentiation among populations, and about one-third of the genetic variation occurred among populations. Pearson correlation analysis further revealed that the genetic diversity within populations had significant or very significant correlation with the elevation, climatic factors (annual average temperature and annual precipitation) and soil nutrient factors (total nitrogen, C/N ratio and organic matter). Mantel tests show that there was a significant correlation between the genetic distances among popula-tions and the distance of elevation, and the divergence of soil nutrient factors. The results of the present study suggested that the relatively high genetic differentiation among populations ofB. luminifera at different elevations might be caused by ecological factors and gene flow.

  12. Effects of reindeer on the re-establishment of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia in a subarctic meadow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael den Herder

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reindeer browsing on the regeneration of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia was studied in a subarctic meadow in Finnish Lapland. The aim of the study was to see whether tree recovery from seeds is possible under heavy reindeer-browsing pressure. After removal of the ground and field layer vegetation in 1986, two exclosures were established so that the effect of reindeer on the secondary succession, starting from seeds, could be studied. The size and the number of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia were recorded in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 1999. Reindeer significantly reduced the height and the number of saplings (plants > 10 cm high of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia but the number of seedlings (plants < 10 cm high did not differ between browsed and unbrowsed plots. Furthermore the heightclass distribution of saplings was different inside the exlosures compared to control areas. Over time browsed plots continued to have high densities of small saplings while in protected plots an increasing number of larger saplings appeared. In our study site, regeneration from seeds seemed possible although the height of B. pubescens and S. phylicifolia was limited by reindeer. 

  13. Cyclically outbreaking geometrid moths in sub-arctic mountain birch forest: the organization and impacts of their interactions with animal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo

    2015-01-01

    In sub-arctic mountain birch forest in northern Fennoscandia, the 2 geometrid moth species Epirrita autumnata (autumnal moth) and Operophtera brumata (winter moth) show high-amplitude population cycles with regular 10-year periodicity. During some population peaks, moth populations attain outbreak densities and cause region-wide defoliation and mortality of mountain birch. The severity and duration of moth outbreaks presently appears to be increasing, owing to climate-driven range-expansions ...

  14. Intestinal allergic inflammation in birch pollen allergic patients in relation to pollen season, IgE sensitization profile and gastrointestinal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rentzos, Georgios; Lundberg, Vanja; Stotzer, Per-Ove; Pullerits, Teet; Telemo, Esbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Background Birch pollen allergic patients frequently experience gastrointestinal upset accompanied by a local allergic inflammation in the small intestine especially during the pollen season. However, it is not known if the GI pathology is connected to the subjective symptoms of the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune pathology of the duodenal mucosa and the serum IgE antibody profiles in birch pollen allergic patients in relation to their gastrointestinal symptoms...

  15. Short term effects of clear cutting on the regeneration of sub-arctic birch forest following severe outbreaks by geometrid moths

    OpenAIRE

    Klinghardt, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Birch forests in northern Fennoscandia experience re-occurring mass outbreaks of pest insects often resulting in severe defoliation. Here I test whether systematic clear cutting can accelerate the forest regeneration after outbreaks with uncut control plots as comparison. Basal shoot abundance was used as a main indicator for recovery but comprehensive data sampling also included the abundance of birch saplings, herbivore presence and understorey vegetation. Treatment responses of basal shoot...

  16. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Smole

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals.

  17. New datasets for quantifying snow-vegetation-atmosphere interactions in boreal birch and conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, T. D.; Essery, R.; Rutter, N.; Huntley, B.; Baxter, R.; Holden, R.; King, M.; Hancock, S.; Carle, J.

    2012-12-01

    Boreal forests exert a strong influence on weather and climate by modifying the surface energy and radiation balance. However, global climate and numerical weather prediction models use forest parameter values from simple look-up tables or maps that are derived from limited satellite data, on large grid scales. In reality, Arctic landscapes are inherently heterogeneous, with highly variable land cover types and structures on a variety of spatial scales. There is value in collecting detailed field data for different areas of vegetation cover, to assess the accuracy of large-scale assumptions. To address these issues, a consortium of researchers funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council have collected extensive data on radiation, meteorology, snow cover and canopy structure at two contrasting Arctic forest sites. The chosen study sites were an area of boreal birch forest near Abisko, Sweden in March/April 2011 and mixed conifer forest at Sodankylä, Finland in March/April 2012. At both sites, arrays comprising ten shortwave pyranometers and four longwave pyrgeometers were deployed for periods of up to 50 days, under forest plots of varying canopy structures and densities. In addition, downwelling longwave irradiance and global and diffuse shortwave irradiances were recorded at nearby open sites representing the top-of-canopy conditions. Meteorological data were recorded at all sub-canopy and open sites using automatic weather stations. Over the same periods, tree skin temperatures were measured on selected trees using contact thermocouples, infrared thermocouples and thermal imagery. Canopy structure was accurately quantified through manual surveys, extensive hemispherical photography and terrestrial laser scans of every study plot. Sub-canopy snow depth and snow water equivalent were measured on fine-scale grids at each study plot. Regular site maintenance ensured a high quality dataset covering the important Arctic spring period. The data have several

  18. THE WATER CONSERVATION OF THE MAJOR FOREST TYPES OF DAQING MOUNTAIN IN INNER MONGOLIA%内蒙古大青山主要林分类型水源涵养能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬至; 张秋良; 陈高娃; 青梅

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the canopy interception, water holding capacity of litter and soil moisture level was observed in natural pine forest and the different ages of secondary birch, and the observation data were analyzed by SAS data processing software. The regression equation of natural rainfall and canopy interception was established. The result shows that soil water holding capacity is increasing from the Pinus tabulaeformis plantation andyoung-aged forest、middle -aged forest、matured forest of Betula platyphylla natural secondary forest, but there is a downward trend as soil depth increased. Soil water holding capacity of Betula platyphylla natural secondary forest is higher than that of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation.%本文对研究区的油松人工林和天然白桦次生林不同林龄的林冠截留量、枯落物持水量及土壤层的持水量进行了观测,并通过SAS数据处理软件对观测数据进行了分析.建立了自然降雨与林冠截留的回归方程,不同分解程度枯落物持水比率及持水速率的表达式,并对不同林分类型土壤持水量进行多重比较分析,结果显示油松人工林和天然白桦次生林的幼龄林、中龄林、成熟林土壤持水量依次增大并随着土层深度的增大持水能力呈下降趋势,天然白桦次生林的土壤持水量高于人工油松林.

  19. Detection and analysis of unusual features in the structural model and structure-factor data of a birch pollen allergen

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Physically improbable features in the model of the birch pollen structure Bet v 1d (PDB entry 3k78) are faithfully reproduced in electron density generated with the deposited structure factors, but these structure factors themselves exhibit properties that are characteristic of data calculated from a simple model and are inconsistent with the data and error model obtained through experimental measurements. The refinement of the 3k78 model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphou...

  20. Evaluation and Analysis of Environmentally Sustainable Methodologies for Extraction of Betulin from Birch Bark with Focus on Industrial Feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Fridén, Mikael E; Jumaah, Firas; Gustavsson, Christer; Enmark, Martin; Fornstedt, Torgny; Turner, Charlotta; Sjöberg, Per J R; Samuelsson, Jörgen

    2016-01-01

    Betulin from birch bark was extracted using two principally different extraction methodologies - classical Reflux Boiling (RB) and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The extraction methods were analyzed based on both recovery and purity as well as for RB industrial feasibility. The purity and recovery for the different extraction methods were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with three different detection principles: Diode Array Detection (DAD), Mass Spec...

  1. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Heneberg; Kamila Riegerová; Petr Kučera

    2015-01-01

    Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch polle...

  2. Large-scale climate variability and its effects on mean temperature and flowering time of Prunus and Betula in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, A. K.; Hense, A.; Toldam-Andersen, T. B.; Braun, P.

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale climate variability largely affects average climatic conditions and therefore is likely to influence the phenology of plants. In NW-Europe, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) particularly influences winter climate and, through climate interactions on plants, flowering time of all tree species. In Denmark, like in many other NW-European countries, flowering of most tree species has become earlier since the end of the 1980’s. To quantify a possible relation between NAO and flowering time of tree species, two sources of phenological information from the Copenhagen area (Denmark) were analysed, i.e. pollen counts of the genus Betula and observed first bloom dates of Prunus avium. The Winter NAO explained 29 and 37% of the variation of monthly mean temperature for February and March, respectively. The influence of temperature on flowering time was up to 56% to 60% for the February April mean. A direct correlation of Winter NAO-index and flowering time also revealed a clear relation but the time of influence was earlier (December to February). This was shown to be the likely result of a combination of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO on air and sea surface temperature. The NAO signal is apparently stored in the North Sea and then influences temperature east up to the Baltic States. It is shown that Denmark is right in the centre of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO. This offers the possibility of using the NAO-index for predicting flowering time of Prunus avium. The beginning of pollen flow appears to be influenced too much by short-term perturbations of the climate system decreasing the value of the NAO-index for prediction. However, it indicates a close relationship between natural climate variability, measured by the NAO index, and flowering time of tree species for Denmark.

  3. Methane consumption and soil respiration by a birch forest soil in West Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes were measured in a birch forest soil in West Siberia, in August 1999, June 2000 and September 2000. The study site had a very thick organic horizon that was subject to drought during the observation periods. The soils always took up CH4, while CO2 was released from the surface to the atmosphere. CH4 consumption and CO2 emission rates ranged from 0.092 to 0.28 mg C/m2/h and from 110 to 400 mg C/m2/h respectively. The CH4 consumption rate and soil temperatures showed significant relationships for individual measurements. The soil respiration rate was weakly correlated with individual soil temperatures. This study examined the effect of current and lagged soil temperatures at a depth of 5 cm on CH4 consumption and soil respiration. The variation in the correlation coefficient between CH4 consumption and lagged soil temperature was greatest at a 4-h lag, whereas that for soil respiration showed a gentle peak at lags from several hours to half a day. This difference in the temperature-related lag effect between CH4 consumption and soil respiration results from differences in the exchange processes. Neither flux showed any correlation with soil moisture. The limited variation in soil moisture during our observation period may account for the lack of correlation. However, the droughty soil conditions resulted in high gas diffusion and, consequently, high CH4 consumption

  4. Detection of Malware and Malicious Executables Using E-Birch Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ashit Kumar Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malware detection is one of the challenges to the modern computing world. Web mining is the subset of data mining used to provide solutions for complex problems. Web intelligence is the new hope for the field of computer science to bring solution for the malware detection. Web mining is the method of web intelligence to make web as an intelligent tool to combat malware and phishing websites. Generally, malware injected through websites into the user system and modifies the executable file and paralyze the whole activity of the system. Antivirus application utilizes the data mining technique to find the malware in the web. There is a need of heuristic approach to solve the malware problem. Dynamic analysis methods yield better result than the static methods. Data mining is the best option for the dynamic analysis of malware or malicious program. The purpose of the research is to apply the enhanced Birch algorithm to find the malware and modified executables of Windows and Android operating system.

  5. Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Pummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation of bioaerosols (bacteria, pollen, spores, etc. is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate, is not yet fully understood. Here we show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behaviour. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. Far more intriguingly, it has turned out that water, which has been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. The ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so presumably augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. Our experiments lead to the conclusion that pollen ice nuclei, in contrast to bacterial and fungal ice nucleating proteins, are non-proteinaceous compounds.

  6. Physical and mechanical properties of plywood produced with 1.3-dimethylol-4.5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU)-modified veneers of Betula sp. and Fagus sylvatica

    OpenAIRE

    Dieste, Andrés; Krause, Andreas; Bollmus, Susanne; Militz, Holger

    2008-01-01

    The dimensional stability and some mechanical properties were tested in plywood produced with veneers modified with 1.3-dimethylol-4.5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU). The experimental design included Betula sp. and Fagus sylvatica impregnated with 0.8 M, 1.3 M, and 2.3 M DMDHEU. The plywood consisted of five veneers glued with a phenolic resin. Dimensional stability tests were conducted after 10 cycles of soaking/oven-drying to determine volume changes and anti swelling efficiency (ASE). The ...

  7. Aluminum uptake and migration from the soil compartment into Betula pendula for two different environments: a polluted and environmentally protected area of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the impact of soil contamination on aluminum (Al) concentrations in plant parts of Betula pendula and a possible way of migration and transformation of Al in the soil-root-stem-twig-leaf system. A new procedure of Al fractionation based on extraction in water phase was applied to obtain and measure the most available forms of Al in soils and B. pendula samples. In addition, total Al content was determined in biological samples and pseudo total Al content in soil samples co...

  8. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed

  9. Distribution and turnover of 137Cs in birch forest ecosystems: influence of precipitation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was to study radioactive caesium in soil and plants from birch forests subject to different chemical climate. Four areas and three types of precipitation regimes were considered, representing a natural climatic range found in Norway: (A) acidic precipitation (southernmost part of the country); (B) precipitation rich in “sea salts”/marine cations (coastal areas); and (C) + (D) low concentrations of sea salts (inland areas). The results showed significant regional differences in plant uptake between the investigated areas. For instance the aggregated soil-to-plant transfer coefficients (Tag) were generally up to 7–8 times higher for the area receiving acid rain. Differences in caesium speciation partly explained the regional variability - e.g. the exchangeable fraction ranged from 1 to 40% (with the largest fraction of exchangeable caesium found in southernmost Norway). Transfer coefficients estimated on the basis of exchangeable fractions showed no significant differences between the areas of highest (A) and lowest (C) Tags. However, exchangeable fractions taken into consideration, the uptake of 137Cs in plants in the acid rain-influenced area is still about twice that in the sea salt influenced area B. A significantly lower concentration of soluble base cations and a higher share of acid components in soils in area A is a likely explanation for this observation. - Highlights: ► Precipitation quality affects soil chemistry and plant uptake of Cs. ► Soil-to-plant transfer of Cs was highest in a coastal area receiving acid rain. ► Differences in Cs speciation partly explained regional transfer variability.

  10. Tree Productivity and Water Potential Productivity in Returning Farmland to Forest Project in Datong County, Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jing; Liu Chenfeng; Zhao Wanqi; He Kangning

    2004-01-01

    From 2002 to 2003, based on the investigation of sample plots and stem analysis of remained plantation communities in the areas of returning farmland to forest in the 1980s in Datong County, Qinghai Province, this paper studies tree productivity and moisture potential productivity of six types of plantations on the land of returning farmland to forest, such as green poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch (Betula platyphylla) and China spruce (Picea asperata) mixed forest, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) pure forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest and so on. The results show that: in sub-humid region of Loess Plateau, 3 000 trees per hm2 is a proper standard of planting density. Under current condition, the productivity index of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch pure forest, China spruce pure forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest with the density of 2 100-3 333 trees per hm2 can serve as potential productivity standard of actual biomass of arbor established forest. In sub-humid area, Thornthwaite Model is adopted to estimate plant climate potential productivity, which is about 8 462 kg·hm-2·a-1. The actual potential water productive efficiency of Purplecone spruce (Picea purpurea) and Asia white birch pure established forest are 17.22 and 22.14 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively, and that of green poplar and shrub mixed established forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed established forest are 21.14 and 19.09 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively. The potential productivity of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest which have grown into forest with the density of 3 000 trees per hm2 have attained or been close to that of local climax community, which is local maximum tree productivity at present. These types of forestation models are the developing

  11. Perinatal maternal administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 prevents allergic inflammation in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Schabussova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis implies that microbial agents including probiotic bacteria may modulate foetal/neonatal immune programming and hence offer effective strategies for primary allergy prevention; however their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 to mothers during gestation/lactation can protect against airway inflammation in offspring in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, and examined the immune mechanisms involved. METHODS: BALB/c mice were treated daily with L. paracasei in drinking water or drinking water alone in the last week of gestation and during lactation. Their offspring were sensitized with recombinant Bet v 1, followed by aerosol challenge with birch pollen extract. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to L. paracasei prevented the development of airway inflammation in offspring, as demonstrated by attenuation of eosinophil influx in the lungs; reduction of IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage, and in lung and mediastinal lymph node cell cultures; and reduced peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate and mucus hypersecretion. While allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibody levels remained unchanged by the treatment, IL-4 and IL-5 production in spleen cell cultures were significantly reduced upon allergen stimulation in offspring of L. paracasei treated mice. Offspring of L. paracasei supplemented mothers had significantly reduced Bet v 1-specific as well as Concanavalin A-induced responses in spleen and mesenteric lymph node cell cultures, suggesting the modulation of both antigen-specific and mitogen-induced immune responses in offspring. These effects were associated with increased Foxp3 mRNA expression in the lungs and increased TGF-beta in serum. CONCLUSION: Our data show that in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, perinatal administration of L. paracasei NCC 2461 to pregnant/lactating mothers protects against the development of airway

  12. Environ: E00796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00796 Birch Medicinal herb Quercetin [CPD:C00389], Kaempferol [CPD:C05903], Salicy...late, Tannin, Ascorbate [CPD:C00072] Betula pendula [TAX:3505] Betulaceae Birch leaves Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Betulaceae (birch famly) E00796 Birch ...

  13. 430 Comparative Analysis of Patients with Birch Pollinosis and Patients with Associated Plant Food Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Napiórkowska, Katarzyna; bikowska-Gotz, Magdalena Ż

    2012-01-01

    Background Even 70% patients allergic to pollens of plants are developing undesirable symptoms after eating foods of the plant origin. It is most often a result of the cross-allergy between these allergens. The aim of the study was to compare the group of patients with pollinosis with patients with pollinosis and food allergy. Methods Fifty eight patients at the age above 16 were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Patients included in the first group were birch allerg...

  14. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits: A case study of the Late-glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Mourik; R.T. Slotboom; J. van der Plicht; H.J. Streurman; W.J. Hoek; W.J. Kuijper; L.W.S. de Graaff

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  15. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits: A case study of the Late-Glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, J.M.; Slotboom, R.T.; van der Plicht, J.; Streurman, H.J.; Kuijper, W.J.; Hoek, W.Z.; de Graaff, L.W.S.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  16. Geochronology of Betula extensions in pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial lake deposits : A case study of the Late-glacial deposits of the Gasserplatz soil archives (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, Jan M.; Slotboom, Ruud T.; van der Plicht, Johannes; Streurman, Harm Jan; Kuijper, Wim J.; Hoek, Wim Z.; de Graaff, Leo W. S.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen diagrams of Alpine Late-glacial calcareous lake deposits show several extensions of Betula. The geochronology of these extensions cannot be based on radiocarbon dating due to reservoir effects of such lakes on the radiocarbon ages. A robust geochronology can be based on the oxygen isotope str

  17. Soil moisture increment as a controlling variable of the Birch effect . Interactions with the pre-wetting soil moisture and litter addition

    OpenAIRE

    Lado Monserrat, Luis; Lull Noguera, Cristina; Bautista Carrascosa, María Inmaculada; Lidón Cerezuela, Antonio Luis; Herrera Fernandez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The Birch effect is a pulse in soil C and N mineralization caused by the wetting of dry soils, but the role of the soil moisture increment (Delta SWC) is still poorly understood. We quantified the relationship between Delta SWC and the Birch effect, and its interactions with pre-wetting soil moisture (preSWC) and substrate supply. Two soils (clay loam and sandy loam) under a Pinus halepensis forest were subjected to rewetting in laboratory treatments combining different Delta SWC and preSWC v...

  18. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use. PMID:27152419

  19. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF HARDWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ADSORBED BIRCH XYLAN AND ITS EFFECT ON PAPER PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejung Youn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of xylan on pulp fibers improves the strength properties of paper. However, the optical properties are decreased significantly. The objective of our research was to bleach hardwood kraft pulp with adsorbed birch xylan by hydrogen peroxide and study the effect of bleaching parameters on paper properties. The bleaching parameters studied included bleaching temperature, time, initial pH as well as MgSO4 dosage. The optical properties (whiteness, brightness, opacity and physical properties (tensile index, tearing index, bulk of handsheets made from the pulp bleached with different process variables were measured. The results showed that better optical properties were obtained with higher bleaching temperature, longer bleaching time, and more MgSO4 dosage. Bleaching from an initial pH of 11 provided the highest brightness value. On the other hand, strength properties were improved with decreasing of the bleaching temperature, and increasing the initial pH and MgSO4 dosage. The relationship between strength properties and bleaching time varied depending on bleaching temperature. According to the results, both good mechanical properties and optical properties could be achieved when the operating parameters were controlled properly. Therefore hydrogen peroxide bleaching was proved to be a suitable method for bleaching hardwood kraft pulp with adsorption of birch xylan.

  20. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use. PMID:27152419

  1. Root system traits of Norway spruce, Scots pine, and silver birch in mixed boreal forests: an analysis of root architecture, morphology, and anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliokoski, Tuomo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the functional-structural characteristics of root systems of Betula pendula Roth., Picea abies (L.) Karst., and Pinus sylvestris L. in mixed boreal forest stands differing in their developmental stage and site fertility. The root systems of these species had similar structural regularities: horizontally-oriented shallow roots defined the horizontal area of influence, and within this area, each species placed fine roots in the uppermost soil layers, w...

  2. Changes in flowering of birch in the Czech Republic in recent 25 years (1991–2015) in connection with meteorological variables

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, J.; Kožnarová, V.; Možný, M.; Bartošová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 4 (2015), s. 285-302. ISSN 0065-0951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : birch * phenology * aerobiology * Czech Republic * CHMI * effective temperature * synoptic situation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Ozone and climate - Effects of the excess of critical loads on birches and mountain plants; Ozon og klima - effekter av taalegrenseoverskridelser paa bjoerk og fjellplanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper relates to the environmental effects of high concentrated ozone on the biomass production in Norway. The effects on birches and mountain plants from ozone together with the interaction between ozone and carbon dioxide and their influence on vegetation are discussed

  4. Effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on gene expression and phenolic accumulation in Betula pendula leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.O.; Tegelberg, R.; Brosche, M.; Aphalo, P.J. [Helsinki Univ., Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of Plant Biology; Keinanen, M. [Eastern Finland Univ., Joensuu (Finland). Faculty of Biosciences; Lindfors, A. [Edinburgh Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Geosciences, Grant Inst.

    2010-07-15

    Several physiological and ecological processes in plant ecosystems are regulated by solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Although UV radiation is an important environmental factor for plant communities, plant responses to solar UV are not fully understood. Therefore, this study examined the effects of different doses of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on the expression of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis and on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in birch leaves after 30 days of exposure outdoors. Plants were exposed to 6 UV treatments using 3 types of plastic film. Epidermal flavonoids measured in vivo decreased when UV-B was excluded. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the concentrations of 6 flavenoids declined linearly with UV-B exclusion, and transcripts of PAL and HYH measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were expressed at lower levels. The results provide a better understanding of plant responses to solar UV radiation at both molecular and metabolite levels. It was concluded that different doses of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation differentially regulate gene expression and the accumulation of flavonoids in birch leaves. 63 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. Accumulation 90Sr and 137Cs by a birch and willow on territories, subject and not subject flooding by radioactive waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some outcomes of a radioecological investigation of Olkhovka bog in the vicinity of Beloyarsk NPP (Sverdlovsk region, Middle Ural) are indicated, in which the sewer waters of Zarechny town and unbalanced weakly radioactive water of the plant were for a long time dropped. The data on the contents 60 , 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu in soil and grounds of inspected territory are represented. The features of accumulation 90Sr and 137Cs by overground organs of a birch and willow, which grow on the constantly flooded part, on shores, periodically flooded by marsh water, and on watershed plots, where plants are not subjected to influence of a bog (control) are shown. Is established, that concentration of both radionuclides in trees of a birch both the willows on a bog and coastal territory in some times exceed those on control plots. Are shown a likeness and difference in accumulation 90Sr and 137Cs different by overground organs of both wood breeds. The distribution and 137Cs in wood plants, which grow on the flooded part of a bog and on land, essentially differs. The distribution 90Sr in a trunk of a birch has a acropetal character. The factors stipulating accumulation and distribution of both radionuclides at a birch and a willow on these territories are considered. The factors stipulating accumulation and distribution of both radionuclides at a birch and a willow on these territories and probable modifications in ecological conditions on bog in connection with the discontinuance of discharge in it sewer and unbalanced waters are considered. (author)

  6. Degradation kinetics of the main carbohydrates in birch wood during hot water extraction in a batch reactor at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Nieminen, Kaarlo; Sixta, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    Hot water extraction of wood at elevated temperatures may be a suitable method to produce hemicellulose-lean pulps and to recover xylan-derived products from the water extract. In this study, water extractions of birch wood were conducted at temperatures between 180 and 240 °C in a batch reactor. Xylan was extensively removed, whereas cellulose was partly degraded only at temperatures above 180 °C. Under severe extraction conditions, acetic acid content in the water extract was higher than the corresponding amount of acetyl groups in wood. In addition to oligo- and monosaccharides, considerable amounts of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were recovered from the extracts. After reaching a maximum, the furfural yield remained constant with increasing extraction time. This maximum slightly decreased with increasing extraction temperature, suggesting the preferential formation of secondary degradation products from xylose. Kinetic models fitting experimental data are proposed to explain degradation and conversion reactions of xylan and glucan. PMID:21967712

  7. The impact of nitration on the structure and immunogenicity of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Ackaert

    Full Text Available Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue. We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs and primary DCs (primDCs stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  8. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fölster-Holst R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 5Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route. Keywords: aeroallergens, atopic eczema, seasonality, skin antigen-presenting cells, skin barrier penetration

  9. Changes in petiole hydraulic properties and leaf water flow in birch and oak saplings in a CO2-enriched atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the water flow and petiole hydraulic properties in the individual leaves of Betula maximowicziana Regel and ring-porous Quercus mongolica Fish. ex Ledeb ssp. crispula Menitsky. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between water flow, hydraulic properties and elevated carbon dioxide (CO2). The effects of elevated CO2 on sun and shade leaves of 2 petioles were investigated in order to examine structural changes in response to CO2. The study was conducted at the Sapporo Experimental Forest in Japan, where a free air CO2 enrichment system was used to maintain CO2 levels. Results of the study demonstrated that elevated CO2 levels consistently decreased water flow, including leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and total vessel area of the petiole in leaves exposed to the sun. Elevated CO2 levels had no impact on the hydraulic conductivity of shade leaves. It was concluded that changes in water flow were also associated with changes in petiole hydraulic properties. 57 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Validation of Two Names Betula jiulungensis (Betulaceae) and Rubia ovatifolia (Rubiaceae)%九龙桦(桦木科)与卵叶茜草(茜草科)名称的合格发表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林祁

    2007-01-01

    由于同时指定两号标本为模式,桦木科(Betulaceae)的九龙桦(Betula jiulungensis Hu exP.C.Li)和茜草科(Rubiaceae)的卵叶茜草(Rubia ovatifolia Z.Y.Zhang)是不合格发表的名称.现通过分别指定主模式,对九龙桦和卵叶茜草的名称作合格发表.

