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Sample records for birch bark beetle

  1. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  2. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  3. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes.

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    Karnaouri, Anthi; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, (13)C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes.

  4. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes

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    Anthi Karnaouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, 13C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes.

  5. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

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    Dehelean Cristina A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%. Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, A2780 (ovarian carcinoma, HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma, by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts.

  6. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

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    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  7. Linking Increasing Drought Stress to Scots Pine Mortality and Bark Beetle Infestations

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    Matthias Dobbertin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dry Swiss Rhone Valley, Scots pine forests have experienced increased mortality in recent years. It has commonly been assumed that drought events and bark beetles fostered the decline, however, whether bark beetle outbreaks increased in recent years and whether they can be linked to drought stress or increasing temperature has never been studied.

  8. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. PMID:27387908

  9. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  10. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

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    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. METHODS: To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. RESULTS: Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  11. Pentacyclic triterpenes in birch bark extract inhibit early step of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication.

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    Heidary Navid, M; Laszczyk-Lauer, M N; Reichling, J; Schnitzler, P

    2014-09-25

    Antiviral agents frequently applied for treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The antiviral effect of a triterpene extract of birch bark and its major pentacyclic triterpenes, i.e. betulin, lupeol and betulinic acid against acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSV type 1 strains was examined. The cytotoxic effect of a phytochemically defined birch bark triterpene extract (TE) as well as different pentacyclic triterpenes was analyzed in cell culture, and revealed a moderate cytotoxicity on RC-37 cells. TE, betulin, lupeol and betulinic acid exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against HSV-1 in viral suspension tests with IC50 values ranging between 0.2 and 0.5 μg/ml. Infectivity of acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains was significantly reduced by all tested compounds and a direct concentration- and time-dependent antiherpetic activity could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, TE and the compounds were added at different times during the viral infection cycle. Addition of these drugs to uninfected cells prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells during intracellular replication had low effect on virus multiplication. Minor virucidal activity of triterpenes was observed, however both TE and tested compounds exhibited high anti-herpetic activity when viruses were pretreated with these drugs prior to infection. Pentacyclic triterpenes inhibit acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant clinical isolates of HSV-1 in the early phase of infection.

  12. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

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    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  13. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground bark beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jun; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    the Great Lakes region. Here we examine the impact of two bark beetle groups, red turpentine beetles and pine engraver bark beetles, on tree mortality and the subsequent gap formation over time in a plantation in Wisconsin. We construct spatial-temporal statistical models that quantify the relations among...

  14. From a traditional medicinal plant to a rational drug: understanding the clinically proven wound healing efficacy of birch bark extract.

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    Sandra Ebeling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birch bark has a long lasting history as a traditional medicinal remedy to accelerate wound healing. Recently, the efficacy of birch bark preparations has also been proven clinically. As active principle pentacyclic triterpenes are generally accepted. Here, we report a comprehensive study on the underlying molecular mechanisms of the wound healing properties of a well-defined birch bark preparation named as TE (triterpene extract as well as the isolated single triterpenes in human primary keratinocytes and porcine ex-vivo wound healing models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show positive wound healing effects of TE and betulin in scratch assay experiments with primary human keratinocytes and in a porcine ex-vivo wound healing model (WHM. Mechanistical studies elucidate that TE and betulin transiently upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cyclooxygenase-2 on gene and protein level. For COX-2 and IL-6 this increase of mRNA is due to an mRNA stabilizing effect of TE and betulin, a process in which p38 MAPK and HuR are involved. TE promotes keratinocyte migration, putatively by increasing the formation of actin filopodia, lamellipodia and stress fibers. Detailed analyses show that the TE components betulin, lupeol and erythrodiol exert this effect even in nanomolar concentrations. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton is dependent on the activation of Rho GTPases. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide insights to understand the molecular mechanism of the clinically proven wound healing effect of birch bark. TE and betulin address the inflammatory phase of wound healing by transient up-regulation of several pro-inflammatory mediators. Further, they enhance migration of keratinocytes, which is essential in the second phase of wound healing. Our results, together with the clinically proven efficacy, identify birch bark as the first medical plant with a high potential to improve wound healing, a field which urgently

  15. Mechanisms of Odor Coding in Coniferous Bark Beetles: From Neuron to Behavior and Application

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    Martin N. Andersson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coniferous bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae locate their hosts by means of olfactory signals, such as pheromone, host, and nonhost compounds. Behavioral responses to these volatiles are well documented. However, apart from the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs detecting pheromones, information on the peripheral olfactory physiology has for a long time been limited. Recently, however, comprehensive studies on the ORNs of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, were conducted. Several new classes of ORNs were described and odor encoding mechanisms were investigated. In particular, links between behavioral responses and ORN responses were established, allowing for a more profound understanding of bark beetle olfaction. This paper reviews the physiology of bark beetle ORNs. Special focus is on I. typographus, for which the available physiological data can be put into a behavioral context. In addition, some recent field studies and possible applications, related to the physiological studies, are summarized and discussed.

  16. Birch inner bark procyanidins can be resolved with enhanced sensitivity by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-MS.

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    Karonen, Maarit; Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2011-11-01

    A complex mixture of procyanidin aglycones was isolated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography from the silver birch inner bark, which is a polyphenol-rich source of natural antioxidants. Procyanidins were studied by using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography combined with high-resolution ESI-TOF-MS. A good chromatographic separation was achieved and procyanidins eluted according to their increasing degree of polymerization. Individual procyanidins were detected from dimers up to the degree of polymerization of 22 by their negative-ion mass spectra. The results showed that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography can be successfully applied for the analysis of high-molecular-weight procyanidins with enhanced sensitivity in electrospray mass spectrometry. PMID:21998029

  17. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

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    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  18. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A; Rabaglia, Robert J; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  19. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassati, Davide; Faccoli, Massimo; Haack, Robert A.; Rabaglia, Robert J.; Petrucco Toffolo, Edoardo; Battisti, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall), forest (cover area, composition), geographical (distance), and human-related (import) variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have on climate

  20. Associations of Conifer-Infesting Bark Beetles and Fungi in Fennoscandia

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    Michael J. Wingfield

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae have a widespread association with fungi, especially with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota that cause blue staining of wood, and in some cases, serious tree diseases. In Fennoscandia, most studies of these fungi have focused on economically important bark beetle species and this is likely to have led to a biased view of the fungal biodiversity in the region. Recently, the associations between fungi and bark beetles in Fennoscandia have been shown to be more diverse than previously thought. Furthermore, they form complex and dynamic associations that are only now beginning to emerge. This review examines the current knowledge of the rather poorly known interactions between bark beetles, fungi and their conifer host trees in Fennoscandia. The diversity of ophiostomatoid species is discussed and the possible factors that influence the assemblages of fungal associates are considered for all species that are known to occur in the region. For many ophiostomatoid species found in Fennoscandia, little or nothing is known regarding their pathogenicity, particularly if they were to be transferred to new environments. We, therefore, draw attention to the possible threats of timber trade and climate change-induced invasions of new habitats by bark beetles and the fungi that can be moved along with them.

  1. Using lake sediment records to reconstruct bark beetle disturbances in western North America

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    Jesse Lee Morris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of native bark beetles in western North America is unprecedented in severity and scale, at least during the historical period. The aim of this work is to develop a proxy-based methodology to understand how bark beetle disturbances are recorded in lake sediments. Three hypotheses are tested to determine how the ecological impacts of severe spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis disturbances are recorded following mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii. Outbreaks are hypothesized to: (1 decrease the ratio of spruce to fir pollen; (2 increase soil erosion and mobilize terrestrial C; and (3 leach foliar N, enhancing algal productivity. To test these hypotheses, sediment cores from spruce beetle-affected basins were analyzed for pollen, insect remains, organic and minerogenic content, and isotopic and elemental concentrations. The dataset was tested statistically using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs to determine if the response variables differed significantly between outbreak and non-outbreak periods. 

  2. A Population Genetic Model of Evolution of Host-Mate Attraction and Nonhost Repulsion in a Bark Beetle Pityogenes bidentatus

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    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the bark beetle Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae avoids volatiles of nonhost trees (Norway Spruce, birch, and oak and healthy host Scotch Pine when orienting to aggregation pheromone. A population genetic model of two behavioral genes was hypothesized where AA, Aa, and aa were allele combinations regulating orientation to host tree and pheromone odors, and BB, Bb, and bb were combinations allowing avoidance of nonhost and unsuitable host odors. The nine possible genotypes were assigned different survival factors that remained constant during simulation. The initial proportion of aabb genotype (little aggregation/host response and little avoidance of nonhosts was ~1.0 when a mutation was hypothesized that caused better orientation to host/beetle odors (Aabb and another mutation causing more efficient avoidance of nonhosts (aaBb. After these initial mutations, the model used indiscriminate mating of genotypic proportions and subsequent survival as input for each successive generation. The results indicate that AABB eventually fixates in the populations in some scenarios, while AABB and other genotypes reach stable equilibriums in other models depending on genotypic survival values supported by ecologically sound assumptions. The models indicate how development of insecticide resistance in pest insects may proceed.

  3. Recent bark beetle outbreaks have little impact on streamflow in the Western United States

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    Slinski, Kimberly M.; Hogue, Terri S.; Porter, Aaron T.; McCray, John E.

    2016-07-01

    In the Western United States (US), the current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected more than five million hectares since its start in 1996, including headwater catchments that supply water to much of the Western US. There is widespread concern that the hydrologic consequences of the extensive pine tree die-off will impact water supply across the Western US. While forest disturbance studies have shown that streamflow increases in response to tree harvest, the actual effect of bark beetle infestations on water supply remains widely debated. The current study evaluates watershed-level response following bark beetle outbreak for 33 watersheds in seven western states. Streamflow records were investigated to assess whether the timing and amount of stream discharge during bark beetle outbreak and early recovery periods were significantly different to pre-outbreak conditions. Results show no significant modification in peak flows or average daily streamflow following bark beetle infestation, and that climate variability may be a stronger driver of streamflow patterns and snowmelt timing than chronic forest disturbance.

  4. Predisposition to bark beetle attack by root herbivores and associated pathogens: Roles in forest decline, gap formation, and persistence of endemic bark beetle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aukema, Brian H.; Zhu, Jun; Møller, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    , in that the proportion of killed trees that were not first colonized by root organisms increases. This positive feedback is very weak, however, and we propose the slope between beetle population density and reliance on host stress as a quantitative distinction along a gradient from noneruptive through eruptive species...... within the primary stem, root weevils that breed in root collars, and bark beetles that breed in basal stems. We quantify the sequence of events that drive this decline syndrome, with the primary emergent pattern being an interaction between below- and above-ground herbivores and their fungal symbionts...

  5. Are bark beetles chewing up our forests? What about our coffee?

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    A write-up for the Elsevier SciTech Connect blog on the recently published book entitled "Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species," edited by Fernando E. Vega and Richard W. Hofstetter. The book was published by Academic Press in January 2015....

  6. Resin duct characteristics associated with tree resistance to bark beetles across lodgepole and limber pines.

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    Ferrenberg, Scott; Kane, Jeffrey M; Mitton, Jeffry B

    2014-04-01

    Bark beetles have recently killed billions of trees, yet conifer defenses are formidable and some trees resist attack. A primary anti-insect defense of pines is oleoresin from a system of resin ducts throughout the tree. Resin defense traits are heritable, and evidence suggests that resin duct characteristics are associated with resistance to insects. However, comparisons of resin ducts in trees killed by bark beetles to trees that resisted attack are unavailable. We compared vertical resin duct characteristics (number, density, and size) and growth rates from trees that were "resistant" (survived mass attack) versus "susceptible" (killed by attack) to bark beetles in lodgepole (Pinus contorta) and limber (Pinus flexilis) pines. Resistant trees of both species had significantly more resin ducts in recent growth than susceptible trees. Discriminant analysis (DA) correctly categorized 84% of lodgepole and 92% of limber pines as susceptible/resistant based on combinations of resin duct and growth characteristics from recent 5- through 20-year growth intervals. DA models using measures from only the most recent 5 years of growth correctly categorized 72 and 81% of lodgepole and limber pines, respectively. Comparing resistant to susceptible trees independent of species identity led to the correct categorization of 82% of trees based on factors from 5- to 20-year intervals, and 73% of trees using only resin duct counts from the most recent 5 years. We conclude that resin duct characteristics can be used to assess tree resistance to bark beetles across pine species, and offer a metric for management to enhance pest resistance.

  7. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiman, Pavel; Filipová, Alžběta; Tichá, Alena; Niang, Mohamed; Bezrouk, Aleš; Havelek, Radim

    2016-01-01

    A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH)2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use.

  8. Effective Method of Purification of Betulin from Birch Bark: The Importance of Its Purity for Scientific and Medicinal Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Šiman

    Full Text Available A new and relatively simple method for purification of betulin from birch bark extract was developed in this study. Its five purification steps are based on the differential solubility of extract components in various solvents and their crystallization and/or precipitation, on their affinity for Ca(OH2 in ethanol, and on the affinity of some impurities for silica gel in chloroform. In addition, all used solvents can be simply recycled. Betulin of more than 99% purity can be prepared by this method with minimal costs. Various observations including crystallization of betulin, changes in crystals during heating, and attempt of localization of betulin in outer birch bark are also described in this work. The original extract, fraction without betulinic acid and lupeol, amorphous fraction of pure betulin, final crystalline fraction of pure betulin and commercial betulin as a standard were employed to determine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effect. We used WST-1 tetrazolium-based assays with triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549. The decrease in cell survival showed clear relationship with the purity of the samples, being most pronounced using our final product of pure crystalline betulin. WST-1 proliferation/cytotoxicity test using triple negative breast cancer cell line BT-549 clearly showed the importance of purity of betulin for biological experiments and, apparently, for its medicinal use.

  9. A Preliminary Pharmacokinetic Study of Betulin, the Main Pentacyclic Triterpene from Extract of Outer Bark of Birch (Betulae alba cortex

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    Melanie N. Laszczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades triterpenes have attracted attention because of their pharmacological potential. Triterpene extract (TE from outer bark of birch consisting mainly of betulin is able to form an oleogel which was successfully tested in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Some aspects of TE in vitro pharmacology are already known. Now we show preliminary pharmacokinetics of betulin and results of a subchronic toxicity study of TE in rats and dogs. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the TE-triterpenes (< 0.1 μg/mL respectively, for pharmacokinetic studies it was suspended in sesame oil (rats, i.p. and PEG 400 / 0.9 % NaCl (dogs, s.c.. I.p. administered, betulin, the main component of TE, shows time dependency over a period of 4 h and reaches a dose-independent serum level of 0.13 μg/mL. Dose dependency was observed with s.c. administration. At 300 mg/kg a maximum plasma concentration of 0.33 μg/mL betulin was detected after 28 daily applications. The subchronic toxicity study showed no toxicity of TE in rats (i.p. and dogs (s.c.. In conclusion, triterpene extract from birch bark is safe, its betulin is bioavailable and in addition to published triterpene biological activities TE provides high potential for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.

  10. EXTRACTION OF BETULIN BY ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS C3-C4 FROM AN EXTERNAL LAYER OF A BIRCH BARK HYDROLYZED IN AQUEOUS ALKALINE SOLUTION

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    Владимир Александрович Левданский

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It was established, that after hydrolysis of birch bark in water solution of alkali in the presence of isopropanol, butanol and isobutanol two layers were formed. The top layer contained betulin dissolved in alcohol, and the bottom layer contained a water-soluble alkali and its hydrolysis products of bark. Betulin was isolated by the separation and concentration of the alcohol layer. The structure of betulin was confirmed by methods of IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Conifer stored resources and resistance to a fungus associated with the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus.

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    Eleanor C Lahr

    Full Text Available Bark beetles and associated fungi are among the greatest natural threats to conifers worldwide. Conifers have potent defenses, but resistance to beetles and fungal pathogens may be reduced if tree stored resources are consumed by fungi rather than used for tree defense. Here, we assessed the relationship between tree stored resources and resistance to Ceratocystis polonica, a phytopathogenic fungus vectored by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. We measured phloem and sapwood nitrogen, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, and lipids before and after trees were attacked by I. typographus (vectoring C. polonica or artificially inoculated with C. polonica alone. Tree resistance was assessed by measuring phloem lesions and the proportion of necrotic phloem around the tree's circumference following attack or inoculation. While initial resource concentrations were unrelated to tree resistance to C. polonica, over time, phloem NSC and sapwood lipids declined in the trees inoculated with C. polonica. Greater resource declines correlated with less resistant trees (trees with larger lesions or more necrotic phloem, suggesting that resource depletion may be caused by fungal consumption rather than tree resistance. Ips typographus may then benefit indirectly from reduced tree defenses caused by fungal resource uptake. Our research on tree stored resources represents a novel way of understanding bark beetle-fungal-conifer interactions.

  12. Erwinia typographi sp. nov., isolated from bark beetle (Ips typographus) gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrodenyte-Arbaciauskiene, V; Radziute, S; Stunzenas, V; Būda, V

    2012-04-01

    Gram-negative-staining bacteria that were resistant to monoterpene myrcene (7-methyl-3-methylene-1.6-octadiene, C10H16, at concentrations of up to 10 µl ml(-1) in TSB) were isolated from the gut contents of adult bark beetles Ips typographus (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). The beetles were collected from the bark of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Lithuania. Bark beetles feed on conifers, which produce myrcene among many other defensive compounds. It has been suggested that the micro-organisms present within the beetles' guts could be involved in their resistance towards this plant defensive compound. The most resistant bacterial strains were isolated and characterized by phenotypic assays as well as fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) based on the rpoB, atpD and infB genes and DNA-DNA hybridization. Biochemical characterization indicated that the bacteria belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences and MLSA of the novel strains revealed that they belonged to the genus Erwinia, but represented a novel species. The dominant cellular fatty acids were C16:0 and C17:0 cyclo. The DNA G+C content was 49.1 mol%. The results obtained in this study indicated that these bacteria from the bark beetle gut represented a novel species, for which the name Erwinia typographi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DSM 22678T (=Y1T=LMG 25347T).

  13. Surveying the endomicrobiome and ectomicrobiome of bark beetles: The case of Dendroctonus simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Audrey-Anne; Bergeron, Amélie; Constant, Philippe; Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Déziel, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2015-11-26

    Many bark beetles belonging to the Dendroctonus genus carry bacterial and fungal microbiota, forming a symbiotic complex that helps the insect to colonize the subcortical environment of the host tree. However, the biodiversity of those bacteria at the surface of the cuticle or inside the body parts of bark beetles is not well established. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome associated with the eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The ecto- and endomicrobiome and the subcortical galleries were investigated. Several bacterial genera were identified, among which Pseudomonas, Serratia and Yersinia are associated with the surface of the beetle cuticle, and genera belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Gammaproteobacteria with the interior of the insect body. The index of dissimilarity indicates that the bacterial microbiome associated with each environment constitutes exclusive groups. These results suggest the presence of distinct bacterial microbiota on the surface of the cuticle and the interior of D. simplex body. Additionally, the bacterial diversity identified in the galleries is substantially different from the ectomicrobiome, which could indicate a selection by the insect. This study reports for the first time the identification of the eastern larch beetle microbiome.

  14. Composition and Elevation of Spruce Forests Affect Susceptibility to Bark Beetle Attacks: Implications for Forest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Faccoli; Iris Bernardinelli

    2014-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is one of the most destructive insects infesting spruce forests in Europe. Data concerning infestations of I. typographus occurring over the last 19 years (1994–2012) on the Southern Alps were analyzed in seven spruce forest types: (1) pure spruce plantations; (2) pure spruce reforestations; (3) pure spruce mountain forests; (4) pure spruce alpine forests; (5) spruce-conifer mixed forests; (6) spruce-broad...

  15. Preferential host switching and codivergence shaped radiation of bark beetle symbionts, nematodes of Micoletzkya (Nematoda: Diplogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susoy, V; Herrmann, M

    2014-05-01

    Host-symbiont systems are of particular interest to evolutionary biology because they allow testable inferences of diversification processes while also providing both a historical basis and an ecological context for studies of adaptation. Our investigations of bark beetle symbionts, predatory nematodes of the genus Micoletzkya, have revealed remarkable diversity of the group along with a high level of host specificity. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest that evolution of the nematodes was largely influenced by the evolutionary history of beetles. The diversification of the symbionts, however, could not be attributed to parallel divergence alone; our results indicate that adaptive radiation of the nematodes was shaped by preferential host shifts among closely related beetles along with codivergence. Whereas ecological and geographic isolation have played a major role in the diversification of Micoletzkya at shallow phylogenetic depths, adaptations towards related hosts have played a role in shaping cophylogenetic structure at a larger evolutionary scale.

  16. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  17. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization.

  18. Naturally-Occurring Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Bark Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Bulgaria

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    Slavimira A. Draganova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae belong to one of the most damaging groups of forest insects and the activity of their natural enemies –pathogens, parasitoids,parasites or predators suppressing their population density,is of great importance. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi on bark beetles in Bulgaria has been investigated sporadically. The aim of this preliminary study was to find, identify and study morphological characteristics of fungal entomopathogens naturally-occurring in populations of three curculionid species – Ips sexdentatus Boern, Ips typographus (L. and Dryocoetes autographus (Ratz.. Dead pest adults were found under the bark of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies trees collectedfrom forests in the Maleshevska and Vitosha Mountains. Fungal pathogens were isolated into pure cultures on SDAY (Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast extract and were identified based on morphological characteristics both on the host and in a culture.Morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied by phenotypic methods. The fungal isolates obtained from dead adults of Ips sexdentatus, Ips typographus and D. autographus were found to belong to the species Beauveria bassiana (Bals. – Criv. Vuillemin,Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo Petch and Isaria farinosa (Holmsk. Fries (anamorph Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae. Morphological traits of the isolates are described.

  19. Host-Tree Monoterpenes and Biosynthesis of Aggregation Pheromones in the Bark Beetle Ips paraconfusus

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    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm developed in the 1970s that Ips bark beetles biosynthesize their aggregation pheromone components ipsenol and ipsdienol by hydroxylating myrcene, a host tree monoterpene. Similarly, host α-pinene was hydroxylated to a third pheromone component cis-verbenol. In 1990, however, we reported that amounts of ipsenol and ipsdienol produced by male Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae feeding in five host pine species were nearly the same, even though no detectable myrcene precursor was detected in one of these pines (Pinus sabiniana. Subsequent research showed ipsenol and ipsdienol are also biosynthesized from smaller precursors such as acetate and mevalonate, and this de novo pathway is the major one, while host tree myrcene conversion by the beetle is the minor one. We report concentrations of myrcene, α-pinene and other major monoterpenes in five pine hosts (Pinus ponderosa, P. lambertiana, P. jeffreyi, P. sabiniana, and P. contorta of I. paraconfusus. A scheme for biosynthesis of ipsdienol and ipsenol from myrcene and possible metabolites such as ipsenone is presented. Mass spectra and quantities of ipsenone are reported and its possible role in biosynthesis of aggregation pheromone. Coevolution of bark beetles and host trees is discussed in relation to pheromone biosynthesis, host plant selection/suitability, and plant resistance.

  20. The biophysical controls on tree defense against attacking bark beetles in managed pine forests of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, K. A.; Miniat, C. F.; Denham, S. O.; Ritger, H. M.; Williams, C.; Guldin, J. M.; Bragg, D.; Coyle, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bark beetles are highly damaging pests capable of destroying large areas of southern pine forests, with significant consequences for regional timber supply and forest ecosystem carbon dynamics. A number of recent studies have shown that following bark beetle outbreak, significant effects on ecosystem carbon and water cycling can occur. Relatively few studies have explored how ecosystem carbon and water cycling interact with other factors to control the hazard or risk of bark beetle outbreaks; these interactions, and their representation in conceptual model frameworks, are the focus of this study. Pine trees defend against bark beetle attacks through the exudation of of resin - a viscous compound that deters attacking beetles through a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms. Constitutive resin flow (CRF, representing resin produced before attack) is assumed to be directly proportional to the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) according to the Growth-Differentiation Balance theory (GDB). Thus, predictions for tree mortality and bark beetle dynamics under different management and climate regimes may be more accurate if a model framework describing the biophysical controls on resin production (e.g., GDB) were employed. Here, we synthesize measurements of resin flow, bark beetle dynamics, and ecosystem C flux from three managed loblolly pine forests in the Southeastern U.S.: the Duke Forest in Durham, NC; the Savannah River DOE site near Aiken, SC; and the Crossett Experimental Forest in southern Arkansas. We also explore the relationship between CRF and induced resin flow (IRF, representing the de novo synthesis of resin following stem wounding) in the latter two sites, where IRF was promoted by a novel tree baiting approach and prescribed fire, respectively. We assimilate observations within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 1) test whether observations conform to the GDB hypothesis, and 2) explore effects

  1. Early Detection of Bark Beetle Green Attack Using TerraSAR-X and RapidEye Data

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    Gerald Kändler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles cause widespread damages in the coniferous-dominated forests of central Europe and North America. In the future, areas affected by bark beetles may further increase due to climate change. However, the early detection of the bark beetle green attack can guide management decisions to prevent larger damages. For this reason, a field-based bark beetle monitoring program is currently implemented in Germany. The combination of remote sensing and field data may help minimizing the reaction time and reducing costs of monitoring programs covering large forested areas. In this case study, RapidEye and TerraSAR-X data were analyzed separately and in combination to detect bark beetle green attack. The remote sensing data were acquired in May 2009 for a study site in south-west Germany. In order to distinguish healthy areas and areas affected by bark beetle green attack, three statistical approaches were compared: generalized linear models (GLM, maximum entropy (ME and random forest (RF. The spatial scale (minimum mapping unit was 78.5 m2. TerraSAR-X data resulted in fair classification accuracy with a cross-validated Cohen’s Kappa Coefficient (kappa of 0.23. RapidEye data resulted in moderate classification accuracy with a kappa of 0.51. The highest classification accuracy was obtained by combining the TerraSAR-X and RapidEye data, resulting in a kappa of 0.74. The accuracy of ME models was considerably higher than the accuracy of GLM and RF models.

  2. Bark beetles and pinhole borers (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, Platypodinae alien to Europe

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    Lawrence Kirkendall

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive bark beetles are posing a major threat to forest resources around the world. DAISIE’s web-based and printed databases of invasive species in Europe provide an incomplete and misleading picture of the alien scolytines and platypodines. We present a review of the alien bark beetle fauna of Europe based on primary literature through 2009. We find that there are 18 Scolytinae and one Platypodinae species apparently established in Europe, from 14 different genera. Seventeen species are naturalized. We argue that Trypodendron laeve, commonly considered alien in Europe, is a native species; conversely, we hypothesize that Xyleborus pfeilii, which has always been treated as indigenous, is an alien species from Asia. We also point out the possibility that the Asian larch bark beetle Ips subelongatus is established in European Russia. We show that there has been a marked acceleration in the rate of new introductions to Europe, as is also happening in North America: seven alien species were first recorded in the last decade. We present information on the biology, origins, and distributions of the alien species. All but four are polyphagous, and 11 are inbreeders: two traits which increase invasiveness. Eleven species are native to Asia, six to the Americas, and one is from the Canary Islands. The Mediterranean is especially favorable for invasives, hosting a large proportion of the aliens (8/18. Italy, Spain and France have the largest numbers of alien species (15, 10 and 7 respectively. We point out that the low numbers for at least some countries is likely due to under-reporting. Finally, we discuss the difficulties associated with identifying newly invasive species. Lack of good illustrations and keys hinder identification, particularly for species coming from Asia and Oceania.

  3. Elm bark beetle in Holocene peat deposits and the northwest European elm decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah H. E.; Edwards, Kevin J.

    2004-09-01

    The elm decline of 5000 14C yr ago has been the most widely discussed phenomenon in post-glacial vegetation history. This pan-European reduction of elm populations, echoed in the decimation of elmwoods in Europe during the twentieth century, has attracted a series of interrelated hypotheses involving climate change, human activity, disease and soil deterioration. The elm bark beetle (Scolytus scolytus L.) is an essential component of disease explanations. We present evidence for the presence of the beetle over a prolonged period (ca. 7950-4910 yr BP [8800-5660 cal. yr BP]) from a lowland raised mire deposit in northeast Scotland, with its final appearance at this site, and the first and only appearance in another mire of a single scolytid find, around the time of the elm decline. The subfossil S. scolytus finds are not only the first from Scotland, but they also represent the most comprehensive sequence of finds anywhere. Copyright

  4. Influence of the Oil Phase and Topical Formulation on the Wound Healing Ability of a Birch Bark Dry Extract.

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    Isabel Steinbrenner

    Full Text Available Triterpenes from the outer bark of birch are known for various pharmacological effects including enhanced wound healing (WH. A birch bark dry extract (TE obtained by accelerated solvent extraction showed the ability to form oleogels when it is suspended in oils. Consistency of the oleogels and the dissolved amount of triterpenes varies largely with the used oil. Here we wanted to know to what extent different oils and formulations (oleogel versus o/w emulsion influence WH. Looking at the plain oils, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT enhanced WH (ca. 1.4-fold, while e.g. castor oil (ca.0.3-fold or light liquid paraffin (LLP; ca. 0.5-fold significantly decreased WH. Concerning the respective oleogels, TE-MCT showed no improvement although the solubility of the TE was high. In contrast, the oleogel of sunflower oil which alone showed a slight tendency to impair WH, enhanced WH significantly (ca. 1.6-fold. These results can be explained by release experiments where the release rate of betulin, the main component of TE, from MCT oleogels was significantly lower than from sunflower oil oleogels. LLP impaired WH as plain oil and even though it released betulin comparable to sunflower oil it still results in an overall negative effect of the oleogel on WH. As a further formulation option also surfactant free o/w emulsions were prepared using MCT, sunflower oil and LLP as a nonpolar oil phase. Depending on the preparation method (suspension or oleogel method the distribution of the TE varied markedly and affected also release kinetics. However, the released betulin was clearly below the values measured with the respective oleogels. Consequently, none of the emulsions showed a significantly positive effect on WH. In conclusion, our data show that the oil used as a vehicle influences wound healing not only by affecting the release of the extract, but also by having its own vehicle effect on wound healing. This is also of importance for other applications

  5. Influence of the Oil Phase and Topical Formulation on the Wound Healing Ability of a Birch Bark Dry Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrenner, Isabel; Houdek, Pia; Pollok, Simone; Brandner, Johanna M; Daniels, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes from the outer bark of birch are known for various pharmacological effects including enhanced wound healing (WH). A birch bark dry extract (TE) obtained by accelerated solvent extraction showed the ability to form oleogels when it is suspended in oils. Consistency of the oleogels and the dissolved amount of triterpenes varies largely with the used oil. Here we wanted to know to what extent different oils and formulations (oleogel versus o/w emulsion) influence WH. Looking at the plain oils, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) enhanced WH (ca. 1.4-fold), while e.g. castor oil (ca.0.3-fold) or light liquid paraffin (LLP; ca. 0.5-fold) significantly decreased WH. Concerning the respective oleogels, TE-MCT showed no improvement although the solubility of the TE was high. In contrast, the oleogel of sunflower oil which alone showed a slight tendency to impair WH, enhanced WH significantly (ca. 1.6-fold). These results can be explained by release experiments where the release rate of betulin, the main component of TE, from MCT oleogels was significantly lower than from sunflower oil oleogels. LLP impaired WH as plain oil and even though it released betulin comparable to sunflower oil it still results in an overall negative effect of the oleogel on WH. As a further formulation option also surfactant free o/w emulsions were prepared using MCT, sunflower oil and LLP as a nonpolar oil phase. Depending on the preparation method (suspension or oleogel method) the distribution of the TE varied markedly and affected also release kinetics. However, the released betulin was clearly below the values measured with the respective oleogels. Consequently, none of the emulsions showed a significantly positive effect on WH. In conclusion, our data show that the oil used as a vehicle influences wound healing not only by affecting the release of the extract, but also by having its own vehicle effect on wound healing. This is also of importance for other applications where drugs

  6. Influence of the Oil Phase and Topical Formulation on the Wound Healing Ability of a Birch Bark Dry Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrenner, Isabel; Houdek, Pia; Pollok, Simone; Brandner, Johanna M; Daniels, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes from the outer bark of birch are known for various pharmacological effects including enhanced wound healing (WH). A birch bark dry extract (TE) obtained by accelerated solvent extraction showed the ability to form oleogels when it is suspended in oils. Consistency of the oleogels and the dissolved amount of triterpenes varies largely with the used oil. Here we wanted to know to what extent different oils and formulations (oleogel versus o/w emulsion) influence WH. Looking at the plain oils, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) enhanced WH (ca. 1.4-fold), while e.g. castor oil (ca.0.3-fold) or light liquid paraffin (LLP; ca. 0.5-fold) significantly decreased WH. Concerning the respective oleogels, TE-MCT showed no improvement although the solubility of the TE was high. In contrast, the oleogel of sunflower oil which alone showed a slight tendency to impair WH, enhanced WH significantly (ca. 1.6-fold). These results can be explained by release experiments where the release rate of betulin, the main component of TE, from MCT oleogels was significantly lower than from sunflower oil oleogels. LLP impaired WH as plain oil and even though it released betulin comparable to sunflower oil it still results in an overall negative effect of the oleogel on WH. As a further formulation option also surfactant free o/w emulsions were prepared using MCT, sunflower oil and LLP as a nonpolar oil phase. Depending on the preparation method (suspension or oleogel method) the distribution of the TE varied markedly and affected also release kinetics. However, the released betulin was clearly below the values measured with the respective oleogels. Consequently, none of the emulsions showed a significantly positive effect on WH. In conclusion, our data show that the oil used as a vehicle influences wound healing not only by affecting the release of the extract, but also by having its own vehicle effect on wound healing. This is also of importance for other applications where drugs

  7. Climate change induced effects on the predisposition of forests of the water protection zone Wildalpen to disturbances by bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, P.; Pennerstorfer, J.; Schopf, A.

    2012-04-01

    The provision of drinking water of high quality is a precious service of forests. Large-scale disturbances like forest fires, wind throws, pest outbreaks and subsequent clear cutting may lead to changes in hydrology (runoff as well as percolation). Furthermore, water quality can be negatively influenced by increased erosion, increased decomposition of litter and humus and leaching of nitrate. Large-scale epidemics of forest pests may induce forest decline at landscape scale with subsequent long-lasting negative effects on water quality. The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.), is one of the most significant sources of mortality in mature spruce forest ecosystems in Eurasia. The objective of this study was to apply a complex predisposition assessment system for hazard rating and for the evaluation of climate change impacts for the water protection forests of the City of Vienna in Wildalpen. The following steps have been done to adapt/apply the bark beetle phenology model and the hazard rating system: -application, adaptation and validation of the bark beetle phenology model PHENIPS concerning start of dispersion, brood initiation, duration of development, beginning of sister broods, voltinism and hibernation - spatial/temporal modelling of the phenology and voltinism of I. typographus using past, present as well as projected climate data - application and validation of the stand- and site related long-term predisposition assessment system using forest stand/site data, annual damage reports and outputs of phenology modelling as data input - mapping of endangered areas and assessment of future susceptibility to infestations by I. typographus and other disturbing agents based on climate scenarios using GIS. The assessment of site- and stand-related predisposition revealed that the forest stands in Wildalpen are highly susceptible to bark beetle infestation. More than 65% of the stands were assigned to the predisposition classes high/very high. Only 10% of

  8. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S.; Sullivan, Brian T.; Ayres, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  9. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported. PMID:27470760

  10. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  11. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  12. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  13. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles.

  14. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles. PMID:23923639

  15. Predation by Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Laemophloeidae) on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Hawaii coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...

  16. Riparian zones attenuate nitrogen loss following bark beetle-induced lodgepole pine mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joel A.; Meixner, Thomas; Harpold, Adrian A.; Reed, David E.; Gutmann, Ethan D.; Gaun, Janelle A.; Brooks, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A North American bark beetle infestation has killed billions of trees, increasing soil nitrogen and raising concern for N loss impacts on downstream ecosystems and water resources. There is surprisingly little evidence of stream N response in large basins, which may result from surviving vegetation uptake, gaseous loss, or dilution by streamflow from unimpacted stands. Observations are lacking along hydrologic flow paths connecting soils with streams, challenging our ability to determine where and how attenuation occurs. Here we quantified biogeochemical concentrations and fluxes at a lodgepole pine-dominated site where bark beetle infestation killed 50-60% of trees. We used nested observations along hydrologic flow paths connecting hillslope soils to streams of up to third order. We found soil water NO3 concentrations increased 100-fold compared to prior research at this and nearby southeast Wyoming sites. Nitrogen was lost below the major rooting zone to hillslope groundwater, where dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) increased by 3-10 times (mean 1.65 mg L-1) and NO3-N increased more than 100-fold (3.68 mg L-1) compared to preinfestation concentrations. Most of this N was removed as hillslope groundwater drained through riparian soils, and NO3 remained low in streams. DON entering the stream decreased 50% within 5 km downstream, to concentrations typical of unimpacted subalpine streams (~0.3 mg L-1). Although beetle outbreak caused hillslope N losses similar to other disturbances, up to 5.5 kg ha-1y-1, riparian and in-stream removal limited headwater catchment export to <1 kg ha-1y-1. These observations suggest riparian removal was the dominant mechanism preventing hillslope N loss from impacting streams.

  17. Nor-hopanes from Zanha africana root bark with toxicity to bruchid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Philip C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Farrell, Iain W; Kusolwa, Paul; Belmain, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Zanha africana (Radlk.) Exell (Sapindaceae) root bark is used by farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa to protect stored grain from bruchid beetles, such as Callosobruchus maculatus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Z. africana root bark inhibited oviposition and caused significantly higher mortality of C. maculatus at a rate of application equivalent to that applied by farmers compared to control insects. The chloroform extract contained nor-hopanes rarely found in plants of which seven were isolated, one of which was previously known. Two of the most abundant nor-hopanes 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-21αH-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene and 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-24-norhopa-4(23),17(21)-diene were toxic to and reduced oviposition of C. maculatus in a dose dependent manner. Z. africana root bark is rich in insecticidal compounds that account for its effective use by smallholder farmers as an alternative to conventional insecticides. PMID:26803395

  18. Menzbieria chalcographi, a new neogregarine pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann) (Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Radek, Renate

    2012-09-01

    This study concerns a new neogregarine parasitic in the great spruce bark beetle Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann) (Curculionidae, Scolytinae). The rate of infection was high, reaching 27.3%. There was no difference in the rate of infection of male and female beetles. The life-cycle stages of the pathogen were described by light and electron microscopy. Each gametocyst of the neogregarine included 8-16 actinocephalid oocysts measuring 11.19 ± 0.42 × 4.99 ± 0.25 μm. The described pathogen has the typical characteristics of members of the genus Menzbieria within the order Neogregarinida and it was identified as Menzbieria chalcographi. This is the first record of an infection of D. micans by M. chalcographi. Possibly, this pathogen could be useful for the biological control of this destructive bark beetle.

