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Sample records for birch bark beetle

  1. Bark beetle management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This guidebook is designed to provide a background to bark beetle management practices consistent with the British Columbia Forest Practices Code, as well as specific practices for managing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis), and Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae). It describes their general biology and distribution in British Columbia, their life cycles and population dynamics, and symptoms of bark beetle attack. General management strategies presented include prevention (a long-term approach), suppression, holding actions, and salvage. Strategies appropriate to specific bark beetles include aerial surveys, ground detection, baiting, harvesting, and use of insecticides. The guidebook includes brief mention of other bark beetles (Scolytids and other Dendroctonus species) and a glossary.

  2. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  3. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  4. Pathogens, promising candidates for bark beetle control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wegensteiner, R.; Weiser, Jaroslav

    Georgetown: International Union of Forestry Research Organizations., 2003. s. 35. [Integrated Control of Scolytid Bark Beetles.. 29.09.2003-02.10.2003, Georgetown] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Rhizopoda * Sporozoa Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  5. What is Next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios N. Avtzis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example having destroyed almost 100,000 km2 of conifer forests in North America. The success and effectiveness of scolytid species lies mostly in strategies developed over the course of time. Among these, a complex system of semiochemicals promotes the communication and aggregation on the spot of infestation facilitating an en masse attack against a host tree’s defenses; or an association with fungi that evolved either in the form of nutrition (ambrosia fungi or even by reducing the resistance of host trees (blue-stain fungi. Although often specific to a tree genus or species, some bark beetles are polyphagous and have the ability to switch on to new hosts and extend their host range (i.e., between conifer genera such as Pityogenes chalcographus or even from conifer to deciduous trees as Polygraphus grandiclava. A combination of these capabilities in concert with life history or ecological traits explains why bark beetles are considered interesting subjects in evolutionary studies. Several bark beetle species appear in phylogeographic investigations, in an effort to improve our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and evolution. In this paper investigations that unveil the phylogeographic history of bark beetles are reviewed. A close association between refugial areas and postglacial migration routes that insects and host trees have followed in the last 15,000 BP has been suggested in many studies. Finally, a future perspective of how next generation sequencing will influence the resolution of phylogeographic patterns in the coming years is presented. Utilization of such novel

  6. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Karnaouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, 13C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes.

  7. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehelean Cristina A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%. Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, A2780 (ovarian carcinoma, HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma, by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts.

  8. Dutch elm disease and elm bark beetles: a century of association

    OpenAIRE

    Santini A; Faccoli M

    2015-01-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Scolytus Geoffroy are the main vectors of the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi s.l., which causes the Dutch elm disease. The large and small elm bark beetles - S. scolytus (F.) and S. multistriatus (Marsham), respectively - are the most common and important species spreading the pathogen worldwide. The success of the pathogen-insect interactions is mainly due to the characteristic reproductive behavior of the elm bark beetles, which, however, largely depends on the occurrence ...

  9. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exo...

  10. Effects of Pathogens and Bark Beetles on Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Goheen, D J; Hansen, E M

    1993-01-01

    This chapter addresses the varied roles that root pathogens and bark beetles play in western coniferous forests as (1) regulators of ecological structure and processes, (2) arbiters of management success and (3) agents of significant economic loss. Pathologists, entomologists, and forest managers often speak of the "impact" of fungal and insect "pests" on forest values. This terminology carries connotations of death and destruction that reflect only part of the role that these organisms play ...

  11. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  12. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. PMID:27387908

  13. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, R.W.; Miller, P.R.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark beetle infestation were not related to total height, diameter, length of live and dead crown or crown class. As severity of oxidant injury increased, live crown ratio decreased and incidence of bark beetle infestation increased. One hundred noninfested trees in each of three disease categories, advanced, intermediate, and healthy, were examined for evidence of prior beetle attacks. Thirty-six percent of the advanced-diseased trees versus only 5% of the healthy trees were attacked. Thus, the beetles may discriminate between healthy and diseased trees at a distance, upon contact with the host, or both. These studies indicate strongly that atmospheric pollution injury predisposes ponderosa pine to bark beetle infestations. 3 references, 7 tables.

  14. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  15. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  16. From a traditional medicinal plant to a rational drug: understanding the clinically proven wound healing efficacy of birch bark extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ebeling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birch bark has a long lasting history as a traditional medicinal remedy to accelerate wound healing. Recently, the efficacy of birch bark preparations has also been proven clinically. As active principle pentacyclic triterpenes are generally accepted. Here, we report a comprehensive study on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the wound healing properties of a well-defined birch bark preparation named as TE (triterpene extract as well as the isolated single triterpenes in human primary keratinocytes and porcine ex-vivo wound healing models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show positive wound healing effects of TE and betulin in scratch assay experiments with primary human keratinocytes and in a porcine ex-vivo wound healing model (WHM. Mechanistical studies elucidate that TE and betulin transiently upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cyclooxygenase-2 on gene and protein level. For COX-2 and IL-6 this increase of mRNA is due to an mRNA stabilizing effect of TE and betulin, a process in which p38 MAPK and HuR are involved. TE promotes keratinocyte migration, putatively by increasing the formation of actin filopodia, lamellipodia and stress fibers. Detailed analyses show that the TE components betulin, lupeol and erythrodiol exert this effect even in nanomolar concentrations. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton is dependent on the activation of Rho GTPases. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide insights to understand the molecular mechanism of the clinically proven wound healing effect of birch bark. TE and betulin address the inflammatory phase of wound healing by transient up-regulation of several pro-inflammatory mediators. Further, they enhance migration of keratinocytes, which is essential in the second phase of wound healing. Our results, together with the clinically proven efficacy, identify birch bark as the first medical plant with a high potential to improve wound healing, a field which urgently

  17. Birch inner bark procyanidins can be resolved with enhanced sensitivity by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karonen, Maarit; Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2011-11-01

    A complex mixture of procyanidin aglycones was isolated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography from the silver birch inner bark, which is a polyphenol-rich source of natural antioxidants. Procyanidins were studied by using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography combined with high-resolution ESI-TOF-MS. A good chromatographic separation was achieved and procyanidins eluted according to their increasing degree of polymerization. Individual procyanidins were detected from dimers up to the degree of polymerization of 22 by their negative-ion mass spectra. The results showed that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography can be successfully applied for the analysis of high-molecular-weight procyanidins with enhanced sensitivity in electrospray mass spectrometry. PMID:21998029

  18. Mechanisms of Odor Coding in Coniferous Bark Beetles: From Neuron to Behavior and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Andersson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coniferous bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae locate their hosts by means of olfactory signals, such as pheromone, host, and nonhost compounds. Behavioral responses to these volatiles are well documented. However, apart from the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs detecting pheromones, information on the peripheral olfactory physiology has for a long time been limited. Recently, however, comprehensive studies on the ORNs of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, were conducted. Several new classes of ORNs were described and odor encoding mechanisms were investigated. In particular, links between behavioral responses and ORN responses were established, allowing for a more profound understanding of bark beetle olfaction. This paper reviews the physiology of bark beetle ORNs. Special focus is on I. typographus, for which the available physiological data can be put into a behavioral context. In addition, some recent field studies and possible applications, related to the physiological studies, are summarized and discussed.

  19. Bark beetles and fire: two forces of nature transforming western forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles are chewing a wide swath through forests across North America. Over the past few years, infestations have become epidemic in lodgepole and spruce-fir forests of the Intermountain West. The resulting extensive acreages of dead trees are alarming the public and raising concern about risk of severe fire. Researchers supported by the Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP) are examining the complicated relationship between bark beetles and wildfire, the two most influential natural disturb...

  20. Evaluation and Analysis of Environmentally Sustainable Methodologies for Extraction of Betulin from Birch Bark with Focus on Industrial Feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Fridén, Mikael E; Jumaah, Firas; Gustavsson, Christer; Enmark, Martin; Fornstedt, Torgny; Turner, Charlotta; Sjöberg, Per J R; Samuelsson, Jörgen

    2016-01-01

    Betulin from birch bark was extracted using two principally different extraction methodologies - classical Reflux Boiling (RB) and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The extraction methods were analyzed based on both recovery and purity as well as for RB industrial feasibility. The purity and recovery for the different extraction methods were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with three different detection principles: Diode Array Detection (DAD), Mass Spec...

  1. Associations of Conifer-Infesting Bark Beetles and Fungi in Fennoscandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wingfield

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae have a widespread association with fungi, especially with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota that cause blue staining of wood, and in some cases, serious tree diseases. In Fennoscandia, most studies of these fungi have focused on economically important bark beetle species and this is likely to have led to a biased view of the fungal biodiversity in the region. Recently, the associations between fungi and bark beetles in Fennoscandia have been shown to be more diverse than previously thought. Furthermore, they form complex and dynamic associations that are only now beginning to emerge. This review examines the current knowledge of the rather poorly known interactions between bark beetles, fungi and their conifer host trees in Fennoscandia. The diversity of ophiostomatoid species is discussed and the possible factors that influence the assemblages of fungal associates are considered for all species that are known to occur in the region. For many ophiostomatoid species found in Fennoscandia, little or nothing is known regarding their pathogenicity, particularly if they were to be transferred to new environments. We, therefore, draw attention to the possible threats of timber trade and climate change-induced invasions of new habitats by bark beetles and the fungi that can be moved along with them.

  2. Leptographium tereforme sp. nov. and other Ophiostomatales isolated from the root-feeding bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda, in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redhaired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda F., is native to Europe but was discovered in Los Angeles, California in 2003. This root- and stump-feeding bark beetle is a common vector of Ophiostomatales, which are potential tree pathogens or causes of blue-stain of conifer sapwood. In this st...

  3. Using lake sediment records to reconstruct bark beetle disturbances in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Lee Morris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of native bark beetles in western North America is unprecedented in severity and scale, at least during the historical period. The aim of this work is to develop a proxy-based methodology to understand how bark beetle disturbances are recorded in lake sediments. Three hypotheses are tested to determine how the ecological impacts of severe spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis disturbances are recorded following mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii. Outbreaks are hypothesized to: (1 decrease the ratio of spruce to fir pollen; (2 increase soil erosion and mobilize terrestrial C; and (3 leach foliar N, enhancing algal productivity. To test these hypotheses, sediment cores from spruce beetle-affected basins were analyzed for pollen, insect remains, organic and minerogenic content, and isotopic and elemental concentrations. The dataset was tested statistically using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs to determine if the response variables differed significantly between outbreak and non-outbreak periods. 

  4. A Population Genetic Model of Evolution of Host-Mate Attraction and Nonhost Repulsion in a Bark Beetle Pityogenes bidentatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the bark beetle Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae avoids volatiles of nonhost trees (Norway Spruce, birch, and oak and healthy host Scotch Pine when orienting to aggregation pheromone. A population genetic model of two behavioral genes was hypothesized where AA, Aa, and aa were allele combinations regulating orientation to host tree and pheromone odors, and BB, Bb, and bb were combinations allowing avoidance of nonhost and unsuitable host odors. The nine possible genotypes were assigned different survival factors that remained constant during simulation. The initial proportion of aabb genotype (little aggregation/host response and little avoidance of nonhosts was ~1.0 when a mutation was hypothesized that caused better orientation to host/beetle odors (Aabb and another mutation causing more efficient avoidance of nonhosts (aaBb. After these initial mutations, the model used indiscriminate mating of genotypic proportions and subsequent survival as input for each successive generation. The results indicate that AABB eventually fixates in the populations in some scenarios, while AABB and other genotypes reach stable equilibriums in other models depending on genotypic survival values supported by ecologically sound assumptions. The models indicate how development of insecticide resistance in pest insects may proceed.

  5. Fungi vectored by the bark beetle Ips typographus following hibernation under the bark of standing trees and in the forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ylva; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Långström, Bo; Ohrn, Petter; Ihrmark, Katarina; Stenlid, Jan

    2009-10-01

    The bark beetle Ips typographus has different hibernation environments, under the bark of standing trees or in the forest litter, which is likely to affect the beetle-associated fungal flora. We isolated fungi from beetles, standing I. typographus-attacked trees, and forest litter below the attacked trees. Fungal identification was done using cultural and molecular methods. The results of the two methods in detecting fungal species were compared. Fungal communities associated with I. typographus differed considerably depending on the hibernation environment. In addition to seven taxa of known ophiostomoid I. typographus-associated fungi, we detected 18 ascomycetes and anamorphic fungi, five wood-decaying basidomycetes, 11 yeasts, and four zygomycetes. Of those, 14 fungal taxa were detected exclusively from beetles that hibernated under bark, and six taxa were detected exclusively from beetles hibernating in forest litter. The spruce pathogen, Ceratocystis polonica, was detected occasionally in bark, while another spruce pathogen, Grosmannia europhioides, was detected more often from beetles hibernating under the bark as compared to litter. The identification method had a significant impact on which taxa were detected. Rapidly growing fungal taxa, e.g. Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Ophiostoma, dominated pure culture isolations; while yeasts dominated the communities detected using molecular methods. The study also demonstrated low frequencies of tree pathogenic fungi carried by I. typographus during its outbreaks and that the beetle does not require them to successfully attack and kill trees. PMID:19444498

  6. Association of Geosmithia fungi (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with pine- and spruce-infesting bark beetles in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jankowiak, R.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Bilanski,, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, OCT 2014 (2014), s. 71-79. ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/2302 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Insect-fungus interactions * Bark beetles * Ectosymbiosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.929, year: 2014

  7. Characterization of two closely related α-amylase paralogs in the bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viktorinová, I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Böhmová, Marta; Henry, I.; Jindra, Marek; Doležal, Petr; Žurovcová, Martina; Žurovec, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 4 (2011), s. 179-198. ISSN 0739-4462 EU Projects: European Commission(CZ) FP7/2007-2013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : bark beetle * intron polymorphism * α-amylase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.361, year: 2011

  8. Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation and Norway spruce status: is there a causal relationship?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, Ivo; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.; Havlíček, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2002), s. 255-264. ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : bark beetle infestation * crown status * Picea abies Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  9. Response of soil chemistry to forest dieback after bark beetle infestation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, Jiří; Tahovská, K.; Kopáček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 113, 1-3 (2013), s. 369-383. ISSN 0168-2563 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960907 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bark beetle infestation * soil nutrient availability * soil sorption complex Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2013

  10. Are bark beetles chewing up our forests? What about our coffee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A write-up for the Elsevier SciTech Connect blog on the recently published book entitled "Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species," edited by Fernando E. Vega and Richard W. Hofstetter. The book was published by Academic Press in January 2015....

  11. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use. PMID:27152419

  12. A Preliminary Pharmacokinetic Study of Betulin, the Main Pentacyclic Triterpene from Extract of Outer Bark of Birch (Betulae alba cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie N. Laszczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades triterpenes have attracted attention because of their pharmacological potential. Triterpene extract (TE from outer bark of birch consisting mainly of betulin is able to form an oleogel which was successfully tested in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Some aspects of TE in vitro pharmacology are already known. Now we show preliminary pharmacokinetics of betulin and results of a subchronic toxicity study of TE in rats and dogs. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the TE-triterpenes (< 0.1 μg/mL respectively, for pharmacokinetic studies it was suspended in sesame oil (rats, i.p. and PEG 400 / 0.9 % NaCl (dogs, s.c.. I.p. administered, betulin, the main component of TE, shows time dependency over a period of 4 h and reaches a dose-independent serum level of 0.13 μg/mL. Dose dependency was observed with s.c. administration. At 300 mg/kg a maximum plasma concentration of 0.33 μg/mL betulin was detected after 28 daily applications. The subchronic toxicity study showed no toxicity of TE in rats (i.p. and dogs (s.c.. In conclusion, triterpene extract from birch bark is safe, its betulin is bioavailable and in addition to published triterpene biological activities TE provides high potential for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.

  13. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use. PMID:27152419

  14. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamm, R.O.; Pulley, P.E.; Coulson, R.N. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild [Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff)] uses disturbed hosts as habitat for establishment of within-tree populations. The process of colonization of disturbed hosts was examined. Using a procedure designed to emulate effects of a lightning strike, pines were severely disturbed. Response was characterized by measuring beetle populations that (1) arrived at the trees and (2) successfully attacked the trees. Establishment of within-tree populations was characterized by measuring length of egg gallery excavated by attacking adults. The time delay between arrival and attack for D. frontalis and I. calligraphus was also calculated. Attack densities of both species became asymptotic as arrival increased. The percentage of arriving beetles that attacked ranged from 9 to 41 for D. frontalis and from 8 to 59 for I. calligraphus. Numbers of beetles that arrived at the tree but did not attack ranged from 2.7 to 50.2 beetles per dm[sup 2] for D. frontalis and from 0.2 to 10.0 beetles per dm[sup 2] for I. calligraphus. Most D. frontalis and I. calligraphus attacked on the day they arrived. The delay between arrival and attack was longer for I. calligraphus than the D. frontalis. Egg gallery excavated by D. frontalis increased throughout the study. Eventually, the Ips species were excluded from the lower half of the hole. The low attack densities observed in this study illustrate the significance of disturbed trees in providing refuges for enzootic levels of bark beetles. The aggregation behavior of beetle populations colonizing disturbed hosts supported the contention that these trees serve as foci for initiation of infestations. Furthermore, in disturbed pines, small numbers of beetles were capable of overcoming host defense systems.

  15. EXTRACTION OF BETULIN BY ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS C3-C4 FROM AN EXTERNAL LAYER OF A BIRCH BARK HYDROLYZED IN AQUEOUS ALKALINE SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Александрович Левданский

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It was established, that after hydrolysis of birch bark in water solution of alkali in the presence of isopropanol, butanol and isobutanol two layers were formed. The top layer contained betulin dissolved in alcohol, and the bottom layer contained a water-soluble alkali and its hydrolysis products of bark. Betulin was isolated by the separation and concentration of the alcohol layer. The structure of betulin was confirmed by methods of IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  16. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground bark beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jun; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    Studies of forest declines are important, because they both reduce timber production and affect successional trajectories of landscapes and ecosystems. Of particular interest is the decline of red pines, which is characterized by expanding areas of dead and chlorotic trees in plantations throughout...... the Great Lakes region. Here we examine the impact of two bark beetle groups, red turpentine beetles and pine engraver bark beetles, on tree mortality and the subsequent gap formation over time in a plantation in Wisconsin. We construct spatial-temporal statistical models that quantify the relations...... among red turpentine beetle colonization, pine engraver bark beetle colonization, and mortality of red pine trees while accounting for correlation across space and over time. We extend traditional Markov random-field models to include temporal terms and multiple-response variables aimed at developing a...

  17. Predisposition to bark beetle attack by root herbivores and associated pathogens: Roles in forest decline, gap formation, and persistence of endemic bark beetle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aukema, Brian H.; Zhu, Jun; Møller, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    , however, due to the requirement of long-term monitoring and high degrees of spatial and temporal covariance. We censused more than 2700 trees annually over 7 years, and at the end of 17 years, in a mature red pine plantation. Trees were measured for the presence of bark beetles and wood borers that breed....... This interaction results in an expanding forest gap, with subsequent colonization by early-successional vegetation. Spatial position strongly affects the likelihood of tree mortality. A red pine is initially very likely to avoid attack by tree-killing Ips beetles, but attack becomes increasingly likely...... as the belowground complex spreads to neighboring trees and eventually make trees susceptible. This system is largely internally driven, as there are strong gap edge, but not stand-edge, effects. Additional stressors, such as drought, can provide an intermittent source of susceptible trees to Ips...

  18. Biology of the invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was detected in the United States in 2003 and is now known to occur in 28 states and four Canadian Provinces. S. schevyrewi infests the same elm hosts as the long-established invasive, and smaller European elm bark be...

  19. Soil microarthropods in non-intervention montane spruce forest regenerating after bark-beetle outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farská, Jitka; Prejzková, Kristýna; Starý, Josef; Rusek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2014), s. 1087-1096. ISSN 0912-3814 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1259; GA ČR GAP504/12/1218; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant ostatní: GAJU(CZ) 143/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bark beetle * Collembola * disturbance * Oribatida * spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2014

  20. Composition and Elevation of Spruce Forests Affect Susceptibility to Bark Beetle Attacks: Implications for Forest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Faccoli; Iris Bernardinelli

    2014-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is one of the most destructive insects infesting spruce forests in Europe. Data concerning infestations of I. typographus occurring over the last 19 years (1994–2012) on the Southern Alps were analyzed in seven spruce forest types: (1) pure spruce plantations; (2) pure spruce reforestations; (3) pure spruce mountain forests; (4) pure spruce alpine forests; (5) spruce-conifer mixed forests; (6) spruce-broad...

  1. Dutch elm disease and elm bark beetles: a century of association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santini A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles of the genus Scolytus Geoffroy are the main vectors of the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi s.l., which causes the Dutch elm disease. The large and small elm bark beetles - S. scolytus (F. and S. multistriatus (Marsham, respectively - are the most common and important species spreading the pathogen worldwide. The success of the pathogen-insect interactions is mainly due to the characteristic reproductive behavior of the elm bark beetles, which, however, largely depends on the occurrence of infected trees. During feeding activity on elm twigs, callow adults carrying pathogen conidia on their bodies contaminate healthy trees and facilitate pathogen development and movement within the wood vessels. Infected trees become then suitable for insect breeding in the stem bark. This well-known mutualistic association has devastating consequences for elm survival. Although much is known about insect-pathogen interactions and transmission mechanisms, many topics still deserve additional attention, as, for example, beetle systematic based on new molecular tools and morphological characters; selection of European elm clones based on disease avoidance; consequences of global warming on life-history of the three organisms (fungus-insect-tree involved in the pathosystem; new problems resulting from the rapid increase of international trade among continents, leading to the accidental introduction of new vector species or new pathogen species or races, or to the introduction of new highly susceptible elm species in gardens and public parks. A holistic approach to tackle the problem is highly recommended, taking into account how these organisms interact with each other and the environment, and how their interactions could be modified in order to face one of the most destructive diseases ever known in plant pathology.

  2. The relationship between potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetle catches in pheromone traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mezei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the relationship between the amount of potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetleIps typographus (L. catches in pheromone traps in an unmanaged nature reserve in the Carpathians (middle Slovakia region, from 2006 through 2009. This relationship was analysed under outbreak conditions. The number of traps varied in different years from 70 to 92. The traps were installed in spruce-forest-dominated stands affected by a windstorm in 2004. A GPS device was used to mark the position of the pheromone traps. The potential solar radiation was calculated with GIS tools for three different time periods in each year: with entire year, for main flight season of the spruce bark beetle and the spring swarming period. The relationship between the amount of potential solar radiation and the spruce bark beetle catches was statistically significant for each year and each time period except for the spring warming in 2007, when the pheromone traps were not set up on time. 

  3. The relationship between potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetle catches in pheromone traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mezei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the relationship between the amount of potential solarradiation and spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. catches in pheromone traps in an unmanaged nature reserve in the Carpathians (middle Slovakia region, from 2006 through 2009. This relationship was analysed under outbreak conditions. The number of traps varied in different years from 70 to 92. The traps were installed in spruce-forest-dominated stands affected by a windstorm in 2004. A GPS device was used to mark the position of the pheromone traps. The potential solar radiation was calculated with GIS tools for three different time periods in each year:with entire year, for main flight season of the spruce bark beetle and the spring swarming period. The relationship between the amount of potential solar radiation and the spruce bark beetle catches was statistically significant for each year and each time period except for the spring swarming in 2007, when the pheromone traps were not set up on time.

  4. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984–2010, fires killed trees that contained 5–11 Tg C year−1 and during 1997–2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2–24 Tg C year−1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5–10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States. (letter)

  5. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  6. Effects of long-term, elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on phytochemicals in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelberg, Riitta; Aphalo, Pedro J; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2002-12-01

    Long-term outdoor experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation on secondary metabolites (phenolics and terpenoids) and the main soluble sugars (sucrose, raffinose and glucose) in the bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) saplings. Saplings were exposed to a constant 50% increase in erythemal UV irradiance (UV-B(CIE); based on the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) erythemal action spectrum) and a small increase in UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) for three growing seasons in an irradiation field in central Finland. Two control groups were used: saplings exposed to ambient radiation and saplings exposed to slightly increased UV-A radiation. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose and glucose in bark were higher in UV-treated saplings than in saplings grown in ambient radiation, indicating that stem carbohydrate metabolism was changed by long-term elevated UV radiation. Saplings in the elevated UV-A + UV-B radiation treatment and the UV-A radiation control treatment had significantly increased concentrations of certain UV-absorbing phenolics, such as salidroside, 3,4'-dihydroxypropiophenone-3-glucoside, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compared with saplings in ambient radiation. In contrast, the radiation treatments had no effect on the non-UV-B-absorbing terpenoids, papyriferic acid and deacetylpapyriferic acid. We conclude that plant parts, in addition to leaves, accumulate specific phenolic UV-filters in response to UV radiation exposure. PMID:12464579

  7. Catchment response to bark beetle outbreak and dust-on-snow in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Ben; Deems, Jeffrey S.; Buma, Brian; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Schneider, Dominik; Molotch, Noah P.; Wolter, K.; Wessman, Carol A.

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002, the headwaters of the Colorado River and nearby basins have experienced extensive changes in land cover at sub-annual timescales. Widespread tree mortality from bark beetle infestation has taken place across a range of forest types, elevation, and latitude. Extent and severity of forest structure alteration have been observed through a combination of aerial survey, satellite remote-sensing, and in situ measurements. Additional perturbations have resulted from deposition of dust from regional dry-land sources on mountain snowpacks that strongly alter the snow surface albedo, driving earlier and faster snowmelt runoff. One challenge facing past studies of these forms of disturbance is the relatively small magnitude of the disturbance signals within the larger climatic signal. The combined impacts of forest disturbance and dust-on-snow are explored within a hydrologic modeling framework. We drive the Distributed Hydrology Soil and Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with observed meteorological data, time-varying maps of leaf area index and forest properties to emulate bark beetle impacts, and parameterizations of snow albedo based on observations of dust forcing. Results from beetle-killed canopy alteration suggest slightly greater snow accumulation as a result of less interception and reduced canopy sublimation and evapotranspiration, contributing to overall increases in annual water yield between 8% and 13%. However, understory regeneration roughly halves the changes in water yield. A purely observation-based estimate of runoff coefficient change with cumulative forest mortality shows comparable sensitivities to simulated results; however, positive water yield changes are not statistically significant (p ⩽ 0.05). The primary hydrologic impact of dust-on-snow forcing is an increased rate of snowmelt associated with more extreme dust deposition, producing earlier peak streamflow rates on the order of 1-3 weeks. Simulations of combined bark beetle and dust

  8. Response of native and exotic bark beetles to high-energy wind event in the Tian Shan Mountains, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamadiev, N.; Lynch, A.; O'Connor, C.; Sagitov, A.; Panyushkina, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    On May 17, 2011, the spruce forest of Yile-Alatausky and Medeo National Parks in southeast Kazakhstan was surged by a high-energy cyclonic storm. Severe blowdown damaged several thousand hectare of Tian Shan spruce forest (Picea schrenkiana), with over 90% of trees killed in extensive areas. Bark beetle populations are increasing rapidly, particularly Ips hauseri, I. typographis, I. sexdentatus, and Pityogenes perfossus (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Little is known about the frequency or extent of either large storm events or bark beetle outbreaks in the Tian Shan Mountains, nor about associations between outbreaks of these species and temperature and precipitation regimes. Local managers are concerned that triggering bark beetle outbreaks during current unusually warm, dry conditions will have devastating consequences for the residual forest and forest outside of the blowdown. We characterize the bark beetle population response to the 2011 event to date, and reconstruct the temporal and spatial dynamics of historical disturbance events in the area using dendrochronology. Additionally temperature and precipitation-sensitive tree-ring width chronologies from the Tian Shan Mountains are analyzed to determine high- and low-frequency variability of climate for the past 200 years. Catastrophic windstorm disturbances may play a crucial role in determining forest structure across the mountains. We hypothesize that the Tian Shan spruce forest could be prone to severe storm winds and subsequent bark beetle outbreaks and never reach an old-growth phase between events.

  9. Host-Tree Monoterpenes and Biosynthesis of Aggregation Pheromones in the Bark Beetle Ips paraconfusus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm developed in the 1970s that Ips bark beetles biosynthesize their aggregation pheromone components ipsenol and ipsdienol by hydroxylating myrcene, a host tree monoterpene. Similarly, host α-pinene was hydroxylated to a third pheromone component cis-verbenol. In 1990, however, we reported that amounts of ipsenol and ipsdienol produced by male Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae feeding in five host pine species were nearly the same, even though no detectable myrcene precursor was detected in one of these pines (Pinus sabiniana. Subsequent research showed ipsenol and ipsdienol are also biosynthesized from smaller precursors such as acetate and mevalonate, and this de novo pathway is the major one, while host tree myrcene conversion by the beetle is the minor one. We report concentrations of myrcene, α-pinene and other major monoterpenes in five pine hosts (Pinus ponderosa, P. lambertiana, P. jeffreyi, P. sabiniana, and P. contorta of I. paraconfusus. A scheme for biosynthesis of ipsdienol and ipsenol from myrcene and possible metabolites such as ipsenone is presented. Mass spectra and quantities of ipsenone are reported and its possible role in biosynthesis of aggregation pheromone. Coevolution of bark beetles and host trees is discussed in relation to pheromone biosynthesis, host plant selection/suitability, and plant resistance.

  10. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  11. The biophysical controls on tree defense against attacking bark beetles in managed pine forests of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, K. A.; Miniat, C. F.; Denham, S. O.; Ritger, H. M.; Williams, C.; Guldin, J. M.; Bragg, D.; Coyle, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bark beetles are highly damaging pests capable of destroying large areas of southern pine forests, with significant consequences for regional timber supply and forest ecosystem carbon dynamics. A number of recent studies have shown that following bark beetle outbreak, significant effects on ecosystem carbon and water cycling can occur. Relatively few studies have explored how ecosystem carbon and water cycling interact with other factors to control the hazard or risk of bark beetle outbreaks; these interactions, and their representation in conceptual model frameworks, are the focus of this study. Pine trees defend against bark beetle attacks through the exudation of of resin - a viscous compound that deters attacking beetles through a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms. Constitutive resin flow (CRF, representing resin produced before attack) is assumed to be directly proportional to the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) according to the Growth-Differentiation Balance theory (GDB). Thus, predictions for tree mortality and bark beetle dynamics under different management and climate regimes may be more accurate if a model framework describing the biophysical controls on resin production (e.g., GDB) were employed. Here, we synthesize measurements of resin flow, bark beetle dynamics, and ecosystem C flux from three managed loblolly pine forests in the Southeastern U.S.: the Duke Forest in Durham, NC; the Savannah River DOE site near Aiken, SC; and the Crossett Experimental Forest in southern Arkansas. We also explore the relationship between CRF and induced resin flow (IRF, representing the de novo synthesis of resin following stem wounding) in the latter two sites, where IRF was promoted by a novel tree baiting approach and prescribed fire, respectively. We assimilate observations within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 1) test whether observations conform to the GDB hypothesis, and 2) explore effects

  12. Influence of the Oil Phase and Topical Formulation on the Wound Healing Ability of a Birch Bark Dry Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrenner, Isabel; Houdek, Pia; Pollok, Simone; Brandner, Johanna M; Daniels, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes from the outer bark of birch are known for various pharmacological effects including enhanced wound healing (WH). A birch bark dry extract (TE) obtained by accelerated solvent extraction showed the ability to form oleogels when it is suspended in oils. Consistency of the oleogels and the dissolved amount of triterpenes varies largely with the used oil. Here we wanted to know to what extent different oils and formulations (oleogel versus o/w emulsion) influence WH. Looking at the plain oils, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) enhanced WH (ca. 1.4-fold), while e.g. castor oil (ca.0.3-fold) or light liquid paraffin (LLP; ca. 0.5-fold) significantly decreased WH. Concerning the respective oleogels, TE-MCT showed no improvement although the solubility of the TE was high. In contrast, the oleogel of sunflower oil which alone showed a slight tendency to impair WH, enhanced WH significantly (ca. 1.6-fold). These results can be explained by release experiments where the release rate of betulin, the main component of TE, from MCT oleogels was significantly lower than from sunflower oil oleogels. LLP impaired WH as plain oil and even though it released betulin comparable to sunflower oil it still results in an overall negative effect of the oleogel on WH. As a further formulation option also surfactant free o/w emulsions were prepared using MCT, sunflower oil and LLP as a nonpolar oil phase. Depending on the preparation method (suspension or oleogel method) the distribution of the TE varied markedly and affected also release kinetics. However, the released betulin was clearly below the values measured with the respective oleogels. Consequently, none of the emulsions showed a significantly positive effect on WH. In conclusion, our data show that the oil used as a vehicle influences wound healing not only by affecting the release of the extract, but also by having its own vehicle effect on wound healing. This is also of importance for other applications where drugs

  13. Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, Platypodinae alien to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Kirkendall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive bark beetles are posing a major threat to forest resources around the world. DAISIE’s web-based and printed databases of invasive species in Europe provide an incomplete and misleading picture of the alien scolytines and platypodines. We present a review of the alien bark beetle fauna of Europe based on primary literature through 2009. We find that there are 18 Scolytinae and one Platypodinae species apparently established in Europe, from 14 different genera. Seventeen species are naturalized. We argue that Trypodendron laeve, commonly considered alien in Europe, is a native species; conversely, we hypothesize that Xyleborus pfeilii, which has always been treated as indigenous, is an alien species from Asia. We also point out the possibility that the Asian larch bark beetle Ips subelongatus is established in European Russia. We show that there has been a marked acceleration in the rate of new introductions to Europe, as is also happening in North America: seven alien species were first recorded in the last decade. We present information on the biology, origins, and distributions of the alien species. All but four are polyphagous, and 11 are inbreeders: two traits which increase invasiveness. Eleven species are native to Asia, six to the Americas, and one is from the Canary Islands. The Mediterranean is especially favorable for invasives, hosting a large proportion of the aliens (8/18. Italy, Spain and France have the largest numbers of alien species (15, 10 and 7 respectively. We point out that the low numbers for at least some countries is likely due to under-reporting. Finally, we discuss the difficulties associated with identifying newly invasive species. Lack of good illustrations and keys hinder identification, particularly for species coming from Asia and Oceania.

  14. Elm bark beetle in Holocene peat deposits and the northwest European elm decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah H. E.; Edwards, Kevin J.

    2004-09-01

    The elm decline of 5000 14C yr ago has been the most widely discussed phenomenon in post-glacial vegetation history. This pan-European reduction of elm populations, echoed in the decimation of elmwoods in Europe during the twentieth century, has attracted a series of interrelated hypotheses involving climate change, human activity, disease and soil deterioration. The elm bark beetle (Scolytus scolytus L.) is an essential component of disease explanations. We present evidence for the presence of the beetle over a prolonged period (ca. 7950-4910 yr BP [8800-5660 cal. yr BP]) from a lowland raised mire deposit in northeast Scotland, with its final appearance at this site, and the first and only appearance in another mire of a single scolytid find, around the time of the elm decline. The subfossil S. scolytus finds are not only the first from Scotland, but they also represent the most comprehensive sequence of finds anywhere. Copyright

  15. Climate change induced effects on the predisposition of forests of the water protection zone Wildalpen to disturbances by bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, P.; Pennerstorfer, J.; Schopf, A.

    2012-04-01

    The provision of drinking water of high quality is a precious service of forests. Large-scale disturbances like forest fires, wind throws, pest outbreaks and subsequent clear cutting may lead to changes in hydrology (runoff as well as percolation). Furthermore, water quality can be negatively influenced by increased erosion, increased decomposition of litter and humus and leaching of nitrate. Large-scale epidemics of forest pests may induce forest decline at landscape scale with subsequent long-lasting negative effects on water quality. The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.), is one of the most significant sources of mortality in mature spruce forest ecosystems in Eurasia. The objective of this study was to apply a complex predisposition assessment system for hazard rating and for the evaluation of climate change impacts for the water protection forests of the City of Vienna in Wildalpen. The following steps have been done to adapt/apply the bark beetle phenology model and the hazard rating system: -application, adaptation and validation of the bark beetle phenology model PHENIPS concerning start of dispersion, brood initiation, duration of development, beginning of sister broods, voltinism and hibernation - spatial/temporal modelling of the phenology and voltinism of I. typographus using past, present as well as projected climate data - application and validation of the stand- and site related long-term predisposition assessment system using forest stand/site data, annual damage reports and outputs of phenology modelling as data input - mapping of endangered areas and assessment of future susceptibility to infestations by I. typographus and other disturbing agents based on climate scenarios using GIS. The assessment of site- and stand-related predisposition revealed that the forest stands in Wildalpen are highly susceptible to bark beetle infestation. More than 65% of the stands were assigned to the predisposition classes high/very high. Only 10% of

  16. Characteristics of Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) surviving a spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakuš, R.; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Cudlín, Pavel; Blaženec, M.; Ježík, M.; Havlíček, František; Moravec, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2011), s. 965-973. ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06068; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Keywords Norway spruce * Ips typographus * Host selection * Bark beetle attack * Crown geometry Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/p476l65x8hx72634/

  17. Effects of bark beetle outbreaks and wildfire in the western US on carbon stocks during recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, J. A.; Meddens, A. J.; Allen, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks and wildfires are significant forest disturbances that respond strongly to climate and affect future climate through carbon cycling. Extensive tree mortality has occurred in western North America as a result of these disturbances. Here we present an analysis that quantifies impacts of these two disturbances to tree carbon stocks. Mortality area from bark beetles was derived from aerial surveys in 1997-2010 in the western US and 2001-2010 in British Columbia that were converted to mortality area by multiplying by species-specific crown areas and, in the case of the US, adjusted for underestimation. We summed moderate- and high-severity burned areas in forests from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) database from 1984-2009 to estimate mortality area from forest fires. Mortality area was then combined with spatially explicit maps of carbon stocks to estimate the amount of carbon in killed trees. Notable findings include that the mortality area from bark beetle outbreaks in the western US was comparable to the mortality area in British Columbia during the last few decades. In the western US, mortality area from bark beetles was similar to or exceeded that from forest fires. Carbon stocks in trees killed by these two disturbance types (beetles and fire) had similar spatial and temporal patterns as tree mortality, illustrating the importance of each of these disturbances in governing regional forest carbon fluxes.