  11. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, completed an assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment of the upper Birch Creek watershed near Central, Alaska. The assessment covered one site on upper Birch Creek and paired sites, upstream and downstream from mined areas, on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek. Stream-discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at other selected mined and unmined sites helped characterize conditions in the upper Birch Creek watershed. The purpose of the project was to provide the Bureau of Land Management with baseline information to evaluate watershed water quality and plan reclamation efforts. Data collection began in September 2001 and ended in September 2005. There were substantial geomorphic disturbances in the stream channel and flood plain along several miles of Harrison Creek. Placer mining has physically altered the natural stream channel morphology and removed streamside vegetation. There has been little or no effort to re-contour waste rock piles. During high-flow events, the abandoned placer-mine areas on Harrison Creek will likely contribute large quantities of sediment downstream unless the mined areas are reclaimed. During 2004 and 2005, no substantial changes in nutrient or major-ion concentrations were detected in water samples collected upstream from mined areas compared with water samples collected downstream from mined areas on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek that could not be attributed to natural variation. This also was true for dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance-a measure of total dissolved solids. Sample sites downstream from mined areas on Harrison Creek and Frying Pan Creek had higher median suspended-sediment concentrations, by a few milligrams per liter, than respective upstream sites. However, it is difficult to attach much importance to the small downstream increase

  12. Experimental study comparing the behaviour of steel truss plates and birch plywood inserts in ridge joints on glued laminated rafters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gayarre, F.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on an analysis of the mechanical performance of two flat joining systems used in roof members made of glued laminated timber.Six pairs of laminated timber rafters for a double-pitched roof with a 100x180-mm cross-section, a 6.00-m span and a height of 1.00 m were subjected to full-scale four-point bending. In three of the specimens the rafters were joined at the ridge with a birch plywood insert, while in the other three the connection was secured with a fitting consisting in a standard flat steel truss plate. The objective pursued was to evaluate the possibility of replacing the steel fittings with birch plywood inserts. The approach adopted to reach this objective was to compare the strength of the two joint pieces and the deformation generated in the overall structure during strength tests.The results proved to be highly satisfactory in terms of both the bearing capacity and the stiffness of the structures tested.El presente trabajo tiene por objeto llevar a cabo un análisis experimental del comportamiento mecánico de ciertos sistemas planos de unión para elementos estructurales de madera laminada empleados en la construcción de cubiertas.El estudio incluye los ensayos a escala real de seis din-teles a dos aguas de madera laminada, de 6 m de luz, 1 m de altura y una sección de 100 mm x 180 mm, sometidos a flexión en cuatro puntos. En tres dinteles el elemento de unión es una pieza de tablero contra-chapado de abedul, mientras que en los otros tres se ha utilizado un herraje de acero. La finalidad es valorar la posibilidad de sustituir los elementos de unión, realizados mediante herrajes, por otros constituidos por piezas de tablero contrachapado de abedul. Este objetivo se logra comparando el comportamiento resistente mostrado por ambos dispositivos de unión, y las deformaciones en cada caso de las estructuras completas.Los resultados resultaron muy satisfactorios tanto en la capacidad portante como en la

  13. Influence of the Oil Phase and Topical Formulation on the Wound Healing Ability of a Birch Bark Dry Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrenner, Isabel; Houdek, Pia; Pollok, Simone; Brandner, Johanna M; Daniels, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes from the outer bark of birch are known for various pharmacological effects including enhanced wound healing (WH). A birch bark dry extract (TE) obtained by accelerated solvent extraction showed the ability to form oleogels when it is suspended in oils. Consistency of the oleogels and the dissolved amount of triterpenes varies largely with the used oil. Here we wanted to know to what extent different oils and formulations (oleogel versus o/w emulsion) influence WH. Looking at the plain oils, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) enhanced WH (ca. 1.4-fold), while e.g. castor oil (ca.0.3-fold) or light liquid paraffin (LLP; ca. 0.5-fold) significantly decreased WH. Concerning the respective oleogels, TE-MCT showed no improvement although the solubility of the TE was high. In contrast, the oleogel of sunflower oil which alone showed a slight tendency to impair WH, enhanced WH significantly (ca. 1.6-fold). These results can be explained by release experiments where the release rate of betulin, the main component of TE, from MCT oleogels was significantly lower than from sunflower oil oleogels. LLP impaired WH as plain oil and even though it released betulin comparable to sunflower oil it still results in an overall negative effect of the oleogel on WH. As a further formulation option also surfactant free o/w emulsions were prepared using MCT, sunflower oil and LLP as a nonpolar oil phase. Depending on the preparation method (suspension or oleogel method) the distribution of the TE varied markedly and affected also release kinetics. However, the released betulin was clearly below the values measured with the respective oleogels. Consequently, none of the emulsions showed a significantly positive effect on WH. In conclusion, our data show that the oil used as a vehicle influences wound healing not only by affecting the release of the extract, but also by having its own vehicle effect on wound healing. This is also of importance for other applications where drugs

  14. Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactive effects of soil temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the photosynthetic functions of white birch and jack pine were investigated. Elevated carbon dioxide was found to significantly decrease the allocation of electron transport to photorespiration in both species by increasing electron allocation to Rubisco carboxylation. Photosynthetic down-regulation occurred in both species after four months in elevated carbon dioxide as evidenced by decreases in maximal carboxylation rate which were unaffected by soil temperature. 50 refs., 5 figs

  15. EXTRACTION OF BETULIN BY ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS C3-C4 FROM AN EXTERNAL LAYER OF A BIRCH BARK HYDROLYZED IN AQUEOUS ALKALINE SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Александрович Левданский

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It was established, that after hydrolysis of birch bark in water solution of alkali in the presence of isopropanol, butanol and isobutanol two layers were formed. The top layer contained betulin dissolved in alcohol, and the bottom layer contained a water-soluble alkali and its hydrolysis products of bark. Betulin was isolated by the separation and concentration of the alcohol layer. The structure of betulin was confirmed by methods of IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Changes in the areal extents of the Athabasca River, Birch River, and Cree Creek Deltas, 1950-2014, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, Kevin; Lee, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Deltas form where riverborne sediment accumulates at the interface of river mouths and their receiving water bodies. Their areal extent is determined by the net effect of processes that increase their extent, such as sediment accumulation, and processes that decrease their extent, such as erosion and subsidence. Through sequential mapping and construction of river discharge and sediment histories, this study examined changes in the subaerial extents of the Cree Creek and Athabasca River Deltas (both on the Athabasca River system) and the Birch River Delta in northern Canada over the period 1950-2014. The purpose of the study was to determine how, when, and why the deltas changed in areal extent. Temporal growth patterns were similar across the Athabasca and Birch River systems indicative of a climatic signal. Little or no areal growth occurred from 1950 to 1968; moderate growth occurred between 1968 and the early to mid-1980s; and rapid growth occurred between 1992 and 2012. Factors that affected delta progradation included dredging, sediment supply, isostatic drowning, delta front bathymetry, sediment capture efficiency, and storms. In relation to sediment delivered, areal growth rates were lowest in the Athabasca Delta, intermediate in the Birch Delta, and highest in the Cree Creek Delta. Annual sediment delivery is increasing in the Cree Creek Delta; there were no significant trends in annual sediment delivery in the Birch and Athabasca Deltas. There was a lag of up to several years between sediment delivery events and progradation. Periods of delta progradation were associated with low water levels of the receiving basins. Predicted climate-change driven declines in river discharge and lake levels may accelerate delta progradation in the region. In the changing ecosystems of northeastern Alberta, inadequate monitoring of vegetation, landforms, and sediment regimes hampers the elucidation of the nature, rate, and causality of ecosystem changes.

  17. Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.; Dang, Q-L. [Lakehead University, Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    2005-05-01

    The interactive effects of soil temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the photosynthetic functions of white birch and jack pine were investigated. Elevated carbon dioxide was found to significantly decrease the allocation of electron transport to photorespiration in both species by increasing electron allocation to Rubisco carboxylation. Photosynthetic down-regulation occurred in both species after four months in elevated carbon dioxide as evidenced by decreases in maximal carboxylation rate which were unaffected by soil temperature. 50 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Aluminum uptake and migration from the soil compartment into Betula pendula for two different environments: a polluted and environmentally protected area of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the impact of soil contamination on aluminum (Al) concentrations in plant parts of Betula pendula and a possible way of migration and transformation of Al in the soil-root-stem-twig-leaf system. A new procedure of Al fractionation based on extraction in water phase was applied to obtain and measure the most available forms of Al in soils and B. pendula samples. In addition, total Al content was determined in biological samples and pseudo total Al content in soil samples collected under plant saplings, using atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization. A number of relations concerning the occurrence of Al and Ca in soils and plant parts of B. pendula (tap roots, lateral roots, stem, twigs, and leaves) were observed. Based on the research findings, the mechanism of Al migration from soil to the leaves of B. pendula can be presented. It was found that aluminum uptake may be limited in roots by high calcium concentration. The application of a new procedure based on the simple sequential extraction of water-soluble fractions (the most available and exchangeable fractions of Al) can be used as an effective tool for the estimation of aluminum toxicity in soils and plants. PMID:26370811

  19. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF POLYPHENOLIC EXTRACTS OF BETULA PENDULA, SALIVA HYDRANGEA AND CRATAEGUS CURVISEPALA, AS WELL AS VITAMIN C, ON THE EXTENT OF GLYCOSYLATION OF ALBUMIN, INSULIN AND HEMOGLOBIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIGHEH ASGARY

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine diseases spreading rapidly in the world. Diabetes complications are classified to acute and chronic. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of all body proteins, such as hemoglobin, albumin is the main cause of pathogenesis in chronic complications of diabetes. As glycosylation reaction of proteins is an oxidative reaction it seems that antioxidants, such as vitamin C, inhibit the reaction and, therefore, chronic complications of diabetes. In the present study inhibitory effects of polyphenolic extracts of Betula pendula, Saliva hydrangea and Crataegus curvisepala, as well as vitamin C, on the extent of glycosylation of albumin, insulin and hemoglobin was investigated. Methods: Polyphenolic extracts of the mentioned plants were prepared in three different concentrations; 3.6, 1.8, and 0.9 mg/ml also vitamin C solutions were prepared in 5 concentrations: 0.5, 5, 10, 50 and 500 µg/ml. Results: The highest extent of glycosylation inhibition of albumin and insulin was due to S.hydrangea by 100% and 97% respectively, and that of hemoglobin was due to a.pendula, by 80%. Vitamin C in its highest concentration inhibit glycosylation of insulin, albumin and hemoglobin by 100%, 93%, and 58% respectively (P < 0.05. Discussion: Based on the findings, it seems that these plants prevent chronic complications of diabetes.

  20. Birch shrub growth in the low Arctic: the relative importance of experimental warming, enhanced nutrient availability, snow depth and caribou exclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deciduous shrub growth has increased across the Arctic simultaneously with recent climate warming trends. The reduction in albedo associated with shrub-induced ‘greening’ of the tundra is predicted to cause significant positive feedbacks to regional warming. Enhanced soil fertility arising from climate change is expected to be the primary mechanism driving shrub responses, yet our overall understanding of the relative importance of soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability and the significance of other ecological drivers is constrained by experiments with varying treatments, sites, and durations. We investigated dwarf birch apical stem growth responses to a wide range of ecological factors (enhanced summer temperatures, deepened snow, caribou exclusion, factorial high level nitrogen and phosphorus additions, and low level nitrogen additions) after six years of experimental manipulations in birch hummock tundra. As expected, birch apical stem growth was more strongly enhanced by the substantial increases in nutrient supply than by our changes in any of the other ecological factors. The factorial additions revealed that P availability was at least as important as that of N, and our low N additions demonstrated that growth was unresponsive to moderate increases in soil nitrogen alone. Experimental warming increased apical stem growth 2.5-fold—considerably more than in past studies—probably due to the relatively strong effect of our greenhouses on soil temperature. Together, these results have important implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical functioning of mesic tundra ecosystems as well as predicting their vegetation responses to climate change. (letter)

  1. Detection and analysis of unusual features in the structural model and structure-factor data of a birch pollen allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure factors deposited with PDB entry 3k78 show properties inconsistent with experimentally observed diffraction data, and without uncertainty represent calculated structure factors. The refinement of the model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphous structure different from the deposited model with an implausibly small R value (0.019). Physically improbable features in the model of the birch pollen structure Bet v 1d are faithfully reproduced in electron density generated with the deposited structure factors, but these structure factors themselves exhibit properties that are characteristic of data calculated from a simple model and are inconsistent with the data and error model obtained through experimental measurements. The refinement of the model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphous structure different from the deposited model with an implausibly small R value (0.019). The abnormal refinement is compared with normal refinement of an isomorphous variant structure of Bet v 1l. A variety of analytical tools, including the application of Diederichs plots, Rσ plots and bulk-solvent analysis are discussed as promising aids in validation. The examination of the Bet v 1d structure also cautions against the practice of indicating poorly defined protein chain residues through zero occupancies. The recommendation to preserve diffraction images is amplified

  2. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles. PMID:23923639

  3. Suberin fatty acids isolated from outer birch bark improve moisture barrier properties of cellulose ether films intended for tablet coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinämäki, Jyrki; Halenius, Anna; Paavo, Maaja; Alakurtti, Sami; Pitkänen, Pauliina; Pirttimaa, Minni; Paaver, Urve; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Kogermann, Karin; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2015-07-15

    We showed that the addition of suberin fatty acids (SFAs) even at small concentrations significantly improves the water vapor barrier properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. SFAs were isolated from the outer birch bark using extractive hydrolysis. The effects of SFAs on the film formation of aqueous HPMC were investigated with free films plasticized with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400). Special attention was paid on the physical solid-state, moisture barrier and mechanical stress-strain properties of films intended for tablet film coatings. Topography and surface morphology, glass transition temperature (Tg), tensile strength, Young's modulus, and water vapor permeation (WVP) of films were studied. The addition of SFAs lowered the Tg of films suggesting partial enhancement in film plasticization. The WVP of films decreased with increasing SFAs concentration up to 15% (calculated as a % w/w from a polymer weight). The WVP value for a non-suberized reference film and suberized film plasticized with PEG 400 was 2.13×10(-6) and 0.69[×10(-6) g/(mm(2)×h)×mm/Pa], respectively. The addition of SFAs impaired the mechanical stress-strain properties of HPMC films by reducing the deformation capacity of film. In conclusion, the film properties and performance of aqueous HPMC can be modified by including SFAs in the films. PMID:25936623

  4. Scale correlation between vegetation and soil in larch forest, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After the analysis on the linages of species, the fractal dimensions of vegetation and soil in a managed larch(Larix gmelini) forest in Daxingan Mountains, NE China were estimated separately, and their scale correlation was discussed. (1) The dominant species of the larch forest, larch and the important accompany species, birch(Betula platyphylla) were homogeneously distributed along the transect. The other species were heterogeneous, and can be divided into three groups located on the right , left and central parts of th transect respectively. The transect can be separated into two parts at the position for the 29th quadrat(580m). (2) The fractal dimension in the large scale range from 200 to 400m was lower than that in the small scale range from 0 to 200m in the forest, indicating the different variation regularities of spatial heterogeneity in different scale ranges. The inflection point at 200m was one of the key scales of spatial hierarchy of the larch forest. (3) The scale variation of the forest was correlated with that of soil pH on large scales, which reflected the indirect control of the dominant species to the spatial pattern and species distribution of understories by changing soil acidity in the forest and the indirect effects of forest management.

  5. Analysis of organic acids in selected forest litters of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGJin-feng; CUIXiao-yang

    2003-01-01

    Larch (Larix olgensis), Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and White birch (Betula platyphylla) are the major planting species in northeast China. The samples of forest litters were collected from the stands of the above 4 species in Laoyeling and Jianlagou experiment stations of Maorshan Exp. Forest Farm (45°12′-45°30′N,127°30′-127°48′E), Northeast Forestry University, in early October 2002. Quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis were carried out on the organic acids existing in freshly fallen litters (L layer) and hemi-decomposed litters (F layer) of the four forest species by using Gas Chromatogram system. A wide variety of organic acids were identified, including oxalic, malonic, fumaric,succinic, maleic, malic, citric, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C20:0 acids. In respect of L litters of all samples, the oxalic acid content (over 30 mg/g) was the highest of the seven low-molecular-weight organic acids identified, while the content of oleic or linoleic (above 40 mg/g) was found to be highest among the six high aliphatic acids identified. As to F litters, oxalic acid content was also the highest, followed by linoleic and oleic. For the same tree species or the same forest, the kinds and contents of organic acids in L litters were more abundant than that in F litters.

  6. The effect of tree architecture on conduit diameter and frequency from small distal roots to branch tips in Betula pendula, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Kalliokoski, Tuomo

    2010-11-01

    We studied the effect of tree architecture on xylem anatomy in three Betula pendula Roth., three Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and three Pinus sylvestris (L.) trees (mean age 35 years). First, the analysis of conduit anatomy in different tree parts showed that conduits tapered and their frequency increased from roots (≥ 2 mm) to stem, from stem to branches and further to leaf petioles in B. pendula. Conduit anatomy in lateral and main roots, as well as lateral and main branches, significantly differed from each other in all the studied species. The increase in conduit diameter and decrease in frequency from the pith to the bark were clear aboveground, but variable patterns were observed belowground. In the leaf petioles of B. pendula, conduit diameter increased and conduit frequency decreased with increasing individual leaf area. Second, the results concerning the scaling of conduit diameter were compared with the predictions of the general vascular scaling model (WBE model) and Murray's law. The scaling parameter values at the tree level corresponded with the predictions of the WBE model in all the studied trees except for one tree of both conifer species. However, the scaling parameter values changed from one tree compartment to another rather than remaining uniform inside a tree, as assumed by the WBE model. The assumptions of the WBE model of a constant conductivity ratio, constant tapering and an unchanged total number of conduits were not fulfilled. When the conductivity ratio and relative tapering were plotted together, the results aboveground corresponded quite well with Murray's law: the conductivity ratio increased when relative tapering decreased. Our results support the theory that trees adjust both their macro- and microstructure to maximize their water transport efficiency, but also to prevent embolism and ensure mechanical safety. PMID:21030407

  7. Oocyst-Derived Extract of Toxoplasma Gondii Serves as Potent Immunomodulator in a Mouse Model of Birch Pollen Allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wagner

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts prevented type I allergy in mice. Here we investigated whether the application of a T. gondii oocyst lysate antigen (OLA could also reduce allergy development. BALB/c mice were immunised twice with OLA followed by sensitisation with the major birch pollen (BP allergen Bet v 1 and an aerosol challenge with BP extract.First, we tested OLA in vitro. Stimulation of splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC with OLA led to the production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines such as IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10. Moreover, BMDC exposed to OLA upregulated the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHCII. Furthermore, OLA was recognised by TLR2-transfected human embryonic kidney cells.Immunisation of mice with OLA induced high levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in sera along with increased production of IFN-γ and IL-10 in Toxoplasma-antigen restimulated splenocytes. OLA reduced allergic airway inflammation as manifested by significant reduction of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluids, decreased cellular infiltrates and mucus production in the lungs. Accordingly, Bet v 1-specific IgE was decreased in OLA-pretreated mice. The reduced allergic immune responses were accompanied by increased numbers of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells in spleens as well as by increased numbers of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in lungs when compared to sensitised controls suggesting that these two cell populations might be involved in the suppression of the allergic immune responses.Our data demonstrate that pretreatment with the oocyst extract can exert anti-allergic effects comparable to T. gondii infection. Thus, the immunomodulatory properties of the parasite extract indicate that this extract and in the future defined molecules thereof might serve as immunomodulatory adjuvants in allergy treatment and prophylaxis.

  8. Oocyst-Derived Extract of Toxoplasma Gondii Serves as Potent Immunomodulator in a Mouse Model of Birch Pollen Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Angelika; Schabussova, Irma; Drinic, Mirjana; Akgün, Johnnie; Loupal, Gerhard; Kundi, Michael; Joachim, Anja; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previously, we have shown that oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts prevented type I allergy in mice. Here we investigated whether the application of a T. gondii oocyst lysate antigen (OLA) could also reduce allergy development. BALB/c mice were immunised twice with OLA followed by sensitisation with the major birch pollen (BP) allergen Bet v 1 and an aerosol challenge with BP extract. Methods First, we tested OLA in vitro. Stimulation of splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) with OLA led to the production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines such as IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10. Moreover, BMDC exposed to OLA upregulated the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHCII. Furthermore, OLA was recognised by TLR2-transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Results Immunisation of mice with OLA induced high levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in sera along with increased production of IFN-γ and IL-10 in Toxoplasma-antigen restimulated splenocytes. OLA reduced allergic airway inflammation as manifested by significant reduction of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluids, decreased cellular infiltrates and mucus production in the lungs. Accordingly, Bet v 1-specific IgE was decreased in OLA-pretreated mice. The reduced allergic immune responses were accompanied by increased numbers of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells in spleens as well as by increased numbers of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in lungs when compared to sensitised controls suggesting that these two cell populations might be involved in the suppression of the allergic immune responses. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that pretreatment with the oocyst extract can exert anti-allergic effects comparable to T. gondii infection. Thus, the immunomodulatory properties of the parasite extract indicate that this extract and in the future defined molecules thereof might serve as immunomodulatory adjuvants in allergy treatment and prophylaxis. PMID

  9. Posttranslational modification of Birch and Ragweed allergen proteins by common gas phase pollutants, NO2 and O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Pope, F.; Bloss, W.

    2015-12-01

    The global incidence of hay fever has been rising for decades, however, the underlying reasons behind this rise remain unclear. It is hypothesized that exposure of pollen to common gas phase pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), increases the allergenicity of the pollen and thus increases hay fever incidence. Since atmospheric pollutants tend to have greater concentrations within urban areas (in particular NO2) the hypothesis suggests that greater allergenicity should occur in urban areas. Indeed, several studies do suggest higher hay fever incidence within urban areas compared to rural areas. Previous published work suggests a link between increased allergies with changes in the chemical composition of the pollen protein via posttranslational modification of the protein. This study investigates the posttranslational modification of two highly allergenic pollen species (Birch and Ragweed) that are common in Europe. Within the laboratory, we expose pollen grains to atmospherically relevant exposures of gas phase NO2, O3 and other common gas phase oxidants under a range of environmentally relevant conditions. The effects of the environmentally relevant exposures on the biochemistry of the pollen grains were probed using a proteomic approach (liquid chromatography coupled ultra-high resolution spectrometer). Our findings indicate the interaction between gas phase pollutants and pollen cause protein specific modifications; in particular, nitration occurs upon tyrosine residues and nitrosylation on cysteine residues. Possibly, these modifications may affect the immune response of the pollen protein, which may suggest a possible reason for increased allergies in reaction to such biologically altered protein. The laboratory-derived results will be supported with a time series analysis of asthma incidence rates for the London area, which take into account the pollen count, and pollutant concentrations. The implications of the results will be discussed

  10. Hydrogenated Graphenes by Birch Reduction: Influence of Electron and Proton Sources on Hydrogenation Efficiency, Magnetism, and Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Sofer, Zdeněk; Huber, Štěpán; Bouša, Daniel; Maryško, Miroslav; Pumera, Martin

    2015-11-16

    Interest in chemical functionalisation of graphenes today is largely driven by associated changes to its physical and material properties. Functionalisation with hydrogen was employed to obtain hydrogenated graphenes (also termed graphane if fully hydrogenated), which exhibited properties including fluorescence, magnetism and a tuneable band gap. Although the classical Birch reduction has been employed for hydrogenation of graphite oxide, variation exists between the choice of alkali metals and alcohols/water as quenching agents. A systematic study of electron (Li, Na, K, Cs) and proton sources (tBuOH, iPrOH, MeOH, H2O) has been performed to identify optimal conditions. The proton source exerted a great influence on the resulting hydrogenation with water and out-performed alcohols, and the lowest carbon-to-hydrogen ratio was observed with sodium and water with composition of C1.4H1O0.3. Although ferromagnetism at room temperature correlates well with increasing hydrogen concentrations, small contributions from trace iron impurities cannot be completely eliminated. In contrast, hydrogenated graphenes exhibit a significant paramagnetic moment at low temperatures that has no correlation with impurities, and therefore, originates from the carbon system. This is in comparison to graphene, which is strongly diamagnetic, and concentrations of paramagnetic centres in hydrogenated graphenes are one order of magnitude larger than that in graphite. Nonetheless, hydrogenation over a particular level might also excessively disrupt intrinsic sp(2) conjugation, resulting in unintended reduction of electrochemical properties. This was observed with heterogeneous electron-transfer rates and it was postulated that hydrogenated graphenes should generally have high defect densities, but only moderately high hydrogenation, should they be employed as electrode materials. PMID:26457373

  11. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Riegerová, Kamila; Kučera, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20), hymenopteran venoms (n = 23) and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164) was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases. PMID:26562153

  12. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Heneberg

    Full Text Available Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981 is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20, hymenopteran venoms (n = 23 and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164 was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases.

  13. Carbon budgets of three temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mt.,Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There is a general agreement that forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as signifi-cant sinks for atmospheric CO2; however, their magnitude and distribution remain large uncertainties. In this paper, we report the carbon (C) stock and its change of vegetation, forest floor detritus, and mineral soil, annual net biomass increment and litterfall production, and respiration of vegetation and soils between 1992 to 1994, for three temperate forest ecosystems, birch (Betula platyphylla) forest, oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest and pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. We then evaluate the C budgets of these forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that total C density (organic C per hectare) of these forests ranged from 250 to 300 t C ha-1, of which 35―54 t C ha-1 from vegetation biomass C and 209―244 t C ha-1 from soil organic C (1 m depth, including forest floor detritus). Biomass C of all three forests showed a net increase, with 1.33―3.55 t C ha-1 a-1 during the study period. Litterfall production, vegetation autotrophic respiration, and soil heterotrophic respira-tion were estimated at 1.63―2.34, 2.19―6.93, and 1.81―3.49 t C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Ecosystem gross primary production fluctuated between 5.39 and 12.82 t C ha-1 a-1, about half of which (46%―59%, 3.20―5.89 t C ha-1 a-1) was converted to net primary production. Our results suggested that pine forest fixed C of 4.08 t ha-1 a-1, whereas secondary forests (birch and oak forest) were nearly in balance in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems.

  14. Carbon budgets of three temperate forest ecosystems in Dongling Mt., Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG JingYun; LIU GuoHua; ZHU Biao; WANG XiaoKe; LIU ShaoHui

    2007-01-01

    There is a general agreement that forest ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere function as significant sinks for atmospheric CO2; however, their magnitude and distribution remain large uncertainties. In this paper, we report the carbon (C) stock and its change of vegetation, forest floor detritus, and mineral soil, annual net biomass increment and litterfall production, and respiration of vegetation and soils between 1992 to 1994, for three temperate forest ecosystems, birch (Betula platyphylla) forest, oak (Quercus liaotungensis) forest and pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation in Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. We then evaluate the C budgets of these forest ecosystems. Our results indicated that total C density (organic C per hectare) of these forests ranged from 250 to 300 t C ha-1, of which 35―54 t C ha-1 from vegetation biomass C and 209―244 t C ha-1 from soil organic C (1 m depth, including forest floor detritus). Biomass C of all three forests showed a net increase, with 1.33―3.55 t C ha-1 a-1 during the study period. Litterfall production, vegetation autotrophic respiration, and soil heterotrophic respiration were estimated at 1.63―2.34, 2.19―6.93, and 1.81―3.49 t C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Ecosystem gross primary production fluctuated between 5.39 and 12.82 t C ha-1 a-1, about half of which (46%―59%, 3.20―5.89 t C ha-1 a-1) was converted to net primary production. Our results suggested that pine forest fixed C of 4.08 t ha-1 a-1, whereas secondary forests (birch and oak forest) were nearly in balance in CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and ecosystems.

  15. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... allergy syndrome to apple and 10 control subjects were included. All were tested with SPT, SCT, HR and specific IgE [CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden and Magic Lite (ML), ALK-ABELLO, Denmark]. RESULTS: The SPT with apple, acetone extract of apple (A72) and commercial apple extract showed sensitivities of 0.80, 0.......90 and 0.10, respectively. The SCT with the same extracts showed sensitivities of 0.30, 0.50 and 0.20, respectively. The sensitivity of specific IgE to apple were 0.90 (CAP) and 0.10 (ML). The sensitivity of the HR test was 90% (A72), and 25% using the commercial extract. CONCLUSION: The SPT and HR test...

  16. Climate change and its impact on birch pollen quantities and the start of the pollen season an example from Switzerland for the period 1969-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Thomas; Gassner, Ewald

    2008-09-01

    As published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global warming is a reality and its impact is huge like the increase of extreme weather events, glacier recession, sea level rise and also effects on human health. Among them allergies to airborne pollen might increase or change in pattern due to the invasion of new allergic plants or due to different behavior of plants like earlier flowering. In this study we used the longest Swiss airborne pollen data set to examine the influence of the temperature increase on the time of flowering. In the case of Basel, where pollen data for 38 years are available, it was shown that due to a temperature increase the start of flowering in the case of birch occurred about 15 days earlier. Apart from a shift of the start of the flowering there is also a trend towards higher annual birch pollen quantities and an increase of the highest daily mean pollen concentrations. Due to global warming and because symptoms may appear earlier in the year people suffering from a pollen allergy might face a new unaccustomed situation.

  17. Chemical composition of five deciduous tree species in four-year-old, closely spaced plantations. [Hybrid popular, American sycamore, European alder, river birch, and green ash, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittwer, R.F.; Immel, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Mn in above ground tree components of five deciduous species were determined in closely-spaced (0.9 x 0.6 m) 4-year-old plantations growing on a river terrace site in the Ohio Valley region of western Kentucky (USA). Species evaluated were: a hybrid poplar, American sycamore, European alder, river birch and green ash. The only significant difference in dry weight of tree components was greater bolebark biomass of the hybrid poplar. Total above ground elemental content of N, K, Ca, and Mn varied significantly for some species. N content of green ash was significantly lower and K content of the hybrid poplar and Mn content of European alder were significantly greater compared with the other species. Ca contents of the hybrid poplar, American sycamore and European alder were significantly greater than those of other species. Based on the relationship between biomass production and nutrient content of the harvested biomass, it seems that on this and comparable sites, river birch is a preferred species in view of the lower potential nutrient removals in the harvested biomass.