  19. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Jonathan A; Collignon, R Maxwell; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Kanekar, Sanat S; Hussain, Altaf; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs) help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success. PMID:27583519

  20. 白桦树皮提取物的降血脂作用研究%On Hypolipidemic Effects of White Birch Bark Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左红香; 郑光浩

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study hypolipidemic effects of white birch bark extract. Method The white birch bark extract (BH) at the dose of 300 mg/kg was given to mice in high-dose group,200 mg/kg in middle-dose group and 100 mg/kg in low-dose group, and Zhinbitieose at the dose of 300 mg/kg in the positive control group orally for 7 days for the prophylaxis of lipidemic disorders. At 2h after the final administration,75% egg yolk emulsion was intraperitoneally given to the mice in all groups except for the normal group to establish the mouse model of hyperlipidemia. Effects of BH at the different doses on lipid levels in blood in mice were measured at 12h after the modeling. Results The white birch bark extract could significantly reduce serum TC, TG and LDL-C contents, and significantly elevate HDL-C level. Conclusion The white birch bark extract can produce significantly hypolipidemic effect on mice.%目的研究白桦树皮提取物(BH)的降血脂作用.方法分正常组、模型组、BH给药组:高(300mg/kg)、中(200mg/kg)、低(100mg/kg)剂量和阳性对照组:脂必妥(300mg/kg).预防给药7d,末次给药2h后,腹腔注射75%蛋黄乳液制作小鼠高脂血症模型,造模12h后测定不同剂量的BH对小鼠血脂水平的影响.结果白桦树皮提取物能够显著降低小鼠血清中TC,TG,LDL-C浓度,显著升高HDL-C.结论白桦树皮提取物具有明显的降血脂作用.

  1. Spatial characterization of bark beetle infestations by a multidate synergy of SPOT and Landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Hooman; Schumann, Bastian; Kautz, Markus; Dech, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Biological infestations in forests, e.g. the insect outbreaks, have been shown as favoured by future climate change trends. In Europe, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) is one of the main agents causing substantial economic disturbances in forests. Therefore, studies on spatio-temporal characterization of the area affected by bark beetle are of major importance for rapid post-attack management. We aimed at spatially detecting damage classes by combining multidate remote sensing data and a non-parametric classification. As study site served a part of the Bavarian Forest National Park (Germany). For the analysis, we used 10 geometrically rectified scenes of Landsat and SPOT sensors in the period between 2001 and 2011. The main objective was to explore the potential of medium-resolution data for classifying the attacked areas. A further aim was to explore if the temporally adjacent infested areas are able to be separated. The random forest (RF) model was applied using the reference data drawn from high-resolution aerial imagery. The results indicate that the sufficiently large patches of visually identifiable damage classes can be accurately separated from non-attacked areas. In contrast to those, the other mortality classes (current year, current year 1 and current year 2 infested classes) were mostly classified with higher commission or omission errors as well as higher classification biases. The available medium-resolution satellite images, combined with properly acquired reference data, are concluded to be adequate tools to map area-based infestations at advanced stages. However, the quality of reference data, the size of infested patches and the spectral resolution of remotely sensed data are the decisive factors in case of smaller areas. Further attempts using auxiliary height information and spatially enhanced data may refine such an approach.

  2. An attempt to use the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in forest protection against the bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Grodzki Wojciech; Kosibowicz Mieczysław

    2015-01-01

    In 2011–2013, trials on the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against bark beetle (Ips typographus) populations were carried out under open field conditions in Norway spruce stands suffering from an outbreak in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. in Poland. Modified pheromone traps were deployed to capture and thereafter release fungus-infected bark beetles to the forest environment. Infested spruce trees felled next to the traps remained unaffected by the transmission of the fungus ...

  3. Semiochemical Diversity in Practice: Antiattractant Semiochemicals Reduce Bark Beetle Attacks on Standing Trees—A First Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Schlyter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of tree mortality caused by bark beetle attacks is not only important for forestry, but also essential for the preservation of biodiversity and forest carbon sinks in the face of climate change. While bark beetle mass trapping (a “pull” approach is implemented in practice, few studies exist to estimate its effect. The more complex “push-pull” tactic has, in contrast, been repeatedly tested during the last decade. I analysed published data from 32 experiments in 9 papers published during 2000–2011 on Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae, to test if there was an overall effect of antiattractant semiochemicals, that is, if treatments reduced the number of attacks on standing trees at the habitat or stand scale. This meta-analysis showed a substantial overall effect size (treatment-control means divided by their SD of −0.96, with some heterogeneity but little evidence of publication bias. There was no effect of beetle species or publication year. Heterogeneity resulted from different designs and beetle population levels (as year of study. The conventional “% Reduction” measure correlated well with effect size (2=0.7. Recommendations include more precise reporting of responses (avoiding dichotomous data, more unified experimental designs, and further meta-analyses that include “grey literature” and more beetle species.

  4. Seasonal dynamics of saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera occurring in decaying birch (Betula spp. wood in the Kampinos National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawoniewicz Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the seasonal changes in the number of saproxylic beetles connected with birch in the Kampinos National Park. The research was conducted for 12 consecutive months in research areas representing 10 different site types. The beetles were collected from wood using photoeclectors. The largest number of species was collected in April and the lowest in January. An increase in number occurred during spring and summer months for species associated only with rotting wood, fructifications of tree fungi, the subcortical environment and hollows. In the same period the number of species not associated or potentially associated with decaying trees and wood decreased. During winter months, the differences in the number of trapped specimens were the smallest. The proportion of zoophagous species amongst the collected specimen increased in autumn and winter. The share of saprophagous species was the highest during the summer-autumn period and the share of mycetophages (jointly with myxomycophages was the highest during spring and summer. We distinguished two separate groups of Coleoptera with the first one (‘summer group’ including species trapped during late-spring and summer months, while the second one (‘winter group’ includes species found in autumn, winter and early-spring months. In the ‘summer group’, an average of 55.8 species was trapped each month with 331.2 specimen of Coleoptera, while in the ʻwinter group’ an average of 56.1 species with 228.4 Coleoptera specimen were caught.

  5. Gene discovery for the bark beetle-vectored fungal tree pathogen Grosmannia clavigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Gordon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grosmannia clavigera is a bark beetle-vectored fungal pathogen of pines that causes wood discoloration and may kill trees by disrupting nutrient and water transport. Trees respond to attacks from beetles and associated fungi by releasing terpenoid and phenolic defense compounds. It is unclear which genes are important for G. clavigera's ability to overcome antifungal pine terpenoids and phenolics. Results We constructed seven cDNA libraries from eight G. clavigera isolates grown under various culture conditions, and Sanger sequenced the 5' and 3' ends of 25,000 cDNA clones, resulting in 44,288 high quality ESTs. The assembled dataset of unique transcripts (unigenes consists of 6,265 contigs and 2,459 singletons that mapped to 6,467 locations on the G. clavigera reference genome, representing ~70% of the predicted G. clavigera genes. Although only 54% of the unigenes matched characterized proteins at the NCBI database, this dataset extensively covers major metabolic pathways, cellular processes, and genes necessary for response to environmental stimuli and genetic information processing. Furthermore, we identified genes expressed in spores prior to germination, and genes involved in response to treatment with lodgepole pine phloem extract (LPPE. Conclusions We provide a comprehensively annotated EST dataset for G. clavigera that represents a rich resource for gene characterization in this and other ophiostomatoid fungi. Genes expressed in response to LPPE treatment are indicative of fungal oxidative stress response. We identified two clusters of potentially functionally related genes responsive to LPPE treatment. Furthermore, we report a simple method for identifying contig misassemblies in de novo assembled EST collections caused by gene overlap on the genome.

  6. Declining Bark Beetle Densities (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Scolytinae from Infested Norway Spruce Stands and Possible Implications for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Angst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus is the most serious insect pest in Central European forests. During the past two decades, extreme meteorological events and subsequent beetle infestations have killed millions of cubic meters of standing spruce trees. Not all the infested stands could be cleared in time, and priorities in management had to be set. Natural or man-made buffer zones of about 500 meters in width are frequently defined to separate differently managed stands in Central Europe. While the buffer zones seem to be effective in most of the cases, their impact has not been studied in detail. Beetle densities were therefore assessed in three case studies using pheromone traps along transects, leading from infested stands into spruce-free buffer zones. The results of the trap catches allow an estimation of the buffer zone influence on densities and the dispersal of Ips typographus. Beetle densities were found to decrease rapidly with increasing distance from the infested spruce stands. The trap catches were below high-risk thresholds within a few hundred meters of the infested stands. The decrease in catches was more pronounced in open land and in an urban area than in a broadleaf stand. Designed buffer zones of 500 m width without spruce can therefore very probably help to reduce densities of spreading beetles.

  7. Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD. Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B. A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae (10,655 trees, specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say, and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height. Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7% than LoD (4.2%. The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees.

  8. The Response of Subalpine Vegetation to Climate Change and Bark Beetle Infestations: A Multi-Scale Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, A.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Negrón, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mean annual temperatures in the western United States have increased in the last few decades, and are predicted to continue warming. In the subalpine zone of the Rocky Mountains, this warming is also predicted to increase the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks. Climate change itself may affect this vegetation, potentially leading to shifts in species compositions. These forests are a crucial part of the US's carbon budget, thus it is important to analyze how climate change and bark beetles in conjunction will affect the biomass and species composition of vegetation in subalpine zone. UVAFME is an individual-based gap model that simulates biomass and species composition of a forest. This model has been quantitatively tested at various Rocky Mountain sites in the Front Range, and has been shown to accurately simulate the vegetation dynamics in the region. UVAFME has been updated with a spruce beetle subroutine that calculates the probability for beetle infestation of each tree on a plot. This probability is based on site, climate, and individual tree characteristics, such as temperature; stand structure; and tree stress level, size, and age. These governing characteristics are based on data from the US Forest Service, and other studies on spruce susceptibility and spruce beetle phenology. UVAFME is then run with multiple climate change and beetle scenarios to determine the net effect of both variables on subalpine vegetation. These results are compared among the different scenarios and to current forest inventory data. We project that increasing temperatures due to climate change will cause an increase in the frequency and severity of spruce beetle outbreaks, leading to a decrease in the biomass and dominance of Engelmann spruce. These results are an important step in understanding the possible futures for the vegetation of subalpine zone in the Rocky Mountains.

  9. The Banded Elm Bark Beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae in North America: a taxonomic review and modifications to the Wood (1982 key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy in North and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James LaBonte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, an Asian bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, the banded elm bark beetle, was detected for the first time in North America. This paper modifies the Wood (1982 key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy to enable identification of S. schevyrewi in North and Central America. Variation of diagnostic characters in S. schevyrewi is discussed.

  10. The Banded Elm Bark Beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America: a taxonomic review and modifications to the Wood (1982) key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy in North and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    James LaBonte

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In 2003, an Asian bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), the banded elm bark beetle, was detected for the first time in North America. This paper modifies the Wood (1982) key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy to enable identification of Scolytus schevyrewi in North and Central America. Variation of diagnostic characters in Scolytus schevyrewi is discussed.

  11. Bark Beetles, Pityogenes bidentatus, Orienting to Aggregation Pheromone Avoid Conifer Monoterpene Odors When Flying but Not When Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies and data presented here suggest that odors from healthy host Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris and nonhost Norway spruce (Picea abies, as well as major monoterpenes of these trees at natural release rates, significantly reduce the attraction of flying bark beetles, Pityogenes bidentatus, of both sexes to their aggregation pheromone components grandisol and cis-verbenol in the field, as tested by slow rotation of trap pairs. In contrast, P. bidentatus males and females walking in an open-arena olfactometer in the laboratory did not avoid monoterpene vapors at release rates spanning several orders of magnitude in combination with aggregation pheromone. The bark beetle may avoid monoterpenes when flying as a mechanism for avoiding nonhost species, vigorous and thus unsuitable host trees, as well as harmful resinous areas of hosts. Inhibition of this flight avoidance response in beetles after landing would allow them to initiate, or to find and enter, gallery holes with high monoterpene vapor concentrations in order to feed and reproduce.

  12. Non-host volatile blend optimization for forest protection against the European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rikard Unelius

    Full Text Available Conifer feeding bark beetles (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae pose a serious economic threat to forest production. Volatiles released by non-host angiosperm plants (so called non-host volatiles, NHV have been shown to reduce the risk of attack by many bark beetle species, including the European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus. However, the most active blend for I. typographus, containing three green leaf volatiles (GLVs in addition to the key compounds trans-conophthorin (tC and verbenone, has been considered too expensive for use in large-scale management. To lower the cost and improve the applicability of NHV, we aim to simplify the blend without compromising its anti-attractant potency. Since the key compound tC is expensive in pure form, we also tested a crude version: technical grade trans-conophthorin (T-tC. In another attempt to find a more cost effective substitute for tC, we evaluated a more readily synthesized analog: dehydro-conophthorin (DHC. Our results showed that 1-hexanol alone could replace the three-component GLV blend containing 1-hexanol, (3Z-hexen-1-ol, and (2E-hexen-1-ol. Furthermore, the release rate of tC could be reduced from 5 mg/day to 0.5 mg/day in a blend with 1-hexanol and (--verbenone without compromising the anti-attractant activity. We further show that T-tC was comparable with tC, whereas DHC was a less effective anti-attractant. DHC also elicited weaker physiological responses in the tC-responding olfactory receptor neuron class, providing a likely mechanistic explanation for its weaker anti-attractive effect. Our results suggest a blend consisting of (--verbenone, 1-hexanol and technical trans-conophthorin as a cost-efficient anti-attractant for forest protection against I. typographus.

  13. Morphological and biological investigation of two pioneer Ips bark beetles in natural spruce forests in Qinghai Province, northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li; WU Jian; LUO You-qing; LI Zhen-yu; WANG Guo-cang; HAN Fu-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetle species in natural stands of spruce, Picea crassifolia (Kom.) were investigated in Maixiu Forest Park, Qinghai Province, northwest China, during 2005 and 2007. Two pioneer lps species, Ips nitidus Eggers and lps shangrila Cognato and Sun were found. L nitidus occurs naturally in northwest China. L shangrila is a new species in the world. In the past, it was confused with I. mannsfeldi Wachtl in China. The damage of these two Ips species has been very severe in Maixiu and the morphological and biological characteristics were studied. L nitidus starts to fly in early May and prefers the mid to lower part of the host tree to colonize as its habitat. L shangrila always infests from the top of the trunk, especially in branches larger than 3 em in diameter in the crowns and sometimes even colonizes entire young trees. The two Ips species are the most destructive secondary bark beetles on P. crassifolia and always cause mortality of trees by their cooperation.

  14. Using UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Hyperspectral Imaging for Mapping Bark Beetle Damage at Tree-Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope Näsi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost, miniaturized hyperspectral imaging technology is becoming available for small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV platforms. This technology can be efficient in carrying out small-area inspections of anomalous reflectance characteristics of trees at a very high level of detail. Increased frequency and intensity of insect induced forest disturbance has established a new demand for effective methods suitable in mapping and monitoring tasks. In this investigation, a novel miniaturized hyperspectral frame imaging sensor operating in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm was used to identify mature Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. trees suffering from infestation, representing a different outbreak phase, by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.. We developed a new processing method for analyzing spectral characteristic for high spatial resolution photogrammetric and hyperspectral images in forested environments, as well as for identifying individual anomalous trees. The dense point clouds, measured using image matching, enabled detection of single trees with an accuracy of 74.7%. We classified the trees into classes of healthy, infested and dead, and the results were promising. The best results for the overall accuracy were 76% (Cohen’s kappa 0.60, when using three color classes (healthy, infested, dead. For two color classes (healthy, dead, the best overall accuracy was 90% (kappa 0.80. The survey methodology based on high-resolution hyperspectral imaging will be of a high practical value for forest health management, indicating a status of bark beetle outbreak in time.

  15. Molecular markers detect cryptic predation on coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by silvanid and laemophloeid flat bark beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...

  16. The flat bark beetles (Coleoptera, Silvanidae, Cucujidae, Laemophloeidae of Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the present investigations 18 species of flat bark beetles are known to occur in Atlantic Canada, 10 in New Brunswick, 17 in Nova Scotia, four on Prince Edward Island, six on insular Newfoundland, and one in Labrador. Twenty-three new provincial records are reported and nine species, Uleiota debilis (LeConte, Uleiota dubius (Fabricius, Nausibius clavicornis (Kugelann, Ahasverus advena (Waltl, Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr, Cryptolestes turcicus (Grouvelle, Charaphloeus convexulus (LeConte, Charaphloeus species nr. adustus, and Placonotus zimmermanni (LeConte are newly recorded in the region, one of which C. sp. nr. adustus, is newly recorded in Canada as a whole. Eight species are cosmopolitan species introduced to the region and North America, nine are native Nearctic species, and one, Pediacus fuscus Erichson, is Holarctic in distribution. All the introduced species except for one (Silvanus bidentatus (Fabricius, a saproxylic species are found on various stored products, whereas all the native species are saproxylic. Ahasverus longulus (Blatchley, is removed from the species list of New Brunswick and Charophloeus adustus (LeConte is removed from the species list of Nova Scotia. One tropical Asian species, Cryptamorpha desjardinsi (Guérin-Méneville, has been intercepted in the region in imported produce, but is not established. The substantial proportion (44% of the fauna that is comprised of introduced species is highlighted, almost all of which are synanthropic species associated with various dried stored products. The island faunas of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and insular Newfoundland are diminished in comparison to the mainland fauna, that of Prince Edward Island being exceptionally so in comparison to other saproxylic groups found there. Of the ten native species, four can be categorized as 'apparently rare' (i.e., comprising ≤ 0.005% of specimens examined from the region. It is possibly that the

  17. Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and Interspecific Differences in Sensitivity Among Fungal Associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Charles J; Klepzig, Kier D; Kopper, Brian J; Kersten, Philip J; Illman, Barbara L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-06-01

    Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle - fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (Picea glauca) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of four spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)-associated fungi to three diterpene acids. Constitutive phloem contents differed between species, in that red pine had extremely low concentrations of diterpene acids, whereas white spruce had substantial constitutive levels. Induction differed quantitatively. Both red pine and white spruce exhibited marked increases, but red pine underwent greater increases and achieved higher concentrations than white spruce. Induction also differed qualitatively in that red pine showed lower diversity and fewer compositional changes during induction than white spruce. In red pine,fungal inoculation accompanying wounding elicited greater increases than wounding alone, but in white spruce total concentrations were higher following wounding alone. Spruce beetle fungal symbiont growth varied among species and compounds. Some diterpenes elicited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on fungi, depending on concentration. All four fungi exhibited higher tolerances compared to those associated with pine bark beetles in previous studies. Variation in tolerances to, and potentially metabolism of, diterpene acids by symbionts may reflect differences in constitutive levels between spruce and pine, and partially explain differences in concentrations achieved during induction.

  18. Testing remote sensing estimates of bark beetle induced mortality in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce with ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Ewers, B. E.; Sivanpillai, R.; Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetles have caused widespread regional mortality in both lodgepole and Engelmann spruce forests across western North America, and while studies have addressed the impact on water partitioning caused by the mountain pine beetle, spruce beetle which often occur at high elevations with larger snowpack might have a disproportional impact. Beetle caused mortality can have significant effects on the hydrology of a watershed and therefore needs to be considered when evaluating increased runoff. The objective of this project was to generate maps showing beetle caused mortality for lodgepole pine and spruce fir forests that capture changes to the landscape to improve hydrologic models. Our study area in southeast Wyoming covered an area of approximately 2 by 4 km from 2700 to 2800m elevation range. High spatial resolution (0.5m) aerial imagery acquired by the Airborne Environmental Research Observational Camera (AEROCam) in fall 2011, provided by the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), was manually classified into four conifer thematic classes: live and dead lodgepole pine, and live and dead spruce/fir. The classified high resolution image was then verified by tree surveys conducted July-September, 2012 documenting species, tree diameter at breast height (dbh), and the stage of beetle infestation for each tree. After verification the high resolution aerial images were used to train and evaluate the accuracy of a supervised classification of a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image from the same time period and area. The preliminary results of a supervised classification show that map accuracy was 57%, 77%, 44%, and 83% for lodgepole live and dead, and spruce/fir live and dead respectively. The highest commission error, 24%, was for dead lodgepole pine being falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The second highest commission error, 22%, was for live spruce/fir falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The results indicate high spectral overlap between dead spruce/fir and dead

  19. Semiochemical-mediated flight strategies of two invasive elm bark beetles: a potential factor in competitive displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Negrón, José F; Witcosky, Jeffrey J; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    A seven-state survey showed that the recently detected invasive Asian banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus (Marsham), was not as abundant. In one of a series of studies to evaluate whether S. schevyrewi is competitively displacing S. multistriatus in their North American zone of sympatry, we characterized long-range flight responses infested or uninfested to small cut logs of American, Chinese, and Siberian elm, Ulmus americana, U. parvifolia, and U. pumila. Trials were conducted in Colorado and Wyoming to test the flight response of S. schevyrewi; in California to test the response of S. multistriatus; and in Nevada to test the responses of both species simultaneously. Studies with S. schevyrewi showed that males and females aggregated toward Ulmus spp. host volatiles but provided no evidence of a putative aggregation pheromone during the 0- to 48- or 48- to 96-h period of infestation. In contrast, S. multistriatus was attracted to U. pumila over unbaited controls, more to U. pumila infested with conspecific females than without, and more during the 48- to 96- versus 0- to 48-h period of infestation. This confirmed that male and female S. multistriatus aggregated toward host volatiles and that females produced an aggregation pheromone. In a cross-attraction study, S. schevyrewi displayed neither flight preference nor interruption to U. pumila infested with conspecifics, heterospecifics, or a mix of both species. Response of S. multistriatus was too low to draw conclusions. Although S. multistriatus aggregates moderately to host volatiles and strongly to female-derived pheromones emitted after a few days, S. multistriatus may have a relative disadvantage by selecting elm hosts more slowly than S. schevyrewi, which aggregates very strongly to host volatiles. The differential long-range host location strategy may be one factor in a

  20. Structure and reaction studies of biological organic and inorganic composite materials: Abalone shells, diatoms, and a unique birch bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Charlotte Marie

    Biopolymer/calcium carbonate composites grown on inorganic abiotic substrates implanted between the shell and the shell-secreting epithelium of live red abalones (Haliotis rufescens) results in an unusual highly (104)-oriented aggregate of microcrystalline calcite that precedes nacre deposition. Calcite of this orientation has never before been observed in nature. Also with this method, nacre deposition is found to correct for calcite surface roughness and chemically anomalous surfaces. Pole figure X-ray diffraction studies of these "flat pearls" provide comparisons of preferred orientation of the various mineral components of the abalone shell. Complete conversion of the aragonite in abalone nacre to hydroxyapatite in hydrothermal phosphate solution results in an oriented polycrystalline aggregate with ultrastructure preservation and an unexpected preferred orientation different from that of other biominerals and abiogenic CaCO3 samples subjected to this reaction. The new orientation, which increases with reaction time, may result from the organization of the organic matrix in the nacre, which directs the hydrothermal solution through the material. This orientation suggests strongly that the conversion proceeds via a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, rather than by topotaxy, which was previously proposed. In addition to cellulose I, a highly oriented cellulose-II-like polymer was found in the bark of Prunus serrula, an exceptionally strong, tough, and extensible composite film. The cellulose II polymorph, which has not previously been found in nature, may be accordion-folded in the plane of the bark thickness and contribute to the strength and unusual behavior with plasticization of this natural film. The silica frustule of the diatom Skeletonema costatum has a surface area of 135 mm2/g and contains 1.5--2 wt % occluded organic. This organic includes a water-insoluble scaffolding. When treated with organic oxidizers, the chitin secreted by the diatom

  1. A Tale of Two Forests: Simulating Contrasting Lodgepole Pine and Spruce Forest Water and Carbon Fluxes Following Mortality from Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, bark beetle infestation in western North America has reached epidemic levels. The resulting widespread forest mortality may have profound effects on present and future water and carbon cycling with potential negative consequences to a region that relies on water from montane and subalpine watersheds. We simulated stand-level ecosystem fluxes of water and carbon at two bark beetle-attacked conifer forests in southeast Wyoming, USA. The lower elevation site dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was attacked by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) during 2008-2010. The high elevation Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) dominated site was attacked by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) during roughly the same time period. Both beetle infestations resulted in >60% canopy mortality in the footprint of eddy covariance towers located at each site. However, carbon and water fluxes responses to mortality depended on the forest type. Using data collected at the sites, we scaled simulated plant hydraulic conductivity by either percent canopy mortality or loss of live tree basal area during infestation. We also simulated a case of no beetle attack. At the lodgepole site, the no-beetle model best fit the data and showed no significant change in growing season carbon flux and a 15% decrease in evapotranspiration (ET). However, at the spruce site, the simulation that tracked canopy loss agreed best with observations: carbon flux decreased by 72% and ET decreased by 31%. In the lodgepole stand, simulated soil water content agreed with spatially distributed measurements that were weighted to reflect overall mortality in the tower footprint. Although these two forest ecosystems are only 20 km apart, separated by less than 300m in elevation, and have been impacted by similar mortality agents, the associated changes in carbon and water cycling are significantly different. Beetle effects on hydrologic cycling were greatest at high elevation

  2. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearup, Lindsay A; Mikkelson, Kristin M; Wiley, Joseph F; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M; Sharp, Jonathan O; McCray, John E

    2014-10-15

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid-liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of water

  3. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearup, Lindsay A; Mikkelson, Kristin M; Wiley, Joseph F; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M; Sharp, Jonathan O; McCray, John E

    2014-10-15

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid-liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of water

  4. 小蠹识别信息化合物的嗅觉机制%Olfactory mechanism of bark beetle recognizing the semiochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦浩; 于艳雪; 张俊华; 叶保华; 陈乃中

    2013-01-01

    小蠹是全球森林生态系统最具危害性的森林害虫类群之一,具有十分突出的检疫重要性.本文从昆虫周缘嗅觉信号的传导过程入手,阐述了小蠹识别信息化合物的类别、小蠹嗅觉编码机制以及小蠹嗅觉定位机制3个方面,提出了探索小蠹识别外界信息化合物分子机制的必要性.%The bark beetle is one of the most dangerous forest pests in global forest ecological system, which plays an important role in the plant quarantine. This review begin with the transmitting progress of the peripheral olfactory signal, and amplify the types of semiochemicals of bark beetles recognizing. Mechanism of olfactory code, and localization are subsequently summarized. It is necessary to explore the molecular mechanism of bark beetle recognizing the semiochemicals.

  5. Comparision of the Cytotoxic Effects of Birch Bark Extract, Betulin and Betulinic Acid Towards Human Gastric Carcinoma and Pancreatic Carcinoma Drug-sensitive and Drug-Resistant Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Lage

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Betulin and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenes showing cytotoxicity towards a number of cancer cell lines. These compounds can be found in the bark of the many plants. In this report we have compared the cytotoxic activity of crude birch bark extract and purified betulin and betulinic acid towards human gastric carcinoma (EPG85-257 and human pancreatic carcinoma (EPP85-181 drug-sensitive and drug-resistant (daunorubicin and mitoxantrone cell lines. Our results show significant differences in sensitivity between cell lines depending on the compound used, and suggest that both betulin and betulinic acid can be considered as a promising leads in the treatment of cancer.

  6. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearup, Lindsay A., E-mail: lbearup@mines.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Mikkelson, Kristin M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Wiley, Joseph F. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M. [Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Sharp, Jonathan O.; McCray, John E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid–liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of

  7. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid–liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of

  8. Hydrological effects of forest transpiration loss in bark beetle-impacted watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearup, Lindsay A.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Clow, David W.; McCray, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The recent climate-exacerbated mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has resulted in tree death that is unprecedented in recorded history. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity inherent in insect infestation creates a complex and often unpredictable watershed response, influencing the primary storage and flow components of the hydrologic cycle. Despite the increased vulnerability of forested ecosystems under changing climate1, watershed-scale implications of interception, ground evaporation, and transpiration changes remain relatively unknown, with conflicting reports of streamflow perturbations across regions. Here, contributions to streamflow are analysed through time and space to investigate the potential for increased groundwater inputs resulting from hydrologic change after infestation. Results demonstrate that fractional late-summer groundwater contributions from impacted watersheds are 30 ± 15% greater after infestation and when compared with a neighbouring watershed that experienced earlier and less-severe attack, albeit uncertainty propagations through time and space are considerable. Water budget analysis confirms that transpiration loss resulting from beetle kill can account for the relative increase in groundwater contributions to streams, often considered the sustainable flow fraction and critical to mountain water supplies and ecosystems.

  9. Mattesia weiseri sp. nov., a new neogregarine (Apicomplexa: Lipotrophidae) pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Radek, Renate

    2015-08-01

    A new neogregarine pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is described based on light microscopy and ultrastructural characteristics. The pathogen infects the fat body and the hemolymph of the beetle. The infection was nonsynchronous so that different developmental stages could be observed simultaneously in the hemolymph. All life stages from sporozoite to oocyst of the pathogen including micronuclear and macronuclear merozoites were detected. The sporozoites measured about 8.7 × 1.9 μm and trophozoites, 11.9 × 3.3 μm. Micronuclear merozoites seen in the hemolymph were motile, elongate, slightly broader at the anterior pole, and measured 18.4 × 2.0 μm. Macronuclear merozoites had a size of ca. 16.4 × 2.3 μm. Gametogamy results in the formation of two paired oocysts within a gametocyst. The lemon-shaped oocyst measured 10.9 × 6.1 μm and had a very thick wall (375-450 nm). All morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the life cycle stages indicate that the described neogregarine in D. micans is clearly different from known Mattesia species infecting bark beetles, and from any other described Mattesia spp. Therefore, we create a new species, Mattesia weiseri sp. nov.

  10. Host suitability analysis of the bark beetle Scolytus amygdali (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiri, A; Ahmed, M Z; Braham, M; Qiu, B-L

    2015-08-01

    Scolytus amygdali is a polyphagous insect pest that feeds on fruit trees and forest trees. Our study assessed the host preference and reproductive potential of S. amygdali on four tree species: almond (Prunus dulcis), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica). Females of S. amygdali produced maternal galleries that were longer on peach than the other three trees, and female fecundity was highest on peach. Females with longer maternal galleries produced more eggs, indicating a positive correlation between maternal gallery length and female fertility. The under-bark development time of S. amygdali is significantly shorter on plum (45 days) and almond (56 days) than on apricot (65 days) and peach (64 days). Despite this longer development time on peach, our results still suggest that, of the four types of tree tested, peach is the most preferred host for S. amygdali.

  11. 四川铁路口岸首次从美国白蜡木中截获刺海小蠹%The first interception of eastern ash bark beetle in Sichuan railway port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁昕; 刘洋洋

    2014-01-01

    Eastern ash bark beetle was been intercepted for the first time from the American imported ash wood by the port of Sichuan. This article describes the identification characters,the biological characteristics,the damage situation of Eastern ash bark beetle, and the methods of control.%四川口岸从美国进口白蜡木板材中首次截获外来有害生物刺海小蠹。本文叙述了刺海小蠹的鉴定特征、生物学特性、危害情况,并对防治进行了介绍。

  12. New record and extension of the distribution range of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Nuevo registro y ampliación del área de distribución del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Armendáriz-Toledano; Verónica Torres-Banda; María Fernanda López; Jaime Villa-Castillo; Gerardo Zúñiga

    2012-01-01

    After several exploratory surveys to the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC), the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright, 1970 was recorded in 2 geographic localities of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. These new records extend the range of distribution of this beetle a further 250 km south along the SMOC from the southernmost site recorded in the state of Durango. These records indicate that this species may be present in almost any area of the SMOC ...

  13. 桦树皮提取物对荷瘤小鼠免疫抑瘤效应的研究%Study of extraction of birch bark (EBB) on immune inhibition tumor effect in bearing tumor mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩淑英; 吴子忠; 熊建新; 李岩; 宗瑞义

    2002-01-01

    目的:研究桦树皮提取物(Extraction of Birch Bark EBB)对S180荷瘤小鼠体内抑瘤效应及其对免疫功能的影响.方法:应用EBB口服观察其对肿瘤的抑制作用,并检测脾细胞对ConA刺激的反应性和NK、TNF、IL-2的活性.结果:EBB可明显地抑制肿瘤生长,提高荷瘤鼠脾细胞对ConA刺激的反应性、并明显增强NK细胞活性、促进TNF和IL-2分泌增加.结论:EBB增强荷瘤鼠免疫功能可能是其抑瘤效应的机制.

  14. Impact of bark beetle calamity on soil moisture dynamics during floods and droughts in 2013 - case study of Rokytka Brook catchment, Šumava Mts., Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Kocum, Jan; Jansky, Bohumir; Sefrna, Ludek

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of soil moisture in the experimental catchment of Rokytka Brook, Otava River basin, Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. This area has a long-term problems with bark beetle which results predominantly in the spruce forest perdition. This phenomenon has resulted not only in a change of a vegetation composition, but also it has impacted the development of local land cover, soil moisture dynamics or the storage capacity of soils and the potential retention conditions within the basin . The experimental catchment, where the research was carried out, consists by 2/3 of terrestrial soil (Entic Podzol). The soil is covered by the dead forest (former spuce forest before bark beetle calamity) and by the beech forest (former spruce-beech forest). The rest of the basin consists of well-developed peatbogs that represents a typical example of a peatbog in Šumava Mts. In terms of vegetation, the area can be divided into a lower part consisting of healthy waterlogged spruce forest, the mountain pine covers the middle part and the upper part is covered mostly by the cotton grass. In the part where terrestrial soils predominate, measuring of soil pressures and temperatures at two depths (20 and 60 cm) at two sites (former spruce-beech and spruce forest) has been carried out since 2012. Due to the bark beetle calamity, the spruce forest has become withered and thus the vegetation cover has changed. Meteorological data (precipitation, air temperature, humidity) are collected by meteorological stations located within the basin or used from nearby stations (solar radiation, wind speed). The outflow from the experimental catchment is also measured. The aim of this paper is to simulate the dynamics of a soil moisture condition before bark beetle outbreak, to compare the differences and changes of a soil moisture and retention ability of a typical soil type in the case of a characteristic headwater catchment in Šumava Mts. For the simulation of a soil

  15. CONTRIBUTION FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND CONTROL OF THE BARK BEETLES OF GENUS IPS (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE IN THE PINE FOREST OF CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Alberto López Castilla

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are four pines species endemic from Cuba with width importance, from the Conservation of the Forest Genetic Resources at regional level to the mitigation of the climatic change. Their economical importance is due to forming pure forest stand of fast growth and of straight trunk. The bark beetle of the genus Ips De Geer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and the associate mushrooms from the complex Ophiostomatoid (Ceratocystidaceae: Microascales Phylum Ascomycotina are those that cause the biggest damages in the plantations of pines in Cuba. The damage management was based mainly on the logging of all the infested trees and the application of organosintetic insecticides with the consequent affectations to the environment apart from economic losses. In this work were determined the most noxious Ips species and the most vulnerable pine species by means of the development of experiments with randomized design on logging of pines and systematic samplings in pine trees in the western region. It was also defined a threshold of damage index and the most effective treatment with biological products in the central region. These results were integrated and introduced like a methodology of bark beetle management in a plantations area of Pinus caribaea Morelet. var caribaea (Punta Felipe, Villa Clara, Cuba after the development of an outbreak of this noxious complex and it was demonstrated that it was possible to control this forest pest without carrying out the logging of all the affected trees neither the application of organosintetic insecticides. As what this work has a positive environmental impact, contributing to the healthy conservation of the pine forests and an economic impact due to the saving of foreign currencies for concept of insecticides left of applying and also to diminish the losses of wooden increase.

  16. Carbon isotopic composition of forest soil respiration in the decade following bark beetle and stem girdling disturbances in the Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gregory E; Chan, Allison M; Trahan, Nicole A; Moore, David J P; Bowling, David R

    2016-07-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks are widespread in western North American forests, reducing primary productivity and transpiration, leading to forest mortality across large areas and altering ecosystem carbon cycling. Here the carbon isotope composition (δ(13) C) of soil respiration (δJ ) was monitored in the decade after disturbance for forests affected naturally by mountain pine beetle infestation and artificially by stem girdling. The seasonal mean δJ changed along both chronosequences. We found (a) enrichment of δJ relative to controls (<1 ‰) in near-surface soils in the first 2 years after disturbance; (b) depletion (1‰ or no change) during years 3-7; and (c) a second period of enrichment (1-2‰) in years 8-10. Results were consistent with isotopic patterns associated with the gradual death and decomposition of rhizosphere organisms, fine roots, conifer needles and woody roots and debris over the course of a decade after mortality. Finally, δJ was progressively more (13) C-depleted deeper in the soil than near the surface, while the bulk soil followed the well-established pattern of (13) C-enrichment at depth. Overall, differences in δJ between mortality classes (<1‰) and soil depths (<3‰) were smaller than variability within a class or depth over a season (up to 6‰). PMID:26824577

  17. Field responses of the Asian larch bark beetle, Ips subelongatus, to potential aggregation pheromone components: disparity between two populations in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wen Song; Qing-He Zhang; Yue-Qu Chen; Tong-Tong Zuo; Bing-Zhong Ren

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral responses of the Asian larch bark beetle, Ips subelongatus Motsch. to three potential aggregation pheromone components, ipsenol (racemic or [-]-enantiomer), ipsdienol (racemic or [+]-enantiomer) and 3-methyl-3-buten-1 -ol, were tested using partial or full factorial experimental designs in two provinces (Inner Mongolia and Jilin) of northeastern China. Our field bioassays in Inner Mongolia (Larix principis- rupprechtii Mayr. plantation) clearly showed that ipsenol, either racemic or 97%-(-)-enantiomer, was the only compound that significantly attracted both sexes of I. subelongatus, while all other compounds (singly or in combinations) were unattractive. There were no two- or three-way synergistic interactions. However, in Jilin Province (L. gmelini [Rupr.] Rupr. Plantation), all the individual compounds tested were inactive, except a very weak activity by 97%-(-)-ipsenol in 2004 when the beetle population was very high. While a combination of ipsenol and ipsdienol (racemates or enantiomerically pure natural enantiomers) showed a significant attraction for both sexes of I. subelongatus, indicating a two-way synergistic interaction between these two major components, addition of 3-methyl-3-buten-l-ol to these active binary blend(s) did not have any effects on trap catches, suggesting that ipsenol and ipsdienol are the synergistic aggregation pheromone components of I. subelongatus in Jilin Province. It seems that 97%-(-)-ipsenol in Inner Mongolia or the binary blend of 97%-(-)-ipsenol and 97%-(+)-ipsdienol in Jilin Province are superior to their corresponding racemates, which might be due either to weak inhibitory effects of the antipode enantiomers or to reduced release rates of the active natural enantiomers) in the racemate(s). Our current bioassay results suggest that there is a strong geographical variation in aggregation pheromone response of I. subelongatus in northeastern China. Future research on the pheromone production and response of I

  18. Effect of betulin-containing extract from birch tree bark on α-amylase activity in vitro and on weight gain of broiler chickens in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyina, Anna; Arredondo-Valdés, Roberto; Farkhutdinov, Salavat; Segura-Ceniceros, Elda Patricia; Martínez-Hernández, José Luis; Zaynullin, Radik; Kunakova, Rayhana

    2014-03-01

    In vitro effect of betulin-containing extract from Betula pendula Roth. bark on alpha-amylase activity was studied, the kinetic mechanism of interaction was proposed and in vivo effect of betulin-containing extract on weight gain and meat quality of broiler chickens was evaluated. The highest level of inhibitory activity (20%) was detected in extract concentration of 1,000 mg/L. Increased extract concentration did not lead to increased enzyme inhibition. Using Dixon and Cornish-Bowden coordinates, the competitive mechanism of inhibition was demonstrated. Calculated kinetic parameters were: Km equal to 0.6 mg/mL, Vmax equal to 2.6 and 2.1 mM/min from Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon coordinates, respectively and Ki equal to 3,670 ± 230 mg/mL. The partial inhibition of enzyme indicates the existence of low concentration of active inhibitory form, which reaches saturation level with increased extract concentration in applied suspension. Therefore, Ki has an apparent constant character. This partial inhibition of amylase activity observed in in vitro assay did not affect weight gain and meat quality of broiler chickens during in vivo assay. Rather, the tendency to increase the weight of edible parts and muscles compared to diet without additive suggests that the extract may be a potential food additive in poultry farming. Additionally, it could be a source for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.