  18. Present and future use of semiochemicals in pest management of bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vité, J P; Baader, E

    1990-11-01

    Attractive compounds affecting the mass aggregation of bark beetle populations on host trees suitable for colonization usually consist of two obligatory components that act synergistically and species-specifically. Semiochemicals inhibiting response act on their own and seem less specific. From nearly 100 species investigated so far, mass aggregation can be simulated with commercial synthetics in about nine species of economic importance. Aspects leading to the application of attractants in monitoring and mass trapping pest populations affecting European spruce forests result from intensive coordinated research at the university, industry, and forestry level. Technology transfer was facilitated by, and adapted to, the infrastructure of European forestry; traps economically replace the trap tree methods conventionally used for centuries. Expected applications in the near future are refined monitoring methods to measure population levels and predict damages. Also, mass trapping should remain a worthwhile tool in preventing beetle damage in forests under management intensive enough to remove excessive breeding material. In the long run, response-inhibiting semiochemicals resulting in the dispersal of pest populations (Ablenkstoffe) may gain wider application. The spruce engraverIps typographus L. and its associatePityogenes chalcographus L. are used as examples to describe the feasibility of developing and applying inhibitors as new tools in the management of bark beetle pests: Applying a slow-release verbenone formulation (verbenone strip) wrapped around the trunk of spruce trees at breast height appears to protect spruces from destructive attack byIps typographus, while small polyethylene ampullae containing terpinene-4-ol counteract aggregation of P. chalcographus. Inhibitors appear applicable in both strategies, damage prevention as well as damage restriction, and consequently may accommodate also pest control in less intensively managed forests. Future

  19. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles. PMID:23923639

  20. Suberin fatty acids isolated from outer birch bark improve moisture barrier properties of cellulose ether films intended for tablet coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinämäki, Jyrki; Halenius, Anna; Paavo, Maaja; Alakurtti, Sami; Pitkänen, Pauliina; Pirttimaa, Minni; Paaver, Urve; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Kogermann, Karin; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2015-07-15

    We showed that the addition of suberin fatty acids (SFAs) even at small concentrations significantly improves the water vapor barrier properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. SFAs were isolated from the outer birch bark using extractive hydrolysis. The effects of SFAs on the film formation of aqueous HPMC were investigated with free films plasticized with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400). Special attention was paid on the physical solid-state, moisture barrier and mechanical stress-strain properties of films intended for tablet film coatings. Topography and surface morphology, glass transition temperature (Tg), tensile strength, Young's modulus, and water vapor permeation (WVP) of films were studied. The addition of SFAs lowered the Tg of films suggesting partial enhancement in film plasticization. The WVP of films decreased with increasing SFAs concentration up to 15% (calculated as a % w/w from a polymer weight). The WVP value for a non-suberized reference film and suberized film plasticized with PEG 400 was 2.13×10(-6) and 0.69[×10(-6) g/(mm(2)×h)×mm/Pa], respectively. The addition of SFAs impaired the mechanical stress-strain properties of HPMC films by reducing the deformation capacity of film. In conclusion, the film properties and performance of aqueous HPMC can be modified by including SFAs in the films. PMID:25936623

  1. Changes in metal mobility associated with bark beetle-induced tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelson, Kristin M; Bearup, Lindsay A; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; McCray, John E; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2014-05-01

    Recent large-scale beetle infestations have caused extensive mortality to conifer forests resulting in alterations to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) cycling, which in turn can impact metal mobility through complexation. This study analyzed soil-water samples beneath impacted trees in concert with laboratory flow-through soil column experiments to explore possible impacts of the bark beetle infestation on metal release and transport. The columns mimicked field conditions by introducing pine needle leachate and artificial rainwater through duplicate homogenized soil columns and measuring effluent metal (focusing on Al, Cu, and Zn) and DOC concentrations. All three metals were consistently found in higher concentrations in the effluent of columns receiving pine needle leachate. In both the field and laboratory, aluminum mobility was largely correlated with the hydrophobic fraction of the DOC, while copper had the largest correlation with total DOC concentrations. Geochemical speciation modeling supported the presence of DOC-metal complexes in column experiments. Copper soil water concentrations in field samples supported laboratory column results, as they were almost twice as high under grey phase trees than under red phase trees further signifying the importance of needle drop. Pine needle leachate contained high concentrations of Zn (0.1 mg l(-1)), which led to high effluent zinc concentrations and sorption of zinc to the soil matrix representing a future potential source for release. In support, field soil-water samples underneath beetle-impacted trees where the needles had recently fallen contained approximately 50% more zinc as samples from under beetle-impacted trees that still held their needles. The high concentrations of carbon in the pine needle leachate also led to increased sorption in the soil matrix creating the potential for subsequent carbon release. While unclear if manifested in adjacent surface waters, these results demonstrate an increased

  2. Dynamics and composition of litterfall in an unmanaged Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest after bark-beetle outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Cudlín, Pavel; Fluksová, H.; Kaňa, Jiří; Picek, T.; Šantrůčková, H.; Svoboda, M.; Vaněk, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2015), s. 305-323. ISSN 1239-6095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : bark beetle * litter * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2014

  3. The influence of bark beetles outbreak vs. salvage logging on ground layer vegetation in Central European mountain spruce forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Magda; Prach, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 6 (2008), s. 1525-1535. ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600870701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : bark beetle * salvage logging * understory vegetation * mountain spruce forests, disturbance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.566, year: 2008

  4. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  5. Riparian zones attenuate nitrogen loss following bark beetle-induced lodgepole pine mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joel A.; Meixner, Thomas; Harpold, Adrian A.; Reed, David E.; Gutmann, Ethan D.; Gaun, Janelle A.; Brooks, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A North American bark beetle infestation has killed billions of trees, increasing soil nitrogen and raising concern for N loss impacts on downstream ecosystems and water resources. There is surprisingly little evidence of stream N response in large basins, which may result from surviving vegetation uptake, gaseous loss, or dilution by streamflow from unimpacted stands. Observations are lacking along hydrologic flow paths connecting soils with streams, challenging our ability to determine where and how attenuation occurs. Here we quantified biogeochemical concentrations and fluxes at a lodgepole pine-dominated site where bark beetle infestation killed 50-60% of trees. We used nested observations along hydrologic flow paths connecting hillslope soils to streams of up to third order. We found soil water NO3 concentrations increased 100-fold compared to prior research at this and nearby southeast Wyoming sites. Nitrogen was lost below the major rooting zone to hillslope groundwater, where dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) increased by 3-10 times (mean 1.65 mg L-1) and NO3-N increased more than 100-fold (3.68 mg L-1) compared to preinfestation concentrations. Most of this N was removed as hillslope groundwater drained through riparian soils, and NO3 remained low in streams. DON entering the stream decreased 50% within 5 km downstream, to concentrations typical of unimpacted subalpine streams (~0.3 mg L-1). Although beetle outbreak caused hillslope N losses similar to other disturbances, up to 5.5 kg ha-1y-1, riparian and in-stream removal limited headwater catchment export to <1 kg ha-1y-1. These observations suggest riparian removal was the dominant mechanism preventing hillslope N loss from impacting streams.

  6. Nor-hopanes from Zanha africana root bark with toxicity to bruchid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Philip C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Farrell, Iain W; Kusolwa, Paul; Belmain, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Zanha africana (Radlk.) Exell (Sapindaceae) root bark is used by farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa to protect stored grain from bruchid beetles, such as Callosobruchus maculatus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Z. africana root bark inhibited oviposition and caused significantly higher mortality of C. maculatus at a rate of application equivalent to that applied by farmers compared to control insects. The chloroform extract contained nor-hopanes rarely found in plants of which seven were isolated, one of which was previously known. Two of the most abundant nor-hopanes 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-21αH-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene and 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-24-norhopa-4(23),17(21)-diene were toxic to and reduced oviposition of C. maculatus in a dose dependent manner. Z. africana root bark is rich in insecticidal compounds that account for its effective use by smallholder farmers as an alternative to conventional insecticides. PMID:26803395

  7. Delayed conifer mortality after fuel reduction treatments: Interactive effects of fuel, fire intensity, and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, A.; Grace, J.B.; Mciver, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Many low-elevation dry forests of the western United States contain more small trees and fewer large trees, more down woody debris, and less diverse and vigorous understory plant communities compared to conditions under historical fire regimes. These altered structural conditions may contribute to increased probability of unnaturally severe wildfires, susceptibility to uncharacteristic insect outbreaks, and drought-related mortality. Broad-scale fuel reduction and restoration treatments are proposed to promote stand development on trajectories toward more sustainable structures. Little research to date, however, has quantified the effects of these treatments on the ecosystem, especially delayed and latent tree mortality resulting directly or indirectly from treatments. In this paper, we explore complex hypotheses relating to the cascade of effects that influence ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality using structural equation modeling (SEM). We used annual census and plot data through six growing seasons after thinning and four growing seasons after burning from a replicated, operational-scale, completely randomized experiment conducted in northeastern Oregon, USA, as part of the national Fire and Fire Surrogate study. Treatments included thin, burn, thin followed by burn (thin+burn), and control. Burn and thin+burn treatments increased the proportion of dead trees while the proportion of dead trees declined or remained constant in thin and control units, although the density of dead trees was essentially unchanged with treatment. Most of the new mortality (96%) occurred within two years of treatment and was attributed to bark beetles. Bark beetle-caused tree mortality, while low overall, was greatest in thin + burn treatments. SEM results indicate that the probability of mortality of large-diameter ponderosa pine from bark beetles and wood borers was directly related to surface fire severity and bole charring, which in

  8. Multigene phylogenies and morphological characterization of five new Ophiostoma spp. associated with spruce-infesting bark beetles in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Mingliang; Wingfield, Michael J; Zhou, Xudong; de Beer, Z Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Ophiostoma spp. (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) are well-known fungi associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Some of these are serious tree pathogens, while the majority is blue-stain agents of timber. In recent years, various bark beetle species have been attacking spruce forests in Qinghai province, China, causing significant damage. A preliminary survey was done to explore the diversity of the ophiostomatoid fungal associates of these beetles. The aims of the present study were to identify and characterize new Ophiostoma spp. associated with spruce-infesting bark beetles in Qinghai Province, and to resolve phylogenetic relationships of Ophiostoma spp. related to the Chinese isolates, using multigene phylogenetic analyses. Results obtained from four gene regions (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions, β-tubulin, calmodulin, translation elongation factor-1α) revealed five new Ophiostoma spp. from Qinghai. These included O. nitidus sp. nov., O. micans sp. nov., and O. qinghaiense sp. nov. in a newly defined O. piceae complex. The other two new species, O. poligraphi sp. nov. and O. shangrilae sp. nov., grouped in the O. brunneo-ciliatum complex. Based on DNA sequence and morphological comparisons, we also show that O. arduennense and O. torulosum are synonyms of O. distortum, while O. setosum is a synonym of O. cupulatum. PMID:27020148

  9. An attempt to use the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in forest protection against the bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Grodzki Wojciech; Kosibowicz Mieczysław

    2015-01-01

    In 2011–2013, trials on the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against bark beetle (Ips typographus) populations were carried out under open field conditions in Norway spruce stands suffering from an outbreak in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. in Poland. Modified pheromone traps were deployed to capture and thereafter release fungus-infected bark beetles to the forest environment. Infested spruce trees felled next to the traps remained unaffected by the transmission of the fungus ...

  10. CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE FAUNA OF BARK BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE: SCOLYTINAE) ON DECIDUOUS WOODY PLANTS IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Cedomir Milan

    2015-01-01

    Not much information has been published about the distribution and hosts of  bark beetles on deciduous woody plants in Serbia. The present paper gives the localities and hosts in Serbia of 23 species of these insects from seven tribes and 10 genera (Scolytus, 10 species; Ernoporicus, two; Hylesinus, two; Taphrorychus, two; Xyleborus, two; Ernoporus, one; Pteleobius, one; Trypodendron, one; Xyleborinus, one; and Xylocleptes, one).

  11. Modelling of spruce forest decay caused by the European spruce bark beetle in the area of Bohemian Forest using GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Brož, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the bark beetle population gradation which resulted in dieback of montane spruce forest in the central part of the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic, during 1991 - 2000. A spatio-temporal model of changing land cover has been made using remote sensing and GIS methods. The statistical analyses have been made using generalized linear models (GLM). The possible effect of various conditions and environmental factors at landscape as well as the stand level has been discussed.

  12. Applicability of a vegetation indices-based method to map bark beetle outbreaks in the High Tatra Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Havašová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic identification of forest patches disturbed by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus L. is crucial to reveal the rules of following bark beetle outbreaks on the landscape scale. Landsat imagery provides free resources to outline past and present gradations of bark beetle outbreaks (BBOs. The objective of this study is to identify the most sensitive vegetation index through different method of vegetation index differencing to identify past and actual bark beetle outbreaks. Six Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM images, from 2005–2009 and 2011, were converted into selected vegetation indices (VIs sensitive to conifer tree health in a Norway spruce–dominated forest in the High Tatra Mountains. The Vegetation Condition Index (VCI, Moisture Stress Index (MSI, Normalised Difference Moisture Index (NDMI, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI,   Disturbance Index (DI and Changed Disturbance Index (DI´ were calculated separately for every year, and the methodology of vegetation index differencing was applied to multiple two-year time periods (2005–2006, 2006–2007, 2007–2008, 2008–2009 and 2010–2011, thus producing the Changed Vegetation Index (ΔVI. A set of thresholds was established on ΔVI to classify disturbed and undisturbed forest due to BBOs; the sensitivity of different VIs to identify BBO was equally evaluated. The highest accuracies of classifications were reached in 2007 and 2011 (kappa index of agreement >70% and >40%, respectively, which were characterised by an epidemic phase of a BBO. All selected VIs were highly sensitive to BBOs, except for NDVI. The stable threshold value for change detection is not widely applicable to detect past forest disturbances caused by bark beetles, however. Finally, for further research of the epidemic phases of BBOs, we recommend the utilisation of the vegetation indices VCI, MSI and NDMI to detect BBOs because of their simplicity and easy interpretability.

  13. Soil carbon cycle 13C responses in the decade following bark beetle and girdling disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, G. E.; Chan, A. M.; Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J.; Bowling, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have impacted millions of hectares of conifer forests leading to uncertainty about whether these forests will become new sources of atmospheric CO2. In large part, this depends on whether enhanced respiration from the decomposition of newly dead organic matter will outpace the recovery of ecosystem carbon uptake by the ecosystems. To understand how rapidly conifer forest carbon pools turn over following these disturbances, we examined changes in the isotopic composition of soil respiration (δ13Cresp) following beetle and girdling mortality in two subalpine forests in Colorado, U.S.A. At the beetle-impacted forest δ13Cresp declined by ~1‰ between 3 and 8 years post-disturbance, but recovered in years 9-10. In the girdled forest, deep (<10 cm depth) soil respiration from plots at <1 to 2 years post-girdling was depleted by ~1‰ relative to ungirdled plots, but then gradually increased until there was a significant spike in δ13Cresp at 8-9 years post-girdling. Based on our understanding of isotopic composition in carbon pools and fluxes at these forests, we attribute these changes to removal of recently assimilated C in rhizosphere respiration (1-2 years) followed by the decomposition of litterfall (needles and roots) 8-10 years post-disturbance. Relative to ungirdled plots, there was also a transient enrichment in surface δ13Cresp from plots at <1 to 2 years post-girdling (~0.5‰, not statistically significant) and significant declines in microbial carbon in surface soils in 2-4 year post-girdling plots. Again, based on current understanding, we interpret these to signify the rapid turnover of mycorrhizal and rhizosphere microbial biomass in the 2 years following girdling. A potential confounding factor in this study is that seasonal variation in δ13Cresp was similar in magnitude to changes with time since disturbance and was significantly related to variation in soil temperature and water content.

  14. Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD. Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B. A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae (10,655 trees, specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say, and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height. Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7% than LoD (4.2%. The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees.

  15. The Response of Subalpine Vegetation to Climate Change and Bark Beetle Infestations: A Multi-Scale Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, A.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Negrón, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mean annual temperatures in the western United States have increased in the last few decades, and are predicted to continue warming. In the subalpine zone of the Rocky Mountains, this warming is also predicted to increase the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks. Climate change itself may affect this vegetation, potentially leading to shifts in species compositions. These forests are a crucial part of the US's carbon budget, thus it is important to analyze how climate change and bark beetles in conjunction will affect the biomass and species composition of vegetation in subalpine zone. UVAFME is an individual-based gap model that simulates biomass and species composition of a forest. This model has been quantitatively tested at various Rocky Mountain sites in the Front Range, and has been shown to accurately simulate the vegetation dynamics in the region. UVAFME has been updated with a spruce beetle subroutine that calculates the probability for beetle infestation of each tree on a plot. This probability is based on site, climate, and individual tree characteristics, such as temperature; stand structure; and tree stress level, size, and age. These governing characteristics are based on data from the US Forest Service, and other studies on spruce susceptibility and spruce beetle phenology. UVAFME is then run with multiple climate change and beetle scenarios to determine the net effect of both variables on subalpine vegetation. These results are compared among the different scenarios and to current forest inventory data. We project that increasing temperatures due to climate change will cause an increase in the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks, leading to a decrease in the biomass and dominance of Engelmann spruce. These results are an important step in understanding the possible futures for the vegetation of subalpine zone in the Rocky Mountains.

  16. Bark Beetles, Pityogenes bidentatus, Orienting to Aggregation Pheromone Avoid Conifer Monoterpene Odors When Flying but Not When Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies and data presented here suggest that odors from healthy host Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris and nonhost Norway spruce (Picea abies, as well as major monoterpenes of these trees at natural release rates, significantly reduce the attraction of flying bark beetles, Pityogenes bidentatus, of both sexes to their aggregation pheromone components grandisol and cis-verbenol in the field, as tested by slow rotation of trap pairs. In contrast, P. bidentatus males and females walking in an open-arena olfactometer in the laboratory did not avoid monoterpene vapors at release rates spanning several orders of magnitude in combination with aggregation pheromone. The bark beetle may avoid monoterpenes when flying as a mechanism for avoiding nonhost species, vigorous and thus unsuitable host trees, as well as harmful resinous areas of hosts. Inhibition of this flight avoidance response in beetles after landing would allow them to initiate, or to find and enter, gallery holes with high monoterpene vapor concentrations in order to feed and reproduce.

  17. Non-host volatile blend optimization for forest protection against the European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rikard Unelius

    Full Text Available Conifer feeding bark beetles (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae pose a serious economic threat to forest production. Volatiles released by non-host angiosperm plants (so called non-host volatiles, NHV have been shown to reduce the risk of attack by many bark beetle species, including the European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus. However, the most active blend for I. typographus, containing three green leaf volatiles (GLVs in addition to the key compounds trans-conophthorin (tC and verbenone, has been considered too expensive for use in large-scale management. To lower the cost and improve the applicability of NHV, we aim to simplify the blend without compromising its anti-attractant potency. Since the key compound tC is expensive in pure form, we also tested a crude version: technical grade trans-conophthorin (T-tC. In another attempt to find a more cost effective substitute for tC, we evaluated a more readily synthesized analog: dehydro-conophthorin (DHC. Our results showed that 1-hexanol alone could replace the three-component GLV blend containing 1-hexanol, (3Z-hexen-1-ol, and (2E-hexen-1-ol. Furthermore, the release rate of tC could be reduced from 5 mg/day to 0.5 mg/day in a blend with 1-hexanol and (--verbenone without compromising the anti-attractant activity. We further show that T-tC was comparable with tC, whereas DHC was a less effective anti-attractant. DHC also elicited weaker physiological responses in the tC-responding olfactory receptor neuron class, providing a likely mechanistic explanation for its weaker anti-attractive effect. Our results suggest a blend consisting of (--verbenone, 1-hexanol and technical trans-conophthorin as a cost-efficient anti-attractant for forest protection against I. typographus.

  18. Morphological and biological investigation of two pioneer Ips bark beetles in natural spruce forests in Qinghai Province, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li; WU Jian; LUO You-qing; LI Zhen-yu; WANG Guo-cang; HAN Fu-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetle species in natural stands of spruce, Picea crassifolia (Kom.) were investigated in Maixiu Forest Park, Qinghai Province, northwest China, during 2005 and 2007. Two pioneer lps species, Ips nitidus Eggers and lps shangrila Cognato and Sun were found. L nitidus occurs naturally in northwest China. L shangrila is a new species in the world. In the past, it was confused with I. mannsfeldi Wachtl in China. The damage of these two Ips species has been very severe in Maixiu and the morphological and biological characteristics were studied. L nitidus starts to fly in early May and prefers the mid to lower part of the host tree to colonize as its habitat. L shangrila always infests from the top of the trunk, especially in branches larger than 3 em in diameter in the crowns and sometimes even colonizes entire young trees. The two Ips species are the most destructive secondary bark beetles on P. crassifolia and always cause mortality of trees by their cooperation.

  19. Using UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Hyperspectral Imaging for Mapping Bark Beetle Damage at Tree-Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope Näsi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost, miniaturized hyperspectral imaging technology is becoming available for small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV platforms. This technology can be efficient in carrying out small-area inspections of anomalous reflectance characteristics of trees at a very high level of detail. Increased frequency and intensity of insect induced forest disturbance has established a new demand for effective methods suitable in mapping and monitoring tasks. In this investigation, a novel miniaturized hyperspectral frame imaging sensor operating in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm was used to identify mature Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. trees suffering from infestation, representing a different outbreak phase, by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.. We developed a new processing method for analyzing spectral characteristic for high spatial resolution photogrammetric and hyperspectral images in forested environments, as well as for identifying individual anomalous trees. The dense point clouds, measured using image matching, enabled detection of single trees with an accuracy of 74.7%. We classified the trees into classes of healthy, infested and dead, and the results were promising. The best results for the overall accuracy were 76% (Cohen’s kappa 0.60, when using three color classes (healthy, infested, dead. For two color classes (healthy, dead, the best overall accuracy was 90% (kappa 0.80. The survey methodology based on high-resolution hyperspectral imaging will be of a high practical value for forest health management, indicating a status of bark beetle outbreak in time.

  20. Communities of myriapods (Diplopoda and Chilopoda) in mountain spruce forests after bark beetle outbreak with different subsequent management: Differences or similarities?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velíšek, L.; Tajovský, Karel

    Olomouc: Institute of Soil Biology, BC ASCR, 2014. s. 101. ISBN 978-80-86525-28-0. [International Congress of Myriapodology /16./. 20.07.2014-25.07.2014, Olomouc] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : communities of myriapods * mountain spruce forests * bark beetle outbreak Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Application of flow cytometry for exploring the evolution of Geosmithia fungi living in association with bark beetles: the role of conidial DNA content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselská, Tereza; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 83-92. ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/2302 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ambrosia fungi * Bark beetles * Conidial DNA content Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.929, year: 2014

  2. Excess of organic carbon in mountain spruce forest soils after bark beetle outbreak altered microbial N transformations and mitigated N-saturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, Jiří; Tahovská, K.; Kopáček, Jiří; Šantrůčková, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2015), e0134165. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : N-saturation * bark beetle outbreak * soil microbial biomass * nitrification * ammonification * DOC * nitrate Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  3. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  4. Chemical recovery of acidified Bohemian lakes between 1984 and 2012. The role of acid deposition and bark beetle induced forest disturbance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, Filip; Chuman, Tomáš; Majer, V.; Hruška, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 116, 1-3 (2013), s. 83-101. ISSN 0168-2563 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : acidification * nitrogen saturation * aluminium * recovery * Bark beetle * land cover Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2013

  5. The flat bark beetles (Coleoptera, Silvanidae, Cucujidae, Laemophloeidae of Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the present investigations 18 species of flat bark beetles are known to occur in Atlantic Canada, 10 in New Brunswick, 17 in Nova Scotia, four on Prince Edward Island, six on insular Newfoundland, and one in Labrador. Twenty-three new provincial records are reported and nine species, Uleiota debilis (LeConte, Uleiota dubius (Fabricius, Nausibius clavicornis (Kugelann, Ahasverus advena (Waltl, Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr, Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouvelle, Charaphloeus convexulus (LeConte, Charaphloeus species nr. adustus, and Placonotus zimmermanni (LeConte are newly recorded in the region, one of which C. sp. nr. adustus, is newly recorded in Canada as a whole. Eight species are cosmopolitan species introduced to the region and North America, nine are native Nearctic species, and one, Pediacus fuscus Erichson, is Holarctic in distribution. All the introduced species except for one (Silvanus bidentatus (Fabricius, a saproxylic species are found on various stored products, whereas all the native species are saproxylic. Ahasverus longulus (Blatchley, is removed from the species list of New Brunswick and Charophloeus adustus (LeConte is removed from the species list of Nova Scotia. One tropical Asian species, Cryptamorpha desjardinsi (Guérin-Méneville, has been intercepted in the region in imported produce, but is not established. The substantial proportion (44% of the fauna that is comprised of introduced species is highlighted, almost all of which are synanthropic species associated with various dried stored products. The island faunas of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and insular Newfoundland are diminished in comparison to the mainland fauna, that of Prince Edward Island being exceptionally so in comparison to other saproxylic groups found there. Of the ten native species, four can be categorized as 'apparently rare' (i.e., comprising ≤ 0.005% of specimens examined from the region. It is possibly that the

  6. Testing remote sensing estimates of bark beetle induced mortality in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce with ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Ewers, B. E.; Sivanpillai, R.; Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetles have caused widespread regional mortality in both lodgepole and Engelmann spruce forests across western North America, and while studies have addressed the impact on water partitioning caused by the mountain pine beetle, spruce beetle which often occur at high elevations with larger snowpack might have a disproportional impact. Beetle caused mortality can have significant effects on the hydrology of a watershed and therefore needs to be considered when evaluating increased runoff. The objective of this project was to generate maps showing beetle caused mortality for lodgepole pine and spruce fir forests that capture changes to the landscape to improve hydrologic models. Our study area in southeast Wyoming covered an area of approximately 2 by 4 km from 2700 to 2800m elevation range. High spatial resolution (0.5m) aerial imagery acquired by the Airborne Environmental Research Observational Camera (AEROCam) in fall 2011, provided by the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), was manually classified into four conifer thematic classes: live and dead lodgepole pine, and live and dead spruce/fir. The classified high resolution image was then verified by tree surveys conducted July-September, 2012 documenting species, tree diameter at breast height (dbh), and the stage of beetle infestation for each tree. After verification the high resolution aerial images were used to train and evaluate the accuracy of a supervised classification of a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image from the same time period and area. The preliminary results of a supervised classification show that map accuracy was 57%, 77%, 44%, and 83% for lodgepole live and dead, and spruce/fir live and dead respectively. The highest commission error, 24%, was for dead lodgepole pine being falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The second highest commission error, 22%, was for live spruce/fir falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The results indicate high spectral overlap between dead spruce/fir and dead

  7. Forest Ecosystem respiration estimated from eddy covariance and chamber measurements under high turbulence and substantial tree mortality from bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, Heather N.; Frank, John M.; Bradford, John B.; Miles, Brianna L.; Massman, William J.; Parton, William J.; Ryan, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Eddy covariance nighttime fluxes are uncertain due to potential measurement biases. Many studies report eddy covariance nighttime flux lower than flux from extrapolated chamber measurements, despite corrections for low turbulence. We compared eddy covariance and chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration at the GLEES Ameriflux site over seven growing seasons under high turbulence (summer night mean friction velocity (u*) = 0.7 m s−1), during which bark beetles killed or infested 85% of the aboveground respiring biomass. Chamber-based estimates of ecosystem respiration during the growth season, developed from foliage, wood and soil CO2 efflux measurements, declined 35% after 85% of the forest basal area had been killed or impaired by bark beetles (from 7.1 ±0.22 μmol m−2 s−1 in 2005 to 4.6 ±0.16 μmol m−2 s−1 in 2011). Soil efflux remained at ~3.3 μmol m−2 s−1 throughout the mortality, while the loss of live wood and foliage and their respiration drove the decline of the chamber estimate. Eddy covariance estimates of fluxes at night remained constant over the same period, ~3.0 μmol m−2 s−1 for both 2005 (intact forest) and 2011 (85% basal area killed or impaired). Eddy covariance fluxes were lower than chamber estimates of ecosystem respiration (60% lower in 2005, and 32% in 2011), but the mean night estimates from the two techniques were correlated within a year (r2 from 0.18-0.60). The difference between the two techniques was not the result of inadequate turbulence, because the results were robust to a u* filter of > 0.7 m s−1. The decline in the average seasonal difference between the two techniques was strongly correlated with overstory leaf area (r2=0.92). The discrepancy between methods of respiration estimation should be resolved to have confidence in ecosystem carbon flux estimates.

  8. Structure and reaction studies of biological organic and inorganic composite materials: Abalone shells, diatoms, and a unique birch bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Charlotte Marie

    Biopolymer/calcium carbonate composites grown on inorganic abiotic substrates implanted between the shell and the shell-secreting epithelium of live red abalones (Haliotis rufescens) results in an unusual highly (104)-oriented aggregate of microcrystalline calcite that precedes nacre deposition. Calcite of this orientation has never before been observed in nature. Also with this method, nacre deposition is found to correct for calcite surface roughness and chemically anomalous surfaces. Pole figure X-ray diffraction studies of these "flat pearls" provide comparisons of preferred orientation of the various mineral components of the abalone shell. Complete conversion of the aragonite in abalone nacre to hydroxyapatite in hydrothermal phosphate solution results in an oriented polycrystalline aggregate with ultrastructure preservation and an unexpected preferred orientation different from that of other biominerals and abiogenic CaCO3 samples subjected to this reaction. The new orientation, which increases with reaction time, may result from the organization of the organic matrix in the nacre, which directs the hydrothermal solution through the material. This orientation suggests strongly that the conversion proceeds via a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, rather than by topotaxy, which was previously proposed. In addition to cellulose I, a highly oriented cellulose-II-like polymer was found in the bark of Prunus serrula, an exceptionally strong, tough, and extensible composite film. The cellulose II polymorph, which has not previously been found in nature, may be accordion-folded in the plane of the bark thickness and contribute to the strength and unusual behavior with plasticization of this natural film. The silica frustule of the diatom Skeletonema costatum has a surface area of 135 mm2/g and contains 1.5--2 wt % occluded organic. This organic includes a water-insoluble scaffolding. When treated with organic oxidizers, the chitin secreted by the diatom

  9. A Tale of Two Forests: Simulating Contrasting Lodgepole Pine and Spruce Forest Water and Carbon Fluxes Following Mortality from Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, bark beetle infestation in western North America has reached epidemic levels. The resulting widespread forest mortality may have profound effects on present and future water and carbon cycling with potential negative consequences to a region that relies on water from montane and subalpine watersheds. We simulated stand-level ecosystem fluxes of water and carbon at two bark beetle-attacked conifer forests in southeast Wyoming, USA. The lower elevation site dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was attacked by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) during 2008-2010. The high elevation Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) dominated site was attacked by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) during roughly the same time period. Both beetle infestations resulted in >60% canopy mortality in the footprint of eddy covariance towers located at each site. However, carbon and water fluxes responses to mortality depended on the forest type. Using data collected at the sites, we scaled simulated plant hydraulic conductivity by either percent canopy mortality or loss of live tree basal area during infestation. We also simulated a case of no beetle attack. At the lodgepole site, the no-beetle model best fit the data and showed no significant change in growing season carbon flux and a 15% decrease in evapotranspiration (ET). However, at the spruce site, the simulation that tracked canopy loss agreed best with observations: carbon flux decreased by 72% and ET decreased by 31%. In the lodgepole stand, simulated soil water content agreed with spatially distributed measurements that were weighted to reflect overall mortality in the tower footprint. Although these two forest ecosystems are only 20 km apart, separated by less than 300m in elevation, and have been impacted by similar mortality agents, the associated changes in carbon and water cycling are significantly different. Beetle effects on hydrologic cycling were greatest at high elevation

  10. The Bark-Beetle-Associated Fungus, Endoconidiophora polonica, Utilizes the Phenolic Defense Compounds of Its Host as a Carbon Source1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadke, Namita; Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Vogel, Heiko; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Paetz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is periodically attacked by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Endoconidiophora polonica, whose infection is thought to be required for successful beetle attack. Norway spruce produces terpenoid resins and phenolics in response to fungal and bark beetle invasion. However, how the fungal associate copes with these chemical defenses is still unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in the phenolic content of Norway spruce bark upon E. polonica infection and the biochemical factors mediating these changes. Although genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes in Norway spruce stilbene and flavonoid biosynthesis were actively transcribed during fungal infection, there was a significant time-dependent decline of the corresponding metabolites in fungal lesions. In vitro feeding experiments with pure phenolics revealed that E. polonica transforms both stilbenes and flavonoids to muconoid-type ring-cleavage products, which are likely the first steps in the degradation of spruce defenses to substrates that can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Four genes were identified in E. polonica that encode catechol dioxygenases carrying out these reactions. These enzymes catalyze the cleavage of phenolic rings with a vicinal dihydroxyl group to muconoid products accepting a wide range of Norway spruce-produced phenolics as substrates. The expression of these genes and E. polonica utilization of the most abundant spruce phenolics as carbon sources both correlated positively with fungal virulence in several strains. Thus, the pathways for the degradation of phenolic compounds in E. polonica, initiated by catechol dioxygenase action, are important to the infection, growth, and survival of this bark beetle-vectored fungus and may play a major role in the ability of I. typographus to colonize spruce trees. PMID:27208235

  11. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearup, Lindsay A; Mikkelson, Kristin M; Wiley, Joseph F; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M; Sharp, Jonathan O; McCray, John E

    2014-10-15

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid-liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of water

  12. Comparision of the Cytotoxic Effects of Birch Bark Extract, Betulin and Betulinic Acid Towards Human Gastric Carcinoma and Pancreatic Carcinoma Drug-sensitive and Drug-Resistant Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Lage

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Betulin and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes showing cytotoxicity towards a number of cancer cell lines. These compounds can be found in the bark of the many plants. In this report we have compared the cytotoxic activity of crude birch bark extract and purified betulin and betulinic acid towards human gastric carcinoma (EPG85-257 and human pancreatic carcinoma (EPP85-181 drug-sensitive and drug-resistant (daunorubicin and mitoxantrone cell lines. Our results show significant differences in sensitivity between cell lines depending on the compound used, and suggest that both betulin and betulinic acid can be considered as a promising leads in the treatment of cancer.

  13. Altered Carbohydrates Allocation by Associated Bacteria-fungi Interactions in a Bark Beetle-microbe Symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fangyuan Zhou; Qiaozhe Lou; Bo Wang; Letian Xu; Chihang Cheng; Min Lu; Jianghua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Insect-microbe interaction is a key area of research in multiplayer symbiosis, yet little is known about the role of microbe-microbe interactions in insect-microbe symbioses. The red turpentine beetle (RTB) has destroyed millions of healthy pines in China and forms context-dependent relationships with associated fungi. The adult-associated fungus Leptographium procerum have played key roles in RTB colonization. However, common fungal associates (L. procerum and Ophiostoma minus) with RTB larv...