  18. Phenogenetic response of silver birch populations and half-sib families to elevated ozone and ultraviolet-B radiation at juvenile age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phenogenetic response of silver birch populations and half-sib families to separate and combined elevated ozone (O3) concentrations and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation dozes was studied at juvenile age in the climatic chambers. Significant population and family effects were found for seedling height, lamina width, and leaf damage. The exposure to UV-B radiation decreased genetic variation at the stage of seed germination. Complex exposure to UV-B and O3 caused an increase of genetic variation at the stage of intensive seedling growth: seedling height genetic variation in separate treatments increased from 23.7-38.6 to 33.7-65.7%, the increase for lamina width was from 10.2-13.9 to 13.6-31.8%. Different populations and families demonstrated differing response to elevated complex UV-B and O3 exposure. Changes of genetic intra-population variation were population-specific. Such changes in genetic variation under the impact of stressors can alter adaptation, stability, and competitive ability of regenerating populations in a hardly predictive way. - Exposure to elevated UV-B and O3 alters genetic variation of traits in progenies of silver birch populations

  19. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy. Induction of affinity-matured or blocking IgG antibodies does not account for the reduced binding of IgE to Bet v 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe;

    2003-01-01

    Specific allergy vaccination (SAV) is associated with increased levels of allergen specific IgG in serum. It is not clear, however, to what extent qualitative changes in allergen binding to IgG may be induced as well. We therefore analyzed the binding of the major allergen in pollen of birch (Bet...

  20. STUDY ON THOUSAND-SEED WEIGHT,LONGEVITY AND VITALITY OF SEEDS OF BETULA LUMINIFERA%光皮桦种子千粒重、寿命及生命力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝小科; 朱守谦

    2003-01-01

    The thousand-seed weight, germination rate and vitality of seeds for Betula luminifera were studied. The results showed that the thousand-seed weight was different in various habitats, and varied with the age and the part of crown and fruit. The seed had a longevity of 32—37 days in general and with a characteristic of the rapid germination. The seed had a high germination rate during the early stage or perk stage of seed dispersal, and a lower germination rate during the end stage. The germination rate and vitality of mature seed reduced with the increase of the storing time, the change in seed ger-mination was significantly different at the various ages and habitats.

  1. Responses of fungal root colonization, plant cover and leaf nutrients to long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming in a subarctic birch forest understory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Carlsson, Bengt Å.; Svensson, Brita M.;

    2010-01-01

    to the fungal symbionts. In this study, we investigated how ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM), fine endophytes (FE) and dark septate endophytes (DSE) in roots responded to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and warming in the dwarf shrub understory of a birch forest in the subarctic region of northern Sweden......Responses of the mycorrhizal fungal community in terrestrial ecosystems to global change factors are not well understood. However, virtually all land plants form symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi, with approximately 20% of the plants' net primary production transported down...... by mycorrhizal and other root-associated fungi to global change factors of all the fungal types studied could have broad implications for plant community structure and biogeochemistry of subarctic ecosystems....

  2. A comparison of species composition and community assemblage of secondary forests between the birch and pine-oak belts in the mid-altitude zone of the Qinling Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zongzheng

    2016-01-01

    The mid-altitude zone of the Qinling Mountains in China was once dominated by birch and pine-oak belts but are now mainly covered by secondary growth following large-scale deforestation. Assessing the recovery and sustainability of these forests is essential for their management and restoration. We investigated and compared the tree species composition and community assemblages of secondary forests of the birch and pine-oak belts in the Huoditang forest region of the Qinling Mountains after identical natural recoveries. Both types of belts had rich species compositions and similar floristic components but clearly different community structures. Tree diversity was significantly higher for the birch than the pine-oak belt. Niche and neutral processes simultaneously influenced the species distribution and community dynamics of the belts, and these forests were able to maintain stable development during natural recoveries. The conservation and management of these forests should receive more attention to protect biodiversity and the forest resources in the Qinling Mountains. PMID:27123377

  3. Toward an improved model of maple sap exudation: the location and role of osmotic barriers in sugar maple, butternut and white birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Damián; Jagels, Richard; Tyree, Melvin T

    2008-08-01

    Two theories have been proposed to explain how high positive pressures are developed in sugar maple stems when temperatures fluctuate around freezing. The Milburn-O'Malley theory proposes that pressure development is purely physical and does not require living cells or sucrose. The osmotic theory invokes the involvement of living cells and sucrose to generate an osmotic pressure difference between fibers and vessels, which are assumed to be separated by an osmotic barrier. We analyzed wood of Acer saccharum Marsh., Juglans cinerea L. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. (all generate positive pressures) examining three critical components of the osmotic model: pits in cell walls, selectivity of the osmotic barrier and stability of air bubbles under positive xylem pressure. We examined the distribution and type of pits directly by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and indirectly by perfusion of branch segments with fluorescent dyes with molecular masses similar to sucrose. The latter approach allowed us to use osmotic surrogates for sucrose that could be tracked by epifluorescence. Infusion experiments were used to assess the compartmentalization of sucrose and to determine the behavior of gas bubbles as predicted by Fick's and Henry's laws. The SEM images of sugar maple revealed a lack of pitting between fibers and vessels but connections between fiber-tracheids and vessels were present. Fluorescein-perfusion experiments demonstrated that large molecules do not diffuse into libriform fibers but are confined within the domain of vessels, parenchyma and fiber-tracheids. Results of the infusion experiments were in agreement with those of the fluorescein perfusions and further indicated the necessity of a compartmentalized osmolyte to drive stem pressure, as well as the inability of air bubbles to maintain such pressure because of instability. These results support the osmotic model and demonstrate that the secondary cell wall is an effective osmotic barrier for

  4. Low soil temperature inhibits the effect of high nutrient supply on photosynthetic response to elevated carbon dioxide concentration in white birch seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambebe, T.F.; Dang, Q.L.; Li, J. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment

    2010-02-15

    White birch seedlings were exposed to various nutrient regimes and ambient and elevated temperatures in order to investigate the interactive effects of soil temperature and nutrient availability on the responses of photosynthesis to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations. The experiments were conducted at 5, 15, and 25 degrees C and increased to 7, 17, and 27 degrees C over a period of 3 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. The study showed that elevated CO{sub 2} increased net photosynthetic rates; instantaneous water use efficiency; internal-to-ambient CO{sub 2} concentration ratio; triose phosphate utilization; and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation. Actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem 2 was decreased, as well as the fraction of total linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation, and leaf nitrogen (N) concentration. Low soil temperatures suppressed transpiration rates and increased the fraction of total linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation. No significant CO{sub 2} effects were observed under low soil temperatures at any nutrient level. Results of the study supported the hypothesis that lower soil temperatures reduce the positive effect of high nutrient supplies on the response of net photosynthetic rates to elevated CO{sub 2}. 84 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  5. Changes of the "Birch effect" in a course of post-agrogenic successions in abandoned fellows along the N-S transect from south taiga Podzols to dry steppe Calcisol-Solonetz soil complexes (European Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, Dmitry; Chestnykh, Olga; Rostovceva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    This chronosequential longitudinal (58 - 48oN) study in European Russia includes measurements of the dynamics of soil respiration and changes of the so called "Birch effect" during different stages of self-restoration in post-agrogenic south taiga Pogzols (1, 7, 23, 55, 100, 170 yr after abandonment); Haplic Luvisols in the temperate broadleaf forest zone (1, 3, 7, 20, 60, 110 yr); forest-steppe Chernozems (1, 2, 8, 38, 66 yr), and Calcisol-Solonetz complexes in the dry steppe zone (1, 7, 12, 17 and 42 yr). This effect is well known in soil ecology studies (Birch, 1954) and results in intensive rise of surface CO2 emission and nitrogen release due to soil moistening after drought events. Measurements of the "Birch effect" in the agro-ecosystems were made in 2012 - 2015 during the vegetative periods (April- September). We measured CO2 emissions monthly at every succession stage, using a closed chamber technique before and after 200 ml of distilled water addition per base (equivalent of 2 mm rain). The maximum rates of observed CO2 soil emission fluxes due to "Birch effect" per initial respiration values were than compared between different zonal ecosystems and stages of agro-successions. Our results show that the fellows stages in dry steppe zone demonstrate the lowest seasonal rate of basic soil respiration at average: 3.5 times lower, if compared to the fellows chronosequence in Podzols, 4.6 times lower, if compared to Agro-chernozems, and the maximum difference was found with the Haplic Livisols in the zone of broadleaf forests - 7.8 times lower. The "Birch effect" for soil respiration of the zonal fellow chronosequences in study was shown to increase from 1.1 ± 0.6 for broadleaf Haplic Vertisols (no effect), to 7.1 ± 1.5 in the zone of forest steppe, and to 15.2 ± 3.5 in dry steppe, which is due to zonal deterioration of hydro-thermal conditions and aridization. In south taiga zone it is weakly expressed and changes within the limits of 1.0 - 2.5. In

  6. Preliminary Study of Predominant Factors on Chromosome Doubling ofBetula alnoides%西南桦染色体加倍的影响因子初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 朱昌叁; 庞正轰

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a method for chromosome doubling ofBetula alnoideswas developed. Terminal buds from aseptic germination ofB. alnoides were used as explants, effect factors on chromosome doubling ofB. alnoides were discussed, such as concentration of colchicine, co-culture time of colchicine, preculture time. The results showed that the concentration of colchicine was better to be 120 mg·L-1 for chromosome doubling ofB. alnoides, and maximum chimaera number would be obtained in the regermination plantlet ofB. alnoides, after preculture without colchicine for 10 d and then co-culture with colchicine for 15 d.%以西南桦种子无菌萌发小苗的顶芽为外植体,探讨秋水仙素的浓度、处理时间及预培养时间对西南桦染色体加倍的影响,初步建立西南桦染色体加倍的方法。结果表明,使西南桦染色体加倍的秋水仙素浓度以120 mg·L-1为宜;在秋水仙素加倍处理前,预培养10 d后再加倍15 d效果较好,此时得到的西南桦嵌合体较多。

  7. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanjun Yang; Lihua Chen; Ning Li; Qiufen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most ...

  8. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C G; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.;

    2005-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is associated with increased levels of allergen-specific IgG in serum. However, it is not clear to what extent qualitative changes in the allergen binding capacity of IgG may be induced as well....

  9. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy. Induction of affinity-matured or blocking IgG antibodies does not account for the reduced binding of IgE to Bet v 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe;

    2003-01-01

    Specific allergy vaccination (SAV) is associated with increased levels of allergen specific IgG in serum. It is not clear, however, to what extent qualitative changes in allergen binding to IgG may be induced as well. We therefore analyzed the binding of the major allergen in pollen of birch...... the amount of Bet v 1 compared with IgE, and together they accounted for more than 85% of the serum binding capacity. While SAV induced minimal changes in IgE binding, the IgG binding capacities increased 6-32 times. In contrast, the binding avidities (K(d) 28-40pM) changed less than 20%, pre- and post...

  10. Bio energy production in birch and hybrid aspen after addition of residue based fertilizers - establishment of fertilization trials; Bioenergiproduktion hos bjoerk och hybridasp vid tillfoersel av restproduktbaserade goedselmedel - etablering av goedslingsfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans Fenix AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Sewage sludge and wood ashes could be used as fertilizers in order to increase forest tree production. In southern Sweden forest growth normally increases with approximately 10 % after ash recycling due to increased N and/or P availability. P is added with the ashes and the pH-increasing effect of the wood ash can lead to increased N net mineralization. Other positive effects of wood ash recycling are improved nutrient sustainability and less acid run-off water. Possible negative effects are heavy metal accumulation, if the content of one or more heavy metals of the recycled ash exceeds the heavy metal content of the harvested biomass, and nitrate leaching if the vegetation cannot take up nitrified N. It is important to evaluate the sustainability of fertilization systems based on residues such as sludge and wood ash. Wood ash does not contain N and the P concentration often is too low for the ashes to function as an NP fertilizer. Thus N and sometimes P must be added. Sludge is an interesting alternative. The main purpose of the project is to study sustainable production of forest bio energy in intensively cultivated birch and hybrid aspen stands. Another purpose is to establish experiments that can be used for long term studies and as demonstration objects. In the first few years the goal is to study the short term effects of residue based fertilization compared to conventional NPK fertilization on tree nutrient uptake, nutrient leaching, sustainability and economy. In the long term the goal is to design appropriate fertilization strategies in a residue based fertilization system for the intensive cultivation of birch and hybrid aspen without negative side effects such as large scale nutrient leaching. Four field experiments were established in 2008 and one additional experiment in hybrid aspen will be established in the spring of 2009. Elevated bud N and P concentrations after fertilization with both Ashes+N and NPK means good possibilities for future growth

  11. Comparision of the Cytotoxic Effects of Birch Bark Extract, Betulin and Betulinic Acid Towards Human Gastric Carcinoma and Pancreatic Carcinoma Drug-sensitive and Drug-Resistant Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Lage

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Betulin and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes showing cytotoxicity towards a number of cancer cell lines. These compounds can be found in the bark of the many plants. In this report we have compared the cytotoxic activity of crude birch bark extract and purified betulin and betulinic acid towards human gastric carcinoma (EPG85-257 and human pancreatic carcinoma (EPP85-181 drug-sensitive and drug-resistant (daunorubicin and mitoxantrone cell lines. Our results show significant differences in sensitivity between cell lines depending on the compound used, and suggest that both betulin and betulinic acid can be considered as a promising leads in the treatment of cancer.

  12. 桦树花粉、大豆和苹果过敏原之间高免疫球蛋白E 相关性表明中国北方地区桦树花粉过敏患者很可能同时患有花粉-食物综合征%High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-dong HAO; Yi-wu ZHENG; Zhi-xiang WANG; Xing-ai KONG; Zhi-jing SONG; Xu-xin LAI; Michael D SPANGFORT

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究中国北方地区桦树花粉过敏及花粉–食物过敏综合征。  创新点:国内首次研究花粉–食物过敏综合征,为中国北方地区此类患者的诊断和治疗提出了新思路。  方法:采集临床中过敏患者血清,检测桦树花粉及其主要过敏原特异性免疫球蛋白 E(IgE),同时检测大豆和苹果过敏原的特异性IgE,并评价其相关性。  结论:中国北方地区桦树花粉季节对此花粉过敏的患者有16.7%以上,主要是对桦树花粉第一组过敏原致敏。这些患者大多数同时对大豆和苹果的主要过敏原过敏,这种特异性IgE高相关性说明临床上存在花粉–食物过敏综合征。%Background: Birch pollen sensitization and associated pol en-food syndrome among Chinese al ergic patients have not been investigated. Methods: Sera from 203 al ergic patients from the northern part of China and col ected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pol en extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple al ergen Mal d 1 and soy bean al ergen Gly m 4 specific IgE was measured by ImmunoCAP 100. Results:Among the 203 sera, 34 sera (16.7%) had specific IgE to Bet v and of these, 28 sera (82.4%) contained Bet v 1-specific IgE. Among the 28 sera with Bet v 1-specific IgE, 27 sera (96.4%) contained Mal d 1-specific IgE and 22 sera (78.6%) contained Gly m 4-specific IgE. Of the 34 Bet v-positive sera, 6 sera (17.6%) contained no specific IgE for Bet v 1, Mal d 1, or Gly m 4. Almost al Bet v-positive sera were donated during the birch pollen season. Conclusions:The prevalence of birch al ergy among patients visiting health care during pol en season can be as high as 16.7%in Tangshan City. The majority of Chinese birch al ergic patients are IgE-sensitized to the major birch pol en al ergen Bet v 1 as wel as to the

  13. 西南桦苗木猝倒病生防菌的筛选及鉴定研究%Isolation and Identification of Damping-off Antagonist of Betula alnoides Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅; 朱潇逸; 景跃波; 庞静; 赵永红; 李翠萍; 曾郁珉; 伍建榕

    2013-01-01

    The tissue isolation and dilution-plate were used on healthy seedlings tissue , rhizosphere soil and coffee shell composting matrix for isolating antagonists of damping-off disease of Betula alnoides seedlings;and the isolated strains were identified through molecular method .The confront culture was conducted between 17 isolated strains and the pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani to screen for antagonists .The results indicated that , the fungus strains 5#, 7#and bacteria BJ and JC1showed promising inhibition effects on two pathogens .The inhibi-tion rates of fungus strains 5# and 7# to the pathogens were 91.30 % and 90.12 % respectively , two bacteria strains had the inhibition belts of 0.4 cm and 0.5 cm, with the inhibition rates of 80.40%and 78.60% respec-tively , and BJ showed the better inhibition effect .The inhibition effects of two isolated fungal strains were better than bacterial strains .%采用组织分离法和稀释平板法对西南桦猝倒病发生区健康苗木组织、根际土壤及咖啡壳堆肥化基质进行菌种分离和分子鉴定。将分离获得的17株菌株与西南桦苗木猝倒病病原菌尖孢镰刀菌和腐皮镰刀菌进行平板对峙实验,筛选病原拮抗菌。结果表明,筛选出的真菌5#、7#及细菌 BJ、 JC1对西南桦苗木猝倒病原菌尖孢镰刀菌和腐皮镰刀菌具有较强抑制效果。其中真菌5#和7#的抑菌率分别为91.30%和90.12%;细菌BJ和JC1抑菌带较宽,对峙4天分别达0.4 cm和0.5 cm,抑菌率分别为80.4%和78.6%,且BJ抑菌效果更好;真菌与细菌比较,拮抗真菌5#和7#比拮抗细菌BJ和JC1抑制热区西南桦苗木猝倒病菌效果更好。通过对峙实验筛选出的5#、7#、 BJ和JC1拮抗菌,对热区防治苗木猝倒病及生防制剂的开发应用具有参考价值。

  14. System establishment of stem sections with a bud rapid propagation in Betula 'Royal Frost' and analysis on its influences%紫叶白桦茎芽快繁体系的建立及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲; 沈海龙

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop a high-frequency plant regeneration system for Betula 'Royal Frost', taking young sterile stem section with a bud in vitro from B. 'Royal Frost' as explants, bud direct multiplication and plantlet regeneration experiments were conducted. The results showed that the optimal shoots proliferation medium was WPM medium (pH=5.4) supplemented with 0.2 μmol·L-1 6-BA and 20 g·L-1 sucrose, proliferation rate reached 10.4, and the shoots grew well. Shoots growing medium was WPM medium (pH=5.8) supplemented with 20 g·L-1 sucrose, and microshoots with 1.7 cm height and 0.89 mm of base diameter were conducted after 30 days. The microshoots became complete regenerated plantlet through exvitro rooting culture. Microshoots had the highest rooting rate of 91.5%, the most root number of 5.0, and the longest root length of 6.5 cm, in the medium with composition of 50% peat moss, 20% vermiculite and 30% pearlite. The regenerated plantlets well grew in the medium.%为建立高效的紫叶白桦组培快繁体系,以紫叶白桦试管内无菌带芽茎段作为外植体,进行芽直接增生途径的植株再生研究.结果表明:WPM+0.2 μmol·L-16-BA+20 g·L-1蔗糖(pH5.4)是适合紫叶白桦芽直接增生的增殖培养基,增殖率可达10.4,丛生芽生长状态好.WPM+20 g·L-1蔗糖(pH5.8)是适合丛生芽生长和增壮的培养基,在此培养基上培养30 d时,丛生芽可分化形成高1.7 cm、基径0.89 mm的微枝.微枝经过试管外生根培养可形成完整的再生植株.在草炭土、蛭石和珍珠岩以5:2:3体积比混合的生根基质中,微枝生根率最高(可达91.5%),不定根数量最多(5.0条),平均根长最长(6.5 cm).再生植株在上述相同基质中生长状况良好.

  15. ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN LEAF LITTER OF DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES IN URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Konoshina, S.; Khilkova, N.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of heavy metal accumulation of leaf litter of woody plants: Aesculus hippocastanum Aesculus hippocastanum, heart-shaped linden Tilia cordata, Siberian larch Larix sibirica, mountain ash Sorbus aucuparia, warty birch Betula verrucosa, growing within Orel City is given. The kinds of woody plants, which leaf litter has the largest accumulation of heavy metals are determined. The maximum total content of heavy metals in leaf litter was observed in mountain ash and birch.

  16. Spatial distribution of forests and woodlands in Iceland in accordance with the CORINE land cover classification

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Traustason 1971; Arnór Snorrason 1960

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a united geographical database for all known forest and woodland areas in Iceland, both natural and planted. This first edition of the database follows forest and woodland classifications used in the European CORINE land cover program. According to the database, the total area of forests and woodlands in Iceland was estimated as being 156,800 ha, divided into natural downy birch (Betula pubescens) woodland (115,400 ha) and forest plantations (41,400 ha). The natural birch ...

  17. UV-B absorbing pigments in spores: biochemical responses to shade in a high-latitude birch forest and implications for sporopollenin-based proxies of past environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry V. Callaghan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current attempts to develop a proxy for Earth's surface ultraviolet-B (UV-B flux focus on the organic chemistry of pollen and spores because their constituent biopolymer, sporopollenin, contains UV-B absorbing pigments whose relative abundance may respond to the ambient UV-B flux. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microspectroscopy provides a useful tool for rapidly determining the pigment content of spores. In this paper, we use FTIR to detect a chemical response of spore wall UV-B absorbing pigments that correspond with levels of shade beneath the canopy of a high-latitude Swedish birch forest. A 27% reduction in UV-B flux beneath the canopy leads to a significant (p<0.05 7.3% reduction in concentration of UV-B absorbing compounds in sporopollenin. The field data from this natural flux gradient in UV-B further support our earlier work on sporopollenin-based proxies derived from sedimentary records and herbaria collections.

  18. Climatic factors affecting radial growth of Betula ermanii and Betula platypylla in Kamchatka

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Jiří; Ishii, H.; Kyncl, Tomáš; Takahashi, K.; Vetrova, V. P.; Homma, K.; Sumida, A.; Hara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2010), s. 273-285. ISSN 0045-5067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0119; GA AV ČR IAA600050802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : tree-ring widths * boreal forest * Central Japan Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.574, year: 2010

  19. COMPREHENSIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF PINE AND BIRCH SPECIES WITH DIFFERENT SCHEME OF COMBINATION Сравнительная характеристика сосново-березовых культур с различной схемой смешения

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamiryan K. G.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the characteristics of condition and growth of Pinus sylvestris and Betula Pendula in their cohabitation in poor sand soils (A2 in the condition of some forest enterprises of Voronezh region; the most effective way of combination of this species is revealed

  20. Air pollution and the respiration of certain tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makedonska, T.; Slavova, V.

    1973-01-01

    These studies are conducted to compare the effects of air pollution on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), London plane (Platanus acerifolia Milld.) ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo L.) and European birch (Betula alba L.). With increasing concentrations of air pollution these species react by increasing the intensity of respiration, as in separate cases the increase reaches up to 40%. Most sensitive to air pollution is the horse chestnut, followed by birch and ash-leaved maple; least sensitive is London plane. With respect to gas resistance birch and ash-leaved maple rank close to the horse chestnut but are more resistant than the horse chestnut and less sensitive than London plane.

  1. The Banyan and the Birch Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Taeube, Florian A.

    embedded and arm's-length ties. We present novel data self-collected in qualitative, inductive fieldwork from more than 50 interviews in mainstream film production in Bollywood. Our findings contrast with extant research by showing that in the socio-cultural context of India the use of embedded ties is...

  2. The Banyan and the Birch Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzen, Mark; Taeube, Florian A.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research on entrepreneurial networks is largely outcome-oriented and little integrated with family firm research. In this paper, we draw on social network and entrepreneurship literatures in order to investigate how family businesses build and make use of a variety of embedded and arm’s-length ties. We present novel data self-collected in qualitative, inductive fieldwork from more than 50 interviews in mainstream film production in Bollywood. Our...

  3. Effects of tree species on soil organic carbon density:A common garden experiment of five temperate tree species%树种对土壤有机碳密度的影响:5种温带树种同质园试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薪琪; 王传宽; 韩轶

    2015-01-01

    的SOC密度主控因素不同所致。%Aims Forest trees alter litter inputs, turnover and rhizospheric activities, modify soil physical, chemical and bio-logical properties, and consequently affect soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and carbon sink strength. That how to select appropriate tree species in afforestation, reforestation and management practices is critical to enhancing forest carbon sequestration. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of tree species on SOC den-sity and vertical distributions. Methods A common garden experiment with the same climate, soil, and management history was established in Maoershan Forest Ecosystem Station, Northeast China, in 2004. The experimental design was a completely ran-domized arrangement with twenty 25 m × 25 m plots, consisting of monocultures of five tree species, including white birch (Betula platyphylla),Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica),Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mand-shurica), Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii), and Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica), each with four replicated plots. A decade after the establishment (2013–2014), we measured carbon density and related factors (i.e., bulk density, total nitrogen concentration, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, pH value) in soils of the 0–40 cm depth for these monocultures. Important findings Results showed that tree species significantly influenced the SOC density in the 0–40 cm depth (p ash> birch > larch > pine, in the 10–20 cm depth from 1.56 to 2.19 kg·m–2, in the order of pine > walnut > ash > birch > larch, in the 20–30 cm depth from 1.17 to 2.10 kg·m–2, and in the 20–40 cm depth from 0.84 to 1.43 kg·m–2. The greatest SOC density occurred in the birch stands in the 20–40 cm depth. The vertical distributions of SOC density varied with tree species. The percentage of SOC in the 0–10 cm depth over the total SOC in the soil profile was significantly higher in the walnut and larch

  4. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  5. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in R...

  6. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    The skin prick test is the allergologic test of choice, but asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens is common. However, no data in the literature describe the clinical phenotype of asymptomatic sensitized adults....

  7. Environmentally friendly utilization of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    The thesis deals with various ways of utilization of biomass. Chapter 1 compares three biomass types: birch wood Betula sp., marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, and terrestrial moss Pleurozium schreberi, as precursors for preparation of biosorbents for removal of copper ions from diluted water solutions. Small sample doses (0.5 g/100ml) of the biosorbents prepared from alga and moss enabled more than 90 % removal of Cu (II) ions from diluted water solutions (5-20 mg/l). The sample from birch...

  8. Molecular responses of plants to solar UV-B and UV-A radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Suárez, Luis Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Plant responses to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV, 280-400 nm) were assessed at different molecular levels using Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) as model species in outdoor experiments to assess the possibly interacting roles of the UV-B and UV-A wavebands in acclimation to sunlight. Solar UV-B (280-315 nm) and UV-A (315-400 nm) irradiance was attenuated with plastic films. Both solar UV-B and UV-A promoted the acclimation of silver birch and Arabido...

  9. ДЕФИНИЦИЯ ДИССЕМИНАЦИИ INONOTUS OBLIQUUS (PERS.) PIL. ТИПОМ ЛЕСА BETULA-КОНСОРЦИИ, ОПРЕДЕЛЯЮЩИМ ИНТЕГРАЛЬНУЮ КОНСТЕЛЛЯЦИЮ

    OpenAIRE

    Баландайкин, М.

    2013-01-01

    Устанавливаются особенности влияния типа леса Betula pendula Roth. на степень встречаемости в сформированных насаждениях патологического агента Inonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil.

  10. Shear Force Capacity of Various Doweled Frame Type Furniture Joints

    OpenAIRE

    KASAL, Ali; ERDİL, Yusuf Ziya; DEMİRCİ, Selçuk; ECKELMAN, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    Tests were carried out to determine the ultimate shear force capacity of numerous of doweled frame type furniture joints under controlled laboratory conditions. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum), soft maple (Acer negund), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and black walnut (Juglans nigra)were utilized in constructing the joint specimens, but all dowels were cut from yellow birch (Betula papyrifera) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Two types of specimens we...

  11. Does tree seedling growth and survival require weeding of Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera)?

    OpenAIRE

    Ammer, Christian; Schall, Peter; Wördehoff, René; Lamatsch, Klaus; Bachmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) on survival and growth of naturally regenerated silver birch (Betula pendula) and planted Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba) seedlings was studied in a weeding experiment over 3 years. Three different treatments were applied: control, mowing, and hand weeding by pulling out the entire plant. There were no consistent treatment effects on height and diameter of the tree seedlings. The coverage of Rubus fruticosus had a...

  12. Properties of Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive for Plywood Panels Manufactured from High Moisture Content Veneer

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlo Bekhta; Galyna Ortynska; Jan Sedliacik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of bonding high moisture content (15 %) birch veneers (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) with the use of modifi ed phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin. Wheat starch, rye flour, resorcinol and phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde resin were chosen as modifying agents. Dynamic viscosity, hydrogen ions concentration, solid content, curing time, pot life of developed adhesive compositions and shear strength of plywood samples were evaluated. ANOVA analysis ...

  13. Foliar Litter Nitrogen Dynamics as Affected by Forest Gap in the Alpine Forest of Eastern Tibet Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qiqian; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Zhao, Yeyi; Wei HE; Tan, Bo

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing attention on the effects of seasonal snowpack on wintertime litter decomposition, as well as the processes following it, in cold biomes. However, little information is available on how litter nitrogen (N) dynamics vary with snowpack variations created by tree crown canopies in alpine forests. Therefore, to understand the effects of seasonal snowpack on litter N dynamics during different critical stages, litterbags with fir (Abies faxoniana), birch (Betula albo-sinensis), l...