  19. White Birch Trees as Resource Species of Russia : Their Distribution, Ecophysiological Features, Multiple Utilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Zyryanova, Olga A.; TERAZAWA, Minoru; KOIKE, TAKAYOSHI; Zyryanov, Vyacheslav I.

    2010-01-01

    Four birch tree species (Betula costata, B. pendula, B. platyphylla, B. pubescens) are traditionally important resource species in Russia. In the article, we discuss their spatial and ecophysiological features, biochemical constituents of the living tissues of the birches such as the wood, outer and inner bark, twigs, leaves, buds, roots. The exudation, tapping periods and sap productivity, exudated birch sap and derived birch tar are also reviewed. We show numerous useful wooden, medicinal, ...

  20. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanen, Duur K; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic fungus. In addition to highlighting the ecological complexity of bark-beetle-microbial symbioses, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics.

  1. Stimulated production of steroids in Inonotus obliquus by host factors from birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Xia; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus. PMID:25027706

  2. Morphology of Betula pendula var. carelica bark at the pre-reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda N. Nikolaeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in bark morphology at the pre-reproductive stage of Karelian birch are for the first time considered in connection with the type of trunk surface. The bark surface in Karelian birch changes with age from smooth to fissured. At the pre-reproductive stage Karelian birch has smooth bark with different types of exfoliation of the phellem surface layers, and tubercular specimens feature locally fissured bark on muffs at the very onset of their formation, as well as early rhytidome formation. Morphology of the bark tissues complex is a reflection of direction and intensity of the internal processes of the plant.

  3. Effects of biotic and abiotic stress on induced accumulation of terpenes and phenolics in red pines inoculated with bark beetle-vectored fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepzig, K D; Kruger, E L; Smalley, E B; Raffa, K F

    1995-05-01

    This study characterized the chemical response of healthy red pine to artificial inoculation with the bark beetle-vectored fungusLeptographium terebrantis. In addition, we sought to determine whether stress altered this induced response and to understand the implications of these interactions to the study of decline diseases. Twenty-five-year-old trees responded to mechanical wounding or inoculation withL. terebrantis by producing resinous reaction lesions in the phloem. Aseptically wounded and wound-inoculated phloem contained higher concentrations of phenolics than did constitutive tissue. Trees inoculated withL. terebrantis also contained higher concentrations of six monoterpenes,α-pinene,β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, camphene, and myrcene, and higher total monoterpenes than did trees that were mechanically wounded or left unwounded. Concentrations of these monoterpenes increased with time after inoculation. Total phenolic concentrations in unwounded stem tissue did not differ between healthy and root-diseased trees. Likewise, constitutive monoterpene concentrations in stem phloem were similar between healthy and root-diseased trees. However, when stem phloem tissue was challenged with fungal inoculations, reaction tissue from root-diseased trees contained lower concentrations ofα-pinene, the predominant monoterpene in red pine, than did reaction tissue from healthy trees. Seedlings stressed by exposure to low light levels exhibited less extensive induced chemical changes when challenge inoculated withL. terebrantis than did seedlings growing under higher light. Stem phloem tissue in these seedlings contained lower concentrations ofα-pinene than did nonstressed seedlings also challenge inoculated withL. terebrantis. It is hypothesized that monoterpenes and phenolics play a role in the defensive response of red pine against insect-fungal attack, that stress may predispose red pine to attack by insect-fungal complexes, and that such interactions are involved

  4. New record and extension of the distribution range of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae Nuevo registro y ampliación del área de distribución del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Armendáriz-Toledano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After several exploratory surveys to the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright, 1970 was recorded in 2 geographic localities of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. These new records extend the range of distribution of this beetle a further 250 km south along the SMOC from the southernmost site recorded in the state of Durango. These records indicate that this species may be present in almost any area of the SMOC where conditions are suitable for its development.Después de varios viajes de exploración a los estados de Jalisco y Zacatecas en la sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, se registró la presencia del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas y Bright, 1970 en 2 localidades en el Municipio de Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. Estos nuevos registros amplían el área de distribución del descortezador 250 km hacia el sur de la SMOC, a partir del punto más sureño registrado en el estado de Durango. Asimismo, estos registros indican que esta especie puede estar presente en prácticamente cualquier área de la SMOC que reúna las condiciones adecuadas para su desarrollo.

  5. Influence of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels, Foliar Fuel Moisture Content, and Litter and Volatile Terpenes in Whitebark Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Toone, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has caused extensive tree mortality in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm) forests. Previous studies conducted in various conifer forests have shown that fine surface fuels are significantly altered during a bark beetle outbreak. Bark beetle activity in conifer stands has also been shown to alter foliar fuel moisture content and chemistry over the course of the bark beetle rotation.The objective of this study was to evaluate changes ...

  6. Selective Solvents for Extraction of Triterpenes from Betula Pendula Outer Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Pāže, A; Zandersons, J; Rižikovs, J; Dobele, G.; Jurkjāne, V; Spince, B

    2013-01-01

    The volume of birch plywood production in Latvia is illustrated by the 208 000 m3 of plywood sold in 2011 and about 562 000 m3 of processed birch veneer blocks. Wood residues such as bark, veneer shorts, cut off ends and others are used as a fuel. It would be more expedient to increase the birch wood utilisation degree by involving also birch outer bark in the processing cycle. It makes up 2% of the veneer blocks’ mass. At the J.S.C. “Latvijas Finieris”, about 6000 t per year of graded and mi...

  7. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, J.; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper;

    the Great Lakes Region. Here we examine the impact of two bark beetle groups, namely red turpentine beetles and pine engraver bark beetles, on tree mortality and the subsequent gap formation over time in a plantation in Wisconsin. We construct spatial-temporal statistical models that quantify the relations...

  8. Bark- and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: the role of residual bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Petrice, Toby R

    2009-06-01

    Wood packaging material (WPM) is a major pathway for international movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. ISPM 15, the first international standard for treating WPM, was adopted in 2002 and first implemented in the United States in 2006. ISPM 15 allows bark to remain on WPM after treatment, raising concerns that insects could infest after treatment, especially if bark were present. We conducted field studies to evaluate insect infestation of green logs and lumber with varying amounts of bark after heat treatment. In a log study, Cerambycidae and Scolytinae (ambrosia beetles and bark beetles) readily infested and developed in logs with bark after heat treatment. In a lumber study, Cerambycidae and bark beetles laid eggs in all sizes of bark patches tested (approximately 25, 100, 250, and 1,000 cm2) after heat treatment but did not infest control or heat-treated lumber without bark. Cerambycidae completed development only in boards with bark patches of 1,000 cm2, whereas bark beetles completed development on patches of 100, 250, and 1,000 cm2. Survival of bark beetles was greater in square patches (10 by 10 cm) versus rectangular patches (2.5 by 40 cm) of the same surface area (100 cm2). In surveys at six U.S. ports in 2006, 9.4% of 5,945 ISPM 15-marked WPM items contained bark, and 1.2% of 564 ISPM 15-marked WPM items with bark contained live insects of quarantine significance under the bark. It was not possible to determine whether the presence of live insects represented treatment failure or infestation after treatment.

  9. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  10. Molecular Markers Detect Cryptic Predation on Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Silvanid and Laemophloeid Flat Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae) in Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.

  11. Extraction of betulin from bark of Betula platyphylla by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hong; YU Tao; WANG Yang

    2003-01-01

    Betulin, which is a medicinal pentacyclic triterpene, is abundant in the bark of white birch (Betula platyphlly). The bark of birch was collected at Tayuan Forest Farm of Jiagedaqi, Heilongjiang Province in September 2000. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that is a new separation technology has been used for the processing pharmaceutical and natural products. In this paper, the extraction of betulin from the bark of birch by supercritical CO2 extraction was studied. The authors investigated and analyzed a few parameters such as modifier dosage, extraction pressure and extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions showed that the modifier dosage used for per gram bark powder was 1.5 mL, the extraction pressure was at 20 Mpa, and the extraction temperature was at 55 ℃. The velocity of flow of liquid CO2 was at 10 kg/h. The pressure and temperature in separation vessel were at 5.5 Mpa and 50 ℃, respectively.

  12. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Erin W Hodgson; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  13. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and

  14. Phenolic compounds of the inner bark of Betula pendula: seasonal and genetic variation and induction by wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari; Helander, Marjo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2012-11-01

    The contents of individual phenolic compounds in the inner bark of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. Samples from 21 mature trees originating from three micropropagated parent trees were collected six times over a 1-year period. Significant seasonal variation in the quantities of ten compounds and four chromatographically unresolved compound pairs was found. A majority of the compounds also exhibited significant quantitative variation among birch clones. There were no qualitative differences associated with the season or among the clones. However, wounding of the bark induced the production of new types of bark phenolics: several ellagitannins were detected in the callus tissues of birch for the first time. PMID:23065107

  15. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Augustin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the immersion freezing behavior of birch pollen, i.e. its ice nucleating active (INA macromolecules, was investigated at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS. For that, washing water of two different birch pollen samples with different regional origin (Northern birch and Southern birch were used. The immersion freezing of droplets generated from the pollen washing water was already observed at temperatures higher than −20 °C, for both samples. Main differences between the Northern birch pollen and the Southern birch pollen were obvious in a temperature range, between −18 °C and −24 °C, where the ice fraction increased with decreasing temperature. There, the Northern birch pollen washing water featured two different slopes, with one being steeper and one being similar to the slope of the Southern birch pollen washing water. As we assume single INA macromolecules being the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that the Northern birch pollen are able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to determine the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types and so could explain the ice nucleation behavior of both, the Southern and the Northern birch pollen washing water.

  16. Efficient dewatering of bark in heated presses. Survey and pilot-scale trials; Effektivare avvattning av bark i vaermda pressar. Problemkartering samt foersoek i pilotskala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Martin; Stenstroem, Stig (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Dewatering and drying of biofuels such as bark and GROT have received increased importance due to an increased interest to use these products as energy sources. In Sweden there are about 30 bark presses installed, however the amount of available information is very limited about dewatering of bark. The goal with this work is to increase the knowledge about dewatering of bark. Two separate goals have been defined in the project: A. Survey about problems related to dewatering of bark and compilation of operating experiences at Swedish mills. B. Study how different parameters affect bark dewatering at pilot scale experiments. Study different techniques for heating bark and the bark pressing process. The results will mainly be of interest for mills which are handling bark, for municipal power plants who buy wet forest residues (bark, GROT etc.) and for manufacturers of industrial bark pressing equipment. The results show that the dry matter content for birch- and pine bark normally are so high that pressing does not result in dewatering of the barks. Both dry and wet debarking is used and these bark fractions should be pressed separately. On line measurement of the dry matter content for the bark should be used as a standard tool on the bark press. This will facilitate improved control of the bark press during the year. Other conclusions are that smaller bark particles result in an increased dry matter content, large bark- and wood pieces decrease the dewatering in the bark press and that the total residence time in the press nip should be at least 30 seconds. The most common method to take care of bark water is to send it to the evaporators or to the water purification plant. Maintenance of the bark press appears not to be a big problem. Hot pressing can be accomplished in different ways, either the bark press can be heated or the bark can be heated in different ways. The alternatives that have been studied in this project are steaming the bark, heating the bark using

  17. Birch's Law for fluid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By comparing acoustic velocities in fluid metals over a very wide range of densities we have established Birch's Law as an approximate representation over the entire liquid range. For a given liquid metal the acoustic velocity is close to linear in density, with a slope determined by the atomic weight. The measurements include isobaric expansion to less than half normal density, ultrasonics on molten metals at 1 atmosphere, and shock melted metals to greater than twice normal density

  18. Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......-treated group. CONCLUSION: The rBet v 1-based vaccine was safe and effective in treating birch pollen allergy, and induced a highly specific immune response......., randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients...

  19. Diversidad, fluctuación poblacional y plantas huésped de escolitinos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México Diversity, dynamic population and host plants of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pérez-De La Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad de escolitinos asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México durante el año 2007. Los insectos adultos fueron recolectados en 4 localidades con trampas de alcohol etílico, trampas de atracción luminosa y captura directa sobre sus plantas huésped. Se recolectaron 19 263 ejemplares, pertenecientes a 51 especies y 26 géneros. Araptus hymenaeae y Cnesinus squamosus son nuevos registros para México. La máxima diversidad de insectos capturados con los 3 métodos de recolecta se obtuvo en El Bajío (H'=2.45 y Dmg=4.83, la mínima en Río Seco (H'=2.29 y Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, y el máximo valor de equidad (J lo obtuvo El Bajío (0.67. El índice de similitud de Sorensen (Is mostró que los sitios de estudio tienden a presentar la misma composición de especies. Los índices de diversidad, equidad y similitud, aplicados a la fauna de escolitinos capturados con cada uno de los métodos empleados, mostraron diferencias, excepto en las trampas de alcohol. La fluctuación presenta picos poblacionales marcados al inicio y al final del año de estudio. Las plantas en las que se recolectó el mayor número de especies fueron Theobroma cacao (16 y Swietenia macrophylla (13.The bark and ambrosia beetle diversity in cocoa agroecosystems was studied during 2007 in Tabasco, Mexico. Adult insects were gathered in 4 localities with ethanol and light traps and by direct collecting in their host plants. 19 263 specimens were gathered, belonging to 51 species and 26 genera. Araptus hymenaeae and Cnesinus squamosus are new records for Mexico. The maximum diversity of insects captured with the 3 collecting methods was obtained in El Bajío (H'=2.45 and Dmg=4.83, the minimum in Río Seco (H'=2.29 and Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, and the maximum value of justness (J was obtained in El Bajío (0.67. The Sorensen similarity index (Is showed that the study places present the same species composition. The diversity, justness and similarity indices

  20. Analysis of three types of triterpenoids in tetraploid white birches (Betula platyphylla Suk.) and selection of plus trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Wang; Hui Zhao; Jing Jiang; Guifeng Liu; Chuanping Yang

    2015-01-01

    Betulin, oleanolic acid, and betulinic acid are naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoids that have significant medicinal value. Considerable amounts of these triterpenoids are available in the outer bark of white birch. In this study, we used ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to extract triterpenoids from birch bark rapidly and with high efficiency. Using high performance liquid chro-matography (HPLC), three types of triterpenoids were separated and detected. We examined the differences among triterpenoids extracted from diploid versus tetra-ploid white birch. Then, we used factor analysis to screen out tetraploid white birches with comprehensively excel-lent performance. The results indicate that the optimum conditions for extraction include the use of ethanol as an extraction solvent, a solid-to-liquid ratio of 0.1 g/10 ml, ultrasonic power set at 100 W, a temperature of 60 ?C and an extraction time of 15 min. A reversed-phase C18 col-umn (4.6 mm 9 250 mm 9 5 lm) with a column tem-perature of 30 ?C and the mobile phase composed of A (acetonitrile) and B (0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min were used, and the detection wavelength was 195 nm. No significant difference was observed between diploid and tetraploid white birch in terms of the content of three types of triterpenoids (at a confidence level of 0.05). As triterpenoid content, height, and DBH (diameter at breast height) are strongly interre-lated, we used factor analysis to evaluate all individuals, and we screened out six plus trees with excellent com-prehensive characters.

  1. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-12-01

    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  2. Christian Birch - den korrupte konferensråd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2005-01-01

      http://www.sidensaxo.dk/fileadmin/saxo-abstract-uploads/christian_birch_den_korrupte_konferensraad_2005_3.pdf......  http://www.sidensaxo.dk/fileadmin/saxo-abstract-uploads/christian_birch_den_korrupte_konferensraad_2005_3.pdf...

  3. VOC emissions from beech, birch, and oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, J.; Folkers, A.; Koch, N.; Kleist, E.

    2003-04-01

    VOC emissions from beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula pendula), and oak (Quercus robur) were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors. Oak emitted nearly exclusively isoprene. The dependence of these isoprene emissions on temperature and photosynthetic radiation (PAR) could quite well be described with existing algorithms and the emission factors were fairly constant. Beech and birch emitted mainly short chained oxygenated VOC and monoterpenes. Temperature and PAR dependence of monoterpene emissions were superimposed by a slow frequency modulation. Hence, descriptions of these emissions with existing algorithms were not successful. Moreover, in some cases the emission pattern switched drastically. For birch it was observed that the plant switched from a sesquiterpene emitter to a monoterpene emitter. emission pattern plants. Emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and methanol were not affected by PAR. Here, the emission factors are determined by other factors not included in existing algorithms.

  4. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen allergen is Bet ν 1, which is the conventional allergen name for the birch pollen proteins of a large group of proteins otherwise known as PR-10 proteins. Individuals that suffer from birch pollen al...

  5. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  6. Microsclerotia of Metarhizium brunneum F52 Applied in Hydromulch for Control of Asian Longhorned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Tarryn A; Hajek, Ann E; Jackson, Mark A; Gardescu, Sana

    2015-04-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) is able to produce environmentally persistent microsclerotia (hyphal aggregates). Microsclerotia of strain F52 produced as granules and incorporated into hydromulch (hydro-seeding straw, water, and a natural glue) provides a novel mycoinsecticide that could be sprayed onto urban, forest, or orchard trees. We tested this formulation against adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) using three substrates (moistened bark, dry bark, absorbent bench liner) sprayed with a low rate (9 microsclerotia granules/cm2) of hydromulch. Median survival times of beetles continuously exposed to sprayed moist bark or absorbent liner were 17.5 and 19.5 d, respectively. Beetles exposed to sprayed dry bark, which had a lower measured water activity, lived significantly longer. When moist bark pieces were sprayed with increased rates of microsclerotia granules in hydromulch, 50% died by 12.5 d at the highest application rate, significantly sooner than beetles exposed to lower application rates (16.5-17.5 d). To measure fecundity effects, hydromulch with or without microsclerotia was sprayed onto small logs and pairs of beetles were exposed for a 2-wk oviposition period in containers with 98 or 66% relative humidity. At 98% humidity, oviposition in the logs was highest for controls (18.3±1.4 viable offspring per female) versus 3.9±0.8 for beetles exposed to microsclerotia. At 66% humidity, fecundities of controls and beetles exposed to microsclerotia were not significantly different. This article presents the first evaluation of M. brunneum microsclerotia in hydromulch applied for control of an arboreal insect pest.

  7. Quantitative DNA Analyses for Airborne Birch Pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Müller-Germann

    Full Text Available Birch trees produce large amounts of highly allergenic pollen grains that are distributed by wind and impact human health by causing seasonal hay fever, pollen-related asthma, and other allergic diseases. Traditionally, pollen forecasts are based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor-intensive and limited in the reliable identification of species. Molecular biological techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor-intensive and enables identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. A particularly promising method is quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which can be used to determine the number of DNA copies and thus pollen grains in air filter samples. During the birch pollination season in 2010 in Mainz, Germany, we collected air filter samples of fine (<3 μm and coarse air particulate matter. These were analyzed by qPCR using two different primer pairs: one for a single-copy gene (BP8 and the other for a multi-copy gene (ITS. The BP8 gene was better suitable for reliable qPCR results, and the qPCR results obtained for coarse particulate matter were well correlated with the birch pollen forecasting results of the regional air quality model COSMO-ART. As expected due to the size of birch pollen grains (~23 μm, the concentration of DNA in fine particulate matter was lower than in the coarse particle fraction. For the ITS region the factor was 64, while for the single-copy gene BP8 only 51. The possible presence of so-called sub-pollen particles in the fine particle fraction is, however, interesting even in low concentrations. These particles are known to be highly allergenic, reach deep into airways and cause often severe health problems. In conclusion, the results of this exploratory study open up the possibility of predicting and quantifying the pollen concentration in the atmosphere more precisely in the future.

  8. The Spruce Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Holsten, E H; Their, R W; Munson, A. S.; Gibson, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), is the most significant natural mortality agent of mature spruce. Outbreaks of this beetle have caused extensive spruce mortality from Alaska to Arizona and have occurred in every forest with substantial spruce stands. Spruce beetle damage results in the loss of 333 to 500 million board feet of spruce saw timber annually. More than 2.3 million acres of spruce forests have been infested in Alaska in the last 7 years with an estimated 30 milli...

  9. Pyrolysis of Barks from Three Japanese Softwood

    OpenAIRE

    Umemura, Aki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Kounosu, Taku; Orihashi, Ken; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kojima, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Along with Japanese cedar bark, fir bark and Japanese larch bark were pyrolyzed to estimate the possibility of utilizing these softwood barks as resources for fine chemicals by comparing the pyrolysis product compositions. The three softwood barks contained higher ash content and yielded lower amount of volatiles when compared with cedar heartwood. The major pyrolysis products from their barks were similar to those previously reported from softwood trunks. Levoglucosan was a major pyrolysis p...

  10. Assessing forest vulnerability and the potential distribution of pine beetles under current and future climate scenarios in the Interior West of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, P.H.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Young, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate forest vulnerability and potential distribution of three bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) under current and projected climate conditions for 2020 and 2050. Our study focused on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), and pine engraver (Ips pini). This study was conducted across eight states in the Interior West of the US covering approximately 2.2millionkm2 and encompassing about 95% of the Rocky Mountains in the contiguous US. Our analyses relied on aerial surveys of bark beetle outbreaks that occurred between 1991 and 2008. Occurrence points for each species were generated within polygons created from the aerial surveys. Current and projected climate scenarios were acquired from the WorldClim database and represented by 19 bioclimatic variables. We used Maxent modeling technique fit with occurrence points and current climate data to model potential beetle distributions and forest vulnerability. Three available climate models, each having two emission scenarios, were modeled independently and results averaged to produce two predictions for 2020 and two predictions for 2050 for each analysis. Environmental parameters defined by current climate models were then used to predict conditions under future climate scenarios, and changes in different species' ranges were calculated. Our results suggested that the potential distribution for bark beetles under current climate conditions is extensive, which coincides with infestation trends observed in the last decade. Our results predicted that suitable habitats for the mountain pine beetle and pine engraver beetle will stabilize or decrease under future climate conditions, while habitat for the western pine beetle will continue to increase over time. The greatest increase in habitat area was for the western pine beetle, where one climate model predicted a 27% increase by 2050. In contrast, the predicted habitat of the

  11. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen al

  12. Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Six

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice.

  13. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (forests will alter fire severity, a result that has important implications for management and policy decisions.

  14. BIRCH: A user-oriented, locally-customizable, bioinformatics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fristensky Brian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular biologists need sophisticated analytical tools which often demand extensive computational resources. While finding, installing, and using these tools can be challenging, pipelining data from one program to the next is particularly awkward, especially when using web-based programs. At the same time, system administrators tasked with maintaining these tools do not always appreciate the needs of research biologists. Results BIRCH (Biological Research Computing Hierarchy is an organizational framework for delivering bioinformatics resources to a user group, scaling from a single lab to a large institution. The BIRCH core distribution includes many popular bioinformatics programs, unified within the GDE (Genetic Data Environment graphic interface. Of equal importance, BIRCH provides the system administrator with tools that simplify the job of managing a multiuser bioinformatics system across different platforms and operating systems. These include tools for integrating locally-installed programs and databases into BIRCH, and for customizing the local BIRCH system to meet the needs of the user base. BIRCH can also act as a front end to provide a unified view of already-existing collections of bioinformatics software. Documentation for the BIRCH and locally-added programs is merged in a hierarchical set of web pages. In addition to manual pages for individual programs, BIRCH tutorials employ step by step examples, with screen shots and sample files, to illustrate both the important theoretical and practical considerations behind complex analytical tasks. Conclusion BIRCH provides a versatile organizational framework for managing software and databases, and making these accessible to a user base. Because of its network-centric design, BIRCH makes it possible for any user to do any task from anywhere.

  15. 75 FR 51987 - Birch Power Company and Sorenson Engineering; Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Sorenson Leasing L.L.C.; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions... (transferors) and Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing, L.L.C. (transferees) filed an application for..., Birch Power Company, Sorenson Engineering, and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C., 5203 South 11th East,...

  16. Molecular Ice Nucleation Activity of Birch Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgitsch, Laura; Bichler, Magdalena; Häusler, Thomas; Weiss, Victor U.; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation plays a major part in ecosystem and climate. Due to the triggering of ice cloud formation it influences the radiation balance of the earth, but also on the ground it can be found to be important in many processes of nature. So far the process of heterogeneous ice nucleation is not fully understood and many questions remain to be answered. Biological ice nucleation is hereby from great interest, because it shows the highest freezing temperatures. Several bacteria and fungi act as ice nuclei. A famous example is Pseudomonas syringae, a bacterium in commercial use (Snomax®), which increases the freezing from homogeneous freezing temperatures of approx. -40° C (for small volumes as in cloud droplets) to temperatures up to -2° C. In 2001 it was found that birch pollen can trigger ice nucleation (Diehl et al. 2001; Diehl et al. 2002). For a long time it was believed that this is due to macroscopic features of the pollen surface. Recent findings of Bernhard Pummer (2012) show a different picture. The ice nuclei are not attached on the pollen surface directly, but on surface material which can be easily washed off. This shows that not only the surface morphology, but also specific molecules or molecular structures are responsible for the ice nucleation activity of birch pollen. With various analytic methods we work on elucidating the structure of these molecules as well as the mechanism with which they trigger ice nucleation. To solve this we use various instrumental analytic techniques like Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS), and Gas-phase Electrophoretic Mobility Molecular Analysis (GEMMA). Also standard techniques like various chromatographic separation techniques and solvent extraction are in use. We state here that this feature might be due to the aggregation of small molecules, with agglomerates showing a specific surface structure. Our results

  17. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    birch skin prick test weal diameter of > or =4 mm, a positive conjunctival provocation test result, and specific IgE of > or =CAP class 2, as well as with the presence of other allergies. Specific IgE of > or =CAP class 2 was 87.5% predictive for allergy development, whereas a negative conjunctival...... risk is any subject with target organ sensitivity, an elevated specific IgE level, and/or a skin prick test weal diameter of >4 mm....

  18. Wildfire and Spruce Beetle Outbreak: Simulation of Interacting Disturbances in the Central Rocky Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    DeRose, Justin; Long, James N.

    2009-01-01

    Infrequent large-scale natural disturbance regimes are an integral component of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) forests of the central Rocky Mountains. Wildfires, bark beetle outbreaks, winds, and avalanches cause relatively drastic changes in community structure, composition, and function. These disturbances may occur independently or interact where the incidence of one may change the potential for another. We assessed potential wildfire behaviour change in the wake of a catastrophic, l...

  19. Methods for estimating production and utilization of paper birch saplings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Development of technique to estimate browse production and utilization. Developed a set of methods for estimating annual production and utilization of paper birch...

  20. What do dung beetles eat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2007-01-01

    Most adult coprophagous beetles feed on fresh dung of mammalian herbivores, confining ingestion to small particles with measured maximum diameters from 2-5 to 130 µm, according to body size and kind of beetle. This study explores benefits and costs of selective feeding in a ‘typical' dung beetle ...

  1. Chemical characteristics of surface colour of birch veneer (Betula pendula)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Julkaistu vain painettuna, saatavuus katso Bibid. Published only in printed form, availability see Bibid This thesis investigates the discoloration of veneer produced from silver birch (Betula pendula) logs by means of biochemical and chemical analyses on the veneer and sap obtained from wood which was soaked at varying temperatures (20-70 ˚C). Drastic colour development was confirmed from the sap squeezed from green birch wood. The results from biochemical tests on the sap by sodium dodec...

  2. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Vincent L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L. caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr., and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus.

  3. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl;

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen-allergic......Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...... oral challenges with fresh apple and a questionnaire. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-reactivity was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE, and leukocyte histamine release (HR). Forty patients were included in the final evaluation of the effect of SIT. The challenges were positive in 9 (SCIT), 6...

  4. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. PMID:27231258

  5. The growth process of natural poplar-birch forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Shibo; LUO Xu; LUO Yuliang

    2006-01-01

    With a combination of permanent and temporary sample plots,we investigated the growth conditions of natural poplar-birch forests.The forests were divided into four site classes,using statistical and analytical techniques in a quantitative model,in descending order where site class I was the best.On this basis,the growth of natural poplar-birch forests in the different site classes was studied.The growth processes of height and diameter at breast height were divided into three stages:a fast growing period,a stable growing period and a slow growing period.Results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the directive cultivation of natural poplar-birch forests.

  6. [Soil nutrient status of pure birch and larch plantations based on their seedlings bioassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-ling; Wang, Qing-cheng; Sun, Xin-xin

    2011-08-01

    One-year-old birch (Betula platyphylla) and larch (Larix olgensis) seedlings were respectively planted in pots with the soils taken from 35-year-old pure birch and larch plantations, and the seedlings growth, biomass increment, foliar nutrient content, and soil nutrient status were monitored, aimed to evaluate the fertility levels of the two soils and the possible interspecific interaction in mixed larch-birch forest. Birch soil had significantly higher contents of total N and available N than larch soil, while larch soil had significantly higher contents of total P, available P, and total K than birch soil (P birch seedlings growing on birch soil were 69%, 52%, and 65% (P birch seedlings growing on birch soil was higher than that on larch soil, while the foliar P concentration was higher when the seedlings were growing on larch soil than on birch soil. The birch soil had higher content of available N because of the higher litterfall, while the larch soil had greater available P because of the higher P mobilizing effect. It was predicted that in mixed birch-larch forest, the complementary interaction of soil N and P could benefit the growth of the two tree species.

  7. Mycobionta of birch and birch stump roots and its possible effect on the infection by Armillaria spp. I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zygorhynchus moelleri was the dominating species on/in roots of 2 year-old stumps of the 49 year-old birches. Trichoderma viride was more frequently found in the fine roots of living birches than in the fine roots of stumps though its population increased in thick roots of stumps. Occasionally the fungus also occurred on the surface of fine roots of stumps. Z. moelleri is known to produce indole 3-ethanol and indole-3 acetic acid which stimulate the growth of A. ostoyae rhizomorphs and phenoloxidizing enzymes which play an important role in the degradation of the wood. It seems that the accumulation of Z. moelleri and absence of bigger populations of T. viride on/in roots of 2-year-old stumps of the 49 year-old birches may result in an increase of their susceptibility to Armillaria infection.

  8. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the patchwork of tree mortality across the landscape. While several studies have shown that selective mechanisms operate at the individual tree level, less attention has been given to beetles’ preference for variation in spatial forest patterns, namely forest fragmentation, and if such preference changes with changing population conditions. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of fragmentation on the location of mountain pine beetle caused mortality. Using a negative binomial regression model, we tested the significance of a fragmentation measure called the Aggregation Index for predicting beetle-caused tree mortality in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada in 2000 and 2005. The results explain that mountain pine beetle OPEN ACCESS Forests 2013, 4 280 exhibit a density-dependent dynamic behaviour related to forest patterns, with fragmented forests experiencing greater tree mortality when beetle populations are low (2000. Conversely, more contiguous forests are preferred when populations reach epidemic levels (2005. These results reinforce existing findings that bark beetles exhibit a strong host configuration preference at low population levels and that such pressures are relaxed when beetle densities are high.

  9. Fluctuation of birch (Betula L. pollen seasons in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Puc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that induce allergic processes. The fluctuation pattern of birch pollen seasons in selected cities of Poland is presented. Measurements were performed by the volumetric method (Burkard and Lanzoni 2000 pollen samplers. The distributions of the data were not normal (Shapiro–Wilk test and statistical error risk was estimated at a significance level of α = 0.05. Pollen season was defined as the period in which 95% of the annual total catch occurred. The linear trend for the selected features of the pollen season, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variation (V% were also analyzed. During the 12–14 years of study, the beginnings of birch pollen seasons were observed 7–14 days earlier, the ends were noted 5–10 days earlier, and the days with maximum values occurred 7–14 days earlier compared to the long-term data. The left-skewed distribution of the pollen season starts in most sampling sites confirms the short-lasting occurrence of pollen in the air. The threat of birch pollen allergens was high during the pollen seasons. If vegetation is highly diverse, flowering and pollen release are extended in time, spread over different weeks and occur at different times of the day. Flowering time and pollen release are affected by insolation, convection currents, wind, and turbulence. Therefore, pollen seasons are characterized by great inter-annual variability.

  10. Conspiracy Drama and the John Birch Society: A Movement Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    This paper examines the conspiracy drama which characterizes the rhetoric generated by the John Birch Society. According to the Society, "innocent" America is under direct threat from some organized external and internal force that is seeking its destruction. Members are called to react in a carefully outlined manner: (1) piece together the…

  11. Molluscicidal activity of Nerium indicum bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Singh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Nerium indicum bark against Lymnaea acuminata snails was studied. The toxicity of different bark preparations was both time and dose dependent. The 24-h LC50 of the lyophilized aqueous extract of bark was 34.5 mg/l whereas that of lyophilized boiled water extract was 42.5 mg/l. Low concentrations of vacuum-dried ethanolic extract (24-h LC50: 4.9 mg/l and purified bark (24-h LC50: 0.87 mg/l were effective in killing the test snails.

  12. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  13. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Nyctanthes arbortristis bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Ashokrao Nirmal; Subodh Chandra Pal; Subhash Chandra Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study detailed Pharmacognosy of the bark of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn (Oleaceae), an important plant in Indian system of medicine. Methods: the macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical testing of powder of the plant bark and other WHO recommended methods for the standardization was done. Results: Trunk bark consists of two distinct regions i.e. outer bark and inner bark. Outer bark consists of broad periderm of a wide phellem and inner phelloderm regions. Inner bark is broader than the outer part and it includes all the secondary phloem tissues. It can be distinguished into 2 zones viz. collapsed secondary phloem and non-collapsed secondary phloem regions. Collapsed secondary phloem region consist of thick blocks of phloem sclereids and radially oblique dark streaks of crushed sieve tubes and dilated axial parenchyma cells. Non-collapsed secondary phloem region is the conducting part of the phloem where the sieve elements are intact. It consists of intact sieve tube members, companion cells, axial parenchyma cells and narrow undilated ray. Calcium oxalate crystals are abundant in collapsed phloem region. Conclusions: it can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of N. arbortristis bark is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.

  14. Elevated bark temperature in unremoved stumps after disturbances facilitates multi-voltinism in Ips typographus population in a mountainous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischer Peter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of Ips typographus generations developed in a year might be indicative of its population size and of risk to Norway spruce forests. Warm weather and unremoved fallen trees after natural disturbances are thought of as key factors initiating large population increase. We studied I. typographus development in a spruce forest of the Tatra National Park, which was heavily affected by large-scale disturbances in the last decade. Repeated windthrows and consequent bark beetle outbreaks have damaged almost 20,000 hectares of mature Norway spruce forests, what is a half of the National Park forest area. Current I. typographus population size and its response to the environment and to forestry defense measures attract attention of all stakeholders involved in natural resource management, including public. In this paper we analyse the potential I. typographus population size in two consecutive years 2014 and 2015, which represented a climatologically normal year and an extremely hot year, respectively. We used bark temperature and phenology models to estimate the number of generations developed in each year. In 2014, the average bark temperature of standing living trees at study sites was 14.5 °C, in 2015 it increased to 15.7 °C. The bark temperature of fallen logs was 17.7 °C in 2014, and 19.5 °C in 2015. The bark temperature of standing living trees allowed to develop one and two generations in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elevated bark temperature of fallen logs allowed to develop two generations in 2014 and three generations in 2015. The good match between the predicted and observed timing of each generation emergence as well as the large increase in the number of catches in pheromone traps in 2015 indicated a dramatic increase of the I. typographus population in the extremely warm year, especially at the unmanaged windthrown site.

  15. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Persson,; Olof Dahlman,; Ann-Christine Albertsson

    2012-01-01

    Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan) isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes) were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch lengt...

  16. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  17. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  18. Paper birch: Sentinels of climate change in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther D.

    2011-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in the northern Great Plains supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. Localized summer microclimates have likely facilitated the persistence of birch populations in a region otherwise unsuitable for the species. Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. Changes in spring weather patterns may be causing rootlet injury so that trees die in spite of the still-cool summer microclimates. Current weather patterns, combined with little evidence of recruitment of young birch and great geographic distances from potential immigrant sources, make the future persistence of birch in the Niobrara River Valley stands uncertain.

  19. Molecular evidence of facultative intraguild predation by Monochamus titillator larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on members of the southern pine beetle guild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Erich N.; Husseneder, Claudia; Allison, Jeremy D.

    2012-11-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild (SPBG) is arguably the most destructive group of forest insects in the southeastern USA. This guild contains five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Dendroctonus frontalis, Dendroctonus terebrans, Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis. A diverse community of illicit receivers is attracted to pheromones emitted by the SPBG, including the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). These woodborers have been traditionally classified as resource competitors; however, laboratory assays suggest that larval M. carolinensis may be facultative intraguild predators of SPBG larvae. This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular gut content analyses to characterize subcortical interactions between M. titillator and members of the SPBG. The half-lives of SPBG DNA were estimated in the laboratory prior to examining these interactions in the field. A total of 271 field-collected M. titillator larvae were analyzed and 26 (9.6 %) tested positive for DNA of members of the SPBG. Of these larvae, 25 (96.2 %) tested positive for I. grandicollis and one (3.8 %) for I. calligraphus. Failure to detect D. terebrans and D. frontalis was likely due to their absence in the field. I. avulsus was present, but primers developed using adult tissues failed to amplify larval tissue. Results from this study support the hypothesis that larval Monochamus spp. are facultative intraguild predators of bark beetle larvae. Additionally, this study demonstrates the capabilities of PCR in elucidating the interactions of cryptic forest insects and provides a tool to better understand mechanisms driving southern pine beetle guild population fluctuations.

  20. Evaluating Predators and Competitors in Wisconsin Red Pine Forests for Attraction to Mountain Pine Beetle Pheromones for Anticipatory Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Krause, Adam; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an irruptive tree-killing species native to pine forests of western North America. Two potential pathways of spread to eastern forests have recently been identified. First, warming temperatures have driven range expansion from British Columbia into Albertan jack pine forests that are contiguous with the Great Lakes region. Second, high temperatures and drought have fostered largescale outbreaks within the historical range, creating economic incentives to salvage killed timber by transporting logs to midwestern markets, which risks accidental introduction. We evaluated the extent to which local predators and competitors that exploit bark beetle semiochemicals would respond to D. ponderosae in Wisconsin. We emulated D. ponderosae attack by deploying lures containing synthetic aggregation pheromones with and without host tree compounds and blank control traps in six red pine plantations over 2 yr. Predator populations were high in these stands, as evidenced by catches in positive control traps, baited with pheromones of local bark beetles and were deployed distant from behavioral choice plots. Only one predator, Thanasimus dubius F. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was attracted to D. ponderosae's aggregation pheromones relative to blank controls, and its attraction was relatively weak. The most common bark beetles attracted to these pheromones were lower stem and root colonizers, which likely would facilitate rather than compete with D. ponderosae. There was some, but weak, attraction of potentially competing Ips species. Other factors that might influence natural enemy impacts on D. ponderosae in midwestern forests, such as phenological synchrony and exploitation of male-produced pheromones, are discussed.

  1. Metals Bioaccumulation Mechanism in Neem Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnani, Kishore K; Boddu, Veera M; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ghadge, S V; Sarkar, Biplab; Brahmane, M P; Choudhary, K; Kathiravan, V; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as Hg(2+) Neem bark can be used as bioindicators, bioaccumulators and biomonitors while determining environmental pressures. Metal bioaccumulative properties and structural investigation of plant bark has potential in providing quantitative information on the metal contamination in the surrounding environment.