  14. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid–liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of

  15. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearup, Lindsay A., E-mail: lbearup@mines.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Mikkelson, Kristin M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Wiley, Joseph F. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M. [Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Sharp, Jonathan O.; McCray, John E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid–liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of

  16. Analysis of the bark beetle outbreak in the forest “Alta Val Parma” (Corniglio, Parma, Italy and strategies for its regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignali G

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the bark beetle outbreak in the forest “Alta Val Parma” (Corniglio, Parma, Italy and strategies for its regeneration. Norway spruce plantations located in the Foresta Demaniale Alta Val Parma (Corniglio, province of Parma - Italy experienced since 2004 a massive outbreak of Norway spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus. This outbreak has been triggered by the exceptionally warm and dry summer of 2003. In the following years bark beetle attacks repeated and spread, raising concern about the future of this kind of stands. A survey program has been carried out to help local administration to chose the correct managements strategies. Monitoring of Ips typographus population, carried out between 2007 and 2013, confirmed the presence of two generations per year, with values above the risk threshold in 2007 and just below though very high in 2011. In the affected area, six survey plots have been realized to test different management options with the aim of favoring a fast regeneration of the forest cover. The tested options showed the great difficulty in the establishment of natural generation either for the lack of mother plants in such pure stands or for competition with tall grasses. Sowing brought no significative results, while direct plantation of indigenous broadleaves was more effective, with almost half of the individuals still alive after three years. Our results confirm the great difficulty to rebuild the forest cover after strong ecological disturbances in these artificial forests. Hybrid management strategies and ad hoc silvicultural choices seem to be the only way to manage such kind of situations in a National park, where the priority is biodiversity conservation.

  17. 四川铁路口岸首次从美国白蜡木中截获刺海小蠹%The first interception of eastern ash bark beetle in Sichuan railway port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁昕; 刘洋洋

    2014-01-01

    Eastern ash bark beetle was been intercepted for the first time from the American imported ash wood by the port of Sichuan. This article describes the identification characters,the biological characteristics,the damage situation of Eastern ash bark beetle, and the methods of control.%四川口岸从美国进口白蜡木板材中首次截获外来有害生物刺海小蠹。本文叙述了刺海小蠹的鉴定特征、生物学特性、危害情况,并对防治进行了介绍。

  18. When the forest dies: the response of forest soil fungi to a bark beetle-induced tree dieback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stursová, Martina; Snajdr, Jaroslav; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Bárta, Jiří; Santrůčková, Hana; Baldrian, Petr

    2014-09-01

    Coniferous forests cover extensive areas of the boreal and temperate zones. Owing to their primary production and C storage, they have an important role in the global carbon balance. Forest disturbances such as forest fires, windthrows or insect pest outbreaks have a substantial effect on the functioning of these ecosystems. Recent decades have seen an increase in the areas affected by disturbances in both North America and Europe, with indications that this increase is due to both local human activity and global climate change. Here we examine the structural and functional response of the litter and soil microbial community in a Picea abies forest to tree dieback following an invasion of the bark beetle Ips typographus, with a specific focus on the fungal community. The insect-induced disturbance rapidly and profoundly changed vegetation and nutrient availability by killing spruce trees so that the readily available root exudates were replaced by more recalcitrant, polymeric plant biomass components. Owing to the dramatic decrease in photosynthesis, the rate of decomposition processes in the ecosystem decreased as soon as the one-time litter input had been processed. The fungal community showed profound changes, including a decrease in biomass (2.5-fold in the litter and 12-fold in the soil) together with the disappearance of fungi symbiotic with tree roots and a relative increase in saprotrophic taxa. Within the latter group, successive changes reflected the changing availability of needle litter and woody debris. Bacterial biomass appeared to be either unaffected or increased after the disturbance, resulting in a substantial increase in the bacterial/fungal biomass ratio. PMID:24671082

  19. New record and extension of the distribution range of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Nuevo registro y ampliación del área de distribución del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Armendáriz-Toledano; Verónica Torres-Banda; María Fernanda López; Jaime Villa-Castillo; Gerardo Zúñiga

    2012-01-01

    After several exploratory surveys to the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC), the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright, 1970 was recorded in 2 geographic localities of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. These new records extend the range of distribution of this beetle a further 250 km south along the SMOC from the southernmost site recorded in the state of Durango. These records indicate that this species may be present in almost any area of the SMOC ...

  20. Impact of bark beetle calamity on soil moisture dynamics during floods and droughts in 2013 - case study of Rokytka Brook catchment, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Kocum, Jan; Jansky, Bohumir; Sefrna, Ludek

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of soil moisture in the experimental catchment of Rokytka Brook, Otava River basin, Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. This area has a long-term problems with bark beetle which results predominantly in the spruce forest perdition. This phenomenon has resulted not only in a change of a vegetation composition, but also it has impacted the development of local land cover, soil moisture dynamics or the storage capacity of soils and the potential retention conditions within the basin . The experimental catchment, where the research was carried out, consists by 2/3 of terrestrial soil (Entic Podzol). The soil is covered by the dead forest (former spuce forest before bark beetle calamity) and by the beech forest (former spruce-beech forest). The rest of the basin consists of well-developed peatbogs that represents a typical example of a peatbog in Šumava Mts. In terms of vegetation, the area can be divided into a lower part consisting of healthy waterlogged spruce forest, the mountain pine covers the middle part and the upper part is covered mostly by the cotton grass. In the part where terrestrial soils predominate, measuring of soil pressures and temperatures at two depths (20 and 60 cm) at two sites (former spruce-beech and spruce forest) has been carried out since 2012. Due to the bark beetle calamity, the spruce forest has become withered and thus the vegetation cover has changed. Meteorological data (precipitation, air temperature, humidity) are collected by meteorological stations located within the basin or used from nearby stations (solar radiation, wind speed). The outflow from the experimental catchment is also measured. The aim of this paper is to simulate the dynamics of a soil moisture condition before bark beetle outbreak, to compare the differences and changes of a soil moisture and retention ability of a typical soil type in the case of a characteristic headwater catchment in Šumava Mts. For the simulation of a soil

  1. Preliminary results on the occurence of microsporidia in the pine bark beetles Tomicus piniperda and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera, Scolytidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohlmayr, B.; Wegensteiner, R.; Weiser, Jaroslav; Žižka, Z.

    Guanajuato : SIP , 2000. s. 63. [ SIP Meeting Mexico 2000. 13.08.2000-18.08.2000, Guanajuata] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : bark beeles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  2. Carbon isotopic composition of forest soil respiration in the decade following bark beetle and stem girdling disturbances in the Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gregory E; Chan, Allison M; Trahan, Nicole A; Moore, David J P; Bowling, David R

    2016-07-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks are widespread in western North American forests, reducing primary productivity and transpiration, leading to forest mortality across large areas and altering ecosystem carbon cycling. Here the carbon isotope composition (δ(13) C) of soil respiration (δJ ) was monitored in the decade after disturbance for forests affected naturally by mountain pine beetle infestation and artificially by stem girdling. The seasonal mean δJ changed along both chronosequences. We found (a) enrichment of δJ relative to controls (soils in the first 2 years after disturbance; (b) depletion (1‰ or no change) during years 3-7; and (c) a second period of enrichment (1-2‰) in years 8-10. Results were consistent with isotopic patterns associated with the gradual death and decomposition of rhizosphere organisms, fine roots, conifer needles and woody roots and debris over the course of a decade after mortality. Finally, δJ was progressively more (13) C-depleted deeper in the soil than near the surface, while the bulk soil followed the well-established pattern of (13) C-enrichment at depth. Overall, differences in δJ between mortality classes (soil depths (<3‰) were smaller than variability within a class or depth over a season (up to 6‰). PMID:26824577

  3. White Birch Trees as Resource Species of Russia : Their Distribution, Ecophysiological Features, Multiple Utilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Zyryanova, Olga A.; TERAZAWA, Minoru; KOIKE, TAKAYOSHI; Zyryanov, Vyacheslav I.

    2010-01-01

    Four birch tree species (Betula costata, B. pendula, B. platyphylla, B. pubescens) are traditionally important resource species in Russia. In the article, we discuss their spatial and ecophysiological features, biochemical constituents of the living tissues of the birches such as the wood, outer and inner bark, twigs, leaves, buds, roots. The exudation, tapping periods and sap productivity, exudated birch sap and derived birch tar are also reviewed. We show numerous useful wooden, medicinal, ...

  4. Field responses of the Asian larch bark beetle, Ips subelongatus, to potential aggregation pheromone components: disparity between two populations in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wen Song; Qing-He Zhang; Yue-Qu Chen; Tong-Tong Zuo; Bing-Zhong Ren

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses of the Asian larch bark beetle, Ips subelongatus Motsch. to three potential aggregation pheromone components, ipsenol (racemic or [-]-enantiomer), ipsdienol (racemic or [+]-enantiomer) and 3-methyl-3-buten-1 -ol, were tested using partial or full factorial experimental designs in two provinces (Inner Mongolia and Jilin) of northeastern China. Our field bioassays in Inner Mongolia (Larix principis- rupprechtii Mayr. plantation) clearly showed that ipsenol, either racemic or 97%-(-)-enantiomer, was the only compound that significantly attracted both sexes of I. subelongatus, while all other compounds (singly or in combinations) were unattractive. There were no two- or three-way synergistic interactions. However, in Jilin Province (L. gmelini [Rupr.] Rupr. Plantation), all the individual compounds tested were inactive, except a very weak activity by 97%-(-)-ipsenol in 2004 when the beetle population was very high. While a combination of ipsenol and ipsdienol (racemates or enantiomerically pure natural enantiomers) showed a significant attraction for both sexes of I. subelongatus, indicating a two-way synergistic interaction between these two major components, addition of 3-methyl-3-buten-l-ol to these active binary blend(s) did not have any effects on trap catches, suggesting that ipsenol and ipsdienol are the synergistic aggregation pheromone components of I. subelongatus in Jilin Province. It seems that 97%-(-)-ipsenol in Inner Mongolia or the binary blend of 97%-(-)-ipsenol and 97%-(+)-ipsdienol in Jilin Province are superior to their corresponding racemates, which might be due either to weak inhibitory effects of the antipode enantiomers or to reduced release rates of the active natural enantiomers) in the racemate(s). Our current bioassay results suggest that there is a strong geographical variation in aggregation pheromone response of I. subelongatus in northeastern China. Future research on the pheromone production and response of I

  5. Stimulated production of steroids in Inonotus obliquus by host factors from birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Xia; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus. PMID:25027706

  6. Morphology of Betula pendula var. carelica bark at the pre-reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda N. Nikolaeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in bark morphology at the pre-reproductive stage of Karelian birch are for the first time considered in connection with the type of trunk surface. The bark surface in Karelian birch changes with age from smooth to fissured. At the pre-reproductive stage Karelian birch has smooth bark with different types of exfoliation of the phellem surface layers, and tubercular specimens feature locally fissured bark on muffs at the very onset of their formation, as well as early rhytidome formation. Morphology of the bark tissues complex is a reflection of direction and intensity of the internal processes of the plant.

  7. Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - bark beetles; Impact of abiotic factors on forest growths; Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - leaf-eating insect; Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - game; Impact of harmful agents on forest growths - fungal diseases; 1 : 2 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On these maps the impact of different biotic and abiotic factors on forest growth on the territory of the Slovak Republic are shown. The data on damage to forest growth in the years 1996 - 1999 are based on source material of 'Lesnicka ochranarska sluzba' and the reports on occurrence of the bark beetles from the entities managing the forests. The most important species of bark beetles are: Ips typographus, Pityogenes chalcographus, and Xyloterus lineatus for spruce trees; Tomicus minor, Tomicus piniperda, and Ips acuminatus for pine trees; Scolytus intricatus for beech trees. The most important abiotic damage-causing factors are wind, snow, and rime. The most important leafeating species are: Lymantria dispar, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, Tortricidae, and Geometridae. Red deer Cervus elaphus L. causes the most important damage to forest growths. The most important species of fungal pathogens are tracheomycosis, cankers, bark necrosis and wood destroying fungi such as Armillaria mellea, Hypoxylon deustum and the like. (authors)

  8. New record and extension of the distribution range of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae Nuevo registro y ampliación del área de distribución del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Armendáriz-Toledano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After several exploratory surveys to the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright, 1970 was recorded in 2 geographic localities of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. These new records extend the range of distribution of this beetle a further 250 km south along the SMOC from the southernmost site recorded in the state of Durango. These records indicate that this species may be present in almost any area of the SMOC where conditions are suitable for its development.Después de varios viajes de exploración a los estados de Jalisco y Zacatecas en la sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, se registró la presencia del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas y Bright, 1970 en 2 localidades en el Municipio de Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. Estos nuevos registros amplían el área de distribución del descortezador 250 km hacia el sur de la SMOC, a partir del punto más sureño registrado en el estado de Durango. Asimismo, estos registros indican que esta especie puede estar presente en prácticamente cualquier área de la SMOC que reúna las condiciones adecuadas para su desarrollo.

  9. Influence of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels, Foliar Fuel Moisture Content, and Litter and Volatile Terpenes in Whitebark Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Toone, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has caused extensive tree mortality in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm) forests. Previous studies conducted in various conifer forests have shown that fine surface fuels are significantly altered during a bark beetle outbreak. Bark beetle activity in conifer stands has also been shown to alter foliar fuel moisture content and chemistry over the course of the bark beetle rotation.The objective of this study was to evaluate changes ...

  10. Selective Solvents for Extraction of Triterpenes from Betula Pendula Outer Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Pāže, A; Zandersons, J; Rižikovs, J; Dobele, G.; Jurkjāne, V; Spince, B

    2013-01-01

    The volume of birch plywood production in Latvia is illustrated by the 208 000 m3 of plywood sold in 2011 and about 562 000 m3 of processed birch veneer blocks. Wood residues such as bark, veneer shorts, cut off ends and others are used as a fuel. It would be more expedient to increase the birch wood utilisation degree by involving also birch outer bark in the processing cycle. It makes up 2% of the veneer blocks’ mass. At the J.S.C. “Latvijas Finieris”, about 6000 t per year of graded and mi...

  11. Implementing the Effects of Changing Landscape by the Recent Bark Beetle Infestation on Snow Accumulation and Ablation to More Accurately Predict Stream Flow in the Upper Little Laramie River, Wyoming watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heward, J.; Ohara, N.

    2014-12-01

    In many alpine regions, especially in the western United States, the snow pack is the cause of the peak discharge and most of the annual flow. A distributed snow melt model with a point-scale snow melt theory is used to estimate the timing and intensity of both snow accumulation and ablation. The type and distribution of vegetation across a watershed influences timing and intensity of snow melt processes. Efforts are being made to understand how a changing landscape will ultimately affect stream flow in a mountainous environment. This study includes an analysis of the effects of the recent bark beetle infestation, using leaf area index (LAI) data acquired from MODIS data sets. These changes were incorporated into the snow model to more accurately predict snow melt timing and intensity. It was observed through the primary model implementation that snowmelt was intensified by the LAI reduction. The radiation change and turbulent flux effects were separately quantified by the vegetation parameterization in the snow model. This distributed snow model will be used to more accurately predict stream flow in the Upper Little Laramie River, Wyoming watershed.

  12. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei. PMID:26487745

  13. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Erin W Hodgson; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  14. Ontogeny and environment as determinants of the secondary chemistry of three species of white birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Jaana; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Rousi, Matti; Heinonen, Jaakko; Tahvanainen, Jorma

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates variation in the secondary chemistry of the bark of three closely related, winter-dormant species of white birch (Betula resinifera, B. pendula, and B. platyphylla) at different ontogenetic stages by using different plant parts (top and base). The experimental birches were grown for 4 years in two growing conditions (pot and field) at different nutrient levels. There was considerable species-specific quantitative and qualitative variation in the secondary chemicals in bark, but this was also affected by fertilization and the age of the plant. In general, there was greater chemical diversity in saplings than in seedlings. The study revealed three new components, secoisolariciresinol 9-O-beta-glucopyranoside and two of its derivatives, that have not been reported previously for the bark of white birches. Principal component analysis showed that the species studied had a similar chemical composition at the juvenile stage, but as the plants grew, they became more clearly differentiated, which indicates that the species of older plants can be identified by chemotaxonomy. Evidently, the secondary chemistry of birches is under genetic control, but it is affected by properties of growing conditions and ontogeny. PMID:16195842

  15. Investigations on gallery patterns of the Almond bark bettle (Scolytus amygdali Guerin-Méneville, 1847 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Zeiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Almond bark beetle Scolytus amygdali Guerin-Meneville, 1847 is a serious beetle that can affect important economic crops in Tunisia. The species is morphologically similar to other bark beetles attacking fruit trees such as Scolytus mediterraneus. The gallery systems of both species are also generally hard to differentiate. A detailed study about gallery systems has carried out in the central region of Tunisia in order to give more details on beetle damage under the bark. Maternal and larval galleries from infested branches of almond were examined and measured. It is hoped that these details of the shape and measurements of the gallery systems of Scolytus amygdali will facilitate the identification of infestations of almond bark beetles attacking fruit trees in Tunisia.

  16. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and

  17. Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients...

  18. Birch's Law for fluid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By comparing acoustic velocities in fluid metals over a very wide range of densities we have established Birch's Law as an approximate representation over the entire liquid range. For a given liquid metal the acoustic velocity is close to linear in density, with a slope determined by the atomic weight. The measurements include isobaric expansion to less than half normal density, ultrasonics on molten metals at 1 atmosphere, and shock melted metals to greater than twice normal density

  19. Phenolic compounds of the inner bark of Betula pendula: seasonal and genetic variation and induction by wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari; Helander, Marjo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2012-11-01

    The contents of individual phenolic compounds in the inner bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Samples from 21 mature trees originating from three micropropagated parent trees were collected six times over a 1-year period. Significant seasonal variation in the quantities of ten compounds and four chromatographically unresolved compound pairs was found. A majority of the compounds also exhibited significant quantitative variation among birch clones. There were no qualitative differences associated with the season or among the clones. However, wounding of the bark induced the production of new types of bark phenolics: several ellagitannins were detected in the callus tissues of birch for the first time. PMID:23065107

  20. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, J.; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper;

    Studies of forest declines are important, because they both reduce timber production and aect successional trajectories of landscapes and ecosystems. Of partic- ular interest is the decline of red pines which is characterized by expanding areas of dead and chlorotic trees in plantations throughout...... the Great Lakes Region. Here we examine the impact of two bark beetle groups, namely red turpentine beetles and pine engraver bark beetles, on tree mortality and the subsequent gap formation over time in a plantation in Wisconsin. We construct spatial-temporal statistical models that quantify the...... relations among red turpentine beetle coloniza- tion, pine engraver bark beetle colonization, and mortality of red pine trees, while accounting for correlation across space and over time. For statistical inference, we adopt a Bayesian hierarchical model and devise Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for...

  1. Efficient dewatering of bark in heated presses. Survey and pilot-scale trials; Effektivare avvattning av bark i vaermda pressar. Problemkartering samt foersoek i pilotskala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Martin; Stenstroem, Stig (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Dewatering and drying of biofuels such as bark and GROT have received increased importance due to an increased interest to use these products as energy sources. In Sweden there are about 30 bark presses installed, however the amount of available information is very limited about dewatering of bark. The goal with this work is to increase the knowledge about dewatering of bark. Two separate goals have been defined in the project: A. Survey about problems related to dewatering of bark and compilation of operating experiences at Swedish mills. B. Study how different parameters affect bark dewatering at pilot scale experiments. Study different techniques for heating bark and the bark pressing process. The results will mainly be of interest for mills which are handling bark, for municipal power plants who buy wet forest residues (bark, GROT etc.) and for manufacturers of industrial bark pressing equipment. The results show that the dry matter content for birch- and pine bark normally are so high that pressing does not result in dewatering of the barks. Both dry and wet debarking is used and these bark fractions should be pressed separately. On line measurement of the dry matter content for the bark should be used as a standard tool on the bark press. This will facilitate improved control of the bark press during the year. Other conclusions are that smaller bark particles result in an increased dry matter content, large bark- and wood pieces decrease the dewatering in the bark press and that the total residence time in the press nip should be at least 30 seconds. The most common method to take care of bark water is to send it to the evaporators or to the water purification plant. Maintenance of the bark press appears not to be a big problem. Hot pressing can be accomplished in different ways, either the bark press can be heated or the bark can be heated in different ways. The alternatives that have been studied in this project are steaming the bark, heating the bark using

  2. Fungi associated with the beetles of Ips typographus on Norway spruce in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycobiota of the beetles of the phloem-feeding spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus was studied. The most important group of fungi were the ophiostomatoid fungi. Among them O. penicillatum was very frequent ophiostomatoid species. Other common fungi were O. ainoae, O. bicolor, O. piceaperdum and O. piceae. The ophiostomatoid fungi were often more frequent in beetles collected in galleries than in the beetles caught With a trap. Generally the ophiostomatoid fungi were more ofien isolated from the beetle.s bathed in sterile water for 30 seconds. However C. polonica, O. ainoae, and O. minutum occurred most abundantly in the beetles disinfected in 96% ethyl alcohol for 15 and 30 seconds.

  3. Analysis of three types of triterpenoids in tetraploid white birches (Betula platyphylla Suk.) and selection of plus trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Wang; Hui Zhao; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Chuanping Yang

    2015-01-01

    Betulin, oleanolic acid, and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoids that have significant medicinal value. Considerable amounts of these triterpenoids are available in the outer bark of white birch. In this study, we used ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to extract triterpenoids from birch bark rapidly and with high efficiency. Using high performance liquid chro-matography (HPLC), three types of triterpenoids were separated and detected. We examined the differences among triterpenoids extracted from diploid versus tetra-ploid white birch. Then, we used factor analysis to screen out tetraploid white birches with comprehensively excel-lent performance. The results indicate that the optimum conditions for extraction include the use of ethanol as an extraction solvent, a solid-to-liquid ratio of 0.1 g/10 ml, ultrasonic power set at 100 W, a temperature of 60 ?C and an extraction time of 15 min. A reversed-phase C18 col-umn (4.6 mm 9 250 mm 9 5 lm) with a column tem-perature of 30 ?C and the mobile phase composed of A (acetonitrile) and B (0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min were used, and the detection wavelength was 195 nm. No significant difference was observed between diploid and tetraploid white birch in terms of the content of three types of triterpenoids (at a confidence level of 0.05). As triterpenoid content, height, and DBH (diameter at breast height) are strongly interre-lated, we used factor analysis to evaluate all individuals, and we screened out six plus trees with excellent com-prehensive characters.

  4. Diversidad, fluctuación poblacional y plantas huésped de escolitinos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México Diversity, dynamic population and host plants of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pérez-De La Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad de escolitinos asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México durante el año 2007. Los insectos adultos fueron recolectados en 4 localidades con trampas de alcohol etílico, trampas de atracción luminosa y captura directa sobre sus plantas huésped. Se recolectaron 19 263 ejemplares, pertenecientes a 51 especies y 26 géneros. Araptus hymenaeae y Cnesinus squamosus son nuevos registros para México. La máxima diversidad de insectos capturados con los 3 métodos de recolecta se obtuvo en El Bajío (H'=2.45 y Dmg=4.83, la mínima en Río Seco (H'=2.29 y Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, y el máximo valor de equidad (J lo obtuvo El Bajío (0.67. El índice de similitud de Sorensen (Is mostró que los sitios de estudio tienden a presentar la misma composición de especies. Los índices de diversidad, equidad y similitud, aplicados a la fauna de escolitinos capturados con cada uno de los métodos empleados, mostraron diferencias, excepto en las trampas de alcohol. La fluctuación presenta picos poblacionales marcados al inicio y al final del año de estudio. Las plantas en las que se recolectó el mayor número de especies fueron Theobroma cacao (16 y Swietenia macrophylla (13.The bark and ambrosia beetle diversity in cocoa agroecosystems was studied during 2007 in Tabasco, Mexico. Adult insects were gathered in 4 localities with ethanol and light traps and by direct collecting in their host plants. 19 263 specimens were gathered, belonging to 51 species and 26 genera. Araptus hymenaeae and Cnesinus squamosus are new records for Mexico. The maximum diversity of insects captured with the 3 collecting methods was obtained in El Bajío (H'=2.45 and Dmg=4.83, the minimum in Río Seco (H'=2.29 and Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, and the maximum value of justness (J was obtained in El Bajío (0.67. The Sorensen similarity index (Is showed that the study places present the same species composition. The diversity, justness and similarity indices

  5. Christian Birch - den korrupte konferensråd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2005-01-01

      http://www.sidensaxo.dk/fileadmin/saxo-abstract-uploads/christian_birch_den_korrupte_konferensraad_2005_3.pdf......  http://www.sidensaxo.dk/fileadmin/saxo-abstract-uploads/christian_birch_den_korrupte_konferensraad_2005_3.pdf...

  6. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen allergen is Bet ν 1, which is the conventional allergen name for the birch pollen proteins of a large group of proteins otherwise known as PR-10 proteins. Individuals that suffer from birch pollen al...

  7. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  8. Biological evaluation of the prototype standing tree debarking system (STDS) used for direct control of mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. FRDA report No. 234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, H.S.; Safranyik, L.; Moulson, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    The standing tree debarking system (STDS) consists of a tree-climbing delimber/debarker machine and a hand-held debarking machine. The tree-climbing machine is powered by a chain saw engine which, through a hydraulic system, operates a delimbing saw on ascent and a debarker on descent. The hand-held machine consists of a debarking head that replaces the cutter on a gasoline-powered brush saw. Prototypes of the STDS have been developed for mechanical removal of bark from standing lodgepole pine trees that have been attacked by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). This paper presents results of work conducted to ascertain the potential effectiveness of the STDS (the degree of bark disruption required to prevent mountain pine beetle from producing increased numbers of new beetles in infested trees of various size), the degree of bark disruption by the STDS, and brood survival in patches of bark remaining after STDS treatment.

  9. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

  10. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40–50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75–89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3–6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale. (letter)

  11. Distribution and attack behaviour of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, recently introduced to China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gao, B.; Wen, X.; Guan, H.; Knížek, M.; Žďárek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2005), 155-160. ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 639 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bark beetles * outbreak * forest pest Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  12. Bark chemical analysis explains selective bark damage by rodents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2009), s. 137-140. ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bark damage * bark selection * bark chemical analysis * rowan * beech * spruce * mountain forest regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry

  13. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Müller-Germann

    Full Text Available Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8 and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS. The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm, the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.

  14. The Spruce Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Holsten, E H; Their, R W; Munson, A. S.; Gibson, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), is the most significant natural mortality agent of mature spruce. Outbreaks of this beetle have caused extensive spruce mortality from Alaska to Arizona and have occurred in every forest with substantial spruce stands. Spruce beetle damage results in the loss of 333 to 500 million board feet of spruce saw timber annually. More than 2.3 million acres of spruce forests have been infested in Alaska in the last 7 years with an estimated 30 milli...

  15. Weevils and Bark Beetles (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea). Chapter 8.2

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Sauvard; Manuela Branco; Ferenc Lakatos; Massimo Faccoli; Lawrence Kirkendall

    2010-01-01

    We record 201 alien curculionoids established in Europe, of which 72 originates from outside Europe. Aliens to Europe belong to five families, but four-fifth of them are from family Curculionidae. Many families and subfamilies, among which species-rich ones, have few representatives among alien curculionoids, whereas some others are over-represented; these latter, Dryophthoridae, Cossoninae and specially Scolytinae, all contains many xylophagous species. The number of new records of alien spe...

  16. Weevils and Bark Beetles (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea. Chapter 8.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sauvard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We record 201 alien curculionoids established in Europe, of which 72 originates from outside Europe. Aliens to Europe belong to five families, but four-fifth of them are from family Curculionidae. Many families and subfamilies, among which species-rich ones, have few representatives among alien curculionoids, whereas some others are over-represented; these latter, Dryophthoridae, Cossoninae and specially Scolytinae, all contains many xylophagous species. The number of new records of alien species increases continuously, with an acceleration during the last decades. Aliens to Europe originate from all parts of the world, but mainly Asia; few alien curculionoids originate from Africa. Italy and France host the largest number of alien to Europe. The number of aliens per country decreases eastwards, but is mainly correlated with importations amount and, secondary, with warm climates. All alien curculionoids have been introduced accidentally via international shipping. Wood and seed borers are specially liable to human-mediated dispersal due to their protected habitat. Alien curculionoids mainly attack stems, and half of them are xylophagous. The majority of alien curculionoids live in human-modified habitats, but many species live in forests and other natural or semi-natural habitats. Several species are pests, among which grain feeders as Sitophilus sp. are the most damaging.

  17. Echoes of Bark Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenkel, Nicky; Hemstreet, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Two former staff members reflect on their feelings about the August 1995 closing of Bark Lake Leadership Centre (Ontario, Canada), which for 49 years had offered outdoor adventure and environmental education courses to youth and adults. They discuss their experiences as both students and teachers at the center, which helped shape their careers in…

  18. Amate Bark Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a beautiful bookmark one of the author's students made for him as a gift, he began a lesson exploring the vibrant bark paintings popular all over Mexico. The majority of his students have Mexican ancestry, so exploring the arts of Mexico is always popular and well received. Amate paintings can also be a great way to introduce the…

  19. A mechanistic analysis of the Birch Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Howard E

    2012-02-21

    The Birch Reduction is one of the main reactions of organic chemistry. The reaction involves the reaction of dissolving metals in ammonia with aromatic compounds to produce 1,4-cyclohexadienes. Discovered by Arthur Birch in 1944, the reaction occupies 300 pages in Organic Reactions to describe its synthetic versatility. Thus, it is remarkable that the reaction mechanism has been so very controversial and only relatively recently has been firmly established. Perhaps this is not that surprising, since the reaction also has many unusual and esoteric mechanistic facets. Here, I provide a description of how I have applied ever-evolving levels of quantum mechanics and a novel experimental test to understand details of the mechanism and the origins of the selectivities observed in the Birch reduction. The reaction involves an initial radical anion resulting from introduction of an electron from the blue liquid ammonia solution of free electrons formed by the dissolution of Li or related metals. This radical anion is protonated by an alcohol and then further reduced to a carbanion. Finally, the carbanion is protonated using a second proton to afford a nonconjugated cyclohexadiene. The regiochemistry depends on substituents present. With 18 resonance structures in the case of anisole radical anion, prediction of the initial protonation site would seem difficult. Nevertheless, computational methods from Hückel theory through modern density functional calculations do correctly predict the site of protonation. An esoteric test established this mechanism experimentally. The nature of the carbanion also is of mechanistic interest, and the preponderance of the resonance structure shown was revealed from Hückel calculations involving variable bond orders. For the trianion from benzoic acid, parallel questions about structure are apparent, and have been answered. Some mechanistic questions are answered experimentally and some by modern computations. Recently, our mechanistic

  20. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen al

  1. Assessing forest vulnerability and the potential distribution of pine beetles under current and future climate scenarios in the Interior West of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, P.H.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Young, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate forest vulnerability and potential distribution of three bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) under current and projected climate conditions for 2020 and 2050. Our study focused on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), and pine engraver (Ips pini). This study was conducted across eight states in the Interior West of the US covering approximately 2.2millionkm2 and encompassing about 95% of the Rocky Mountains in the contiguous US. Our analyses relied on aerial surveys of bark beetle outbreaks that occurred between 1991 and 2008. Occurrence points for each species were generated within polygons created from the aerial surveys. Current and projected climate scenarios were acquired from the WorldClim database and represented by 19 bioclimatic variables. We used Maxent modeling technique fit with occurrence points and current climate data to model potential beetle distributions and forest vulnerability. Three available climate models, each having two emission scenarios, were modeled independently and results averaged to produce two predictions for 2020 and two predictions for 2050 for each analysis. Environmental parameters defined by current climate models were then used to predict conditions under future climate scenarios, and changes in different species' ranges were calculated. Our results suggested that the potential distribution for bark beetles under current climate conditions is extensive, which coincides with infestation trends observed in the last decade. Our results predicted that suitable habitats for the mountain pine beetle and pine engraver beetle will stabilize or decrease under future climate conditions, while habitat for the western pine beetle will continue to increase over time. The greatest increase in habitat area was for the western pine beetle, where one climate model predicted a 27% increase by 2050. In contrast, the predicted habitat of the

  2. BIRCH: A user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fristensky Brian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. Conclusion BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.

  3. Beadwork for Children/Weegwahs: An Ojibwe Story and Activities Using Birch Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Two resource units give elementary students an understanding of American Indian arts and crafts. The first unit consists of seven beading activities for early elementary students using beads the teacher and/or students make themselves. The unit gives a short history of American Indian beadwork, describes the materials and designs used by Plains…

  4. 75 FR 51987 - Birch Power Company and Sorenson Engineering; Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Sorenson Leasing L.L.C.; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions... (transferors) and Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing, L.L.C. (transferees) filed an application for..., Birch Power Company, Sorenson Engineering, and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C., 5203 South 11th East,...

  5. Pyrolysis of Barks from Three Japanese Softwood

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, Aki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Kounosu, Taku; Orihashi, Ken; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kojima, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Along with Japanese cedar bark, fir bark and Japanese larch bark were pyrolyzed to estimate the possibility of utilizing these softwood barks as resources for fine chemicals by comparing the pyrolysis product compositions. The three softwood barks contained higher ash content and yielded lower amount of volatiles when compared with cedar heartwood. The major pyrolysis products from their barks were similar to those previously reported from softwood trunks. Levoglucosan was a major pyrolysis p...

  6. Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Six

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice.

  7. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    birch skin prick test weal diameter of > or =4 mm, a positive conjunctival provocation test result, and specific IgE of > or =CAP class 2, as well as with the presence of other allergies. Specific IgE of > or =CAP class 2 was 87.5% predictive for allergy development, whereas a negative conjunctival...... risk is any subject with target organ sensitivity, an elevated specific IgE level, and/or a skin prick test weal diameter of >4 mm....

  8. Methods for estimating production and utilization of paper birch saplings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Development of technique to estimate browse production and utilization. Developed a set of methods for estimating annual production and utilization of paper birch...

  9. Address Points, birch, Published in 2005, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'birch'. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  10. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang Vincent L; Tiimonen Heidi; Mäkelä Riina; Vuosku Jaana; Saranpää Pekka; Laakso Tapio; Edesi Jaanika; Niemi Karoliina; Sutela Suvi; Koskimäki Janne; Suorsa Marja; Julkunen-Tiitto Riitta; Häggman Hely

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch li...

  11. Chemical characteristics of surface colour of birch veneer (Betula pendula)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Julkaistu vain painettuna, saatavuus katso Bibid. Published only in printed form, availability see Bibid This thesis investigates the discoloration of veneer produced from silver birch (Betula pendula) logs by means of biochemical and chemical analyses on the veneer and sap obtained from wood which was soaked at varying temperatures (20-70 ˚C). Drastic colour development was confirmed from the sap squeezed from green birch wood. The results from biochemical tests on the sap by sodium dodec...

  12. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  13. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Vincent L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L. caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr., and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus.

  14. The growth process of natural poplar-birch forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Shibo; LUO Xu; LUO Yuliang

    2006-01-01

    With a combination of permanent and temporary sample plots,we investigated the growth conditions of natural poplar-birch forests.The forests were divided into four site classes,using statistical and analytical techniques in a quantitative model,in descending order where site class I was the best.On this basis,the growth of natural poplar-birch forests in the different site classes was studied.The growth processes of height and diameter at breast height were divided into three stages:a fast growing period,a stable growing period and a slow growing period.Results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the directive cultivation of natural poplar-birch forests.

  15. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl;

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen...... (SLIT), and 8 (placebo) patients after treatment compared to 10, 4, and 10 patients, respectively, before SIT. The symptom scores to apple during challenges decreased in all groups, but only significantly in the placebo group (p = 0.03). As evaluated by the questionnaire, the severity of food allergy in......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...

  16. Allergen immunotherapy for birch pollen-allergic patients: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moingeon, Philippe; Floch, Véronique Bordas-Le; Airouche, Sabi; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    As of today, allergen immunotherapy is performed with aqueous natural allergen extracts. Recombinant allergen vaccines are not yet commercially available, although they could provide patients with well-defined and highly consistent drug substances. As Bet v 1 is the major allergen involved in birch pollen allergy, with more than 95% of patients sensitized to this allergen, pharmaceutical-grade recombinant Bet v 1-based vaccines were produced and clinically tested. Herein, we compare the clinical results and modes of action of treatments based on either a birch pollen extract or recombinant Bet v 1 expressed as hypoallergenic or natural-like molecules. We also discuss the future of allergen immunotherapy with improved drugs intended for birch pollen-allergic patients suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis. PMID:27140409

  17. Birch Creek, Alaska, a wild and scenic river analysis: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Upper Birch Creek, Alaska possessed values which qualify it for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. The upper Birch Creek and its immediate...

  18. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. PMID:27231258

  19. Fluctuation of birch (Betula L. pollen seasons in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Puc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that induce allergic processes. The fluctuation pattern of birch pollen seasons in selected cities of Poland is presented. Measurements were performed by the volumetric method (Burkard and Lanzoni 2000 pollen samplers. The distributions of the data were not normal (Shapiro–Wilk test and statistical error risk was estimated at a significance level of α = 0.05. Pollen season was defined as the period in which 95% of the annual total catch occurred. The linear trend for the selected features of the pollen season, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variation (V% were also analyzed. During the 12–14 years of study, the beginnings of birch pollen seasons were observed 7–14 days earlier, the ends were noted 5–10 days earlier, and the days with maximum values occurred 7–14 days earlier compared to the long-term data. The left-skewed distribution of the pollen season starts in most sampling sites confirms the short-lasting occurrence of pollen in the air. The threat of birch pollen allergens was high during the pollen seasons. If vegetation is highly diverse, flowering and pollen release are extended in time, spread over different weeks and occur at different times of the day. Flowering time and pollen release are affected by insolation, convection currents, wind, and turbulence. Therefore, pollen seasons are characterized by great inter-annual variability.