  14. Plant secondary compounds and soil microbial processes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in relation to tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Kanerva, Sanna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore soil microbial activities related to C and N cycling and the occurrence and concentrations of two important groups of plant secondary compounds, terpenes and phenolic compounds, under silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as well as to study the effects of volatile monoterpenes and tannins on soil microbial activities. The study site, located in Kivalo, northern Finland, included ca....

  15. Plant Functional Types and Their Impact Environmental Factors in a Naturally Recovered Poplar-birch Woodland on the North Slope of Qilian Mountains, China%祁连山北坡自然恢复杨桦林地植物功能型组成及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石福习; 赵成章; 任珩; 周伟; 高福元; 盛亚萍; 李丽丽

    2012-01-01

    Plant functional types (PFTs) are important in understanding the dynamics and the functions of an ecosystems, which provide also useful information for ecosystem management. In 28 observation plots of a naturally recovered popiar-birch woodland on the north slope of Qilian Mountains, China, 81 plant species were classified into 18 plant functional types (PFTs), according to their life forms (including arbors, lianas, subshrub, shrub, perennial grasses, perennial forbs and annual or biennial grass) and ecotypes (including xerophyte, xerophytic and mesophytic, mesophyte and hygrophyte). The relationships between PFTs and environmental factors were studied using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The results showed that the dominant PFTs were PFTsl6 (mesophytic perennial forbs), PFTs23 (hygrophytic perennial forbs), PFTs9 (xerophytic and mesophytic perennial forbs) and PFTslS (mesophytic shrub) on the poplar-birch restoration woodland. The stratificd structure with wood, shrub and herb layers indicated the plant life forms had a tendency of complication and structurization, and the emerging mesophyte plants reflected changes of the micro-environments. The distribution patterns of PFTs were controlled by the soil physical and chemical properties in that soil bulk density, soil organic carbon and content of nitrogen determined the characteristics of the plant life forms, while the soil water moisture and canopy cover were the main ecologis factors that affected the distribution of ecotypes. The slope position and slope aspect controlled the plant distribution pattem and formation of the community.%依据生活型(乔木、藤本、灌木、半灌木、多年生禾草、多年生杂类草和一二年生草本)和水分生态型(旱生、旱中生、中生和湿生)将祁连山北坡次生杨桦林28个调查样地中的81个物种划分为18种植物功能型(Plant function types,PFTs),并通过典范对应分析(CCA)方法研究植物功能型与环境因子间

  16. Slow pyrolysis of willow (Salix) studied with GC/MS and GC/FTIR/FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemarsson, A.; Nilsson, M.; Pedersen, J.R.; Olsson, J.O. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1999-07-01

    Small samples (15-150 mg) of wood and bark from basket willow (Salix viminalis) clone Jorr were pyrolysed at 550{sup o}C. Samples from pure wood of European White (Silver) Birch (Betula pendula (alba)) and Norway Spruce (Picea abies) were used as references. The compounds produced during pyrolysis were analysed using gas chromatographic (GC) methods: direct injection with GC/FTIR/FID, direct injection with GC/MS, and pre-concentration with GC/MS. The samples from salix, birch and spruce all produced a range of low molecular weight compounds: aliphatic acids, esters, aldehydes, and ketones as well as furans. Commonly, these samples also formed aromatic compounds: phenol, methyl-phenols, and the guiacol (2-Methoxyphenol) series of compounds. Salix and birch both produced the syringol (2,6-Dimethoxyphenol) series of compounds. Syringol derivatives were not detected from the pyrolysis of spruce. (author)

  17. Effect of freezing-thawing on the carbon and nitrogen mineralization in Changbai Mountain%冻融对长白山森林土壤碳氮矿化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾国晶; 周永斌; 代力民; 周旺明

    2012-01-01

    长白山地区秋末春初常常存在冻融过程,冻融过程影响土壤水分分布而改变土壤理化性质.通过室内模拟实验,研究了冻融过程(-20~15℃)对长白山阔叶红松(Pinus koraiensis)林和白桦(Betula platyphylla)林土壤有机碳和氮矿化过程的影响.结果表明,经过3次冻融循环,冻融处理土壤矿化速率显著高于对照处理,但经过多次冻融循环过程,冻融处理抑制土壤有机碳矿化过程,对照处理土壤有机碳矿化速率高于冻融处理(P=0.019).在培养结束后,冻融处理的阔叶红松林和白桦林土壤无机氮质量分数,分别是对照处理的1.88倍和1.96倍;冻融次数也是影响土壤有机氮矿化的一个重要因素,35次冻融循环后,阔叶红松林和白桦林土壤中无机氮分别提高了2.10倍和2.81倍.冻融循环促进了土壤有机氮的矿化,有利于土壤中有效氮的累积,为春季植物生长提供足够的氮素,但也潜在增加了土壤中无机氮流失的风险.%There are many freezing-thawing cycles (FTC) during the late autumn and early spring in ChangbaiMoutain. Freezing-thawing cycles affected the availability of soil water significantly, which would influence the soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of freezing-thawing cycles (-20-15℃)on the carbon and nitrogen mineralization of Broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forests (HS) and Birch forest (BH) soils. The results showed that the carbon mineralization rate of freezing-thawing treatment was higher than control treatment after the third freezing-thawing cycles. But, with the numbers of freezing-thawing increasing, the freezing-thawing restrained the carbon mineralization, and the carbon mineralization rate of control treatment was higher than freezing-thawing (/MI.0I9). The inorganic nitrogen concentration in soil of HS and BH were 1.88 and 1.96 times as that of the control treatment

  18. 拉萨-林芝植被样带不同群落类型的细根生物量%Biomass of Fine Root in Different Community Type on the Tibetan Vegetation Transect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永涛; 石培礼; 徐玲玲

    2009-01-01

    Fine root biomass was measured by soil core sampler in four community type on Tibetan Plateau, of which include two coppice of Betida platyphylla and Quercus aquifolioides , one shrub of Salix oritrepha, and one coniferous woodland of Pinus densata. The fine root density were Betida platyphylla of (785.9±290.4) g·m~(-2), Quercus aquifolioides of (801.0±279.5) g·m~(-2) , Salix oritrepha of (376.0±146.0) g·m~(-2) and Pinus densata of (431.2 ±171.1) g·m~(-2) . Result showed that the fine root density of two coppices was significantly higher than that of shrub and coniferous woodland. Dead fine root was 16.2% of the total fine root in Betula platyphylla, and the percentage were about 25% in other three type of forest. Distribution of fine root had the same pattern that high density of fine root appeared at 0~10 cm soil depth.%@@ 细根通常是指植被地下根系中直径小于2 nun的根,其生产和周转直接影响着整个生态系统的碳平衡和养分循环.在森林生态系统中约3%~84%(大部分为10%-60%)的净初级生产力被用于细根的生产(张小全等,2001);而细根的周转则是森林土壤C累积的最大输入量,如果忽略细根的生产、死亡和分解,土壤有机物质和养分元素的周转将被低估20%-80%(Vogt et al.,1986;1996).

  19. AcEST: DK954251 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ia with plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sporophytes...... 37 0.038 sp|Q42377|EC2_ARATH EC protein homolog 2 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana... 37 0.049 sp|Q40396|MT2_NICGU Metalloth...ct: 30 GAEMGVGAENGCKCGANCQCDPCTC 54 >tr|Q508T1|Q508T1_9ROSI Metallothionein-like protein OS=Betula platyphylla PE=4 SV=1 Length...56 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0019_P05. 5' end sequence. Accession DK954251 Tissue type prothall...p|P25860|MT2A_ARATH Metallothionein-like protein 2A OS=Arabidop... 39 0.013 sp|P43396|MT1_COFAR Metallothionein-like prote

  20. AcEST: DK962973 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ia with plantlets Developmental stage gametophytes with sporophytes...032 sp|Q42377|EC2_ARATH EC protein homolog 2 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana... 37 0.042 sp|Q40396|MT2_NICGU Metallothionein-like prote...MGVGAENGCKCGANCQCDPCTC 54 >tr|Q508T1|Q508T1_9ROSI Metallothionein-like protein OS=Betula platyphylla PE=4 SV=1 Length...47 Definition Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0015_E16. 5' end sequence. Accession DK962973 Tissue type prothall...ionein-like protein 2A OS=Arabidop... 39 0.011 sp|P43396|MT1_COFAR Metallothionein-like prote

  1. СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ХЛОРОФИЛЛА И КАРОТИНОИДОВ В ЛИСТЬЯХ ОДУВАНЧИКА ЛЕКАРСТВЕННОГО (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE) И БЕРЕЗЫ ПОВИСЛОЙ (BETULA PENDULA ROTH), РАСТУЩИХ В Г. ТАМБОВЕ

    OpenAIRE

    Шубина, Анна

    2011-01-01

    Для оценки состояния окружающей среды в ряде районов города Тамбова изучено содержание фотосинтетических пигментов (хлорофилла а и b, каротиноидов) в листьях одуванчика лекарственного (Taraxacum officinale) и березы повислой (Betula pendula Roth).

  2. Hybride composites of PE with birch fibers and nanoclay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokta, B.; Kwei-Nam, L.; Fortelný, Ivan; Lednický, František; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 13 (2007), s. 23-25. ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polymeric Materials in Automotive and Rubber Conference /19./. Bratislava, 15.05.2007-17.05.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : impact strength * tensile Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.683, year: 2007

  3. Behaviour of a birch plywood under various experimental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano Lydie; Galpin Bertrand; Grolleau Vincent; Capdeville Jean-Damien

    2015-01-01

    Liquid Natural Gaz -LNG- carriers must provide cryogenic reliability and safety for at least 40 years. Most of the insulation systems belong to the so-called membrane type, in which the “insulation complex” is composed of a metal membrane as a barrier, a plywood panel, insulation foam and a plywood panel glued to the inner hull. During construction and exploitation at cryogenic temperature, an impact of the membrane may occur and could lead to a LNG leakage. In order to evaluate this risk, an...

  4. Behaviour of a birch plywood under various experimental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Lydie; Galpin, Bertrand; Grolleau, Vincent; Capdeville, Jean-Damien

    2015-09-01

    Liquid Natural Gaz -LNG- carriers must provide cryogenic reliability and safety for at least 40 years. Most of the insulation systems belong to the so-called membrane type, in which the "insulation complex" is composed of a metal membrane as a barrier, a plywood panel, insulation foam and a plywood panel glued to the inner hull. During construction and exploitation at cryogenic temperature, an impact of the membrane may occur and could lead to a LNG leakage. In order to evaluate this risk, and the role of the plywood in the perforation process of the membrane, a series of original impact tests are carried out at room and cryogenic temperatures on metal-plywood samples thanks to a specially designed catapult. In order to obtain a reliable numerical simulation of the impact, a series of impact and out of plane compression tests at room and cryogenic temperatures are carried out. Thanks to a design experiment, we identified the influence of the moisture content, from 2% up to 30%, and of the temperature, from - 173 ∘C up to +20 ∘C, on the strain rate sensitivity of the plywood.

  5. Connolly Hospital (Silver Birch & Woodland Units), Blanchardstown, Dublin 15.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Strik, Caroline M

    2010-05-24

    Abstract Background High fat diets have long been associated with weight gain and obesity, and the weak satiety response elicited in response to dietary lipids is likely to play a role. Suppression of appetite and food intake has consistently been shown to be diminished with high fat relative to either high protein or carbohydrate meals. There is however some evidence that the satiating capacity of lipids may be modulated when physicochemical properties are altered, but studies investigating the effect of lipid saturation on appetite have generated inconsistent findings. This study investigated the effects of changes in fatty acid saturation on post-ingestive satiety and energy intake. Methods High-fat (HF) test breakfasts (2.0 MJ) containing 26 g lipid were given to 18 healthy, lean men in a 3 treatment randomised cross-over design, each treatment separated by a washout of at least 3 days. The breakfasts were high in saturated (SFA, 65% of total fat), polyunsaturated (PUFA, 76%) or monounsaturated (MUFA, 76%) fatty acids, and comprised 2 savoury muffins. Participants rated appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS) to assess palatability immediately following the meals, and hunger and fullness prior to the HF breakfast and throughout the day. Energy intake was measured by covert weighing of a lunch meal which was served 3.5 h after the breakfast, and from which the participants ate ad libitum. Results There was no difference in VAS ratings of pleasantness, visual appearance, smell, taste, aftertaste and overall palatability between the 3 high-fat test breakfasts. However, there was also no differential effect of the 3 treatments on ratings of hunger, fullness, satisfaction or prospective food consumption during the 3.5 h following the breakfast meal and over the full 6 h experiment. Energy and macronutrient intake at lunch also did not differ between treatments (mean, sem; SFA: 5275.9 ± 286.5 kJ; PUFA: 5227.7 ± 403.9 kJ; MUFA: 5215.6 ± 329.5 kJ; P > 0.05). The maximum difference in energy intake between treatments was less than 2%. Conclusions There was no evidence of a difference in post-ingestion satiety between high fat meals which differed in saturation profile in this group of lean, healthy men. Trial Registration ACTRN12610000193077

  6. Development of Bioavailable Pools of Base Cations and P after Afforestation of Volcanic Soils in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Few long-term studies have been conducted on changes in soil nutrients after afforestation in Iceland, a country with a young history of forest management. While fertilization was shown to improve survival of seedlings in the first years after planting on the nutrient limited soils, knowledge about......): native birch (Betula pubescens) and introduced Siberian larch (Larix sibirica). A treeless heathland was included to present soil conditions prior to forest establishment. The sites are part of the largest forest area in Iceland, located in the east of the country. Results revealed an effect of stand age...

  7. Inhibition of the growth of Alexandrium tamarense by algicidal substances in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Xin-Lian; Qi, Yu-Zao

    2009-10-01

    The wood sawdust from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) exhibited stronger inhibition on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense than those from alder (Alnus cremastogyne), pine (Pinus massoniana), birch (Betula alnoides) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum). The water extract, acetone-water extract and essential oil from fir sawdust were all shown to inhibit the growth of A. tamarense. The inhibition of fir essential oil was the strongest among all the above wood sources while the half effective concentration was only 0.65 mg/L. These results suggested that the fir essential oil may play an important role in the algicidal effect of Chinese fir. PMID:19634014

  8. Analysis of trees planted in vicinity of hospitals in Ljubljana as a source of pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Kofol Seliger, Andreja; Pirnat, Janez

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses woody plants growing in the vicinity of hospital buildings situated along Zalog Road, Korytko Street, Šlajmar Street, Bohorič Street and Njegoš Street in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Woody plants are an immediate potential source of allergenic pollen, affecting all park users such as patients, visitors and hospital employees. The most allergenic tree species in the park was found to be birch (Betula pendula Roth.), which accounts for 6.8% of all registered trees. The low allergenic...

  9. PURIFICATION OF HARDWOOD-DERIVED AUTOHYDROLYSATES

    OpenAIRE

    Joni Tapani Lehto,; Raimo Juhani Alén

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing hydrolysates (1.1 to 14.9% of wood dry matter) obtained from autohydrolysis (at 130 to 150°C for 30 to 120 minutes) of birch (Betula pendula) chips prior to pulping were purified with respect to non-carbohydrate materials, without carbohydrate losses, either by ethyl acetate extraction or XAD-4 resin treatment. In the former case, about 50% of lignin and practically all the furanoic compounds (2-furaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural) could be removed, whereas in th...

  10. КОРРЕЛИРОВАНИЕ СОДЕРЖАНИЯ АСКОРБИНОВОЙ КИСЛОТЫ В АССИМИЛЯЦИОННОМ АППАРАТЕ BETULA PENDULA ROTH. С ДЕЙСТВИЕМ ПАТОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО АГЕНТА

    OpenAIRE

    Баландайкин, М.

    2014-01-01

    Рассматриваются особенности влияния совокупности антропогенных факторов и фитопатологического состояния дерева Betula pendula на концентрацию аскорбиновой кислоты в ассимиляционном аппарате. По критерию воздействия Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pilat и присутствию поллютантов оценивалась адаптационная способность растения к действию стрессоров, а также возможность выработки механизмов, отвечающих за ингибирование биосинтеза аскорбиновой кислоты. Показано, что из всех проанализированных в дан...

  11. Epitope grafting, re-creating a conformational Bet v 1 antibody epitope on the surface of the homologous apple allergen Mal d 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens; Ferreras, Mercedes; Ipsen, Henrik; Würtzen, Peter A; Gajhede, Michael; Larsen, Jørgen N; Lund, Kaare; Spangfort, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Birch-allergic patients often experience oral allergy syndrome upon ingestion of vegetables and fruits, most prominently apple, that is caused by antibody cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies in patients to proteins sharing molecular surface structures with the major birch pollen group 1 allergen...... from Betula verrucosa (Bet v 1). Still, to what extent two molecular surfaces need to be similar for clinically relevant antibody cross-reactivity to occur is unknown. Here, we describe the grafting of a defined conformational antibody epitope from Bet v 1 onto the surface of the homologous apple...... allergen Malus domestica group 1 (Mal d 1). Engineering of the epitope was accomplished by genetic engineering substituting amino acid residues in Mal d 1 differing between Bet v 1 and Mal d 1 within the epitope defined by the mAb BV16. The kinetic parameters characterizing the antibody binding interaction...

  12. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obersteiner, Andrea; Gilles, Stefanie; Frank, Ulrike; Beck, Isabelle; Häring, Franziska; Ernst, Dietrich; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Schmid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20) and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55). With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices) was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators). Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and ozone (O3)). What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress. PMID:26910418

  13. The importance of the stationary and individual pollen monitoring for the diagnostic of pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Myszkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate pollen seasons of selected taxa with particular reference to allergic taxa such as birch (Betula sp., grasses (Poaceae, mugwort (Artemisia sp. in Cracow in 2003 and 2004 (project number 3 PO5D 034 24 funded by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Pollen concentrations obtained using the stationary Burkard trap and personal Partrap FA 52 were compared. The volumetric method was used in the study. Average daily concentrations (pollen grains × m-3 were obtained by counting pollen grains every hour along 4 longitudinal transects and applying an appropriate conversion factor. Duration of the pollen season was determined using the 95% method. Variations in annual totals of pollen grains (birch and mugwort, in start dates (especially for grasses and in the season duration (birch and grasses were found. The comparison of pollen concentrations obtained using the stationary and personal traps at the same place showed non statistically significant correlation for all the studied taxa and statistically significant correlations for birch, mugwort and grasses (Spearman rank correlation. However, the statistically significant differences between the concentrations obtained using Burkard and Partrap carried by patients (Wilcoxon's test were noted. Very low concentrations of pollen grains measured indoor (work, flats and the influence of the local plants growing in separate place (courtyard of the Allergology Department on the pollen concentration were found.

  14. Effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, light availability and tree species on the quality of leaf detritus as a resource for treehole mosquitoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, M.; Herms, D.A.; Walker, E.D.; Merritt, R.W. [Michigan State Univ., Dept. of Entomology, East Lansing, MI (United States); Ayres, M.P. [Dartmouth College, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Hanover, NH (United States); Kubiske, M.E.; Pregitzer, K.S. [Michigan Technological Univ., School of Forestry and Lake Superior Ecosystems Research Center, Houghton, MI (United States); Kaufman, M.G. [Michigan State Univ., W.K. Kellogg Biological Station, Hickory Corners, MI (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Elevated CO{sub 2} could alter the productivity of heterotrophic aquatic ecosystems through effects on allochthonous litter inputs. The effects of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, light availability to trees and tree species, on leaf detritus quality as a food resource for eastern treehole mosquitoes (Aedes triseriatus) were examined. Larvae were reared in laboratory microcosms (simulated treeholes) with naturally-senesced, abscised foliage from seedlings of red oak (Quercus rubra) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) grown in ambient and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} environments. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not have significant effects on any measure of mosquito performance. In contrast, host species and light availability had dramatic effects on mosquito development time and survival; light availability had additional effects on adult size. Mosquito reproductive potential ({+-} SE) averaged 8.4 {+-} 1.5 females female{sup -1}) generation{sup -1} when litter input was from birch-sun leaves, but was 19.6 {+-} 1.8 when the litter was from birch-shade leaves and 13.0 {+-} 1.8 when from oak-sun leaves. Mosquito development time was nearly halved when the litter input was from oak-sun leaves versus birch-sun leaves, suggesting a potential for even greater demographic effects (e.g. two generations per year instead of one could yield a 20-fold increase in annual growth rate). Trophic transfer rates (mg insect detritivore g litter{sup -1} d{sup -1}) were 3-fold greater on birch-shade leaves than on birch-sun leaves. Changes in insolation and tree species composition can have important consequences for forest ecosystems, because of effects on litter quality that impact microbial saprobes and, ultimately, invertebrate detritivores. (au)

  15. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from stems of Betula Pendula pinus sylvestris and Picea Abies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčová, Kateřina; Halmeenmäki, E.; Pavelka, Marian; Dušek, Jiří; Bäck, J.; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, M.

    Helsinky: Finnish association for aerosol resarch FAAR, 2014, s. 408-412. ISBN 978-952-7091-01-2. ISSN 0784-3496. [International Aerosol Conference 2014. Busan (KR), 28.08.2014-02.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : methane and nitrous oxide flux * boreal forest trees Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Plant Diversity and Its Elevational Gradient Patterns in Wulu Mountain, Shanxi, China%山西五鹿山植物物种多样性及其海拔梯度格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲波; 苗艳明; 张钦弟; 毕润成

    2012-01-01

    Samplings were gathered and examined in forests along altitudinal gradients of Wulu Mountain, China. The results indicated that the major communities in the forests can be classified as Quercus wutaishanica, Pinus labulaeformis, Acer ginnala, Betula platyphylla, Pinus bungeana, Syringa reticulate- Acer ginnala and Betula platyphylla community. Our research suggests that the Quercus wutaishanica community appears to be a dominant community in a successional stage toward temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests. The species richness in different layers of these communities can be distinguished as, herb layer > shrub layer > tree layer. Both the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Simpson diversity index showed similar patterns. The species diversity indices of different layers and overall importance value of the forest communities indicate that the forests appear to be successional and sub-climax communities in Wulu Mountain. Our research also suggests that there is a peak with higher species diversity index in the communities of middle elevation. We suggested that the pattern could be affected by temperature, moisture , and human disturbance. The pattern could also be influenced by the nature of successional stages and sub-climax communities.%采用典型取样法,沿海拔梯度对五鹿山自然植被进行调查.结果表明:五鹿山主要群落类型为辽东栎(Quercus wutaishanica)群落、油松(Pinus tabulaeformis)群落、茶条槭(Acer ginnala)群落、白皮松(Pinus bungeana)群落、暴马丁香-茶条槭(Syringa reticulate-Acer ginnala)群落和白桦(Betula platyphylla)群落.其中,辽东栎群落略占优势,这可能暗示着该地区植被具有继续向暖温带落叶阔叶林演替的倾向.各层次植物物种丰富度呈现出草本层>灌木层>乔木层特征,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Simpson多样性指数整体规律为草本层>灌木层>乔木层.以五鹿山森林群落不同层次的各种物种多样性指数和森林

  17. 高原湿地纳帕海周边山地不同植被类型枯落物持水特性%Water Holding Characteristics of Litters of Different Species in Mountainous Area of Napahai Plateau Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆梅; 田昆; 赖建东; 赵一鹤; 魏江舟

    2011-01-01

    The water holding capacity was characterized for the litters from eight plantation types in the mountainous area of Napahai Plateau Wetland. The results show that, for all the eight plantation types, the semi-decomposed and decomposed layer had higher litter storage and water reserving capacity than the freshly-littered layer. The litter storage decreased from highwood, shrub to waste grassland. Specifically, the litter storages of natural Picea asperata Mast, mixed forest of Pinus densata Mast and Rhododendron simsii Planch, mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk, Crataegus pinnatifida Bge and waste grassland demonstrated a capacity of 36.60, 30.67, 26.63, 25.61 and 5. 30 t/hm2 , respectively. Comparatively, mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk had the highest water holding capacity, and seriously human-disturbed Pinus densata Mast had the lowest. The water holding capacity of the litters increased rapidly during the initial first hour, and then slightly increased after 6~10 hour saturation. The highest water absorption rates were observed in the first 30 minute saturation time, and thereafter the rates decreased substantially. Water loss rates were similar for all the litters, showing a linear decreasing trend. Systematic analysis indicated that the litter of mixed forest of Salix cupularis Rehd and Betula platyphylla Suk had the highest water holding capacity, the strongest flood-adjusting capacity, the most ideal water loss process and the highest water supply capacity, and the best hydro-ecological effect among the eight plantation types.%对高原湿地纳帕海周边山地8种不同植被类型枯落物持水特性进行了研究.结果表明,(1)8种植被类型枯落物储量和总持水量均表现出半分解+分解层>未分解层的变化趋势;枯落物储量呈现从乔木林到灌木林和荒草地逐渐降低的总体趋势;高山柳+白桦混交林最大总持水量最大,受人为干扰较为

  18. Holocene vegetation and climate change on the Haanja heights, South-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of forests on the Haanja Heights has been controlled by external factors, including climate, soils, hydrology, and human impact. The sediment sequence from Lake Kirikumaee, which covers about 12 000 years, records the vegetation history throughout the Late Glacial and Holocene. In the Alleroed, woodland tundra with sparse birch and willow was established. Grass-shrub tundra in the Younger Dryas was replaced by birch forest in the Pre-Boreal. During the Holocene two major shifts in vegetation dynamics occurred: the first about 8500 BP with a sharp decline in Betula-Pinus forest and development of broad-leaved forest, and the second about 3500 BP, with a decline in broad-leaved forest and regeneration of Pinus-Betula forest with a high share of Picea. The climate modelling, based on pollen record and lake-level changes, suggest cold, severe climate with low precipitation values in the early Pre-Boreal. Between 9500-8500 BP the climate was rather stable. The lake level first rose, then stabilized, and finally dropped. The sharp climate amelioration in the late Boreal together with the humidity increase resulted in a lake-level rise. The decreased precipitation and rather high summer temperatures, increased evapotranspiration, and reduced water balance are characteristic of the Sub-Boreal. Since 3500 BP, the climate deteriorated and mixed coniferous forest started to dominate. Several small climatic fluctuations, including the Little Ice Age cooling, have been traced by modelling. (author)

  19. Adaptation of Forest Management Regimes in Southern Sweden to Increased Risks Associated with Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Subramanian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the growth rates of most tree species in Sweden is expected to increase in the near future as a result of climate change, increased risks of damage by storms and various pests and pathogens, notably root rot and bark beetles, may also occur. Thus, forest management practices such as changes to thinning regimes, reductions in rotation lengths, and switching to other species (native or exotic may represent adaptive management strategies to increase the resistance and resilience of Swedish forests to climate change. Clearly, thorough analyses examining the effects of anticipated climatic changes on damage levels, and the potentially relieving effects of possible management adaptations are needed before implementing such changes. In this study, damage caused by storms, root rot and bark beetles (single and in various combinations under selected climate and management scenarios were simulated in Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst stands. The results indicate that reductions in thinning intensity and rotation lengths could improve both volume production and profitability in southern Sweden. In addition, cultivation of rapidly growing species, such as hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz. and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx., could be as profitable as Norway spruce cultivation, or even more profitable. However, slow-growing species, such as Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth, Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. indicated low economic output in terms of Land Expectation Value.

  20. Speciation of Mg, Mn and Zn in extracts of medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Guenther [Institute of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139, Dortmund (Germany); Konieczynski, Pawel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, ul. Hallera 107, 80-416, Gdansk (Poland)

    2003-04-01

    Aqueous extracts of birch leaves (folium Betulae), peppermint leaves (folium Menthae), sage leaves (folium Salviae), valerian roots (radix Valerianae), and dandelion roots (radix Taraxaci) are analysed for the three essential elements magnesium, manganese and zinc. Ultrafiltration reveals that 60-100% of these metals are present as low molecular weight species (<5000 Da). Further characterisation of the low molecular weight fraction is done by using size exclusion chromatography and different detectors, namely element specific AAS detection, diode array UV-VIS detection and electrochemical detection. The similarities and differences of the plant extracts are well reflected by the respective chromatograms, and typical plant constituents can be identified by their spectral and electrochemical properties (e.g. flavonoids in Betula). Mg and Mn species are selectively detected by AAS in closely neighbouring chromatographic regions for all five samples. However, there are significant differences between the samples investigated. In all cases a good correlation exists between detection of these metals (Mg, Mn) and pulsed amperometric detection (PAD), which is selective for carbohydrates. The respective molecular weight of carbohydrate species is in the range of approximately 300-600 Da. The distribution of zinc species (detectable only in the Betula extract) is totally different from that of Mg and Mn species. For zinc, many more species are detected, and there is no correlation to carbohydrates; instead (poly)phenols are involved in zinc complexation. (orig.)