  2. Attempts at active protection of Inonotus obliquus by inoculating birches with its mycelium

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Piętka; Andrzej Grzywacz

    2013-01-01

    Practical application of active protection methods of Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát. was examined. Thirty live birches and 15 birch stem sections were artificially inoculated with the fungal mycelium in the Mińsk Forest District (E Poland). The mycelium of I. obliquus was not recorded in the felled test trees and birch stem sections upon the completion of the experiment. Artificial introduction of I. obliquus in the natural environment faces significant problems caused by strong competition f...

  3. Mycobionta of birch and birch stump roots and its possible effect on the infection by Armillaria spp. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the differences in size and structure of mycobionta communities occurring in soil and on/i n roots of a 30 year-old birch and its stumps 2 years after cutting of the trees. Special attention was paid to the occurrence of Zygorhynchus moelleri and Trichoderma viride. The first species due to the metabolites produced may presumably stimulate the infection by Armlllaria. The second species is a well-known antagonist of Armillaria, Z. moelleri accounted only for 2.6, l.3 and 9.l % of the total number of isolates in rhizoplane as well as in the fine and thick roots of stumps, respectively. Trlchodcrma viride and T. virens were present in roots of Hve birch and its stumps only occasionally. The relatively big population of Mycelium radicis atrovirens- particularly in the fine roots of stumps is attributed to their high vitality and relatively lower level of root decomposition. It seems that the rate of stump root decomposilion does not favour their colonization by Z. moelleri and its supposed contribution in enhancing the infection by Armillaria might not be so distinct as on stumps of 49-year-old birches.

  4. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  5. Investigation of thermal decomposition of bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczak, B.; Babicki, R.

    1978-01-01

    Destructive distillation of Scots pine bark in the laboratory yielded poor quality charcoal. Processing of liquid distillates was not economically justified. The charcoal could be upgraded by demineralization followed by briquetting but this would considerably increase costs. (Refs. 5).

  6. New insights into the consequences of post-windthrow salvage logging revealed by functional structure of saproxylic beetles assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Simon; Bässler, Claus; Gottschalk, Thomas; Hothorn, Torsten; Bussler, Heinz; Raffa, Kenneth; Müller, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Wind-thrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models) as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green-tree retention

  7. New insights into the consequences of post-windthrow salvage logging revealed by functional structure of saproxylic beetles assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Thorn

    Full Text Available Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Wind-thrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green

  8. Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2012-08-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

  9. Boron nutrition affects the carbon metabolism of silver birch seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuhola, Teija; Keinänen, Markku; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Lehto, Tarja

    2011-11-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient whose deficiency is common both in agriculture and in silviculture. Boron deficiency impairs the growth of plants and affects many metabolic processes like carbohydrate metabolism. Boron deficiency and also excess B may decrease the sink demand by decreasing the growth and sugar transport which may lead to the accumulation of carbohydrates and down-regulation of photosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of B nutrition on the soluble and storage carbohydrate concentrations of summer leaves and autumn buds in a deciduous tree species, Betula pendula Roth. In addition, we investigated the changes in the pools of condensed tannins between summer and autumn harvests. One-year-old birch seedlings were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution containing three different levels of B: 0, 30 and 100% of the standard level for complete nutrient solution. Half of the seedlings were harvested after summer period and another half when leaves abscised. The highest B fertilization level (B100) caused an accumulation of starch and a decrease in the concentrations of hexoses (glucose and fructose) in summer leaves, whereas in the B0 seedlings, hexoses (mainly glucose) accumulated and starch decreased. These changes in carbohydrate concentrations might be related to the changes in the sink demand since the autumn growth was the smallest for the B100 seedlings and largest for the B30 seedlings that did not accumulate carbohydrates. The autumn buds of B30 seedlings contained the lowest levels of glucose, glycerol, raffinose and total polyols, which was probably due to the dilution effect of the deposition of other substances like phenols. Condensed tannins accumulated in high amounts in the birch stems during the hardening of seedlings and the largest accumulation was detected in the B30 treatment. Our results suggest that B nutrition of birch seedlings affects the carbohydrate and phenol metabolism and may play an important

  10. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

  11. Specific probiotics alleviate allergic rhinitis during the birch pollen season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur C Ouwehand; Merja Nermes; Maria Carmen Collado; Nina Rautonen; Seppo Salminen; Erika Isolauri

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether birch pollen allergy symptoms are linked with gut microbiota changes and whether probiotics have an effect on these. METHODS: Forty seven children with confirmed birch pollen allergy were randomized to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus ( L. acidophi lus) NCFMTM (ATCC 700396) and Bifidobacterium lactis ( B. lactis) Bl-04 (ATCC SD5219) or placebo in a double-blind manner for 4 mo, starting prior to onset of the birch pollen season. Symptoms were recorded in a diary. Blood samples were taken for analysis of cytokines and eosinophils. Fecal samples were analysed for microbiota components, calprotectin and IgA. Nasal swabs were taken for analysis of eosinophils.RESULTS: The pollen season induced a reduction in Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and Bacteroides which could not be prevented by the probiotic intervention. During the intervention, significantly higher numbers 106 bacteria/g feces ( P < 0.0001) were observed in the probiotic group compared to the placebo group. During May, there was a tendency for fewer subjects,(76.2% vs 95.2%, P = 0.078) to report runny nose,while during June, fewer subjects, 11.1% vs 33.3%,reported nasal blocking in the probiotics group ( P = 0.101). Concomitantly, fewer subjects in the probiotic group had infiltration of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa compared to the placebo group, 57.1%vs 95% ( P = 0.013). Eye symptoms tended to be slightly more frequent in the probiotic group, 12.5 d [interquartile range (IQR) 6-18] vs 7.5 d (IQR 0-11.5)( P = 0.066) during May. Fecal IgA was increased in the placebo group during the pollen season; this increase was prevented by the probiotics ( P = 0.028).CONCLUSION: Birch pollen allergy was shown to be associated with changes in fecal microbiota composition. The specific combination of probiotics used was shown to prevent the pollen-induced infiltration of eosinophils into the nasal mucosa, and indicated a trend for reduced nasal symptoms.

  12. The Beetle Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Harnew, N; Hofmann, W; Knöpfle, K-T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, M; Sexauer, E; Smale, N J; Trunk, U; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    This paper details the port de nitions, electrical speci cations, modes of operation and programming sequences of the 128 channel readout chip Beetle . The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and ful lls the requirements of the silicon vertex detector, the inner tracker, the pile-up veto trigger and the RICH detector in case of multianode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preampli ers and shapers. The risetime of the shaped pulse is 25 ns with a 30% remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns. A comparator per channel with con gurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought o chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analogue pipeline with a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervalls and an integrated derandomizing bu er of 16 stages. For analog readout data is multiplexed with up to 40 MHz onto 1 or 4 ports...

  13. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervahauta, Arja I; Fortelius, Carola; Tuomainen, Marjo; Akerman, Marja-Leena; Rantalainen, Kimmo; Sipilä, Timo; Lehesranta, Satu J; Koistinen, Kaisa M; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Yrjälä, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils.

  14. Genetic and environmental factors behind foliar chemistry of the mature mountain birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviola, Sanna; Neuvonen, Seppo; Rantala, Markus J; Saikkonen, Kari; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Saloniemi, Irma; Yang, Shiyong; Ruuhola, Teija

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies of mountain birch (Betula pubescens spp. czerepanovii) repeatedly have found differences between individual trees in herbivory-related traits, but rarely have yielded estimates of the additive genetic variation of these traits or of their relationship to habitat. We used thirty-year-old birch half-sibs in a northern common garden to estimate the effect of genetics and local microhabitat on resistance-related traits. Genetic estimates of foliar chemistry have been studied only rarely with trees as old as these. Moth performance (Epirrita autumnata), rust (Melampsoridium betulinum) incidence levels, and the general level of natural herbivory damage to individual trees were used as direct measures of birch resistance. Chemical resistance-related traits in plant chemistry included 15 individual phenolics, 16 amino acids, and phenoloxidase activities in the foliage. We also followed birch phenology and growth. Our results show that the genotype of the birch was the most important determinant of phenolic composition and phenoloxidase activity, but that amino acid levels were best explained by the microhabitat of the birch. We also found that the phenology of the birch had a high heritability, although its variation was low. Our results reveal rich genetic variation in birch chemistry.

  15. Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnato S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary dynamics of birch (Betula aetnensis Rafin coppices on the Mount Etna (Sicily. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamics of Etna birch stands (Betula aetnensis Rafin following the cessation of silvicultural activities in the Etna Regional Park (Sicily. We investigated forest structure, natural regeneration, vegetation and deadwood in different forest types. Our findings highlighted three different dynamics for birch populations: stable birch stands in the high mountain area which might represent an edapho-climax forest; progressive dynamic birch stands in the intermediate mountain area, showing a gradual depletion of birch and a concomitant replacement with monospecific stands (calabrian pine, beech, oaks or mixed ones (with birch; pure birch stands (typical that tend to be regressive - especially under stressful conditions - and to be replaced by xerophilous grasslands. Following the cessation of coppicing and with stand ageing, the stumps transformation into more homogeneous stand structures have been increasing. Within the context of protected areas the restoration of coppice selection system (with appropriate adaptations could help to maintain the traditional forest landscape, acting as a silvicultural technique with low environmental and landscape impact.

  16. Quantum non-barking dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

    2014-06-01

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

  17. Quantum non-barking dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems. (paper)

  18. Attempts at active protection of Inonotus obliquus by inoculating birches with its mycelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piętka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Practical application of active protection methods of Inonotus obliquus (Fr. Pilát. was examined. Thirty live birches and 15 birch stem sections were artificially inoculated with the fungal mycelium in the Mińsk Forest District (E Poland. The mycelium of I. obliquus was not recorded in the felled test trees and birch stem sections upon the completion of the experiment. Artificial introduction of I. obliquus in the natural environment faces significant problems caused by strong competition from other birch wood-decay fungi. As in vitro studies show (individual biotic effect determination, the fungi examined, occurring on birch trees in nature, are dominant species in relation to I. obliquus.

  19. BARK-MIMETIC LAYER-BY-LAYER ASSEMBLED MONTMORILLONITE/POLY(p-AMINOSTYRENE) FLEXIBLE NANOCOMPOSITES SHIELDING ATOMIC OXYGEN EROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Gao; Bing-jun Liu; Long-cheng Gao; Peng-gang Yin; Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the birch bark,which has multilayered structures,we fabricated layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled montmorillonite (MMT) and poly(p-aminostyrene) (PPAS) nanocomposites on cotton fiber curved surfaces to provide protection from atomic oxygen (AO) erosion.The multilayer coated fibers had high flexibility,uniformity,defect free,ease of preparation and low cost.The AO erosion durability has been dramatically enhanced which was evidenced by testing in the ground-based AO effects simulation facility.And the dimension and surface morphologies of the fibers observed by SEM had few changes,indicating excellent AO erosion resistant ability of the coatings.These results provide us a new method to design fibrous materials exposed directly in low earth orbit environment.

  20. Bioconversion of Birch Wood Hemicellulose Hydrolyzate to Xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Shimotori, Yasutaka; Nakatani, Hisayuki; Harada, Akira; Aoyama, Masakazu

    2015-06-01

    A sugar solution containing 42.9 g l(-1) of xylose was prepared from the wood of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) by hydrolysis with 3 % sulfuric acid with a liquor-to-solid ratio of 4 (g g(-1)) at 120 °C for 1 h. During the acid hydrolysis, undesirable by-products were generated, such as acetic acid, furfural, and low-molecular-weight phenols, which inhibit bioconversion of xylose to xylitol. These inhibitors were successfully removed from the hydrolyzate by sorption onto a steam-activated charcoal followed by treatment with an anion exchange resin. Bioconversion of the detoxified hydrolyzate to xylitol by the yeast Candida magnoliae was investigated under the microaerobic conditions. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) varied from 9.6 to 22.3 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). The best fermentative performance of C. magnoliae in the birch wood hydrolyzate (xylitol yield 0.74 g xylitol g xylose(-1); volumetric productivity 1.0 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at the OTR of 12.6 mmol O2 l(-1) h(-1). PMID:25894947

  1. Genetic architecture underlying host choice differentiation in the sympatric host races of Lochmaea capreae leaf beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudi, Shaghayegh; Reinhold, Klaus; Engqvist, Leif

    2016-04-01

    Speciation in herbivorous insects has received considerable attention during the last few decades. Much of this group's diversity originates from adaptive population divergence onto different host plants, which often involves the evolution of specialized patterns of host choice behaviour. Differences in host choice often translates directly into divergence in mating sites, and therefore positive assortative mating will be created which will act as a strong barrier to gene flow. In this study, we first explored whether host choice is a genetically determined trait in the sympatric willow and birch host races of the leaf feeding beetle Lochmaea capreae, or whether larval experience influences adult host choice. Once we had established that host choice is a genetically based trait we determined its genetic architecture. To achieve this, we employed a reciprocal transplant design in which offspring from pure willow and birch cross-types, F1, F2 and backcrosses were raised on each host plant and their preference was determined upon reaching adulthood. We then applied joint-scaling analysis to uncover the genetic architecture of host preference. Our results suggest that rearing host does not have a pronounced effect on adult's host choice; rather the segregation pattern implies the existence of genetic loci affecting host choice in these host races. The joint-scaling analysis revealed that population differences in host choice are mainly influenced by the contribution of additive genetic effects and also maternally inherited cytoplasmic effects. We explore the implications of our findings for evolutionary dynamics of sympatric host race formation and speciation.

  2. The bark, the howl and the bark-howl: Identity cues in dingoes' multicomponent calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déaux, Éloïse C; Charrier, Isabelle; Clarke, Jennifer A

    2016-08-01

    Dingoes (genus Canis) produce a stereotyped bark-howl vocalisation, which is a unimodal complex signal formed by the concatenation of two call types (a bark and a howl). Bark-howls may function as alarm signals, although there has been no empirical investigation of this vocalisation's structure or function. We quantified the content and efficacy of the bark and howl segments separately and when combined, using 140 calls from 10 individuals. We found that both segments are individually distinctive, although howl segments are more accurately classified, suggesting a higher level of individuality. Furthermore, howls convey signature characteristics that are conserved across different contexts of production, and thus may act as 'identity signals'. The individual distinctiveness of full bark-howls increases above that of isolated segments, which may be a result of selection on improved signal discriminability. Propagation tests revealed that bark-howls are best described as medium-range signals, with both segments potentially allowing for individual discrimination up to 200m regardless of environmental conditions. We discuss our findings regarding the fitness benefits of encoding identity cues in a potential alarm call and propose additional hypotheses for the function(s) of bark and howl segments.

  3. Impact of mountain pine beetle induced mortality on forest carbon and water fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying impacts of ecological disturbance on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes will improve predictive understanding of biosphere—atmosphere feedbacks. Tree mortality caused by mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is hypothesized to decrease photosynthesis and water flux to the atmosphere while increasing respiration at a rate proportional to mortality. This work uses data from an eddy-covariance flux tower in a bark beetle infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest to test ecosystem responses during the outbreak. Analyses were conducted on components of carbon (C) and water fluxes in response to disturbance and environmental factors (solar radiation, soil water content and vapor pressure deficit). Maximum CO2 uptake did not change as tree basal area mortality increased from 30 to 78% over three years of beetle disturbance. Growing season evapotranspiration varied among years while ecosystem water use efficiency (the ratio of net CO2 uptake to water vapor loss) did not change. Between 2009 and 2011, canopy water conductance increased from 98.6 to 151.7 mmol H2O m−2 s−1. Ecosystem light use efficiency of photosynthesis increased, with quantum yield increasing by 16% during the outbreak as light increased below the mature tree canopy and illuminated remaining vegetation more. Overall net ecosystem productivity was correlated with water flux and hence water availability. Average weekly ecosystem respiration, derived from light response curves and standard Ameriflux protocols for CO2 flux partitioning into respiration and gross ecosystem productivity, did not change as mortality increased. Separate effects of increased respiration and photosynthesis efficiency largely canceled one another out, presumably due to increased diffuse light in the canopy and soil organic matter decomposition resulting in no change in net CO2 exchange. These results agree with an emerging consensus in the literature demonstrating CO2 and H2O dynamics following

  4. Growth and Leaf Gas Exchange in Three Birch Species Exposed to Elevated Ozone and CO2 in Summer

    OpenAIRE

    HOSHIKA, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Makoto; Inada, Naoki; Koike, Takayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of ozone and elevated CO2 concentration in summer on the growth and photosynthetic traits of three representative birch species in Japan (mountain birch, Monarch birch, and white birch). Seedlings of the three birch species were grown in 16 open-top chambers and were exposed to two levels of ozone (6 nmol mol^[-1] and 60 nmol mol^[-1] for 7 h per day) in combination with two levels of CO2 (370-380μmol mol^[-1] and 600 μmol mol^[-1] for daytime) from July to October. No...

  5. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. PMID:26546596

  6. ALKALINE PRETREATMENT OF SPRUCE AND BIRCH TO IMPROVE BIOETHANOL AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Jeihanipour

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline pretreatment with NaOH under mild operating conditions was used to improve ethanol and biogas production from softwood spruce and hardwood birch. The pretreatments were carried out at different temperatures between minus 15 and 100ºC with 7.0% w/w NaOH solution for 2 h. The pretreated materials were then enzymatically hydrolyzed and subsequently fermented to ethanol or anaerobically digested to biogas. In general, the pretreatment was more successful for both ethanol and biogas production from the hardwood birch than the softwood spruce. The pretreatment resulted in significant reduction of hemicellulose and the crystallinity of cellulose, which might be responsible for improved enzymatic hydrolyses of birch from 6.9% to 82.3% and spruce from 14.1% to 35.7%. These results were obtained with pretreatment at 100°C for birch and 5°C for spruce. Subsequently, the best ethanol yield obtained was 0.08 g/g of the spruce while pretreated at 100°C, and 0.17 g/g of the birch treated at 100°C. On the other hand, digestion of untreated birch and spruce resulted in methane yields of 250 and 30 l/kg VS of the wood species, respectively. The pretreatment of the wood species at the best conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 83% and 74% improvement in methane production from birch and spruce.

  7. Attaching lures to multiple-funnel traps targeting saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera) in pine stands: inside or outside funnels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel R; Crowe, Christopher M; Barnes, Brittany F; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Duerr, Donald A

    2013-02-01

    We conducted two field trapping experiments with multiple-funnel traps in 2008 and one experiment in 2010 to determine the effects of lure placement (inside or outside funnels) on catches of saproxylic species of beetles (Coleoptera). The experiments were conducted in southern pine (Pinus spp.) stands in central Georgia using combinations of ethanol, alpha-pinene, ipsenol, and ipsdienol lures. We report on a modification to the multiple-funnel trap that allows placement of large lures inside the confines of the funnels with minimal blockage. In general, catches of five species of common longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae), two species of regeneration weevils (Curculionidae), four species of bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and seven species of beetle predators and ectoparasites (Cleridae, Histeridae, Tenebrionidae, Trogossitidae, and Zopheridae) were higher in funnel traps with lures attached inside the funnels than in those with lures attached outside of the funnels. Catches of the remaining species were unaffected by lure placement. In no instance were catches of any species lower in funnel traps with lures attached inside the funnels than in those with lures attached outside of the funnels. For most species, catches in modified funnel traps with ethanol, alpha-pinene, ipsenol, and ipsdienol lures attached inside funnels were comparable with those in cross-vane panel traps.

  8. Sound velocities of hot dense iron: Birch's law revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zhao, Jiyong; Shen, Guoyin; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2005-06-24

    Sound velocities of hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) were measured at pressures up to 73 gigapascals and at temperatures up to 1700 kelvin with nuclear inelastic x-ray scattering in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The compressional-wave velocities (VP) and shear-wave velocities (VS) of hcp-Fe decreased significantly with increasing temperature under moderately high pressures. VP and VS under high pressures and temperatures thus cannot be fitted to a linear relation, Birch's law, which has been used to extrapolate measured sound velocities to densities of iron in Earth's interior. This result means that there are more light elements in Earth's core than have been inferred from linear extrapolation at room temperature. PMID:15976298

  9. Stature of Sub-arctic Birch in Relation to Growth Rate, Lifespan and Tree Form

    OpenAIRE

    JÓNSSON, THORBERGUR HJALTI

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sub-arctic mountain birch Betula pubescens var. pumila communities in the North Atlantic region are of variable stature, ranging from prostrate scrubs to forests with trees up to 12 m high. Four hypotheses were tested, relating growth and population characteristics of sub-arctic birch woodland and scrub to tree stature; i.e. the variable stature of birch woods is due to differences in (1) the mean growth rate; (2) the age-related patterns of growth rate; (3) the life exp...

  10. Effect of birch (Betula spp.) and associated rhizoidal bacteria on the degradation of soil polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAH-induced changes in birch proteome and bacterial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervahauta, Arja I. [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: arja.tervahauta@uku.fi; Fortelius, Carola [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Tuomainen, Marjo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Akerman, Marja-Leena [EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland); Rantalainen, Kimmo [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Sipilae, Timo [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehesranta, Satu J.; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Kaerenlampi, Sirpa [Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Yrjaelae, Kim [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Two birch clones originating from metal-contaminated sites were exposed for 3 months to soils (sand-peat ratio 1:1 or 4:1) spiked with a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; anthracene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene). PAH degradation differed between the two birch clones and also by the soil type. The statistically most significant elimination (p {<=} 0.01), i.e. 88% of total PAHs, was observed in the more sandy soil planted with birch, the clearest positive effect being found with Betula pubescens clone on phenanthrene. PAHs and soil composition had rather small effects on birch protein complement. Three proteins with clonal differences were identified: ferritin-like protein, auxin-induced protein and peroxidase. Differences in planted and non-planted soils were detected in bacterial communities by 16S rRNA T-RFLP, and the overall bacterial community structures were diverse. Even though both represent complex systems, trees and rhizoidal microbes in combination can provide interesting possibilities for bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. - Birch can enhance degradation of PAH compounds in the rhizosphere.

  11. Historical demography and phylogeography of a specialist bark beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Enrico A; Rinehart, John E; Hayes, Jane L; Zuñiga, Gerardo

    2010-10-01

    Contemporary distribution of North American species has been shaped by past glaciation events during the Quaternary period. However, their effects were not as severe in the southern Rocky Mountains and Northern Mexico as elsewhere in North America. In this context, we test hypotheses about the historical demography of Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, based on 136 haplotypes of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I. The phylogenetic analysis yielded four haplogroups corresponding to northwestern United States and southwestern Canada (NUS), southwestern United States (Arizona, SUS), northwestern Mexico (Sierra Madre Occidental, SMOC), and northeastern Mexico (Sierra Madre Oriental, SMOR). Predictions of demographic expansion were examined through neutrality tests against population growth and mismatch distribution. Results showed that the NUS and SMOC haplogroups have experienced demographic expansion events, whereas the SUS and SMOR haplogroups have not. Divergence times between pairs of haplogroups were estimated from early to middle Pleistocene. The longer divergence time between NUS and all other haplogroups could be the result of refugia within the Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountains and long-term isolation from southernmost populations in Mexico. The results obtained in this study are in agreement with the evolutionary history of the host Douglas-fir, as the warmer climates of interglacial periods pushed conifers northward of Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, whereas environmental changes reduced the population size of Douglas-fir and forced fragmentation of distribution range southward into northern Mexico. PMID:22546468

  12. Ophiostoma spp. associated with pine- and spruce-infesting bark beetles in Finland and Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnakoski, R.; Beer, de Z.W.; Ahtiainen, J.; Sidorov, E.; Niemelä, P.; Pappinen, A.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Baobabs (Adansonia spp.) are iconic trees, known for their immense size, strange forms, sources of food and as the subjects of myths and mysteries. It is thus surprising that little is known regarding the fungi that infect these trees. During a survey to determine which wound infecting fungi occur o

  13. Metals bioaccumulation mechanism in neem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as H...

  14. Phenolic glycosides of Paulownia tomentosa bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticher, O; Lahloub, M F

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of acteoside and coniferin from Paulownia tomentosa bark along with the previously reported phenolic glucoside syringin is described. The structure of both, acteoside and coniferin, have been assigned by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17396961

  15. Antioxidant activity of Rhizophora mangle bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Janet; Melchor, Gleiby; Martínez, Gregorio; Escobar, Arturo; Faure, Roberto

    2006-02-01

    The antioxidant activity of Rhizophora mangle bark aqueous extract and its majoritary component and high molecular weight polyphenols' fraction were studied using deoxyribose assay. The total extract and its fraction showed scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals and hability to chelate iron ions. PMID:16436316

  16. Interruption of the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles to ethanol-baited traps and ethanol-injected trap trees by verbenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Tobin, Patrick C; Reding, Michael E; Bray, Alicia M; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Persad, Anand B

    2013-06-01

    We examined the extent to which verbenone, a bark beetle antiaggregation pheromone, interrupted the semiochemical-based attraction of ambrosia beetles. Field trapping studies conducted in Ohio showed that a verbenone dispenser with a release rate of 50 mg/d at 25°C reduced the attraction of Anisandrus sayi Hopkins, Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Hypothenemus dissimilis (Zimmermann), Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) to ethanol-baited traps. A verbenone dispenser attached to ethanol-injected Magnolia virginiana L. trap trees deployed in Ohio also reduced ambrosia beetle attacks compared to trap trees without a verbenone dispenser. Subsequent field trials demonstrated a direct relationship between distance from a verbenone dispenser and ambrosia beetle attacks on trap trees in Ohio in 2011 and 2012 and Tennessee in 2012, but not in Tennessee and Virginia in 2011. Assessment of the influence of verbenone on the probability of attacks above a density threshold found that although attacks occurred on trap trees regardless of their proximity to a verbenone dispenser, the higher density of attacks per tree occurred on trap trees farthest away from the verbenone source in Ohio and Tennessee. Verbenone alone could be somewhat useful for discouraging ambrosia beetle attacks on individual trees or on a small spatial scale, but deployment of verbenone might be most effective when integrated as part of a "push-pull" strategy.

  17. Effects of Water,Nitrogen and Methyl Jasmonate Treatment on Triterpenes Accumulation in Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.)%水分、氮肥及MeJA处理对白桦三萜积累特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春晓; 尹静; 詹亚光; 任春林; 王智慧

    2012-01-01

    With one year and a half birch saplings as experimental materials, we investigated the effects of water,nitrogen and methyl jasmonate(MeJA) treatment on the accumulation of triterpenes and the accumulated regulation of triterpenes in birch. The results showed that,total triterpene is mainly distributed in stem bark and leaf in birch sapling,the average content is 71. 94 mg · G-1 and 81. 60 mg · G-1 respectively, and the lowest in root bark, which is 25. 45 mg · G-1. The accumulated peak of total triterpene in leaf is June and July;But accumulated peaks of total triterpene in stem bark and root bark are August and July, respectively. Moderate and severe drought stress had significantly contributed to the accumulation of total triterpene in leaf in the early stage of drought stress,which are 1. 24 and 1. 27 times of the control. The accumulation of total triterpene for water stress in stem bark is significantly higher than at of control in July.Water stress has not conducived to total triterpene accumulation of the stem bark in other months. In addition, drought stress is adverse to triterpene accumulation in the root bark. Nitrogen treatment in early stage (June) is not conducive to triterpenoids accumulation in the leaves and root bark,but has remarkably contributed to the triterpenoids accumulation in late stage (July-October). However, the nitrogen treatment has contributed to the triterpenoids accumulation in the stem bark in early stage (June-July). MeJA spraying has promoted the triterpenes accumulation in the leaf and root bark. In the accumulating peak stage, with 1. 52 and 1. 42 times of the control. Light drought, nitrogen fertilizer both contribute to height growth and biomass accumulation of birch saplings, but MeJA treatment is disadvantage on the whole plant bio-mass accumulation.%以一年半生白桦幼树为试材,研究水分、氮肥和茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)处理对白桦三萜物质积累的影响,并对白桦植株中三萜积累规

  18. Daily home measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic children during natural birch pollen exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, Signe; Sinding, Marianne; Skamstrup, Kirsten;

    2006-01-01

    the feasibility, repeatability, accuracy, sensitivity, and biologic plausibility of new handheld equipment for FENO measurements. We studied day-to-day home measurements of FENO during the birch pollen season in children with allergy to birch pollen and a history of mild asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis during......BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a sensitive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma. Available methods have restricted measurements to the clinic, giving only a snapshot of the disease, which by nature is highly variable. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate...... this season, as well as in nonatopic children. METHODS: Eleven children with mild asthma and allergy to birch pollen, performed daily home measurements of FENO for 6 weeks before and during the birch pollen season by using a handheld FENO monitor (NIOX MINO). Additionally, FENO (chemiluminescence equipment...

  19. Inhibition of corneal inflammation following keratoplasty by birch leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Katrin; Gründemann, Carsten; Kern, Yvonne; Bredow, Laura; Huber, Roman; Reinhard, Thomas; Schwartzkopff, Johannes

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of birch leaf (Betula pendula) extract (BPE) on corneal inflammation following keratoplasty in the rat model. T cells were stimulated in vitro in the presence of BPE. Proliferation, activation phenotype and the number of apoptotic/necrotic cells in cell culture were analyzed by flow cytometry. Corneal transplantation was performed between Fisher and Lewis rats. Recipient rats were either treated with cyclosporine A at a low dosage (Low-dose CsA=LDCsA) or received LDCsA in combination with BPE (2×1ml/day). Clinical signs for corneal inflammation and rejection time points were determined. Infiltrating leukocytes were analyzed histologically. BPE specifically inhibited T cell proliferation in vitro by inducing apoptosis. The phenotype was not affected. In vivo, BPE significantly delayed the onset of corneal opacification (p<0.05). The amount of infiltrating CD45(+) leukocytes and CD4(+) T cells (p<0.001) was significantly reduced by BPE, whereas infiltration of CD163(+) macrophages was not significantly different between the two groups. BPE selectively induces apoptosis of activated T cells. Accordingly, BPE treatment significantly reduces infiltrating T cells and subsequent corneal opacification following keratoplasty. Our findings suggest BPE as a promising anti-inflammatory drug to treat corneal inflammation.

  20. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Persson,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch length. The thermal properties of the polylactide-grafted xylan depended on the branch length. Short branches resulted in fully amorphous materials with a glass transition temperature of about 48 to 55°C, whereas long polylactide branches resulted in semi-crystalline materials with melting points of about 130°C. Using mixtures of L-lactide and D/L-lactide in the monomer feed further altered the thermal properties. The degradation temperatures of the polylactide-grafted xylans were higher than that of the unmodified xylan, with degradation temperatures of about 300°C and 250°C, respectively. Tensile testing showed increased elongation at break with increasing branch length. The proposed method thus enables tailor-making of copolymers with specific thermal and mechanical properties.

  1. Damping properties of sequoia and birch under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease mechanic effect on loads being transported, shock load limiters (dampers) are being widely used today. Usually, the materials having 'stress-strain' diagrams (σ-ε) of compression with a substantial portion, where σ = const., are used as dampers. Most widely used are dampers made of foam polystyrene having just the same compression diagram. Similar strain diagrams can be enlisted for some porous materials, timber under cross compression, perforated metallic crushers and some others. By selecting damper material, the level of transmitted to the protected object pressures can be varied from several to hundreds MPa. Timber, as being widely used and featuring good technologic properties together with low cost, becomes an attractive material to be used as the limiter of shock loads. This paper presents the results of stress-strain sequoia properties (USA deliverable) and birch properties (Volgo-Vyatski region) at dynamic (v = 10 m/s) and quasistatic (v ≅ 10-4 m/s) loading rates. The samples (diameter 25 x 25 mm) cut at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 90 deg. angle relative to their fibre were tested on one-axis compression at -30, +20 and +65 deg. C and fixed humidity (ω = 6-7%). Dynamic tests employed Kolsky method performed at the facility including Hopkinson's compound rod (Zukas et al.,1985). Sample loading was executed by trapezoidal pulsed pressure created by the explosive device. Samples were heated and cooled by special thermostats. (authors)

  2. Bark and charcoal filters for greywater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dalahmeh, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity, inappropriate sanitation and wastewater pollution are critically important global issues. Greywater is a sustainable water source for recycling, so this thesis examined simple, robust, low-cost alternatives for on-site treatment of greywater to irrigation water quality. Laboratory-scale pine bark, activated charcoal and sand filters were evaluated as regards their pollutant removal and interactions between medium properties, greywater, microbial activity and bacterial communit...

  3. Ecological and phytopathological status of birch stands on the territory of Krasnoyarsk group of districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarintsev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available According to inspection data, the health and vital status of birch (Betula pendula Roth. stands in Krasnoyarsk group of lands (southern part of Central Siberia were estimated (established as satisfactory in general; about half of birch stands near urbanized areas were weakened. The condition of stands decreased significantly with increased recreation use, the effect of technogenic pollution was negligible. The most valuable (important representatives of pathogenic biota identified on birch trees were infestations of necrotic cancer and rot diseases. In birch stands the bacterial dropsy was found to be widespread (agent of infection – Erwinia multivora Scz.-Parf, occurrence of the disease ranged from a single ill tree up to 10–38 % of the stands. The birch stands in taiga areas were affected to a greater extent than in forest-steppe; there were high yield class stands on moist soils. Prevalence of bacteriosis rose with increasing stand age and density and not dependent on recreation use level. Trees with dropsy are dead in fact or potentially. In taiga birch forests the infection and rot of roots was caused by honey agaric (Armillaria mellea sensu lato, that lead to single or, rarely, group tree drying and the fungus usually eliminated already weakened trees. Wood biomass was destroyed by complex of aphyllophorous Hymenomycetes, their hemiparasitic species caused stem rots that decreased stand marketability and also resulted in rot-realated wind-break accumulation. Occurrence of rot was significantly higher in second growth birch stands, possibly above 20 %; the relationship between rot prevalence and forest assessment was not revealed.

  4. Spatial heterogeneity in the timing of birch budburst in response to future climate warming in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, Amelia; Zottele, Fabio; Gleeson, Emily; Donnelly, Alison

    2014-05-01

    In order to predict the impact of future climate warming on trees it is important to quantify the effect climate has on their development. Our understanding of the phenological response to environmental drivers has given rise to various mathematical models of the annual growth cycle of plants. These models simulate the timing of phenophases by quantifying the relationship between development and its triggers, typically temperature. In addition, other environmental variables have an important role in determining the timing of budburst. For example, photoperiod has been shown to have a strong influence on phenological events of a number of tree species, including Betula pubescens (birch). A recently developed model for birch (DORMPHOT), which integrates the effects of temperature and photoperiod on budburst, was applied to future temperature projections from a 19-member ensemble of regional climate simulations (on a 25 km grid) generated as part of the ENSEMBLES project, to simulate the timing of birch budburst in Ireland each year up to the end of the present century. Gridded temperature time series data from the climate simulations were used as input to the DORMPHOT model to simulate future budburst timing. The results showed an advancing trend in the timing of birch budburst over most regions in Ireland up to 2100. Interestingly, this trend appeared greater in the northeast of the country than in the southwest, where budburst is currently relatively early. These results could have implications for future forest planning, species distribution modeling, and the birch allergy season.

  5. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xianai [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Duygu, E-mail: dkocaefe@uqac.ca [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Yasar [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Boluk, Yaman [University of Alberta, 3-142 Markin/CNRL Natural Resources Engineering Facility, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2W2 (Canada); Krause, Cornelia [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigate detailed structural changes of heat-treated wood due to weathering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify connection between physical structural changes and chemical degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study effect of heat treatment conditions on weathering degradation process. - Abstract: Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  6. The Puzzling Origin of the Acquaintance between Charlotte Lennox and Thomas Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Hamilton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have puzzled over the origin of the relationship between Charlotte Lennox and Thomas Birch. That the two shared a cordial professional relationship in 1759 is not surprising, but it is unclear how and when Birch obtained the poem "The Dream, an ode by Miss Ramsey of 15" (ca. 1744-45 for his manuscript collection. Possibly Edward Cave, publisher of The Gentleman’s Magazine, or other professional associates such as Samuel Johnson or Samuel Richardson supplied it. But archival evidence indicates that Lady Isabella Finch, Lennox’s earliest patroness, was in contact with Birch in 1749, raising the question of whether she could have given Birch the poem. However, a different type of connection between Lennox and Birch is suggested by Lennox’s first novel, The Life of Harriot Stuart, written by Herself (1750, which mentions William Chillingworth, Isaac Barrow, and John Tillotson as theological influences. Lennox may have known of these three seventeenth-century divines through Birch’s biographical work on them.

  7. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Krause, Cornélia

    2013-01-01

    Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  8. Effect of associated fungi on the immunocompetence of red turpentine beetle larvae, Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Hong Shi; Bo Wang; Stephen R.Clarke; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Dendroctonus-fungus symbioses are often considered as the ideal model systems to study the development and maintenance ofectosymbioses,and diverse interactions,including antagonism,commensalism and mutualism,have been documented between these organisms.The red turpentine beetle,Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera:Curculionidae:Scolytinae) is a pine-killing invasive beetle in northern China.Fungi species Ophiostoma minus,Leptographium sinoprocerum,L.terebrantis and L.procerum were associated with this bark beetle.Antagonistic interactions between D.valens and its associated fungi,such as O.minus and L.sinoprocerum,have been demonstrated,but the underlying causes of this phenomenon are unknown.Here,we first found the two tested fungi species retarded the net weight gain of D.valens larvae after completing 3-day feeding on their media.Furthermore,we provide direct evidence indicating the effect of associated fungi on the immunocompetence of D.valens larvae to explain the documented antagonism.Our results showed that the activity of phenoloxidase and total phenoloxidase in D.valens larvae were significantly upregulated by two strains of associated fungi,O.minus and L.sinoprocerum as compared with the controls.The phenoloxidase ratio increased significantly in the larvae which had fed for 3 days on media inoculated with O.minus.Because insect immune defenses are costly to be deployed,these results could be explored as one of the underlying mechanisms of the documented antagonism.

  9. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  10. Effective monitoring as a basis for adaptive management: a case history of mountain pine beetle in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem whitebark pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willcox L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With reference to massive outbreaks of a variety of bark beetles occurring across the forests of western North America, it is stressed that an accurate assessment of the extent of the problem is the first step toward formulating effective adaptive management strategies. This assessment will only be possible through a coordinated effort that combines all available technologies, that is an approach that builds on satellite image analysis, aerial survey from fixed-wing aircraft, and on the ground observation and measurement.

  11. Computational verification of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for individual elliptic curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Grigor; Jorza, Andrei; Patrikis, Stefan; Stein, William A.; Tarnita, Corina

    2009-12-01

    We describe theorems and computational methods for verifying the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula for specific elliptic curves over mathbb{Q} of analytic ranks 0 and 1 . We apply our techniques to show that if E is a non-CM elliptic curve over mathbb{Q} of conductor leq 1000 and rank 0 or 1 , then the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjectural formula for the leading coefficient of the L -series is true for E , up to odd primes that divide either Tamagawa numbers of E or the degree of some rational cyclic isogeny with domain E . Since the rank part of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture is a theorem for curves of analytic rank 0 or 1 , this completely verifies the full conjecture for these curves up to the primes excluded above.

  12. Effect of different steam explosion conditions on methane potential and enzymatic saccharification of birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Olsen, Elisabeth F; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2013-01-01

    Birch (Betula pubescens) was steam exploded at 13 different conditions with temperatures ranging from 170 to 230 °C and residence times ranging from 5 to 15 min. Increasing severity in the pretreatment led to degradation of xylan and formation of pseudo-lignin. The effect of the pretreatments was evaluated by running enzymatic saccharification and anaerobic digestion followed by analysis of sugar and methane yields, respectively. Enzymatically released glucose increased with pretreatment severity up to 220 °C for 10 min and levels of solubilized glucose reached 97% of the theoretical maximum. The highest methane yield (369 mL gVS(-1)) was obtained at a severity factor of 4.5 and this yield was 1.8 times higher than the yield from untreated birch. Enzymatic glucose yields and methane yields were generally correlated. The results indicate that steam-exploded birch can be effectively converted to either glucose or methane.