  20. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the patchwork of tree mortality across the landscape. While several studies have shown that selective mechanisms operate at the individual tree level, less attention has been given to beetles’ preference for variation in spatial forest patterns, namely forest fragmentation, and if such preference changes with changing population conditions. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of fragmentation on the location of mountain pine beetle caused mortality. Using a negative binomial regression model, we tested the significance of a fragmentation measure called the Aggregation Index for predicting beetle-caused tree mortality in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada in 2000 and 2005. The results explain that mountain pine beetle OPEN ACCESS Forests 2013, 4 280 exhibit a density-dependent dynamic behaviour related to forest patterns, with fragmented forests experiencing greater tree mortality when beetle populations are low (2000. Conversely, more contiguous forests are preferred when populations reach epidemic levels (2005. These results reinforce existing findings that bark beetles exhibit a strong host configuration preference at low population levels and that such pressures are relaxed when beetle densities are high.

  1. Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

  2. Barking And Havering Lifestyle Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, S

    1994-01-01

    The South East Institute of Public Health has been commissioned by the Barking and Havering Health Authority to undertake an independent review of health promotion Activity in smoking, sensible drinking, physical activity and healthy eating amongst Organisations/agencies in the district and to make recommendations.

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis of Phenotypic Changes in Birch (Betula platyphylla Autotetraploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Feng Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders have focused much attention on polyploid trees because of their importance to forestry. To evaluate the impact of intraspecies genome duplication on the transcriptome, a series of Betula platyphylla autotetraploids and diploids were generated from four full-sib families. The phenotypes and transcriptomes of these autotetraploid individuals were compared with those of diploid trees. Autotetraploids were generally superior in breast-height diameter, volume, leaf, fruit and stoma and were generally inferior in height compared to diploids. Transcriptome data revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to autotetraploidization, which resulted in the upregulation of 7052 unigenes and the downregulation of 3658 unigenes. Pathway analysis revealed that the biosynthesis and signal transduction of indoleacetate (IAA and ethylene were altered after genome duplication, which may have contributed to phenotypic changes. These results shed light on variations in birch autotetraploidization and help identify important genes for the genetic engineering of birch trees.

  4. BIRCH: A user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system

    OpenAIRE

    Fristensky Brian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hiera...

  5. Effects of birch tar oils on soil organisms and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hagner, Marleena; Pasanen, Tiina; Lindqvist, Bengt; Lindqvist, Isa; Tiilikkala, Kari; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Setala, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    The use of birch tar oil (BTO) is a new innovation in plant and animal protection working against various weeds, harmful insects and rodents. Due to its novelty as a biocide/repellent/plant protection product, no comprehensive information on the effects of BTO on non-target soil organisms is available. In this study we examined the impact of BTO on non-target soil organisms (enchytraeids, nematodes and soil microbes) and plants using laboratory toxicity tests and field experiments. In additio...

  6. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Persson,; Olof Dahlman,; Ann-Christine Albertsson

    2012-01-01

    Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan) isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes) were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch lengt...

  7. Barking up the Right Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    There is a childhood saying about a confused dog who thinks he sees a possum in a tree. The problem is that the possum is actually in a different tree so the dog barks up the wrong tree. American education is constantly playing both dog and possum. Sometimes they are the prey, and sometimes they are just confused about what and where the prey is.…

  8. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  9. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  10. Molluscicidal activity of Nerium indicum bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Singh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Nerium indicum bark against Lymnaea acuminata snails was studied. The toxicity of different bark preparations was both time and dose dependent. The 24-h LC50 of the lyophilized aqueous extract of bark was 34.5 mg/l whereas that of lyophilized boiled water extract was 42.5 mg/l. Low concentrations of vacuum-dried ethanolic extract (24-h LC50: 4.9 mg/l and purified bark (24-h LC50: 0.87 mg/l were effective in killing the test snails.

  11. Detection of prognostic factors for oral allergy syndrome in patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asero, R; Massironi, F; Velati, C

    1996-02-01

    To determine why a significant proportion of birch pollen-sensitive patients do not have the oral allergy syndrome (OAS), possible predictive in vivo or in vitro tests for OAS were sought in a large retrospective and prospective follow-up study performed in 283 patients with clinical evidence of birch pollen hypersensitivity. OAS was associated with more severe respiratory symptoms and with higher birch-specific and total IgE levels; moreover, its onset was clearly related to duration of birch pollinosis. The prospective part of this study, performed in 63 patients without OAS, confirmed these findings and highlighted the very high negative predictive value of both skin prick tests with fresh foods and RAST with food allergens. This work suggests that about 15% of patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity are not prone to OAS and that their anti-birch IgE might be directed against determinants that do not crossreact with food allergens. PMID:8621846

  12. Attempts at active protection of Inonotus obliquus by inoculating birches with its mycelium

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Piętka; Andrzej Grzywacz

    2013-01-01

    Practical application of active protection methods of Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát. was examined. Thirty live birches and 15 birch stem sections were artificially inoculated with the fungal mycelium in the Mińsk Forest District (E Poland). The mycelium of I. obliquus was not recorded in the felled test trees and birch stem sections upon the completion of the experiment. Artificial introduction of I. obliquus in the natural environment faces significant problems caused by strong competition f...

  13. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  14. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  15. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  16. Organic matter characteristics in boreal forest soils under stands of silver birch, Norway spruce, and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolander, A.; Kitunen, V.

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to study how tree species and a tree species mixture affect microbial C and N transformations and two major plant secondary compound groups, terpenes and phenolic compounds in soil. The study site was a tree-species experiment in middle-eastern part of Finland containing plots of 43-year-old silver birch, Norway spruce and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch (22 and 37 % birch of the total stem number). Soil was podzol and humus type mor. Samples were taken from the organic layer. C and N in the microbial biomass, rates of C mineralization (CO2 evolution), net N mineralization and nitrification, and concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds, condensed tannins and different kind of terpenes were measured. Amounts of C and N in the microbial biomass and the rates of C mineralization and net N mineralization were all lower under spruce than birch, and particularly net N mineralization was stimulated by birch mixture. Concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds were on a similar level, irrespective of tree species. However, there were less low-molecular-weight phenolics and more high-molecular-weight phenolics under spruce than birch. Concentrations of condensed tannins and both sesqui- and diterpenes were all higher under spruce than birch but the concentrations of triterpenes were similar in all soils. The difference between tree species was greatest with monoterpenes which were measured from both organic layer and soil atmosphere: high concentrations under spruce and negligible under birch. Birch mixture tended to decrease the concentrations of condensed tannins and mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes.

  17. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  18. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Nyctanthes arbortristis bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Ashokrao Nirmal; Subodh Chandra Pal; Subhash Chandra Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study detailed Pharmacognosy of the bark of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn (Oleaceae), an important plant in Indian system of medicine. Methods: the macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical testing of powder of the plant bark and other WHO recommended methods for the standardization was done. Results: Trunk bark consists of two distinct regions i.e. outer bark and inner bark. Outer bark consists of broad periderm of a wide phellem and inner phelloderm regions. Inner bark is broader than the outer part and it includes all the secondary phloem tissues. It can be distinguished into 2 zones viz. collapsed secondary phloem and non-collapsed secondary phloem regions. Collapsed secondary phloem region consist of thick blocks of phloem sclereids and radially oblique dark streaks of crushed sieve tubes and dilated axial parenchyma cells. Non-collapsed secondary phloem region is the conducting part of the phloem where the sieve elements are intact. It consists of intact sieve tube members, companion cells, axial parenchyma cells and narrow undilated ray. Calcium oxalate crystals are abundant in collapsed phloem region. Conclusions: it can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of N. arbortristis bark is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.

  19. Elevated bark temperature in unremoved stumps after disturbances facilitates multi-voltinism in Ips typographus population in a mountainous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischer Peter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of Ips typographus generations developed in a year might be indicative of its population size and of risk to Norway spruce forests. Warm weather and unremoved fallen trees after natural disturbances are thought of as key factors initiating large population increase. We studied I. typographus development in a spruce forest of the Tatra National Park, which was heavily affected by large-scale disturbances in the last decade. Repeated windthrows and consequent bark beetle outbreaks have damaged almost 20,000 hectares of mature Norway spruce forests, what is a half of the National Park forest area. Current I. typographus population size and its response to the environment and to forestry defense measures attract attention of all stakeholders involved in natural resource management, including public. In this paper we analyse the potential I. typographus population size in two consecutive years 2014 and 2015, which represented a climatologically normal year and an extremely hot year, respectively. We used bark temperature and phenology models to estimate the number of generations developed in each year. In 2014, the average bark temperature of standing living trees at study sites was 14.5 °C, in 2015 it increased to 15.7 °C. The bark temperature of fallen logs was 17.7 °C in 2014, and 19.5 °C in 2015. The bark temperature of standing living trees allowed to develop one and two generations in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elevated bark temperature of fallen logs allowed to develop two generations in 2014 and three generations in 2015. The good match between the predicted and observed timing of each generation emergence as well as the large increase in the number of catches in pheromone traps in 2015 indicated a dramatic increase of the I. typographus population in the extremely warm year, especially at the unmanaged windthrown site.

  20. Specific probiotics alleviate allergic rhinitis during the birch pollen season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur C Ouwehand; Merja Nermes; Maria Carmen Collado; Nina Rautonen; Seppo Salminen; Erika Isolauri

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether birch pollen allergy symptoms are linked with gut microbiota changes and whether probiotics have an effect on these. METHODS: Forty seven children with confirmed birch pollen allergy were randomized to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus ( L. acidophi lus) NCFMTM (ATCC 700396) and Bifidobacterium lactis ( B. lactis) Bl-04 (ATCC SD5219) or placebo in a double-blind manner for 4 mo, starting prior to onset of the birch pollen season. Symptoms were recorded in a diary. Blood samples were taken for analysis of cytokines and eosinophils. Fecal samples were analysed for microbiota components, calprotectin and IgA. Nasal swabs were taken for analysis of eosinophils.RESULTS: The pollen season induced a reduction in Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and Bacteroides which could not be prevented by the probiotic intervention. During the intervention, significantly higher numbers 106 bacteria/g feces ( P < 0.0001) were observed in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group. During May, there was a tendency for fewer subjects,(76.2% vs 95.2%, P = 0.078) to report runny nose,while during June, fewer subjects, 11.1% vs 33.3%,reported nasal blocking in the probiotics group ( P = 0.101). Concomitantly, fewer subjects in the probiotic group had infiltration of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa compared to the placebo group, 57.1%vs 95% ( P = 0.013). Eye symptoms tended to be slightly more frequent in the probiotic group, 12.5 d [interquartile range (IQR) 6-18] vs 7.5 d (IQR 0-11.5)( P = 0.066) during May. Fecal IgA was increased in the placebo group during the pollen season; this increase was prevented by the probiotics ( P = 0.028).CONCLUSION: Birch pollen allergy was shown to be associated with changes in fecal microbiota composition. The specific combination of probiotics used was shown to prevent the pollen-induced infiltration of eosinophils into the nasal mucosa, and indicated a trend for reduced nasal symptoms.

  1. Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2012-08-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

  2. Selective suppression of antibody production with the aid of radiolabelled birch pollen allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the clonal selection theory we intended to prevent the development of artificially induced birch pollen allergy in rabbits with the aid of of the radiolabelled pollen allergen (75-1000 μCi125 I-pollen/animal) intravenously administered prior to pollen sensitization. The birch pollen allergen, in accordance with Burnet's working hypothesis, reacts only with a genetically determining B cell subpopulation. The fixation of the radiolabelled birch pollen allergen to the receptors of the competent B cell clone causes the lesion of the latter. Compared with the control group, this group of rabbits showed an extensive suppression of anaphylactic reagin-like PCA-antibodies, and haemagglutinating antibodies in the blood as well as in nasal secretion. In addition, we tried to influence the already ongoing synthesis of the antibodies with the aid of a subsequent intravenously administered radiolabelled birch pollen allergen (750-1000μCi125 I-pollen/animal). An intensive suppression of the synthesis of antibodies could also be proved in this case. The simultaneous immunization of the control rabbits with birch pollen and egg albumin resulted in the production of antibodies against both antigens, as expected. The hot-labelled birch pollen antigen intravenously injected before or after immunization with egg albumin and birch pollen led selectively to suppression of anti-birch-pollen PCA antibodies. The synthesis of anti-egg albumin PCA antibodies was unaffected. (author)

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnato S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily. We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks or mixed ones (with birch; pure birch stands (typical that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.

  4. The Beetle Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Harnew, N; Hofmann, W; Knöpfle, K-T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, M; Sexauer, E; Smale, N J; Trunk, U; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    This paper details the port de nitions, electrical speci cations, modes of operation and programming sequences of the 128 channel readout chip Beetle . The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and ful lls the requirements of the silicon vertex detector, the inner tracker, the pile-up veto trigger and the RICH detector in case of multianode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preampli ers and shapers. The risetime of the shaped pulse is 25 ns with a 30% remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns. A comparator per channel with con gurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought o chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analogue pipeline with a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervalls and an integrated derandomizing bu er of 16 stages. For analog readout data is multiplexed with up to 40 MHz onto 1 or 4 ports...

  5. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

  6. Bioconversion of Birch Wood Hemicellulose Hydrolyzate to Xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Shimotori, Yasutaka; Nakatani, Hisayuki; Harada, Akira; Aoyama, Masakazu

    2015-06-01

    A sugar solution containing 42.9 g l(-1) of xylose was prepared from the wood of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) by hydrolysis with 3 % sulfuric acid with a liquor-to-solid ratio of 4 (g g(-1)) at 120 °C for 1 h. During the acid hydrolysis, undesirable by-products were generated, such as acetic acid, furfural, and low-molecular-weight phenols, which inhibit bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. These inhibitors were successfully removed from the hydrolyzate by sorption onto a steam-activated charcoal followed by treatment with an anion exchange resin. Bioconversion of the detoxified hydrolyzate to xylitol by the yeast Candida magnoliae was investigated under the microaerobic conditions. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) varied from 9.6 to 22.3 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). The best fermentative performance of C. magnoliae in the birch wood hydrolyzate (xylitol yield 0.74 g xylitol g xylose(-1); volumetric productivity 1.0 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at the OTR of 12.6 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). PMID:25894947

  7. Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari

    2013-02-01

    Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644

  8. Attempts at active protection of Inonotus obliquus by inoculating birches with its mycelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piętka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Practical application of active protection methods of Inonotus obliquus (Fr. Pilát. was examined. Thirty live birches and 15 birch stem sections were artificially inoculated with the fungal mycelium in the Mińsk Forest District (E Poland. The mycelium of I. obliquus was not recorded in the felled test trees and birch stem sections upon the completion of the experiment. Artificial introduction of I. obliquus in the natural environment faces significant problems caused by strong competition from other birch wood-decay fungi. As in vitro studies show (individual biotic effect determination, the fungi examined, occurring on birch trees in nature, are dominant species in relation to I. obliquus.

  9. ALKALINE PRETREATMENT OF SPRUCE AND BIRCH TO IMPROVE BIOETHANOL AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Jeihanipour

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline pretreatment with NaOH under mild operating conditions was used to improve ethanol and biogas production from softwood spruce and hardwood birch. The pretreatments were carried out at different temperatures between minus 15 and 100ºC with 7.0% w/w NaOH solution for 2 h. The pretreated materials were then enzymatically hydrolyzed and subsequently fermented to ethanol or anaerobically digested to biogas. In general, the pretreatment was more successful for both ethanol and biogas production from the hardwood birch than the softwood spruce. The pretreatment resulted in significant reduction of hemicellulose and the crystallinity of cellulose, which might be responsible for improved enzymatic hydrolyses of birch from 6.9% to 82.3% and spruce from 14.1% to 35.7%. These results were obtained with pretreatment at 100°C for birch and 5°C for spruce. Subsequently, the best ethanol yield obtained was 0.08 g/g of the spruce while pretreated at 100°C, and 0.17 g/g of the birch treated at 100°C. On the other hand, digestion of untreated birch and spruce resulted in methane yields of 250 and 30 l/kg VS of the wood species, respectively. The pretreatment of the wood species at the best conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 83% and 74% improvement in methane production from birch and spruce.

  10. Wound Healing Activity of Carallia brachiata Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, B; Neeharika, V; Venkatesh, S; Padmavathy, R; Reddy, B Madhava

    2009-09-01

    The stem bark of Carallia brachiata was studied for wound healing activity. The bark was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol successively. All the extracts were screened for wound healing activity by excision and incision models in Wistar rats. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were found to possess significant wound healing activity. The extracts revealed the presence of sterols or triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, fixed oils and fats. PMID:20502583

  11. Wound Healing Activity of Carallia brachiata Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni, B.; V Neeharika; Venkatesh, S; R Padmavathy; Reddy, B. Madhava

    2009-01-01

    The stem bark of Carallia brachiata was studied for wound healing activity. The bark was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol successively. All the extracts were screened for wound healing activity by excision and incision models in Wistar rats. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were found to possess significant wound healing activity. The extracts revealed the presence of sterols or triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, fixed oils and fats.

  12. Wound healing activity of Carallia brachiata bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaveni B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stem bark of Carallia brachiata was studied for wound healing activity. The bark was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol successively. All the extracts were screened for wound healing activity by excision and incision models in Wistar rats. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were found to possess significant wound healing activity. The extracts revealed the presence of sterols or triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, fixed oils and fats.

  13. Impact of mountain pine beetle induced mortality on forest carbon and water fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying impacts of ecological disturbance on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes will improve predictive understanding of biosphere—atmosphere feedbacks. Tree mortality caused by mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is hypothesized to decrease photosynthesis and water flux to the atmosphere while increasing respiration at a rate proportional to mortality. This work uses data from an eddy-covariance flux tower in a bark beetle infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest to test ecosystem responses during the outbreak. Analyses were conducted on components of carbon (C) and water fluxes in response to disturbance and environmental factors (solar radiation, soil water content and vapor pressure deficit). Maximum CO2 uptake did not change as tree basal area mortality increased from 30 to 78% over three years of beetle disturbance. Growing season evapotranspiration varied among years while ecosystem water use efficiency (the ratio of net CO2 uptake to water vapor loss) did not change. Between 2009 and 2011, canopy water conductance increased from 98.6 to 151.7 mmol H2O m−2 s−1. Ecosystem light use efficiency of photosynthesis increased, with quantum yield increasing by 16% during the outbreak as light increased below the mature tree canopy and illuminated remaining vegetation more. Overall net ecosystem productivity was correlated with water flux and hence water availability. Average weekly ecosystem respiration, derived from light response curves and standard Ameriflux protocols for CO2 flux partitioning into respiration and gross ecosystem productivity, did not change as mortality increased. Separate effects of increased respiration and photosynthesis efficiency largely canceled one another out, presumably due to increased diffuse light in the canopy and soil organic matter decomposition resulting in no change in net CO2 exchange. These results agree with an emerging consensus in the literature demonstrating CO2 and H2O dynamics following

  14. Sound velocities of hot dense iron: Birch's law revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zhao, Jiyong; Shen, Guoyin; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2005-06-24

    Sound velocities of hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) were measured at pressures up to 73 gigapascals and at temperatures up to 1700 kelvin with nuclear inelastic x-ray scattering in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The compressional-wave velocities (VP) and shear-wave velocities (VS) of hcp-Fe decreased significantly with increasing temperature under moderately high pressures. VP and VS under high pressures and temperatures thus cannot be fitted to a linear relation, Birch's law, which has been used to extrapolate measured sound velocities to densities of iron in Earth's interior. This result means that there are more light elements in Earth's core than have been inferred from linear extrapolation at room temperature. PMID:15976298

  15. Stature of Sub-arctic Birch in Relation to Growth Rate, Lifespan and Tree Form

    OpenAIRE

    JÓNSSON, THORBERGUR HJALTI

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sub-arctic mountain birch Betula pubescens var. pumila communities in the North Atlantic region are of variable stature, ranging from prostrate scrubs to forests with trees up to 12 m high. Four hypotheses were tested, relating growth and population characteristics of sub-arctic birch woodland and scrub to tree stature; i.e. the variable stature of birch woods is due to differences in (1) the mean growth rate; (2) the age-related patterns of growth rate; (3) the life exp...

  16. BARK-MIMETIC LAYER-BY-LAYER ASSEMBLED MONTMORILLONITE/POLY(p-AMINOSTYRENE) FLEXIBLE NANOCOMPOSITES SHIELDING ATOMIC OXYGEN EROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Gao; Bing-jun Liu; Long-cheng Gao; Peng-gang Yin; Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the birch bark,which has multilayered structures,we fabricated layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled montmorillonite (MMT) and poly(p-aminostyrene) (PPAS) nanocomposites on cotton fiber curved surfaces to provide protection from atomic oxygen (AO) erosion.The multilayer coated fibers had high flexibility,uniformity,defect free,ease of preparation and low cost.The AO erosion durability has been dramatically enhanced which was evidenced by testing in the ground-based AO effects simulation facility.And the dimension and surface morphologies of the fibers observed by SEM had few changes,indicating excellent AO erosion resistant ability of the coatings.These results provide us a new method to design fibrous materials exposed directly in low earth orbit environment.

  17. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Koksharov; Natalia Ugarova

    2012-01-01

    Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic enginee...

  18. Quantum non-barking dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

    2014-06-01

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

  19. Quantum non-barking dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems. (paper)

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF CATIONIZED BIRCH XYLAN ON WET AND DRY STRENGTH OF FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Kataja-aho,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cationized birch xylan was prepared and its use as a papermaking chemical was evaluated. The focus was on studying the effects of cationized birch xylan on the wet and dry strength of fine paper. The results of the laboratory experiments show that the addition of 3 percent of cationized birch xylan to birch kraft pulp improved the initial wet strength of the web by 30 percent compared to base stock at a solids content of 55%. Furthermore, the tensile stiffness of the wet web increased by approximately a third and the dry tensile strength improved by 26%, while the dry elastic modulus was not changed. The improvements in the strength properties were clear when compared to the base stock, but not as high as achieved with conventionally used cationized starch. The difference between the xylan and starch is most likely due to the shorter polymer chain length of the cationized xylan.

  1. Basophil histamine release in patients with birch pollen hypersensitivity with and without allergic symptoms to fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine-Tebbe, J; Galleani, M; Jeep, S; Pilz, B; Baisch, A; Kunkel, G

    1992-12-01

    Histamine release (HR) studies were performed in 40 birch pollen-allergic patients (positive case history, positive SPT, positive birch pollen-specific serum IgE: RAST > or = 3) with (n = 20, A) and without (n = 20, B) fruit hypersensitivity, and 10 nonatopic volunteers (C). Several fruit allergens were used and characterized by protein determination and immunoblot techniques. Dose-dependent HR (apple peel = apple pulp > peach = cherry) was demonstrated in both allergic groups, but to a higher extent in patients with fruit allergy (P < 0.01). Increased basophil sensitivity to birch pollen was found in the group with fruit allergy (P < 0.001). Strong correlations between the mediator response induced by several fruits indicate common allergens within the extracts. We conclude that fruit-related symptoms require not only high specific serum IgE, but a strong cellular sensitization to birch pollen allergens together with an increased cellular reactivity to fruit allergens. PMID:1283657

  2. Exposure to birch pollen and development of atopic disease in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Kihlström, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Background In 1993 extremely high levels of birch pollen were recorded in Stockholm, Sweden. This provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of aeroallergen exposure on the early immune response. Objective To assess the influence of exposure to birch pollen during pregnancy and early infancy, on the allergen-specific IgE- and IgG4-antibody (ab) response and development of atopic disease in children. Methods A total of 970 children with atopic heredity and born in ...

  3. Climate Change Effects on Multiple Disturbance Interactions: Wildland Fire, Mountain Pine Beetles, and Blister Rust Simulations on a Yellowstone National Park Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, R. E.; Loehman, R.; Smithwick, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    Complex interactions between disturbance, climate, and vegetation will dramatically alter spatial patterns and ecosystem processes in the future, but the interactions between multiple disturbances may ultimately determine vegetation response and landscape dynamics. The frequency and extent of wildland fire, mountain pine beetles, and blister rust are predicted to increase with global warming, but the interactions and reciprocal feedbacks between these three disturbances could also alter landscape trajectories. We used the mechanistic, spatially explicit, landscape FireBGCv2 model parameterized for Yellowstone National Park to determine the extent to which climate altered ecosystem carbon storage, landscape composition and structure, and interacting disturbance regimes that include wildland fire, mountain pine beetles, and white pine blister rust for lodgepole and whitebark pine forests. Under two simulated future climate scenarios (B2 and A2) and three disturbance scenarios (fire only, fire and beetles/rust, beetles/rust only), it appears fire and bark beetle disturbance events interacted to moderate burn area and decrease insect/disease mortality. Landscape composition and structure was roughly the same across disturbance scenarios except whitebark pine disappears when rust is present in the simulation. Overall, we conclude that disturbance interactions are important to landscape dynamics under future climates and these interactions may overwhelm the direct effects of climate or single disturbances.

  4. Semiochemical emission from individual galleries of the southern pine beetle, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), attacking standing trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S; Sullivan, Brian T

    2012-02-01

    We collected, identified, and quantified volatiles arising from individual gallery entrances of the monogamous bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. Samples were collected while the insects were mass attacking mature loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) in an established infestation in western Mississippi, 1 August through 3 October 2005. Following volatile sample collection, the entrances were dissected and categorized according to those that 1) contained a solitary female (the gallery initiating sex), 2) contained a pair that had not yet produced an egg gallery, 3) led to an egg gallery with niches and/or eggs, or 4) represented failed attacks (either abandoned or containing dead beetles). The greatest mean release rate of the female-produced aggregation pheromone components frontalin (74 ng/h) and trans-verbenol (0.35 microg/h) was detected from entrances of solitary females, whereas the highest mean quantities of the male-produced multifunctional pheromone components endo-brevicomin (18 ng/h) and verbenone (0.15 microg/h) were detected from entrances of preoviposition beetle pairs. Alpha-pinene, a host-produced monoterpene that functions as a synergist for the aggregation attractant for D. frontalis, was detected from entrances of solitary females and preoviposition pairs at a rate of 0.6 mg/h, or 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than the insect-produced components of the attractant. Our results indicate that the release rates of pheromone components used in published field studies of the chemical ecology of D. frontalis (generally > 0.1 mg/h) represent thousands of 'attack equivalents' or production rates on the scale of a beetle mass attack on a single host. Additionally, our data suggest that the loss in attractiveness of host tissue fully colonized by D. frontalis is because of the disappearance of attractants rather than an increase in inhibitors. PMID:22420266

  5. High correlation of specific IgE sensitization between birch pollen, soy and apple allergens indicates pollen-food allergy syndrome among birch pollen allergic patients in northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Guo-dong; Zheng, Yi-Wu; Wang, Zhi-Xiang; Kong, Xing-ai; Song, Zhi-jing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Spangfort, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Birch pollen sensitization and associated pollen-food syndrome among Chinese allergic patients have not been investigated. Methods: Sera from 203 allergic patients from the northern part of China and collected during February to July 2014 were investigated. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against birch pollen extract Bet v and major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were measured using the ADVIA Centaur. The presence of major apple allergen Mal d 1 and soy bean allergen Gly m 4 specif...

  6. Damping properties of sequoia and birch under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease mechanic effect on loads being transported, shock load limiters (dampers) are being widely used today. Usually, the materials having 'stress-strain' diagrams (σ-ε) of compression with a substantial portion, where σ = const., are used as dampers. Most widely used are dampers made of foam polystyrene having just the same compression diagram. Similar strain diagrams can be enlisted for some porous materials, timber under cross compression, perforated metallic crushers and some others. By selecting damper material, the level of transmitted to the protected object pressures can be varied from several to hundreds MPa. Timber, as being widely used and featuring good technologic properties together with low cost, becomes an attractive material to be used as the limiter of shock loads. This paper presents the results of stress-strain sequoia properties (USA deliverable) and birch properties (Volgo-Vyatski region) at dynamic (v = 10 m/s) and quasistatic (v ≅ 10-4 m/s) loading rates. The samples (diameter 25 x 25 mm) cut at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 90 deg. angle relative to their fibre were tested on one-axis compression at -30, +20 and +65 deg. C and fixed humidity (ω = 6-7%). Dynamic tests employed Kolsky method performed at the facility including Hopkinson's compound rod (Zukas et al.,1985). Sample loading was executed by trapezoidal pulsed pressure created by the explosive device. Samples were heated and cooled by special thermostats. (authors)

  7. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Persson,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch length. The thermal properties of the polylactide-grafted xylan depended on the branch length. Short branches resulted in fully amorphous materials with a glass transition temperature of about 48 to 55°C, whereas long polylactide branches resulted in semi-crystalline materials with melting points of about 130°C. Using mixtures of L-lactide and D/L-lactide in the monomer feed further altered the thermal properties. The degradation temperatures of the polylactide-grafted xylans were higher than that of the unmodified xylan, with degradation temperatures of about 300°C and 250°C, respectively. Tensile testing showed increased elongation at break with increasing branch length. The proposed method thus enables tailor-making of copolymers with specific thermal and mechanical properties.

  8. Nematodes associated with the double-spined bark beetle Ips duplicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grucmanová, Š.; Holuša, J.; Nermuť, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 10 (2014), s. 723-732. ISSN 0931-2048 Grant ostatní: Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague(CZ) 20134325; Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague(CZ) 20124302 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : galleries * generations * Ips duplicatus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jen.12142/epdf

  9. Physiology of cold tolerance in the bark beetle, Pityogenes chalcographus ant its overwintering in spruce stands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Miklas, B.; Doležal, Petr; Rozsypal, Jan; Zahradníčková, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2014), s. 62-70. ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12103 Grant ostatní: GS LČR(CZ) 08/2009 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cold hardiness * supercooling * glycogen Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.470, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191014000250

  10. Occurrence of pathogens in associated living bark beetles (Col., Scolytidae) from different spruce stands in Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Händel, U.; Wegensteiner, R.; Weiser, Jaroslav; Žižka, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 76, - (2003), s. 22-32. ISSN 1436-5693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903; CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Ips-typographus Coleoptera- mickrospora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.197, year: 2003

  11. Biological protection of forest against bark beetle outbreaks with poxvirus and other pathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiser, J.; Pultar, O.; Žižka, Zdeněk

    Vol. B. Prague: CAIUAPPA Czech Republic, 2000. s. 168-172. ISBN 80-01-02239-0. [Regional Central European Conference IUAPPA /4./. 11.09.2000-14.09.2000, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  12. Volatiles from spruce trap-trees detected by Ips typographus bark beetles: chemical and electrophysiological analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, Blanka; Břízová, Radka; Knížek, M.; Turčáni, M.; Hoskovec, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2014), s. 305-316. ISSN 1872-8855 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ips typographus * Picea abies * host selection * semiochemicals * GC-EAD * GC9GC/TOFMS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2014

  13. Action of Malamoeba scolyti Purrini (Rhizopoda, Amoebidae) in different bark beetle hosts (Coleoptera, Scolytidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirchhoff, J. F.; Wegensteiner, R.; Weiser, Jaroslav; Fuhrer, E.

    Burlington : Society for Invertebrate Pathology, 2003. s. 12. [Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology /36./. 26.07.2003-30.07.2003, Burlington] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Dryocoetes autographus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. On the Biology of the Bark Beetle Scolytus nitidus Schedl (Coleoptera: Scolytidae Attacking Apple Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKATOS, Ferenc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological characters of Scolytus nitidus were investigated both in the field and in thelaboratory as well. This common shot-hole borer overwinters in larval stage on apple trees in Kashmir.After emergence the adults fly to suitable trees and undergo maturation feeding for 4-6 days. Thecopulation takes place at the entrance hole. The maternal gallery is one armed longitudinal, in average4.6 cm long. The female lays 52 eggs on an average. The eggs hatch in 5 to 7 days. The larvae have 5instars and complete their development in 38 to 50 days constructing larval galleries 5-8 cm in length.The larvae pupate for 6-18 days and finally the adults emerge to attack new suitable trees. The adultslive for 45-60 days and the total life-span of this species ranges from 97 to 124 days. The seasonaldistribution of various life stages and the number of generations were also recorded.

  15. Exploitation of kairomones and synomones by Medetera spp. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), predators of spruce bark beetles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulcr, Jiří; Pollet, M.; Ubik, Karel; Vrkoč, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 102, - (2005), s. 655-662. ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0725; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 646; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : kairomones * pheromones * monoterpenes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2005

  16. Pseudomonas coleopterorum sp nov., a cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from the bark beetle Hylesinus fraxini

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menéndez, E.; Ramírez-Bahena, M.H.; Fabryová, A.; Igual, J.M.; Benada, Oldřich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, SEP 2015 (2015), s. 2852-2858. ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : CURCULIONIDAE SCOLYTINAE * NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCES * DENDROCTONUS-RHIZOPHAGUS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  17. Braconid (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) parasitoids of bark beetles in upland spruce stands of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lozan, Aurel; Zelený, Jiří

    Krakow : USDA Forest Service , 2003 - (McManus, M.; Liebhold, A.). s. 152-153 [Ecology, Survey and Management of Forest Insects. 01.09.2002-05.09.2002, Krakow] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Ips. Pityogenes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  18. Ecological and phytopathological status of birch stands on the territory of Krasnoyarsk group of districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarintsev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available According to inspection data, the health and vital status of birch (Betula pendula Roth. stands in Krasnoyarsk group of lands (southern part of Central Siberia were estimated (established as satisfactory in general; about half of birch stands near urbanized areas were weakened. The condition of stands decreased significantly with increased recreation use, the effect of technogenic pollution was negligible. The most valuable (important representatives of pathogenic biota identified on birch trees were infestations of necrotic cancer and rot diseases. In birch stands the bacterial dropsy was found to be widespread (agent of infection – Erwinia multivora Scz.-Parf, occurrence of the disease ranged from a single ill tree up to 10–38 % of the stands. The birch stands in taiga areas were affected to a greater extent than in forest-steppe; there were high yield class stands on moist soils. Prevalence of bacteriosis rose with increasing stand age and density and not dependent on recreation use level. Trees with dropsy are dead in fact or potentially. In taiga birch forests the infection and rot of roots was caused by honey agaric (Armillaria mellea sensu lato, that lead to single or, rarely, group tree drying and the fungus usually eliminated already weakened trees. Wood biomass was destroyed by complex of aphyllophorous Hymenomycetes, their hemiparasitic species caused stem rots that decreased stand marketability and also resulted in rot-realated wind-break accumulation. Occurrence of rot was significantly higher in second growth birch stands, possibly above 20 %; the relationship between rot prevalence and forest assessment was not revealed.

  19. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B.; Faustmann, S.; Kopp, S.; Wolkersdorfer, M.; Bohle, B

    2015-01-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients w...

  20. Metals bioaccumulation mechanism in neem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as H...

  1. Phenolic glycosides of Paulownia tomentosa bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticher, O; Lahloub, M F

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of acteoside and coniferin from Paulownia tomentosa bark along with the previously reported phenolic glucoside syringin is described. The structure of both, acteoside and coniferin, have been assigned by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17396961

  2. Spatial heterogeneity in the timing of birch budburst in response to future climate warming in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, Amelia; Zottele, Fabio; Gleeson, Emily; Donnelly, Alison

    2014-05-01

    In order to predict the impact of future climate warming on trees it is important to quantify the effect climate has on their development. Our understanding of the phenological response to environmental drivers has given rise to various mathematical models of the annual growth cycle of plants. These models simulate the timing of phenophases by quantifying the relationship between development and its triggers, typically temperature. In addition, other environmental variables have an important role in determining the timing of budburst. For example, photoperiod has been shown to have a strong influence on phenological events of a number of tree species, including Betula pubescens (birch). A recently developed model for birch (DORMPHOT), which integrates the effects of temperature and photoperiod on budburst, was applied to future temperature projections from a 19-member ensemble of regional climate simulations (on a 25 km grid) generated as part of the ENSEMBLES project, to simulate the timing of birch budburst in Ireland each year up to the end of the present century. Gridded temperature time series data from the climate simulations were used as input to the DORMPHOT model to simulate future budburst timing. The results showed an advancing trend in the timing of birch budburst over most regions in Ireland up to 2100. Interestingly, this trend appeared greater in the northeast of the country than in the southwest, where budburst is currently relatively early. These results could have implications for future forest planning, species distribution modeling, and the birch allergy season.

  3. m-BIRCH: an online clustering approach for computer vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Siddharth K.; Dana, Kristin J.