  1. Microbial Diversity of Primary Korean Pine Forests and Artificial Forests in Liangshui National Natural Reserve%凉水自然保护区原始红松林与人工林土壤微生物多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彦萃; 熊毅; 张志

    2013-01-01

    采用BIOLOG微平板法,研究了小兴安岭凉水国家自然保护区内原始红皮云杉( Picea koraiensis Na-kai)红松林、青楷槭( Acer tegmentosum Maxim.)红松林与人工兴安落叶松( Larix gmelini Rupr.)林、白桦( Betula platyphylla Suk.)林土壤微生物多样性特征。结果表明:各林型土壤微生物AWCD值随土层深度与季节变化表现为,在表层与0~10 cm土层中,四季2种原始红松林均高于人工林;在>10~20 cm土层中以人工林在春、夏、秋三季最高,冬季仍以原始红松林最高。不同土层的3种微生物多样性指数均以青楷槭红松林最高,且显著高于2种人工林。可见,原始阔叶红松林土壤微生物比原始针叶红松林及人工林土壤微生物具有更丰富的多样性。%By BIOLOG microplate method, an investigation was conducted to study the soil microbial diversity characteristics of Picea.koraiensis Nakai, Acer tegmentosum Maxim, artificial Larix.gmelini Rupr.and Betula platyphylla Suk.in Liang-shui National Nature Reserve, Xiaoxing’an Mountain.The soil microbial AWCD values of the forest-type varied with soil depth and seasons:in the surface and 0-10 cm layer of soil, it was highest in two original Korean pine forest throughout the year;in the 10-20 cm layer of soil, it was highest in plantation in spring, summer and autumn, while it was highest in the primitive Korean pine forest in winter;three different soil microbial diversity indexes of all soil layers were highest in Acer tegmentosum Maxim forest, and significantly higher than those of two plantation.Therefore, the soil microbial diversi-ty of original Broad-leaved Korean Pine forest is richer than that of the original coniferous Korean pine forest and planta-tion.

  2. 基于CCA排序的霍山森林植物功能型划分%Classification of Plant Functional Types Based on CCA Ordination in Forest at Huoshan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁献华; 毕润成; 闫明

    2011-01-01

    采用群落生态学的调查方法,在霍山七里峪设置80个样方并采集土壤样品.通过计算重要值和测定土壤理化性质(pH值、含水量、有机质含量、N、P、K含量),建立样方×物种矩阵和样方×环境矩阵,用CCA排序划分植物功能型.结果表明,随着海拔等环境因子的变化,可以将七里峪天然次生林划分为:F1山核桃Carya cathayensis Sarg.、虎榛子Ostryopsis davidiana Decaisne、披针叶苔草Carex lanceolata Boott.;F2油松Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.、三裂绣线菊Spiraea trilobata Linn.、荩草Arthraxon hispidus(Thunb.)Makio.;F3辽东栎Quercus wutaishanica Blume、连翘Forsythia suspensa(Thunb.)Vahl.Enum.、披针叶苔草;F4华北落叶松Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr.、美丽胡枝子Lespedeza formosa(Vog.)Koehne、林荫千里光Senecio nemorensis Linn;F5 白桦Betula platyphylla Suk、毛榛子Corylus heterophylla Fisch.Ex Trautv.、披针叶苔草5个功能型.%This thesis adopted the investigation method of community ecology, 80 quadrates were set up and 80 soil samples were collected from QiLiYu. of Huoshan Mountain. By calculating the importance value and measurement the soil physical and chemical properfies ( soil pH, contents of soil water, contents of organic, N, P, K, etc. ), matrix of quadrates × species and matrix of quadrates × environmental factors were established. PlFls were defined according to CCA ordination. The results showed that: With changes of elevation and other environmental factors, HuoMountainQiliyu secondary forest can be divided into:Fl Carya cathayensis Sarg., Ostryopsis davidiana Decaisne, Carex lanceolata Boott. ; F2 Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. , Quercus wutaishanica Blume, Spiraea trilobata Linn, Arthraxon hispidus ( Thunb. ) Makio.; F3 Quercus wutaishanica Blume, Forsythia suspensa ( Thunb. ) Vahl. Eunm,, Carex lunceolata Boott. ;F4 Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr. , Lespedeza formosa ( Vng. ) Koehne、Senecio nemorensis Linn;F5 Betula platyphylla

  3. 5种温带森林生态系统细根的时间动态及其影响因子%Temporal dynamics and influencing factors of fine roots in five Chinese temperate forest ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向飞; 王传宽; 全先奎

    2013-01-01

    Production and mortality of fine roots (diameter ≤ 2mm) and influencing factors are important to energy flow and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems,but remain poorly understood mainly due to the limitation of methodology.In this study,we used a minirhizotron technique to investigate the temporal dynamics in fine root length production (FRP) and mortality (FRM) of five representative forest ecosystems in Northeast China during the period between May and October of 2010.Soil temperature (Ts),soil moisture (Ms),and leaf area index (LAI) were simultaneously measured for each stand.The stands were aspen-birch forest dominated by Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla,hardwood forest dominated by Fraxinus mandshurica and Juglans mandshurica,Mongolian oak forest dominated by Quercus mongolica,Korean pine (Pinus Koraiensis) plantation,and Dahurian larch (Larix grnelinii) plantation.The experimental design included five forest types,three 20 m×30 m replicate plots in each forest type.The results showed that the FRP and FRM were significantly (P<0.001) affected by forest types,sampling times and their interactions.The FRP was (13.34 ± 0.90)μm·cm-2·d-1(mean ± SE),(13.04 ± 0.82) μm·cm-2·d-1,(8.74 ± 1.14) μm·cm-2·d-1,(8.02 ± 2.77) iμm·cm-2·d-1,and (7.59 ± O.82) μm· cm-2· d-1 for the aspen-birch,hardwood,larch,pine,and oak stands,respectively;and the FRM was (5.02 ±0.36) μm·cm-2·d-1,(6.85±0.32) μm·cm-2·d-1,(5.05 ±0.61) μm·cm-2·d-1,(3.88 ± 0.35) μm·cm-2·d-1,and (3.88 ± 0.61) μm·cm-2·d-1,correspondingly.The FRP showed a unimodal seasonal pattern with peaks varying with forest types.The FRM increased gradually as the growing season proceeded,and reached its maximum at the end of the growing season for all the stands except for the aspen-birch and hardwood stands where it peaked in early August.Ts,Ms,and LAI all exerted significant positive effects on FRP and FRM (P<0.05),which,together,explained more than 68% and 53% of

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of homeopathic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aabel, S; Fossheim, S; Rise, F

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of homeopathy is controversial. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to study homeopathic solutions, showing provocative results. We examined the reproducibility of one of the allegedly positive studies. 1H NMR spectra were recorded for Sulphur D4, diluted and succussed up to D30 (called potentization) at two different frequencies (300 and 500 MHz). The Sulphur solution had been potentiated according to homeopathic principles with deionized water and alcohol. Water proton T1 relaxation measurements were performed also at 20 MHz for the different potentiated Sulphur solutions. Furthermore, the homeopathic remedy Betula alba 30c (birch pollen extract) and appropriate control solution (deionized water, unsuccussed solutions and placebo globules) were measured analogously, both with frequencies giving spectra and T1 relaxometry. The Sulphur remedies showed identical one dimensional proton spectra (1H NMR) at 300 and 500 MHz, regardless of dilution/succussion stage, from D4 to D30. Furthermore, Betula 30c as a potentiated solution and its controls (ethanol dilutions and Betula diluted but not succussed) showed identical spectra. Nor were there any statistically significant differences in longitudinal (T1) relaxation times between deionized water and Sulphur D10 to D30 preparations. The shorter T1 of the Sulphur D4 preparation could be ascribed to the higher microviscosity within the sample matrix caused by the high concentration of dissolved material. Also, the T1 values of the Betula alba 30c preparation (in globular form) and control placebo globules were identical. In conclusion, published results from NMR research on homeopathy indicating differences between homeopathic solutions and control samples could not be reproduced. PMID:11212083

  5. 黑河地区不同优势树种林下枯落物量的比较%Comparing the Litter Amounts under Dominant Tree Species of Heihe District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元发; 吴铭

    2014-01-01

    枯落物是森林生态系统物质循环的一个重要组成部分,具有极为重要的水文功能,枯落物水文生态功能的发挥首先取决于枯落物的量。通过对黑河地区不同优势树种林下枯落量的调查与测定,结果表明:黑河地区各种优势树种中,落叶松的单位面积上枯落物总干质量最大,达到5.46 t 灋hm -2,而樟子松的单位面积上枯落物总干质量最小,只有1.08t 灋hm -2,赤杨、山杨、柞树、白桦、黑桦单位面积上枯落物总干质量为2.93~4.9t 灋hm -2。%Litter is an important constituent part in forestry ecosystem cycle ,with vital hydrological function ,which is determined primarily by litter amount .In this work ,litter amount under dominant tree species of Heihe district was surveyed .The result manifested litter amount of unit area was highest under Larix gmelinii ,up to 5 .46 t · hm -2 , while it was lowest under Pinus sylvestris ,only with 1 .08 t · hm -2 .Under A lnus japonica ,Populus davidiana , Quercus mongolica ,Betula platyphylla ,Betula dahurica ,it was from 2 .93 to 4 .9 t · hm -2 .

  6. Photosynthetic limitation of several representative subalpine species in the Catalan Pyrenees in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Martínez, J; Fleck, I

    2016-07-01

    Information on the photosynthetic process and its limitations is essential in order to predict both the capacity of species to adapt to conditions associated with climate change and the likely changes in plant communities. Considering that high-mountain species are especially sensitive, three species representative of subalpine forests of the Central Catalan Pyrenees: mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill.), birch (Betula pendula Roth) and rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) were studied under conditions associated with climate change, such as low precipitation, elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] and high solar irradiation incident at Earth's surface, in order to detect any photosynthetic limitations. Short-term high [CO2 ] increased photosynthesis rates (A) and water use efficiency (WUE), especially in birch and mountain pine, whereas stomatal conductance (gs ) was not altered in either species. Birch showed photosynthesis limitation through stomatal closure related to low rainfall, which induced photoinhibition and early foliar senescence. Rhododendron was especially affected by high irradiance, showing early photosynthetic saturation in low light, highest chlorophyll content, lowest gas exchange rates and least photoprotection. Mountain pine had the highest A, photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) and light-saturated rates of net CO2 assimilation (Asat ), which were maintained under reduced precipitation. Furthermore, maximum quantum yield (Fv /Fm ), thermal energy dissipation, PRI and SIPI radiometric index, and ascorbate content indicated improved photoprotection with respect to the other two species. However, maximum velocity of carboxylation of RuBisco (Vcmax ) indicated that N availability would be the main photosynthetic limitation in this species. PMID:26833754

  7. Thermal Insulation from Hardwood Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, I.; Grinfelds, U.; Vikele, L.; Rozenberga, L.; Zeps, M.; Luguza, S.

    2015-11-01

    Adequate heat is one of the prerequisites for human wellbeing; therefore, building insulation is required in places where the outside temperature is not suitable for living. The climate change, with its rising temperatures and longer dry periods, promotes enlargement of the regions with conditions more convenient for hardwood species than for softwood species. Birch (Betula pendula) is the most common hardwood species in Latvia. The aim of this work was to obtain birch fibres from wood residues of plywood production and to form low-density thermal insulation boards. Board formation and production was done in the presence of water; natural binder, fire retardant and fungicide were added in different concentrations. Board properties such as density, transportability or resistance to particulate loss, thermal conductivity and reaction to fire were investigated. This study included thermal insulation boards with the density of 102-120 kg/m3; a strong correlation between density and the binder amount was found. Transportability also improved with the addition of a binder, and 0.1-0.5% of the binder was the most appropriate amount for this purpose. The measured thermal conductivity was in the range of 0.040-0.043 W/(m·K). Fire resistance increased with adding the fire retardant. We concluded that birch fibres are applicable for thermal insulation board production, and it is possible to diversify board properties, changing the amount of different additives.

  8. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Jia

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  9. Belowground carbon pools and dynamics in China's warm temperate and sub-tropical deciduous forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the first estimates of pools and dynamics of microbes, roots, plant litter and soil organic carbon (SOC in three dominant types of China's vast deciduous forest area: Betula platyphylla, Quercus liaotungensis, and Quercus aliena varacuteserrata. Organic matter degradation rates overshadowed litter inputs as the main determinant of the soil carbon stocks. Across the three forests, rates of litter decomposition were also indicative for turnover rates of SOC. Litter and SOC decay was faster in the sub-tropical than in the warm-temperate forests. Among the latter, SOC turnover was highest in the forest producing the higher-quality litter. Microbial biomass was, as expected, correlated with SOC content. Microbial activity, in contrast, was highest at the sub-tropical forest, despite the lower SOC availability, lower fraction of labile SOC, and lower soil microbial biomass. These results may contribute to increased understanding of controls over belowground carbon cycling in deciduous forests.

  10. Root biomass and underground C and N storage of the primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its different succession stages in Changbai Mountain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liyun; LUO Tianxiang; WU Songtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied root biomass and underground carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage of a more than 200-year-old primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its two 20- and 80-year-old secondary Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forests in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The results showed that with forest succession,the root biomass of 20-year-old,80-year-old,and primitive forests was 2.437,2.742,and 4.114 kg/m2,respectively.The root C storage was 1.113,1.323,and 2.023kg/m2,soil C storage was 11.911,11.943,and 12.587 kg/m2,and underground C storage was 13.024,13.266,and 14.610kg/m2,respectively,while the root N storage was 0.035,0.032,and 0.038 kg/m2,soil N storage was 1.208,1.222,and 0.915 kg/m2,and underground N storage was 1.243,1.254,and 0.955 kg/m2,respectively,which indicated that along with forest succession,the forest underground became a potential"carbon sink,"whereas underground N storage did not change obviously.

  11. Response of seedlings of different tree species to elevated C02 in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAILi-min; JILan-zhu; WANGMiao; LIQiu-rong

    2003-01-01

    Eco-physiological responses of seedlings of eight species, Pinus koraiensis, Picea koraiensis, Lanx olgensis,Populus ussuriensis, Betula platyphylla, Tilia amurensis, Traxinus mandshurica and Acer mono from broadleaved/Korean pine forest, to elevated CO2 were studied by using open-top chambers under natural sunlight in Changbai Mountain, China in two growing seasons (1998-1999). Two concentrations of CO2 were designed: elevated CO2 (700 pmol· mol-1) and ambient CO2 (400μmol· mol-1). The study results showed that the height growth of the tree seedlings grown at elevated CO2 increased by about 10%-40% compared to those grown at ambient CO2. And the water using efficiency of seedlings also followed the same tendency. However, the responses of seedlings in transpiration and chlorophyll content to elevated CO2 varied with tree species.The broad-leaf tree species were more sensitive to the elevated CO2than conifer tree species. All seedlings showed a photo-synthetic acclimation to Iong-term elevated CO2.

  12. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guodong; Yu, Xinxiao; Fan, Dengxing; Jia, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r) functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono) and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined. PMID:27028757

  13. Tree Species Linked to Large Differences in Ecosystem Carbon Distribution in the Boreal Forest of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In the boreal forest of Alaska, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. The boreal landscape has historically been dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow C turnover and large soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation. Historically, low severity fires have led to black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow C cycling rates and large SOM pools. In recent decades however, an increase in high severity fires has led to greater consumption of the soil organic layer (SOL) during fire and subsequent establishment of deciduous tree species in areas previously dominated by black spruce. This shift to a more deciduous dominated landscape has many implications for ecosystem structure and function, as well as feedbacks to global C cycling. To improve our understanding of how boreal tree species affect C cycling, we quantified above- and belowground C stocks and fluxes in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1958 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Although total ecosystem C pools (aboveground live tree biomass + dead wood + SOL + top 10 cm of mineral soil) were similar for the two stand types, the distribution of C among pools was markedly different. In black spruce, 78% of measured C was found in soil pools, primarily in the SOL, where spruce contained twice the C stored in paper birch (4.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 kg C m-2). In contrast, aboveground biomass dominated ecosystem C pools in birch forest (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 in birch and spruce, respectively). Our findings suggest that tree species exert a strong influence over plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and may have long-term effects on ecosystem C sequestration and storage that feedback to the climate system.

  14. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  15. Beadwork for Children/Weegwahs: An Ojibwe Story and Activities Using Birch Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Two resource units give elementary students an understanding of American Indian arts and crafts. The first unit consists of seven beading activities for early elementary students using beads the teacher and/or students make themselves. The unit gives a short history of American Indian beadwork, describes the materials and designs used by Plains…

  16. Ecological interactions between herbivores and silver birch and aspen trees genetically modified for fungal disease resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Vihervuori , Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Many risks and environmental concerns have been linked with the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) trees. Among the most frequently mentioned risks are the unintentional/pleiotropic effects of transgenes on organisms or plant properties that are not the targets of genetic modification. Risks in forest ecosystems are difficult to predict, due to the long life cycles of trees and their complex ecological interactions. This thesis is focused on the interactions between insect and mammal he...

  17. Detection of Malware and Malicious Executables Using E-Birch Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Ashit Kumar Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Malware detection is one of the challenges to the modern computing world. Web mining is the subset of data mining used to provide solutions for complex problems. Web intelligence is the new hope for the field of computer science to bring solution for the malware detection. Web mining is the method of web intelligence to make web as an intelligent tool to combat malware and phishing websites. Generally, malware injected through websites into the user system and modifies the executable file and...

  18. Intestinal microflora does not affect tolerance induction to birch pollen allergen in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana; Repa, A.; Štěpánková, Renata; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Tlaskalová, Helena; Wiedermann, U.

    Švédsko: Taylor and Francis Group, 2006, s. 232-232. [Gnotobiology Symposium 2005. Tokio (JP), 20.06.2005-24.06.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/05/2249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : germ-free * tolerance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  19. The Birch Street Irregulars: mysteries found and resolved in the AAVSO data archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sara J.; Saladyga, Michael; Mattei, Janet A.

    As they evaluate AAVSO data, AAVSO technical staff members run across several kinds of errors. This paper takes a humorous and Sherlock Holmes-style look at some of the most common kinds of errors detected, from observers recording the wrong Julian Date, misidentifying stars, transposing entries on the observer form, to garden-variety data entry errors.

  20. Interactions of ectomycorrhizas and above-ground insect herbivores on silver birch

    OpenAIRE

    Nerg, Anne-Marja; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Neuvonen, Seppo; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Mycorrhizas are mostly beneficial to host plant growth and survival, e.g., due to improved water and nutrient uptake and enhanced pathogen protection, but also a significant amount of host plant carbon is allocated below-ground to support the mycorrhizal growth. These facts and on the other hand the possibility of mycorrhizas to mediate changes in above-ground defensive chemistry may affect performance of above-ground insect herbivores with different feeding guilds. To see the functionality o...

  1. APPLIED STUDY OF BIRCH PULP BLEACHING USING DIMETHYLDIOXIRANE TO OBTAIN ACETATE-GRADE PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ke Zhou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a pulp bleaching agent, dimethyldioxirane (DMD is effective and selective. In this study, it was employed as a delignifying agent or as an activating agent for hydrogen peroxide treatment in bleaching acetate-grade pulp. Brightness, kappa number, degree of polymerization (DP, and alpha-cellulose content were evaluated to determine the optimal charges of DMD: 2.5% AO, and 4% HSO5-, respectively. Results from the totally chlorine-free (TCF sequences MEQMPA, MEpQMPA, and OQMPA suggested that DMD is both effective and selective as a delignifying agent but not as a brightening agent as compared to oxygen. And in a long sequence for the bleaching of dissolving pulp, acid treatment can be used in two approaches: to remove the metal ions without washing before the chelation stage, and to reduce hemicellulose and ash in the final stage.

  2. Chemical constituents of Stereum subtomentosum and two other birch-associated basidiomycetes: An interspecies comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hybelbauerová, S.; Sejbal, J.; Dračínský, Martin; Hahnová, H.; Koutek, Bohumír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2008), s. 743-750. ISSN 1612-1872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Stereum subtomentosum * Trametes versicolor * Piptoporus betulinus * steroids * saccharides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.659, year: 2008

  3. Exposure to grass pollen – but not birch pollen – affects lung function in Swedish children

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzieva, O.; Pershagen, G; Wickman, M; Melén, E; Hallberg, J.; Bellander, T; Lõhmus, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Allergic response to pollen is increasing worldwide, leading to high medical and social costs. However, the effect of pollen exposure on lung function has rarely been investigated. Over 1800 children in the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE were lung‐function‐ and IgE‐tested at the age of 8 and 16 years old. Daily concentrations for 9 pollen types together with measurements for ozone, NO 2, PM 10, PM 2.5 were estimated for the index day as well as up to 6 days before the testing. Exposure t...

  4. Daily home measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic children during natural birch pollen exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, Signe; Sinding, Marianne; Skamstrup, Kirsten;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a sensitive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma. Available methods have restricted measurements to the clinic, giving only a snapshot of the disease, which by nature is highly variable. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the...

  5. Tree Diversity, Landscape Diversity, and Economics of Maple-Birch Forests: Implications of Markovian Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Rong Lin; Joseph Buongiorno

    1998-01-01

    Markov decision process (MDP) models were effective in analyzing forest management policies. Even the simplest standard results gave useful insights into forest ecology, such as how landscape diversity is shaped by natural catastrophes, and how forests mature through successional phases. The methods were also useful to predict the effects of different management policies on ecological and economic criteria. Optimization augmented the usefulness of the approach, suggesting that income from Wis...

  6. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jorgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U.; Hansen, Marc O.; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-01-01

    . To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount......Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100years long Betulanana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates...... a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betulanana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming...

  7. Properties of Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive for Plywood Panels Manufactured from High Moisture Content Veneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Bekhta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of bonding high moisture content (15 % birch veneers (Betula pubescens Ehrh. with the use of modifi ed phenol-formaldehyde (PF resin. Wheat starch, rye flour, resorcinol and phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde resin were chosen as modifying agents. Dynamic viscosity, hydrogen ions concentration, solid content, curing time, pot life of developed adhesive compositions and shear strength of plywood samples were evaluated. ANOVA analysis has shown that type, mixture and content of modifying agents affect significantly the mechanical performance of plywood panels. The obtained results of shear strength values were above the standard requirements (1 N/mm2, and the properties of samples met the European standard EN 314-2 for gluing quality of class 3 and such plywood panels can be used in exterior conditions.

  8. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. PMID:20707877

  9. Determination of total Betta-activity and heavy metals in biomonitor species (phytomonitors) from the area of ITR-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purposes of environmental assessment of the area around the Research reactor in Sofia, species from monitored control points, selected in a certain way (habitat, population, air and hydrogeological parameters) are examined. Samples from following phytomonitored species: Betula pendula (silver birch) popullus canadensis (Canadian populus), Quercus sp. (Oak), Dactilus glomerata (Cock's-foot), Abies alba (Silver Fir) and Sequoia sempervirens (Coast Redwood) were analyzed. The total beta activity was determined by radiometric analysis and heavy metals content was measured using X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results are discussed in terms of radiation monitoring program of INRNE (gamma-background, aerosols, surface and groundwater, soil, plants) and obtained values are compared with reference points in the country

  10. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V.; Petrice, Toby R.; Gates, Michael W.; Bauer, Leah S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera). Two species, Oobius agrili Zhang & Huang and Oobius longoi (Siscaro), were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North American species that parasitize eggs of Agrilus spp. (Buprestidae) are described and illustrated from the USA: Oobius minusculus Triapitsyn & Petrice, sp. n. (Michigan), an egg parasitoid of both Agrilus subcinctus Gory on ash (Fraxinus spp.) and Agrilus egenus Gory on black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) trees, and Oobius whiteorum Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Pennsylvania), an egg parasitoid of Agrilus anxius Gory on European white birch (Betula pendula Roth). A taxonomic key and notes on the Nearctic native and introduced Oobius species are also included. PMID:25931963

  11. Two new species of Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae egg parasitoids of Agrilus spp. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae from the USA, including a key and taxonomic notes on other congeneric Nearctic taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei V. Triapitsyn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oobius Trjapitzin (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae species are egg parasitoids that are important for the biological control of some Buprestidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera. Two species, O. agrili Zhang & Huang and O. longoi (Siscaro, were introduced into North America for classical biocontrol and have successfully established. Two new native North American species that parasitize eggs of Agrilus spp. (Buprestidae are described and illustrated from the USA: O. minusculus Triapitsyn & Petrice, sp. n. (Michigan, an egg parasitoid of both A. subcinctus Gory on ash (Fraxinus spp. and A. egenus Gory on black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. trees, and O. whiteorum Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Pennsylvania, an egg parasitoid of A. anxius Gory on European white birch (Betula pendula Roth. A taxonomic key and notes on the Nearctic native and introduced Oobius species are also included.

  12. A precise study on effects that trigger alkaline hemicellulose extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Schild, Gabriele; Potthast, Antje

    2016-08-01

    The conversion of paper-grade pulps into dissolving pulps requires efficient strategies and process steps to remove low-molecular noncellulosic macromolecules generally known as hemicelluloses. Current strategies include alkaline extractions and enzymatic treatments. This study focused on the evaluation of extraction efficiencies in alkaline extractions of three economically interesting hardwood species: beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula papyrifera), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). Substrate pulps were subjected to alkaline treatments at different temperatures and alkalinities using white liquor as the alkali source, followed by analyses of both pulps and hemicellulose-containing extraction lyes. The extracted hardwood xylans have strong potential as an ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subsequent analyses revealed strong dependencies of the extraction efficiencies and molar mass distributions of hemicelluloses on the process variables of temperature and effective alkalinity. The hemicellulose content of the initial pulps, the hardwood species, and the type of applied base played minor roles. PMID:27163434

  13. Impact of anthropogenic forest contamination on radioresistance of woody plant seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioresistance of seeds of bay willow (Salix pentandra L.) and great sallow willow (Salix caprea L.) from forests chronically affected and non-affected by acidic (SO2, NOx, HF, etc.) industries has been studied and compared. Bay willow seeds of 6 harvests showed no difference in radioresistance. However, seeds of both species manifested strong synchronous variability in resistance to preplant exposure. Also, no influence was observed of mother plant gas content on great sallow willow seeds of different harvests. Data obtained confirm similar results of previous studies conducted by the author (1987) to identify the impact of plant gas content on radioresistance of seeds and seedlings of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula verrucosa Erh.). (author)

  14. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalny, Piotr [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalek, Zbigniew [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); National Medicines Institute, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chelmska 30/34, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland); Daszczuk, Anna [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Ostapczuk, Peter [Research Center of Juelich, Department of Safety and Radiation Protection, Leo-Brand Str. 1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: p.ostapczuk@fz-juelich.de

    2007-08-01

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

  15. Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

  16. PURIFICATION OF HARDWOOD-DERIVED AUTOHYDROLYSATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Tapani Lehto,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-containing hydrolysates (1.1 to 14.9% of wood dry matter obtained from autohydrolysis (at 130 to 150°C for 30 to 120 minutes of birch (Betula pendula chips prior to pulping were purified with respect to non-carbohydrate materials, without carbohydrate losses, either by ethyl acetate extraction or XAD-4 resin treatment. In the former case, about 50% of lignin and practically all the furanoic compounds (2-furaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural could be removed, whereas in the latter case, the corresponding amounts were about 30% and 50 to 90%, respectively. A partial recovery of various unsaturated impurities is of importance, because they may act as inhibitors when biochemically converting carbohydrates in hydrolysates into value-added products.

  17. Late glacial vegetation development in Denmark – new evidence based on macrofossil and pollen from Slotseng, a small-scale site in southern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Morten Fischer; Birks, Hilary H.; Christensen, Charlie;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first unambiguous terrestrial palaeoecological record for the late glacial “Bølling warming” in Denmark. Pollen and macrofossil stratigraphies from pre-Bølling to 10,800 cal yr BP are presented from a small kettle hole in Southwest Denmark, during which the lake basin...... developed from an immature stage after the deglaciation to complete infilling in the early Holocene. Results show that the recently deglaciated landscape bore a discontinuous vegetation of pioneer plants. After the Bølling warming, an open Dryas octopetala-Betula nana community developed with Helianthemum...... the Younger Dryas period trees disappeared and the vegetation became open again and dominated by subarctic species. Following climate warming at the Younger Dryas–Holocene transition a shrub community of Empetrum and Juniperus developed. After approximately 200 years it was replaced by birch forest...