  13. Effect of heating methods on drying quality of small-diameter birch lumbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ming-hui; ZHAO Xi-ping; YAN Li

    2005-01-01

    Following a normal low temperature drying schedule, the small-diameter Birch lumbers ( 1 000mm ×45mm × 30mm) were dried with consecution-heats or intermittent-heating, visual drying defects (bow, crook,twist, check along grain and end check) were measured, and then statistical analyses were performed. It was found that the drying quality of small-diameter Birch lumbers could be improved with intermittent-heating, but the intermittent time should be prolonged. Prolonging intermittent time helped to weaken or even avoid wood distortion and drying checks. It wasn' t helpful in avoiding crook. The drying quality of small-diameter Birch lumbers with all kinds of drying methods reached the second class of the Chinese National Standard. The drying quality reached the first class of the Chinese National Standard with the intermittent-heating in the area of visual wood defects.

  14. DNA extraction of birch leaves by improved CTAB method and optimization of its ISSR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN hua; YANG Chuan-ping; WEI Zhi-gang; JIANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    The basic method of DNA extraction (CTAB) was improved as the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method and used to extract the DNA of birch leaved in this experiment. Results showed that the improved method is suitable not only for genomic DNA extraction of birch but also for that of other plants. The purity of genomic DNA extracted by the multi-times STE-CTAB extraction method is higher than that by one time STE-CTAB method, and it does not need the process of RNase. The factors of influencing ISSR system were explored based on the genomic DNA of birch extracted by the two methods. The optimal conditions for ISSR system were determined as follows: cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 94℃, annealing for 30 s at 51 ℃, extension for 30 s at 72℃, and a final 7 min extension at 72 ℃.

  15. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  16. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  17. Xanthones from the bark of Garcinia Xanthochymus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two novel xanthones, 1,6-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyxanthone (1) and 1,5,6-trihydroxy-7,8-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':3,4)xanthone (2) were isolated from the bark of Garcinia xanthochymus by normal phase and reverse phase silica gel column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially 2D-NMR techniques.(C) 2007 Guang Zhong Yang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Bud flush phenology and nursery carryover effect of paper birch provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh is an ecologically valuable species with a broad geographic distribution across the North America. Its diversity, versatility and enduring nature make it an ideal candidate for a selective breeding program in this region. However, an understanding of the genecology of this species is fundamental to deploy it successfully. Ten paper birch provenances were collected from British Columbia (BC, Canada and northern Idaho (USA along elevational transects to determine whether observed bud flush phenology was due to genetics and /or environmental variation or their interaction. Seedlings were grown at three different nurseries: University of Idaho (46°44’N, Landing (50°17’N and Little Forestry (54°00’N and planted in a randomized single tree interlocking block design in three common gardens at Sandpoint, ID (48°13’N, Skimikin, BC (50°45’N and Red Rock, BC (53°45’N. Results indicate that variation in the timing of bud flush is a complex interaction among local genetic characteristics and environmental conditions of the growing site. Birch bud flush followed a general geographic trend where provenances at the southern common garden (Sandpoint required less time (Day of Year, DoY and fewer growing degree days (GDD compared to central (Skimikin and northern (Red Rock common gardens. Although there were significant differences in the timing of bud flush among provenances along an elevational gradient, none of the regions showed the expected linear elevational cline, trends were inconsistent. Further, birch bud flush was significantly influenced by nursery displacement effects in the initial year of establishment but disappeared within three years. These results provide an opportunity to characterize bud flush phenology of paper birch and would be useful for improving operational paper birch seed transfer programs in BC.

  19. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  20. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6%-248%. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  1. INORGANIC STATUS OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad Dattatraya Krishna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus marsupium is well known for its sugar lowering potential. In the present examination different bark samples (Apical bark, middle bark and mature inner bark of Pterocarpus marsupium were screened for inorganic status. The levels of macro-minerals Nitrogen (1.50-3.13%, Phosphorus (0.023-0.163%, Calcium (0.60-1.848%, and Magnesium (0.21-0.339%, levels of trace minerals Copper (0.68-3.2mg/100g, Zinc (1.98-3.62mg/100g, Manganese (2.0-4.94mg/100g and Iron (11.38-44.34mg/100g and heavy metals Chromium (2.08-3.94mg/100g and Nickel (0.32-1.26mg/100g were evaluated in the present study. Cadmium and Lead were found to be absent in all the bark samples analyzed.

  2. [Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus on the human immunodeficiency virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibnev, V A; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, M P; Kalnina, L B; Nosik, D N

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of aqueous and water-alcohol extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus have antiviral effect against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral properties of low toxic extracts were manifested in the concentration of 5.0 μg/ml upon simultaneous application with the virus in the lymphoblastoid cells culture MT-4. The extract of the birch fungus can be used for development of new antiviral drugs, inhibitors of HIV-replication when used both in the form of individual drugs and as a part of complex therapy. PMID:26182655

  3. Analysis of aspen-and-birch separated small woods’ vegetation in North Steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nazarenko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Conducted analysis of forest vegetation has allowed selecting and specifying classification and typological units of the aspen-and-birch separated small woods, which have statistically significant difference of ecotopic and coenotic parameters. Those parameters of studied forest ecosystems are characterised. Existence of the lines of hygrogenic and edaphogenic substitution, and succession rows are described. Phytoindication description of ecological factors’ pivotal conditions is presented. Driving factors determining parameters, structure and composition of the aspen-and-birch forest ecosystems are diminishing soil moisture, increasing annual temperatures amplitude and soil acidity.

  4. Shading and root-shoot relations in saplings of silver birch, pedunculate oak and beech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, van A.F.M.; Clerkx, A.P.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) can regenerate successfully under a canopy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Shading reduces plant growth and modifies plant form, two related aspects. This study focuses on the effects of shadin

  5. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Sharkey, Thomas D; Calfapietra, Carlo; Karnosky, David F

    2010-04-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO(2) and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO(2) protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO(2) increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 degrees C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO(2) treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO(2) were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO(2). Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms.

  6. Carbon and Nitrogen Transformations in Surface Soils Under Ermans Birch and Dark Coniferous Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xiao-Wen; HAN Shi-Jie; HU Yan-Ling; ZHOU Yu-Mei

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were taken from an Ermans birch (Betula ermanii)-dark coniferous forest (Picea jezoensis and Abies nephrolepis) ecotone growing on volcanic ejecta in the northern slopc of Changbai Mountains of Northeast China,to compare soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformations in the two forests.The soil type is Umbri-Gelic Cambosols in Chinese Soil Taxonomy.Soil samples were incubated aerobically at 20 ℃ and field capacity of 700 g kg-1 over a period of 27 weeks.The amount of soil microbial biomass and net N mineralization were higher in the Ermans birch than the dark coniferous forest (P<0.05),whereas the cumulative C mineralization (as CO2 emission) in the dark coniferous forest exceeded that in the Ermans birch (P<0.05).Release of the cumulative dissolved organic C and dissolved organic N were greater in the Ermans birch than the dark coniferous forest (P<0.05).The results suggested that differences of forest types could result in considerable change in soil C and N transformations.

  7. Antioxidants from slow pyrolysis bio-oil of birch wood: Application for biodiesel and biobased lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch wood was slowly pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and biochar. Slow pyrolysis conditions including reaction temperature, residence time, and particle size of the feed were optimized to maximize bio-oil yield. Particle size had an insignificant effect, whereas yields of up to 56% were achieved using...

  8. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Tripti; Arya, Rakesh Kumar; Meena, Sanjeev; Joshi, Pushpa; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Baleshwar; Upreti, D K; Rana, T S; Datta, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB), in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A). Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer.

  9. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Mishra

    Full Text Available Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB, in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA, oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A. Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer.

  10. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pushpa; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Baleshwar; Upreti, D. K.; Rana, T. S.; Datta, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB), in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A). Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer. PMID:27453990

  11. Isolation, Characterization and Anticancer Potential of Cytotoxic Triterpenes from Betula utilis Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Tripti; Arya, Rakesh Kumar; Meena, Sanjeev; Joshi, Pushpa; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Baleshwar; Upreti, D K; Rana, T S; Datta, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Betula utilis, also known as Himalayan silver birch has been used as a traditional medicine for many health ailments like inflammatation, HIV, renal and bladder disorders as well as many cancers from ages. Here, we performed bio-guided fractionation of Betula utilis Bark (BUB), in which it was extracted in methanol and fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. All six fractions were evaluated for their in-vitro anticancer activity in nine different cancer cell lines and ethyl acetate fraction was found to be one of the most potent fractions in terms of inducing cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. By utilizing column chromatography, six triterpenes namely betulin, betulinic acid, lupeol, ursolic acid (UA), oleanolic acid and β-amyrin have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of BUB and structures of these compounds were unraveled by spectroscopic methods. β-amyrin and UA were isolated for the first time from Betula utilis. Isolated triterpenes were tested for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against six different cancer cell lines where UA was found to be selective for breast cancer cells over non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF 10A). Tumor cell selective apoptotic action of UA was mainly attributed due to the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway via up regulation of DR4, DR5 and PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells over non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Moreover, UA mediated intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption also play a key role for its anti cancer effect. UA also inhibits breast cancer migration. Altogether, we discovered novel source of UA having potent tumor cell specific cytotoxic property, indicating its therapeutic potential against breast cancer. PMID:27453990

  12. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, S.M.; Singh, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract...

  13. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  14. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera: Reproductive Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N. T. Darbah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3 and O3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination, while the opposite was true of elevated O3 (elevated O3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%. Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2 and O3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.

  15. Allergens from birch pollen and pollen of the European chestnut share common epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschwehr, R; Jäger, S; Horak, F; Ferreira, F; Valenta, R; Ebner, C; Kraft, D; Scheiner, O

    1993-09-01

    Type I allergy to pollen of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa) represents a major cause of pollinosis in (sub) Mediterranean areas. Using sera from 14 patients with established allergy to pollen of the European chestnut, 13/14 sera (92%) showed IgE-binding to a 22 kD protein, 2/14 (14%) displayed additional binding to a 14 kD protein and 1/14 (7%) bound only to the 14 kD protein of European chestnut pollen extract. Two monoclonal mouse antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, directed against different epitopes of Bet v I (the major birch pollen allergen), and a rabbit antibody to recombinant birch profilin (rBet v II) were used to characterize the proteins of the European chestnut pollen. The recombinant birch pollen allergens, rBet v I and rBet v II (profilin) were employed to show common allergenic structures on proteins from both birch and European chestnut pollen by IgE-inhibition experiments. Despite the fact that the 22 kD protein displayed a higher molecular weight in comparison to the 17 kD major birch pollen allergen, Bet v I, we could demonstrate reactivity of both monoclonal antibodies, BIP 1 and BIP 4, with this protein. A complete inhibiton of IgE-binding to this 22 kD protein was shown by pre-incubating sera with purified recombinant Bet v I. In addition, the 14 kD protein could be identified by IgE-inhibition studies with recombinant Bet v II and by using a rabbit anti-profilin antibody as the profilin from pollen of the European chestnut.

  16. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS GLOMERATA LINN. BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagtap Supriya G.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ficus glomerata Linn. (Moraceae, commonly known as Ficus racemosa. A large deciduous tree distributed all over India and Ceylon, found throughout the year, grows in evergreen forest, moist localities, along the sides of ravines and banks of streams. Gular (Ficus glomerata Linn. is well known, commonly used plant in various disorders. It has been traditionally claimed to be useful in asthmatic condition, as an antitussive and anti-inflammatory. Successive soxhlet extractions of dried powdered bark were carried out using petroleum ether and methanol as a solvent. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts were tested in vitro against two different bacterial species Bacillus substilis and Escherichia coli by cup plate diffusion method were used in this investigation. The results of antimicrobial activity revealed that methanolic extract showed good activity as compared to petroleum ether extract. Methanolic extract is more potent towards gram - positive bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were compared with standard antibiotics.

  17. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  18. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins with Potent Antioxidant Activity from the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root Bark of Acacia confusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Dong Wei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  19. Glutathione-S-Transferase: A Minor Allergen in Birch Pollen due to Limited Release from Hydrated Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Deifl; Christian Zwicker; Eva Vejvar; Claudia Kitzmüller; Gabriele Gadermaier; Birgit Nagl; Susanne Vrtala; Peter Briza; Zlabinger, Gerhard J.; Beatrice Jahn-Schmid; Fatima Ferreira; Barbara Bohle

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, a protein homologous to glutathione-S-transferases (GST) was detected in prominent amounts in birch pollen by proteomic profiling. As members of the GST family are relevant allergens in mites, cockroach and fungi we investigated the allergenic relevance of GST from birch (bGST). Methodology bGST was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry. Sera from 217 birch pollen-allergic patients were tested for IgE-reactivity to bGST by ELISA. T...

  20. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  1. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins with Potent Antioxidant Activity from the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root Bark of Acacia confusa

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Dong Wei; Hai-Chao Zhou; Yi-Ming Lin; Meng-Meng Liao; Wei-Ming Chai

    2010-01-01

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidi...

  2. Antibacterial and cytotoxic compounds from the bark of Cananga odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Mukhlesur; Lopa, Simin S; Sadik, Golam; Harun-Or-Rashid; Islam, Robiul; Khondkar, Proma; Alam, A H M Khurshid; Rashid, Mohammad A

    2005-12-01

    O-Methylmoschatoline, liriodenine and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid isolated from the barks of Cananga odorata showed antibacterial activities against a number of Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. The compounds also showed antifungal and cytotoxic activities. PMID:16242266

  3. A Styrylpyrone Dimer from the Bark of Goniothalamus leiocarpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing MU; Yi Neng HE; Wei Dong TANG; Chao Ming LI; Li Guang LOU; Han Dong SUN; Bin XU; Guo Xun YANG; Chang Qi HU

    2004-01-01

    A dimer of styrylpyrone derivative, leiocarpin E (1), was isolated from the bark of Goniothalamus leiocarpus. Its structures was elucidated by means of spectral and chemical methods. The cytotoxicity of leiocarpin E against HL-60 cells was tested.

  4. A New Abietane Diterpenoid from the Barks of Taxus yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The structure of a new abietane diterpenoid,taxayunnin (1),from the barks of Taxus yunnanensis,was determined by spectroscopic analysis.A known abietane diterpenoid,taxamairin C (2),was also isolated.

  5. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  6. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle's historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  7. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Legault; Karl Girard-Lalancette; Dominic Dufour; André Pichette

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native American...

  8. Estimation and relevance of bark proportion in a willow stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Anneli [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry, Uppsala (Sweden); Estonian Agricultural Univ. (EAU), Inst. of Zoology and Botany, Tartu (Estonia); Verwijst, Theo; Aronsson, Paer [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    We studied bark proportion of a willow (Salix viminalis) plantation established to produce biomass for energy, the vertical distribution of elements (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Si, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and Ni) in bark and in wood of the shoots and the content of elements in the standing biomass. The study is based on 5-year-old shoots (clone 77-683) from a 12-year-old plantation. The bark proportion of the whole willow stand was 19% (9 tDM ha{sup -1}). The bark proportion of single shoots was constant after they had reached the size of 20 mm at stem diameter at 55 cm height. Compared to wood, bark had significantly higher concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Cd, Pb, Co and Zn. The nutrient element (N, P, K, Mg) concentrations in the bark and in the wood of the current year shoot fractions (twigs) were significantly higher compared to the bark and the wood of other fractions. The accumulation of heavy metals occurred due to the accumulation of tree biomass and not due to the increase of heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg) concentrations in plant tissues over time. In summary, different management regimes give a possibility to influence shoot size frequency distribution of the crop and the chemical composition of biomass. For minimizing element removals from the soil and corrosion processes in power plants, energy willow stands should be managed in a way that promotes low bark proportion and thereby as little nutrient removal from the site by biomass harvest as possible. (Author)

  9. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF NATURAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM ACACIA CONCURRENS BARK

    OpenAIRE

    Nimbekar, Tulsidas; Wanjari, Bhumesh; Patil, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    The present study showed that the ethanolic extracts from the bark of Acacia concurrens exhibited a strong antioxidant activity. Among all the fractions from ethanolic extracts of bark, the EtOAc soluble fraction exhibited the best antioxidant performance. Furthermore, the amounts of total phenolic compound were determined from the ethanolic extracts. Therefore, Acacia concurrens could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  10. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz Zakavi; Leila Golpasand Hagh; Arash Daraeighadikolaei; Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh; Arsham Daraeighadikolaei; Zahra Leilavi Shooshtari

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and w...

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and w...

  12. INCORPORATION OF BARK AND TOPS IN EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS WOOD PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bark and the tops of E. globulus trees were considered for kraft pulping under industrial conditions. Pulping experiments included wood, bark, tops, and composite samples. Top wood had an average chemical composition most similar to that of wood but with somewhat lower cellulose content (52.8% vs. 56.9% and higher lignin content (18.8% vs. 17.8%. There was also a small difference between tops and wood for non-polar extractives, which were higher for tops (2.0% vs. 1.4%. Bark had a less favorable chemical composition with more extractives, especially polar extractives (5.3% vs. 1.6% and 1% NaOH solubility (19.9% vs. 12.2%, pentosans (23.7% vs. 21.3%, and ash (2.9% vs. 1.0%, although the fiber length was higher (1.12 mm vs. 0.98 mm. The kraft pulps obtained using bark showed significantly lower yield, delignification degree, and strength properties but had a quicker response to refining. The incorporation of tops and bark in the wood pulping in levels below or similar to a corresponding whole-stem, however, had a limited effect on pulp yield, kappa number, refining, and pulp strength properties. These additional raw-materials, which were estimated to be 26% of the commercial stem wood (14% bark and 12% tops, may therefore be considered in enlarging the eucalypt fiber feedstock in kraft pulping.

  13. Bark thickness across the angiosperms: more than just fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A

    2016-07-01

    Global variation in total bark thickness (TBT) is traditionally attributed to fire. However, bark is multifunctional, as reflected by its inner living and outer dead regions, meaning that, in addition to fire protection, other factors probably contribute to TBT variation. To address how fire, climate, and plant size contribute to variation in TBT, inner bark thickness (IBT) and outer bark thickness (OBT), I sampled 640 species spanning all major angiosperm clades and 18 sites with contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regime. Stem size was by far the main driver of variation in thickness, with environment being less important. IBT was closely correlated with stem diameter, probably for metabolic reasons, and, controlling for size, was thicker in drier and hotter environments, even fire-free ones, probably reflecting its water and photosynthate storage role. OBT was less closely correlated with size, and was thicker in drier, seasonal sites experiencing frequent fires. IBT and OBT covaried loosely and both contributed to overall TBT variation. Thickness variation was higher within than across sites and was evolutionarily labile. Given high within-site diversity and the multiple selective factors acting on TBT, continued study of the different drivers of variation in bark thickness is crucial to understand bark ecology. PMID:26890029

  14. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  15. Biogeography of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana): latitudinal patterns in chemical defense and plant architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael T; Brown, Sarah C; Bothwell, Helen M; Bryant, John P

    2016-02-01

    The latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) predicts that plants near the equator will be more heavily defended against herbivores than are plants at higher latitudes. Although this idea is widely found in the literature, recent studies have called this biogeographic pattern into question. We sought to evaluate the LHDH in a high-latitude terrestrial ecosystem where fire and mammalian herbivores may contribute to selection for higher levels of defensive chemistry. To address this objective, we collected seeds of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) from nine locations along two north-south transects between 55 degrees N and 62 degrees N latitudes in western, interior Canada. The birch seeds were planted in pots in a common garden in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. From the resulting seedlings, we determined levels of chemical defense by assessing the density of resin glands, which have been shown to be negatively correlated with browsing. To assess plant architectural traits such as height, mean individual leaf area, and root-to-shoot ratio, we harvested a subset of the birch seedlings. Further, we used these traits to examine growth-defense trade-offs. Contrary to the LHDH, we found a positive correlation between chemical defense and latitude. Investigating relationships with fire, we found a strong positive correlation between resin gland density and percentage of area annually burned (PAAB) around each collection location and also between PAAB and latitude. Additionally, birch seedlings originating from higher latitudes were shorter, smaller-leaved, and rootier than their lower-latitude counterparts. Growth-defense trade-offs were observed in negative correlations between resin gland density and height and leaf size. Seedlings with higher resin gland densities also allocated less biomass to shoots and more to roots. These results further call into question the LHDH and provide specific information about latitudinal trends in plant defense at high, northern

  16. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  17. The results of fluorescence spectrums of oak and birch leaves investigation from the 30-km influenced zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a long-term research of laser induced fluorescence of foliage tree' leaves (oak, birch) that grow in different conditions of radioactive pollution (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP) are presented

  18. A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

    2013-07-01

    Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days.

  19. EFFECT OF BIRCH KRAFT PULP PRIMARY FINES ON BLEACHING AND SHEET PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Anneli Asikainen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By removing the primary fines from an oxygen-delignified mill birch pulp, a fiber fraction was obtained having low metals content and no extractives. After DEDeD bleaching the fiber fraction had somewhat higher brightness and better brightness stability than the birch pulp containing the primary fines. The fines fraction was enriched with lignin, extractives, xylan, and metals. Bleaching the fines fraction in a QQP sequence did not affect the extractives, whereas a ZeQP sequence clearly reduced the extractives content. In a biorefinery concept, the fines fraction could be utilized as a source of xylan, fatty acids, sterols, and betulinol. Another possibility is to use the fines fraction unbleached or separately bleached as a bonding material in various fiber furnishes.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromu Suzuki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1 infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were identified using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and the sequence tag method. These proteins were malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, diaminopimalate decarboxylase, arginase, chorismate mutase, cyclophilin, aminopeptidase, and unknown function proteins. These proteins are considered to be involved in SAR-establishment mechanisms in the Japanese birch plantlet No 8.

  1. Reduced VOC emissions from birch sawdust dried in a steam drier at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstrom, K.M. [Karlstad Univ., Karlstad (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy Systems, Div. of Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics

    2003-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the quantity and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from birch sawdust when it is dried in a steam dryer at atmospheric pressure. Sawdust is commonly dried for production of wood pellets and particle board. VOCs, which are emitted during the drying process, contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and other hazardous photochemical oxidants. The chemical composition of VOCs emitted from drying softwood is different from that emitted during the drying of hardwoods such as birch. The dryer used in this study was a pilot scale spouted bed in continuous operation. Sawdust was dried to different moisture contents. Two drying medium temperatures (170 degrees C and 200 degrees C) were applied. The results were then compared to the emissions from softwoods dried under similar conditions.

  2. Influence of Biomass Pretreatment Process Time on Furfural Extraction from Birch Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazdausks, Prans; Puke, Maris; Vedernikovs, Nikolajs; Kruma, Irena

    2013-12-01

    Furfural is a biomass derived-chemical that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis was used for hemicelluloses secession from birch wood. The reaction was investigated at different biomass treatment times (10-90 min, increasing it by 10 min). We found that the greatest amount of furfural 1.4-2.6%, which is 9.7-17.7% from theoretical possible yield, was formed in the first 30 min of the beginning of birch wood pentoses monosaccharide dehydration, but the greatest yield of furfural 10.3%, which is 70.0% from the theoretical yield, can be obtained after 90 min. Given that furfural yield generally does not exceed 50% from the theoretical amount, the result can be considered as very good.

  3. Analysis and identification of SCAR molecular markers associated with birch fiber length trait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dan; WEI Zhi-gang; YANG Chuan-ping; LIU Guan-jun

    2008-01-01

    The fiber length trait (FLT) of 538 individuals from nature birch population in Maorshan region,Heilongjang,China were measured,of which 100 individuals were selected as representative variety of correlated fragments screening with random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) technique.In total of 20 RAPD primers were tested through multiple regression analysis between amplified strip and the character behaviors,and a correlative segment BFLR-16 was obtained.The correlation coefficient between BFLI-16 and FLT was 0.6144,with the significant level of 1%.BFLI-16 was then cloned,sequenced and transformed into SCAR marker.The percentage of identifying long fiber birches by this SCAR was more than 92.The result indicates that the SCAR markers has high specificity for the long fiber individuals and is highly linked with the gene controlling the character of fiber length,and its existence is significantly correlative with the increase in the fiber length.

  4. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  5. EFFECTS OF HOT WATER EXTRACTION IN A BATCH REACTOR ON THE DELIGNIFICATION OF BIRCH WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Borrega; Kaarlo Nieminen; Herbert Sixta

    2011-01-01

    The amount of residual lignin in birch wood after a hot water extraction in a batch reactor was investigated as a function of extraction temperature and time. A kinetic model fitting the experimental data was then developed to explain delignification of wood during a hot water treatment. Results showed that delignification kinetics involves simultaneous degradation and condensation reactions, with degradation of lignin being much faster than its condensation. Native lignin in wood was success...

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiromu; Takashima, Yuya; Ishiguri, Futoshi; Yoshizawa, Nobuo; Yokota, Shinso

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1) infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA)-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were i...

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Responsive Proteins Induced in Japanese Birch Plantlet Treated with Salicylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hiromu Suzuki; Yuya Takashima; Futoshi Ishiguri; Nobuo Yoshizawa; Shinso Yokota

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to unravel the mechanisms of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) establishment and resistance signaling pathways against the canker-rot fungus (Inonotus obliquus strain IO-U1) infection in Japanese birch plantlet No.8. Modulation of protein-profile induced by salicylic acid (SA)-administration was analyzed, and SA-responsive proteins were identified. In total, 5 specifically expressed, 3 significantly increased, and 3 significantly decreased protein spots were ...

  8. Preliminary tests with a birch wood pellets up-draft air gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Alejandro; Suarez, José; Björnbom, Emilia; Zanzi Vigouroux, Rolando

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden and Cuba a variety of biomass have being investigated for energyconversion through termochemical processes into solid, liquids and gaseous products. Biomass gasification in fixed bed seem to be attractive option for the conversion ofagricultural and forest residues into gases suitable for use as alternative fuel in gasengines in rural areas, heat or electricity production. This paper discusses the performance characteristics of a up - draft gasifier withBirch wood pellets. The bench...

  9. Ground bryophyte diversity in secondary birch forests in western Sichuan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Yan; Weikai Bao

    2011-01-01

    Secondary birch (Betula spp.) forest is an important vegetation type in western Sichuan, China. These forests have naturally regenerated from primary fir (Abies spp.) forests after clear-cutting. However,little is known about ground bryophyte species composition and community structure during this succession sequence. In our study, we sampled three plots in 9-, 22-, and 42-year old secondary forests, and a primary fir forest, respectively, in Jinchuan County. We found that bryophyte coverage ...

  10. Analysis of aspen-and-birch separated small woods’ vegetation in North Steppe of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Nazarenko; I. M. Loza

    2010-01-01

    Conducted analysis of forest vegetation has allowed selecting and specifying classification and typological units of the aspen-and-birch separated small woods, which have statistically significant difference of ecotopic and coenotic parameters. Those parameters of studied forest ecosystems are characterised. Existence of the lines of hygrogenic and edaphogenic substitution, and succession rows are described. Phytoindication description of ecological factors’ pivotal conditions is presented. D...

  11. Individual tree mortality of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleki K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of complex forest ecosystems is intimately related to their structural properties. Tree mortality is a major driver of forest stand dynamics and therefore plays an important role in the formation of forest structure. Data from the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots (ENFRP was used to estimate the mortality probability of silver birch trees (Betula pendula Roth by using logistic models. In this study several spatial and non-spatial variables were tested to determine the most important mortality explanatory factors. Additionally, thinning variables were defined and implemented into the mortality models, to examine whether thinning practices could modify the stand structure and density, then leading to a lower mortality rate. The results of this study showed that tree mortality models that included either a five-year diameter growth rate (id5 as a measure of tree vitality, or the tree relative diameter (drel as a measure of competition, or both these two variables, were substantially better than any models not including these variables. In addition, any measures of spatial aggregation (agg and species proportion (sp within the zone of influence markedly improved the model predictions, though the mortality probability of trees declined where there was higher aggregation and species mixture. Our results also suggested that if thinning were conducted around the birch trees, depending on the thinning intensity, the number of neighbors is effectively reduced, and consequently the competition load within the influence zone decreases, leading to healthier growth and lower mortality rates of the shade-intolerant birch trees. We thus recommend to adopt thinning regimes in mixed forest stands to foster tree species diversity, and at the same time provide adequate growing space for birch trees within the stands. This will improve the forest structure and increase the adaptive capacity of forests, which is increasingly important under

  12. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bilek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the birch tree sap, depending on the addition and concentration of two chemical factors, ie. potassium sorbate and acids: malic, citric or lactic. As in our previous studies we found that the optimal physical parameter to assess the stability of birch sap is turbidity measurement, we used turbidimeter for estimate the effectiveness of shelf life extending. Sensory evaluation was carried out by university sensory panel with 8 skilled people (students and teachers with pre-selection and basic training of sensory methodology. On the other hand artificial perception measurements were realized by electronic nose. Birch tree sap stability without addition of preservatives, both room temperature and refrigerated, is less than three days. The effectiveness of preservation of birch tree sap depends on the concentration of acids. Independently of storage temperature, samples that received stability during the whole one-month storage period, were those with potassium sorbate and three acids in the highest concentrations, ie. malic acid at 0.3%, citric acid at 0.5% and lactic acid at 0.5%. Unfortunately, concentrations of acids, which allow extension of shelf life at least for one month in a room temperature, are characterized by the worst sensory evaluation rating. Thus, they should be corrected by the use of additives for improving the flavor, such as fruit syrups or herbal extracts. On the other hand, additionally storage in a refrigerated conditions allows one-month-stability for the sample with the highest sensory evaluation rating, ie. with the addition of lactic acid at 0.1% and potassium sorbate, which taste not need to be corrected.

  13. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  14. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up the majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, a region subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of four branches, each from a different individual tree, were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of the sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission potential in 2006 was almost 2600 ng gdw−1 h−1 (3.5 pmol gdw−1 s−1 while in 2007 α-farnesene was not detected at all. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last for several years.

  15. Drying and wetting of Mediterranean soils stimulates decomposition and carbon dioxide emission: the "Birch effect".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Paul; Rey, Ana; Petsikos, Charalampos; Wingate, Lisa; Rayment, Mark; Pereira, João; Banza, João; David, Jorge; Miglietta, Franco; Borghetti, Marco; Manca, Giovanni; Valentini, Riccardo

    2007-07-01

    Observations on the net carbon exchange of forests in the European Mediterranean region, measured recently by the eddy covariance method, have revived interest in a phenomenon first characterized on agricultural and forest soils in East Africa in the 1950s and 1960s by H. F. Birch and now often referred to as the "Birch effect." When soils become dry during summer because of lack of rain, as is common in regions with Mediterranean climate, or are dried in the laboratory in controlled conditions, and are then rewetted by precipitation or irrigation, there is a burst of decomposition, mineralization and release of inorganic nitrogen and CO(2). In forests in Mediterranean climates in southern Europe, this effect has been observed with eddy covariance techniques and soil respiration chambers at the stand and small plot scales, respectively. Following the early work of Birch, laboratory incubations of soils at controlled temperatures and water contents have been used to characterize CO(2) release following the rewetting of dry soils. A simple empirical model based on laboratory incubations demonstrates that the amount of carbon mineralized over one year can be predicted from soil temperature and precipitation regime, provided that carbon lost as CO(2) is taken into account. We show that the amount of carbon returned to the atmosphere following soil rewetting can reduce significantly the annual net carbon gain by Mediterranean forests. PMID:17403645

  16. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haapanala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, area subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of a branch from four individual trees were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission in 2006 was almost 2000 ng gdw−1 h−1 while in 2007 the emission of α-farnesene was negligible. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last several years.

  17. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric C. Xu; Yajun Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes.The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  18. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EricC.Xu; YajunZhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes. The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  19. Growth of Scots Pine and Silver Birch Seedlings on Different Nursery Container Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin TILKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peat has been the most common growing medium in tree nurseries, either alone or as a component of growing media mixes. However, as a result of increasing costs and decreasing amount of peat, seedling-growers are seeking more local growing medium components. In this study, container seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth were grown in pure peat and peat mixtures containing perlite and zeolite.  Physical parameters (height, shoot diameter, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, total dry weight were measured along with several morphological parameters (sturdiness quotient, height/diameter, shoot/root ratio. The zeolite additive in peat changed some media properties, and significant relation was established between some morphological attributes of seedlings and some medium properties in both species. On average, the seedlings grew best in pure peat, but zeolite additions to peat did not affect some morphological parameters negatively. The results suggest that zeolite has potential to be used as a component of peat based growing medium mixtures, and addition of zeolite to peat container medium in proportions of 10% by volume in Scots pine and up to 20% in silver birch was shown to be a feasible material for growing Scots pine and silver birch seedlings.

  20. Identification of SSR loci in Betula luminifera using birch EST data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-quan; LI Hai-ying; JIA Qing; HUANG Hua-hong; TONG Zai-kang

    2011-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are generated from single-pass sequencing of randomly picked cDNA clones and can be used for development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites.However,EST databases have been developed for only a small number of species.This paper provides a case study of the utility of freely available birch EST reources for the development of markers necessary for the genetic analysis of Betula luminifera.Based on birch EST data,primers for 80 EST-SSR candidate loci were developed and tested in birch.Of these,59 EST-SSR loci yielded single,stable and clear PCR products.We then tested the utility of those 59 markers in B.luminifera.The results showed 28 (47.6%) yielded stable and clear PCR products for at least one B.luminifera genotype.In addition,this study describes a rapid and inexpensive alternative for the development of SSRs in species with scarce available sequence data.

  1. EFFECT OF THERMAL TREATMENT ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BIRCH AND ASPEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Kocaefe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature treatment of wood is one of the alternatives to chemical treatment. During this process, the wood is heated to higher temperatures than those of conventional drying. The wood structure changes due to decomposition of hemicelluloses, ramification of lignin, and crystallization of cellulose. The wood becomes less hygroscopic. These changes improve the dimensional stability of wood, increase its resistance to micro-organisms, darken its color, and modify its hardness. However, wood also might loose some of its elasticity. Consequently, the heat treatment conditions have to be optimized. Therefore, it is important to understand the transformation of the chemical structure of wood caused by the treatment. In this study, the modification of the surface composition of the wood was followed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and inverse gas chromatography (IGC under different experimental conditions. The effect of maximum treatment temperatures on the chemical composition of Canadian birch and aspen as well as the correlations between their chemical transformation and different mechanical properties are presented. FTIR analysis results showed that the heat treatment affected the chemical composition of birch more compared to that of aspen. The results of IGC tests illustrated that the surfaces of the aspen and birch became more basic with heat treatment. The mechanical properties were affected by degradation of hemicellulose, ramification of lignin and cellulose crystallization.

  2. Confinement of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) by Cape honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis)

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Ellis Jr.,; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti

    2004-01-01

    International audience In this study we quantify small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybee (A.m. capensis Esch., an African subspecies) behaviours that are associated with beetle confinement in an effort to understand why Cape bees can withstand large beetle infestations. Four observation hives were each inoculated with 25 beetles and were observed for 11-17 days. Data collected included guard bee (worker bees who guard beetle confinement sites) and confined beetle behavi...

  3. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

  4. Pharmacognostic evaluation of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Ajay Kumar; Om Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform the pharmacognostic study of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre (P. pinnata) stem bark. Method: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The bark consisting of channelled, recurved, slightly quilled, usually 0.2-1 cm thick, lenticellate pieces with outer surface ash-grey to greyish-brown and internal surface yellowish-white to cream coloured having unpleasant odour and bitter taste. The main microscopic characterstics of the bark include phellem (5-20 or more layers of cork), phellogen (2-3 layered) followed by 10-15 layered phelloderm. Among other microscopic components were phloem parenchyma, phloem fibre and stone cells, traversed by wavy medullary rays. Further, physicochemical analysis of the bark power showed total ash, water soluble ash, acid insoluble ash and sulphated ash as 10.94, 1.96, 1.47 and 15.8 % w/w respectively. The alcohol and water soluble extractives values of the stem bark were 9.6 and 18.4 %w/w respectively. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study helps in botanical identification and standardization of P. pinnata L. in crude form.

  5. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Dufour, Dominic; Pichette, André

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50), were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity. PMID:26784337

  6. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Legault

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50, were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol, which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity.

  7. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  8. Antigenotoxic properties of Terminalia arjuna bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassellati-Sforzolini, G; Villarini, L M; Moretti, L M; Marcarelli, L M; Pasquini, R; Fatigoni, C; Kaur, L S; Kumar, S; Grover, I S

    1999-01-01

    Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests. Terminalia arjuna extracts were obtained by sequential extraction using acetone, methanol, methanol + HCl, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether. The antigenotoxic properties of these extracts were investigated by assessing the inhibition of genotoxicity of the directacting mutagen 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO) using the "comet" assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Human peripheral blood leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the six extracts (from 5 to 100 microg/ mL) and with 4NQO (1 and 2 microg/mL, for the "comet" assay and MN test, respectively). Each extract/4NQO combination was tested twice; in each experiment, positive control (4NQO alone) and negative control (1% DMSO) were set. "Comet" assay results showed that acetone and methanol extracts were highly effective in reducing the DNA damage caused by 4NQO, whereas the acidic methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethyl ether extracts showed less marked or no antigenotoxic activity. In the MN test, a decrease in 4NQO genotoxicity was observed by testing this mutagen in the presence of acetone, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts, even though the extent of inhibition was not always statistically significant. PMID:15281223

  9. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. PMID:26992100

  10. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....... METHODS: Thirty-five patients with severe rhinoconjunctivitis (hay fever) to birch pollen were allocated to double-blinded clustered IT with a depot birch pollen extract (Betula verrucosa) or placebo injections. Seven patients in each group had concomitant self-reported seasonal asthma. Treatment...... antihistamines (P effects at the same level as placebo...

  11. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Jacobi, H H;

    2002-01-01

    There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America.......There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....