    2015-03-01

    We adapt a classic online clustering algorithm called Balanced Iterative Reducing and Clustering using Hierarchies (BIRCH), to incrementally cluster large datasets of features commonly used in multimedia and computer vision. We call the adapted version modified-BIRCH (m-BIRCH). The algorithm uses only a fraction of the dataset memory to perform clustering, and updates the clustering decisions when new data comes in. Modifications made in m-BIRCH enable data driven parameter selection and effectively handle varying density regions in the feature space. Data driven parameter selection automatically controls the level of coarseness of the data summarization. Effective handling of varying density regions is necessary to well represent the different density regions in data summarization. We use m-BIRCH to cluster 840K color SIFT descriptors, and 60K outlier corrupted grayscale patches. We use the algorithm to cluster datasets consisting of challenging non-convex clustering patterns. Our implementation of the algorithm provides an useful clustering tool and is made publicly available.

  4. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO2 and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO2 protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO2 increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO2 treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO2 were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO2. Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO2 confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  5. DNA extraction of birch leaves by improved CTAB method and optimization of its ISSR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN hua; YANG Chuan-ping; WEI Zhi-gang; JIANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    The basic method of DNA extraction (CTAB) was improved as the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method and used to extract the DNA of birch leaved in this experiment. Results showed that the improved method is suitable not only for genomic DNA extraction of birch but also for that of other plants. The purity of genomic DNA extracted by the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method is higher than that by one time STE-CTAB method, and it does not need the process of RNase. The factors of influencing ISSR system were explored based on the genomic DNA of birch extracted by the two methods. The optimal conditions for ISSR system were determined as follows: cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 94℃, annealing for 30 s at 51 ℃, extension for 30 s at 72℃, and a final 7 min extension at 72 ℃.

  6. Computational verification of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for individual elliptic curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Grigor; Jorza, Andrei; Patrikis, Stefan; Stein, William A.; Tarnita, Corina

    2009-12-01

    We describe theorems and computational methods for verifying the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula for specific elliptic curves over mathbb{Q} of analytic ranks 0 and 1 . We apply our techniques to show that if E is a non-CM elliptic curve over mathbb{Q} of conductor leq 1000 and rank 0 or 1 , then the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula for the leading coefficient of the L -series is true for E , up to odd primes that divide either Tamagawa numbers of E or the degree of some rational cyclic isogeny with domain E . Since the rank part of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture is a theorem for curves of analytic rank 0 or 1 , this completely verifies the full conjecture for these curves up to the primes excluded above.

  7. Bud flush phenology and nursery carryover effect of paper birch provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh is an ecologically valuable species with a broad geographic distribution across the North America. Its diversity, versatility and enduring nature make it an ideal candidate for a selective breeding program in this region. However, an understanding of the genecology of this species is fundamental to deploy it successfully. Ten paper birch provenances were collected from British Columbia (BC, Canada and northern Idaho (USA along elevational transects to determine whether observed bud flush phenology was due to genetics and /or environmental variation or their interaction. Seedlings were grown at three different nurseries: University of Idaho (46°44’N, Landing (50°17’N and Little Forestry (54°00’N and planted in a randomized single tree interlocking block design in three common gardens at Sandpoint, ID (48°13’N, Skimikin, BC (50°45’N and Red Rock, BC (53°45’N. Results indicate that variation in the timing of bud flush is a complex interaction among local genetic characteristics and environmental conditions of the growing site. Birch bud flush followed a general geographic trend where provenances at the southern common garden (Sandpoint required less time (Day of Year, DoY and fewer growing degree days (GDD compared to central (Skimikin and northern (Red Rock common gardens. Although there were significant differences in the timing of bud flush among provenances along an elevational gradient, none of the regions showed the expected linear elevational cline, trends were inconsistent. Further, birch bud flush was significantly influenced by nursery displacement effects in the initial year of establishment but disappeared within three years. These results provide an opportunity to characterize bud flush phenology of paper birch and would be useful for improving operational paper birch seed transfer programs in BC.

  8. 78 FR 43189 - Birch Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... containing two turbine-generator units for a total installed capacity of 48,000 kilowatts; (3) a 200-foot... Energy Regulatory Commission Birch Power Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Applicant: Birch Power Company. e. Name of Project: Demopolis Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project....

  9. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  10. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  11. [Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus on the human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibnev, V A; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, M P; Kalnina, L B; Nosik, D N

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of aqueous and water-alcohol extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus have antiviral effect against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral properties of low toxic extracts were manifested in the concentration of 5.0 μg/ml upon simultaneous application with the virus in the lymphoblastoid cells culture MT-4. The extract of the birch fungus can be used for development of new antiviral drugs, inhibitors of HIV-replication when used both in the form of individual drugs and as a part of complex therapy. PMID:26182655

  12. Complement Fixing Polysaccharides from Terminalia macroptera Root Bark, Stem Bark and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Feng Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The root bark, stem bark and leaves of Terminalia macroptera were sequentially extracted with ethanol, 50% ethanol-water, and 50 °C and 100 °C water using an accelerated solvent extractor. Ten bioactive purified polysaccharide fractions were obtained from those crude extracts after anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The polysaccharides and their native extracts were characterized with respect to molecular weight, chemical compositions and effects in the complement assay. The chemical compositions showed that the polysaccharides are of pectic nature. The results indicated that there was no great difference of the complement fixation activities in the crude extracts from the different plant parts when extracting with the accelerated solvent extraction system. The purified polysaccharide fractions 100WTSBH-I-I and 100WTRBH-I-I isolated from the 100 °C water extracts of stem and root bark respectively, showed the highest complement fixation activities. These two fractions have rhamnogalacturonan type I backbone, but only 100WTSBH-I-I contains side chains of both arabinogalactan type I and II. Based on the yield and activities of the fractions studied those from the root bark gave highest results, followed by those from leaves and stem bark. But in total, all plant materials are good sources for fractions containing bioactive polysaccharides.

  13. Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, R L; Metcalf, R A; Rhodes, A M

    1980-07-01

    The characteristic bitter substances of the Cucurbitaceae act as kairomones for a large group of diabroticite beetles (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Luperini), promoting host selection and compulsive feeding behavior. These beetles (e.g., Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) respond to as little as 1 ng of cucurbitacin (Cuc) B on thin-layer plates by arrest and compulsive feeding. Six species of diabroticite beetles were about 10 times more responsive to Cuc B than to Cuc E and less responsive to Cuc D, I, and L. Chloroform extracts of 18 species of Cucurbita were developed on thin-layer chromatograms and exposed to diabroticite beetles. The feeding patterns showed pronounced beetle responses to three general Cuc distribution patterns: Cuc B and D as in Cucurbita andreana and C. ecuadorensis; Cuc E and I as in C. okeechobeensis and C. martinezii; and Cuc E glycoside in C. texana. All the diabroticites responded in exactly the same feeding patterns. The results demonstrate a coevolutionary association between the Cucurbitaceae and the Luperini, during which the intensely bitter and toxic Cucs that arose to repel herbivores and protect the plants from attack became specific kairomone feeding stimulants for the beetles. PMID:16592849

  14. Effective monitoring as a basis for adaptive management: a case history of mountain pine beetle in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem whitebark pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willcox L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With reference to massive outbreaks of a variety of bark beetles occurring across the forests of western North America, it is stressed that an accurate assessment of the extent of the problem is the first step toward formulating effective adaptive management strategies. This assessment will only be possible through a coordinated effort that combines all available technologies, that is an approach that builds on satellite image analysis, aerial survey from fixed-wing aircraft, and on the ground observation and measurement.

  15. Bark and charcoal filters for greywater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalahmeh, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity, inappropriate sanitation and wastewater pollution are critically important global issues. Greywater is a sustainable water source for recycling, so this thesis examined simple, robust, low-cost alternatives for on-site treatment of greywater to irrigation water quality. Laboratory-scale pine bark, activated charcoal and sand filters were evaluated as regards their pollutant removal and interactions between medium properties, greywater, microbial activity and bacterial communit...

  16. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi Singh; Sayyada Khatoon; Shweta Singh; Vivek Kumar; Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat; Shanta Mehrotra

    2010-01-01

    Background: The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Methods: Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteri...

  17. Volatile emissions from the lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) is a serious, cosmopolitan pest in poultry production facilities, consuming grain, carrying disease organisms, and causing structural damage in poultry house walls. Pheromones have been described for many economically important beetle speci...

  18. Why linear Birch and U/sub s/-U/sub p/ expansions work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equivalence of the Birch-Murnoghan equation to a linear U/sub s/-U/sub p/ equation was illustrated in the previous paper. Here it is shown in a direct manner how the virial theorem boundary localization of valence electron kinetic energy changes lead to the convergence of the Eulerian strain expansion about the zero-pressure state

  19. Antioxidants from slow pyrolysis bio-oil of birch wood: Application for biodiesel and biobased lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch wood was slowly pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and biochar. Slow pyrolysis conditions including reaction temperature, residence time, and particle size of the feed were optimized to maximize bio-oil yield. Particle size had an insignificant effect, whereas yields of up to 56% were achieved using...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of birch wood xylan succinoylated in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Plackett, David

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of birch wood xylan was undertaken in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4mimCl) using three different long-chain succinic anhydrides: n-octenyl succinic anhydride (n-OSA), n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride (n-DDSA) and n-octadecenyl succinic anhydrid...

  1. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. PMID:26443126

  2. Glutathione-S-Transferase: A Minor Allergen in Birch Pollen due to Limited Release from Hydrated Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Deifl; Christian Zwicker; Eva Vejvar; Claudia Kitzmüller; Gabriele Gadermaier; Birgit Nagl; Susanne Vrtala; Peter Briza; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.; Beatrice Jahn-Schmid; Fatima Ferreira; Barbara Bohle

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, a protein homologous to glutathione-S-transferases (GST) was detected in prominent amounts in birch pollen by proteomic profiling. As members of the GST family are relevant allergens in mites, cockroach and fungi we investigated the allergenic relevance of GST from birch (bGST). Methodology bGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. Sera from 217 birch pollen-allergic patients were tested for IgE-reactivity to bGST by ELISA. T...

  3. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  4. Xanthones from the bark of Garcinia Xanthochymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two novel xanthones, 1,6-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyxanthone (1) and 1,5,6-trihydroxy-7,8-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':3,4)xanthone (2) were isolated from the bark of Garcinia xanthochymus by normal phase and reverse phase silica gel column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D-NMR techniques.(C) 2007 Guang Zhong Yang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. INORGANIC STATUS OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad Dattatraya Krishna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus marsupium is well known for its sugar lowering potential. In the present examination different bark samples (Apical bark, middle bark and mature inner bark of Pterocarpus marsupium were screened for inorganic status. The levels of macro-minerals Nitrogen (1.50-3.13%, Phosphorus (0.023-0.163%, Calcium (0.60-1.848%, and Magnesium (0.21-0.339%, levels of trace minerals Copper (0.68-3.2mg/100g, Zinc (1.98-3.62mg/100g, Manganese (2.0-4.94mg/100g and Iron (11.38-44.34mg/100g and heavy metals Chromium (2.08-3.94mg/100g and Nickel (0.32-1.26mg/100g were evaluated in the present study. Cadmium and Lead were found to be absent in all the bark samples analyzed.

  6. Sustained efficacy and safety of a 300IR daily dose of a sublingual solution of birch pollen allergen extract in adults with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Worm, Margitta; Rak, Sabina; de Blay, Frédéric; Malling, Hans-Jorgen; Melac, Michel; Cadic, Véronique; Zeldin, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) due to birch pollen is a growing health concern in Europe. Here, we report the efficacy and safety of 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution administered discontinuously for 2 consecutive years to patients with birch-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Methods Birch pollen-allergic adults were randomized in this double blind study to 300IR birch pollen sublingual solution or placebo, daily, starting 4 months before and continuing through the ...

  7. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

    1997-09-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

  8. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle's historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  9. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  10. The results of fluorescence spectrums of oak and birch leaves investigation from the 30-km influenced zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a long-term research of laser induced fluorescence of foliage tree' leaves (oak, birch) that grow in different conditions of radioactive pollution (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP) are presented

  11. [From willow bark to acetylsalicylic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith

    2009-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Its ancestry the salicylates, including salicin and salicylic acid, are found in the bark and leaves of the willow and poplar trees. The ancient Sumerians and Egyptians, as well as Hippocrates, Celsus, Pliny the Elder, Dioscorides and Galen used these natural products as remedies for pain, fever and inflammation. In the Middle Ages these remedies were used for fever and rheumatism by Hildegard of Bingen and Henrik Harpestreng. The first "clinical trial" was reported by Edward Stone in 1763 with a successful treatment of malarial fever with the willow bark. In 1876 the antirheumatic effect of salicin was described by T. MacLagan, and that of salicylic acid by S. Stricker and L. Riess. Acetylsalicylic acid was synthesized by Charles Gerhardt in 1853 and in 1897 by Felix Hoffmann in the Bayer Company. The beneficial effect of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) on pain and rheumatic fever was recognized by K. Witthauer and J. Wohlgemuth, and the mechanism of action was explained in 1971 by John Vane. Today the antithrombotic effect of acetylsalicylic acid and new aspects of ongoing research demonstrates a still living drug. PMID:20509453

  12. Influence of Biomass Pretreatment Process Time on Furfural Extraction from Birch Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazdausks, Prans; Puke, Maris; Vedernikovs, Nikolajs; Kruma, Irena

    2013-12-01

    Furfural is a biomass derived-chemical that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis was used for hemicelluloses secession from birch wood. The reaction was investigated at different biomass treatment times (10-90 min, increasing it by 10 min). We found that the greatest amount of furfural 1.4-2.6%, which is 9.7-17.7% from theoretical possible yield, was formed in the first 30 min of the beginning of birch wood pentoses monosaccharide dehydration, but the greatest yield of furfural 10.3%, which is 70.0% from the theoretical yield, can be obtained after 90 min. Given that furfural yield generally does not exceed 50% from the theoretical amount, the result can be considered as very good.

  13. EFFECT OF BIRCH KRAFT PULP PRIMARY FINES ON BLEACHING AND SHEET PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Anneli Asikainen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By removing the primary fines from an oxygen-delignified mill birch pulp, a fiber fraction was obtained having low metals content and no extractives. After DEDeD bleaching the fiber fraction had somewhat higher brightness and better brightness stability than the birch pulp containing the primary fines. The fines fraction was enriched with lignin, extractives, xylan, and metals. Bleaching the fines fraction in a QQP sequence did not affect the extractives, whereas a ZeQP sequence clearly reduced the extractives content. In a biorefinery concept, the fines fraction could be utilized as a source of xylan, fatty acids, sterols, and betulinol. Another possibility is to use the fines fraction unbleached or separately bleached as a bonding material in various fiber furnishes.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Suzuki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1 infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8.

  15. Reduced VOC emissions from birch sawdust dried in a steam drier at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstrom, K.M. [Karlstad Univ., Karlstad (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy Systems, Div. of Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics

    2003-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the quantity and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from birch sawdust when it is dried in a steam dryer at atmospheric pressure. Sawdust is commonly dried for production of wood pellets and particle board. VOCs, which are emitted during the drying process, contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and other hazardous photochemical oxidants. The chemical composition of VOCs emitted from drying softwood is different from that emitted during the drying of hardwoods such as birch. The dryer used in this study was a pilot scale spouted bed in continuous operation. Sawdust was dried to different moisture contents. Two drying medium temperatures (170 degrees C and 200 degrees C) were applied. The results were then compared to the emissions from softwoods dried under similar conditions.

  16. Cadmium accumulation and its effect on the in vitro growth of woody fleabane and mycorrhized white birch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Cd on woody fleabane (Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter) and white birch (Betula celtiberica Rothm. and Vasc.) was examined. Woody fleabane and white birch were grown in vitro in Murashige, T., Skoog, F., [1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-479] (MS) plus Cd (10 mg Cd kg-1) and except for root length in white birch, plant development was inhibited when Cd was added. Cd accumulation in above-ground tissues showed differences among clones, reaching 1300 and 463 mg Cd kg-1 dry wt. in selected clones of woody fleabane and white birch, respectively. Tolerance of Paxillus filamentosus (Scop) Fr. to Cd was also examined before mycorrhization. Plants of mycorrhized white birch grown in the presence of Cd had a better development and accumulated more Cd in their shoots than the non-mycorrhized ones. The use of selected clones of woody fleabane and the mycorrhization of white birch enhance extraction efficiency from contaminated soils in phytoremediation programs. - The high accumulation of Cd observed in selected clones of Dittrichia viscosa and mycorrhized Betula celtiberica grown in vitro implies a potential application for phytoextraction

  17. Cadmium accumulation and its effect on the in vitro growth of woody fleabane and mycorrhized white birch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.; Bertrand, A.; Casares, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, R. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Oviedo University, Julian Claveria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain); Gonzalez, A. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)], E-mail: aidag@uniovi.es; Tames, R.S. [Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo University, Catedratico Rodrigo Uria s/n, 33071 Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The effect of Cd on woody fleabane (Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter) and white birch (Betula celtiberica Rothm. and Vasc.) was examined. Woody fleabane and white birch were grown in vitro in Murashige, T., Skoog, F., [1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-479] (MS) plus Cd (10 mg Cd kg{sup -1}) and except for root length in white birch, plant development was inhibited when Cd was added. Cd accumulation in above-ground tissues showed differences among clones, reaching 1300 and 463 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry wt. in selected clones of woody fleabane and white birch, respectively. Tolerance of Paxillus filamentosus (Scop) Fr. to Cd was also examined before mycorrhization. Plants of mycorrhized white birch grown in the presence of Cd had a better development and accumulated more Cd in their shoots than the non-mycorrhized ones. The use of selected clones of woody fleabane and the mycorrhization of white birch enhance extraction efficiency from contaminated soils in phytoremediation programs. - The high accumulation of Cd observed in selected clones of Dittrichia viscosa and mycorrhized Betula celtiberica grown in vitro implies a potential application for phytoextraction.

  18. EFFECTS OF HOT WATER EXTRACTION IN A BATCH REACTOR ON THE DELIGNIFICATION OF BIRCH WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Borrega; Kaarlo Nieminen; Herbert Sixta

    2011-01-01

    The amount of residual lignin in birch wood after a hot water extraction in a batch reactor was investigated as a function of extraction temperature and time. A kinetic model fitting the experimental data was then developed to explain delignification of wood during a hot water treatment. Results showed that delignification kinetics involves simultaneous degradation and condensation reactions, with degradation of lignin being much faster than its condensation. Native lignin in wood was success...

  19. The role of gut microflora in mucosal tolerance induction to birch pollen in mouse allergy model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana; Repa, A.; Schwarzer, Martin; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Štěpánková, Renata; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Wiedermann, U.

    Herborn: Old Herborn University, 2009 - (Heidt, P.; Hanson, L.; Tlaskalová, H.; Rusch, V.), s. 11-19 ISBN 3-923022-33-6 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200710; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA ČR GA303/06/0974; GA ČR GA303/08/0367 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : germ-free * microbiota * birch pollen Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiromu; Takashima, Yuya; Ishiguri, Futoshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuo; Yokota, Shinso

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1) infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA)-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were i...

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromu Suzuki; Yuya Takashima; Futoshi Ishiguri; Nobuo Yoshizawa; Shinso Yokota

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1) infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA)-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were ...

  2. Why linear Birch and U/sub s/-U/sub p/ expansions work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equivalence of the Birch-Murnaghan equation to a linear U/sub s/-U/sub p/ equation was illustrated in the previous paper. Here we show in a direct manner how the virial theorem and the effect of core exclusion on valence electron kinetic energy changes lead to the convergence of the Eulerian strain expansion about the zero-pressure state. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Preliminary tests with a birch wood pellets up-draft air gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Alejandro; Suarez, José; Björnbom, Emilia; Zanzi Vigouroux, Rolando

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden and Cuba a variety of biomass have being investigated for energyconversion through termochemical processes into solid, liquids and gaseous products. Biomass gasification in fixed bed seem to be attractive option for the conversion ofagricultural and forest residues into gases suitable for use as alternative fuel in gasengines in rural areas, heat or electricity production. This paper discusses the performance characteristics of a up - draft gasifier withBirch wood pellets. The bench...

  4. BpMADS4 has a central role in inflorescence initiation in silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Annakaisa; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Novak, Anu; Keinonen, Kaija; Porali, Ilkka; Hassinen, Minna; Sopanen, Tuomas

    2007-09-01

    Acceleration of flowering would be beneficial for breeding trees with a long juvenile phase; conversely, inhibition of flowering would prevent the spread of transgenes from the genetically modified trees. We have previously isolated and characterized several MADS genes from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). In this study, we investigated the more detailed function of one of them, BpMADS4, a member of the APETALA1/FRUITFULL group of MADS genes. The expression of BpMADS4 starts at very early stage of the male and female inflorescence development and the activity is high in the apex of the developing inflorescence. Later, some expression is detected in the bracts and in the flower initials. Ectopic expression of BpMADS4 accelerates flowering dramatically in normally flowering clones and also in the early-flowering birch clone, in which the earliest line flowered about 11 days after rooting, when the saplings were only 3 cm high. The birches transformed with the BpMADS4 antisense construct showed remarkable delay in flowering and the number of flowering individuals was reduced. Two of the transformed lines did not show any signs of flower development during our 2-year study, whereas all the control plants formed inflorescences within 107 days. Our results show that BpMADS4 has a critical role in the initiation of birch inflorescence development and that BpMADS4 seems to be involved in the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Therefore, BpMADS4 provides a promising tool for the genetic enhancement of forest trees. PMID:18251933

  5. Analysis of aspen-and-birch separated small woods’ vegetation in North Steppe of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Nazarenko; I. M. Loza

    2010-01-01

    Conducted analysis of forest vegetation has allowed selecting and specifying classification and typological units of the aspen-and-birch separated small woods, which have statistically significant difference of ecotopic and coenotic parameters. Those parameters of studied forest ecosystems are characterised. Existence of the lines of hygrogenic and edaphogenic substitution, and succession rows are described. Phytoindication description of ecological factors’ pivotal conditions is presented. D...

  6. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pushpa; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Baleshwar; Upreti, D. K.; Rana, T. S.; Datta, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB), in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A). Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer. PMID:27453990

  7. Icelandic Birch Polyploids—The Case of a Perfect Fit in Genome Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anamthawat-Jónsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two birch species coexist in Iceland, dwarf birch Betula nana and tree birch B. pubescens. Both species are variable morphologically, which has been shown to be due to introgressive hybridization via interspecific hybrids. The aim of this study was to examine if the introgression could be related to genome size. We characterized 42 plants from Bifröst woodland morphologically and cytogenetically. The population consisted of diploid B. nana (38%, tetraploid B. pubescens (55%, and triploid hybrids (7%. Genome size was measured from 12 plants, using Feulgen DNA image densitometry (FDM on spring leaf buds and flow cytometry (FCM with dormant winter twigs. The use of winter twigs for FCM is novel. The average 1C-values for diploid, triploid, and tetraploid plants were 448, 666, and 882 Mbp, respectively. Monoploid genome sizes were found to be statistically constant among ploidy levels. This stability is in contrast to the different taxonomic positions of the di- and tetraploids and also contrasts with the frequent occurrence of genome downsizing in polyploids.

  8. Determining the Composition of Lignins in Different Tissues of Silver Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstedt, Kurt V.; Saranpää, Pekka; Tapanila, Tarja; Immanen, Juha; Alonso Serra, Juan Antonio; Nieminen, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative lignin analyses were carried out on material from the trunks of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) trees. Two types of material were analyzed. First, whole birch trunk pieces were cryosectioned into cork cambium, non-conductive phloem, the cambial zone (conductive phloem, cambium and differentiating xylem), lignified xylem and the previous year’s xylem; material that would show differences in lignin amount and quality. Second, clonal material from one natural birch population was analyzed to show variations between individuals and between the lignin analysis methods. The different tissues showed marked differences in lignin amount and the syringyl:guaiacyl (S/G) ratio. In the non-conductive phloem tissue containing sclereids, the S/G ratio was very low, and typical for phloem fibers and in the newly-formed xylem, as well as in the previous year’s xylem, the ratio lay between five and seven, typical for broadleaf tree xylem. Clonal material consisting of 88 stems was used to calculate the S/G ratios from the thioacidolysis and CuO methods, which correlated positively with an R2 value of 0.43. Comparisons of the methods indicate clearly that the CuO method is a good alternative to study the monomeric composition and S/G ratio of wood lignins. PMID:27135322

  9. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric C. Xu; Yajun Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes.The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  10. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EricC.Xu; YajunZhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes. The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  11. Drying and wetting of Mediterranean soils stimulates decomposition and carbon dioxide emission: the "Birch effect".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Paul; Rey, Ana; Petsikos, Charalampos; Wingate, Lisa; Rayment, Mark; Pereira, João; Banza, João; David, Jorge; Miglietta, Franco; Borghetti, Marco; Manca, Giovanni; Valentini, Riccardo

    2007-07-01

    Observations on the net carbon exchange of forests in the European Mediterranean region, measured recently by the eddy covariance method, have revived interest in a phenomenon first characterized on agricultural and forest soils in East Africa in the 1950s and 1960s by H. F. Birch and now often referred to as the "Birch effect." When soils become dry during summer because of lack of rain, as is common in regions with Mediterranean climate, or are dried in the laboratory in controlled conditions, and are then rewetted by precipitation or irrigation, there is a burst of decomposition, mineralization and release of inorganic nitrogen and CO(2). In forests in Mediterranean climates in southern Europe, this effect has been observed with eddy covariance techniques and soil respiration chambers at the stand and small plot scales, respectively. Following the early work of Birch, laboratory incubations of soils at controlled temperatures and water contents have been used to characterize CO(2) release following the rewetting of dry soils. A simple empirical model based on laboratory incubations demonstrates that the amount of carbon mineralized over one year can be predicted from soil temperature and precipitation regime, provided that carbon lost as CO(2) is taken into account. We show that the amount of carbon returned to the atmosphere following soil rewetting can reduce significantly the annual net carbon gain by Mediterranean forests. PMID:17403645

  12. Identification of SSR loci in Betula luminifera using birch EST data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-quan; LI Hai-ying; JIA Qing; HUANG Hua-hong; TONG Zai-kang

    2011-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are generated from single-pass sequencing of randomly picked cDNA clones and can be used for development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites.However,EST databases have been developed for only a small number of species.This paper provides a case study of the utility of freely available birch EST reources for the development of markers necessary for the genetic analysis of Betula luminifera.Based on birch EST data,primers for 80 EST-SSR candidate loci were developed and tested in birch.Of these,59 EST-SSR loci yielded single,stable and clear PCR products.We then tested the utility of those 59 markers in B.luminifera.The results showed 28 (47.6%) yielded stable and clear PCR products for at least one B.luminifera genotype.In addition,this study describes a rapid and inexpensive alternative for the development of SSRs in species with scarce available sequence data.

  13. EFFECT OF THERMAL TREATMENT ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BIRCH AND ASPEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Kocaefe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature treatment of wood is one of the alternatives to chemical treatment. During this process, the wood is heated to higher temperatures than those of conventional drying. The wood structure changes due to decomposition of hemicelluloses, ramification of lignin, and crystallization of cellulose. The wood becomes less hygroscopic. These changes improve the dimensional stability of wood, increase its resistance to micro-organisms, darken its color, and modify its hardness. However, wood also might loose some of its elasticity. Consequently, the heat treatment conditions have to be optimized. Therefore, it is important to understand the transformation of the chemical structure of wood caused by the treatment. In this study, the modification of the surface composition of the wood was followed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and inverse gas chromatography (IGC under different experimental conditions. The effect of maximum treatment temperatures on the chemical composition of Canadian birch and aspen as well as the correlations between their chemical transformation and different mechanical properties are presented. FTIR analysis results showed that the heat treatment affected the chemical composition of birch more compared to that of aspen. The results of IGC tests illustrated that the surfaces of the aspen and birch became more basic with heat treatment. The mechanical properties were affected by degradation of hemicellulose, ramification of lignin and cellulose crystallization.

  14. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haapanala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, area subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of a branch from four individual trees were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission in 2006 was almost 2000 ng gdw−1 h−1 while in 2007 the emission of α-farnesene was negligible. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last several years.

  15. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up the majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, a region subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of four branches, each from a different individual tree, were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of the sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission potential in 2006 was almost 2600 ng gdw−1 h−1 (3.5 pmol gdw−1 s−1 while in 2007 α-farnesene was not detected at all. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last for several years.

  16. Bioaccumulation of arsenic and cadmium in birch and lime from the Bor region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Šerbula, Snežana S; Tošić, Snežana B; Pavlović, Aleksandra N; Petrović, Jelena V

    2013-11-01

    Copper production in the Bor region (east Serbia) during the last 100 years has influenced the quality of soil, water, and air. This pollution has endangered not only the biotope but all living organisms, including humans. Contents of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) were analyzed in Betula sp. (birch) and Tillia sp. (lime) within the Bor region with the aim to investigate the bioaccumulation of these highly toxic, nonessential trace elements in selected plants, which may be important for biomonitoring and bioremediation purposes. The results of statistical data analysis showed that several factors influenced the bioaccumulation of trace elements in the examined plants, of which soil pH, soil content, and mechanism of accumulation were the main factors. The greatest As and Cd concentrations were found in plant material from the Bor center sampling site in the urban/industrial zone, which is in close proximity to the pollution source, due to the greatest metal concentrations in soil and the lowest soil pH. The low values of biological accumulation coefficients (bioconcentration factor mobility ratio <1) pointed to a low rate of uptake and accumulation of As and Cd in lime and birch. Trace elements showed different patterns of behavior and accumulation in the trees. Lime showed a high ability of assimilation through leaves, whereas birch showed a better potential to express a linear correlation between concentrations in plant parts and soil. PMID:23963120

  17. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  18. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, S.M.; Singh, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract...

  19. Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Ralf J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of

  20. Confinement of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) by Cape honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis)

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Ellis Jr.,; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti

    2004-01-01

    International audience In this study we quantify small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybee (A.m. capensis Esch., an African subspecies) behaviours that are associated with beetle confinement in an effort to understand why Cape bees can withstand large beetle infestations. Four observation hives were each inoculated with 25 beetles and were observed for 11-17 days. Data collected included guard bee (worker bees who guard beetle confinement sites) and confined beetle behavi...

  1. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins with Potent Antioxidant Activity from the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root Bark of Acacia confusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Dong Wei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  2. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  3. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins with Potent Antioxidant Activity from the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root Bark of Acacia confusa

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Dong Wei; Hai-Chao Zhou; Yi-Ming Lin; Meng-Meng Liao; Wei-Ming Chai

    2010-01-01

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidi...

  4. A New Abietane Diterpenoid from the Barks of Taxus yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The structure of a new abietane diterpenoid,taxayunnin (1),from the barks of Taxus yunnanensis,was determined by spectroscopic analysis.A known abietane diterpenoid,taxamairin C (2),was also isolated.

  5. Chemical constituents from Swietenia macrophylla bark and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, S; Suzuki, T; Katayama, T

    2008-08-15

    Chemical constituents of the bark of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) was investigated not only to develop further bark utilization but also to understand the biochemical function of the bark in the forest environment. A new phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin, namely, swietemacrophyllanin [(2R*,3S*,7"R*)-catechin-8,7"-7,2"-epoxy-(methyl 4",5"-dihydroxyphenylpropanoate)] (1) was isolated from the bark of S. macrophylla together with two known compounds, catechin (2) and epicatechin (3). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data and by comparison of the NMR data with those of catiguanins A and B, phenylpropanoid-substituted epicatechins. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the isolated compounds indicated that all of the three compounds have strong activity compared with trolox as a reference. Swietemacrophyllanin (1) had the strongest activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 56 microg mL(-1). PMID:19266907

  6. Tree colonization by the Asian longhorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): effect of habitat and tree suitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccoli, Massimo; Favaro, Riccardo; Concheri, Giuseppe; Squartini, Andrea; Battisti, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Tree colonization and feeding activity of the invasive wood-borer Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), an Asian pest introduced into North America and Europe, was studied in a newly invaded area in Italy. The hypothesis being tested was that the reproductive success of the insect depend on habitat type and tree suitability. Adult beetles were caged on branches of host and nonhost species, in both urban and forest habitats. Two months later, number and size of feeding patches on plant tissues, eggs laid, and surviving larvae were assessed. Bark concentration of C and N was also measured from the same trees. Results indicated that the mean area of plant tissues consumed by adult feeding was significantly larger on trees growing in forest than in urban habitat, although within the same habitat there were no differences between susceptible and nonsusceptible trees. ALB tree colonization, in terms of number of eggs laid and young larvae survival, was not affected by habitat while it was higher on susceptible trees. Although trees growing in forests had a lower nitrogen concentration, they allowed colonization rates similar to those of trees growing in the urban habitat. Hence, the amount of carbon and nitrogen did not fully explain tree suitability or habitat selection. We suggest compensatory feeding as a potential mechanism that might explain this peculiar situation, as supported by a more intensive feeding activity recorded on trees in the forest. Suitability of different trees may be due to other factors, such as secondary chemical compounds. PMID:25424840

  7. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van't Westende Wendy PC

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the genome was established by amplification and sequencing of alleles from eight birch species that represent the four subgenera within the genus Betula. Q-TOF LC-MSE was applied to identify which PR-10/Bet v 1 genes are actually expressed in pollen and to determine the relative abundances of individual isoforms in the pollen proteome. Results All examined birch species contained several PR-10 genes. In total, 134 unique sequences were recovered. Sequences were attributed to different genes or pseudogenes that were, in turn, ordered into seven subfamilies. Five subfamilies were common to all birch species. Genes of two subfamilies were expressed in pollen, while each birch species expressed a mixture of isoforms with at least four different isoforms. Isoforms that were similar to isoforms with a high IgE-reactivity (Bet v 1a = PR-10.01A01 were abundant in all species except B. lenta, while the hypoallergenic isoform Bet v 1d (= PR-10.01B01 was only found in B. pendula and its closest relatives. Conclusion Q-TOF LC-MSE allows efficient screening of Bet v 1 isoforms by determining the presence and relative abundance of these isoforms in pollen. B. pendula contains a Bet v 1-mixture in which isoforms with a high and low IgE-reactivity are both abundant. With the possible exception of B. lenta, isoforms identical or very similar to those with a high IgE-reactivity were found in the pollen proteome of all examined birch species. Consequently, these species are also predicted to be allergenic with regard to Bet v 1 related allergies.

  8. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Jacobi, H H;

    2002-01-01

    There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America.......There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....

  9. Dung beetle database: comparison with other invertebrate transcriptomes

    OpenAIRE

    Khanyile, Lucky M; Hull, Rodney; Ntwasa, Monde

    2008-01-01

    The dung beetle E. intermedius, a member of the highly diverse order, Coleoptera has immense economic benefits. It was estimated that insect ecological services in the United States amounted to some $60 billion in 2006 with dung beetles being major contributors. E. intermedius may be endowed with a robust immune system given its microbe-rich habitat. Dung beetles live on juice and microbes from the dung and are therefore, potential models for the study of infectious agents and ecological dama...

  10. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. PMID:26992100

  11. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Legault; Karl Girard-Lalancette; Dominic Dufour; André Pichette

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native American...

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water...

  13. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and w...

  14. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF NATURAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM ACACIA CONCURRENS BARK

    OpenAIRE

    Nimbekar, Tulsidas; Wanjari, Bhumesh; Patil, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study showed that the ethanolic extracts from the bark of Acacia concurrens exhibited a strong antioxidant activity. Among all the fractions from ethanolic extracts of bark, the EtOAc soluble fraction exhibited the best antioxidant performance. Furthermore, the amounts of total phenolic compound were determined from the ethanolic extracts. Therefore, Acacia concurrens could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  15. INCORPORATION OF BARK AND TOPS IN EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS WOOD PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bark and the tops of E. globulus trees were considered for kraft pulping under industrial conditions. Pulping experiments included wood, bark, tops, and composite samples. Top wood had an average chemical composition most similar to that of wood but with somewhat lower cellulose content (52.8% vs. 56.9% and higher lignin content (18.8% vs. 17.8%. There was also a small difference between tops and wood for non-polar extractives, which were higher for tops (2.0% vs. 1.4%. Bark had a less favorable chemical composition with more extractives, especially polar extractives (5.3% vs. 1.6% and 1% NaOH solubility (19.9% vs. 12.2%, pentosans (23.7% vs. 21.3%, and ash (2.9% vs. 1.0%, although the fiber length was higher (1.12 mm vs. 0.98 mm. The kraft pulps obtained using bark showed significantly lower yield, delignification degree, and strength properties but had a quicker response to refining. The incorporation of tops and bark in the wood pulping in levels below or similar to a corresponding whole-stem, however, had a limited effect on pulp yield, kappa number, refining, and pulp strength properties. These additional raw-materials, which were estimated to be 26% of the commercial stem wood (14% bark and 12% tops, may therefore be considered in enlarging the eucalypt fiber feedstock in kraft pulping.