  18. Comparative measurements of transpiration an canopy conductance in two mixed deciduous woodlands differing in structure and species composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Rosier, Paul T.W.; Morecroft, Michael D.;

    2008-01-01

    continuous hazel (Corylus avellana L.) understory. Wytham Woods, which had an LAI of 3.6, was dominated by ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and had only a sparse understory. Annual canopy transpiration was 367 mm for Grimsbury Wood and 397 mm for Wytham Woods. These values......Transpiration of two heterogeneous broadleaved woodlands in southern England was monitored by the sap flux technique throughout the 2006 growing season. Grimsbury Wood, which had a leaf area index (LAI) of 3.9, was dominated by oak (Quercus robur L.) and birch (Betula pubescens L.) and had a...... incoming solar radiation (RG) and the vapour pressure deficit (D). The response of gc to RG was similar for both forests. Both reference conductance (gcref), defined as gc at D = 1 kPa, and the stomatal sensitivity (-m), defined as the slope of the logarithmic response curve of gc to D, increased during...

  19. Short communication. A review on the efficacy tests and risk analyses conducted on Chondrostereum purpureum, a potential biocontrol agent, in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantula, J.; Hamberg, L.; Vartiamaki, H.; Korhonen, K.; Uotila, A.

    2012-11-01

    Hardwood sprouting is a problem in forest regeneration areas, under electric lines, on roadsides and railways. In Finland, isolates of Chondrostereum purpureum were screened by field experiments for their efficiency to control sprouting. The proportion of dead stumps with the best isolates exceeded 80% on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), and C. purpureum was also found to affect the sprouting of aspen (Populus tremula) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia). The risks of C. purpureum based biocontrol were evaluated by population genetic analysis. It showed that C. purpureum is a geographically undifferentiated species that does not reproduce clonally. The risk of infection of non-target trees was found to be highest in early spring. These findings suggest that the risks of using C. purpureum in biocontrol are small. (Author) 36 refs.

  20. Spontaneous changes a basis for new ornamental woody plant cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Matilda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In nursery stock production of some ornamental woody plants the appearance of spontaneous variability was identified in the form of atypical pigmentation of leaves (albinism, variegated, red colored, leaves shape (jaggy and dwarfs. Mutated plants with variegated leaves were observed among hybrid plane (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L., laurel cherry (Prunus laurocerasus L. and Lawson false-cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl. Seedlings. The type of variegation and frequency were analyzed. Among plane tree and Siberian elm seedlings there were observed red colored leaves. Atypical, jaggy shaped leaves were found among laurel cherry seedlings. Dwarf growth was identified at Siberian elm and birch (Betula pendula Roth. where also found fruits at one year seedling. There were not significant differences in some morphological and physiological properties in plane tree seedlings with various pigmented leaves. .

  1. Hypersensitivity to common tree pollens in New York City patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Robert Y; Clauss, Allison E; Bennett, Edward S

    2002-01-01

    Testing for tree pollen hypersensitivity typically requires the use of several tree pollens. Identifying patterns of cross-sensitivity to tree pollens could reduce the number of trees used for testing. The goal of this study was to relate reported tree pollen levels to hypersensitivity patterns. Three hundred seventy-one allergy patients were tested serologically for hypersensitivity toward prevalent tree pollens in the surrounding New York area over the years 1993-2000. Specific tree pollens that were examined included oak (Quercus alba), birch (Betula verrucosa), beech (Fagus grandifolia), poplar (Populus deltoides), maple (Acer negundo), ash (Fraxinus americana), hickory (Carya pecan), and elm (Ulmus americana). Statistical analysis of the levels of hypersensitivity was performed to identify correlations and grouping factors. Pollen levels, obtained from published annual pollen and spore reports, were characterized and related to the prevalence of hypersensitivity for the various trees. The highest prevalence of hypersensitivity (score > or = class 1) was for oak (34.3%), birch (32.9%), and maple (32.8%) tree pollens. Lower prevalences were observed for beech (29.6%), hickory (27.1%), ash (26%), elm (24.6%), and poplar (20.6%) trees. Significant correlations were observed between oak, birch, and beech radioallergosorbent test scores. Factor analysis identified two independent pollen groups with oak, birch, and beech consisting of one group and the other five tree pollens constituting the other group. Peak pollen counts clearly were highest for oak, birch, and maple trees. The peak pollen counts corresponded roughly to seropositivity prevalences for the tree pollens. When elm, poplar, and beech test scores were not used to identify patients who were allergic to tree pollens, only 1 of 106 patients with any positive tree radioallergosorbent test score was missed. It is concluded that in the New York City area, hypersensitivity to tree pollens most often is

  2. Effects of Flavonoid-rich Plant Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbial Populations and Fermentation Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun T; Guan, Le Luo; Lee, Shin J; Lee, Sang M; Lee, Sang S; Lee, Il D; Lee, Su K; Lee, Sung S

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of flavonoid-rich plant extracts (PE) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane emission by studying their effectiveness for methanogenesis in the rumen. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The PE (Punica granatum, Betula schmidtii, Ginkgo biloba, Camellia japonica, and Cudrania tricuspidata) known to have high concentrations of flavonoid were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. Total gas production and microbial growth with all PE was higher than that of the control at 24 h incubation, while the methane emission was significantly lower (pPunica, Betula, Ginkgo, Camellia, and Cudrania treatments, respectively. Ciliate populations were reduced by more than 60% in flavonoid-rich PE treatments. The Fibrobacter succinogenes diversity in all added flavonoid-rich PE was shown to increase, while the Ruminoccocus albus and R. flavefaciens populations in all PE decreased as compared with the control. In particular, the F. succinogenes community with the addition of Birch extract increased to a greater extent than that of others. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that flavonoid-rich PE decreased ruminal methane emission without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation characteristics in vitro in 24 h incubation time, suggesting that the flavonoid-rich PE have potential possibility as bio-active regulator for ruminants. PMID:25656200

  3. 东北百里香化感作用%Allelopathy of Thymus mandschuricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 马喜娟; 张秀珍

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the allelopathy of Thymus mandschurricus Ronn. on Jive receptor plants, namely Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Larix gmelini, Betula platyphylla, Tagetes erecla and Petunia hybrid by the method of biological test. Results showed that stem-leaf and root extracts of T. mandschuricus had some inhibitory effects on seed germination of B. platyphylla and P. hyhrida, and the inhibitory effects weakened with decreasing extract concentration. Lower concentration of extract had a stimulative effect on seed germination of P. sylvestris var. mongolica to a certain degree. Stem-leaf and root extracts of T. mandschuricus had no harmful effect on the seedling growth of T. erecla and P. hybrida. Extract with a volume ratio of 1 : 1 had certain inhibitory effect on seeding growth of P. sylvestris var. mongolica and L gmelini. The allelopathy effect of stem-leaf extract was stronger than that of root extract. Root length of the receptor plants received a stronger allelopathy effect than seedling height.%通过生物测定法研究了东北百里香茎叶和根水浸液对樟子松、兴安落叶松、白桦、万寿菊、矮牵牛的种子萌发及幼苗生长的化感作用.结果表明,东北百里香茎叶和根水浸液对白桦、矮牵牛的种子萌发有一定抑制作用,抑制效应随水浸液母液与水的体积比降低而减弱;母液与水的体积比低的水浸液对樟子松的种子萌发有一定促进作用.东北百里香茎叶和根水浸液对万寿菊和矮牵牛幼苗生长无明显不良影响,V(母液)∶V(水)=1∶1的水浸液对樟子松、兴安落叶松的幼苗生长有一定抑制作用.东北百里香茎叶水浸液对受体植物的化感作用强于根水浸液.受体植物幼苗的根长受到的化感作用强于苗高.

  4. Online Measurement of Real-Time Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Multi-Component Matrices, such as Natural Products, through Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarero, Adyary; Batista-González, Ana E; Hiltunen, Anna K; Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. Here, we developed a label-free Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. The conditions to measure the impedance using ECIS were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons GT1-7 cells. The performance of four natural extracts when tested using three conventional cytotoxicity assays in GT1-7 cells, was studied. Betula pendula (silver birch tree) was found to interfere with all of the cytotoxicity assays in which labels were applied. The silver birch extract was also proven to be cytotoxic and, thus, served as a proof-of-concept for the use of ECIS. The extract was fractionated and the ECIS method permitted the distinction of specific kinetic patterns of cytotoxicity on the fractions as well as the extract's pure constituents. This study offers evidence that ECIS is an excellent tool for real-time monitoring of the cytotoxicity of complex extracts that are difficult to work with using conventional (label-based) assays. Altogether, it offers a very suitable cytotoxicity-screening assay making the work with natural products less challenging within the drug discovery workflow. PMID:26569236

  5. Take me to your leader: does early successional nonhost vegetation spatially inhibit Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Jordan M; De La Giroday, Honey-Marie C; Lindgren, B Staffan; Aukema, Brian H

    2009-08-01

    The spatial influences of host and nonhost trees and shrubs on the colonization patterns of white pine weevil Pissodes strobi (Peck) were studied within a stand of planted interior hybrid spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x Picea engelmannii (Parry) ex Engelm.]. Planted spruce accounted for one third of all trees within the stand, whereas the remaining two thirds were comprised of early-successional nonhost vegetation, such as alder (Alnus spp.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), black cottonwood [Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa (T. Ng.) Brayshaw], lodgepole pine [Pinus contorta (Dougl.) ex Loud.], trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), willow (Salix spp.), and Canadian buffaloberry [Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.]. Unlike the spruce trees, nonhost vegetation in the stand was not uniformly distributed. Spatial point process models showed that Canadian buffaloberry, paper birch, black cottonwoood, and trembling aspen had negative associations with damage caused by the weevil, even though the density of the insects' hosts in these areas did not change. Moreover, knowing the locations of these nonhost trees provided as much, or more, inference about the locations of weevil-attacked trees as knowing the locations of suitable or preferred host trees (i.e., those larger in size). Nonhost volatiles, the alteration of soil composition, and overstory shade are discussed as potential explanatory factors for the patterns observed. New research avenues are suggested to determine whether nonhost vegetation in early successional stands might be an additional tool in the management of these insects in commercially important forests. PMID:19689899

  6. Direct amplification of DNA from fresh and preserved ectomycorrhizal root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Elizabeth; Taylor, D Lee

    2010-02-01

    Methods are described by which DNA can be amplified directly from ectomycorrhizal root tip homogenates of a variety of plant species (Picea mariana (black spruce), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) and Alnus sp.(alder)), including root tips that have been preserved in RNA Later (Ambion, Austin, TX). In most cases for extracts and homogenates diluted 10-fold prior to PCR, and in all cases for 100-fold dilutions, direct amplification of DNA from fresh root tip homogenates yielded as many or more ng of PCR amplicon (fungal ITS region) than amplification of DNA extracted from the same tips using a commercial kit or a manual ethanol precipitation-based method. For alder root tip extracts diluted 10-fold, the commercial kit method yielded more ng of PCR amplicon than 10-fold diluted, although direct use of homogenates still resulted in amplification in all tips tested. We also demonstrate consistent amplification of DNA from homogenates of birch, spruce and aspen ectomycorrhizal root tips preserved for 4months in RNA Later. PMID:19963016

  7. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  8. Online Measurement of Real-Time Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Multi-Component Matrices, such as Natural Products, through Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyary Fallarero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. Here, we developed a label-free Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. The conditions to measure the impedance using ECIS were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons GT1-7 cells. The performance of four natural extracts when tested using three conventional cytotoxicity assays in GT1-7 cells, was studied. Betula pendula (silver birch tree was found to interfere with all of the cytotoxicity assays in which labels were applied. The silver birch extract was also proven to be cytotoxic and, thus, served as a proof-of-concept for the use of ECIS. The extract was fractionated and the ECIS method permitted the distinction of specific kinetic patterns of cytotoxicity on the fractions as well as the extract’s pure constituents. This study offers evidence that ECIS is an excellent tool for real-time monitoring of the cytotoxicity of complex extracts that are difficult to work with using conventional (label-based assays. Altogether, it offers a very suitable cytotoxicity-screening assay making the work with natural products less challenging within the drug discovery workflow.

  9. Effect of Thinning on the Structure and Succession of Secondary Forest Communities in Changbai Mountains of China%抚育对长白山幼龄次生林群落结构与动态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏广新; 牟长城

    2012-01-01

    采用抚育采伐试验方法,研究了不同经营方式(对照、常规经营和优化经营)对长白山林区5种典型幼龄次生林林群落(落叶松—白桦林、杨桦林、杂木林、硬阔林及阔叶红松林)的树种组成结构、径级结构及演替趋势的影响规律.结果表明:优化经营能够提升高幼龄林群落中红松、水曲柳等珍贵树种的地位(重要值提高37.5%~400.0%),提高森林经营价值;优化经营能够显著降低各类型幼龄林的小径木株数比例(7.2% ~ 29.9%)及提高中径级林木的比例(5.1%~26.4%),充分发挥森林的生产潜力;优化经营能够改变幼龄林的演替趋势(由次生林转化为阔叶红松林),从而加速地带性顶极植被阔叶红松林的恢复进程.%Effects of three thinning regimes ( control, routine thinning and optimal thinning) on the composition of tree species, diameter distribution and succession trend of five typical young secondary forest communities dominated by Larix olgensis, Betula platyphylla; Populus davidiana, B. Platyphylla and Quercus mongolica; P. Davidiana, Tilia amurensis, Acer Mono and Phellodendron amurensis ; Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica, Fraxinus mandshurica and Juglans mandshurica; Pinus ko-raiensis, F. Mandshurica, P. Davidiana and B. Platyphylla, respectively, were studied in Changbai Mountain of China. Importance values of some high-value tree species such as P. Koraiensis and F. Mandshurica in optimal thinning communities increased by 37. 5% -400. 0% compared with those in the control communities, so the silvicultural value was much improved. Small diameter trees decreased by 7. 2% -29. 9% and medium diameter trees by 5. 1% -26. 4% in optimal thinning communities compared with the un-thinning communities, so its potential productivity was fully realized. The succession trends of un-thinning communities were still secondary forest communities generally, but that of optimal thinning developed towards climax

  10. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  11. Understanding the effects of intermediate disturbances on evapotranspiration in the upper Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, R.; Bohrer, G.; Frasson, C. D.; Kenny, W.; Maurer, K.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Vogel, C.; Walko, R. L.; Medvigy, D.; Curtis, P.

    2012-12-01

    Following heavy disturbances in the 19th and early 20th centuries, an even aged, aspen-dominated canopy flourished in certain areas of the upper Midwest of the U.S., such as the forest surrounding the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). Currently, the dominant early successional species are either reaching maturity or beginning to decline. As aspen (textit{Populus spp.}) and birch (textit{Betula papyrifera}) are senescing, they are replaced by red maple (textit{Acer rubrum}), northern red oak (textit{Quercus rubra}), and white pine (textit{Pinus strobus}) leading to a more structurally diverse canopy. Despite conventional conceptual models suggesting declining rates of net carbon sequestration for aging forests, recent empirical studies at our site point to a higher-than-expected carbon storage rate. The Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), in which aspen and birch were girdled in an area of 39 ha, provides an invaluable opportunity to study how carbon and water vapor fluxes vary as the canopy recovers from intermediate disturbance. By comparing water vapor and carbon fluxes in the undisturbed UMBS-AmeriFlux location with the fluxes measured in the FASET site, we aim to better understand how succession affects transpiration and carbon sequestration. In this work, we utilized the Ocean-Land-Atmosphere-Model (OLAM) to study how latent heat flux, as a proxy for evapotranspiration, responds to changes in the vegetation. We ran two scenarios, namely undisturbed and girdled. In the second configuration we modified vegetation parameters inside the FASET site to reflect the effects of the birch and aspen removal. Finally we compared simulation results with measurements obtained at both undisturbed UMBS-AmeriFlux site and at FASET. As a result of this study, we expect to improve the understanding of the role of canopy structure on evapotranspiration of broadleaved deciduous forests.

  12. 冀北山地天然次生林土壤有机质空间异质性研究%Spatial Variability of Soil Organic Matte in Natural Secondary Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文俊; 魏曦; 朱宝才

    2015-01-01

    【目的】以冀北山地山杨白桦天然次生林为研究对象,探讨该群落土壤垂直方向有机质的分布格局和空间变异特征。【方法】采用大面积野外调查数据,运用统计学、GIS 空间结构分析技术进行分析。结果表明:土壤有机质含量最高的是0~20 cm 层,20~40 cm 有机质含量最小。变异系数随土壤深度的增加逐渐增大,3层都属于中度变异;3层有机质含量的最佳理论模型分别为指数模型、高斯模型和球型模型;各层有机质含量集中区和插值分析分级面积有所不同,但总体变化规律是一致的。0~20 cm 土层土壤有机质含量最大,20~40 cm 层是有机质消耗集中区,有机质含量最小,40~60 cm 层处于中等水平。【结论】研究区是属于次生山杨白桦林,土壤环境受外界破坏较少,土层垂直方向空间变异不显著,母质层有机质的形成和表层土壤有机质的消耗都处在合理的范围内,体现了该区域土壤处于健康、可持续发展的良好状态。%Objective]Populus davidiana + Betula platyphylla natural secondary forest was used as research objective in this study.The aim of this study was to explore the vertical distribu-tion and spatial variation of soil organic matter of the forest.[Method]Field survey data,statis-tics and GIS spatial structure analysis techniques were used in this study.[Results]The content of soil organic matter was the highest in the 0-20 cm layer but the content of 20-40cm was the lowest.The coefficient of variation increased with increasing soil depth and three layers belonged to moderate variation.The best theoretical models of organic matter in three layer were exponen-tial,Gaussian and spherical models.Each layer organic matter content focus area and interpola-tion analysis grade area was different,but the overall change was the same.Soil organic matter of 0 -20 cm layer was the largest.Soil layer of 20-40 cm was

  13. Natural Regeneration Pattern of Urban Forests in Harbin%哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅琳琳; 冯树丹; 达良俊; 宋坤; 王冰; 关兵兵

    2012-01-01

    In order to strengthen the urban protects of the variety of vegetation biodiversity and reasonable utilization, to perfect the system of ecology theory about the urban vegetation, the author did a lot of research about Haerbin urban forest natural succession pattern. The author decided to adopt the vegetation sociology research combine with every wood investigation research, researching 11 kinds of urban forest natural regeneration pattern in Harbin. The results showed that the difference kinds and quantities of composition about the woody plants under the forest different types of urban forest in maintaining woody plant diversity were quite different. Based on frequency distribution of DBH, population structure of each tree species fell into 3 types: unimodal type, L type and sporadic type. In the case, 4 representative species belonged to unimodal type: Populus berolinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Larix gmelini, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolic; 4 L-types were: Populus davidiana, Phellodendron amurense, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Ulmus pumila; 3 sporadic types were: Juglans mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Picea koraiensis. It was suggested that the habitat, the seed resources and the seed dispersal pattern were the key limitation of urban forests.%为了加强城市植被生物多样性的保护与合理利用,完善城市植被生态学研究的理论体系,对哈尔滨城市森林自然演替格局进行研究.采用植被社会学调查与每木调查相结合的方法,对哈尔滨11种城市森林类型进行天然更新格局研究.结果表明,林下木本植物的种类和数量组成有所差异,不同城市森林类型在维持木本植物多样性方面存在较大差异.根据胸径级频率分布的形状,将各树种的种群结构归纳为3种类型:种群结构单峰型的为中东杨(Populus berolinensis)、黑皮油松(Pinus tabulaeformis var.mukdensis)、兴安落叶松(Larix gmelini)、樟子松(Pinus sylvestris var

  14. Comprehensive Evaluation of Forest Community Stability of Different Types of Low-Quality Forest Stands in the Greater Higgnan Mountains%大兴安岭不同类型低质林群落稳定性的综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋启亮; 董希斌

    2014-01-01

    The low-quality forest community stability was comprehensively evaluated by calculating subordinate function values of a model which was established based on fuzzy synthetic evaluation by a total of 30 factors of 5 indices of species diversity,soil physical properties,soil chemical properties,litter characteristics and soil carbon flux in 5 typical low-quality forest stands that mixed conifer and broadleaved forest,Populus davidiana forest,Quercus mongolica forest,Betula platyphylla forest and broadleaved mixed forest in the Greater Higgnan Mountains. The results showed that: The indices of species diversity,litter characteristics and soil carbon flux of mixed conifer and broadleaved forest are highest,the index of soil chemical properties of broadleaved mixed forest is highest,the index of soil physical properties of Quercus mongolica forest is highest,forest community stability of 5 types of forest communities in the Great Higgnan Mountains,ranked in the decreasing order of community of mixed conifer and broadleaved forest > broadleaved mixed forest > Quercus mongolica forest>Betula platyphylla forest >Populus davidiana forest. The evaluation results can provide theoretical basis for the ecosystem restoration of low-quality forest stands in the Greater Higgnan Mountains.%以大兴安岭林区分布的针阔混交林、山杨林、蒙古栎林、白桦林和阔叶混交林5种典型低质林森林群落类型为研究对象,选择反映森林群落基本特征的物种多样性、土壤物理性质、土壤化学性质、枯落物特性和土壤碳通量这5项指标,共30个评价因子,运用模糊数学中隶属函数的方法综合评价低质林森林群落稳定性。结果表明:针阔混交林物种多样性、枯落物特性、土壤碳通量指标最高,阔叶混交林土壤化学性质指标最高,蒙古栎林土壤物理性质指标最高,大兴安岭5种森林群落稳定性表现为针阔混交林>阔叶混交林>蒙古栎林>白

  15. 铁杉球蚜的生物学及空间分布%Biology of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and its spatial distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建华; 肖银波; 肖育贵; 卢文华

    2007-01-01

    通过对铁杉(Tusga chinensis Pritz)-云杉(Picea retroflexac Mast)、铁杉-华山松(Pinus armardi Franch)、云南铁杉(Tusga domosa Eichler)-槭树(Acer mono Maxim)-桦木(Betula platyphylla Suk)四川主要铁杉林类型中铁杉球蚜Adelges tsugae Annand林间定株、种群随机抽样、室内饲养研究表明,铁杉球蚜在四川1年发生2代(越冬代和第1代),世代重叠,成虫营孤雌生殖.越冬代从4月上旬至第2年的4月下旬,产卵盛期在5月下旬,平均产卵量为15.58粒,1龄若虫具有滞育越夏习性;第1代从12月下旬至8月中旬,产卵盛期在3月下旬,平均产卵量为67.37粒,并可产生有翅成虫,但无转主危害现象.种群的发育与温度有相关性,温度高林分种群发育进度快于温度低林分.该虫的危害与生境有一定相关性,铁杉针阔混交林危害重于铁杉针叶林;同一树冠不同层次之间、不同方位之间危害程度差异不显著;当年受害严重的树株第2年受害不严重.

  16. [Soil humus differentiation and correlation with other soil biochemical properties in pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia

    2014-10-01

    Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability. PMID:25796887

  17. Growth responses of Picea mongolica seedlings to defoliation rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Chun-jing; HAN Shi-jie; QI Shu-yan; XU Wen-duo; LI Dao-tang

    2005-01-01

    Picea mongolica W. D. Xu. is an endemic species in China. The spruce forest is only found in semi-arid habitat in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Based on the simulative defoliation experiment, it was proved that Picea mongolica seedlings had the compensatory and overcompensatory effects under the certain defoliation rate. The results of variance analysis on growth indexes showed that in PM Ⅰ (natural regeneration seedlings under Picea mongolica forest), the differences of H1 (height in June 23) and H2 (height in September 3) were extremely significant, and the difference of D(diameter at the breast height) were not significant. In PM Ⅱ (artificial regeneration seedlings under Betula platyphylla Suk. forest), the difference of H1 was significant, the difference of H2 was not significant, and the difference of D was extremely significant. The regression equations were established and the compensatory and overcompensatory points were obtained. In PM Ⅰ , the compensatory points of H1, H2, and D were 0.7628, 0.7436, 0.5725, and the overcompensatory points were 0.6056, 0.5802 and 0.2909 respectively. In PM Ⅱ, the compensatory points of H1, H2, and D are 0.5012, 0.3421, 0.2488, and the overcompensatory points are 0.4137, 0.2633 and 0.0747 respectively. These results suggested that the induction of compensatory growth mechanisms in spruce seedlings required a threshold level of defoliation, and the insects in Picea mongolica forest could be controlled in a certain degree.

  18. 凉水保护区土壤产类漆酶-多铜氧化酶细菌群落结构%The community structure of laccase-like multicopper oxidase-producing bacteria in soil of Liangshui Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹; 谷惠琦; 崔岱宗; 范晓旭; 张曦; 赵敏

    2012-01-01

    在凉水国家级自然保护区3种主要林型红松(Pinus koraiensis)、白桦(Betula platyphylla)及云杉(Picea dietrich)林采集林下土壤样品,以铜离子作为筛选剂处理后,结合平板分离法与基于16S rDNA V3区片段的变性梯度凝胶电泳(Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis,DGGE)技术,调查了土壤样品中产类漆酶-多铜氧化酶(laccase-like multicopper oxidase,LMCO)细菌的群落结构.这是研究产类漆酶-多铜氧化酶细菌在环境中存在的种、属及分布的新尝试.平板分离获得10株细菌均为芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus sp.),其中梭状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus fusiformis)未见相关报道.通过DGGE图谱分析可知,产类漆酶-多铜氧化酶细菌在研究地不同林型土壤中的群落结构无明显差异,在红松林土壤中多样性最为丰富.DGGE条带测序结果表明,取样地土壤中产类漆酶细菌主要为罗尔斯顿菌属(Ralstonia sp.)、肠杆菌属(Enterobacter sp.)、芽孢杆菌属和一些未培养细菌.%Laccases catalyze the oxidation of various aromatics, particularly phenolic and amine substrates, making them valuable in industrial applications. Laccases also play an important role in soil organic matter (SOM) turnover processes and the global carbon cycle due to their involvement in the synthesis and degradation of lignin as well as transformation of lignified substrates and humic substances. Laccases belong to the protein family of multicopper oxidases characterized by copper atoms in the active center. Laccases or laccase-like multicopper oxidases ( LMCO) have been extensively studied especially in fungi. Recently, increasing evidence points to a wide occurrence of LMCO in bacteria. As bacterial communities are known to decompose pollutants and municipal wastes involving large quantities of phenolic substances and organic matter, it can be deduced that bacterial LMCO might also participate in lignin degradation and SOM cycling. Copper atoms not only constitute

  19. 甘肃兴隆山主要森林类型土壤渗透性%Soil Infiltration Characteristics of Main Forest Types in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏强; 凌雷; 张广忠; 柴春山; 闫沛斌; 陶继新

    2013-01-01

    0-60 cm soil layer of six main forests, including Picea wilosonii forest, Picea wilosonii and Betula platyphylla forest, Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forest, Catanester multiglorus and Rosa xanthina shrubs, Pinus tabulaeformis forest and Larix principis-rupprechtii forest in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu, was conducted to investigate the infiltration capability in 2010 and provide basis for the evaluation of water conservation function of forest and sustainable management of water conservation forests. The results showed that the infiltration eigenvalues of six forest types are as: initial infiltration rate>average infiltration rate>stable infiltration rate. The characteristics of soil infiltration differ significantly with deferent forest types. The comprehensive score for soil infiltration is in the range of -1.960 0-1.944 9, and the natural forest is obviously better than plantation. The soil infiltration capability of natural forest gradually increases with its development of positive succession. Correlation analysis showed that soil infiltration capability is greatly affected by soil physical and chemical properties. Soil infiltration has not only close relation with bulk density and porosity, but also with soil nutrient contents and pH. Combined with the correlation analysis, ten soil physical and chemical properties factors, which extremely significantly or significantly influenced soil infiltration, were selected to build four dominant factor equations of soil permeability by stepwise regression method with the correlation coefficient of higher than 0. 850 0 (P<0. 01 ). In four equations , the first introduced factor is the soil bulk density, and it is the most important one among many impact factors. The hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, pH value and soil organic matter are the secondary factors. Horton infiltration model is the best one to describe the soil infiltration process of water conservation forests in

  20. 吉林省几种常见生物质颗粒燃料的性能%Fuel Performances of Several Common Biomass Pellets in Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启昌; 张英楠; 王峰洁; 孙国文; 颜科

    2009-01-01

    对吉林省几种常见树种颗粒燃料的性能指标进行了测定分析.结果表明,7种颗粒燃料以玉米秸秆颗粒的灰分质量分数最大(11.90%),沙松去皮颗粒的灰分质量分数最低(0.37%);杨木颗粒的去灰分热值最大(20.896kJ/g),其次是椴桦混颗粒(20.885kJ/g),白桦去皮颗粒的去灰分热值大于白桦未去皮颗粒,木质颗粒大于秸秆颗粒.木质颗粒燃料以杂木颗粒燃料的轴向抗压性最强,其轴向载荷值为0.2355kN,其次为沙松去皮颗粒,其轴向载荷值为0.2149kN,白桦未去皮颗粒要强于去皮颗粒;白桦未去皮颗粒燃料的径向抗压性最强,其径向载荷值为0.6402kN,其次为杂木颗粒,其径向载荷值为0.6242kN,白桦未去皮颗粒要强于去皮颗粒.从抗压性角度分析宜选用杂木颗粒.杨木颗粒和杂木颗粒的质量损失率相对于其他4种颗粒较低,分别为0.1316%和0.1438%.椴桦混颗粒燃料的渗水率最大(10.235%),其次为白桦去皮颗粒(10.233%),白桦未去皮颗粒的抗渗水性要强于去皮颗粒.通过不同时间抗渗水性能测试,20h后,6种木质颗粒都呈完全剥落状,但杂木颗粒状态要稍好一些,外型仍呈颗粒状.不同颗粒燃料的去灰分热值、轴向载荷和抗渗水率具有显著差异(t检验,p<0.05).%A study was conducted to determine the fuel performances of seven common biomass pellets in Jilin Province. Results showed that the highest ash content was 11.90% for corn straw, and the lowest was 0. 37% for Abies holophylla pellet. It was also found that Populus simonii pellet had the largest ash-free caloric value (20.896 kJ) , then followed by the mixture of Tilia amurensis, Tilia mandshurica and Betula platyphylla pellet (20. 885 kj) , and the largest ash-free caloric value of wood pellet was larger than that of straw pellet. Ash-free calorific value for peeled B. platyphylla pellet was larger than that for the unpeeled, and the same result was also found in axial load

  1. Neonatal colonization by Bifidobacterium longum prevents systemic sensitization to Bet v 1 in mouse gnotobiotic model of birch pollen allergy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarzer, Martin; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Schabussova, I.; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Wiedermann, U.; Kozáková, Hana

    Praha: Česká zemědělská univerzita Praha, eds. J. Nevoral a V. Rada, 2012. s. 12-12. ISBN 978-80-213-2271-4. [Sympozium Společnosti pro probiotika a prebiotika /7./. 28.03.2012, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Germ-free mice * Bifidobacterium * probiotics Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  2. Responsiveness of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 scaffold to the gastric environment: Impact on structure and allergenic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, Ana I; Wangorsch, Andrea; Jensen, Bettina M;

    2011-01-01

    Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity.......Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity....