  12. Changes in crown architecture as a strategy of mountain birch for survival in habitats disturbed by pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, Vitali; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Zvereva, Elena L

    2013-02-01

    Although trees in polluted areas often exhibit modified growth habits, the immediate causes of changes in crown architecture and their consequences for persistence of plant populations in disturbed habitats are not well understood. We compared individuals of mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, growing in severely disturbed habitats (industrial barrens) surrounding a nickel-copper smelter in north-western Russia, with birches growing in unpolluted habitats. They were found to have shorter heights, a shrubby growth habit, lower depth/width and surface/foliar mass ratios of the crown, higher numbers of dead branches and twisted trunks and higher branching resulting from increased numbers of long shoots and more densely spaced buds than individuals in unpolluted forests. The increased production of long shoots was enabled by their formation not only from the axillary buds of previous-year long shoots but also from the apical buds of short shoots. These latter long shoots develop in the inner part of the crown, thus increasing the crown density. Additionally, birches from industrial barrens better compensated for mechanical damage, such as trunk/shoot removal, compared to birches from unpolluted forest and mountain tundra habitats, presumably due to the larger number of buds formed annually. The specific crown architecture of these birches can be explained by the direct effects of pollution combined with changes in microclimate due to pollution-induced forest decline. The seed progenies of birches from an industrial barren reared in a benign environment produced higher numbers of long shoots than seedlings from other habitats, suggesting that adaptive changes in crown architecture are partially shaped by the selection imposed by long-term pollution impacts. Nearly spherical and compact crowns minimise the impacts of unfavourable environmental conditions on trees and are therefore adaptive. We concluded that the development of specific crown architecture

  13. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van't Westende Wendy PC

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the genome was established by amplification and sequencing of alleles from eight birch species that represent the four subgenera within the genus Betula. Q-TOF LC-MSE was applied to identify which PR-10/Bet v 1 genes are actually expressed in pollen and to determine the relative abundances of individual isoforms in the pollen proteome. Results All examined birch species contained several PR-10 genes. In total, 134 unique sequences were recovered. Sequences were attributed to different genes or pseudogenes that were, in turn, ordered into seven subfamilies. Five subfamilies were common to all birch species. Genes of two subfamilies were expressed in pollen, while each birch species expressed a mixture of isoforms with at least four different isoforms. Isoforms that were similar to isoforms with a high IgE-reactivity (Bet v 1a = PR-10.01A01 were abundant in all species except B. lenta, while the hypoallergenic isoform Bet v 1d (= PR-10.01B01 was only found in B. pendula and its closest relatives. Conclusion Q-TOF LC-MSE allows efficient screening of Bet v 1 isoforms by determining the presence and relative abundance of these isoforms in pollen. B. pendula contains a Bet v 1-mixture in which isoforms with a high and low IgE-reactivity are both abundant. With the possible exception of B. lenta, isoforms identical or very similar to those with a high IgE-reactivity were found in the pollen proteome of all examined birch species. Consequently, these species are also predicted to be allergenic with regard to Bet v 1 related allergies.

  14. A small animal model study of perlite and fir bark dust on guinea pig lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, R F; DiPalma, J R; Blumenstein, R; Amenta, P S; Freedman, A P; Barbieri, E J

    1983-05-01

    Fir bark (Abies) and perlite (noncrystalline silicate) dusts have been reported to cause pulmonary disease in humans. Guinea pigs were exposed to either fir bark or perlite dust in a special chamber. Severe pathologic changes occurred in the lungs, consisting of lymphoid aggregated and a perivascular inflammatory response. Both dusts caused similar changes although one was vegetable (fir bark) and the other mineral (perlite). Fir bark and perlite dust appeared to be more than just nuisance dusts.

  15. Colorado potato beetle toxins revisited: evidence the beetle does not sequester host plant glycoalkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armer, Christine A

    2004-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle feeds only on glycoalkaloid-laden solanaceous plants, appears to be toxic to predators, and has aposematic coloration, suggesting the beetle may sequester alkaloids from its host plants. This study tested 4th instars and adults, as well as isolated hemolymph and excrement, to determine if the beetles sequester, metabolize, or excrete alkaloids ingested from their host plants. HPLC analysis showed: that neither the larvae nor the adults sequestered either solanine or chaconine from potato foliage; that any alkaloids in the beetles were at concentrations well below 1 ppm; and that alkaloids were found in the excrement of larvae at approximately the same concentrations as in foliage. Analysis of alkaloids in the remains of fed-upon leaflet halves plus excreta during 24 hr feeding by 4th instars, as compared to alkaloids in the uneaten halves of the leaflets, showed that equal amounts of alkaloids were excreted as were ingested. The aposematic coloration probably warns of a previously-identified toxic dipeptide instead of a plant-derived alkaloid, as the Colorado potato beetle appears to excrete, rather than sequester or metabolize, the alkaloids from its host plants.

  16. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed.

  17. Tannins quantification in barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical complexity, there are several methodologies for vegetable tannins quantification. Thus, this work aims at quantifying both tannin and non-tannin substances present in the barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii by two different methods. From bark particles of both species, analytical solutions were produced by using a steam-jacketed extractor. The solution was analyzed by Stiasny and hide-powder (no chromed methods. For both species, tannin levels were superior when analyzed by hide-powder method, reaching 47.8% and 24.1% for A. mearnsii and M. tenuiflora, respectively. By Stiasny method, the tannins levels considered were 39.0% for A. mearnsii, and 15.5% for M. tenuiflora. Despite the best results presented by A. mearnsii, the bark of M. tenuiflora also showed great potential due to its considerable amount of tannin and the availability of the species at Caatinga biome.

  18. Factors controlling bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition in five tropical tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Gbadamassi G. O.; Paudel, Ekananda; Cao, Kunfang; Schaefer, Douglas; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter decomposition represents a vital ecosystem process by which nutrients are made available for plant uptake and is a major flux in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies have investigated decomposition of different plant parts, but few considered bark decomposition or its role in decomposition of wood. However, bark can comprise a large fraction of tree biomass. We used a common litter-bed approach to investigate factors affecting bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition for five tree species in a secondary seasonal tropical rain forest in SW China. For bark, we implemented a litter bag experiment over 12 mo, using different mesh sizes to investigate effects of litter meso- and macro-fauna. For wood, we compared the decomposition of branches with and without bark over 24 mo. Bark in coarse mesh bags decomposed 1.11–1.76 times faster than bark in fine mesh bags. For wood decomposition, responses to bark removal were species dependent. Three species with slow wood decomposition rates showed significant negative effects of bark-removal, but there was no significant effect in the other two species. Future research should also separately examine bark and wood decomposition, and consider bark-removal experiments to better understand roles of bark in wood decomposition. PMID:27698461

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND MICROBICIDAL ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaysing Hari Patil,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bactericidal potential of methanolic extract of stem bark (Apical bark, middle bark and Mature bark of Pterocarpus marsupium was evaluated with respect to pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoneae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and Micrococcus sp. The methanolic extract of apical stem bark was effective than the middle bark and mature bark in inhibiting the growth of all bacteria. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was most sensitive among all the bacterial species studied. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides,flavonoids, flavonols, phenols and terpenoids. Saponins were absent in all the bark samples.The concentrations of these phytoconstituents was higher in the apical stem bark than the middle and mature stem bark. The percent extract yield was maximum in apical stem bark. Thus, in the pharmacological point of view, it is important to study the biochemistry of apical bark in order to isolate and screen the new pharmacological active principals which can be useful in designing of new drugs active against various infectious micro- rganisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses etc.

  20. PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ALBIZIA ODORATISSIMA BARK POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Amrish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacognostic evaluation of the crude drugs powder is done by using the different botanical parameters in order to evaluate the quality and purity of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles, physical and chemical standards. This article reports on pharmacognostic evaluation or standardization of the crude drug powder of Albizia odoratissima bark powder. Albizia odoratissima bark powder has been standardized on the basis of organoleptic properties, physical characteristics, and physico‐chemical properties and phytochemical investigation. In the phytochemical investigation flavonoids, tannin, carbohydrate, saponin, triterpenoids are found to be present.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY STANDARDS OF BERBERIS ARISTATA STEM BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ahamad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aristata is an important medicinal plant of family Berberidaceae. It is commonly known as Zarishk and Daruhaldi. It is mainly used for the treatment piles, liver diseases and diabetes. As the herb is used widely in the Indian traditional systems of medicine, it was thought worthwhile to develop the quality standards for its stem bark. The results of Pharmacognostic standardization of stem bark of B. aristata are very helpful in determination of quality and purity of the crude drug and its marketed formulation.

  2. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra.

  3. Spatial dependence of random sets and its application to dispersion of bark beetle infestation in a natural forest:

    OpenAIRE

    Düll, Jochen; Kautz, Markus; Ohser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Image Analysis and Stereology is the official journal of the International Society for Stereology. It promotes the exchange of scientific, technical, organizational and other information on the quantitative analysis of data having a geometrical structure, including stereology, differential geometry, image analysis, image processing, mathematical morphology, stochastic geometry, statistics, pattern recognition, and related topics. The fields of application are not restricted and range from bio...

  4. Using UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Hyperspectral Imaging for Mapping Bark Beetle Damage at Tree-Level

    OpenAIRE

    Roope Näsi; Eija Honkavaara; Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa; Minna Blomqvist; Paula Litkey; Teemu Hakala; Niko Viljanen; Tuula Kantola; Topi Tanhuanpää; Markus Holopainen

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost, miniaturized hyperspectral imaging technology is becoming available for small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms. This technology can be efficient in carrying out small-area inspections of anomalous reflectance characteristics of trees at a very high level of detail. Increased frequency and intensity of insect induced forest disturbance has established a new demand for effective methods suitable in mapping and monitoring tasks. In this investigation, a novel miniaturized hypers...

  5. Improvement of nutritive value of acacia mangium bark by alkali treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bark, especially from Acacia mangium is a by-product from wood processing industries that commonly found in Indonesiaand in big amount will cause environmental problems. One of the alternatives to utilize bark is for animal feed. The aims of this experiment are to improve the nutritive value of bark by alkali treatments (urea and sodium hydroxide and to determine the level of substitution of elephant grass by bark. The experiment consisted of 3 in vitro studies and 1 in sacco study. In vitro studies consisted of 1 the use of urea or NaOH by wetting and incubation-method, 2 the use of different concentration of Na OH (0-4% by soaking method, 3 determination of substitution level of elephant grass by treated bark. In sacco study was conducted at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation to compare the degradation of treated bark to elephant grass. The results show that urea treatment did not improve DM or OM digestibilities of bark. Soaking bark in 4% NaOH solution was more effective than wetting and incubation-method in improving in vitro digestibility. (49.26% vs19.56% for soaking and dry-method, respectively. In sacco studyl shows that treated bark had a very high solubility at 0 hour incubation but the degradation at 72 hours incubation was not significantly different from that of 0 hour incubation. The gas produced at in vitro study of treated bark was very low indicated that there was no degradation of bark at all. The level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark up to 30% gave a non-significant digestibility value to that of 100% elephant grass. In conclusion, bark after tannin-extraction was a better feedstuff for animal feed. The soaking method in 4% NaOH solution improved the digestibility of bark significantly and the level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark was 30%.

  6. Hepatocurative potential of Vitex doniana root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts against CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Dorcas Bolanle; Kadejo Olubukola Adetoro; Sallau Abdullahi Balarabe; Owolabi Olumuyiwa Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatocurative effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves ofVitex doniana in carbon tetrachloride (CCl albino rats.Methods:4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (1 mL/kg body weight) as a 1:1(v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weight per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of 3 weeks.Results:There was significant (P<0.05) increase in concentration of all liver marker enzymes, A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline aminotransferase (ALT, AST and ALP) and significant (P<0.05) decrease in albumin in the CCl4 induced liver damage control when compared to the normal control. The extracts caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the serum activities of liver marker enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) and a significant (P<0.05) increase in albumin of all the induced treated groups. Only stem bark extract and vitamin E significantly (P<0.05) increased total protein. All the extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum creatinine whereas only root bark extract significantly (P<0.05) lowered serum level of urea in the rats with CCl4 induced liver damage.Conclusion:Hepatocurative study shows that all the plant parts (root bark, stem bark and leaves) possess significant hepatocurative properties among other therapeutic values justifying their use in folklore medicine.

  7. The usability of tree barks as long term biomonitors of atmospheric radionuclide deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belivermis, Murat, E-mail: belmurat@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilic, Onder, E-mail: okilic@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Cotuk, Yavuz, E-mail: cotukyav@istanbul.edu.t [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Topcuoglu, Sayhan, E-mail: sayhantopcuoglu@yahoo.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Kalayci, Guelsah, E-mail: gulsahkalayci@yahoo.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Pestreli, Didem, E-mail: didempestreli@hotmail.co [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    In view of the lower radionuclide activities of moss and lichen, tree barks can be used as biomonitors of radioactive contamination, regardless of the contribution of soil uptake. The present study was conducted to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in the barks of pine (Pinus nigra) and oak (Quercus petraea) trees collected from the Thrace region in Turkey. By considering the previous studies carried out in the same region, it is noticed that among lichen, moss, oak bark and pine bark, oak bark is the best accumulator of {sup 137}Cs and natural radionuclides.

  8. High environmental ozone levels lead to enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Beck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is compelling for a positive correlation between climate change, urbanisation and prevalence of allergic sensitisation and diseases. The reason for this association is not clear to date. Some data point to a pro-allergenic effect of anthropogenic factors on susceptible individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urbanisation and climate change on pollen allergenicity. METHODS: Catkins were sampled from birch trees from different sites across the greater area of Munich, pollen were isolated and an urbanisation index, NO2 and ozone exposure were determined. To estimate pollen allergenicity, allergen content and pollen-associated lipid mediators were measured in aqueous pollen extracts. Immune stimulatory and modulatory capacity of pollen was assessed by neutrophil migration assays and the potential of pollen to inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 response. In vivo allergenicity was assessed by skin prick tests. RESULTS: The study revealed ozone as a prominent environmental factor influencing the allergenicity of birch pollen. Enhanced allergenicity, as assessed in skin prick tests, was mirrored by enhanced allergen content. Beyond that, ozone induced changes in lipid composition and chemotactic and immune modulatory potential of the pollen. Higher ozone-exposed pollen was characterised by less immune modulatory but higher immune stimulatory potential. CONCLUSION: It is likely that future climate change along with increasing urbanisation will lead to rising ozone concentrations in the next decades. Our study indicates that ozone is a crucial factor leading to clinically relevant enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen. Thus, with increasing temperatures and increasing ozone levels, also symptoms of pollen allergic patients may increase further.

  9. Adaptive Responses of Birch-Leaved Pear (Pyrus betulaefolia Seedlings to Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sheng WU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One-year-old birch-leaved pear (Pyrus betulaefolia Bunge seedlings were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mmol/L NaCl solutions for 27 days in order to study the effects of salinity stress on photosynthesis, ion accumulation and enzymatic and non-enzymatic scavenging of reactive oxygen species in the seedlings. The research was performed in a greenhouse using potted trees. Salinity stress reduced photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency of leaves of the pear seedlings, but increased transpiration rates and leaf temperature. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical contents increased with increasing NaCl concentrations, a phenomena also observed for malondialdehyde, suggesting that leaves of the pear seedlings suffered from oxidative injury. Superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities quickly responded by increasing when the pear seedlings were subjected to salinity stress. Total protein content in leaves of the seedlings was restrained by salinity stress, whereas ascorbate content increased. Salinity stress reduced glutathione content once the birch-leaved pear seedlings were exposed to a low level (50 or 100 mmol/L of NaCl, whereas a high level (150 or 200 mmol/L NaCl of salinity stress stimulated the accumulation of glutathione. Salinity stress increased the accumulation of Na+, Cl-, K+ and Mg2+ in the seedlings, but reduced Ca2+ levels and the ratio of other ions to Na+ except K+/Na+ under 50 mmol/L NaCl conditions. This suggests that leaves of birch-leaved pear seedlings possess the capacity for salt exclusion only under 50 mmol/L NaCl conditions, and Ca2+ does not play a fundamental role as a secondary messenger under salinity stress conditions.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of birch wood xylan succinoylated in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Plackett, David

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of birch wood xylan was undertaken in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4mimCl) using three different long-chain succinic anhydrides: n-octenyl succinic anhydride (n-OSA), n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride (n-DDSA) and n-octadecenyl succinic anhydride...... analysis of the modified and native xylans showed a slight lowering of thermal stability with functionalization. Contact angle measurements on spin-coated surfaces of modified xylan films showed a significant increase in hydrophobicity with the introduction of the alkenyl-functionalized succinic anhydride...

  11. Lachancea quebecensis sp. nov., a yeast species consistently isolated from tree bark in the Canadian province of Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freel, Kelle C; Charron, Guillaume; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R; Schacherer, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    A thorough sampling of maple, oak, birch, and apple tree bark in North America yielded a set of isolates that represent a yeast species not yet formally described. The strains obtained were all isolated from the Canadian province of Québec. These four isolates have identical electrophoretic karyotypes, distinct from other species of the genus Lachancea, and are most closely related to the formally recognized species Lachancea thermotolerans according to the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA gene and 5.8S–ITS region. Previous studies revealed the existence of a population of strains closely related to L. thermotolerans, with unique D1/D2 sequences and the ability to grow on melibiose, which is also true for these isolates. The sequences obtained here (for the D1/D2, and 5.8S–ITS region) are identical among the four strains, and in a phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 region, the strains form a distinct clade with the previously described population closely related to L. thermotolerans, composed of isolates from Japan, as well as from the provinces of Ontario and Québec in Canada. On the basis of select physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, a novel ascosporogenous yeast species, Lachancea quebecensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain LL11_022T ( = CBS 14138T = CLIB 1763T = UCDFST 15-106T) was isolated from maple tree bark in the Station Duchesnay, QC region of Québec, Canada. The MycoBank number is MB811749. PMID:26297665

  12. Clerodane diterpenes from bark of Croton urucurana baillon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzolatti, Moacir G.; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J.; Brighente, Ines M.C.; Zuchinalli, Analice; Carvalho, Francieli K., E-mail: moacir.pizzolatti@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Qumica; Candido, Ana C. S.; Peres, Marize T.L.P. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Departamento de Hidraulica e Transportes

    2013-04-15

    The new clerodane diterpene methyl 3-oxo-12-epibarbascoate was isolated from the stem barks of Croton urucurana together with the known diterpene methyl 12-epibarbascoate. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. The obtainment of crystals allowed the crystallographic analysis of X-ray diffraction of diterpenes, thus confirming the proposed structures. (author)

  13. A new chromanone acid from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieu, Ly Ha; Hansen, Poul Erik; Duus, Fritz;

    2012-01-01

    A new chromanone acid, calodryobalanoic acid, along with six known compounds, apetalic acid, isoblancoic acid, lupeol, 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone, 1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone, and 5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavanone, was isolated from the bark of Calophyllum dryobalanoides collected in Vietnam. The s...

  14. Ellagitannins and complex tannins from Quercus petraea bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, M; Scholz, E; Hartmann, R; Lehmann, W; Rimpler, H

    1994-10-01

    The ellagitannins 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucose, pedunculagin, vescalagin, and castalagin; the flavanoellagitannins acutissimin A, acutissimin B, eugenigrandin A, guajavin B, and stenophyllanin C; and the procyanidinoellagitannin mongolicanin have been isolated from the bark of Quercus petraea. The ellagitannin fraction had a weak antisecretory effect. PMID:7807126

  15. New Diarylheptanoid from the Barks of Alnus japonica Steudel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new diarylheptanoid glycoside, 1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptane-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), together with nine known diarylheptanoids (2-10) were isolated from the fresh bark of Alnus japonica which is a species of the genus Alnus species, growing throughout Korea.

  16. Cytotoxic Coumarins from the Bark of Mammea siamensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Ngoc Trang Nhu; Nguyen, Vy Thuy; Vo, Hoa Van;

    2010-01-01

    A new geranylated coumarin, (E)-4-(1-hydroxypropyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-8-(3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)coumarin (named surangin D), was isolated from the bark of Mammea siamensis collected in Vietnam, along with four known coumarins, surangins B and C, and theraphins B and C, an...

  17. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  18. [Removing the bark from the cinnamon cane] 790

    OpenAIRE

    W L H Skeen and Co

    2003-01-01

    279 x 211 mm. Showing four men seated in a row on the ground in front of a bungalow, with piles of cinnamon beside them from which they are stripping the bark. Annotated '790' on bottom left hand corner of the photograph. Date approximate.

  19. A new diterpenoid from the stem bark of Populus davidiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Feng Zhang; Xiang Li; Byung Sun Min; Ki Hwan Bae

    2008-01-01

    A new diterpenoid, named populusol A (1), was isolated from the methanolic extraction of the stem bark of Populus davidiana. The structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR as well as HRFAB-MS spectroscopic analysis.

  20. Ellagitannins and complex tannins from Quercus petraea bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, M; Scholz, E; Hartmann, R; Lehmann, W; Rimpler, H

    1994-10-01

    The ellagitannins 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucose, pedunculagin, vescalagin, and castalagin; the flavanoellagitannins acutissimin A, acutissimin B, eugenigrandin A, guajavin B, and stenophyllanin C; and the procyanidinoellagitannin mongolicanin have been isolated from the bark of Quercus petraea. The ellagitannin fraction had a weak antisecretory effect.

  1. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  2. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. A

  3. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...

  4. The use of tree bark as long term biomonitor of (137)Cs deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Incze, Reka; Kovacs, Tibor; Žunić, Zora S

    2016-03-01

    Airborne (137)Cs originated from the nuclear tests in the atmosphere and from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster was retained by the trees biomass and nowadays it can still be found in various concentrations in tree barks from Romania and other European countries. This study brings the first results of (137)Cs presence in tree bark from Romania on different considerations: (i) data dispersion in spruce and oak bark from NW, SW and central Romania, and the spatial variability of (137)Cs within oak and spruce bark from a natural protected forest area from Balvanyos area (Covasna County), known to be highly affected by the Chernobyl nuclear release; (ii) comparison of (137)Cs content in different tree bark species (oak, spruce, poplar and cherry); (iii) differences in (137)Cs concentrations with the bark depth layers and around the tree trunk; and (iv) comparison of mean (137)Cs values in spruce/oak bark from Romania with data from other European countries. PMID:26771244

  5. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  6. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...

  7. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  8. Bark ecology of twigs vs. main stems: functional traits across eighty-five species of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Castorena, Matiss; Laws, Claire A; Westoby, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Although produced by meristems that are continuous along the stem length, marked differences in bark morphology and in microenvironment would suggest that main stem and twig bark might differ ecologically. Here, we examined: (1) how closely associated main stem and twig bark traits were, (2) how these associations varied across sites, and (3) used these associations to infer functional and ecological differences between twig and main stem bark. We measured density, water content, photosynthesis presence/absence, total, outer, inner, and relative thicknesses of main stem and twig bark from 85 species of angiosperms from six sites of contrasting precipitation, temperature, and fire regimes. Density and water content did not differ between main stems and twigs across species and sites. Species with thicker twig bark had disproportionately thicker main stem bark in most sites, but the slope and degree of association varied. Disproportionately thicker main stem bark for a given twig bark thickness in most fire-prone sites suggested stem protection near the ground. The savanna had the opposite trend, suggesting that selection also favors twig protection in these fire-prone habitats. A weak main stem-twig bark thickness association was observed in non fire-prone sites. The near-ubiquity of photosynthesis in twigs highlighted its likely ecological importance; variation in this activity was predicted by outer bark thickness in main stems. It seems that the ecology of twig bark can be generalized to main stem bark, but not for functions depending on the amount of bark, such as protection, storage, or photosynthesis.

  9. Modeling the 'Birch Effect' Using a Microbial Enzyme Based Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition and Gas Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, G.; Zhang, X.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Pavao-zuckerman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Soil respiration pulses in response to pulsed wetting ('Birch effect'; Birch 1958) have long been observed from laboratory and field experiments. The Birch effect produces more CO2 efflux and sustains greater microbial biomass than constantly moist soils. Various mechanisms causing the effect have been proposed. However, the exact mechanism underlying the Birch effect is not clear, and thus most models are not able to simulate this effect. We have recently developed a microbial enzyme based decomposition and gas transport model. The model integrates the most recent advances in the understanding of critical processes, including enzyme-catalyzed degradation of soil organic carbon (SOC) to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), acclimation of carbon use efficiency (CUE) for the uptake of DOC by microbes, and diffusive and convective transport of O2 and CO2 in the soil. The model has four kinds of carbon pools including SOC, DOC, microbial biomass (MIC), and extracellular enzyme (ENZ). However, the model coupled with a land surface model, which accurately simulates soil moisture and temperature, failed to simulate the Birch effect observed at a natural savannah ecosystem site in the southwest US monsoon region. We further divided the DOC and ENZ pools into two sub-pools, one for a wet zone and the other for a dry zone, respectively. We assume that in the dry zone, DOC can be produced through enzyme catalysis, although at a lower rate due to enzyme immobilization, and only in the wet zone can microbes take up DOC. Thus, the modeled DOC accumulates during dry periods and is quickly transitioned into DOC in the wet zone (proportional to saturation) in response to pulsed wetting during a storm, and becomes available for microbial use. In such a way, the model successfully simulates the Birch effect with the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency being ~ 0.75 (correlation coefficient ~ 0.88) at a half-hourly time step. We will also present the effect of gas transport on the Birch effect

  10. Genotypic variation in yellow autumn leaf colours explains aphid load in silver birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Aki; Somerkoski, Eeva; Paaso, Ulla; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Rousi, Matti; Mikola, Juha

    2012-07-01

    • It has been suggested that autumn-migrating insects drive the evolution of autumn leaf colours. However, evidence of genetic variation in autumn leaf colours in natural tree populations and the link between the genetic variation and herbivore abundances has been lacking. • Here, we measured the size of the whole aphid community and the development of green-yellow leaf colours in six replicate trees of 19 silver birch (Betula pendula) genotypes at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of autumn colouration. We also calculated the difference between green leaf and leaf litter nitrogen (N) and estimated the changes in phloem sap N loading. • Autumn leaf colouration had significant genetic variation. During the last survey, genotypes that expressed the strongest leaf reflectance 2-4 wk earlier had an abundance of egg-laying Euceraphis betulae females. Surprisingly, the aphid community size during the first surveys explained N loss by the litter of different birch genotypes. • Our results are the first evidence at the tree intrapopulation genotypic level that autumn-migrating pests have the potential to drive the evolution of autumn leaf colours. They also stress the importance of recognizing the role of late-season tree-insect interactions in the evolution of herbivory resistance. PMID:22548444

  11. Quantification of Model Uncertainty in Modeling Mechanisms of Soil Microbial Respiration Pulses to Simulate Birch Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshall, A. S.; Ye, M.; Niu, G. Y.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2014-12-01

    A Bayesian framework is developed to quantify predictive uncertainty in environmental modeling caused by uncertainty in modeling scenarios, model structures, model parameters, and data. An example of using the framework to quantify model uncertainty is presented to simulate soil microbial respiration pulses in response to episodic rainfall pulses (the "Birch effect"). A total of five models are developed; they evolve from an existing four-carbon (C) pool model to models with additional C pools and recently developed models with explicit representations of soil moisture controls on C degradation and microbial uptake rates. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods with generalized likelihood function (not Gaussian) are used to estimate posterior parameter distributions of the models, and the posterior parameter samples are used to evaluate probabilities of the models. The models with explicit representations of soil moisture controls outperform the other models. The models with additional C pools for accumulation of degraded C in the dry zone of the soil pore space result in a higher probability of reproducing the observed Birch pulses. A cross-validation is conducted to explore predictive performance of model averaging and of individual models. The Bayesian framework is mathematically general and can be applied to a wide range of environmental problems.

  12. Biochemical and growth acclimation of birch to night temperatures: genotypic similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, M; Ossipov, V; Kontunen-Soppela, S; Keinänen, M; Rousi, M; Oksanen, E

    2013-01-01

    The responses of plants to environmental factors are connected to the time of day. In this study, silver birch (Betula pendula) was grown in growth chambers at five different night temperatures (6-22 °C), using gradual changes during the evening and morning hours. Despite the increased night respiration and unaffected daytime net photosynthesis (per square metre), the carbon uptake (biomass) of birch did not decrease, probably due to enhanced biochemical processes on warmer nights and the advantage of higher temperatures during the evening and morning hours. The plant stem height, internode length, stem dry weight (DW), stem mass fraction and specific leaf area increased with warmer night temperatures. Changes in growth and metabolite concentrations were partly nonlinear along the temperature gradient. Thus, the temperature effect depends on the temperature window considered. Genotypes had both common and genotype-specific biochemical responses to night temperatures. The common responses among genotypes were related to growth responses, whereas the unique responses may indicate genotype-specific differences in acclimation. The differences in genotypic growth and metabolite levels are valuable for assessing genotype qualities and understanding the connections between the metabolome and growth.

  13. Elevated CO2 changes the moderate shade tolerance of yellow birch seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Song

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the existence of light thresholds in plant growth and to examine the effects of elevated CO2 on the shade tolerance of a tree species, an experiment consisting of a completely randomized design for a total of 96 yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) seedlings was conducted with 3 light levels (2.9%, 7.7%, 26.1% of full sunlight) × 2 CO2 levels (350 and 700±10 ppm) with 4 replications in a phytotron. The study proved that thresholds exist and they vary in different plant organs. In ambient CO2, the thresholds were 13.3%, 18.7%, 15.0%, 15.2%, and 15.6% of full sunlight for stem, leaf, root, total plant biomass, and the averaged value, respectively. In 700 ppm CO2, the corresponding thresholds were 16.7%, 21.3%, 18.1%, 21.7% and 19.5% for stem, leaf, root, total plant biomass, and the averaged value, respectively. The lowest threshold in the stem is an indicator of the minimal light intensity for regular growth for seedlings of this species. Below this threshold, light-stressful growth occurs. The result of a paired t-test indicated that the thresholds in elevated CO2 were significantly higher than in ambient CO2. This suggests that yellow birch will lose its moderate shade tolerance, evolutionally becoming a shade-intolerant species, and that it may become more difficult for it to naturally regenerate in the future.

  14. Fungal Assemblages in Different Habitats in an Erman’s Birch Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng; Sun, Huaibo; Shen, Congcong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of fungal diversity using deeply sequenced marker genes suggest that most fungal taxa are locally distributed. However, little is known about the extent of overlap and niche partitions in total fungal communities or functional guilds within distinct habitats on a local forest scale. Here, we compared fungal communities in endosphere (leaf interior), phyllosphere (leaf interior and associated surface area) and soil samples from an Erman’s birch forest in Changbai Mountain, China. Community structures were significantly differentiated in terms of habitat, with soil having the highest fungal richness and phylogenetic diversity. Endophytic and phyllosphere fungi of Betula ermanii were more phylogenetically clustered compared with the corresponding soil fungi, indicating the ability of that host plants to filter and select their fungal partners. Furthermore, the majority of soil fungal taxa were soil specialists, while the dominant endosphere and phyllosphere taxa were aboveground generalists, with soil and plant foliage only sharing birch forest were strictly niche specialized and constrained by weak migration among habitats. The findings suggest that phylogenetic relatedness and functional guilds’ assignment can effectively interpret the certain ecological processes. PMID:27625646

  15. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale. PMID:25687127

  16. CO2 and winter temperature effects on Norway spruce and downy birch : a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of increased winter temperatures and higher carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the growth of downy birch and Norway spruce, both important tree species in the northern forests of Fennoscandia. In the winter of 1992, three-year old seedlings from 3 different latitudinal populations were kept in greenhouses at winter ambient temperatures, and at winter temperatures raised by 4 degrees C. In the spring, the plants were moved to open chambers pre-set at 350 and 650 μmol/mol CO2. The following year, the experiment was repeated with one-year old seedlings. It was shown that at elevated CO2 levels, the shoot elongation rates and biomass was increased. There was a positive influence of winter temperature on shoot and biomass growth in the southern birch population from Norway but a negative effect on plants from Icelandic populations. High winters for spruce ecotypes appeared to reduce shoot growth for the following season. The reduced growth and premature loss was due to a temporary negative carbon balance in needles during unusually warm winters. 34 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale.

  18. Fire drives transcontinental variation in tree birch defense against browsing by snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, John P; Clausen, Thomas P; Swihart, Robert K; Landhäusser, Simon M; Stevens, Michael T; Hawkins, Christopher D B; Carrière, Suzanne; Kirilenko, Andrei P; Veitch, Alasdair M; Popko, Richard A; Cleland, David T; Williams, Joseph H; Jakubas, Walter J; Carlson, Michael R; Bodony, Karin Lehmkuhl; Cebrian, Merben; Paragi, Thomas F; Picone, Peter M; Moore, Jeffrey E; Packee, Edmond C; Malone, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Fire has been the dominant disturbance in boreal America since the Pleistocene, resulting in a spatial mosaic in which the most fire occurs in the continental northwest. Spatial variation in snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) density reflects the fire mosaic. Because fire initiates secondary forest succession, a fire mosaic creates variation in the abundance of early successional plants that snowshoe hares eat in winter, leading to geographic variation in hare density. We hypothesize that fire is the template for a geographic mosaic of natural selection: where fire is greatest and hares are most abundant, hare browsing has most strongly selected juvenile-phase woody plants for defense. We tested the hypothesis at multiple spatial scales using Alaska birch (Betula neoalaskana) and white birch (Betula papyrifera). We also examined five alternative hypotheses for geographic variation in antibrowsing defense. The fire-hare-defense hypothesis was supported at transcontinental, regional, and local scales; alternative hypotheses were rejected. Our results link transcontinental variation in species interactions to an abiotic environmental driver, fire. Intakes of defense toxins by Alaskan hares exceed those by Wisconsin hares, suggesting that the proposed selection mosaic may coincide with a geographic mosaic of coevolution. PMID:19422319

  19. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the biology, ecology and management of spruce and spruce beetle populations. This paper is a review of literature on spruce beetle focusing on work published since the late 1970s and is intended as an addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies.

  20. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  1. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversi......Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin...... and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open...... and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles...

  2. An investigation of the possible immunological relationship between allergen extracts from birch pollen, hazelnut, potato and apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Løwenstein, H

    1978-01-01

    In a retrospective study on selected group of patients, the coincidence of birch pollen allergy and a clinically relevant positive prick test reaction to apples and potatoes was confirmed. Immunochemical comparison using the crossed line immunoelectrophoresis technique (CLIE) confirmed partial id...

  3. Purification and characterization of natural Bet v 1 from birch pollen and related allergens from carrot and celery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, M.A.; Garcia, A.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Wichers, H.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Birch pollen allergy is predominantly caused by the major allergen Bet v 1 and can lead to crossreactions with homologous proteins in food. Two major cross-reactive food allergens are Dau c 1 from carrot and Api g 1 from celery, which have never been purified from their natural source. Here, we desc

  4. Academic Success for Students of Color . . . At What Cost? The Importance of School Context at Birch High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Terah T. Venzant; Tabron, Lolita A.

    2013-01-01

    Kiara, an African American rising freshman, has aspirations to become a medical doctor. She enrolls at Birch High School because of the reputation of the principal, Mr. Brown, whose vision for academic excellence permeates every corner of the school. Kiara graduates from high school with top honors, but realizes her success may have come at a…

  5. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  6. Woody Biomass and Carbon Stocks of Natural vs. Restored Mountain Birch (Betula pubescens, Ehrh.) Woodlands in South Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Matthias; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Halldorsson, Gudmundur; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2010-05-01

    Following a period of land degradation lasting more than one thousand years, Iceland has been undertaken ambitious restoration and afforestation efforts for one century now. Afforestation has also been a central venture of the Icelandic government in order to meet the commitments assigned by the Kyoto Protocol because vegetation represents an important carbon sink. Yet, currently little is known on how much carbon is sequestrated effectively in afforested Icelandic woody ecosystems. In order to fill this knowledge gap the 'KolBjörk' (CarbBirch), a three year (2008-2011) Icelandic ecosystem research project, was launched. In this project the development of key ecosystem factors are studied in a chronosequence study of restored birch woodlands, ranging from 0-60 years in age. These factors are: a) forest growth, b) plant communities, c) soil biota, d) soil chemistry and physics and e) carbon stocks and fluxes. Restored woodlands are compared with: a) eroded land, representing the status of the area before restoration and b) original birch woodlands. The aim of present study which is part of 'KolBjörk' was to estimate the above-and belowground woody biomass and carbon stocks of old native birch (Betula pubescens) vs. restored birch woodlands in South Iceland. In summer 2009 31 trees (0.1-5.5m height) were measured and excavated and tree inventories (n=519) were established. The excavated trees formed the dataset to establish allometric biomass functions for young, afforested Icelandic mountain birch. The functions were statistically fitted using numerical nonlinear regression using Matlab. Subsequently, forest biomass and carbon stock of the four different old sites were estimated by the newly developed allometric relationships. The age of the four sites is 10, 15, 60 and 80 years, respectively, while the 80-yr old stand represents a natural grown forest, the others are replanted. The total C-stock in the 10-yr old birch stand was 2.0 Mg/ha, in the 15-yr old 11.0 Mg

  7. Phenolic compounds and expression of 4CL genes in silver birch clones and Pt4CL1a lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutela, Suvi; Hahl, Terhi; Tiimonen, Heidi; Aronen, Tuija; Ylioja, Tiina; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Chiang, Vincent; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Häggman, Hely

    2014-01-01

    A small multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs) catalyzing the CoA ligation of hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point step directing metabolites to a flavonoid or monolignol pathway. In the present study, we examined the effect of antisense Populus tremuloides 4CL (Pt4CL1) to the lignin and soluble phenolic compound composition of silver birch (Betula pendula) Pt4CL1a lines in comparison with non-transgenic silver birch clones. The endogenous expression of silver birch 4CL genes was recorded in the stems and leaves and also in leaves that were mechanically injured. In one of the transgenic Pt4CL1a lines, the ratio of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) lignin units was increased. Moreover, the transcript levels of putative silver birch 4CL gene (Bp4CL1) were reduced and contents of cinnamic acid derivatives altered. In the other two Pt4CL1a lines changes were detected in the level of individual phenolic compounds. However, considerable variation was found in the transcript levels of silver birch 4CLs as well as in the concentration of phenolic compounds among the transgenic lines and non-transgenic clones. Wounding induced the expression of Bp4CL1 and Bp4CL2 in leaves in all clones and transgenic lines, whereas the transcript levels of Bp4CL3 and Bp4CL4 remained unchanged. Moreover, minor changes were detected in the concentrations of phenolic compounds caused by wounding. As an overall trend the wounding decreased the flavonoid content in silver birches and increased the content of soluble condensed tannins. The results indicate that by reducing the Bp4CL1 transcript levels lignin composition could be modified. However, the alterations found among the Pt4CL1a lines and the non-transgenic clones were within the natural variation of silver birches, as shown in the present study by the clonal differences in the transcripts levels of 4CL genes, soluble phenolic compounds and condensed tannins.

  8. Phenolic compounds and expression of 4CL genes in silver birch clones and Pt4CL1a lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Sutela

    Full Text Available A small multigene family encodes 4-coumarate:CoA ligases (4CLs catalyzing the CoA ligation of hydroxycinnamic acids, a branch point step directing metabolites to a flavonoid or monolignol pathway. In the present study, we examined the effect of antisense Populus tremuloides 4CL (Pt4CL1 to the lignin and soluble phenolic compound composition of silver birch (Betula pendula Pt4CL1a lines in comparison with non-transgenic silver birch clones. The endogenous expression of silver birch 4CL genes was recorded in the stems and leaves and also in leaves that were mechanically injured. In one of the transgenic Pt4CL1a lines, the ratio of syringyl (S and guaiacyl (G lignin units was increased. Moreover, the transcript levels of putative silver birch 4CL gene (Bp4CL1 were reduced and contents of cinnamic acid derivatives altered. In the other two Pt4CL1a lines changes were detected in the level of individual phenolic compounds. However, considerable variation was found in the transcript levels of silver birch 4CLs as well as in the concentration of phenolic compounds among the transgenic lines and non-transgenic clones. Wounding induced the expression of Bp4CL1 and Bp4CL2 in leaves in all clones and transgenic lines, whereas the transcript levels of Bp4CL3 and Bp4CL4 remained unchanged. Moreover, minor changes were detected in the concentrations of phenolic compounds caused by wounding. As an overall trend the wounding decreased the flavonoid content in silver birches and increased the content of soluble condensed tannins. The results indicate that by reducing the Bp4CL1 transcript levels lignin composition could be modified. However, the alterations found among the Pt4CL1a lines and the non-transgenic clones were within the natural variation of silver birches, as shown in the present study by the clonal differences in the transcripts levels of 4CL genes, soluble phenolic compounds and condensed tannins.