  16. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  17. Bark thickness across the angiosperms: more than just fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A

    2016-07-01

    Global variation in total bark thickness (TBT) is traditionally attributed to fire. However, bark is multifunctional, as reflected by its inner living and outer dead regions, meaning that, in addition to fire protection, other factors probably contribute to TBT variation. To address how fire, climate, and plant size contribute to variation in TBT, inner bark thickness (IBT) and outer bark thickness (OBT), I sampled 640 species spanning all major angiosperm clades and 18 sites with contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regime. Stem size was by far the main driver of variation in thickness, with environment being less important. IBT was closely correlated with stem diameter, probably for metabolic reasons, and, controlling for size, was thicker in drier and hotter environments, even fire-free ones, probably reflecting its water and photosynthate storage role. OBT was less closely correlated with size, and was thicker in drier, seasonal sites experiencing frequent fires. IBT and OBT covaried loosely and both contributed to overall TBT variation. Thickness variation was higher within than across sites and was evolutionarily labile. Given high within-site diversity and the multiple selective factors acting on TBT, continued study of the different drivers of variation in bark thickness is crucial to understand bark ecology. PMID:26890029

  18. Isolation and identification of plant phenolic compounds in birch leaves: Air pollution stress and leaf phenolics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponen, Jyrki Mikael

    Chromatographic (analytical and preparative HPLC), chemical (hydrolysis) and spectroscopic (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques proved to be suitable tools for the structure identification of plant phenolic compounds. More than 30 individual phenolic compounds were detected and quantified. Detailed information of the structures of individual compounds was determined after isolation from birch leaves. Ten flavonoid glycosides were identified. Two of them, myricetin-3-O-α-L-(acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-α-L-(4/prime'-O-acetyl)- rhamnopyranoside, have been rarely found in birch leaves. Further, some characterized major phenolics with non- flavonoid structures in our study were 1-O-galloyl- β-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose, gallic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, cis- and trans-forms of 3- and 5-p-coumaroylquinic acids. The presence of gallotannin group was evidenced by strong positive correlations between concentrations of these gallotannins (preliminary identified by HPLC and UV spectra) and the protein precipitation capacity of extracts. Content of gallotannins decreased with leaf growth and maturation. It is known that concentrations of phenolic compounds regularly increase in slowly growing stressed plants and therefore, it is natural that they are also sensitive to different forms of air pollution. Total content and the contents of some individual phenolics correlated negatively with the distance from the pollution source in our study area. In addition to comparing absolute concentrations of compounds in question, the within-tree correlations or within-tree variations of the relevant compounds between polluted and control areas were an alternative approach. Differences in pairwise correlations between the investigated leaf phenolic compounds indicated the competition between some gallotannins and p-coumaroylquinic acids on the polluted but not on the control site. Air pollution seems to be a stress factor for birch trees associated with

  19. Adaptive Responses of Birch-Leaved Pear (Pyrus betulaefolia Seedlings to Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sheng WU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One-year-old birch-leaved pear (Pyrus betulaefolia Bunge seedlings were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mmol/L NaCl solutions for 27 days in order to study the effects of salinity stress on photosynthesis, ion accumulation and enzymatic and non-enzymatic scavenging of reactive oxygen species in the seedlings. The research was performed in a greenhouse using potted trees. Salinity stress reduced photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency of leaves of the pear seedlings, but increased transpiration rates and leaf temperature. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical contents increased with increasing NaCl concentrations, a phenomena also observed for malondialdehyde, suggesting that leaves of the pear seedlings suffered from oxidative injury. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities quickly responded by increasing when the pear seedlings were subjected to salinity stress. Total protein content in leaves of the seedlings was restrained by salinity stress, whereas ascorbate content increased. Salinity stress reduced glutathione content once the birch-leaved pear seedlings were exposed to a low level (50 or 100 mmol/L of NaCl, whereas a high level (150 or 200 mmol/L NaCl of salinity stress stimulated the accumulation of glutathione. Salinity stress increased the accumulation of Na+, Cl-, K+ and Mg2+ in the seedlings, but reduced Ca2+ levels and the ratio of other ions to Na+ except K+/Na+ under 50 mmol/L NaCl conditions. This suggests that leaves of birch-leaved pear seedlings possess the capacity for salt exclusion only under 50 mmol/L NaCl conditions, and Ca2+ does not play a fundamental role as a secondary messenger under salinity stress conditions.

  20. Resource release in lodgepole pine across a chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, B. H.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E.; Beatty, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade and a half Western North America has experienced a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on a scale not previously recorded. Millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in high elevation forests have been devastated. Although bark beetles are an important part of the endemic disturbance and regeneration regime in this region, the current unprecedented level of tree mortality will have a significant impact on resources and light availability to surviving trees. We established a decade-long chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance, in a lodgepole stand, composed of three age classes: recent, intermediate, and longest (approximately 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 years respectively) time since initial infestation, as well as a control group. The focus of the study was a healthy tree and it's area of influence (1m radius from the bole), each located in a cluster of the respective chronosequence classes. In the 2011 growing season we have looked at rates of photosynthesis, and water potentials for the healthy trees, as well as soil respiration flux and gravimetric moisture in their areas of influence. We are also in the process of analyzing soil extractable dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and inorganic phosphorus, and plan to take hemispherical photographs and analyze tree-ring stable isotopes to determine if there is any reallocation of soil water use by the trees. Our data shows that photosynthetic rates in the youngest infestation class increase 10 percent over the control group and then falls well bellow the control by the oldest class. The mineral soil gravimetric moisture drastically increases between the control and the recent class and then maintains a consistently higher level through the remaining classes. In contrast, moisture in the organic soil significantly declines between the control and recent class before rebounding to pre-infestation levels in the two older classes. Soil

  1. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.;

    2012-01-01

    Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan was comb...... independent of the xylan:NFC ratio. Water vapor permeability values of 1.9–2.8·10−11 g Pa−1 m−1 s−1 were found for unplasticized composite films, but these values were significantly reduced in the case of films plasticized with 10–40 wt% sorbitol....

  2. Soil Properties Control Glyphosate Sorption in Soils Amended with Birch Wood Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Møldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos;

    2016-01-01

    agrochemicals such as pesticides. In a fieldbased study at two experimental sites in Denmark (sandy loam soils at Risoe and Kalundborg), we investigated the influence of birch wood biochar with respect to application rate, aging (7–19 months), and physico- chemical soil properties on the sorption coefficient...... with pH and EC. In conclusion, the results show that biochar, despite initially being a poor sorbent for glyphosate, can increase glyphosate sorption in soil. However, the effect of biochar on glyphosate sorption is depends on prevailing soil physicochemical properties....

  3. Antioxidative compounds from Garcinia buchananii stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo D; Salger, Mathias; Frank, Oliver; Balemba, Onesmo B; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-02-27

    An aqueous ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii showed strong antioxidative activity using H2O2 scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Activity-guided fractionation afforded three new compounds, isomanniflavanone (1), an ent-eriodictyol-(3α→6)-dihydroquercetin-linked biflavanone, 1,5-dimethoxyajacareubin (2), and the depsidone garcinisidone-G (3), and six known compounds, (2″R,3″R)-preussianon, euxanthone, 2-isoprenyl-1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone, jacareubin, isogarcinol, and garcinol. All compounds were described for the first time in Garcinia buchananii. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of NMR, ECD spectroscopy, and polarimetry. These natural products showed high in vitro antioxidative power, especially isomanniflavanone, with an EC50 value of 8.5 μM (H2O2 scavenging), 3.50/4.95 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-TEAC), and 7.54/14.56 mmol TE/mmol (H/L-ORAC). PMID:25625705

  4. Effects of ozone impact on the gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of juvenile birch stems (Betula pendula Roth.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of ozone impact on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of juvenile birch (Betula pendula) stems and leaves were investigated. Significant differences in the response of leaves and stems to ozone were found. In leaves, O3 exposure led to a significant decline in photosynthetic rates, whereas stems revealed an increased dark respiration and a concomitant increase in corticular photosynthesis. In contrast to birch leaves, corticular photosynthesis appeared to support the carbon balance of stems or even of the whole-tree under O3 stress. The differences in the ozone-response between leaves and stems were found to be related to ozone uptake rates, and thus to inherent differences in leaf and stem O3 conductance. - Leaves of birch were more affected by ozone fumigation than corresponding stems, due to a higher ozone uptake rate

  5. An investigation of the possible immunological relationship between allergen extracts from birch pollen, hazelnut, potato and apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Løwenstein, H

    1978-01-01

    identity between birch pollen and hazelnut. By the same method no partial immunological identity between birch pollen and extracts and fresh peel from apples and potatoes was found. However, both apples and potatoes gave rise to non-immunological affinity precipitates. On this basis it is discussed......In a retrospective study on selected group of patients, the coincidence of birch pollen allergy and a clinically relevant positive prick test reaction to apples and potatoes was confirmed. Immunochemical comparison using the crossed line immunoelectrophoresis technique (CLIE) confirmed partial......, whether the active agents from apples and potatoes were extremely labile allergens, plant lectins, or low molecular weight substances with a direct or indirect histamine release effect....

  6. Evolution of exocrine chemical defense in leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasteels, Jacques M.; Rowell-Rahier, Martine; Braekman, J.C.; Daloze, D.; Duffey, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we speculate on possible scenarios for the evolution of the very high diversity in chemical compounds liberated by exocrine glands of adults Chrysomelidae. Shift in host plant affinities and subsequent adaptation of the beetles to the plant toxins strongly influence the nature of the beetles' chemical defense.

  7. Cucumber Beetle Antifeedants: Laboratory Screening of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, D. K.; Jacobson, M.; Warthen, J. D. Jr; Uebel, E. C.; Tromley, N. J.; Jurd, L.; Freedman, B

    1981-01-01

    Cucumber beetles are destructive pests of melons in the Midwest both because of their feeding and transmission of bacterial wilt disease. Because an effective antifeedant would be an ideal control measure, more than 350 materials of biological origin have been screened against striped cucumber beetle. Such materials as neem derivatives, neriifolin, -tung, and napthoquinones appear promising and will be tested more extensively.

  8. Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, L.I.& A.M. Frake. Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles - The life history of small hive beetles (SHB) kept in an incubator (34ºC) and at room temperature (24-28ºC) was compared. Six slides of eggs, obtained using the glass slide technique, were placed individually in rear...

  9. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  10. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  11. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

  12. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  13. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Dufour, Dominic; Pichette, André

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50), were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity. PMID:26784337

  14. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Legault

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50, were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol, which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity.

  15. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Methods: Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed according to microdilution methods by NCCLS. Results: The plants Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans with MIC of 0.08mg/ml. Pithecellobium dulce bark also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: The bark of Pithecellobium dulce has more or less similar activity against the known antibiotic and may be considered as potent antimicrobial agent for various infectious diseases.

  16. Pharmacognostic evaluation of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Ajay Kumar; Om Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform the pharmacognostic study of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre (P. pinnata) stem bark. Method: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The bark consisting of channelled, recurved, slightly quilled, usually 0.2-1 cm thick, lenticellate pieces with outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured having unpleasant odour and bitter taste. The main microscopic characterstics of the bark include phellem (5-20 or more layers of cork), phellogen (2-3 layered) followed by 10-15 layered phelloderm. Among other microscopic components were phloem parenchyma, phloem fibre and stone cells, traversed by wavy medullary rays. Further, physicochemical analysis of the bark power showed total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash and sulphated ash as 10.94, 1.96, 1.47 and 15.8 % w/w respectively. The alcohol and water soluble extractives values of the stem bark were 9.6 and 18.4 %w/w respectively. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study helps in botanical identification and standardization of P. pinnata L. in crude form.

  17. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  18. Fire drives transcontinental variation in tree birch defense against browsing by snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, John P; Clausen, Thomas P; Swihart, Robert K; Landhäusser, Simon M; Stevens, Michael T; Hawkins, Christopher D B; Carrière, Suzanne; Kirilenko, Andrei P; Veitch, Alasdair M; Popko, Richard A; Cleland, David T; Williams, Joseph H; Jakubas, Walter J; Carlson, Michael R; Bodony, Karin Lehmkuhl; Cebrian, Merben; Paragi, Thomas F; Picone, Peter M; Moore, Jeffrey E; Packee, Edmond C; Malone, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Fire has been the dominant disturbance in boreal America since the Pleistocene, resulting in a spatial mosaic in which the most fire occurs in the continental northwest. Spatial variation in snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) density reflects the fire mosaic. Because fire initiates secondary forest succession, a fire mosaic creates variation in the abundance of early successional plants that snowshoe hares eat in winter, leading to geographic variation in hare density. We hypothesize that fire is the template for a geographic mosaic of natural selection: where fire is greatest and hares are most abundant, hare browsing has most strongly selected juvenile-phase woody plants for defense. We tested the hypothesis at multiple spatial scales using Alaska birch (Betula neoalaskana) and white birch (Betula papyrifera). We also examined five alternative hypotheses for geographic variation in antibrowsing defense. The fire-hare-defense hypothesis was supported at transcontinental, regional, and local scales; alternative hypotheses were rejected. Our results link transcontinental variation in species interactions to an abiotic environmental driver, fire. Intakes of defense toxins by Alaskan hares exceed those by Wisconsin hares, suggesting that the proposed selection mosaic may coincide with a geographic mosaic of coevolution. PMID:19422319

  19. Fungal Assemblages in Different Habitats in an Erman’s Birch Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng; Sun, Huaibo; Shen, Congcong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of fungal diversity using deeply sequenced marker genes suggest that most fungal taxa are locally distributed. However, little is known about the extent of overlap and niche partitions in total fungal communities or functional guilds within distinct habitats on a local forest scale. Here, we compared fungal communities in endosphere (leaf interior), phyllosphere (leaf interior and associated surface area) and soil samples from an Erman’s birch forest in Changbai Mountain, China. Community structures were significantly differentiated in terms of habitat, with soil having the highest fungal richness and phylogenetic diversity. Endophytic and phyllosphere fungi of Betula ermanii were more phylogenetically clustered compared with the corresponding soil fungi, indicating the ability of that host plants to filter and select their fungal partners. Furthermore, the majority of soil fungal taxa were soil specialists, while the dominant endosphere and phyllosphere taxa were aboveground generalists, with soil and plant foliage only sharing <8.2% fungal taxa. Most of the fungal taxa could be assigned to different functional guilds; however, the assigned guilds showed significant habitat specificity with variation in relative abundance. Collectively, the fungal assemblages in this Erman’s birch forest were strictly niche specialized and constrained by weak migration among habitats. The findings suggest that phylogenetic relatedness and functional guilds’ assignment can effectively interpret the certain ecological processes.

  20. CO2 and winter temperature effects on Norway spruce and downy birch : a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of increased winter temperatures and higher carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the growth of downy birch and Norway spruce, both important tree species in the northern forests of Fennoscandia. In the winter of 1992, three-year old seedlings from 3 different latitudinal populations were kept in greenhouses at winter ambient temperatures, and at winter temperatures raised by 4 degrees C. In the spring, the plants were moved to open chambers pre-set at 350 and 650 μmol/mol CO2. The following year, the experiment was repeated with one-year old seedlings. It was shown that at elevated CO2 levels, the shoot elongation rates and biomass was increased. There was a positive influence of winter temperature on shoot and biomass growth in the southern birch population from Norway but a negative effect on plants from Icelandic populations. High winters for spruce ecotypes appeared to reduce shoot growth for the following season. The reduced growth and premature loss was due to a temporary negative carbon balance in needles during unusually warm winters. 34 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale. PMID:25687127

  2. When the forest dies: the response of forest soil fungi to a bark beetle-induced tree dieback

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štursová, Martina; Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Bárta, J.; Šantrůčková, H.; Baldrian, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2014), s. 1920-1931. ISSN 1751-7362 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12050; GA ČR GA526/08/0751; GA ČR GAP504/12/0709 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : forest * soil fungi * tree dieback * ecology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.302, year: 2014

  3. Disturbances on a wooded raised bog - How windthrow, bark beetle and fire affect vegetation and soil water quality?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, Andrea; Rektoris, L.; Štechová, T.; Bastl, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2008), s. 49-67. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Grant ostatní: GA MŽP(CZ) SE/610/10/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Czech Republic * Groundwater chemistry * Post- fire succession Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2008

  4. Using UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Hyperspectral Imaging for Mapping Bark Beetle Damage at Tree-Level

    OpenAIRE

    Roope Näsi; Eija Honkavaara; Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa; Minna Blomqvist; Paula Litkey; Teemu Hakala; Niko Viljanen; Tuula Kantola; Topi Tanhuanpää; Markus Holopainen

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost, miniaturized hyperspectral imaging technology is becoming available for small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms. This technology can be efficient in carrying out small-area inspections of anomalous reflectance characteristics of trees at a very high level of detail. Increased frequency and intensity of insect induced forest disturbance has established a new demand for effective methods suitable in mapping and monitoring tasks. In this investigation, a novel miniaturized hypers...

  5. Isolation of some pathogenic bacteria from the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, M; Ertürk, O; Aslan, I

    2010-01-01

    Some bacteria were isolated from Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis. Six bacteria from D. micans were identified as Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter intermedius, Citrobacter freundii, Cellulomonas flavigena, Microbacterium liquefaciens and Enterobacter amnigenus, three bacteria from R. grandis as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia grimesii, on the basis of fatty acid methyl ester analysis and carbon utilization profile by using Microbial Identification and Biolog Microplate Systems. Their insecticidal effects were tested on larvae and adults of D. micans. PMID:20336502

  6. Small changes in species composition despite stand-replacing bark beetle outbreak in Picea abies mountain forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, A.; Fischer, H. S.; Kopecký, Martin; Macek, Martin; Wild, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2015), s. 1164-1171. ISSN 0045-5067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/0843 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : disturbance * permanent plot * multiple-site dissimilarity Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.683, year: 2014

  7. Spatial dependence of random sets and its application to dispersion of bark beetle infestation in a natural forest:

    OpenAIRE

    Düll, Jochen; Kautz, Markus; Ohser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Image Analysis and Stereology is the official journal of the International Society for Stereology. It promotes the exchange of scientific, technical, organizational and other information on the quantitative analysis of data having a geometrical structure, including stereology, differential geometry, image analysis, image processing, mathematical morphology, stochastic geometry, statistics, pattern recognition, and related topics. The fields of application are not restricted and range from bio...

  8. Cry3A ä-endotoxin gene mutagenized for enhanced toxicity to spruce bark beetle in a receptor binding loop

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Josef; Bříza, Jindřich; Pavingerová, Daniela; Modlinger, R.; Knížek, M.; Malá, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 86 (2012), s. 15236-15240. ISSN 1684-5315 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71290; GA ČR(CZ) GAP502/11/1471 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * Ips typographus * Picea abies Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.573, year: 2010

  9. Central-European mountain spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests: regeneration of tree species after a bark beetle outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Magda; Prach, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2004), s. 15-27. ISSN 0925-8574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : forest management * mountain spruce forest * natural regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.890, year: 2004 http://www.sciencedirect.com

  10. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the biology, ecology and management of spruce and spruce beetle populations. This paper is a review of literature on spruce beetle focusing on work published since the late 1970s and is intended as an addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies.

  11. Antigenotoxic properties of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Villarini, L M; Moretti, L M; Marcarelli, L M; Pasquini, R; Fatigoni, C; Kaur, L S; Kumar, S; Grover, I S

    1999-01-01

    Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant. PMID:15281223

  12. Tannins quantification in barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical complexity, there are several methodologies for vegetable tannins quantification. Thus, this work aims at quantifying both tannin and non-tannin substances present in the barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii by two different methods. From bark particles of both species, analytical solutions were produced by using a steam-jacketed extractor. The solution was analyzed by Stiasny and hide-powder (no chromed methods. For both species, tannin levels were superior when analyzed by hide-powder method, reaching 47.8% and 24.1% for A. mearnsii and M. tenuiflora, respectively. By Stiasny method, the tannins levels considered were 39.0% for A. mearnsii, and 15.5% for M. tenuiflora. Despite the best results presented by A. mearnsii, the bark of M. tenuiflora also showed great potential due to its considerable amount of tannin and the availability of the species at Caatinga biome.

  13. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments... Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, DN 2932; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public... electronic bark control collars. The complaint names as respondent Sunbeam Products, Inc. d/b/a...

  14. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of... importation of certain electronic bark control collars by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S... the United States after importation of certain electronic bark control collars that infringe claims...

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND MICROBICIDAL ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaysing Hari Patil,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bactericidal potential of methanolic extract of stem bark (Apical bark, middle bark and Mature bark of Pterocarpus marsupium was evaluated with respect to pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoneae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and Micrococcus sp. The methanolic extract of apical stem bark was effective than the middle bark and mature bark in inhibiting the growth of all bacteria. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was most sensitive among all the bacterial species studied. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides,flavonoids, flavonols, phenols and terpenoids. Saponins were absent in all the bark samples.The concentrations of these phytoconstituents was higher in the apical stem bark than the middle and mature stem bark. The percent extract yield was maximum in apical stem bark. Thus, in the pharmacological point of view, it is important to study the biochemistry of apical bark in order to isolate and screen the new pharmacological active principals which can be useful in designing of new drugs active against various infectious micro- rganisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses etc.

  16. PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ALBIZIA ODORATISSIMA BARK POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Amrish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacognostic evaluation of the crude drugs powder is done by using the different botanical parameters in order to evaluate the quality and purity of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles, physical and chemical standards. This article reports on pharmacognostic evaluation or standardization of the crude drug powder of Albizia odoratissima bark powder. Albizia odoratissima bark powder has been standardized on the basis of organoleptic properties, physical characteristics, and physico‐chemical properties and phytochemical investigation. In the phytochemical investigation flavonoids, tannin, carbohydrate, saponin, triterpenoids are found to be present.

  17. Neonatal colonization by Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum RB 25P strain suppresses sensitization in mice model of birch pollen allergy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doušková, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozáková, Hana

    Kysucke Nove Mesto: Pamida International, 2010. s. 111-111. ISBN 978-80-970168-4-5 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200710; GA MŠk 2B06053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : birch pollen allergy Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  18. Hydrogenated graphenes by birch reduction: influence of electron and proton sources on hydrogenation efficiency, magnetism, and electrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, A.Y.S.; Sofer, Z.; Huber, Š.; Bouša, D.; Maryško, Miroslav; Pumera, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2015), 16828-16838. ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogen ated graphenes * birch reduction * magnetism * electrochemistry * hydrogen ation efficiency Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.731, year: 2014

  19. Effect of microbial colonization on the development of allergic sensitization and mucosal tolerance to birch pollen allergen in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozáková, Hana; Repa, A.; Štěpánková, Renata; Hrnčíř, Tomáš; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Hufnagel, K.; Wild, C.; Winkler, B.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Wiedermann, U.

    Vienna: Basic Science in Allergology, 2006, s. 28-28. [Congress of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology /25./. Vienna (AT), 10.06.2006-14.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/05/2249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : intestinal microflora * birch pollen allergy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. Comparison of various sampling methods for evaluation of biodiversity of true bugs (Heteroptera) in a birch forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kula, E.; Bryja, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2002), s. 137-147. ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/98/0537; GA MŽP SE/830/3/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Heteroptera * birch forest * biodiversity Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry Impact factor: 0.246, year: 2002

  1. Improvement of nutritive value of acacia mangium bark by alkali treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bark, especially from Acacia mangium is a by-product from wood processing industries that commonly found in Indonesiaand in big amount will cause environmental problems. One of the alternatives to utilize bark is for animal feed. The aims of this experiment are to improve the nutritive value of bark by alkali treatments (urea and sodium hydroxide and to determine the level of substitution of elephant grass by bark. The experiment consisted of 3 in vitro studies and 1 in sacco study. In vitro studies consisted of 1 the use of urea or NaOH by wetting and incubation-method, 2 the use of different concentration of Na OH (0-4% by soaking method, 3 determination of substitution level of elephant grass by treated bark. In sacco study was conducted at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation to compare the degradation of treated bark to elephant grass. The results show that urea treatment did not improve DM or OM digestibilities of bark. Soaking bark in 4% NaOH solution was more effective than wetting and incubation-method in improving in vitro digestibility. (49.26% vs19.56% for soaking and dry-method, respectively. In sacco studyl shows that treated bark had a very high solubility at 0 hour incubation but the degradation at 72 hours incubation was not significantly different from that of 0 hour incubation. The gas produced at in vitro study of treated bark was very low indicated that there was no degradation of bark at all. The level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark up to 30% gave a non-significant digestibility value to that of 100% elephant grass. In conclusion, bark after tannin-extraction was a better feedstuff for animal feed. The soaking method in 4% NaOH solution improved the digestibility of bark significantly and the level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark was 30%.

  2. The usability of tree barks as long term biomonitors of atmospheric radionuclide deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belivermis, Murat, E-mail: belmurat@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilic, Onder, E-mail: okilic@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cotuk, Yavuz, E-mail: cotukyav@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Topcuoglu, Sayhan, E-mail: sayhantopcuoglu@yahoo.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Kalayci, Guelsah, E-mail: gulsahkalayci@yahoo.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Pestreli, Didem, E-mail: didempestreli@hotmail.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    In view of the lower radionuclide activities of moss and lichen, tree barks can be used as biomonitors of radioactive contamination, regardless of the contribution of soil uptake. The present study was conducted to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in the barks of pine (Pinus nigra) and oak (Quercus petraea) trees collected from the Thrace region in Turkey. By considering the previous studies carried out in the same region, it is noticed that among lichen, moss, oak bark and pine bark, oak bark is the best accumulator of {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides.

  3. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  4. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  5. Is the Growth of Birch at the UPPER Timberline in the Himalayas Limited By Moisture or By Temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, E.; Dawadi, B.; Pederson, N.; Eckstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    Birch (Betula) trees and forests are found across much of the temperate and boreal zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Yet, despite being an ecologically-significant genus, it is much less-well studied compared to common genera like Pinus, Picea, Juniperus, Quercus, and Fagus. In the Himalayas, Himalayan birch (Betula utilis) is a widespread, important broadleaf timberline species that survives in mountain rain shadows via access to water from snowmelt. Because precipitation in the Nepalese Himalayas decreases with increasing elevation, we hypothesized that the growth of birch at the upper timberlines between 3,900 and 4,150 m a.s.l. is primarily limited by moisture availability rather than by low temperature. To verify this assumption, a total of 292 increment cores were extracted from 211 birch trees at nine timberline sites. The synchronous occurrence of narrow rings and high inter-series correlations within and among sites evidenced a reliable cross-dating and a common climatic signal in the tree-ring widths variations. From March-May, all nine tree-ring width site chronologies showed a strongly positive response to total precipitation and a less strongly negative response to temperature. During the instrumental meteorological record (after 1960), years with a high percentage of missing rings coincided with pre-monsoon drought events. Periods of below-average growth are in phase with well-known drought events all over monsoon Asia, showing additional evidence that Himalayan birch growth at the upper timberlines is persistently limited by moisture availability. Our study describes the rare case of a drought-induced altitudinal timberline that is composed by a broadleaf tree species.

  6. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  7. Quantification of C uptake in subarctic birch forest after setback by an extreme insect outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heliasz, Michal; Johansson, Torbjörn; Lindroth, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    ) forests in northern Scandinavia cyclically every 9–10 years and occasionally (50–150 years) extreme population densities can threaten ecosystem stability. Here we report impacts on C balance following a 2004 outbreak where a widespread area of Lake Torneträsk catchment was severely defoliated. We show......The carbon dynamics of northern natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the global carbon balance. Periodic disturbances to these dynamics include insect herbivory. Larvae of autumn and winter moths (Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata) defoliate mountain birch (Betula pubescens...... that in the growing season of 2004 the forest was a much smaller net sink of C than in a reference year, most likely due to lower gross photosynthesis. Ecosystem respiration in 2004 was smaller and less sensitive to air temperature at nighttime relative to 2006. The difference in growing season uptake...

  8. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  9. Impact of Wetting/Oven-Drying Cycles on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Birch Plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooru, M.; Kasepuu, K.; Kask, R.; Lille, H.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore some physical and mechanical properties and the dimensional stability of birch (Betula sp.) nine-ply veneers glued with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) after 10 cycles of soaking/oven-drying. The properties to be determined were bending strength (BS), modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE), Janka hardness (JH) and thickness swelling (TS), which were tested according to the European Standards (EN). An analytical equation was used for approximation of the change in the physical and mechanical properties of the samples depending on the number of cycles. It was shown that the values of the studied properties were affected most by the first soaking and drying cycles after which BS and MOE decreased continuously while the values of JH and TS stabilized. After 10 cycles the final values of BS, MOE, JH and TS accounted for 75-81%, 95%, 82% and 98.5% of the initial values, respectively.

  10. Slow pyrolysis of birch (Betula) studied with GC/MS and GC/FTIR/FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, M.; Ingemarsson, A.; Pedersen, J.R.; Olsson, J.O. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1999-03-01

    Small samples of wood (15 - 150 mg) from 8 different species of birch (Betula) were pyrolysed at 550{sup o}C. The compounds produced from the pyrolysis were analysed using gas chromatographic (GC) methods: direct injection with GC/FTIR/FID and pre-concentration with GC/MS. A broad distribution of oxygenated organic compounds was formed: aldehydes, acids, ketones, substituted furans and methoxylated phenols. The chromatograms were very similar for all eight species, both with direct injection and pre-concentration. Compared to similar studies for pine and spruces significantly higher amounts were formed in the molecular range 60 - 130 amu. The conifers showed more peaks with a molecular weight above 200 amu. (author)

  11. Volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2015-09-01

    Climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. We compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silver birch (Betula pendula (Roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. Micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (Joensuu 62°N) and northern (Kolari 67°N) sites. We collected VOCs emitted by shoots and assessed levels of herbivore damage of three genotypes of each provenance on three occasions at the central site and four occasions at the northern site. In 2012, trees of all provenances growing at the central site had higher total VOC emission rates than the same provenances growing at the northern site; in 2013 the reverse was true, thus indicating a variable effect of latitude. Trees of the southern provenance had lower VOC emission rates than trees of the central and northern provenances during both sampling years. However, northward or southward translocation itself had no significant effect on the total VOC emission rates, and no clear effect on insect herbivore damage. When VOC blend composition was studied, trees of all provenances usually emitted more green leaf volatiles at the northern site and more sesquiterpenes at the central site. The monoterpene composition of emissions from trees of the central provenance was distinct from that of the other provenances. In summary, provenance translocation did not have a clear effect in the short-term on VOC emissions and herbivory was not usually intense at the lower latitude. Our data did not support the hypothesis that trees growing at lower latitudes would experience more intense herbivory, and therefore allocate resources to chemical defence in the form of inducible VOC emissions. PMID:26093370

  12. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and nutrition on photosynthetic functions of white birch seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment; Dang, Q.L. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forest and the Forest Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany, Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology

    2006-11-15

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can impact photosynthesis and dry mass production of plants. This study investigated the physiological responses of white birch seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at low and high supplies of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A 2-way factorial experiment was carried out with birch seedlings grown for 4 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced maximal carboxylation rate and photosynthetically active radiation-saturated electron transport rates were measured after 2.5 and 3.5 months of treatment, as well as actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation. Net photosynthetic rate increases were observed as well as increases in photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); photosynthetic N efficiency and P efficiency. Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and the fraction of total photosynthetic linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation were reduced. Low nutrient availability decreased net photosynthetic rates, WUE, and triose phosphate utilization. However, photosynthetic linear electron transport and N use efficiency increased. There were significant interactive effects of CO{sub 2} and nutrition over time, with evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation in response to elevated CO{sub 2} in seedlings receiving high nutrition. Photosynthetic depression in response to low nutrient availability was attributed to biochemical limitation rather than stomatal limitation. Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced leaf N concentration in seedlings receiving low nutrition, but had no significant effect on leaf P or K concentrations. High nutrient availability generally increased area-based leaf N, P and K concentrations but had negligible effects on K after 2.5 months of treatment. Results suggested that increases in electron partitioning to photorespiration in response to low nutrient availability may be related to

  13. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and nutrition on photosynthetic functions of white birch seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can impact photosynthesis and dry mass production of plants. This study investigated the physiological responses of white birch seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) at low and high supplies of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A 2-way factorial experiment was carried out with birch seedlings grown for 4 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated CO2 enhanced maximal carboxylation rate and photosynthetically active radiation-saturated electron transport rates were measured after 2.5 and 3.5 months of treatment, as well as actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation. Net photosynthetic rate increases were observed as well as increases in photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); photosynthetic N efficiency and P efficiency. Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and the fraction of total photosynthetic linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation were reduced. Low nutrient availability decreased net photosynthetic rates, WUE, and triose phosphate utilization. However, photosynthetic linear electron transport and N use efficiency increased. There were significant interactive effects of CO2 and nutrition over time, with evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation in response to elevated CO2 in seedlings receiving high nutrition. Photosynthetic depression in response to low nutrient availability was attributed to biochemical limitation rather than stomatal limitation. Elevated CO2 reduced leaf N concentration in seedlings receiving low nutrition, but had no significant effect on leaf P or K concentrations. High nutrient availability generally increased area-based leaf N, P and K concentrations but had negligible effects on K after 2.5 months of treatment. Results suggested that increases in electron partitioning to photorespiration in response to low nutrient availability may be related to photoprotective mechanisms. Low carboxylation

  14. The use of tree bark as long term biomonitor of (137)Cs deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Incze, Reka; Kovacs, Tibor; Žunić, Zora S

    2016-03-01

    Airborne (137)Cs originated from the nuclear tests in the atmosphere and from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster was retained by the trees biomass and nowadays it can still be found in various concentrations in tree barks from Romania and other European countries. This study brings the first results of (137)Cs presence in tree bark from Romania on different considerations: (i) data dispersion in spruce and oak bark from NW, SW and central Romania, and the spatial variability of (137)Cs within oak and spruce bark from a natural protected forest area from Balvanyos area (Covasna County), known to be highly affected by the Chernobyl nuclear release; (ii) comparison of (137)Cs content in different tree bark species (oak, spruce, poplar and cherry); (iii) differences in (137)Cs concentrations with the bark depth layers and around the tree trunk; and (iv) comparison of mean (137)Cs values in spruce/oak bark from Romania with data from other European countries. PMID:26771244

  15. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) bark composition and degradation by fungi: potential substrate for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentín, Lara; Kluczek-Turpeinen, Beata; Willför, Stefan; Hemming, Jarl; Hatakka, Annele; Steffen, Kari; Tuomela, Marja

    2010-04-01

    The composition of Scots pine bark, its degradation, and the production of hydrolytic and ligninolytic enzymes were evaluated during 90 days of incubation with Phanerochaete velutina and Stropharia rugosoannulata. The aim was to evaluate if pine bark can be a suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation applications. The original pine bark contained 45% lignin, 25% cellulose, and 15% hemicellulose. Resin acids were the most predominant lipophilic extractives, followed by sitosterol and unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and oleic acids. Both fungi degraded all main components of bark, specially cellulose (79% loss by P. velutina). During cultivation on pine bark, fungi also degraded sitosterol, produced malic acid, and oxidated unsaturated fatty acids. The most predominant enzymes produced by both fungi were cellulase and manganese peroxidase. The results indicate that Scots pine bark supports enzyme production and provides nutrients to fungi, thus pine bark may be suitable fungal substrate for bioremediation. PMID:20005699

  16. A new diterpenoid from the stem bark of Populus davidiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Feng Zhang; Xiang Li; Byung Sun Min; Ki Hwan Bae

    2008-01-01

    A new diterpenoid, named populusol A (1), was isolated from the methanolic extraction of the stem bark of Populus davidiana. The structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR as well as HRFAB-MS spectroscopic analysis.

  17. Clerodane diterpenes from bark of Croton urucurana baillon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzolatti, Moacir G.; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J.; Brighente, Ines M.C.; Zuchinalli, Analice; Carvalho, Francieli K., E-mail: moacir.pizzolatti@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Qumica; Candido, Ana C. S.; Peres, Marize T.L.P. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Departamento de Hidraulica e Transportes

    2013-04-15

    The new clerodane diterpene methyl 3-oxo-12-epibarbascoate was isolated from the stem barks of Croton urucurana together with the known diterpene methyl 12-epibarbascoate. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. The obtainment of crystals allowed the crystallographic analysis of X-ray diffraction of diterpenes, thus confirming the proposed structures. (author)

  18. The Bark Myxomycetes--Their Collection, Culture and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David W.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a technique for isolating slime molds from tree bark and outlines projects for working with slime molds in the laboratory. Diagrams of 26 of the more common British species and a key to the Orders of Myxomcetes are given. (CS)

  19. Relationship between tree bark surface temperature and selected meteorological elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Středa, Tomáš; Litschmann, Tomáš; Středová, Hana

    2015-12-01

    The results were obtained by measurements in 2014 and 2015 in an apple orchard in Starý Lískovec and Těšetice (South Moravia, Czech Republic, Central Europe) into fertile planting of apple trees. The results show that the bark surface temperature during the year slightly differs from the surrounding air temperature. In addition, it is in average a few tenths of a °C higher in the period before the onset of the vegetation and several tenths of a degree lower during vegetation. Causes of these differences appear to be associated with the flow of sap as well as with foliage. Although it can be reasonably assumed that the temperature of the bark surface on the south side will be significantly affected by the global radiation, our measurements did not demonstrate this dependency. It appears that the wind speed had significantly larger influence on the temperature differences in the non-vegetation period as at speeds over 3.5 m s-1, the drop of temperature is so significant that the bark surface is colder than the surrounding air. Comparison of the development of sums of daily and hourly effective temperatures above 10 °C has shown that where daily values do not show significant differences, hourly values differed so prominently that the calculated date of emergence of adult codling moth in the bark surface was approximately one week earlier than with the use of data for air temperatures.