  3. Structure and reaction studies of biological organic and inorganic composite materials: Abalone shells, diatoms, and a unique birch bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Charlotte Marie

    Biopolymer/calcium carbonate composites grown on inorganic abiotic substrates implanted between the shell and the shell-secreting epithelium of live red abalones (Haliotis rufescens) results in an unusual highly (104)-oriented aggregate of microcrystalline calcite that precedes nacre deposition. Calcite of this orientation has never before been observed in nature. Also with this method, nacre deposition is found to correct for calcite surface roughness and chemically anomalous surfaces. Pole figure X-ray diffraction studies of these "flat pearls" provide comparisons of preferred orientation of the various mineral components of the abalone shell. Complete conversion of the aragonite in abalone nacre to hydroxyapatite in hydrothermal phosphate solution results in an oriented polycrystalline aggregate with ultrastructure preservation and an unexpected preferred orientation different from that of other biominerals and abiogenic CaCO3 samples subjected to this reaction. The new orientation, which increases with reaction time, may result from the organization of the organic matrix in the nacre, which directs the hydrothermal solution through the material. This orientation suggests strongly that the conversion proceeds via a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, rather than by topotaxy, which was previously proposed. In addition to cellulose I, a highly oriented cellulose-II-like polymer was found in the bark of Prunus serrula, an exceptionally strong, tough, and extensible composite film. The cellulose II polymorph, which has not previously been found in nature, may be accordion-folded in the plane of the bark thickness and contribute to the strength and unusual behavior with plasticization of this natural film. The silica frustule of the diatom Skeletonema costatum has a surface area of 135 mm2/g and contains 1.5--2 wt % occluded organic. This organic includes a water-insoluble scaffolding. When treated with organic oxidizers, the chitin secreted by the diatom Thalassiosira weisflogii forms a flexible paperlike composite. A mild, rapid synthesis of hydrated sodium aluminosilicate sodalite, Na 3(AlSiO4)3·4H2O, synthesis of mesoporous silica at neutral pH, and the synthesis of gem-quality opal also are presented.

  4. Effect of commensal microflora on the induction of mucosal tolerance to birch pollen allergen in BALB/c mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana; Repa, A.; Štěpánková, Renata; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Schwarzer, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Tlaskalová, Helena; Wiedermann, U.

    Praha: ČSSM, 2007, s. 92-92. [Kongres Československé společnosti mikrobiologické /24./. Liberec (CZ), 02.10.2007-05.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2249; GA AV ČR IAA500200710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mucosal tolerance Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  5. Distribution patterns of soil entomopathogenic and birch symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi across native woodland and degraded habitats in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Edda Sigurdís Oddsdóttir 1971; Charlotte Nielsen; Robin Sen; Susanne Harding; Jørgen Eilenberg; Guðmundur Halldórsson 1952

    2010-01-01

    In Iceland, extensive afforestation programmes have been initiated, often involving the outplanting of nursery seedling stock on eroded land. In some areas high seedling mortality, to a large extent due to root damage caused by Otiorhynchus spp. larvae, has been reported. Even though recent studies have shown that inoculation with entomopathogenic and ectomycorrhizal fungi may reduce the effects of Otiorhynchus spp. on seedling mortality, information on the occurrence and distribution of thes...

  6. Damage Characterization of Bio and Green Polyethylene–Birch Composites under Creep and Cyclic Testing with Multivariable Acoustic Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar Bravo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the knowledge gained in recent years regarding the use of acoustic emissions (AEs in ecologically friendly, natural fiber-reinforced composites (including certain composites with bio-sourced matrices, there is still a knowledge gap in the understanding of the difference in damage behavior between green and biocomposites. Thus, this article investigates the behavior of two comparable green and biocomposites with tests that better reflect real-life applications, i.e., load-unloading and creep testing, to determine the evolution of the damage process. Comparing the mechanical results with the AE, it can be concluded that the addition of a coupling agent (CA markedly reduced the ratio of AE damage to mechanical damage. CA had an extremely beneficial effect on green composites because the Kaiser effect was dominant during cyclic testing. During the creep tests, the use of a CA also avoided the transition to new damaging phases in both composites. The long-term applications of PE green material must be chosen carefully because bio and green composites with similar properties exhibited different damage processes in tests such as cycling and creep that could not be previously understood using only monotonic testing.

  7. Effect of wood ash on leaf and shoot anatomy, photosynthesis and carbohydrate concentrations in birch on a cutaway peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguraijuja, Karin; Klõšeiko, Jaan; Ots, Katri; Lukjanova, Aljona

    2015-07-01

    Trees in cutaway peatland are growing in difficult conditions. Fertilization with nutrient-rich wood ash helps improve growth conditions. Photosynthesis and carbohydrate concentration along leaf anatomy were studied on plots treated with 10 and 5 t ha(-1) wood ash (WA10 and WA5) and on untreated (Control) plot to explain the physiological background of the differences in tree growth. The leaves from WA10 had the largest leaf area, total thickness, the thickest mesophyll and also significantly larger average values of all anatomical parameters of the shoots. The photosynthetic assimilation was significantly higher on treated plots at 200 and 400 ppm CO2 levels. In leaves on the treated plots, the sucrose concentration was lower while that of starch was higher than in trees on untreated soil. The differences in the maximum photosynthesis were relatively small. At unit ground, the leaf area provided for a wood ash-treated tree an efficient surface for CO2 assimilation, light interception and some starch storage during the growing period. PMID:26092243

  8. Searching for magnetism in hydrogenated graphene: Using highly hydrogenated graphene prepared via birch reduction of graphite oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, A.Y.S.; Poh, H. L.; Šaněk, F.; Maryško, Miroslav; Matějková, Stanislava; Šofer, Z.; Pumera, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2013), s. 5930-5939. ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20507S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : hydrogenated graphene * graphane * graphite oxide * ferromagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 12.033, year: 2013

  9. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    OpenAIRE

    Meinke, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School,...

  10. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    OpenAIRE

    Fölster-Holst R; Galecka J; Weißmantel S; Dickschat U; Rippke F; Bohnsack K; Werfel T.; Wichmann K; Buchner M; Schwarz T; Vogt A; Lademann J; Meinke MC

    2015-01-01

    Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 5Depa...

  11. Mercury in Orange Birch Bolete Leccinum versipelle and soil substratum: bioconcentration by mushroom and probable dietary intake by consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasińska, Grażyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination, accumulation, and distribution of mercury in fruiting bodies by Leccinum versipelle fungus collected from distant sites across Poland. Mercury was determined using validated method by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy after direct sample matrix combustion. A large set of data gained using 371 fruiting bodies and 204 soil samples revealed the susceptibility of L. versipelle to Hg contamination and permitted the estimation of proba...

  12. Mercury in Orange Birch Bolete Leccinum versipelle and soil substratum: bioconcentration by mushroom and probable dietary intake by consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasińska, Grażyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination, accumulation, and distribution of mercury in fruiting bodies by Leccinum versipelle fungus collected from distant sites across Poland. Mercury was determined using validated method by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy after direct sample matrix combustion. A large set of data gained using 371 fruiting bodies and 204 soil samples revealed the susceptibility of L. versipelle to Hg contamination and permitted the estimation of probable intake of Hg contaminant by consumers foraging for this species. The range of median values of Hg determined in caps of L. versipelle was from 0.20 to 2.0 mg kg(-1) dry biomass, and the median for 19 localities was 0.65 mg kg(-1) dry biomass. The values of the Hg bioconcentration factor (BCF) determined for L. versipelle correlated negatively with Hg contents. Mercury in topsoil beneath L. versipelle ranged from 0.019 to 0.041 mg kg(-1) dry matter for less-contaminated locations (BCF of 17 to 65 for caps) and from 0.076 to 0.39 mg kg(-1) dry matter for more contaminated locations (BCF of 1.9 to 22). Fruiting bodies of L. versipelle collected in some regions of Poland if consumed in amount of 300 g in one meal in a week could provide Hg doses above the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) value of 0.004 mg Hg kg(-1) body mass, while regular consumptions for most of the locations were below the limit even with more frequent consumption. Also summarized are available data on Hg for three species of fungi of genus Leccinum foraged in Europe. PMID:26347421

  13. Is immunotherapy-induced birch-pollen-specific IgG4 a marker for decreased allergen-specific sensitivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Ejrnaes, A M; Hummelshoj, L;

    2005-01-01

    The role of IgG4 during allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is still controversial. The available studies present paramount differences in in vitro techniques, allergens, and clinical outcome parameters. By implementing a sensitive method, and pivotal clinical outcome parameters, we wanted to...

  14. Seasonal dynamics of chemokine receptors and CD62L in subjects with asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch and grass pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2006-01-01

    Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) has been shown to be a risk factor for respiratory allergic disease. CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L have all been assigned a role in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Memory T-cell expression of CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L has not hitherto been investigated in subjects with...

  15. The relative roles of climate and land use in the degradation of a terrestrial ecosystem: a case study from Kjarardalur, West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Gísladóttir, Guðrún

    2016-04-01

    Around AD 870 the virgin environment of Iceland became populated by humans and mammal land herbivores. Since then, the island has lost nearly all of its native birch woodland, resulting in dramatic degradation of landscapes and ecosystems, attributed mainly to over-exploitation of woodlands and late-medieval climate deterioration. As part of policy making in agriculture, a heated debate is ongoing over limitations to sheep grazing in pastures suffering from long-term degradation. In this context the history of climate and land use is of great importance. Those who consider grazing a minimal attribute to land degradation argue that the harsh climate conditions of the little ice age are the primary mechanism behind the current degraded landscape. Others err on the side of caution and propose a careful approach to grazing. This study forms a contribution to the historical context of the impact of grazing upon the Icelandic terrestrial ecosystem. Using the analyses of pollen and spores from coprophilous fungi as principal methods, we present data about historical environmental change from within two different land holdings in Kjarardalur Valley, West Iceland. One dataset comes from within a landholding governed by the chieftain farm Reykholt, the other comes from within the land of the indipendent farm, Norðtunga. In the past the valley was used primarily as a pasture, associated with shielings (organised seasonal grazing). Pollen data from the pasture in Kjarardalur Valley, West Iceland, demonstrate a rapid loss of birch (Betula pubescens) woodland from grazing areas owned by the major farm and institution, Reykholt. The suppressive nature of grazing is demonstrated by the expansion of woodland as soon when animal stocks are reduced, probably as a consequence of the bubonic plague after AD 1402. Resumed exploitation of resources eventually depleted all birch woodland from the Reykholt landholding and precipitated soil erosion. The trajectory of environmental change

  16. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingxi; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank;

    2016-01-01

    variables and local shrub dominance. We found that establishment of shrub ramets was positively related to summer precipitation, which implies that the current high dominance of B. nana at our study site could be related to high summer precipitation in the period from 1960 to 1990. The results confirmed...... that early summer temperature is most influential to annual growth rates of B. nana. In addition, summer precipitation stimulated shrub growth in years with warm summers, suggesting that B. nana growth may be co-limited by summer moisture supply. The dual controlling role of temperature and summer...

  17. Characteristics of soil respiration temperature sensitivity in a Pinus/Betula mixed forest during periods of rising and falling temperatures under the Japanese monsoon climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Oe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied temperature sensitivity characteristics of soil respiration during periods of rising and falling temperatureswithin a common temperature range. We measured soil respiration continuously through two periods (a period of fallingtemperature, from August 7, 2003 to October 13, 2003; and a period of rising temperature from May 2, 2004 to July 2,2004 using an open-top chamber technique. A clear exponential relationship was observed between soil temperatureand soil respiration rate during both periods. However, the effects of soil water content were not significant, becausethe humid monsoon climate prevented soil drought, which would otherwise have limited soil respiration. We analyzedtemperature sensitivity using the Q10 value and Rref (reference respiration at the average temperature for the observationperiod and found that these values tended to be higher during the period of rising temperature than during theperiod of falling temperature. In the absence of an effect on soil water content, several other factors could explain thisphenomenon. Here, we discuss the factors that control temperature sensitivity of soil respiration during periods of risingand falling temperature, such as root respiration, root growth, root exudates, and litter supply. We also discuss how thecontribution of these factors may vary due to different growth states or due to the effects of the previous season, despitea similar temperature range.

  18. Late glacial multiproxy evidence of vegetation development and environmental change at Solova, southeastern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon, Leeli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinvestigation of the late glacial Solova (Remmeski basin, based on plant macro­fossil and diatom record, AMS 14C chronology and sediment composition (loss-on-ignition and magnetic susceptibility data, provided information on vegetation history and palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes since the time of the deglaciation of the area around 14 000 cal yr BP. The chronology of the sequence is based on seven AMS dates on terrestrial macrofossils, providing evidence of rapid sedimentation in between 14 000 and 13 500 cal yr BP. Loss-on-ignition data show a clear short-lived warming episode centred to 13 800 cal yr BP, tentatively correlated with the GI-1c warming of the event stratigraphy of the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region, which suggests that at least parts of the Haanja Heights were ice-free by 14 000 cal yr BP. Macrofossil evidence indicates Betula nana–Dryas octopetala-dominated open tundra communities with Saxifraga on dry ground, and Carex sp. and Juncus on wet ground at that time. The first evidence of the postglacial presence of tree birch (Betula pendula in Estonia is dated back to 13 500 cal yr BP. However, conifer remains were not found in the late glacial sediment sequence of Solova Bog. The late-Allerød (GI-1a organic deposits, which are quite typical of other parts of Estonia and indicate general warming, are missing at Solova, most probably due to a hiatus in sedimentation in this very small and shallow upland basin.

  19. Rapid carbon turnover beneath shrub and tree vegetation is associated with low soil carbon stocks at a subarctic treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Thomas C; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A

    2015-05-01

    Climate warming at high northern latitudes has caused substantial increases in plant productivity of tundra vegetation and an expansion of the range of deciduous shrub species. However significant the increase in carbon (C) contained within above-ground shrub biomass, it is modest in comparison with the amount of C stored in the soil in tundra ecosystems. Here, we use a 'space-for-time' approach to test the hypothesis that a shift from lower-productivity tundra heath to higher-productivity deciduous shrub vegetation in the sub-Arctic may lead to a loss of soil C that out-weighs the increase in above-ground shrub biomass. We further hypothesize that a shift from ericoid to ectomycorrhizal systems coincident with this vegetation change provides a mechanism for the loss of soil C. We sampled soil C stocks, soil surface CO2 flux rates and fungal growth rates along replicated natural transitions from birch forest (Betula pubescens), through deciduous shrub tundra (Betula nana) to tundra heaths (Empetrum nigrum) near Abisko, Swedish Lapland. We demonstrate that organic horizon soil organic C (SOCorg ) is significantly lower at shrub (2.98 ± 0.48 kg m(-2) ) and forest (2.04 ± 0.25 kg m(-2) ) plots than at heath plots (7.03 ± 0.79 kg m(-2) ). Shrub vegetation had the highest respiration rates, suggesting that despite higher rates of C assimilation, C turnover was also very high and less C is sequestered in the ecosystem. Growth rates of fungal hyphae increased across the transition from heath to shrub, suggesting that the action of ectomycorrhizal symbionts in the scavenging of organically bound nutrients is an important pathway by which soil C is made available to microbial degradation. The expansion of deciduous shrubs onto potentially vulnerable arctic soils with large stores of C could therefore represent a significant positive feedback to the climate system. PMID:25367088

  20. Carbon Sink in Natural Swamp Forest Ecosystems in Lesser Xing' an Mountains%小兴安岭天然森林沼泽生态系统碳汇功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文昌; 牟长城; 刘夏; 顾韩

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the potential of carbon sink in live types of natural swamp forests in Lesser Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China. Biomass of the swamp forests was determined by setting up standard plots at Youhao Forestry Bureau of Yichun City. Soil fluxes of CO, and CH4 were measured by static opaque chamber and gas chroma-tography techniques. Regression models for biomass were established for predicting net primary productivity of trees. Results showed that the carbon concentration of all plant species in the five types of swamp forests ranged torn 40.2% to 49.3%. The net carbon fixed by plants in Alnus sibirica swamp, Betula platyphylla swamp, Larix gmelinii-Carex schmidtii swamp, L gmeti-nii-moss swamp, and L. gmelinii-Sphagrum spp. swamp were 161.20, 273.56, 242.18, 205.02, and 295.33 g · m-2 · a-1, respectively. The carbon emissions from soils, including conversion of CH4 into carbon, in A. sibinca swamp, B. platyphyllu swamp, L gmelinii-C. schmidtii swamp, L. gmelinii-miass swamp and L. gmelinii-Sphagnum spp. swamp were 226.49, 253.57, 191.86, 169.53 and 127.33 g ·m-2 · a-1, respectively. The CO2-C sinks in B. platyphylla swamp, L gmeli-nii-C. schmidtii swamp, L. gmelinii-moss swamp, and L. gmelinii-Sphagman spp. swamp were 19.99, 50.32, 35.49 and 168.00 g · m-2 · a-1, respectively, while the source of CO2-C from A. sibirica swamp was 65. 29 g · m-2 · a-1.%为了定量评价小兴安岭森林沼泽生态系统碳汇潜力,在伊春市友好林业局岭峰林场设立了标准地,采用静态暗箱—气相色谱法测量土壤CO2和CH4的排放通量,调查小兴安岭5种天然森林沼泽生物量,并建立了生物量回归模型,以推测乔木净初级生产力.研究结果表明:5种森林沼泽各类植被物种碳质量分数范围为40.2%~49.3%,毛赤杨(Alnus sibirica)沼泽、白桦(Betula platyphylla)沼泽、落叶松(Larix gmelinii—苔草(Carex schmidtii)沼泽、落叶松—藓类(Moss)沼

  1. Effects of extreme spring temperatures on phenology: a case study from Munich and Ingolstadt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Extreme events - e.g. warm spells or heavy precipitation events - are likely to increase in the future both in frequency and intensity. Therefore, research on extreme events gains new importance; also in terms of plant development which is mostly triggered by temperatures. An arising question is how plants respond to an extreme warm spell when following an extreme cold winter season. This situation could be studied in spring 2009 in the greater area of Munich and Ingolstadt by phenological observations of flowering and leaf unfolding of birch (Betula pendula L.) and flowering of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.). The long chilling period of winter 2008 and spring 2009 was followed by an immediate strong forcing of flowering and leaf unfolding, especially for birch. This extreme weather situation diminished the difference between urban and rural dates of onset. Another important fact that could be observed in the proceeding period of December 2008 to April 2009 was the reduced temperature difference among urban and rural sites (urban heat island effect). Long-term observations (1951-2008) of the phenological network of the German Meteorological Service (DWD) were used to identify years with reduced urban-rural differences between onset times in the greater area of Munich in the past. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to answer the question whether the sequence of extreme warm and cold events leads to a decreased difference in phenological onset times or if this behaviour can be attributed to extreme warm springs themselves or to the decreased urban heat island effect which is mostly affected by general atmospheric circulation patterns.

  2. Impacts of Invasive Pests on Forest Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, G. M.; Crowley, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Forests of the U.S. have been subject to repeated invasions of destructive insects and diseases imported from other continents. Like other disturbances, these pests can produce short-term ecosystem effects due to tree mortality, but unlike other disturbances, they often target individual species and therefore can cause long-term species change in the forest. Because tree species vary in their influence on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, pest-induced species change can radically alter the biogeochemistry of a forest. In this paper we use both data and modeling to examine how pest-induced species change may alter the C and N cycling in forests of the eastern U.S. We describe a new forest ecosystem model that distinguishes individual tree species and allows species composition to shift over the course of the model run. Results indicate that the mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) by hemlock woolly adelgid and its replacement by faster-growing species such as black birch (Betula lenta) will reduce forest floor C stocks but increase productivity as the birch become established. Decline of American beech (Fagus grandifolia) from beech bark disease and its replacement by sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is likely to decrease soil C storage and increase N leaching from the ecosystem. Responses to other invasive pests will also be discussed. The magnitude of these species-specific effects on C and N cycling is in many cases larger than direct effects expected from changes in climate and atmospheric N deposition, indicating that species change should be included in models that predict forest ecosystem function under future environmental conditions.

  3. Investigations on structure and function of the Betv1-gene family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch (Betula verrucose) and Cor a 1, the major allergen of hazel (Corylus avellana) are related to one family of pathogenesis related proteins. Thus the structure and function of these molecules is relevant for allergen research as well as for the biology of the pollen itself. Naturally occurring Bet v 1 from pollen (nBet v 1) shows heterogeneity when analyzed by 2-D gel electrophoresis, which could suggest that modifications take place posttranslationally. In this thesis, it was demonstrated by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry that various sequence isoforms of nBet v 1 are expressed in pollen. With the exception of cleavage of the N-terminal methionine residue further postsynthetic modifications were not found. The same results were obtained for recombinantly expressed Bet v 1a. In addition, the presence of three isoforms of Cor a 1 in pollen could be demonstrated by the same methods. Again, the N-terminal methionine was absent in this protein. Yet, interestingly, C-terminal asparagine was partly desamidated in Cor a 1. This could be due to the existence of a fourth isoform or to a posttranslational modification. Bet v 1 shares sequence similarity with a RNase of Ginseng panax and, therefore, the activity of RNases in birch pollen wash-outs was characterized. However, Bet v 1 exhibits no such, activity. A further aim of this thesis has been the characterization of novel allergens. Cofactor independent phosphoglycerate mutase of higher plants was found to be a highly conserved plant allergen. It was purified and molecularly cloned. (author)

  4. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m2), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m2), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  5. The effect of increased air humidity on northern deciduous forest ecosystem - a FAHM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostonen, Ivika; Rosenvald, Katrin; Tullus, Arvo; Parts, Kaarin; Sellin, Arne; Kupper, Priit; Sõber, Jaak; Sõber, Anu; Uri, Veiko; Aosaar, Jürgen; Varik, Mats; Lõhmus, Krista

    2013-04-01

    At northern latitudes a rise in atmospheric humidity and precipitation is predicted as a consequence of global climate change. In 2006 an unique experimental facility for free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) was established in Estonia to study the functioning of deciduous forest ecosystem under altered humidity conditions. The experimental site contains humidified and control plots, each includes four types of forest ecosystem: two overstorey species (planted hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.)) both split into two types according to understorey vegetation (diverse "forest" understory and early successional grasses). We investigated the productivity, biomass allocation and functioning of silver birch forest ecosystem in response to elevated atmospheric humidity (on average 7% over the ambient level) during four growing seasons (2008-2011). We hypothesized that elevated air humidity facilitates both above- and below-ground growth and accumulation of plant biomass. During the first three experimental seasons height, stem diameter, and stem volume (D2H) increments of trees, biomass of understory in aboveground and fine root biomass in belowground were similar or significantly reduced in humidified plots. Only the fine root and rhizome biomass of the understory was twice higher in humidified plots. However, fine root turnover speeded up for both tree and understory roots. The trends in above-ground growth changed in 2011, when current annual increments of trees height, diameter, stem volume and fine root biomass were higher in humidified plots. Functionally, trees hydraulic conductance was significantly higher and stem sap flux lower for humidified trees coinciding with significantly higher biomass of primary (in majority ectomycorrhizal) roots, morphologically thinner and longer root tips and higher specific root length. Humidification caused a shift in the root tips colonizing fungal community towards the

  6. Changes in species composition and diversity in the restoration process of sub-alpine dark brown coniferous forests in western Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangming MA; Shirong LIU; Zuomin SHI; Yuandong ZHANG; Bing KANG; Baoyu CHEN

    2008-01-01

    By adopting the concept of space as a substi-tute for time, we analyzed the dynamics of species com-position and diversity of different restoration sequences (20, 30, 40, 50 years) in two secondary forest types in western Sichuan Province, distributed in a northerly or northwesterly direction. The analysis was based on the results of measurements of 50 plots located at elevations between 3100-3600 m. The forests originated from nat-ural regeneration in combination with reforestation of spruce when the old-growth bamboo-dark brown con-iferous forests and moss-dark brown coniferous old growth forests were harvested. Similar old-growth dark brown coniferous forests at ages ranging between 160 and 200 years were selected as the reference forests for comparisons. We recorded 167 species of vascular plants from 44 families and 117 genera. There was no significant difference in terms of the number of species among secondary forests. But the importance values of dominant species varied during the restoration pro-cesses. The dominant species in the secondary forests is Betula albo-sinensis, while Abiesfaxoniana is the dom-inant species in old-growth dark brown coniferous for-ests. Species richness increased significantly with restoration processes. It increased quickly in secondary forests during the period from 30 to 40 years, but decreased significantly in the old-growth dark brown coniferous forests. The species richness among growth forms decreased in the following order: herb layer> sh-rub layer > tree layer. The maximum value of the even-ness index occurred in secondary forests at age 40 and remained relatively stable in the bamboo-birch forests, but the evenness index tended to decrease in moss-birch forests and slightly increased in the old-growth moss-dark brown coniferous forests. There was a statistically significant difference in the evenness index between the tree and shrub layers as well as between the tree layer and the herb layer, but there was no

  7. Flux-based Water Use Efficiency over Two Larch Forests with Different Soil and Canopy Structure at Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, A.; Ohta, T.; Maximov, T.

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated evapotranspiration and CO2 exchange, observed by the eddy covariance method, over two larch-dominated forests mixed with birch and willow, in the southern and middle parts of the Lena basin, eastern Siberia. One is the Spasskaya Pad station (SP) at Yakutsk (62° 15'N, 129° 14'E). The other station named Elgeeii station (EG) (60° 0'N, 133° 49'E) is located at 300 km southeast of Yakutsk. The dominant species in the forest is larch (Larix cajanderi), mixed with birch (Betula pendula), willow (Salix bebbiana) and pine (Pinus sylvesrtis). The stand density of larch trees is 720 and 1040 trees ha-1 (1800 and 2600 trees ha-1 including birch, salix and pine) at SP and EG, respectively. The mean stand height of upper canopy, which is comprised of larch trees, is around 20m at SP and 25m at EG, and plant area index measured in August 2011 is 1.4 at SP and 2.1 at EG. At SP forest, decline of some larch trees was recently observed. Observations of eddy-covariance and meteorological data in three growing seasons showed similarities in the seasonal variation of meteorological conditions and evapotranspiration (ET), while the two sites varied in gross CO2 uptake and ecosystem respiration during the growing season. An earlier onset of and a later decline of gross CO2 uptake (GPP) compared to ET at EG resulted in a seasonal time lag between ET and CO2 uptake and therefore mid-summer depletion of ecosystem WUE (defined as the ratio of net or gross CO2 uptake to ET), while relatively stable WUE was observed at SP. The total amount of ET from May to September was almost identical at the two sites, whereas the components of CO2 exchange (gross uptake and respiration) at EG were 1.31 times those recorded at SP. Consequently, ecosystem WUE was larger at EG than at SP. The difference in total GPP was explained mainly by difference in the PAI, that is, the tree biomass above ground, rather than the climate condition. It is likely that the level of forest

  8. Extinct mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni) in Southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Phillips, Arthur M.; Middleton, Larry T.