  9. Understanding Boswellia papyrifera tree secondary metabolites through bark spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Atkilt; Skidmore, Andrew K.; de Bie, C. A. J. M.; Bongers, Frans

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers are concerned whether to tap or rest Boswellia Papyrifera trees. Tapping for the production of frankincense is known to deplete carbon reserves from the tree leading to production of less viable seeds, tree carbon starvation and ultimately tree mortality. Decision makers use traditional experience without considering the amount of metabolites stored or depleted from the stem-bark of the tree. This research was designed to come up with a non-destructive B. papyrifera tree metabolite estimation technique relevant for management using spectroscopy. The concentration of biochemicals (metabolites) found in the tree bark was estimated through spectral analysis. Initially, a random sample of 33 trees was selected, the spectra of bark measured with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) spectrometer. Bark samples were air dried and ground. Then, 10 g of sample was soaked in Petroleum ether to extract crude metabolites. Further chemical analysis was conducted to quantify and isolate pure metabolite compounds such as incensole acetate and boswellic acid. The crude metabolites, which relate to frankincense produce, were compared to plant properties (such as diameter and crown area) and reflectance spectra of the bark. Moreover, the extract was compared to the ASD spectra using partial least square regression technique (PLSR) and continuum removed spectral analysis. The continuum removed spectral analysis were performed, on two wavelength regions (1275-1663 and 1836-2217) identified through PLSR, using absorption features such as band depth, area, position, asymmetry and the width to characterize and find relationship with the bark extracts. The results show that tree properties such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and the crown area of untapped and healthy trees were strongly correlated to the amount of stored crude metabolites. In addition, the PLSR technique applied to the first derivative transformation of the reflectance spectrum was found to estimate the

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandan, S; Srinivasan, K; Chandra, S; Tandan, S K; Lal, J; Raviprakash, V

    2001-05-01

    The ethanolic extract of the bark of Syzygium cumini was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. The extract did not show any sign of toxicity up to a dose of 10.125 g/kg, p.o. in mice. Significant anti-inflammatory activity was observed in carrageenin (acute), kaolin-carrageenin (subacute), formaldehyde (subacute)-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma (chronic) tests in rats. The extract did not induce any gastric lesion in both acute and chronic ulcerogenic tests in rats. Thus, the present study demonstrated that S. cumini bark extract has a potent anti-inflammatory action against different phases of inflammation without any side effect on gastric mucosa. PMID:11395258

  11. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  12. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  13. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  14. Singular Fibers in Barking Families of Degenerations of Elliptic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Okuda, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Takamura established a theory on splitting families of degenerations of complex curves. He introduced a powerful method for constructing a splitting family, called a barking family, in which there appear not only a singular fiber over the origin but also singular fibers over other points, called subordinate fibers. In this paper, for the case of degenerations of elliptic curves, we determine the types of these subordinate fibers.

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Maria

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae furnished two new phytoconstituents identified as n-heptacosanyl n-octadec-9,12,15 trieneoate (moringyl linoleneate and n- docas- 4-en-11-one-1-yl n-decanoate (oleiferyl capriate along with the known compounds β-sitosterol, epilupeol, glyceropalmityl phosphate and glycerol-oleiostearyl phosphate. The structures of all the phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions.

  16. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    OpenAIRE

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reac...

  17. New sucrose derivatives from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tommasi, N; Piacente, S; De Simone, F; Pizza, C

    1993-01-01

    Two new bitter principles were isolated from the bark of Securidaca longipedunculata (Polygalaceae) and identified as beta-D-(3,4-disinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)g lucopyranoside and beta-D-(3-sinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-alpha-D-(6-sinapoyl)gluco pyranoside. The structures were elucidated by a combination of 1H nmr (1D, 2D COSY, 2D HOHAHA), 13C-nmr, and fabms spectra. PMID:8450315

  18. Three new compounds from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Hua, Ying; Bao, Yong-Li; Wu, Yin; Sun, Lu-Guo; Yu, Chun-Lei; Huang, Yan-Xin; Wang, En-Bo; Jiang, Hong-Yu; Li, Yu-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Three new compounds, 3,6-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxy-1,8-naphalic anhydride (1), 3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-1,8-naphalic anhydride (2), and methyl (7E,9E)-6,11-dioxononadeca-7,9-dienoate (3), were isolated from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-TOF-MS, and by comparison with the literature data.

  19. Acoustic cues to identity and predator context in meerkat barks

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Simon; Charlton, Benjamin; Manser, Marta B.

    2014-01-01

    Formants, the resonance frequencies of the vocal tract, are the key acoustic parameters underlying vowel identity in human speech. However, recent work on nonhuman animal communication systems has shown that formant variation provides potentially important information to receivers about static and dynamic attributes of callers. Meerkats, Suricata suricatta, produce broadband noisy bark vocalisations, lacking a clear fundamental frequency and harmonic structure, when they detect aerial or terr...

  20. A New Phenolic Glycoside from the Barks of Cinnamomum cassia

    OpenAIRE

    Junfen Zeng; Yongbo Xue; Yongji Lai; Guangmin Yao; Zengwei Luo; Yonghui Zhang; Jinwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside (1), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D–glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical method. Selected compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 8 exhibited differential inhi...

  1. Bioactive constituents of the bark of Parkia biglobosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, C; Spatafora, C; Longo, O D

    2000-04-01

    In the frame of a systematic analysis of African plants used for the 'cure salée', from the bark of Parkia biglobosa, a long-chain ester of trans-ferulic acid (1) has been isolated together with an unseparable mixture of long-chain cis-ferulates (2a-e). In addition, lupeol, 4-O-methyl-epi-gallocatechin, epi-gallocatechin, epi-catechin 3-O-gallate, and epi-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate were isolated.

  2. HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAMSHUN NEHAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and urine parameters as compared to rats fed with250 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract. The effect of feeding 500 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract was found to bealmost equal to that of with glimepiride fed diabetic rats. The result indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark acetoneextract of have antidiabetogenic and possess hypoglycemic effects in type-2 diabetic rats.

  3. Is the Growth of Birch at the UPPER Timberline in the Himalayas Limited By Moisture or By Temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, E.; Dawadi, B.; Pederson, N.; Eckstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    Birch (Betula) trees and forests are found across much of the temperate and boreal zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Yet, despite being an ecologically-significant genus, it is much less-well studied compared to common genera like Pinus, Picea, Juniperus, Quercus, and Fagus. In the Himalayas, Himalayan birch (Betula utilis) is a widespread, important broadleaf timberline species that survives in mountain rain shadows via access to water from snowmelt. Because precipitation in the Nepalese Himalayas decreases with increasing elevation, we hypothesized that the growth of birch at the upper timberlines between 3,900 and 4,150 m a.s.l. is primarily limited by moisture availability rather than by low temperature. To verify this assumption, a total of 292 increment cores were extracted from 211 birch trees at nine timberline sites. The synchronous occurrence of narrow rings and high inter-series correlations within and among sites evidenced a reliable cross-dating and a common climatic signal in the tree-ring widths variations. From March-May, all nine tree-ring width site chronologies showed a strongly positive response to total precipitation and a less strongly negative response to temperature. During the instrumental meteorological record (after 1960), years with a high percentage of missing rings coincided with pre-monsoon drought events. Periods of below-average growth are in phase with well-known drought events all over monsoon Asia, showing additional evidence that Himalayan birch growth at the upper timberlines is persistently limited by moisture availability. Our study describes the rare case of a drought-induced altitudinal timberline that is composed by a broadleaf tree species.

  4. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Zakavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC methods. Tetracycline 30 μg and Erythromycin 15 μg were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P<0.0001, but it did not show effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes.

  5. Molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum bark and Canna indica root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Tripathi

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal activity of Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae and Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of P. granatum bark and C. indica root was found to be both time and dose dependent. The toxicity of P. granatum bark was more pronounced than that of C. indica. The 24 h LC50 of the column-purified root of C. indica was 6.54 mg/l whereas that of the column-purified bark of P. granatum was 4.39 mg/l. The ethanol extract of P. granatum (24 h LC50: 22.42 mg/l was more effective than the ethanol extract of C. indica (24 h LC50: 55.65 mg/l in killing the test animals. P. granatum and C. indica may be used as potent molluscicides since the concentrations used to kill the snails were not toxic for the fish Colisa fasciatus, which shares the same habitat with the snail L. acuminata.

  6. Phenolic Extracts from Acacia mangium Bark and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 °C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  7. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDIZATION AND HPTLC FINGERPRINT OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS LINN. BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Patil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global interest in herbal and other forms of traditional medicines. Herbs have long been an important source of numerous effective drugs. As per World Health Organization recommendations, there is a need for investigation of traditional medicinal plants for their potential therapeutic efficacy. The bark of Alstonia scholaris (L. R. Br. (Family: Apocynaceae locally known as ‘Sapthaparni’ or ‘Satwid’, is reported to have anticancer, antihelminthic, antidiarrhoeal, antiasthamatic, antimalarial etc. The present work embodies the study carried out for quality control of herbal drugs which comprises of macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical properties, phytochemical analysis, fluorescence analysis and HPTLC fingerprint. The anatomical markers present were found to be stone cells, sclereids, cork cells, fibers and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Methanol soluble extractive value was found to be higher than Water, Ethanol and Petroleum ether soluble extractive values. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, amino acids, fats, fixed oil, glycosides, proteins, starch and flavonoids. A unique HPTLC fingerprint for A. scholaris (L. R. Br. bark was developed. Results of the present study on pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigation of A. scholaris (L. R. Br. bark will be helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification of this plant.

  8. Antibacterial Effect of Juglans Regia Bark against Oral Pathologic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad; Daraeighadikolaei, Arsham; Leilavi Shooshtari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study antimicrobial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Juglans regia bark in Iran was evaluated on four different oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Juglans regia bark were prepared by using disk diffusion technique and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. Tetracycline 30  μ g and Erythromycin 15  μ g were used as positive control and water as negative control in disk diffusion and MIC methods. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. Results. The results showed that S. sanguis and S. mutans were the most sensitive and the most resistant bacteria against ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. Ethanolic extract had significant antibacterial effect against all tested bacteria. Aqueous extract did not show antibacterial effect on S. mutans, in contrast to ethanolic extract. Aqueous extract had significantly antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus, S. salivarius, and S. sanguis compared to control (P effect on S. mutans when compared with Erythromycin. According to the obtained MIC values, ethanol extract of Juglans regia bark had the lowest rate. Conclusion. The results may provide the basis for using natural antimicrobial substance for oral hygiene prophylaxis purposes. PMID:23878540

  9. Soil Chemical and Microbial Properties in a Mixed Stand of Spruce and Birch in the Ore Mountains (Germany—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Schua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A major argument for incorporating deciduous tree species in coniferous forest stands is their role in the amelioration and stabilisation of biogeochemical cycles. Current forest management strategies in central Europe aim to increase the area of mixed stands. In order to formulate statements about the ecological effects of mixtures, studies at the stand level are necessary. In a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in the Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany, the effects of these two tree species on chemical and microbial parameters in the topsoil were studied at one site in the form of a case study. Samples were taken from the O layer and A horizon in areas of the stand influenced by either birch, spruce or a mixture of birch and spruce. The microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, pH-value and the C and N contents and stocks were analysed in the horizons Of, Oh and A. Significantly higher contents of microbial N were observed in the Of and Oh horizons in the birch and in the spruce-birch strata than in the stratum containing only spruce. The same was found with respect to pH-values in the Of horizon and basal respiration in the Oh horizon. Compared to the spruce stratum, in the birch and spruce-birch strata, significantly lower values were found for the contents of organic C and total N in the A horizon. The findings of the case study indicated that single birch trees have significant effects on the chemical and microbial topsoil properties in spruce-dominated stands. Therefore, the admixture of birch in spruce stands may distinctly affect nutrient cycling and may also be relevant for soil carbon sequestration. Further studies of these functional aspects are recommended.

  10. Antioxidant Tannins from Stem Bark and Fine Root of Casuarina equisetifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Guang-Hui Lin; Shu-Dong Wei; Hai-Chao Zhou; Yi-Ming Lin; Shang-Ju Zhang; Gong-Fu Ye

    2010-01-01

    Structures of condensed tannins from the stem bark and fine root of Casuarina equisetifolia were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and HPLC analyses. The condensed tannins from stem bark and fine root consist predominantly of procyanidin combined with prodelphinidin and propelargonidin, and epicatechin is the main extension unit. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to tridecamer for stem bark and to pentadecamer for fine root. The antioxidant activities...

  11. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Jae Ho; Park, Gwang Hun; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was...

  12. The Relation between Hepatotoxicity and the Total Coumarin Intake from Traditional Japanese Medicines Containing Cinnamon Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Naohiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Sugawara, Naoko; Uchida, Aiko; Ozono, Sahoko; Yamamuro, Yuki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Ueda, Koso; Tahara, Eiichi; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon bark is commonly used in traditional Japanese herbal medicines (Kampo medicines). The coumarin contained in cinnamon is known to be hepatotoxic, and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.1 mg/kg/day, has been quantified and used in Europe to insure safety. Risk assessments for hepatotoxicity by the cinnamon contained in foods have been reported. However, no such assessment of cinnamon bark has been reported and the coumarin content of Kampo medicines derived from cinnamon bark is not y...

  13. Isolation and amplification of genomic DNA from barks of Cinnamomum spp.

    OpenAIRE

    SWETHA, Valya Parambil; PARVATHY, Viswanath Alambath; SHEEJA, Thotten Elampillay; Bhaskaran SASIKUMAR

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum Presl (syn. C. zeylanicum Blume), the cinnamon of commerce, is an important aromatic tree spice having wide applications in perfumery, flavoring, beverages, and medicine. Adulteration of cinnamon with the cheaper and inferior barks of C. aromaticum and C. malabatrum is a problem. Morphological distinction of the barks is difficult; in the case of powdered barks, the situation is even worse. DNA-based molecular tools are preferred under these circumstances. Isolation of high q...

  14. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

  15. Quantification of C uptake in subarctic birch forest after setback by an extreme insect outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heliasz, Michal; Johansson, Torbjörn; Lindroth, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    ) forests in northern Scandinavia cyclically every 9–10 years and occasionally (50–150 years) extreme population densities can threaten ecosystem stability. Here we report impacts on C balance following a 2004 outbreak where a widespread area of Lake Torneträsk catchment was severely defoliated. We show......The carbon dynamics of northern natural ecosystems contribute significantly to the global carbon balance. Periodic disturbances to these dynamics include insect herbivory. Larvae of autumn and winter moths (Epirrita autumnata and Operophtera brumata) defoliate mountain birch (Betula pubescens...... that in the growing season of 2004 the forest was a much smaller net sink of C than in a reference year, most likely due to lower gross photosynthesis. Ecosystem respiration in 2004 was smaller and less sensitive to air temperature at nighttime relative to 2006. The difference in growing season uptake...

  16. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.;

    2012-01-01

    was combined with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and films were cast with and without glycerol, sorbitol or methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) as plasticizers. Microscopy revealed some NFC agglomeration in the composite films as well as a layered nanocellulose structure. Equilibrium moisture content......Xylans, an important sub-class of hemicelluloses, represent a largely untapped resource for new renewable materials derived from biomass. As with other carbohydrates, nanocellulose reinforcement of xylans is interesting as a route to new bio-materials. With this in mind, birch wood xylan...... with increased NFC content in the xylan:NFC composition range from 50:50 to 80:20 and plasticizer addition generally provided less brittle films. The oxygen permeability of unplasticized xylan-NFC films fell into a range which was similar to that for previously measured pure NFC films and was statistically...

  17. 桦木板材的快速干燥%Rapid Drying of Birch Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增超; 邱增处; 杨庆; 雷亚芳

    2001-01-01

    采用阶段连续升温干燥基准,增加热湿处理工艺,用炉气间接加热木材干燥窑对不同厚度桦木锯材进行快速窑干工艺试验,实践证明不但干燥周期缩短30%,且提高了干燥质量,易于操作。%Rapid kiln-drying experiment on birch lumber of kiln in whichphased continuous heating drying schedule and the conditioning technology are adopted.It has been proved in practice that such kiln-drying technology can not only shorten the drying period by 30% but also improve drying quality as well as be operated easily.

  18. Soil Properties Control Glyphosate Sorption in Soils Amended with Birch Wood Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos;

    2016-01-01

    to soils. Yet, at the Kalundborg soils, the application of biochar enhanced the sorption of glyphosate when tested after 7–19 months of soil–biochar interaction. The relative enhancement effect on glyphosate sorption diminished with increasing biochar application rate, presumably due to increased mineral......Abstract Despite a contemporary interest in biochar application to agricultural fields to improve soil quality and long-term carbon sequestration, a number of potential side effects of biochar incorporation in field soils remain poorly understood, e.g., in relation to interactions...... with agrochemicals such as pesticides. In a fieldbased study at two experimental sites in Denmark (sandy loam soils at Risoe and Kalundborg), we investigated the influence of birch wood biochar with respect to application rate, aging (7–19 months), and physico- chemical soil properties on the sorption coefficient...

  19. Breeding increases the efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum in the sprout control of birch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hamberg

    Full Text Available We tested whether the pairing of selected isolates could be used to increase the efficiency of a decay fungus Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr. Pouzar to control hardwood sprouting in Finland. We paired C. purpureum strains efficient in sprout control or highly active in laccase production, and tested the efficacy of their progeny in spout control experiments. This procedure resulted in a strain with an efficacy superior to that of the parental strains. The mortality of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh. 1 cm in stump diameter was 78%, 56% and 9% for the best progeny, the best parental strain and the control, respectively. Mortality was only slightly higher for B. pendula than for B. pubescens but no significant differences were found between the number or maximum height of stump sprouts. Our results showed that cross breeding of this decay fungus is a good alternative in attempts to produce efficient biocontrol agents against hardwood sprouting.

  20. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction. PMID:19253612

  1. Chemical and physical characterization of emissions from birch wood combustion in a wood stove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Emma; Kristensson, Adam; Ohlsson, Michael; Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke; Swietlicki, Erik; Vesely, Vaclav; Wideqvist, Ulla; Westerholm, Roger

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the emissions of a large number of chemical compounds emitted from birch wood combustion in a wood stove. Birch wood is widely used as fuel in Swedish household appliances. The fuel load was held constant during six experiments. Particles dust, range 30-330 for the former and 0.8±0.15 for the latter. The source profile of common elements emitted from wood burning differed from that found on particles at a street-level site or in long-distance transported particles. The ratio toluene/benzene in this study was found to be in the range 0.2-0.7, which is much lower than the ratio 3.6±0.5 in traffic exhaust emissions. Formaldehyde and acetone were the most abundant compounds among the volatile ketones and aldehydes. The emission factor varied between 180-710 mg/kg wood for formaldehyde and 5-1300 mg/kg wood for acetone. Of the organic acids analyzed (3,4,5)-trimethoxy benzoic acid was the most abundant compound. Of the PAHs reported, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contribute to more than 70% of the mass of PAH. Of the elements analyzed, K and Si were the most abundant elements, having emission factors of 27 and 9 mg/kg wood, respectively. Although fluoranthene has a toxic equivalence factor of 5% of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), it can be seen that the toxic potency of fluoranthene in wood burning emissions is of the same size as B(a)P. This indicates that the relative carcinogenic potency contribution of fluoranthene in wood smoke would be about 40% of B(a)P.

  2. Volatile organic compounds emitted from silver birch of different provenances across a latitudinal gradient in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2015-09-01

    Climate warming is having an impact on distribution, acclimation and defence capability of plants. We compared the emission rate and composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from silver birch (Betula pendula (Roth)) provenances along a latitudinal gradient in a common garden experiment over the years 2012 and 2013. Micropropagated silver birch saplings from three provenances were acquired along a gradient of 7° latitude and planted at central (Joensuu 62°N) and northern (Kolari 67°N) sites. We collected VOCs emitted by shoots and assessed levels of herbivore damage of three genotypes of each provenance on three occasions at the central site and four occasions at the northern site. In 2012, trees of all provenances growing at the central site had higher total VOC emission rates than the same provenances growing at the northern site; in 2013 the reverse was true, thus indicating a variable effect of latitude. Trees of the southern provenance had lower VOC emission rates than trees of the central and northern provenances during both sampling years. However, northward or southward translocation itself had no significant effect on the total VOC emission rates, and no clear effect on insect herbivore damage. When VOC blend composition was studied, trees of all provenances usually emitted more green leaf volatiles at the northern site and more sesquiterpenes at the central site. The monoterpene composition of emissions from trees of the central provenance was distinct from that of the other provenances. In summary, provenance translocation did not have a clear effect in the short-term on VOC emissions and herbivory was not usually intense at the lower latitude. Our data did not support the hypothesis that trees growing at lower latitudes would experience more intense herbivory, and therefore allocate resources to chemical defence in the form of inducible VOC emissions. PMID:26093370

  3. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow ( Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale.

  4. Content of certain mineral components in the thallus of lichens and the bark of roadside trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Kuziel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The total N, P, Mg, Ca, K and Na contents were investigated in the thalli of several lichen species occurring on various trees, and in the bark and bark extracts from these trees. pH of the bark extracts was also determined. Wide differences were found in the content of the elements in point in the thalli of various lichen species on Acer platanoides and on the thalli of the same species on other trees. No relation was detected between the chemical composition of the bark and that of the lichen thalli occurring on it.

  5. Biologically inspired optics: analog semiconductor model of the beetle exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Kaia; Roth, Zachary; Srinivasan, Pradeep; Rumpf, Raymond; Johnson, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Evolution in nature has produced through adaptation a wide variety of distinctive optical structures in many life forms. For example, pigment differs greatly from the observed color of most beetles because their exoskeletons contain multilayer coatings. The green beetle is disguised in a surrounding leaf by having a comparable reflection spectrum as the leaves. The Manuka and June beetle have a concave structure where light incident at any angle on the concave structures produce matching reflection spectra. In this work, semiconductor processing methods were used to duplicate the structure of the beetle exoskeleton. This was achieved by combining analog lithography with a multilayer deposition process. The artificial exoskeleton, 3D concave multilayer structure, demonstrates a wide field of view with a unique spectral response. Studying and replicating these biologically inspired nanostructures may lead to new knowledge for fabrication and design of new and novel nano-photonic devices, as well as provide valuable insight to how such phenomenon is exploited.

  6. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  7. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  8. The gut microbiota of the pine weevil is similar across Europe and resembles that of other conifer-feeding beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Axelsson, Karolin; Nordlander, Göran; Schmidt, Axel; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Terenius, Olle; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of conifer seedlings in Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the composition of its gut microbial community and the role it plays in mediating the weevil's ability to utilize conifers as a food source. Here, we characterized the gut bacterial communities of different populations of H. abietis across Europe and compared them to those of other beetles that occupy similar ecological niches. We demonstrate that the microbial community of H. abietis is similar at higher taxonomic levels (family and genus) across locations in Europe, with Wolbachia as the dominant microbe, followed by Enterobacteria and Firmicutes. Despite this similarity, we observed consistent differences between countries and locations, but not sexes. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that the gut bacterial community of the pine weevil is very similar to that of bark beetles that also exploit conifers as a food source. The Enterobacteriaceae symbionts of both host taxa are especially closely related phylogenetically. Conversely, the microbiota of H. abietis is distinct from that of closely related weevils feeding on nonconifer food sources, suggesting that the microbial community of the pine weevil is determined by the environment and may be relevant to host ecology. Furthermore, several H. abietis-associated members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are known to contain genes involved in terpenoid degradation. As such, we hypothesize that the gut microbial community is important for the utilization of conifer seedlings as a food source, either through the detoxification of plant secondary metabolites or through the supplementation of essential nutrients. PMID:27199034

  9. Juvenile Hormone Regulates Extreme Mandible Growth in Male Stag Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J.; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with o...

  10. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  11. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  12. BIOSORPTION OF LEAD (II ON MODIFIED BARKS EXPLAINED BY THE HARD AND SOFT ACIDS AND BASES (HSAB THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Astier,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of Douglas fir bark and its subsequent utilization in adsorption of Pb(II from aqueous solutions was investigated. The polysaccharidic moiety of barks was functionalized by periodate oxidation and derivatized after reductive amination in the presence of aminated oligo-carrageenans. Pb(II adsorption isotherms of derivatized barks were then determined and compared to the capabilities of crude barks using the Langmuir adsorption model in terms of affinity (b and maximum binding capacity (qmax. Compared to crude barks, the derivatization of barks by oligo-carrageenans resulted in significant enhancements of qmax and b by up to x8 and x4, respectively. The results obtained from crude barks on chemically grafted carboxylic and sulfated barks are discussed and interpreted through the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB theory.

  13. Cyclically outbreaking geometrid moths in sub-arctic mountain birch forest: the organization and impacts of their interactions with animal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo

    2015-01-01

    In sub-arctic mountain birch forest in northern Fennoscandia, the 2 geometrid moth species Epirrita autumnata (autumnal moth) and Operophtera brumata (winter moth) show high-amplitude population cycles with regular 10-year periodicity. During some population peaks, moth populations attain outbreak densities and cause region-wide defoliation and mortality of mountain birch. The severity and duration of moth outbreaks presently appears to be increasing, owing to climate-driven range-expansions ...

  14. Short term effects of clear cutting on the regeneration of sub-arctic birch forest following severe outbreaks by geometrid moths

    OpenAIRE

    Klinghardt, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Birch forests in northern Fennoscandia experience re-occurring mass outbreaks of pest insects often resulting in severe defoliation. Here I test whether systematic clear cutting can accelerate the forest regeneration after outbreaks with uncut control plots as comparison. Basal shoot abundance was used as a main indicator for recovery but comprehensive data sampling also included the abundance of birch saplings, herbivore presence and understorey vegetation. Treatment responses of basal shoot...

  15. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin;

    2012-01-01

    trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  16. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood. PMID:14610654

  17. 2004 American Burying Beetle Annual Report - Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey efforts for the endangered American Burying Beetle at Pond Creek NWR in 2004 are reported from 14 sampling locations on the refuge. American buring beetle...

  18. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood.

  19. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand Dah-Nouvlessounon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida’s bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5±0.7 mm (C. albicans to 9.5±0.7 mm (P. vulgaris. The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida’s bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine.

  20. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason Earles, J; Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R; North, Malcolm P; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-02-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water entered the xylem via bark and reduced tracheid embolization. Moreover, prolonged bark wetting (16 h) partially restored xylem hydraulic conductivity in isolated branch segments and whole branches. Partial hydraulic recovery coincided with an increase in branch water potential from about -5.5 ± 0.4 to -4.2 ± 0.3 MPa, suggesting localized recovery and possibly hydraulic isolation. As bark water uptake rate correlated with xylem osmotic potential (R(2)  = 0.88), we suspect a symplastic role in transferring water from bark to xylem. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we estimated that bark and leaves are wet more than 1000 h per year on average, with over 30 events being sufficiently long (>24 h) to allow for bark-assisted hydraulic recovery. The capacity to uptake biologically meaningful volumes of water via bark and leaves for localized hydraulic recovery throughout the crown during rain/fog events might be physiologically advantageous, allowing for relatively constant transpiration.

  1. Elemental analyses of pine bark and wood in an environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Rajander, J. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Process Chemistry Group, AAbo Akademi University, Biskopsg. 8, FIN-20500 AAbo (Finland); Lill, J.-O.; Heselius, S.-J. [Turku PET Centre, Accelerator Laboratory, AAbo Akademi University, Porthansg. 3, FIN-20500 AAbo (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Department of Geology and Mineralogy, AAbo Akademi University, Domkyrkotorget 1, FIN-20500 AAbo (Finland); Mattsson, K. [Department of Biology, AAbo Akademi University, BioCity, Artillerig. 6, FIN-20500 AAbo (Finland)

    2005-05-01

    Bark and wood samples were taken from the same individuals of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from a polluted area close to a Cu-Ni smelter in Harjavalta and from some relatively unpolluted areas in western Finland. The samples were analysed by thick-target particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) after preconcentration by dry ashing at 550 {sup o}C. The elemental contents of pine bark and wood were compared to study the impact of heavy metal pollution on pine trees. By comparison of the elemental contents in ashes of bark and wood, a normalisation was obtained. For the relatively clean areas, the ratios of the concentration in bark ash to the concentration in wood ash for different elements were close to 1. This means that the ashes of Scots Pine wood and bark have quite similar elemental composition. For the samples from the polluted area the mean concentration ratios for some heavy metals were elevated (13-28), reflecting the effect of direct atmospheric contamination. The metal contents in the ashes of pine bark and wood were also compared to recommendations for ashes to be recycled back to the forest environment. Bark from areas close to emission sources of heavy metal pollution should be considered with caution if aiming at recycling the ash. Burning of bark fuel of pine grown within 6 km of the Cu-Ni smelter is shown to generate ashes with high levels of Cu, Ni as well as Cd, As and Pb. (author)

  2. Selective bark-stripping of beech, Fagus sylvatica, by free-ranging horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Sluijs, van der L.A.M.; Wytema, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Incidence and intensity of bark-stripping by horses was surveyed in stands and tree lanes of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Veluwezoom National Park, by using transects. Damage was apparent on 38% of beech trees, and 11% were seriously damaged (score 3 or more). Susceptibility to bark-stripp

  3. 78 FR 23592 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation AGENCY: U.S... certain electronic bark control collars by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 5....usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic...

  4. Divergence among barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, C.S.; Sullivan, B.K.; Malone, J.H.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are distributed from southern Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental into Arizona and the Sierra Madre Oriental into Texas and New Mexico. Barking frogs in Arizona and most of Texas live in rocky areas in oak woodland, while those in New Mexico and far western Texas live in rodent burrows in desertscrub. Barking frogs in each of the three states have distinct coloration and differ in sexually dimorphic characters, female vocalization, and skin toxicity. We analyzed advertisement call variation and conducted a phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and tRNA regions) for barking frogs from these three states. Advertisement calls of frogs from Arizona were significantly longer in duration, higher in frequency, and had longer duration pulses than those of frogs from either New Mexico or Texas; frogs from these latter two sites were indistinguishable in these call variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed deep divisions among barking frogs from the three states. Differences in call structure, coloration, and mitochondrial DNA sequences strongly suggest that barking frogs in Arizona are reproductively isolated from those in New Mexico and Texas. Our results indicate that either northern populations are connected via gene flow through southern Mexico (i.e., they are subspecies as currently recognized), or represent independent lineages as originally described (i.e., western barking frogs, E. cactorum in AZ, and the eastern barking frogs, E. latrans in NM, TX).

  5. Microscopic and UPLC-UV-MS analyses of authentic and commercial yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe) bark samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohimbine is the major alkaloid found in the stem-bark of yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe (Rubiaceae), an evergreen tree native to Africa. A number of yohimbe products are sold in USA as dietary supplements. Hand-sections of the stem-bark were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by ligh...

  6. Bark water uptake promotes localized hydraulic recovery in coastal redwood crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason Earles, J; Sperling, Or; Silva, Lucas C R; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R; North, Malcolm P; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-02-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), the world's tallest tree species, rehydrates leaves via foliar water uptake during fog/rain events. Here we examine if bark also permits water uptake in redwood branches, exploring potential flow mechanisms and biological significance. Using isotopic labelling and microCT imaging, we observed that water entered the xylem via bark and reduced tracheid embolization. Moreover, prolonged bark wetting (16 h) partially restored xylem hydraulic conductivity in isolated branch segments and whole branches. Partial hydraulic recovery coincided with an increase in branch water potential from about -5.5 ± 0.4 to -4.2 ± 0.3 MPa, suggesting localized recovery and possibly hydraulic isolation. As bark water uptake rate correlated with xylem osmotic potential (R(2)  = 0.88), we suspect a symplastic role in transferring water from bark to xylem. Using historical weather data from typical redwood habitat, we estimated that bark and leaves are wet more than 1000 h per year on average, with over 30 events being sufficiently long (>24 h) to allow for bark-assisted hydraulic recovery. The capacity to uptake biologically meaningful volumes of water via bark and leaves for localized hydraulic recovery throughout the crown during rain/fog events might be physiologically advantageous, allowing for relatively constant transpiration. PMID:26178179

  7. Changes in expression of BetV1 allergen of silver birch pollen in urbanized area of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žiarovská, Jana; Labajová, Mária; Ražná, Katarína; Bežo, Milan; Štefúnová, Veronika; Shevtsova, Tatiana; Garkava, Kateryna; Brindza, Ján

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determinate the level of expression of silver birch allergen Betv1 in pollen samples from different Ukraine areas by RT-qPCR SYBR Green assay. Protocol for quantifying the expression of Betv1 allergen was developed when testing of three housekeeping genes-cyclophylin, alpha-tubulin and transcription factor CBF1. Samples from urbanized area was analysed by real-time PCR when a sample from forest growth conditions was used as a calibrator. Real-time PCR based quantifying of Betv1 provides a useful method for rapid and sensitive analyses of this silver birch allergen. Our results show higher expression levels in samples from central parts of urbanized area as housing estates when compared to the samples from borders of the urbanized area.

  8. Two new phenylbutanoids from inner bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Sinkkonen, Jari; Karonen, Maarit; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2008-02-01

    Two phenylbutanoids, 7-{3R-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)butyl] beta-glucopyranosid-O-6-yl} 4-O-beta-glucopyranosylvanillin and 3-beta-glucopyranosyloxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-butanone were isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of the inner bark of Betula pendula. Their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The complete assignment of proton and carbon signals was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments: selective 1D TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC and DQF-COSY. PMID:18098157

  9. Procyanidin xylosides from the bark of Betula pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Jaana; Karonen, Maarit; Sinkkonen, Jari

    2012-04-01

    A procyanidin dimer xyloside, catechin-(4α→8)-7-O-β-xylopyranosyl-catechin, was isolated from the inner bark of Betula pendula and its structure was determined using 1D and 2D NMR, CD and high-resolution ESIMS. Interestingly, the 7-O-β-xylopyranose unit was found to be present in the lower terminal unit of the dimer. In addition to this procyanidin dimer xyloside, an entire series of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin xylosides was detected. Their structures were investigated by hydrophilic interaction HPLC-HRESIMS. Procyanidin glycosides are still rarely found in nature. PMID:22273040

  10. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans 1-6, three coumarins 7-9, a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,. Metabolites were identified by spectroscopic techniques ( 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS and by comparison with published data in the literature. C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. pinnata.

  11. Lancifoliaine, a New Bisbenzylisoquinoline from the Bark of Litsea lancifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Zaima

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new bisbenzylisoquinoline, lancifoliaine (1, together with seven known alkaloids – N-allyllaurolitsine (2, reticuline (3, actinodaphnine, norboldine, pallidine, cassythicine and boldine – were isolated from the stem bark of Litsea lancifolia (Lauraceae. In addition to that of lancifoliaine, complete 13C-NMR data of N-allyl-laurolitsine (2 was also reported. The alkaloidal structures were elucidated by means of high field 1D- and 2D-NMR IR, UV, and LCMS-IT-TOF spectral data. N-Allyllaurolitsine (2 showed a moderate vasorelaxant activity on isolated rat aorta.

  12. Triterpenoid saponins from the stem bark of Caryocar villosum

    OpenAIRE

    Magid, A. A.; Voutquenne Nazabadioko, L.; Renimel, I.; Harakat, D.; Moretti, Christian; Lavaud, C.

    2006-01-01

    Five triterpenoid saponins, caryocarosides II-22 (3), III-22 (4), II-23 (5), III-23 (6), and II-24 (7), have been isolated from the methanol extract of the stem bark of Caryocar villosum, along with two known saponins (1-2). The seven saponins are glucuronides of hederagenin (II) or bayogenin (III). Caryocaroside II-24 (7) is an unusual galloyl ester saponin acylated on the sugar chain attached to C-28, the 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 -> 3)-beta-D-glueurono...

  13. Chemical Constituents from Stem Bark and Roots of Clausena anisata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Dongo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on the stem bark and roots of the tropical shrub Clausena anisata led to the isolation and characterization three carbazole alkaloids: girinimbine, murrayamine-A and ekeberginine; two peptide derivatives: aurantiamide acetate and N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninyl-N-benzoyl-l-phenylalaninate; and a mixture of two phytosterols: sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were established by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS.

  14. Prenylated xanthones from the root bark of Cudrania tricuspidata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Hye; Hong, Seong Su; Han, Xiang Hua; Hwang, Ji Sang; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Heesoon; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Kim, Youngsoo; Ro, Jai Seup; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2007-07-01

    Four new prenylated xanthones, cudratricusxanthones J-M (1-4), were isolated from the CH2Cl2-soluble extract of the root bark of Cudrania tricuspidata, along with four known prenylated xanthones, isocudraxanthone K (5), cudraxanthone C (6), cudratricusxanthone A (7), and cudraxanthone L (8), and three known prenylated flavonoids, cudraflavone A (9), cudraflavanone A (10), and cudraflavone B (11). The structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Cudratricusxanthone A (7), cudraflavanone A (10), and cudraflavone B (11) showed moderate inhibitory effects on mouse brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) with IC50 values of 88.3, 89.7, and 80.0 microM, respectively.

  15. Pharmacognostical evaluation of medicinally important Ficus retusa (Leaves and bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus retusa (F. retusa belongs to family Moraceae is a large and extensively growing tree across Indian continent. It's commonly known as Chilkan and Marabuten. This tree is claimed to have medicinal properties. The aim of present study is to investigate the pharmacognostical characters of important medicinal plant, F. retusa L. The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of macroscopical, microscopical characters, standardization, phytoconstituents and chromatographic analysis of F. retusa leaf and bark. Various standard methods were adopted to carry out the investigation.

  16. Antiplasmodial and larvicidal compounds of Toddalia asiatica root bark

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Nyahanga; J Isaac Jondiko; L Onyango Arot Manguro; J Atieno Orwa

    2013-09-01

    From the -hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Toddalia asiatica root bark were isolated eight compounds (1-8) which were identified on the basis of both spectroscopic and physical data as well as comparison with already published results. The crude extracts and isolated compounds showed moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity against D6 (chloroquine-sensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The extracts and isolates also exhibited larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti and coumarins were identified as the active compounds.

  17. Calotroposide S, New Oxypregnane Oligoglycoside from Calotropis procera Root Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Calotroposide S (1, a new oxypregnane oligoglycoside has been isolated from the n-butanol fraction of Calotropis procera (Ait R. Br. root bark. The structure of 1 was assigned based on various spectroscopic analyses. Calotroposide S (1 possesses the 12-O-benzoylisolineolon aglycone moiety with eight sugar residues attached to C-3 of the aglycone. It showed potent anti-proliferative activity towards PC-3 prostate cancer, A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and U373 glioblastoma (GBM cell lines with IC 50 0.18, 0.2, and 0.06 µM, respectively compared with cisplatin and carboplatin.

  18. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Smole

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals.

  19. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? METHODOLOGY: We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. CONCLUSION: Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores

  20. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Heneberg; Kamila Riegerová; Petr Kučera

    2015-01-01

    Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch polle...

  1. Plant and insect diversity along an experimental gradient of larch-birch mixtures in Chinese boreal forests

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing; Shi, Juan; Luo, Youqing; HELIÖVAARA, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining and increasing biodiversity level especially in pure plantations is one important way to improve the resistance of forests to pests in Chinese boreal forests. The present study tested the hypothesis that the increased degree of tree species mixture (quantified by the stem proportion of Betula platyphylla Suk. and Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) can affect the species richness and diversity of understory and insects. Twenty-one plots, ranging from pure larch stand to pure birch stand...