  20. A new chromanone acid from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieu, Ly Ha; Hansen, Poul Erik; Duus, Fritz; Pham, Hung D.; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa D.

    2012-01-01

    A new chromanone acid, calodryobalanoic acid, along with six known compounds, apetalic acid, isoblancoic acid, lupeol, 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone, 1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone, and 5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavanone, was isolated from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides collected in Vietnam. The...

  1. [Removing the bark from the cinnamon cane] 790

    OpenAIRE

    W L H Skeen and Co

    2003-01-01

    279 x 211 mm. Showing four men seated in a row on the ground in front of a bungalow, with piles of cinnamon beside them from which they are stripping the bark. Annotated '790' on bottom left hand corner of the photograph. Date approximate.

  2. Cytotoxic Coumarins from the Bark of Mammea siamensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Ngoc Trang Nhu; Nguyen, Vy Thuy; Vo, Hoa Van; Vang, Ole; Duus, Fritz; Ho, Thuy-Duong Huynh; Pham, Hung Dinh; Nguyen, Lien-Hoa Dieu

    2010-01-01

    A new geranylated coumarin, (E)-4-(1-hydroxypropyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-8-(3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)coumarin (named surangin D), was isolated from the bark of Mammea siamensis collected in Vietnam, along with four known coumarins, surangins B and C, and theraphins B and C, and...

  3. New Diarylheptanoid from the Barks of Alnus japonica Steudel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new diarylheptanoid glycoside, 1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptane-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), together with nine known diarylheptanoids (2-10) were isolated from the fresh bark of Alnus japonica which is a species of the genus Alnus species, growing throughout Korea.

  4. Clerodane diterpenes from bark of Croton urucurana baillon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new clerodane diterpene methyl 3-oxo-12-epibarbascoate was isolated from the stem barks of Croton urucurana together with the known diterpene methyl 12-epibarbascoate. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. The obtainment of crystals allowed the crystallographic analysis of X-ray diffraction of diterpenes, thus confirming the proposed structures. (author)

  5. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

  6. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction. PMID:19253612

  7. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  8. Biologically inspired optics: analog semiconductor model of the beetle exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Kaia; Roth, Zachary; Srinivasan, Pradeep; Rumpf, Raymond; Johnson, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Evolution in nature has produced through adaptation a wide variety of distinctive optical structures in many life forms. For example, pigment differs greatly from the observed color of most beetles because their exoskeletons contain multilayer coatings. The green beetle is disguised in a surrounding leaf by having a comparable reflection spectrum as the leaves. The Manuka and June beetle have a concave structure where light incident at any angle on the concave structures produce matching reflection spectra. In this work, semiconductor processing methods were used to duplicate the structure of the beetle exoskeleton. This was achieved by combining analog lithography with a multilayer deposition process. The artificial exoskeleton, 3D concave multilayer structure, demonstrates a wide field of view with a unique spectral response. Studying and replicating these biologically inspired nanostructures may lead to new knowledge for fabrication and design of new and novel nano-photonic devices, as well as provide valuable insight to how such phenomenon is exploited.

  9. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  10. New generic synonyms in the Oriental flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following new synonyms are proposed for the genera of flea beetles from Oriental Region: Pseudocrypta Medvedev, 1996 and Sebaethiella Medvedev, 1993 = Acrocrypta Baly, 1862: 457; Bhutajana Scherer, 1979 = Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836; Burmaltica Scherer, 1969 = Aphthonaltica Heikertinger, 1924; Apht...

  11. The long range transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Poland and Germany causes significant pre-season concentrations in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.; Sommer, J.; Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    In Denmark, where birch pollen is considered to be among the most important allergenic pollen, about one million people suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis. In Denmark, the official reported pollen forecast is based on the daily weather forecast, the pollen calendar and local 24-h measurements. Birch pollen has the potential for long-range transport but the present Danish pollen forecast does not account for birch pollen being transported into the country from distant sources.. Long-range transport episodes are intermittent and often out of the main pollen season, where individuals in general will be medically unprotected. Here we use an integrated approach to investigate whether or not Denmark receives significant quantities of birch pollen from Poland and Germany before local trees start to flower. In 2006 we used a combination of phenological observations and pollen measurements in Poland (Poznań) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Seasonal and diurnal variations in birch pollen measurement from Copenhagen (2000-2006) were examined with the aim of identifying pre-seasonal episodes originating from long-range transport. The 2.5% accumulation method was used for identifying start of season. If daily pollen counts exceeded 30 grains/m3 either before the local flowering season began or on the actual start day, the episode was chosen for investigation with back trajectory analysis. A birch forest inventory for Northern Europe was produced and implemented in DEHM-Pollen along with a simple unified pollen release model SUPREME to investigate the 2006 campaign in detail. In 2006, full flowering took place in Poznan between 20th and 28th of April and daily concentrations varied between 739 and 2169 grains/m3. In Copenhagen phenological observations showed that local flowering was initiated the 2nd of May. In Copenhagen several episodes with pollen concentrations at 108, 244 and 41 grains/m3 were recorded the 23rd, 26th and 27th of April, respectively. Back-trajectory analysis

  12. Bergamot versus beetle: evidence for intraspecific chemical specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Keefover-Ring, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-eating insects have developed the ability to eat plants that synthesize toxins which they use to defend themselves against herbivores. While these specialized insects are good at dealing with specific plant toxins, plant species with highly variable chemistry can present a challenge. This study tested for reciprocal effects of a specialist tortoise beetle feeding on a host plant with individuals contained two different essential oil toxins. Overall, beetles showed higher survival, ...

  13. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  14. Chemical defense: Aquatic beetle (Dineutes hornii) vs. fish (Micropterus salmoides)

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Captive largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) reject the gyrinid beetle, Dineutes hornii. They also reject edible items (mealworms) treated by topical addition of the norsesquiterpene gyrinidal, the principal component of the defensive secretion of the beetle. The bass' oral tolerance of gyrinidal varies broadly as a function of the gyrinidal dosage and the state of satiation of the fish. When taking a D. hornii or a gyrinidal-treated mealworm in the mouth, the f...

  15. Juvenile Hormone Regulates Extreme Mandible Growth in Male Stag Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J.; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with o...

  16. Quantitative metabolome, proteome and transcriptome analysis of midgut and fat body tissues in the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and insights into pheromone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Li, Maria; Sandhu, Harpreet K; Henderson, Hannah; Yuen, Macaire Man Saint; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are pests of many forests around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant pest of western North American pine forests. The MPB is able to overcome the defences of pine trees through pheromone-assisted aggregation that results in a mass attack of host trees. These pheromones, both male and female produced, are believed to be biosynthesized in the midgut and/or fat bodies of these insects. We used metabolite analysis, quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ) and transcriptomics (RNA-seq) to identify proteins and transcripts differentially expressed between sexes and between tissues when treated with juvenile hormone III. Juvenile hormone III induced frontalin biosynthesis in males and trans-verbenol biosynthesis in females, as well as affected the expression of many proteins and transcripts in sex- and tissue-specific ways. Based on these analyses, we identified candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of frontalin, exo-brevicomin, and trans-verbenol pheromones. PMID:26792242

  17. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Byrne, Marcus J; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-11-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. PMID:26538537

  18. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  19. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  20. Cyclically outbreaking geometrid moths in sub-arctic mountain birch forest: the organization and impacts of their interactions with animal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo

    2015-01-01

    In sub-arctic mountain birch forest in northern Fennoscandia, the 2 geometrid moth species Epirrita autumnata (autumnal moth) and Operophtera brumata (winter moth) show high-amplitude population cycles with regular 10-year periodicity. During some population peaks, moth populations attain outbreak densities and cause region-wide defoliation and mortality of mountain birch. The severity and duration of moth outbreaks presently appears to be increasing, owing to climate-driven range-expansions ...

  1. Intestinal allergic inflammation in birch pollen allergic patients in relation to pollen season, IgE sensitization profile and gastrointestinal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rentzos, Georgios; Lundberg, Vanja; Stotzer, Per-Ove; Pullerits, Teet; Telemo, Esbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Background Birch pollen allergic patients frequently experience gastrointestinal upset accompanied by a local allergic inflammation in the small intestine especially during the pollen season. However, it is not known if the GI pathology is connected to the subjective symptoms of the patient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune pathology of the duodenal mucosa and the serum IgE antibody profiles in birch pollen allergic patients in relation to their gastrointestinal symptoms...

  2. Short term effects of clear cutting on the regeneration of sub-arctic birch forest following severe outbreaks by geometrid moths

    OpenAIRE

    Klinghardt, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Birch forests in northern Fennoscandia experience re-occurring mass outbreaks of pest insects often resulting in severe defoliation. Here I test whether systematic clear cutting can accelerate the forest regeneration after outbreaks with uncut control plots as comparison. Basal shoot abundance was used as a main indicator for recovery but comprehensive data sampling also included the abundance of birch saplings, herbivore presence and understorey vegetation. Treatment responses of basal shoot...

  3. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Smole

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals.

  4. Effects of decadal exposure to interacting elevated CO2 and/or O3 on paper birch (Betula papyrifera) reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effects of long-term exposure (nine years) of birch (Betula papyrifera) trees to elevated CO2 and/or O3 on reproduction and seedling development at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. We found that elevated CO2 increased both the number of trees that flowered and the quantity of flowers (260% increase in male flower production), increased seed weight, germination rate, and seedling vigor. Elevated O3 also increased flowering but decreased seed weight and germination rate. In the combination treatment (elevated CO2 + O3) seed weight is decreased (20% reduction) while germination rate was unaffected. The evidence from this study indicates that elevated CO2 may have a largely positive impact on forest tree reproduction and regeneration while elevated O3 will likely have a negative impact. - In this study, we found that elevated CO2 enhances and elevated O3 decreases birch reproduction and early seedling growth

  5. New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

  6. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood. PMID:14610654

  7. New datasets for quantifying snow-vegetation-atmosphere interactions in boreal birch and conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, T. D.; Essery, R.; Rutter, N.; Huntley, B.; Baxter, R.; Holden, R.; King, M.; Hancock, S.; Carle, J.

    2012-12-01

    Boreal forests exert a strong influence on weather and climate by modifying the surface energy and radiation balance. However, global climate and numerical weather prediction models use forest parameter values from simple look-up tables or maps that are derived from limited satellite data, on large grid scales. In reality, Arctic landscapes are inherently heterogeneous, with highly variable land cover types and structures on a variety of spatial scales. There is value in collecting detailed field data for different areas of vegetation cover, to assess the accuracy of large-scale assumptions. To address these issues, a consortium of researchers funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council have collected extensive data on radiation, meteorology, snow cover and canopy structure at two contrasting Arctic forest sites. The chosen study sites were an area of boreal birch forest near Abisko, Sweden in March/April 2011 and mixed conifer forest at Sodankylä, Finland in March/April 2012. At both sites, arrays comprising ten shortwave pyranometers and four longwave pyrgeometers were deployed for periods of up to 50 days, under forest plots of varying canopy structures and densities. In addition, downwelling longwave irradiance and global and diffuse shortwave irradiances were recorded at nearby open sites representing the top-of-canopy conditions. Meteorological data were recorded at all sub-canopy and open sites using automatic weather stations. Over the same periods, tree skin temperatures were measured on selected trees using contact thermocouples, infrared thermocouples and thermal imagery. Canopy structure was accurately quantified through manual surveys, extensive hemispherical photography and terrestrial laser scans of every study plot. Sub-canopy snow depth and snow water equivalent were measured on fine-scale grids at each study plot. Regular site maintenance ensured a high quality dataset covering the important Arctic spring period. The data have several

  8. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  9. DYNAMICS AND DISTINCTIONS IN CONCENTRATION OF THE BASIC PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF LEAVES OF THE BIRCH GROWING IN IMPURE CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-01-01

    The complex of features of influence of external factors on frame of the basic photosynthetic pigments of a sheet plate of a birch is discussed. Besides, specificity of influence of the infectious pathological stress-factor – xylotroph basidial macromycet (facultative saprotroph) a tinder fungus bevelled – on the content of a chlorophyll of phylum a, b, their sums, lipochromes, an interrelation of pigments in sheet plates of trees Betula pendula Roth. is shown.

  10. DYNAMICS AND DISTINCTIONS IN CONCENTRATION OF THE BASIC PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF LEAVES OF THE BIRCH GROWING IN IMPURE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex of features of influence of external factors on frame of the basic photosynthetic pigments of a sheet plate of a birch is discussed. Besides, specificity of influence of the infectious pathological stress-factor – xylotroph basidial macromycet (facultative saprotroph a tinder fungus bevelled – on the content of a chlorophyll of phylum a, b, their sums, lipochromes, an interrelation of pigments in sheet plates of trees Betula pendula Roth. is shown.

  11. Detection and analysis of unusual features in the structural model and structure-factor data of a birch pollen allergen

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Physically improbable features in the model of the birch pollen structure Bet v 1d (PDB entry 3k78) are faithfully reproduced in electron density generated with the deposited structure factors, but these structure factors themselves exhibit properties that are characteristic of data calculated from a simple model and are inconsistent with the data and error model obtained through experimental measurements. The refinement of the 3k78 model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphou...

  12. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Heneberg; Kamila Riegerová; Petr Kučera

    2015-01-01

    Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch polle...

  13. In Vitro, Free radical scavenging activity of Cordia rothi bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj B. Nariya, V.J.Shukla, R.N.Acharya & R.G. Warma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was under taken to evaluate methanolic and butanol extracts of Cordia rothi bark for possible of natural antioxidant potential. This was done by different spectroscopic method. The extracts were evaluated for their phenolic content, ferrous reducing power & scavenging activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent & was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of both extract was measured by 1, 1, diphenyl-2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay & was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu et al. In the present study three in vitro models were used for evaluate of antioxidant activity. The second methods was for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity & remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed the C. rothi bark has significant radical scavenging activity.

  14. Understanding Boswellia papyrifera tree secondary metabolites through bark spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers are concerned whether to tap or rest Boswellia Papyrifera trees. Tapping for the production of frankincense is known to deplete carbon reserves from the tree leading to production of less viable seeds, tree carbon starvation and ultimately tree mortality. Decision makers use traditional experience without considering the amount of metabolites stored or depleted from the stem-bark of the tree. This research was designed to come up with a non-destructive B. papyrifera tree metabolite estimation technique relevant for management using spectroscopy. The concentration of biochemicals (metabolites) found in the tree bark was estimated through spectral analysis. Initially, a random sample of 33 trees was selected, the spectra of bark measured with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) spectrometer. Bark samples were air dried and ground. Then, 10 g of sample was soaked in Petroleum ether to extract crude metabolites. Further chemical analysis was conducted to quantify and isolate pure metabolite compounds such as incensole acetate and boswellic acid. The crude metabolites, which relate to frankincense produce, were compared to plant properties (such as diameter and crown area) and reflectance spectra of the bark. Moreover, the extract was compared to the ASD spectra using partial least square regression technique (PLSR) and continuum removed spectral analysis. The continuum removed spectral analysis were performed, on two wavelength regions (1275-1663 and 1836-2217) identified through PLSR, using absorption features such as band depth, area, position, asymmetry and the width to characterize and find relationship with the bark extracts. The results show that tree properties such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and the crown area of untapped and healthy trees were strongly correlated to the amount of stored crude metabolites. In addition, the PLSR technique applied to the first derivative transformation of the reflectance spectrum was found to estimate the

  15. Hypoglycemic activity of the bark of Spondias pinnata Linn. kurz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mondal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes, the most prevailing metabolic disorder is attracting present research attention towards it. In the present study, the various extracts of the barks of Spondias pinnata (Family: Rubiaceae was evaluated for hypoglycemic activity on adult Wistar albino rats at dose levels of 300 mg/kg p.o. each using normoglycaemic, glucose loaded and alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats. Glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg was used as reference standard for activity comparison. Among the tested extracts, the methanol extract was found to produce promising results that is comparable to that of the reference standard glibenclamide. The preliminary phytochemical examination of the methanol extract revealed presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids. The present work justifies the use of the bark in the folklore treatment in diabetes.

  16. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ROOT BARK OF DELONIX REGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Sama

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been of age long remedies for human diseases since they contain valuable components. In India, indigenous herbal remedies such as Ayurveda and other Indian traditional medicine have since ancient times used plants in treatment of various diseases. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of Delonix regia root bark was carried out by using various polarity solvents including hexane, butanol, methanol, and water. The methanol and water extracts indicates the presence of major bioactive compounds compare to other extracts. The Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates and sterols. The results suggest that the phytochemical properties of the root bark can be used for curing various ailments.

  17. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? METHODOLOGY: We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. CONCLUSION: Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores

  18. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards < or = 0.5 km from rain forest were predominantly visited by five previously unrecognized native beetle pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production. PMID:16156571

  19. A Potential Tool for Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) Conservation: Individuality of Long-Range Barking Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2003-01-01

    in Canada and extirpated, endangered, or threatened in parts of the United States. The barking sequence is a long-range vocalization in the species' vocal repertoire. It consists of a series of barks and is most common during the mating season. We analyzed barking sequences recorded in a standardized...... context from 20 captive individuals (3 females and 17 males) housed in large, single-pair enclosures at a swift fox breeding facility. Using a discriminant function analysis with 7 temporal and spectral variables measured on barking sequences, we were able to correctly classify 99% of sequences to the...... correct individual. The most important discriminating variable was the mean spacing of barks in a barking sequence. Potential applications of such vocal individuality are discussed....

  20. Singular Fibers in Barking Families of Degenerations of Elliptic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Okuda, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Takamura established a theory on splitting families of degenerations of complex curves. He introduced a powerful method for constructing a splitting family, called a barking family, in which there appear not only a singular fiber over the origin but also singular fibers over other points, called subordinate fibers. In this paper, for the case of degenerations of elliptic curves, we determine the types of these subordinate fibers.

  1. A New Phenolic Glycoside from the Barks of Cinnamomum cassia

    OpenAIRE

    Junfen Zeng; Yongbo Xue; Yongji Lai; Guangmin Yao; Zengwei Luo; Yonghui Zhang; Jinwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside (1), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D–glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical method. Selected compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 8 exhibited differential inhi...

  2. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF THE BARK OF PARKINSONIA ACULEATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Saha,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Parkinsonia aculeata (fam. Leguminosae was studied to fix the parameters for pharmacognostical standards. The results of organoleptic study offer a scientific basis for the use of P. aculeata which possess characters like brown colour, characteristic odour and slightly bitter taste. The fluorescence analysis under visible light & under UV light by treatment with different chemical reagents showed different colour changes. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and reducing sugars was confirmed during preliminary phytochemical screening.

  3. Acoustic cues to identity and predator context in meerkat barks

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Simon; Charlton, Benjamin; Manser, Marta B.

    2014-01-01

    Formants, the resonance frequencies of the vocal tract, are the key acoustic parameters underlying vowel identity in human speech. However, recent work on nonhuman animal communication systems has shown that formant variation provides potentially important information to receivers about static and dynamic attributes of callers. Meerkats, Suricata suricatta, produce broadband noisy bark vocalisations, lacking a clear fundamental frequency and harmonic structure, when they detect aerial or terr...

  4. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ROOT BARK OF DELONIX REGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha Sama; Xavier vergeese raja A

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been of age long remedies for human diseases since they contain valuable components. In India, indigenous herbal remedies such as Ayurveda and other Indian traditional medicine have since ancient times used plants in treatment of various diseases. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of Delonix regia root bark was carried out by using various polarity solvents including hexane, butanol, methanol, and water. The methan...

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Maria; Ali Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) furnished two new phytoconstituents identified as n-heptacosanyl n-octadec-9,12,15 trieneoate (moringyl linoleneate) and n- docas- 4-en-11-one-1-yl n-decanoate (oleiferyl capriate) along with the known compounds β-sitosterol, epilupeol, glyceropalmityl phosphate and glycerol-oleiostearyl phosphate. The structures of all the phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and che...

  6. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    OpenAIRE

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reac...

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Maria

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae furnished two new phytoconstituents identified as n-heptacosanyl n-octadec-9,12,15 trieneoate (moringyl linoleneate and n- docas- 4-en-11-one-1-yl n-decanoate (oleiferyl capriate along with the known compounds β-sitosterol, epilupeol, glyceropalmityl phosphate and glycerol-oleiostearyl phosphate. The structures of all the phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions.

  8. Bark frequency transform using an arbitrary order allpass filter1

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose an arbitrary order stable allpass filter structure for frequency transformation from Hertz to Bark scale. According to the proposed filter structure, the first order allpass filter is causal, but the second and higher order allpass filters are non-causal. We find that the accuracy of the transformation significantly improves when a second or higher order allpass filter is designed compared to a first order allpass filter. We also find that the RMS error of the transformation monoto...

  9. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDISATION STUDY ON TOONA CILIATA M. ROEM., BARK

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Avninder Singh; Sandhu Bharpur Singh; Dwivedi Gopal Krishna; Kaushik Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Toona ciliata M. Roem formerly called as Cedrella toona Roxb, known as Tooni in Sanskrit and Red cedar in English is a very important medicinal plant of renowned Meliaceae family. Tooni is used in our traditional system of medicine for the cure and prevention of various ailments viz. Antileprotic, bitter tonic and as anthelimintic. In the present study an attempt was made to study the pharmacognostical features of fresh and dried bark of Toona ciliata. Organoleptic (Colour, odour & taste), Ma...

  10. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  11. New sucrose derivatives from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommasi, N; Piacente, S; De Simone, F; Pizza, C

    1993-01-01

    Two new bitter principles were isolated from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata (Polygalaceae) and identified as beta-D-(3,4-disinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)g lucopyranoside and beta-D-(3-sinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)gluco pyranoside. The structures were elucidated by a combination of 1H nmr (1D, 2D COSY, 2D HOHAHA), 13C-nmr, and fabms spectra. PMID:8450315

  12. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9. PMID:20657499

  13. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S M; Singh, D K

    2000-11-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC(50) of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC(50): 22.42 mg/l) was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC(50): 55.65 mg/l) in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata. PMID:11050667

  14. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC50: 22.42 mg/l was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC50: 55.65 mg/l in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata.

  15. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  16. Neuropharmacological activities of Taxus wallichiana bark in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitender Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The bark of Taxus wallichiana is widely used for preparing a decoction and consumed as a tea by several tribal communities of the Indian subcontinent. The sedative, motor coordination, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of T. wallichiana bark and its ethylacetate fraction were evaluated in mice models of behavior analysis. Materials and Methods: The effects were evaluated on diazepam-induced sleeping time, elevated plus maze and light and dark box, and on the forced swimming test. General locomotor activity and motor coordination effects were evaluated in the actophotmeter and rota-rod tests respectively. Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, followed by post-hoc Dunnett′s test. FNx01P < 0.05, FNx08P < 0.01, FNx18P < 0.001 were considered as significant. Results: Both the hydroalcoholic extract and ethylacetate fraction showed a marked decrease in latency of sleep onset, prolonged the diazepam-induced sleeping time, decreased spontaneous locomotor activity; whereas ethylacetate fraction produced anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Conclusions: Both hydroalcoholic extract and its ethylacetate fraction of the bark of T. wallichiana have bioactive principles, which induce neuropharmacological changes.

  17. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Zakavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P<0.0001, but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes.

  18. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDIZATION AND HPTLC FINGERPRINT OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS LINN. BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Patil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global interest in herbal and other forms of traditional medicines. Herbs have long been an important source of numerous effective drugs. As per World Health Organization recommendations, there is a need for investigation of traditional medicinal plants for their potential therapeutic efficacy. The bark of Alstonia scholaris (L. R. Br. (Family: Apocynaceae locally known as ‘Sapthaparni’ or ‘Satwid’, is reported to have anticancer, antihelminthic, antidiarrhoeal, antiasthamatic, antimalarial etc. The present work embodies the study carried out for quality control of herbal drugs which comprises of macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical properties, phytochemical analysis, fluorescence analysis and HPTLC fingerprint. The anatomical markers present were found to be stone cells, sclereids, cork cells, fibers and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Methanol soluble extractive value was found to be higher than Water, Ethanol and Petroleum ether soluble extractive values. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, amino acids, fats, fixed oil, glycosides, proteins, starch and flavonoids. A unique HPTLC fingerprint for A. scholaris (L. R. Br. bark was developed. Results of the present study on pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigation of A. scholaris (L. R. Br. bark will be helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification of this plant.

  19. Phenolic Extracts from Acacia mangium Bark and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 °C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  20. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  1. Antioxidant Tannins from Stem Bark and Fine Root of Casuarina equisetifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Guang-Hui Lin; Shu-Dong Wei; Hai-Chao Zhou; Yi-Ming Lin; Shang-Ju Zhang; Gong-Fu Ye

    2010-01-01

    Structures of condensed tannins from the stem bark and fine root of Casuarina equisetifolia were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and HPLC analyses. The condensed tannins from stem bark and fine root consist predominantly of procyanidin combined with prodelphinidin and propelargonidin, and epicatechin is the main extension unit. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to tridecamer for stem bark and to pentadecamer for fine root. The antioxidant activities...

  2. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not y...

  3. Isolation and amplification of genomic DNA from barks of Cinnamomum spp.

    OpenAIRE

    SWETHA, Valya Parambil; PARVATHY, Viswanath Alambath; SHEEJA, Thotten Elampillay; Bhaskaran SASIKUMAR

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum Blume), the cinnamon of commerce, is an important aromatic tree spice having wide applications in perfumery, flavoring, beverages, and medicine. Adulteration of cinnamon with the cheaper and inferior barks of C. aromaticum and C. malabatrum is a problem. Morphological distinction of the barks is difficult; in the case of powdered barks, the situation is even worse. DNA-based molecular tools are preferred under these circumstances. Isolation of high q...

  4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Jae Ho; Park, Gwang Hun; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was...

  5. Methane consumption and soil respiration by a birch forest soil in West Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes were measured in a birch forest soil in West Siberia, in August 1999, June 2000 and September 2000. The study site had a very thick organic horizon that was subject to drought during the observation periods. The soils always took up CH4, while CO2 was released from the surface to the atmosphere. CH4 consumption and CO2 emission rates ranged from 0.092 to 0.28 mg C/m2/h and from 110 to 400 mg C/m2/h respectively. The CH4 consumption rate and soil temperatures showed significant relationships for individual measurements. The soil respiration rate was weakly correlated with individual soil temperatures. This study examined the effect of current and lagged soil temperatures at a depth of 5 cm on CH4 consumption and soil respiration. The variation in the correlation coefficient between CH4 consumption and lagged soil temperature was greatest at a 4-h lag, whereas that for soil respiration showed a gentle peak at lags from several hours to half a day. This difference in the temperature-related lag effect between CH4 consumption and soil respiration results from differences in the exchange processes. Neither flux showed any correlation with soil moisture. The limited variation in soil moisture during our observation period may account for the lack of correlation. However, the droughty soil conditions resulted in high gas diffusion and, consequently, high CH4 consumption

  6. Responses of selected birch (Betula pendula Roth) clones to ozone change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, E.

    2003-06-01

    A long-term free air ozone fumigation experiment was conducted to study changes in physiological ozone responses during tree ontogeny and exposure time in ozone sensitive and tolerant clones of European white birch (Betula pendula Roth), originated from south and central Finland. The trees were grown in soil in natural microclimatic conditions under ambient ozone (control) and 1.4-1.7 x ambient (elevated) ozone from May 1996 to October 2001, and were measured for stem and foliage growth, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, stomatal density, visible injuries, foliar starch content and bud formation. After 6 years of exposure, the magnitude of ozone-induced growth reductions in the sensitive clone was 12-48% (significant difference), levels similar or greater than those reported earlier for 2- and 3-year-old saplings undergoing shorter exposures. In the tolerant clone, growth of these larger trees was reduced by 1-38% (significant difference in stem volume), although the saplings had previously been unaffected. In both clones, ozone stress led to significantly reduced leaf-level net photosynthesis but significantly increased stomatal conductance rates during the late summer, resulting in a lower carbon gain for bud formation and the onset of visible foliar injuries. Increasing ozone sensitivity with duration of exposure was explained by a change in growth form (relatively reduced foliage mass), a lower photosynthesis to stomatal conductance ratio during the late summer, and deleterious carry-over effects arising from the reduced number of over-wintering buds. PMID:12803615

  7. Detection of Malware and Malicious Executables Using E-Birch Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ashit Kumar Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malware detection is one of the challenges to the modern computing world. Web mining is the subset of data mining used to provide solutions for complex problems. Web intelligence is the new hope for the field of computer science to bring solution for the malware detection. Web mining is the method of web intelligence to make web as an intelligent tool to combat malware and phishing websites. Generally, malware injected through websites into the user system and modifies the executable file and paralyze the whole activity of the system. Antivirus application utilizes the data mining technique to find the malware in the web. There is a need of heuristic approach to solve the malware problem. Dynamic analysis methods yield better result than the static methods. Data mining is the best option for the dynamic analysis of malware or malicious program. The purpose of the research is to apply the enhanced Birch algorithm to find the malware and modified executables of Windows and Android operating system.

  8. Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Pummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation of bioaerosols (bacteria, pollen, spores, etc. is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate, is not yet fully understood. Here we show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behaviour. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. Far more intriguingly, it has turned out that water, which has been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. The ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so presumably augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. Our experiments lead to the conclusion that pollen ice nuclei, in contrast to bacterial and fungal ice nucleating proteins, are non-proteinaceous compounds.

  9. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow ( Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale.

  10. Bioaccessibility in vitro of nutraceuticals from bark of selected Salix species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Sugier, Danuta; Dziki, Dariusz; Sugier, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study. PMID:24696660

  11. Flow Visualization of Rhinoceros Beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) in Free Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Hieu Trung Tran; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon; Doyoung Byun

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings,are investigated.Visualization experiments were conducted for various flight conditions of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus:free,tethered,hovering,forward and climbing flights.Leading edge,trailing edge and tip vortices on both wings were observed clearly.The leading edge vortex was stable and remained on the top surface of the elytron for a wide interval during the downstroke of free forward flight.Hence,the elytron may have a considerable role in lift force generation of the beetle.In addition,we reveal a suction phenomenon between the gaps of the hind wing and the elytron in upstroke that may improve the positive lift force on the hind wing.We also found the reverse clap-fling mechanism of the T.dichotomus beetle in hovering flight.The hind wings touch together at the beginning of the upstroke.The vortex generation,shedding and interaction give a better understanding of the detailed aerodynamic mechanism of beetle flight.

  12. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Miraldo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species. Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

  13. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges. PMID:26467617

  14. Application of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis to decoding the history of environmental pollutions using tree bark and tree trunk bark pockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distributions of trace elements in tree bark and tree trunk bark pockets were successfully determined by Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) analysis. The sample include outer and inner tree bark, tree trunk bark pockets, cambium, xylem. Two dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis of Ca, K, Mn, Sr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Pb in these samples were made with a combination of monochromatic X-ray (14-16.5 keV) of 150 - 500 μm or ca.6 μm size and an excitation source and Si(Li)-solid state detector. From the results of the XRF imaging results, it was found that the intensity of the elements, such as Pb, Fe and Cu, in outer bark and bark pockets samples were higher than those in cambium and xylem. Moreover, trace element levels were quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results were consistent with the element distribution measured by two dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. This study has demonstrated the advantages of the SR-XRF technique in environmental pollution analysis of minute biological tissue. The XANES analysis disclosed that Pb deposited in the bark existed as Pb2+ state. (author)

  15. Hold your breath beetle-Mites!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Drobniak, Szymon M; Schramm, Bartosz W; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozlowski, Jan; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory gas exchange in insects occurs via a branching tracheal system. The entrances to the air-filled tracheae are the spiracles, which are gate-like structures in the exoskeleton. The open or closed state of spiracles defines the three possible gas exchange patterns of insects. In resting insects, spiracles may open and close over time in a repeatable fashion that results in a discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern characterized by periods of zero organism-to-environment gas exchange. Several adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why insects engage in DGE, but none have attracted overwhelming support. We provide support for a previously untested hypothesis that posits that DGE minimizes the risk of infestation of the tracheal system by mites and other agents. Here, we analyze the respiratory patterns of 15 species of ground beetle (Carabidae), of which more than 40% of individuals harbored external mites. Compared with mite-free individuals, infested one's engaged significantly more often in DGE. Mite-free individuals predominantly employed a cyclic or continuous gas exchange pattern, which did not include complete spiracle closure. Complete spiracle closure may prevent parasites from invading, clogging, or transferring pathogens to the tracheal system or from foraging on tissue not protected by thick chitinous layers. PMID:26689423

  16. Simulation of water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delineation of areas at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory that would be inundated by a 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek is needed by the US Department of Energy to fulfill flood-plain regulatory requirements. Birch Creek flows southward about 40 miles through an alluvium-filled valley onto the northern part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory site on the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower 10-mile reach of Birch Creek that ends in Birch Creek Playa near several Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities is of particular concern. Twenty-six channel cross sections were surveyed to develop and apply a hydraulic model to simulate water-surface elevations for a hypothetical 100-year peak flow in Birch Creek. Model simulation of the 100-year peak flow (700 cubic feet per second) in reaches upstream from State Highway 22 indicated that flow was confined within channels even when all flow was routed to one channel. Where the highway crosses Birch Creek, about 315 cubic feet per second of water was estimated to move downstream--115 cubic feet per second through a culvert and 200 cubic feet per second over the highway. Simulated water-surface elevation at this crossing was 0.8 foot higher than the elevation of the highway. The remaining 385 cubic feet per second flowed southwestward in a trench along the north side of the highway. Flow also was simulated with the culvert removed. The exact location of flood boundaries on Birch Creek could not be determined because of the highly braided channel and the many anthropogenic features (such as the trench, highway, and diversion channels) in the study area that affect flood hydraulics and flow. Because flood boundaries could not be located exactly, only a generalized flood-prone map was developed

  17. Development and in-house validation of an allergen-specific ELISA for quantification of Bet v 4 in diagnostic and therapeutic birch allergen products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehus, Oliver; Zimmer, Julia; Döring, Sascha; Führer, Frank; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Holzhauser, Thomas; Neske, Florian; Strecker, Daniel; Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Vieths, Stefan; Kaul, Susanne

    2015-02-01

    Birch (Betula) pollen is a major cause of allergy in northern and central Europe. The allergenic potency of products for diagnosis and therapy of birch pollen allergy is adjusted nearly exclusively to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Although every fifth patient is additionally sensitized to Bet v 4, both content and variability of this minor allergen in birch allergen products remain unclear due to a lack of simple and cost-effective quantitative methods. This study aimed to develop and in-house validate the first Bet v 4-specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Based on a murine monoclonal antibody in combination with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum, the ELISA proved to be highly sensitive, with a lower limit of quantification of 30 pg/ml Bet v 4. After confirmation of satisfactory accuracy, reproducibility, and robustness, the ELISA was utilized to quantify Bet v 4 in 30 authorized birch allergen products. The allergen was detected in all samples tested, ranging from 0.2 to 4.4 μg/ml. No significant correlation of Bet v 4 was found with the respective amount of Bet v 1. In contrast to Bet v 1, also no correlation of Bet v 4 with total protein content or total allergenic activity could be observed. Thus, it seems presently unfeasible to base birch allergen product standardization additionally on Bet v 4. In light of these results, the continuous monitoring of Bet v 4 in birch allergen products with the presented ELISA will provide a basis for the understanding of the clinical relevance of minor allergens. PMID:25572690

  18. Marking small hive beetles with thoracic notching: effects on longevity, flight ability and fecundity

    OpenAIRE

    De Guzman, Lilia; Frake, Amanda; Rinderer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    International audience We tested two marking techniques for adult small hive beetles (SHB): dusting and thoracic notching. The use of blue and red chalk dusts to mark beetles was not persistent and caused early death of SHB with an average survival of 52.6 ± 23.8 and 13.9 ± 7.3 days, respectively. In contrast, notched beetles survived longer (mean = 353.6 ± 5.3 days) with the last beetle dying after 383 days. Likewise, notched beetles (presumed to be injured because of oozing hemolymph fro...