    1987-05-01

    The extinct Harrington's mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni Stock) is predominantly known from dry cave localities in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in addition to two sites in the Great Basin, Nevada, and from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A dry shelter in Natural Bridges National Monument, on the central Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah, preserves numerous remains of the extinct mountain goat in addition to pack rat middens. Remains from a 100-cm stratigraphic profile indicate that O. harringtoni lived on the plateau >39,800 yr B.P., the oldest directly dated find of extinct mountain goat. Plant macrofossils indicate that Engelmann's spruce ( Picea engelmannii), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis), rose ( Rosa cf. woodsii), and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) grew during the late Pleistocene where a riparian and a pinyon-juniper ( Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community now predominates; Douglas fir are found only in mesic, protected, north-facing areas. Limber pine, Douglas fir, bark, and grasses were the major dietary components in the dung. A springtime diet of birch ( Betula) is determined from pollen clumps in dung pellets.

  9. Classification of plant somatic embryos by computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, J J; Kurtén, U; Kauppinen, V

    1993-01-01

    This article deals with the automation of the process of somatic embryogenesis for the propagation of plants. An important problem is the monitoring of the embryo production process in order to decide the time to start harvesting embryos for further processing. The classification algorithm development for somatic embryos of birch (Betula pendula Roth) showed that automated recognition of embryos at different developmental stages is possible. No globular stage embryos were classified to be heart or torpedo stage and no heart or torpedo stage embryos were classified to be at globular stage. Heart and torpedo stage embryos were classified into three developmental classes by a new index that describes the relation of embryo breadth to the length of the root. The probability of classifying a nonembryo as an embryo was less than 1%, and 14% of the object classified as embryos by a human expert were discarded by the algorithm. A computer vision system suitable for automated monitoring of samples from the bioreactor was constructed. PMID:18601243

  10. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  11. The rhizosphere and PAH amendment mediate impacts on functional and structural bacterial diversity in sandy peat soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yrjaelae, Kim, E-mail: kim.yrjala@helsinki.f [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, General Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, (Biocenter 1C), 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Keskinen, Anna-Kaisa; Akerman, Marja-Leena; Fortelius, Carola [METROPOLIA University of Applied Science, Vantaa (Finland); Sipilae, Timo P. [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, General Microbiology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, (Biocenter 1C), 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-05-15

    To reveal the degradation capacity of bacteria in PAH polluted soil and rhizosphere we combined bacterial extradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenase and 16S rRNA analysis in Betula pubescens rhizoremediation. Characterisation of the functional bacterial community by RFLP revealed novel environmental dioxygenases, and their putative hosts were studied by 16S rRNA amplification. Plant rhizosphere and PAH amendment effects were detected by the RFLP/T-RFLP analysis. Functional species richness increased in the birch rhizosphere and PAH amendment impacted the compositional diversity of the dioxygenases and the structural 16S rRNA community. A shift from an Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia dominated to an Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria dominated community structure was detected in polluted soil. Clone sequence analysis indicated catabolic significance of Burkholderia in PAH polluted soil. These results advance our understanding of rhizoremediation and unveil the extent of uncharacterized functional bacteria to benefit bioremediation by facilitating the development of the molecular tool box to monitor bacterial populations in biodegradation. - The bacterial community analysis using 16S rRNA and extradiol dioxygenase marker genes in rhizoremediation revealed both a rhizosphere and a PAH-pollution effect.

  12. How much selenium do medicinal plants contain? Results of a research on wild-growing species from Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Simona ANTAL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultratrace element selenium is essential for higher animals and man. It is an active constituent of over twenty different selenoproteins from human tissues. As well, this rare nonmetal element is a potent anticarcinogen, inhibiting both chemically and virally induced tumors. The ever-increasing biological importance of Se determined us to perform the first largescale investigation of Romanian medicinal plants in what their Se content is concerned, and to evaluate the extraction ratio of this element during decoction. ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed average Se contents of 43 μg/kg dry matter. The highest Se content was found in aerial parts (average of 60 μg/kg, followed by leaves (58, roots (54, flowers (35 and fruits (12. Species grown on limestone weathering soils are significantly richer in Se than the ones grown on granite or phyllite. Outstanding Se contents were measured for samples of Betula pendula leaves – 381, 131 and 113 μg Se/kg, Agrimonia eupatoria herb - 332 μg/kg, and Galium verum herb – 287 μg/kg. The extraction ratio of Se through decoction ranges from 4% (valerian roots to 83% (chicory roots. The Se content and the high amounts of flavonoids in birch, agrimony and yellow bedstraw underline the value of these plants in the auxiliary treatment of various free-radical mediated diseases.

  13. Stem CO2 release under illumination: corticular photosynthesis, photorespiration or inhibition of mitochondrial respiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Christiane; Pfanz, Hardy; Loreto, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro; Pietrini, Fabrizio; Alessio, Giorgio

    2006-06-01

    In illuminated stems and branches, CO2 release is often reduced. Many light-triggered processes are thought to contribute to this reduction, namely photorespiration, corticular photosynthesis or even an inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. In this study, we investigated these processes with the objective to discriminate their influence to the overall reduction of branch CO2 release in the light. CO2 gas-exchange measurements of young birch (Betula pendula Roth.) branches (O2) and non-photorespiratory (exchange. This suppression of photorespiration was attributed to the high CO2 concentrations (C(i)) within the bark tissues (1544 +/- 227 and 618 +/- 43 micromol CO2 mol(-1) in the dark and in the light, respectively). Changes in xylem CO2 were not likely to explain the observed decrease in stem CO2 release as gas-exchange measurements before and after cutting of the branches did not effect CO2 efflux to the atmosphere. Combined fluorescence and gas-exchange measurements provided evidence that the light-dependent reduction in CO2 release can pre-dominantly be attributed to corticular refixation, whereas an inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in the light is unlikely to occur. Corticular photosynthesis was able to refix up to 97% of the CO2 produced by branch respiration, although it rarely led to a positive net photosynthetic rate. PMID:17080940

  14. Wood surface roughness: an impact of wood species, grain direction and grit size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Vitosytė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For the research the samples of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., birch (Betula L., black alder (Alnus glutinosa L., Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L. and spruce (Picea abies L. wood were used with dimensions of 270×215×15 mm. All wood samples were tangentially planed, defect free and kiln dried. Before the research, the average moisture content, wood density, number of annual rings per 1 cm, average width of annual ring and wood surface grain direction were evaluated. Different wood surface roughness of the samples was obtained sanding wood samples in the eccentric sanding stand, using standard open-type sandpaper with different grit size. The arithmetic mean value of the single roughness depths of consecutive sampling lengths parameter Rz of the sanded wood samples were measured in five sectors along the wood grain, across and in the angle of 45°, using a contact stylus profilometer. In total 1800 measurements were done during testing series. Obtained measurement results were processed by digital Gaussian filter according to DIN EN ISO 11562. In the research the dependence of wood surface on wood species, grain direction and grit size of abrasive material was evaluated.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.5882

  15. Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands: Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Adam; Nilsson, Urban; Sonesson, Johan; Felton, Annika M; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Ranius, Thomas; Ahlström, Martin; Bergh, Johan; Björkman, Christer; Boberg, Johanna; Drössler, Lars; Fahlvik, Nils; Gong, Peichen; Holmström, Emma; Keskitalo, E Carina H; Klapwijk, Maartje J; Laudon, Hjalmar; Lundmark, Tomas; Niklasson, Mats; Nordin, Annika; Pettersson, Maria; Stenlid, Jan; Sténs, Anna; Wallertz, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures. PMID:26744048

  16. The amount of carbon in the undergrowth biomass of main types of forests stands in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janyszek Sławomir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sequestration of carbon in biomass of herb and moss layers of forest ecosystems is relatively less studied, than analogical processes in trees biomass and soil organic mass. The paper presents mean values of carbon concentration and mean amounts of dry mass of plant material in the herb and moss layer of phytocoenoses formed under canopy of stands of main forest-forming species of trees in Poland. The parameters were studied for beech, birch, oak, alder, pine, fir and spruce forest stands, for most of the particular age classes. The studied plots were contained in following plant associations and communities: Ribo nigri-Alnetum, Fraxino-Alnetum, Galio odorati-Fagetum, Luzulo luzuloidis-Fagetum, Molinio caeruleae-Quercetum roboris, Calamagrostio-Quercetum petraeae, Abietetum polonicum, Abieti-Piceetum montanum, Calamagrostio villosae-Piceetum, as well as anthropogenic communities: Betula pendula comm. on Leucobryo-Pinetum habitat, Larix decidua comm. on Tilio-Carpinetum habitat, Pinus sylvestris comm. on Tilio-Carpinetum habitat, Picea abies comm. on Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum habitat (in lowland and Picea abies comm. on Luzulo luzuloidis-Fagetum habitat (in lower mountain localities. The relatively highest carbon amount was observed in oak forests, pine forests and in older age classes of lowland beech forest, where the carbon concentration in dry mass reaches from 60 to 81%. The lowest concentrations were determined for lowland spruce forests, highland fir forests and for alder forests. The carbon concentration reached in these types of ecosystems from 39 to 41%.

  17. Use of mosses and lichens for the evaluation of the radioactive fallout, deposits and flows under forest-cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear accident in April 1986, samples of 24 moss and lichen species were collected from a variety of forest types - young or mature spruce [Picea abies], beech [Fagus sylvatica], birch [Betula alba] or oak [Quercus robur] stands, and from bark, stump, dead branch, soil drainage channel or stream positions - between October 1986 and September 1988. Caesium radioisotopes (134Cs and 137Cs) were measured. Variability of contamination between species was relatively small; variability of contamination between sites was larger: greater contamination was recorded for samples (1) from forest edges exposed in May 1986 to contaminated precipitation, (2) in forest gaps, particularly in spruce stands and (3) on tree stems with greater stemflow, particularly beech. Radiocaesium 'ecological' half-life was shorter for mosses: e.g. about 18 months for Pleurozium schreberi (a terrestrial moss); and about 21 months for Hypogymnia physodes (a tree stem lichen). Samples from the Ardennes region recorded shorter half lives than those from the Gaume; this is attributed to differences in mean annual precipitation (respectively, 1200 and 800 mm). Depending on bryophyte morphology (rather than density beneath forest canopy), between 15 and 50% of original contamination had not reached the soil 30 months after the accident

  18. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.)

  19. Screening Analyses of Pinosylvin Stilbenes, Resin Acids and Lignans in Norwegian Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fiksdahl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The content and distribution of stilbenes and resin acids in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris and spruce (Picea abies, sampled in central Norway, have been examined. The contents of pinosylvin stilbenes in pine heartwood/living knots were 0.2-2/2-8 % (w/w. No stilbenes could be detected in spruce (Picea abies. The resin acid contents of pine sapwood/heartwood and knots were 1-4 and 5-10 % (w/w, respectively. Minor amounts of resin acids (< 0.2/< 0.04 %w/w were identified in spruce wood/knots. The lignan content in knots of Norwegian spruce was 6.5 % (w/w. Diastereomerically pure hydroxymatairesinol (HMR, 84 % of total lignans was readily isolated from this source since only minor quantities (2.6 % of total lignans of the allo-HMR diastereomer was detected. Insignificant amounts of lignans were present in the sapwood. Lignans could not be detected in the sapwood or knots of Norwegian sallow (Salix caprea, birch (Betula pendula or juniper (Juniperus communis.

  20. Tc1-like transposable elements in plant genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposable elements (TEs) is widespread in animal genomes. Mariner-like elements, which bear a DDD triad catalytic motif, have been identified in a wide range of flowering plant species. However, as the founding member of the superfamily, Tc1-like elements that bear a DD34E triad catalytic motif are only known to unikonts (animals, fungi, and Entamoeba). Results Here we report the identification of Tc1-like elements (TLEs) in plant genomes. These elements bear the four terminal nucleotides and the characteristic DD34E triad motif of Tc1 element. The two TLE families (PpTc1, PpTc2) identified in the moss (Physcomitrella patens) genome contain highly similar copies. Multiple copies of PpTc1 are actively transcribed and the transcripts encode intact full length transposase coding sequences. TLEs are also found in angiosperm genome sequence databases of rice (Oryza sativa), dwarf birch (Betula nana), cabbage (Brassica rapa), hemp (Cannabis sativa), barley (Hordium valgare), lettuce (Lactuta sativa), poplar (Populus trichocarpa), pear (Pyrus x bretschneideri), and wheat (Triticum urartu). Conclusions This study extends the occurrence of TLEs to the plant phylum. The elements in the moss genome have amplified recently and may still be capable of transposition. The TLEs are also present in angiosperm genomes, but apparently much less abundant than in moss. PMID:24926322

  1. Long-term ecological behaviour of abandoned uranium mill tailings. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inactive uranium mill tailings were surveyed in the Province of Ontario to describe their surface characteristics, identify naturally invading biota, and determine essential chemical and physical parameters associated with the tailings. Inactive tailings sites can have wet areas, tailings completely covered with water, and dry areas. In the wet areas of most sites, wetland vegetation stands were found which were dominated by species of cattails (Typhaceae), along with some species of rushes (Juncaceae) and sedges (Cyperceae). Dry areas of the tailings exhibited a variety of surface features which are often a reflection of different amelioration efforts. Most of the indigenous species of vascular plants identified on dry areas of the tailings occurred only sporadically. Invading plants found on most sites were the tree species, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Elemental concentration and some physical characteristics of the tailings collected from a depth of 0-20 cm were determined. Uptake of heavy metals and radionuclides were evaluated in trees found in the dry areas and in cattails (Typha latifolia) in the wetland areas. Water bodies on tailings and surface water leaving the tailings, before and after treatment, were characterized in this survey. Aquatic bryophytes have invaded some water bodies on the tailings, and acid tolerant algae were evident in most of the water associated with the tailings. Ecological processes occurring on inactive uranium mill tailings which were identified in this survey are essential in evaluating the long-term fate of these waste sites

  2. The rhizosphere and PAH amendment mediate impacts on functional and structural bacterial diversity in sandy peat soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reveal the degradation capacity of bacteria in PAH polluted soil and rhizosphere we combined bacterial extradiol ring-cleavage dioxygenase and 16S rRNA analysis in Betula pubescens rhizoremediation. Characterisation of the functional bacterial community by RFLP revealed novel environmental dioxygenases, and their putative hosts were studied by 16S rRNA amplification. Plant rhizosphere and PAH amendment effects were detected by the RFLP/T-RFLP analysis. Functional species richness increased in the birch rhizosphere and PAH amendment impacted the compositional diversity of the dioxygenases and the structural 16S rRNA community. A shift from an Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia dominated to an Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria dominated community structure was detected in polluted soil. Clone sequence analysis indicated catabolic significance of Burkholderia in PAH polluted soil. These results advance our understanding of rhizoremediation and unveil the extent of uncharacterized functional bacteria to benefit bioremediation by facilitating the development of the molecular tool box to monitor bacterial populations in biodegradation. - The bacterial community analysis using 16S rRNA and extradiol dioxygenase marker genes in rhizoremediation revealed both a rhizosphere and a PAH-pollution effect.

  3. Molecular characterization of recombinant T1, a non-allergenic periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) protein, with sequence similarity to the Bet v 1 plant allergen family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffer, Sylvia; Hamdi, Said; Lupinek, Christian; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Grote, Monika; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Scheiner, Otto; Kraft, Dietrich; Rideau, Marc; Valenta, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    More than 25% of the population suffer from Type I allergy, an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity disease. Allergens with homology to the major birch ( Betula verrucosa ) pollen allergen, Bet v 1, belong to the most potent elicitors of IgE-mediated allergies. T1, a cytokinin-inducible cytoplasmic periwinkle ( Catharanthus roseus ) protein, with significant sequence similarity to members of the Bet v 1 plant allergen family, was expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant T1 (rT1) did not react with IgE antibodies from allergic patients, and failed to induce basophil histamine release and immediate-type skin reactions in Bet v 1-allergic patients. Antibodies raised against purified rT1 could be used for in situ localization of natural T1 by immunogold electron microscopy, but did not cross-react with most of the Bet v 1-related allergens. CD analysis showed significant differences regarding secondary structure and thermal denaturation behaviour between rT1 and recombinant Bet v 1, suggesting that these structural differences are responsible for the different allergenicity of the proteins. T1 represents a non-allergenic member of the Bet v 1 family that may be used to study structural requirements of allergenicity and to engineer hypo-allergenic plants by replacing Bet v 1-related allergens for primary prevention of allergy. PMID:12656672

  4. The efficacy of six elite isolates of the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum against the sprouting of European aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Hantula, Jarkko

    2016-04-15

    The sprouting of broad-leaved trees after cutting is problematic in forest regeneration areas, along roads and railways, under electric power and above gas pipe lines. In Finland, one of the most difficult species to control in these areas is the European aspen (Populus tremula), which produces both stump sprouts and root suckers after saplings have been cut. In this study, we investigated whether a decay fungus of broad-leaved trees, Chondrostereum purpureum, could be used as a biological control agent against aspen sprouting. The efficacy of six elite strains of C. purpureum (improved earlier in a breeding process) was investigated on aspen for three years. The most efficient C. purpureum strain, R53, tested earlier on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), was efficient in causing mortality of aspen stumps and preventing the development of root suckers. With this strain, stump mortality was 78%, while significantly lower in control stumps which were cut only (47%). Aspen trees in the vicinity of the treatments (within a 10 m radius around each sapling) decreased the efficacy of C. purpureum. This study shows that the decay fungus C. purpureum can successfully be used in the sprout control of aspen saplings. PMID:26899306

  5. Trees are important conduits for emission of methane from temperate and tropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Vincent; Pangala, Sunitha; Gowing, David; Hornibrook, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Methane produced in wetland soil generally is thought to be emitted to the atmosphere primarily via diffusion through pore water, release of gas bubbles (i.e., ebullition), and gas phase diffusion through the aerenchyma of herbaceous plants. The role of trees as a conduit for methane export from soil to the atmosphere has received limited attention despite evidence from mesocosm experiments showing that seedlings and saplings of wetland trees have a significant capacity to transport soil-produced gases. Notably ~60% of global wetlands are forested. We present in situ measurements of methane flux from a temperate carr (swamp) composed of alder (Alnus glutinosa) and birch (Betula pubescens) situated in the United Kingdom and a tropical forested peat swamp located in Borneo. The in situ data are complemented by a mesocosm experiment in which methane emissions were measured from alder saplings subjected to two water-regime treatments. In both the in situ and mesocosm studies, emissions from trees are compared to methane flux from the ground surface, the latter occurring via pore water diffusion, ebullition or the aerenchyma of herbaceous plants. We show that tree stem emissions are controlled by a number of factors including tree species, soil pore-water concentration and stem lenticel density. Our results demonstrate that the omission of tree-mediated methane fluxes from measurement campaigns conducted in forested wetland can significantly underestimate total ecosystem flux of methane.

  6. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. PMID:25588119

  7. Methane Emission through Trees in Temperate and Tropical Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangala, S. R.; Gauci, V.; Hornibrook, E. R.; Gowing, D.

    2012-12-01

    Methane produced in wetland soil generally is thought to be emitted by a combination of three key processes: 1) diffusion through water-filled pores, 2) abrupt release of bubbles (ebullition), and 3) via internal spaces within the stems of herbaceous plants adapted to live in waterlogged soils. The capacity for trees to mediate methane emissions has received limited attention despite mesocosm studies of seedlings and saplings demonstrating that wetland trees have a significant capacity to transport soil-produced methane to the atmosphere. Notably ~60% of global wetlands are forested. We present in situ measurements of methane flux from a temperate carr (swamp) composed of alder (Alnus glutinosa) and birch (Betula pubescens) situated in the United Kingdom and a tropical forested peat swamp located in Borneo. The in situ data are complemented by a mesocosm experiment in which methane emissions were measured from alder saplings subjected to two water-regime treatments. In both the in situ and mesocosm studies, emissions from trees are compared to methane flux from the ground surface, the latter occurring via pore water diffusion, ebullition or via the aerenchyma of herbaceous plants. We show that tree stem emissions are controlled by a number of factors including tree species, soil pore-water concentration and stem lenticel density. Our results demonstrate that the omission of tree-mediated methane fluxes from measurement campaigns conducted in forested wetland can significantly underestimate the total ecosystem flux of methane.

  8. The sedimentary sequence from the Lake Ķūži outcrop, central Latvia: implications for late glacial stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Koff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from an outcrop in the near-shore area of Lake Ķūži (Vidzeme Heights, Central Latvia were investigated using palaeobotanical (pollen and macrofossil analysis and lithological (grain-size analysis methods and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating. A dark, organic-rich sediment layer was found below 1.7 m of sandy layers approximately 30 cm above the present lake level. Radiocarbon dating of a wood sample from the lowermost layer (11 050 ± 60 14C BP, 13 107–12 721 cal BP shows that the layer is of late glacial age. The composition of the pollen spectra is characterized by Betula nana, Cyperaceae pollen and spores of Equisetum, confirming that the lowermost sediments were formed during the late glacial. Fossils of obligate aquatic organisms in the upper layer, which include oospores of Characeae and seeds of Potamogeton, indicate an open water environment. Pollen of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton and non-pollen palynomorphs, such as algal Botryococcus and Pediastrum cf. boryanum, confirm this conclusion. The pollen assemblage from the greyish loam layer following this lacustrine phase shows a pattern characteristic of the Younger Dryas vegetation before the start of the real expansion of birch forests at the beginning of the Holocene.

  9. Factors influencing caesium-137 levels in moose (Alces alces) and small game in Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the third annual hunting season after the Chernobyl accident the concentration of Cs-137 in meat of northern Swedish moose was significantly higher than in the first one (1986). In September 1986 the mean Cs concentration was 500 Bq/kg in calves but in September 1988 it has risen 1300 Bq/kg. This increase was only temporary and a rapid decline occured after September and by December 1988 the concentration of Cs was the same as in late 1986. Adult moose showed the same increase during the hunt 1988 but to a lower magnitude. Typical food plants of moose such as bilberry (Vaccinum myrtillus) and birch (Betula pubescens) showed, contradictory to expected by the level in moose, a decline of concentration caesium from 1986 to 1988. A probable explanation to the dramatically increased concentration of Cs in moose is a change in diet selection during 1988. Small mammals such as voles and lemmings showed a variation in concentration of caesium-137 which was more dependent on other factors than on their body size. This emphasize the necessity to study diet selection by herbivores in detail in order to predict uptake and changes in environmental contaminants. (orig.)

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 in complex with a murine monoclonal IgG Fab' fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, M D; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Gajhede, M

    1999-01-01

    The human type I allergic response is characterized by the presence of allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). Allergen-mediated cross-linking of receptor-bound IgE on the surface of mast cells and circulating basophils triggers the release of mediators, resulting in the development of the......, with unit-cell parameters a = 91.65, b = 99.14, c = 108.90 A, alpha = 105.7, beta = 98.32, gamma = 97.62 degrees, and diffract to 2.9 A resolution when analyzed at 100 K using synchrotron-generated X--rays....

  11. Neonatal colonization of germ-free mice with Bifidobacterium longum prevents allergic sensitization to major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarzer, Martin; Šrůtková, Dagmar; Schabussova, I.; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Akgün, J.; Wiedermann, U.; Kozáková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 46 (2013), s. 5405-5412. ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0449; GA MŠk 7AMB12AT020 Institutional support : RVO:61388971 Keywords : Allergy * Bifidobacterium * Germ-free mice Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.485, year: 2013

  12. Dominating IgE-binding epitope of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen, characterized by X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangfort, Michael D; Mirza, Osman; Ipsen, Henrik;

    2003-01-01

    surface area of Bet v 1 and is clearly conformational. A synthetic peptide representing a sequential motif in the epitope (11 of 16 residues) did not inhibit the binding of mAb BV16 to Bet v 1, illustrating limitations in the use of peptides for B cell epitope characterization. The single amino acid...

  13. Susceptibility to nasal and oral tolerance induction to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 is not dependent on the presence of the microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Repa, A.; Kozáková, Hana; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Štěpánková, Renata; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Tlaskalová, Helena; Pollak, A.; Wiedermann, U.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2008), s. 50-56. ISSN 0165-2478 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2249; GA ČR GA303/06/0974; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : gnotobiotics * mucosal immunity * allergy Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.858, year: 2008

  14. Recycling of wood- and peat-ash – a successful way to establish full plant cover and dense birch stand on a cut-away peatland

    OpenAIRE

    Huotari, N. (Noora)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mechanical harvesting of peat changes the original mire ecosystem completely, and without active measures these areas may remain non-vegetated even for decades. Afforestation is one of the most popular after-use options for cut-away peatlands in Finland since it has both economic and aesthetic values. Recycling of wood-ash as a fertilizer has been studied extensively in peatlands drained for forestry. Wood-ash is reported to promote tree growth in these areas without any signific...

  15. Birches against mineral oils. Lignin - a renewable resource for the alternative production of phenols; Birke contra Erdoel. Lignin - ein nachwachsender Rohstoff zur alternativen Gewinnung von Phenolen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnpfund, C.; Bormann, J.; Wehrkamp zu Hoene, F. [Gymnasium Bersenbrueck (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    We wanted to offer an alternative for the `After-mineral oil time` with our work when we attempted to isolate phenols, which are won up to now from mineral oil, of a growing raw material. Phenols are economic important substances for production of epoxies, herbicides, artificial resins, dyes and drugs (e.g. aspirin or Paracetamol). We managed to isolate phenols with normal conditions of lignin, a component of wood. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir wollten mit unserer Arbeit eine Alternative fuer die `Nach-Erdoel-Zeit` bieten, indem wir versuchten, Phenole, die bisher aus Erdoel gewonnen werden, aus einem nachwachsenden Rohstoff zu isolieren. Phenole sind volkswirtschaftlich bedeutsame Substanzen zur Herstellung von Kunststoffen, Herbiziden, Kunstharzen, Farbstoffen und Arzneimitteln (z.B. Aspirin oder Paracetamol). Es gelang uns, Phenole unter Normalbedingungen aus Lignin, einem Bestandteil des Holzes, zu isolieren. (orig.)

  16. Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transboundary animal disease viruses such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) are highly contagious and cause severe morbidity and mortality in livestock. Proper disinfection during an outbreak can help prevent virus spread and will shorten the time for contam...

  17. A case of birch pollen-related food allergy syndrome%桦树花粉相关的食物过敏综合征一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵洁; 罗海燕; A Purohit; G Pauli

    2005-01-01

    70%以上桦树花粉过敏患者同时存在对某些植物源性食物过敏,即所谓的花粉相关的食物过敏(pollen related food allergy)。我们报道1例典型的桦树花粉过敏,随后发展成为对一些植物性食物过敏,并产生显著的临床症状,籍此阐明桦树花粉相关的食物过敏的临床和免疫学特征。

  18. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H;

    2002-01-01

    conducted as a clustered regimen and was performed in a specialist unit. Symptom scores from nose, eyes, and lungs, and use of oral and topical antihistamines, beta-2-agonists, and oral corticosteroids were recorded daily during the season of 2000. Sensitivity to allergen provocation in skin, conjunctiva...... oral antihistamines (P < 0.01). IT reduced specific conjunctival sensitivity (P < 0.05), skin prick test, and especially cutaneous late-phase response diameters (P < 0.00001), and increased general well-being on post-seasonal evaluation (P < 0.01). IT was safe, with side-effects at the same level as...

  19. Luria's Model of the Verbal Control of Behavior. Study F: Motivational and Control in the Development of Language Functions, D. Birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiswenger, Hugo

    A. R. Luria, in his conception of the verbal control of behavior, regards four fundamental and distinctive functional attributes of the human speech system as making up a signaling system that humans alone possess: (1) the nominative role of language, (2) the generalizing or semantic role, (3) the communicative role, and (4) the role of…

  20. Potential of the slow pyrolysis products birch tar oil, wood vinegar and biochar in sustainable plant protection : pesticidal effects, soil improvement and environmental risks

    OpenAIRE

    Hagner, Marleena

    2013-01-01

    The increased use of pesticides and their impacts on environment have become a matter of considerable concern in recent decades. The use of pesticides, especially synthetic ones, is suggested to be replaced by compensatory substances that exert a lower risk to the environment. At the same time, global climate change will lead to an increase in temperature and rainfall in some areas, which could enhance the growth of several pest populations. For example, populations of the molluscs Arianta ar...