  19. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...... and domestic herbivores. A one-year sampling was conducted to study the scarab assemblage in dog scats (1999) and to compare it with the previous assemblage associated with sheep droppings (1986). Richness, evenness and similarity parameters were compared between the two allochronic assemblages. From...... sheep to dog dung, an impoverishment of the total richness was observed (from 19 to 9 species) together with an increase of individuals (by 7 times). Dog dung harboured 20% of the current scarab dung beetle fauna of Rome, probably as a consequence of the dog mixed diet, rich in cellulose. Both the...

  20. Micro-structure and frictional characteristics of beetle's joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhendong; Stanislav N. Gorb

    2004-01-01

    Geometric and micro-structure design, tribology properties of beetle joints were experimentally studied, which aimed to enlighten ideas for the joint design of MEMS.The observation by using SEM and microscopy suggested that beetle's joints consist of a concave surface matched with a convex surface. The heads of the beetles, rubbing with flat glass, were tested in fresh and dried statuses and compared with sapphire ball with flat glass. Frictional coefficient of the joint material on glass was significantly lower than that of the sapphire sphere on glass. The material of the joint cuticle for convex surface is rather stiff (the elastic modulus 4.5 Gpa) and smooth. The surface is hydrophobic (the contact angle of distilled water was 88.3° ). It is suggested here that the high stiffness of the joint material and hydrophobicity of the joint surface are parts of the mechanism minimizing friction in insect joints.

  1. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  2. Bird and beetle assemblages in mountain pine beetle killed forests and those subsequently burned: evidence for an effect of compound natural disturbances in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    House, Kimberly Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak in British Columbia (BC) is unprecedented in severity and extent, and has created a landscape of beetle-killed trees through which wildfires are now burning as compound natural disturbances. We asked the question: Is there an impact of grey phase MPB kill severity on bird and beetle assemblages, and does an effect persist following wildfire in BC? We compared the bird community of central interior BC against categ...

  3. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  4. BIOSORPTION OF LEAD (II ON MODIFIED BARKS EXPLAINED BY THE HARD AND SOFT ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Astier,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of Douglas fir bark and its subsequent utilization in adsorption of Pb(II from aqueous solutions was investigated. The polysaccharidic moiety of barks was functionalized by periodate oxidation and derivatized after reductive amination in the presence of aminated oligo-carrageenans. Pb(II adsorption isotherms of derivatized barks were then determined and compared to the capabilities of crude barks using the Langmuir adsorption model in terms of affinity (b and maximum binding capacity (qmax. Compared to crude barks, the derivatization of barks by oligo-carrageenans resulted in significant enhancements of qmax and b by up to x8 and x4, respectively. The results obtained from crude barks on chemically grafted carboxylic and sulfated barks are discussed and interpreted through the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB theory.

  5. Distribution and turnover of 137Cs in birch forest ecosystems: influence of precipitation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was to study radioactive caesium in soil and plants from birch forests subject to different chemical climate. Four areas and three types of precipitation regimes were considered, representing a natural climatic range found in Norway: (A) acidic precipitation (southernmost part of the country); (B) precipitation rich in “sea salts”/marine cations (coastal areas); and (C) + (D) low concentrations of sea salts (inland areas). The results showed significant regional differences in plant uptake between the investigated areas. For instance the aggregated soil-to-plant transfer coefficients (Tag) were generally up to 7–8 times higher for the area receiving acid rain. Differences in caesium speciation partly explained the regional variability - e.g. the exchangeable fraction ranged from 1 to 40% (with the largest fraction of exchangeable caesium found in southernmost Norway). Transfer coefficients estimated on the basis of exchangeable fractions showed no significant differences between the areas of highest (A) and lowest (C) Tags. However, exchangeable fractions taken into consideration, the uptake of 137Cs in plants in the acid rain-influenced area is still about twice that in the sea salt influenced area B. A significantly lower concentration of soluble base cations and a higher share of acid components in soils in area A is a likely explanation for this observation. - Highlights: ► Precipitation quality affects soil chemistry and plant uptake of Cs. ► Soil-to-plant transfer of Cs was highest in a coastal area receiving acid rain. ► Differences in Cs speciation partly explained regional transfer variability.

  6. BIOSORPTION OF LEAD (II) ON MODIFIED BARKS EXPLAINED BY THE HARD AND SOFT ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB) THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Cedric Astier,; Vincent Chaleix,; Celine Faugeron,; David Ropartz,; Pierre Krausz; Vincent Gloaguen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical modification of Douglas fir bark and its subsequent utilization in adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The polysaccharidic moiety of barks was functionalized by periodate oxidation and derivatized after reductive amination in the presence of aminated oligo-carrageenans. Pb(II) adsorption isotherms of derivatized barks were then determined and compared to the capabilities of crude barks using the Langmuir adsorption model in terms of affinity (b) and maximum ...

  7. Selective bark-stripping of beech, Fagus sylvatica, by free-ranging horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Sluijs, van der L.A.M.; Wytema, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Incidence and intensity of bark-stripping by horses was surveyed in stands and tree lanes of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Veluwezoom National Park, by using transects. Damage was apparent on 38% of beech trees, and 11% were seriously damaged (score 3 or more). Susceptibility to bark-stripp

  8. Microscopic and UPLC-UV-MS analyses of authentic and commercial yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe) bark samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohimbine is the major alkaloid found in the stem-bark of yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe (Rubiaceae), an evergreen tree native to Africa. A number of yohimbe products are sold in USA as dietary supplements. Hand-sections of the stem-bark were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by ligh...

  9. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason Earles, J; Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R; North, Malcolm P; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-02-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water entered the xylem via bark and reduced tracheid embolization. Moreover, prolonged bark wetting (16 h) partially restored xylem hydraulic conductivity in isolated branch segments and whole branches. Partial hydraulic recovery coincided with an increase in branch water potential from about -5.5 ± 0.4 to -4.2 ± 0.3 MPa, suggesting localized recovery and possibly hydraulic isolation. As bark water uptake rate correlated with xylem osmotic potential (R(2)  = 0.88), we suspect a symplastic role in transferring water from bark to xylem. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we estimated that bark and leaves are wet more than 1000 h per year on average, with over 30 events being sufficiently long (>24 h) to allow for bark-assisted hydraulic recovery. The capacity to uptake biologically meaningful volumes of water via bark and leaves for localized hydraulic recovery throughout the crown during rain/fog events might be physiologically advantageous, allowing for relatively constant transpiration. PMID:26178179

  10. Bark content estimation in poplar (Populus deltoides L.) short-rotation coppice in Central Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidi, Werther; Piccioni, Emiliano; Bonari, Enrico [Land Lab, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, via S. Cecilia 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Ginanni, Marco [Centro Interdipartimentale Enrico Avanzi, Via Vecchia di Marina 6, 56010 San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Differences in bark and wood content in woody biomass directly affect its quality and economic value as an energy source. In order to estimate the quality of biomass before harvesting, an allometric regression of bark percentage of total aboveground biomass and DHB (diameter at 1.30 m height) was developed in a 2-year poplar short-rotation coppice system in Central Italy. Firstly, a relationship between mean diameter and bark content percentage was established in 1 cm-wide sections belonging to all diametric classes. The model of best fit for these stem cylindrical sections was an equation y=ax{sup -b}. Following this, sample stems (of which we measured DHB) were collected and divided into sections belonging to a diameter class. Fresh and dry matter were determined for each class. Using the first equation, bark content was calculated separately for all classes. Thereafter, a second equation between bark content in the whole stem and DHB was developed. The best fitting equation for the whole stem was y=cx{sup -d}. Bark content in the whole stem ranged from 33.9-31.4% in large-sized DHB stems to 15.1-12.5% in smallest stems, depending on their moisture content. Bark content decreased rapidly in the small diametric classes until DHB reached 4 cm. Thereafter, the ratio of reduction of bark percentage dropped. (author)

  11. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Michael J; Hebertson, Elizabeth G; A. Steven Munson

    2014-01-01

    Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the bio...

  12. Two new phenylbutanoids from inner bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari; Karonen, Maarit; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2008-02-01

    Two phenylbutanoids, 7-{3R-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl] beta-glucopyranosid-O-6-yl} 4-O-beta-glucopyranosylvanillin and 3-beta-glucopyranosyloxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butanone were isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of the inner bark of Betula pendula. Their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The complete assignment of proton and carbon signals was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments: selective 1D TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and DQF-COSY. PMID:18098157

  13. Procyanidin xylosides from the bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2012-04-01

    A procyanidin dimer xyloside, catechin-(4α→8)-7-O-β-xylopyranosyl-catechin, was isolated from the inner bark of Betula pendula and its structure was determined using 1D and 2D NMR, CD and high-resolution ESIMS. Interestingly, the 7-O-β-xylopyranose unit was found to be present in the lower terminal unit of the dimer. In addition to this procyanidin dimer xyloside, an entire series of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin xylosides was detected. Their structures were investigated by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-HRESIMS. Procyanidin glycosides are still rarely found in nature. PMID:22273040

  14. Antiplasmodial and larvicidal compounds of Toddalia asiatica root bark

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Nyahanga; J Isaac Jondiko; L Onyango Arot Manguro; J Atieno Orwa

    2013-09-01

    From the -hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Toddalia asiatica root bark were isolated eight compounds (1-8) which were identified on the basis of both spectroscopic and physical data as well as comparison with already published results. The crude extracts and isolated compounds showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity against D6 (chloroquine-sensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The extracts and isolates also exhibited larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti and coumarins were identified as the active compounds.

  15. Chemical Constituents from Stem Bark and Roots of Clausena anisata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Dongo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on the stem bark and roots of the tropical shrub Clausena anisata led to the isolation and characterization three carbazole alkaloids: girinimbine, murrayamine-A and ekeberginine; two peptide derivatives: aurantiamide acetate and N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninyl-N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninate; and a mixture of two phytosterols: sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were established by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS.

  16. Effects of sulfur dioxide pollution on bark epiphytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, P.D.

    1967-01-01

    The destructive effects of sulfur dioxide pollution on epiphytic bryophytes is seen to be due to chlorophyll degradation and the impairment of cell structure and function through plasmolysis. Morphological changes noted by Pearson and Skye (1965) in lichens were not seen, although stunting and infertility are evident in epiphyte remnants in polluted areas. The investigation of the ion exchange and buffer capacities of sycamore bark indicates a loss of both in approximate proportion to the degree of pollution. Smoke and aerosol particles are not considered to be of particular importance at the present time although they may well have been important in the past.

  17. Triterpenoid saponins from the stem bark of Caryocar villosum

    OpenAIRE

    Magid, A. A.; Voutquenne Nazabadioko, L.; Renimel, I.; Harakat, D.; Moretti, Christian; Lavaud, C.

    2006-01-01

    Five triterpenoid saponins, caryocarosides II-22 (3), III-22 (4), II-23 (5), III-23 (6), and II-24 (7), have been isolated from the methanol extract of the stem bark of Caryocar villosum, along with two known saponins (1-2). The seven saponins are glucuronides of hederagenin (II) or bayogenin (III). Caryocaroside II-24 (7) is an unusual galloyl ester saponin acylated on the sugar chain attached to C-28, the 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-glueurono...

  18. Chemical constituents from bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum: cholesterol occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical investigation of the bark of Cenostigma macrophyllum (Leguminosae-Caesapinioideae) resulted in the isolation and identification of valoneic acid dilactone, ellagic acid, lupeol, alkyl ferulate, four free sterols (cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol), a mixture of sitosteryl ester derivatives of fatty acids, sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by 1H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. The mixtures of 3-beta-hydroxysterols and fatty acids were analysed by GC/MS. (author)

  19. Calotroposide S, New Oxypregnane Oligoglycoside from Calotropis procera Root Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Calotroposide S (1, a new oxypregnane oligoglycoside has been isolated from the n-butanol fraction of Calotropis procera (Ait R. Br. root bark. The structure of 1 was assigned based on various spectroscopic analyses. Calotroposide S (1 possesses the 12-O-benzoylisolineolon aglycone moiety with eight sugar residues attached to C-3 of the aglycone. It showed potent anti-proliferative activity towards PC-3 prostate cancer, A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and U373 glioblastoma (GBM cell lines with IC 50 0.18, 0.2, and 0.06 µM, respectively compared with cisplatin and carboplatin.

  20. Stem diameter and bark surface area of the fluted trunk of Balanites maughamii (Balanitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Williams

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Balanites maughamii Sprague (Balanitaceae is a woodland tree used and harvested for bark products in the traditional medicine trade o f South Africa. The tree has a distinctively fluted and buttressed stem, especially in mature individuals. This short communication quantifies the relationship between two diameter measurements D1 and D2 that respectively exclude and include the bark surface contained in the convolutions of the flutes at five height intervals up the stem to 2 m. Regressions show D1 to be an accurate predictor of D2 (r^ =0.97-0.99 over a range of tree sizes, hence obviating the necessity to measure both D1 and D2. The circumference and bark surface area on the stem was determined to estimate the quantity of bark that can potentially be harvested. At least 69% of the stem circumference and bark surface area was estimated to be contained within the convolutions of the flutes.

  1. In vitro Development of Callus from Node of Mimusops elengi - As Substitute of Natural Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Gami

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, results of in vitro callus development from Mimusops elengi as substitute of bark were formulated. By different auxine/cytokinine ratio from young nodal explant compact, globular and fragile types of callus were developed. Methanolic extract of all types of callus and bark were studied for extractable matter, antibacterial activity, phytochemical profiling, biouautography and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC banding patterns. Results of all calluses were compared with results of natural bark of M. elengi. TLC pattern of three types of callus and bark revealed similar banding pattern, and same bioactivity was also observed in bioautography. Our results indicate that natural bark & in vitro developed callus of M. elengi posses similar chemical profiling and bioactivity regardless the type & colour of callus.

  2. Perinatal maternal administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 prevents allergic inflammation in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Schabussova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis implies that microbial agents including probiotic bacteria may modulate foetal/neonatal immune programming and hence offer effective strategies for primary allergy prevention; however their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 to mothers during gestation/lactation can protect against airway inflammation in offspring in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, and examined the immune mechanisms involved. METHODS: BALB/c mice were treated daily with L. paracasei in drinking water or drinking water alone in the last week of gestation and during lactation. Their offspring were sensitized with recombinant Bet v 1, followed by aerosol challenge with birch pollen extract. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to L. paracasei prevented the development of airway inflammation in offspring, as demonstrated by attenuation of eosinophil influx in the lungs; reduction of IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage, and in lung and mediastinal lymph node cell cultures; and reduced peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate and mucus hypersecretion. While allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibody levels remained unchanged by the treatment, IL-4 and IL-5 production in spleen cell cultures were significantly reduced upon allergen stimulation in offspring of L. paracasei treated mice. Offspring of L. paracasei supplemented mothers had significantly reduced Bet v 1-specific as well as Concanavalin A-induced responses in spleen and mesenteric lymph node cell cultures, suggesting the modulation of both antigen-specific and mitogen-induced immune responses in offspring. These effects were associated with increased Foxp3 mRNA expression in the lungs and increased TGF-beta in serum. CONCLUSION: Our data show that in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, perinatal administration of L. paracasei NCC 2461 to pregnant/lactating mothers protects against the development of airway

  3. Responses in the start of Betula (birch) pollen seasons to recent changes in spring temperatures across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberlin, J.; Detandt, M.; Gehrig, R.; Jaeger, S.; Nolard, N.; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A.

    2002-07-01

    A shift in the timing of birch pollen seasons is important because it is well known to be a significant aeroallergen, especially in NW Europe where it is a notable cause of hay fever and pollen-related asthma. The research reported in this paper aims to investigate temporal patterns in the start dates of Betula (birch) pollen seasons at selected sites across Europe. In particular it investigates relationships between the changes in start dates and changes in spring temperatures over approximately the last 20 years. Daily birch pollen counts were used from Kevo, Turku, London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna, for the core period from 1982 to 1999 and, in some cases, from 1970 to 2000. The sites represent a range of biogeographical situations from just within the Arctic Circle through to North West Maritime and Continental Europe. Pollen samples were taken with Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Weather data were obtained from the sites nearest to the pollen traps. The timing of birch pollen seasons is known to depend mostly on a non-linear balance between the winter chilling required to break dormancy, and spring temperatures. Pollen start dates and monthly mean temperatures for January through to May were compiled to 5-year running means to examine trends. The start dates for the next 10 years were calculated from regression equations for each site, on the speculative basis that the current trends would continue. The analyses show regional contrasts. Kevo shows a marked trend towards cooler springs and later starts. If this continues the mean start date will become about 6 days later over the next 10 years. Turku exhibits cyclic patterns in start dates. A current trend towards earlier starts is expected to continue until 2007, followed by another fluctuation. London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna show very similar patterns in the trends towards earlier start dates. If the trend continues the mean start dates at these sites will advance by about 6 days over the next 10

  4. 430 Comparative Analysis of Patients with Birch Pollinosis and Patients with Associated Plant Food Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Napiórkowska, Katarzyna; bikowska-Gotz, Magdalena Ż

    2012-01-01

    Background Even 70% patients allergic to pollens of plants are developing undesirable symptoms after eating foods of the plant origin. It is most often a result of the cross-allergy between these allergens. The aim of the study was to compare the group of patients with pollinosis with patients with pollinosis and food allergy. Methods Fifty eight patients at the age above 16 were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Patients included in the first group were birch allerg...

  5. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus: A threat to avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt (LW) is a disease caused by Raffaelea sp., a fungal symbiont associated with the recently-introduced redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus. Impact of RAB as a vector of the disease to avocado is a threat to avocado production in the U.S. Since 2006, we have a) tested suscepti...

  6. Use of infochemicals to attract carrion beetles into pitfall traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podskalská, H.; Růžička, J.; Hoskovec, Michal; Šálek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2009), s. 59-64. ISSN 0013-8703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : burying beetles * dimethylsulfide * dimethyldisulfide * dimethyltrisulfide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2009

  7. Surveying an endangered saproxylic beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Mediterranean woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiari, Stefano; Zauli, Agnese; Mazziotta, Adriano; Luiselli, Luca; Audisio, Paolo; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M.

    2013-01-01

    . Detection probability and population size estimates were drawn from each of these four capture methods. There were strong differences in detection probability among methods. Despite using pheromone and beetle manipulation, capture histories were not affected by trap-happiness or trap-shyness. Population...

  8. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  9. PATCH EXPLOITATION BY FEMALE RED FLOUR BEETLES, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characte...

  10. CUTICULAR HYDROCARBONS OF THE SUNFLOWER BEETLE, ZYGOGRAMMA EXCLAMATIONIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocarbons were the major lipid class on the cuticular surface of adults, nymphs, and eggs of the sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis, characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minor amounts of wax ester from 40 to 48 carbon atoms in size were only detected in larvae. The hyd...

  11. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denell, Robin; Gibbs, Richard; Muzny, Donna;

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to inte...

  12. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles...

  13. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  14. In Vitro Antiophidian Properties of Dipteryx alata Vogel Bark Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Dipteryx alata bark obtained with different solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol were mixed in vitro with Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu, 40 μg/mL and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt, 15 μg/mL snake venoms, and applied to a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation to evaluate the possible neutralization of venom effects. Cdt venom neurotoxic effect was not inhibited by any of the extracts, while the neurotoxic and myotoxic actions of Bjssu venom were decreased by the methanolic extract. This inhibition appears to be augmented by tannins. Dichloromethane bark extract inhibited ~40% of Bjssu venom effects and delayed blockade induced by Cdt. The methodology used to determine which extract was active allows inferring that: (i phenolic acids and flavonoids contained in the methanolic extract plus tannins were responsible mostly for neutralization of Bjssu effects; (ii terpenoids from the dichloromethane extract may participate in the anti-Cdt and anti-Bjssu venom effects; (iii a given extract could not inhibit venoms from different species even if those belong to the same family, so it is improper to generalize a certain plant as antiophidian; (iv different polarity extracts do not present the same inhibitory capability, thus demonstrating the need for characterizing both venom pharmacology and the phytochemistry of medicinal plant compounds

  15. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol(®) (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  16. IN VITRO ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matpal Mahesh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the different extract of bark of Ficus benghalensis, family Moraceae is a very large, fast growing, evergreen tree up to 30 meters, with spreading branches and many aerial roots. Leaves stalked, ovate-cordate, 3-nerved, entire, when young downy on both sides; petiole with a broad smooth greasy gland at the apex, compressed, downy; Fruit in axillary pairs, the size of a cherry, round and downy. According to Ayurveda, it is astringent to bowels; useful in treatment of biliousness, ulcers, erysipelas, vomiting, vaginal complains, fever, inflammations, leprosy. According to Unani system of medicine, its latex is aphrodisiac, tonic, vulernary, maturant, lessens inflammations; useful in piles etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous, chloroform and alcoholic extracts of the bark by in vitro methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC method. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. The methanolic extract at a concentration of 200 mg/ml. showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  17. Studies on some physicochemical properties of Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  18. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDISATION STUDY ON TOONA CILIATA M. ROEM., BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Avninder Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Toona ciliata M. Roem formerly called as Cedrella toona Roxb, known as Tooni in Sanskrit and Red cedar in English is a very important medicinal plant of renowned Meliaceae family. Tooni is used in our traditional system of medicine for the cure and prevention of various ailments viz. Antileprotic, bitter tonic and as anthelimintic. In the present study an attempt was made to study the pharmacognostical features of fresh and dried bark of Toona ciliata. Organoleptic (Colour, odour & taste, Macroscopic (Size, shape, texture & fracture and Microscopic (Powder microscopic characteristics evaluations were performed to establish the qualitative and diagnostic features. The various physiochemical parameters (Loss on drying, foreign matter, extractive values, ash values, pH, percent crude fibres were also determined for the effective standardisation of the medicinal plant material. Beside all above mentioned conventional methods of standardisation, the powdered bark was also subjected to powder drug analysis with different chemical reagent and for fluorescence drug analysis on exposure to different wavelengths of ultraviolet light. The various determinations and analysis which were carried out in the present study will certainly help for first line identification and quality control of plant material in its crude form. Further, the authentic material can be subjected to the phytochemical investigations, isolation of phytochemicals and many more for the validation of vast traditional therapeutic potential of the plant material in terms of its in-vivo pharmacological screening.

  19. Interaction of Quillaja bark saponins with food-relevant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezwon, Aleksandra; Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2014-07-01

    The surface activity and aggregation behaviour of two Quillaja bark saponins (QBS) are compared using surface tension, conductometry and light scattering. Despite formally of the same origin (bark of the Quillaja saponaria Molina tree), the two QBS show markedly different ionic characters and critical micelle concentrations (7.7·10(-6) mol·dm(-3) and 1.2·10(-4) mol·dm(-3)). The new interpretation of the surface tension isotherms for both QBS allowed us to propose an explanation for the previous discrepancy concerning the orientation of the saponin molecules in the adsorbed layer. The effect of three food-related proteins (hen egg lysozyme, bovine β-lactoglobulin and β-casein) on surface tension of the saponins is also described. Dynamic surface tension was measured at fixed protein concentrations and QBS concentrations varying in the range 5·10(-7)-1·10(-3) mol·dm(-3). Both dynamic and extrapolated equilibrium surface tensions of the protein/QBS mixtures depend not only on the protein, but also on the QBS source. In general, the surface tension for mixtures of the QBS with lower CMC and less ionic character shows less pronounced synergistic effects. This is especially well visible for β-casein/QBS mixtures, where a characteristic maximum in the surface tension isotherm around the molar ratio of one can be noticed for one saponin product, but not for the other. PMID:24802169

  20. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  1. Characterisation of polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna bark extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anumita Saha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Terminalia arjuna is known for its heart-health benefits in ayurvedic literature. This has been further supported by in vivo studies on animal and human volunteers. But there is no detailed study on identification of the active ingredients such as polyphenols. Polyphenols possesses antioxidant properties and are well-known health actives, it is important to characterise polyphenols in Terminalia arjuna. Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna bark was analysed for its composition and molecular weight distribution by dialysis. Compositional analysis revealed that it has 44% polyphenols and dialysis study showed that 70% of the polyphenols have molecular weight greater than 3.5 kDa. High performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Terminalia arjuna, confirmed that it contains flavon-3-ols such as (+-catechin, (+-gallocatechin and (−-epigallocatechin. Phenolic acids such as gallic acid, ellagic acid and its derivatives were also found in Terminalia arjuna extract. Ellagic acid derivatives were isolated and their spectral studies indicated that isolated compounds were 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4- O-β-D-xylopyranoside, ellagic acid and 3-O-methyl ellagic acid 3-O-rhamnoside. Hydrolysis and thiolysis studies of high molecular weight polyphenols indicated that they are proanthocyanidins. Given these results, it may be possible to attribute the heart-health effects of Terminalia arjuna to these polyphenols which may be responsible for the endothelial benefit functions like tea.

  2. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects. PMID:21731659

  3. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Gotoh

    Full Text Available The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer, juvenile hormone (JH titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  4. Composition and Diversity of Ground-dwelling Beetle (Coleoptera) Along a Succession Gradient in Broad-leaved and Korean Pine Mixed Forest in the Changbai Mountains, China%长白山阔叶红松林不同演替阶段地表甲虫组成和多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉珍; 赵秀海; 孟庆繁

    2011-01-01

    鞘翅目昆虫多样性的变化是森林演替过程的综合反映.于2007年6~8月采用陷阱诱捕法对长白山阔叶红松林带不同演替阶段地表甲虫物种组成和数量进行了调查,并分析了该地区不同演替阶段地表甲虫多样性的变化趋势及主要生境因子对地表甲虫群落的影响.结果显示,长白山阔叶红松林内共诱捕地表甲虫23种,共511头,隶属于10个科.其中个体数最多的为埋葬甲科,物种数最多的为步甲科,优势类群为步甲科和埋葬甲科.不同演替阶段中,次生白桦林地表甲虫物种数和个体数高于原始阔叶红松林和次生针阔混交林,3个生境内地表甲虫多样性无显著差别.地表甲虫高峰期为7月份.不同演替阶段的样地中物种统计数量都没有达到渐进线,次生白桦林样地中实际物种只占估计值的67%,其它2个生境实际物种数都在物种估计值的95%区间范围内,略低于平均值.3个生境的地表甲虫种-多度曲线无显著差异,符合对数分布.胸高断面积和土壤湿度对地表甲虫的分布有显著影响,它们可以解释99.2%的物种与环境之间的关系.%Some studies showed a mixed response of ground-dwelling beetle to forest regeneration and succession.In order to prove the change trend of beetle diversity following the gradient of succession and discuss the effect of environment factors on beetle community,a study of ground-dwelling beetle in three habitats along a succession gradient was carried out from June to August 2007 in the broad-leaved and Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains,China using pitfall trapping.Total of 511 individuals and 23 species were identified.Carabidae and Silphidae were dominant families with maximum of species and individuals,respectively.The numbers of species and individuals in the secondary birch forest were greater than those in the secondary conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest and original broad-leaved and

  5. Dock leaf beetle, Gastrophysa viridula Deg., herbivory on Mossy Sorrel, Rumex confertus Willd: Induced plant volatiles and beetle orientation responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive weed Rumex confertus Willd. (mossy sorrel) is fed upon and severely defoliated by Gastrophysa viridula Deg. (dock leaf beetle), a highly promising biological control agent for this weed. We report volatile organic compound (VOC) induction when one leaf on R. confertus was damaged by G. ...

  6. Soil moisture increment as a controlling variable of the Birch effect . Interactions with the pre-wetting soil moisture and litter addition

    OpenAIRE

    Lado Monserrat, Luis; Lull Noguera, Cristina; Bautista Carrascosa, María Inmaculada; Lidón Cerezuela, Antonio Luis; Herrera Fernandez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The Birch effect is a pulse in soil C and N mineralization caused by the wetting of dry soils, but the role of the soil moisture increment (Delta SWC) is still poorly understood. We quantified the relationship between Delta SWC and the Birch effect, and its interactions with pre-wetting soil moisture (preSWC) and substrate supply. Two soils (clay loam and sandy loam) under a Pinus halepensis forest were subjected to rewetting in laboratory treatments combining different Delta SWC and preSWC v...

  7. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Belousova, Irina A; Yushkova, Yuliya V; Morosov, Sergey V; Chernyak, Elena I; Glupov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids. PMID:25816371

  8. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF HARDWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ADSORBED BIRCH XYLAN AND ITS EFFECT ON PAPER PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejung Youn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of xylan on pulp fibers improves the strength properties of paper. However, the optical properties are decreased significantly. The objective of our research was to bleach hardwood kraft pulp with adsorbed birch xylan by hydrogen peroxide and study the effect of bleaching parameters on paper properties. The bleaching parameters studied included bleaching temperature, time, initial pH as well as MgSO4 dosage. The optical properties (whiteness, brightness, opacity and physical properties (tensile index, tearing index, bulk of handsheets made from the pulp bleached with different process variables were measured. The results showed that better optical properties were obtained with higher bleaching temperature, longer bleaching time, and more MgSO4 dosage. Bleaching from an initial pH of 11 provided the highest brightness value. On the other hand, strength properties were improved with decreasing of the bleaching temperature, and increasing the initial pH and MgSO4 dosage. The relationship between strength properties and bleaching time varied depending on bleaching temperature. According to the results, both good mechanical properties and optical properties could be achieved when the operating parameters were controlled properly. Therefore hydrogen peroxide bleaching was proved to be a suitable method for bleaching hardwood kraft pulp with adsorption of birch xylan.

  9. Genome-scale transcriptome analysis in response to nitric oxide in birch cells: implications of the triterpene biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fansuo Zeng

    Full Text Available Evidence supporting nitric oxide (NO as a mediator of plant biochemistry continues to grow, but its functions at the molecular level remains poorly understood and, in some cases, controversial. To study the role of NO at the transcriptional level in Betula platyphylla cells, we conducted a genome-scale transcriptome analysis of these cells. The transcriptome of untreated birch cells and those treated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP were analyzed using the Solexa sequencing. Data were collected by sequencing cDNA libraries of birch cells, which had a long period to adapt to the suspension culture conditions before SNP-treated cells and untreated cells were sampled. Among the 34,100 UniGenes detected, BLASTX search revealed that 20,631 genes showed significant (E-values≤10-5 sequence similarity with proteins from the NR-database. Numerous expressed sequence tags (i.e., 1374 were identified as differentially expressed between the 12 h SNP-treated cells and control cells samples: 403 up-regulated and 971 down-regulated. From this, we specifically examined a core set of NO-related transcripts. The altered expression levels of several transcripts, as determined by transcriptome analysis, was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The results of transcriptome analysis, gene expression quantification, the content of triterpenoid and activities of defensive enzymes elucidated NO has a significant effect on many processes including triterpenoid production, carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis.

  10. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  11. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  12. Bark harvesting systems of Drimys brasiliensis Miers in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Alexandre; Mantovani, Adelar; Reis, Maurício S dos

    2014-09-01

    Drimys brasiliensis Miers, locally known as cataia or casca-de-anta, is a native tree species of the Atlantic Rainforest. Its bark is harvested from natural populations. This study examined the recovery capacity of the bark of D. brasiliensis under different bark harvesting methods, as well as the influence of these approaches on its population dynamics and reproductive biology. While none of these treatments resulted in changes in phenological behavior or the rate of increase of diameter at breast height and tree height, the removal of wider bark strips resulted in lower rates of bark recovery and higher rates of insect attack and diseases. Accordingly, the results recommend using strips of bark 2 cm wide and 2 m long, with 4 cm between strips, for effective rates of bark regrowth and for lower susceptibility to insect attack and diseases. From these studies, we concluded that D. brasiliensis has a high potential for sustainable management of its natural populations, demonstrating the possibility of generating an important supplementary income for farmers and contributing to the use and conservation of the Atlantic Rainforest. PMID:25119732

  13. Physiological resistance of grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) to Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ashlee H; Rowe, Matthew P

    2008-10-01

    Predators feeding on toxic prey may evolve physiological resistance to the preys' toxins. Grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) are voracious predators of scorpions in North American deserts. Two species of grasshopper mice (Onychomys torridus and Onychomys arenicola) are broadly sympatric with two species of potentially lethal bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda and Centruroides vittatus) in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, respectively. Bark scorpions produce toxins that selectively bind sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) ion channels in vertebrate nerve and muscle tissue. We previously reported that grasshopper mice showed no effects of bark scorpion envenomation following natural stings. Here we conducted a series of toxicity tests to determine whether grasshopper mice have evolved resistance to bark scorpion neurotoxins. Five populations of grasshopper mice, either sympatric with or allopatric to bark scorpions, were injected with bark scorpion venom; LD50s were estimated for each population. All five populations of grasshopper mice demonstrated levels of venom resistance greater than that reported for non-resistant Mus musculus. Moreover, venom resistance in the mice showed intra- and interspecific variability that covaried with bark scorpion sympatry and allopatry, patterns consistent with the hypothesis that venom resistance in grasshopper mice is an adaptive response to feeding on their neurotoxic prey. PMID:18687353

  14. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in narrow hedgerows in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, G. L.; Magura, T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of hedgerows in supporting ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Danish agricultural landscape was examined. Nine old, well established single-row hedges were selected for the study, three each of a native species (hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna), a non-native deciduous one (rowan...... beetle assemblages. The number of ground beetle individuals and species were significantly the highest in the hawthorn hedges and significantly decreased from the hedges with rowan toward the spruce hedges. The elevated number of ground beetle individuals and species in the hawthorn hedges were due...... to the forest specialist species, as the number of forest specialist ground beetle individuals and species were significantly higher in the hawthorn hedges compared to the hedges with rowan and spruce. Differences in the number of the grassland and the cropland specialist ground beetle individuals and species...

  15. The mountain pine beetle in western North America: Management challenges in an era of altered disturbance regimes and changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .3 times as much susceptible pine in BC in 1990 compared to 1910. In addition to an abundance of suitable hosts, climatic conditions have steadily improved for MPB populations in recent years. Historically, the extent and severity of epidemics have been limited by insufficient summer temperature accumulation and/or minimum winter temperatures below a critical mortality threshold. By comparing the annual occurrence of infestations against maps of the historic distribution of climatically suitable habitats derived from a model of climatic suitability for MPB and past weather records, it has been shown that during the past three decades relevant climatic conditions have improved over large portions of BC. More importantly, as a consequence of changing climate, populations have expanded into formerly climatically unsuitable habitats, especially toward higher elevations and more were climatically unavailable despite the presence of susceptible host trees. Knowledge of the basic population processes associated with MPB is essential for effective management. Where conditions have changed allowing reproduction to outweigh mortality, populations will erupt unless a sufficient amount of additional mortality is introduced. Given that beetles spend the vast majority of their life cycle beneath the bark of trees, the only existing means of adding mortality involves destroying or processing infested trees before beetles can complete their life cycle and fly to new hosts. The relevance of this tactic, however, is dependent upon the size of the beetle population and its potential rate of increase. Once mountain pine beetle populations escape the endemic phase, the rate of increase (R) at the landscape level has historically been between 2- and 8-fold yearly. To maintain a static population, a proportion in each year equivalent to 1-1/R must be removed (i.e. 50 to 87.5% of infested trees). Thus, when populations are scattered and confined to individual stands they are amenable to direct

  16. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA LINN. DELILE. STEM BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Satish Chand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Various pharmacognostical parameters including macroscopy, microscopy, Physiochemical and behavior of powdered drug on treatment with different chemical reagents were studied on the stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile. (Family- Balanitaceae.The successive extraction of plant bark was undertaken by using various solvents of increasing polarity and the extracts thus obtained were subjected for phytochemical analysis. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds mainly. These preliminary data may be helpful in developing the standardization parameters of Balanites aegyptiaca Linn. Delile stem bark.

  17. Lost Books: Abbess Hildelith and the Literary Culture of Barking Abbey.

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, D

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the literary culture of Barking Abbey, a vital centre of Anglo-Saxon learning, when it was under the rule of its second abbess, Hildelith, in the late seventh and early eighth century. Particular attention is given to the intersection of lived practice at Barking and the literary record, focusing on three pieces of evidence: Bede’s account of the early history of Barking in his Ecclesiastical History, written in 731; Aldhelm’s De Virginitate (c.675-680), which was writte...

  18. Energy capacity of black wattle wood and bark in different spacing plantations

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    Elder Eloy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the energetic description of wood and bark biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in two spacing plantations: 2.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.0 m and 1.5 m, during 36 months after the planting. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Frederico Westphalen, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Biomass (BIO, calorific value, basic density, ash content, volatile matter and fixed carbon content and energy density (ED of wood and bark were determined. The smallest spacing plantation presented the highest production per unit area of BIO and ED of wood and bark.

  19. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Part 1: Course of an Infectation

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Walter E; Amman, Gene D

    1980-01-01

    Much of this work is original research by the authors. However, published literature on the mountain pine beetle is reviewed with particular reference to epidemic infestations in lodgepole pine forests. The mountain pine beetle and lodgepole pine have evolved into an intensive and highly compatible relationship. Consequently, stand dynamics of lodgepole pine is a primary factor in the development of beetle epidemics. the diameter-growth relationship and the effects of environmental factors on...

  20. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Renata C. Campos; Malva I. Medina Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung) or carcasses (carrion) and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the ...