  2. DYNAMICS AND DISTINCTIONS IN CONCENTRATION OF THE BASIC PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF LEAVES OF THE BIRCH GROWING IN IMPURE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Эдуардович Баландайкин

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The complex of features of influence of external factors on frame of the basic photosynthetic pigments of a sheet plate of a birch is discussed. Besides, specificity of influence of the infectious pathological stress-factor – xylotroph basidial macromycet (facultative saprotroph a tinder fungus bevelled – on the content of a chlorophyll of phylum a, b, their sums, lipochromes, an interrelation of pigments in sheet plates of trees Betula pendula Roth. is shown.

  3. Detection and analysis of unusual features in the structural model and structure-factor data of a birch pollen allergen

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Physically improbable features in the model of the birch pollen structure Bet v 1d (PDB entry 3k78) are faithfully reproduced in electron density generated with the deposited structure factors, but these structure factors themselves exhibit properties that are characteristic of data calculated from a simple model and are inconsistent with the data and error model obtained through experimental measurements. The refinement of the 3k78 model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphou...

  4. In vitro Development of Callus from Node of Mimusops elengi - As Substitute of Natural Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Gami

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, results of in vitro callus development from Mimusops elengi as substitute of bark were formulated. By different auxine/cytokinine ratio from young nodal explant compact, globular and fragile types of callus were developed. Methanolic extract of all types of callus and bark were studied for extractable matter, antibacterial activity, phytochemical profiling, biouautography and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC banding patterns. Results of all calluses were compared with results of natural bark of M. elengi. TLC pattern of three types of callus and bark revealed similar banding pattern, and same bioactivity was also observed in bioautography. Our results indicate that natural bark & in vitro developed callus of M. elengi posses similar chemical profiling and bioactivity regardless the type & colour of callus.

  5. New datasets for quantifying snow-vegetation-atmosphere interactions in boreal birch and conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, T. D.; Essery, R.; Rutter, N.; Huntley, B.; Baxter, R.; Holden, R.; King, M.; Hancock, S.; Carle, J.

    2012-12-01

    Boreal forests exert a strong influence on weather and climate by modifying the surface energy and radiation balance. However, global climate and numerical weather prediction models use forest parameter values from simple look-up tables or maps that are derived from limited satellite data, on large grid scales. In reality, Arctic landscapes are inherently heterogeneous, with highly variable land cover types and structures on a variety of spatial scales. There is value in collecting detailed field data for different areas of vegetation cover, to assess the accuracy of large-scale assumptions. To address these issues, a consortium of researchers funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council have collected extensive data on radiation, meteorology, snow cover and canopy structure at two contrasting Arctic forest sites. The chosen study sites were an area of boreal birch forest near Abisko, Sweden in March/April 2011 and mixed conifer forest at Sodankylä, Finland in March/April 2012. At both sites, arrays comprising ten shortwave pyranometers and four longwave pyrgeometers were deployed for periods of up to 50 days, under forest plots of varying canopy structures and densities. In addition, downwelling longwave irradiance and global and diffuse shortwave irradiances were recorded at nearby open sites representing the top-of-canopy conditions. Meteorological data were recorded at all sub-canopy and open sites using automatic weather stations. Over the same periods, tree skin temperatures were measured on selected trees using contact thermocouples, infrared thermocouples and thermal imagery. Canopy structure was accurately quantified through manual surveys, extensive hemispherical photography and terrestrial laser scans of every study plot. Sub-canopy snow depth and snow water equivalent were measured on fine-scale grids at each study plot. Regular site maintenance ensured a high quality dataset covering the important Arctic spring period. The data have several

  6. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  7. 白桦木材生物变色的防治方法%Control of White Birch Biological Discoloration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 陈广胜; 郭明辉; 黄占华; 朱晓冬

    2014-01-01

    Six kinds of chemicals were chosen for bacteriostatic ring experiment , the agent of birch wood discoloration prevention were screened .Among six kinds of chemicals , four were selected for biological control experimental of white birch wood discoloration .The chemical reagent and appropriate concentration could inhibit the bacteria growth , and reduce the extent of discoloration of birch wood .Because different chemicals have different effects on the infection effect of bacteria , the chemical compound can improve the ability of inhibition of wood stain fungi in preventing wood biological discoloration .%采用抑菌圈试验,分析6种化学药剂对白桦木材侵染菌的抑菌效果;并选择其中4种药剂对白桦木材生物变色防治进行探索性试验。结果表明,适宜质量分数的化学试剂Benomyl 和BAC能够抑制白桦木材浸染菌的生长。由于不同的化学药剂对不同侵染菌种类的抑制效果不同,在白桦木材生物变色的防治过程中进行化学药剂的复配将会有助于提高对变色菌的抑制能力。

  8. Birch pulp xylan works as a food hydrocolloid in acid milk gels and is fermented slowly in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Sibakov, Natalia; Hakala, Terhi K; Sözer, Nesli; Nordlund, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Aura, Anna-Marja

    2016-12-10

    The objective was to evaluate the potential of birch xylan as a food hydrocolloid and dietary fibre. High-molecular weight xylan was isolated from birch kraft pulp by alkaline extraction, and enzymatically hydrolysed. Fermentability of xylans was evaluated using an in vitro colon model and performance as a hydrocolloid was studied in low-fat acid milk gels (1.5% and 3% w/w). Texture of the gels and water holding capacity of xylans were compared with inulin, fructooligosaccharide and xylooligosaccharide. Xylans showed slower fermentation rate by faecal microbiota than the references. Xylan-enriched acid milk gels (3% w/w) had improved water holding capacity (over 2-fold) and showed lower spontaneous syneresis, firmness and elasticity when compared to control (no hydrocolloids) or to references. In conclusion, birch xylan improved texture of low-fat acid milk gel applications, and the slow in vitro fermentation rate predicts lower incidence of intestinal discomfort in comparison to the commercial references. PMID:27577922

  9. Impact of ectohumus application in birch and pine nurseries on the presence of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimek Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensively used forest nurseries are characterised by degradation processes that lead to a drop in the quality of seedlings. The main reason of this problem is a decrease in biological soil diversity. Therefore, an attempt of nursery soil enrichment by introducing ectohumus – as compost and fresh litter – from the pine forest was carried out. The research was carried out in 2009–2011 in the Bielawy forest nursery near the city of Toruń, Poland. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of organic fertilisation (compost made up of forest humus and mulching using fresh ectohumus on the density and community composition of Acari mites and on species composition of oribatid mites (Oribatida in the nurseries of silver birch and Scots pine. Mites, especially oribatid mites, were treated as bioindicators of soil biological activity. Research has shown that mulching using fresh ectohumus caused a multiple increase in the density of mites, especially in saprophagous mites Oribatida. Oribatid mites were clearly more numerous in birch cultivation than in that of pine. Overall, 27 species of oribatid mites were found. Mulching resulted in a significant growth in species diversity in both cultivations. The most numerous oribatid mite in the area under the study was Oribatula tibialis. This species was present in all plots and showed clear preference for birch cultivation. Tectocepheus velatus and Oppiella nova, common and known to be present in a variety of environments, were slightly less numerous.

  10. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  11. Olfaction in the Colorado beetle at the onset of host plant selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Long-range olfactory orientation of the adult Colorado beetle was studied in a low- speed wind tunnel. The odour of fully grown potato plants elicits an upwind locomotory response in Colorado beetles (odour-conditioned positive anemotaxis), and increases the beetles' speed of locomotion (direct chem

  12. STUDIES ON SOME PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA BARK GUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  13. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol(®) (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  14. Anticonvulsant properties of saponins from Ficus platyphylla stem bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindo, Ben A; Anuka, Joseph A; McNeil, Lilly; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Adamu, Simon S; Amos, Samson; Connelly, William K; Lees, George; Gamaniel, Karniyus S

    2009-03-30

    Preparations of Ficus platyphylla have been used in Nigerian traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy for many years and their efficacy is widely acclaimed among the Hausa communities of northern Nigeria. The anticonvulsant properties of the saponin rich fraction (SFG) obtained from the methanol extract of F. platyphylla stem bark were studied on pentylenetetrazole-, strychnine- and maximal electroshock seizures in mice. Effects of SFG were also examined in murine models for neurological disease and on relevant in vitro targets for anticonvulsant drugs. SFG protected mice against pentylenetetrazole- and strychnine-induced seizures; and significantly delayed the onset of myoclonic jerks and tonic seizures. SFG failed to protect mice against maximal electroshock seizures at doses tested. SFG neither abolished the spontaneous discharges induced by 4-aminopyridine in a neonatal rat brain slice model of tonic-clonic epilepsy nor could it modulate chloride currents through GABA(A) receptor channel complex in cultured cortical cells. However, it was able to non-selectively suppress excitatory and inhibitory synaptic traffic, blocked sustained repetitive firing (SRF) and spontaneous action potential firing in these cultured cells. Our results provide scientific evidence that F. platyphylla stem bark may contain psychoactive principles with potential anticonvulsant properties. SFG impaired membrane excitability; a property shared by most anticonvulsants particularly the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocking drugs, thus supporting the isolation and development of the saponin components of this plant as anticonvulsant agents.

  15. Studies on some physicochemical properties of Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha Pendyala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gum exudates from Leucaena Leucocephala (Family: Fabaceae plants grown all over India were investigated for its physicochemical properties such as pH, swelling capacity and viscosities at different temperatures using standard methods. Leucaena Leucocephala bark gum appeared to be colorless to reddish brown translucent tears. 5 % w/v mucilage has pH of 7.5 at 28°C. The gum is slightly soluble in water and practically insoluble in ethanol, acetone and chloroform. It swells to about 5 times its original weight in water. A 5 %w/ v mucilage concentration gave a viscosity value which was unaffected at temperature ranges (28-40°C. At concentrations of 2 and 5 %w/v, the gum exhibited pseudo plastic flow pattern while at 10 %w/v concentration the flow behaviour was thixotropic. The results indicate that the swelling ability of Leucaena Leucocephala (LL bark gum may provide potentials for its use as a disintegrant in tablet formulation, as a hydro gel in modified release dosage forms and the rheological flow properties may also provide potentials for its use as suspending and emulsifying agents owing to its pseudo plastic and thixotropic flow patterns.

  16. Polysaccharides with immunomodulating properties from the bark of Parkia biglobosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Zhao; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Barsett, Hilde; Diallo, Drissa; Michaelsen, Terje Einar; El-Zoubair, Elnour; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2014-01-30

    The bark of Parkia biglobosa is used in traditional medicine to cure a wide range of illnesses. Polysaccharides were extracted from the bark with 50% ethanol-water, 50°C and 100°C water, and seven active fractions obtained by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The complement fixation and macrophage stimulating activities of the different fractions were determined. The acidic fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were the most active in the complement fixation assay, but the other fractions were also potent compared to the positive control BPII from Biophytum petersianum. Fractions PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were also the most potent fractions in stimulating macrophages to release nitric oxide. Structural studies showed that PBEII-I and PBEII-IV were pectic type polysaccharides, containing arabinogalactan type II structures. The observed differences in biological activities among the seven purified polysaccharide sub-fractions are probably due to differences in monosaccharide compositions, linkage types and molecular sizes.

  17. IN VITRO ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matpal Mahesh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the different extract of bark of Ficus benghalensis, family Moraceae is a very large, fast growing, evergreen tree up to 30 meters, with spreading branches and many aerial roots. Leaves stalked, ovate-cordate, 3-nerved, entire, when young downy on both sides; petiole with a broad smooth greasy gland at the apex, compressed, downy; Fruit in axillary pairs, the size of a cherry, round and downy. According to Ayurveda, it is astringent to bowels; useful in treatment of biliousness, ulcers, erysipelas, vomiting, vaginal complains, fever, inflammations, leprosy. According to Unani system of medicine, its latex is aphrodisiac, tonic, vulernary, maturant, lessens inflammations; useful in piles etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous, chloroform and alcoholic extracts of the bark by in vitro methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilization (HRBC method. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. The methanolic extract at a concentration of 200 mg/ml. showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  18. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  19. Flow Visualization of Rhinoceros Beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) in Free Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Hieu Trung Tran; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon; Doyoung Byun

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings,are investigated.Visualization experiments were conducted for various flight conditions of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus:free,tethered,hovering,forward and climbing flights.Leading edge,trailing edge and tip vortices on both wings were observed clearly.The leading edge vortex was stable and remained on the top surface of the elytron for a wide interval during the downstroke of free forward flight.Hence,the elytron may have a considerable role in lift force generation of the beetle.In addition,we reveal a suction phenomenon between the gaps of the hind wing and the elytron in upstroke that may improve the positive lift force on the hind wing.We also found the reverse clap-fling mechanism of the T.dichotomus beetle in hovering flight.The hind wings touch together at the beginning of the upstroke.The vortex generation,shedding and interaction give a better understanding of the detailed aerodynamic mechanism of beetle flight.

  20. Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

    2013-02-18

    When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom.

  1. Coarse woody material has value as habitat for saproxylic beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.M.; Spence, J.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept of Renewable Resources; Langor, D.W. [Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Biomass harvesting practices are expected to alter the abundance and natural range of variation in coarse woody material (CWM), which in turn may change soil productivity as well as the hydrological balance and structure of tree stands and habitats needed to ensure forest biodiversity. Ecosystem sustainability should be a main criterion for the development of biomass energy production schemes. Studies in northern Europe indicate that the hyperdiverse saproxylic fauna is sensitive to changes in CWM. Saproxylic beetles are dependent on decaying wood, and play an important role in forest nutrient cycling. Approximately 11 per cent of European saproxylic beetles are at risk of regional extirpation. This study sampled saproxylic beetle species from CWM in mature trembling aspen stands in Alberta. Over 150 species were collected, including 4 species new to science. The study showed that the beetles use numerous CWM habitats and exhibit high habitat specificity. A diversity of CWM substrates are needed to maintain saproxylic beetle habitats. Further research is needed to minimize the loss of species and their ecosystem functions.

  2. Analysis of Individual Tree Competition Effect on Diameter Growth of Silver Birch in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Maleki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The present study evaluates a set of competition indices including spatially explicit indices combined with different competitor selection approaches and non-spatially explicit competition indices. The aim was to quantify and describe the neighbouring effects on the tree diameter growth of silver birch trees. Area of study: Region throughout Estonia. Material and methods: Data from the Estonian Network of Forest Research Plots was used. After quantifying the selected indices, the best non-spatial indices and spatial indices (combined with neighbour selection methods were separately devised into a growth model as a predictor variable to assess the ability of the diameter growth model before and after adding competition measures. To test the species-specific effect on the competition level, the superior indices were recalculated using Ellenberg’s light indicators and incorporated into the diameter growth model. Main results: Statistical analyses showed that the diameter growth is a function of neighbourhood interactions and spatial indices were better growth predictors than non-spatial indices. In addition, the best selections of competitive neighbours were acquired based on the influence zone and the competition elimination angle concepts, and using Ellenberg’s light values had no significant improvement in quantifying the competition effects. Research highlights: Although the best ranking spatial competition measures were superior to the best non-spatial indices, the differences were negligible.

  3. Carbohydrate concentrations and freezing stress resistance of silver birch buds grown under elevated temperature and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Tuomainen, Marjo; Oksanen, Elina

    2013-03-01

    The effects of slightly elevated temperature (+0.8 °C), ozone (O3) concentration (1.3 × ambient O3 concentration) and their combination on over-wintering buds of Betula pendula Roth were studied after two growing seasons of exposure in the field. Carbohydrate concentrations, freezing stress resistance (FSR), bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio, and transcript levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX), alternative oxidase (AOX) and dehydrin (LTI36) genes were studied in two clones (clones 12 and 25) in December. Elevated temperature increased the bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio and the ratio of raffinose family oligosaccharides to sucrose and the transcript levels of the dehydrin (LTI36) gene (in clone 12 only), but did not alter the FSR of the buds. Genotype-specific alterations in carbohydrate metabolism were found in the buds grown under elevated O3. The treatments did not significantly affect the transcript level of the COX or AOX genes. No clear pattern of an interactive effect between elevated temperature and O3 concentration was found. According to these data, the increase in autumnal temperatures and slightly increasing O3 concentrations do not increase the risk for freeze-induced damage in winter in silver birch buds, although some alterations in bud physiology occur.

  4. EFFECT OF XYLANASE TREATMENT ON DEWATERING PROPERTIES OF BIRCH KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Marianne Blomstedt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was shown that the enzymatic removal of xylan from ECF-bleached birch kraft pulp enhances the water removal from the pulp, especially in the late stages of pulp drying. The effect of xylanase treatments on dewatering was clarified by using a moving belt former (MBF, a press simulator (MTS, and an IR-drying equipment, to simulate and to measure dewatering properties on wire, press and drying sections of a paper machine. The xylanase treatment slightly increased the pulp freeness indicating improved pulp drainage properties. At the moving belt former, however, no significant changes that would indicate enhanced dewatering in forming were observed. The xylanase treatments slightly enhanced the dewatering in wet pressing and furthermore, at the thermal drying the xylanase treatment had a positive effect on the dry solid content (DSC development, and time to reach the 95% dry solids content was reduced by up to 15%. This was also confirmed by the decrease in the fiber saturation point (FSP values and the amount of bulk water. Our results indicate that the xylanase treatment affected the water-binding xylan in the fiber cell wall, yielding enhanced dewatering properties, without deteriorating the pulp and paper properties.

  5. Low vapour pressure deficit affects nitrogen nutrition and foliar metabolites in silver birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, Jenna; Ahonen, Viivi; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Oksanen, Elina; Keinänen, Markku

    2016-07-01

    Air humidity indicated as vapour pressure deficit (VPD) is directly related to transpiration and stomatal function of plants. We studied the effects of VPD and nitrogen (N) supply on leaf metabolites, plant growth, and mineral nutrition with young micropropagated silver birches (Betula pendula Roth.) in a growth chamber experiment. Plants that were grown under low VPD for 26 d had higher biomass, larger stem diameter, more leaves, fewer fallen leaves, and larger total leaf area than plants that were grown under high VPD. Initially, low VPD increased height growth rate and stomatal conductance; however, the effect was transient and the differences between low and high VPD plants became smaller with time. Metabolic adjustment to low VPD reflected N deficiency. The concentrations of N, iron, chlorophyll, amino acids, and soluble carbohydrates were lower and the levels of starch, quercetin glycosides, and raffinose were higher in the leaves that had developed under low VPD compared with high VPD. Additional N supply did not fully overcome the negative effect of low VPD on nutrient status but it diminished the effects of low VPD on leaf metabolism. Thus, with high N supply, the glutamine to glutamate ratio and starch production under low VPD became comparable with the levels under high VPD. The present study demonstrates that low VPD affects carbon and nutrient homeostasis and modifies N allocation of plants.

  6. Detection of Malware and Malicious Executables Using E-Birch Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ashit Kumar Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malware detection is one of the challenges to the modern computing world. Web mining is the subset of data mining used to provide solutions for complex problems. Web intelligence is the new hope for the field of computer science to bring solution for the malware detection. Web mining is the method of web intelligence to make web as an intelligent tool to combat malware and phishing websites. Generally, malware injected through websites into the user system and modifies the executable file and paralyze the whole activity of the system. Antivirus application utilizes the data mining technique to find the malware in the web. There is a need of heuristic approach to solve the malware problem. Dynamic analysis methods yield better result than the static methods. Data mining is the best option for the dynamic analysis of malware or malicious program. The purpose of the research is to apply the enhanced Birch algorithm to find the malware and modified executables of Windows and Android operating system.

  7. Artificially decreased vapour pressure deficit in field conditions modifies foliar metabolite profiles in birch and aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, Jenna; Keinänen, Markku; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Sõber, Anu; Oksanen, Elina

    2016-07-01

    Relative air humidity (RH) is expected to increase in northern Europe due to climate change. Increasing RH reduces the difference of water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaf and the atmosphere, and affects the gas exchange of plants. Little is known about the effects of decreased VPD on plant metabolism, especially under field conditions. This study was conducted to determine the effects of artificially decreased VPD on silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx.) foliar metabolite and nutrient profiles in a unique free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) field experiment during the fourth season of humidity manipulation, in 2011. Long-term exposure to decreased VPD modified nutrient homeostasis in tree leaves, as demonstrated by a lower N concentration and N:P ratio in aspen leaves, and higher Na concentration and lower K:Na ratio in the leaves of both species in decreased VPD than in ambient VPD. Decreased VPD caused a shift in foliar metabolite profiles of both species, affecting primary and secondary metabolites. Metabolic adjustment to decreased VPD included elevated levels of starch and heptulose sugars, sorbitol, hemiterpenoid and phenolic glycosides, and α-tocopherol. High levels of carbon reserves, phenolic compounds, and antioxidants under decreased VPD may modify plant resistance to environmental stresses emerging under changing climate.

  8. The influence of recombinant production on the immunologic behavior of birch pollen isoallergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wallner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions towards the birch major pollen allergen Bet v 1 are among the most common causes of spring pollinosis in the temperate climate zone of the Northern hemisphere. Natural Bet v 1 is composed of a complex mixture of different isoforms. Detailed analysis of recombinant Bet v 1 isoforms revealed striking differences in immunologic as well as allergenic properties of the molecules, leading to a classification of Bet v 1 isoforms into high, medium, and low IgE binding proteins. Especially low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoforms have been described as ideal candidates for desensitizing allergic patients with allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT. Since diagnosis and therapy of allergic diseases are highly dependent on recombinant proteins, continuous improvement of protein production is an absolute necessity. METHODOLOGY: Therefore, two different methods for recombinant production of a low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoform were applied; one based on published protocols, the other by implementing latest innovations in protein production. Both batches of Bet v 1.0401 were extensively characterized by an array of physicochemical as well as immunological methods to compare protein primary structure, purity, quantity, folding, aggregation state, thermal stability, and antibody binding capacity. CONCLUSION: The experiments demonstrated that IgE antibody binding properties of recombinant isoallergens can be significantly influenced by the production method directly affecting possible clinical applications of the molecules.

  9. Fungal Assemblages in Different Habitats in an Erman’s Birch Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng; Sun, Huaibo; Shen, Congcong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of fungal diversity using deeply sequenced marker genes suggest that most fungal taxa are locally distributed. However, little is known about the extent of overlap and niche partitions in total fungal communities or functional guilds within distinct habitats on a local forest scale. Here, we compared fungal communities in endosphere (leaf interior), phyllosphere (leaf interior and associated surface area) and soil samples from an Erman’s birch forest in Changbai Mountain, China. Community structures were significantly differentiated in terms of habitat, with soil having the highest fungal richness and phylogenetic diversity. Endophytic and phyllosphere fungi of Betula ermanii were more phylogenetically clustered compared with the corresponding soil fungi, indicating the ability of that host plants to filter and select their fungal partners. Furthermore, the majority of soil fungal taxa were soil specialists, while the dominant endosphere and phyllosphere taxa were aboveground generalists, with soil and plant foliage only sharing forest were strictly niche specialized and constrained by weak migration among habitats. The findings suggest that phylogenetic relatedness and functional guilds’ assignment can effectively interpret the certain ecological processes. PMID:27625646

  10. Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Pummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation of bioaerosols (bacteria, pollen, spores, etc. is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate, is not yet fully understood. Here we show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behaviour. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. Far more intriguingly, it has turned out that water, which has been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. The ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so presumably augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. Our experiments lead to the conclusion that pollen ice nuclei, in contrast to bacterial and fungal ice nucleating proteins, are non-proteinaceous compounds.

  11. Methane consumption and soil respiration by a birch forest soil in West Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes were measured in a birch forest soil in West Siberia, in August 1999, June 2000 and September 2000. The study site had a very thick organic horizon that was subject to drought during the observation periods. The soils always took up CH4, while CO2 was released from the surface to the atmosphere. CH4 consumption and CO2 emission rates ranged from 0.092 to 0.28 mg C/m2/h and from 110 to 400 mg C/m2/h respectively. The CH4 consumption rate and soil temperatures showed significant relationships for individual measurements. The soil respiration rate was weakly correlated with individual soil temperatures. This study examined the effect of current and lagged soil temperatures at a depth of 5 cm on CH4 consumption and soil respiration. The variation in the correlation coefficient between CH4 consumption and lagged soil temperature was greatest at a 4-h lag, whereas that for soil respiration showed a gentle peak at lags from several hours to half a day. This difference in the temperature-related lag effect between CH4 consumption and soil respiration results from differences in the exchange processes. Neither flux showed any correlation with soil moisture. The limited variation in soil moisture during our observation period may account for the lack of correlation. However, the droughty soil conditions resulted in high gas diffusion and, consequently, high CH4 consumption

  12. Marking small hive beetles with thoracic notching: effects on longevity, flight ability and fecundity

    OpenAIRE

    De Guzman, Lilia; Frake, Amanda; Rinderer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    International audience We tested two marking techniques for adult small hive beetles (SHB): dusting and thoracic notching. The use of blue and red chalk dusts to mark beetles was not persistent and caused early death of SHB with an average survival of 52.6 ± 23.8 and 13.9 ± 7.3 days, respectively. In contrast, notched beetles survived longer (mean = 353.6 ± 5.3 days) with the last beetle dying after 383 days. Likewise, notched beetles (presumed to be injured because of oozing hemolymph fro...

  13. Micro-structure and frictional characteristics of beetle's joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhendong; Stanislav N. Gorb

    2004-01-01

    Geometric and micro-structure design, tribology properties of beetle joints were experimentally studied, which aimed to enlighten ideas for the joint design of MEMS.The observation by using SEM and microscopy suggested that beetle's joints consist of a concave surface matched with a convex surface. The heads of the beetles, rubbing with flat glass, were tested in fresh and dried statuses and compared with sapphire ball with flat glass. Frictional coefficient of the joint material on glass was significantly lower than that of the sapphire sphere on glass. The material of the joint cuticle for convex surface is rather stiff (the elastic modulus 4.5 Gpa) and smooth. The surface is hydrophobic (the contact angle of distilled water was 88.3° ). It is suggested here that the high stiffness of the joint material and hydrophobicity of the joint surface are parts of the mechanism minimizing friction in insect joints.

  14. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  15. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. PMID:27341111

  16. Enhancing the hydrophobicity of mangrove bark by esterification for oil adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman Bin; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Orji, Kalu Uka

    2014-01-01

    Oil spills generally cause worldwide concern due to their detrimental effects on the environment and the economy. An assortment of commercial systems has been developed to control these spills, including the use of agricultural wastes as sorbents. This work deals with raw and modified mangrove barks (Rhizophora apiculata), an industrial lignocellulosic waste, as a low cost adsorbent for oil-product-spill cleanup in the aquatic environment. Mangrove bark was modified using fatty acids (oleic acid and palmitic acid) to improve its adsorption capacity. The oil sorption capacity of the modified bark was studied and compared with that of the raw bark. Kinetic tests were conducted with a series of contact times. The influence of particle size, oil dosage, pH and temperature on oil sorption capacity was investigated. The results showed that oleic acid treated bark has a higher sorption capacity (2,860.00 ± 2.00 mg/g) than untreated bark for Tapis crude oil. A correlation between surface functional groups, morphology and surface area of the adsorbent was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy images and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Isotherm study was conducted using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The result showed that adsorption of crude oil on treated mangrove bark could be best described by the Langmuir model. PMID:25325547

  17. Physiological resistance of grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) to Arizona bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ashlee H; Rowe, Matthew P

    2008-10-01

    Predators feeding on toxic prey may evolve physiological resistance to the preys' toxins. Grasshopper mice (Onychomys spp.) are voracious predators of scorpions in North American deserts. Two species of grasshopper mice (Onychomys torridus and Onychomys arenicola) are broadly sympatric with two species of potentially lethal bark scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda and Centruroides vittatus) in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts, respectively. Bark scorpions produce toxins that selectively bind sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) ion channels in vertebrate nerve and muscle tissue. We previously reported that grasshopper mice showed no effects of bark scorpion envenomation following natural stings. Here we conducted a series of toxicity tests to determine whether grasshopper mice have evolved resistance to bark scorpion neurotoxins. Five populations of grasshopper mice, either sympatric with or allopatric to bark scorpions, were injected with bark scorpion venom; LD50s were estimated for each population. All five populations of grasshopper mice demonstrated levels of venom resistance greater than that reported for non-resistant Mus musculus. Moreover, venom resistance in the mice showed intra- and interspecific variability that covaried with bark scorpion sympatry and allopatry, patterns consistent with the hypothesis that venom resistance in grasshopper mice is an adaptive response to feeding on their neurotoxic prey. PMID:18687353

  18. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  19. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  20. Cork oak vulnerability to fire: the role of bark harvesting, tree characteristics and abiotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe X Catry

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems where periodical tree bark harvesting is a major economic activity may be particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as fire, since debarking usually reduces tree vigour and protection against external agents. In this paper we asked how cork oak Quercus suber trees respond after wildfires and, in particular, how bark harvesting affects post-fire tree survival and resprouting. We gathered data from 22 wildfires (4585 trees that occurred in three southern European countries (Portugal, Spain and France, covering a wide range of conditions characteristic of Q. suber ecosystems. Post-fire tree responses (tree mortality, stem mortality and crown resprouting were examined in relation to management and ecological factors using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results showed that bark thickness and bark harvesting are major factors affecting resistance of Q. suber to fire. Fire vulnerability was higher for trees with thin bark (young or recently debarked individuals and decreased with increasing bark thickness until cork was 3-4 cm thick. This bark thickness corresponds to the moment when exploited trees are debarked again, meaning that exploited trees are vulnerable to fire during a longer period. Exploited trees were also more likely to be top-killed than unexploited trees, even for the same bark thickness. Additionally, vulnerability to fire increased with burn severity and with tree diameter, and was higher in trees burned in early summer or located in drier south-facing aspects. We provided tree response models useful to help estimating the impact of fire and to support management decisions. The results suggested that an appropriate management of surface fuels and changes in the bark harvesting regime (e.g. debarking coexisting trees in different years or increasing the harvesting cycle would decrease vulnerability to fire and contribute to the conservation of cork oak ecosystems.

  1. Cork oak vulnerability to fire: the role of bark harvesting, tree characteristics and abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catry, Filipe X; Moreira, Francisco; Pausas, Juli G; Fernandes, Paulo M; Rego, Francisco; Cardillo, Enrique; Curt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems where periodical tree bark harvesting is a major economic activity may be particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as fire, since debarking usually reduces tree vigour and protection against external agents. In this paper we asked how cork oak Quercus suber trees respond after wildfires and, in particular, how bark harvesting affects post-fire tree survival and resprouting. We gathered data from 22 wildfires (4585 trees) that occurred in three southern European countries (Portugal, Spain and France), covering a wide range of conditions characteristic of Q. suber ecosystems. Post-fire tree responses (tree mortality, stem mortality and crown resprouting) were examined in relation to management and ecological factors using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Results showed that bark thickness and bark harvesting are major factors affecting resistance of Q. suber to fire. Fire vulnerability was higher for trees with thin bark (young or recently debarked individuals) and decreased with increasing bark thickness until cork was 3-4 cm thick. This bark thickness corresponds to the moment when exploited trees are debarked again, meaning that exploited trees are vulnerable to fire during a longer period. Exploited trees were also more likely to be top-killed than unexploited trees, even for the same bark thickness. Additionally, vulnerability to fire increased with burn severity and with tree diameter, and was higher in trees burned in early summer or located in drier south-facing aspects. We provided tree response models useful to help estimating the impact of fire and to support management decisions. The results suggested that an appropriate management of surface fuels and changes in the bark harvesting regime (e.g. debarking coexisting trees in different years or increasing the harvesting cycle) would decrease vulnerability to fire and contribute to the conservation of cork oak ecosystems.

  2. Lost Books: Abbess Hildelith and the Literary Culture of Barking Abbey.

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, D

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the literary culture of Barking Abbey, a vital centre of Anglo-Saxon learning, when it was under the rule of its second abbess, Hildelith, in the late seventh and early eighth century. Particular attention is given to the intersection of lived practice at Barking and the literary record, focusing on three pieces of evidence: Bede’s account of the early history of Barking in his Ecclesiastical History, written in 731; Aldhelm’s De Virginitate (c.675-680), which was writte...

  3. Energy capacity of black wattle wood and bark in different spacing plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Eloy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the energetic description of wood and bark biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in two spacing plantations: 2.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.0 m and 1.5 m, during 36 months after the planting. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Frederico Westphalen, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Biomass (BIO, calorific value, basic density, ash content, volatile matter and fixed carbon content and energy density (ED of wood and bark were determined. The smallest spacing plantation presented the highest production per unit area of BIO and ED of wood and bark.

  4. Assessment of Alder Tree Bark Potential as a Renewable Source of Proanthocyanidins in Latvia

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    Janceva Sarmīte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to assess potential of alder tree bark as a renewable source of bioactive polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extracts and proanthocyanidins (PAC isolated from bark of two alder species (grey alder and black alder growing in Latvia have been examined employing two test systems, ABTS●+, DPPH● assays. In the tests the high free radical scavenging capacities of the PAC were demonstrated. The polyphenolic nature of the bark PAC opens the possibility of its application as food additive. The PAC has good potential as an antioxidant for mayonnaise.

  5. Antiplasmodial compounds from Cassia siamea stem bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Ashidi, J S; Okpako, L C; Houghton, P J; Wright, C W

    2008-02-01

    Cassia siamea L. (Fabaceae) was identified from the southwest Nigerian ethnobotany as a remedy for febrile illness. This led to the bioassay-guided fractionation of stem bark of the plant extract, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay and multi-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (K1) for assessing the in vitro antimalarial activity. Emodin and lupeol were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by a combination of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopy, co-spotting with authentic samples and comparison with literature data. Both compounds were found to be the active principles responsible for the antiplasmodial property with IC(50) values of 5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:17705142

  6. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4β?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4β?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4β?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4β?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 μL and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  7. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Rocha, Juliana C.B.; Mello, Joao C.P. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: mello@uem.br; Almeida, Glalber C. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 {mu}L and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  8. ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SONNERATIA ALBA BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ali Milon*1, Md. Abdul Muhit , Durajan Goshwami , Mohammad Mehedi Masud and Bilkis Begum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of Sonneratia alba bark. The carbon tetrachloride, chloroform soluble partitionate of methanolic extract and crude methanolic extract showed significant antioxidant property using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pecrylhydrazyl(DPPH scavenging assay ,of which chloroform partitionate and crude extract demonstrated highest activity with IC50 value of 12µg/ml and 14µg/ml respectively. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, LC50 values obtained from the best fit line slope were 0.812, 14.94, 0.831 and 3.288 µg/ml for standard (Vincristine sulphate, n-Hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform soluble partitionate of methanolic extract respectively. The carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction revealed moderate activities against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae test organisms.

  9. Influence of Metals on Lindane Adsorption onto Pine Bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some persistent pesticides, as organochlorines, are not efficiently removed from usual wastewater treatment plants, unless a tertiary treatment, commonly activated carbon adsorption, is applied. The downside of this practice rests on its high regeneration costs. This fact motivated the research for alternative processes involving the use of natural materials. Pine bark was used in this work, to remove lindane from contaminated waters. The adsorptive capabilities of this material were studied (equilibrium time, adsorption model and saturation of the adsorbent) and the interference of some metals (iron, cadmium, copper, nickel and lead) was also investigated. Results showed an excellent efficiency of adsorption (average 80,65%) and that the presence of the studied metals did not affect both efficiency and the model of the adsorption, within the range of the concentration of the pesticide studied

  10. Nitric oxide inhibitory constituents from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Zeng, Ke-Wu; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2016-07-01

    Six new compounds including one γ-butyrolactone, cinncassin A (1), two tetrahydrofuran derivatives, cinncassins B and C (2, 3), two lignans, cinncassins D and E (4, 5), and one phenylpropanol glucoside, cinnacassoside D (6), together with 14 known lignans (7-20) were isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were established by experimental and calculated ECD data. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. Compounds 5, 7, 8, and 15 showed potent inhibition activities with IC50 values of 17.6, 17.7, 18.7, and 17.5μM, respectively. PMID:27223848

  11. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  12. Climate warming feedback from mountain birch forest expansion: reduced albedo dominates carbon uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Heleen A; Bryn, Anders; Hofgaard, Annika; Karstensen, Jonas; Kvalevåg, Maria M; Peters, Glen P

    2014-07-01

    Expanding high-elevation and high-latitude forest has contrasting climate feedbacks through carbon sequestration (cooling) and reduced surface reflectance (warming), which are yet poorly quantified. Here, we present an empirically based projection of mountain birch forest expansion in south-central Norway under climate change and absence of land use. Climate effects of carbon sequestration and albedo change are compared using four emission metrics. Forest expansion was modeled for a projected 2.6 °C increase in summer temperature in 2100, with associated reduced snow cover. We find that the current (year 2000) forest line of the region is circa 100 m lower than its climatic potential due to land-use history. In the future scenarios, forest cover increased from 12% to 27% between 2000 and 2100, resulting in a 59% increase in biomass carbon storage and an albedo change from 0.46 to 0.30. Forest expansion in 2100 was behind its climatic potential, forest migration rates being the primary limiting factor. In 2100, the warming caused by lower albedo from expanding forest was 10 to 17 times stronger than the cooling effect from carbon sequestration for all emission metrics considered. Reduced snow cover further exacerbated the net warming feedback. The warming effect is considerably stronger than previously reported for boreal forest cover, because of the typically low biomass density in mountain forests and the large changes in albedo of snow-covered tundra areas. The positive climate feedback of high-latitude and high-elevation expanding forests with seasonal snow cover exceeds those of afforestation at lower elevation, and calls for further attention of both modelers and empiricists. The inclusion and upscaling of these climate feedbacks from mountain forests into global models is warranted to assess the potential global impacts.

  13. BVOC responses to realistic nitrogen fertilization and ozone exposure in silver birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, G; Brunetti, C; Fares, S; Hayes, F; Hoshika, Y; Mills, G; Tattini, M; Paoletti, E

    2016-06-01

    Emission of BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) from plant leaves in response to ozone exposure (O3) and nitrogen (N) fertilization is poorly understood. For the first time, BVOC emissions were explored in a forest tree species (silver birch, Betula pendula) exposed for two years to realistic levels of O3 (35, 48 and 69 ppb as daylight average) and N (10, 30 and 70 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), applied weekly to the soil as ammonium nitrate). The main BVOCs emitted were: α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, ocimene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) and hexanal. Ozone exposure increased BVOC emission and reduced total leaf area. The effect on emission was stronger when a short-term O3 metric (concentrations at the time of sampling) rather than a long-term one (AOT40) was used. The effect of O3 on total leaf area was not able to compensate for the stimulation of emission, so that responses to O3 at leaf and whole-plant level were similar. Nitrogen fertilization increased total leaf area, decreased α-pinene and β-pinene emission, and increased ocimene, hexanal and DMNT emission. The increase of leaf area changed the significance of the emission response to N fertilization for most compounds. Nitrogen fertilization mitigated the effects of O3 exposure on total leaf area, while the combined effects of O3 exposure and N fertilization on BVOC emission were additive and not synergistic. In conclusion, O3 exposure and N fertilization have the potential to affect global BVOC via direct effects on plant emission rates and changes in leaf area. PMID:26809503

  14. Distribution and turnover of 137Cs in birch forest ecosystems: influence of precipitation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was to study radioactive caesium in soil and plants from birch forests subject to different chemical climate. Four areas and three types of precipitation regimes were considered, representing a natural climatic range found in Norway: (A) acidic precipitation (southernmost part of the country); (B) precipitation rich in “sea salts”/marine cations (coastal areas); and (C) + (D) low concentrations of sea salts (inland areas). The results showed significant regional differences in plant uptake between the investigated areas. For instance the aggregated soil-to-plant transfer coefficients (Tag) were generally up to 7–8 times higher for the area receiving acid rain. Differences in caesium speciation partly explained the regional variability - e.g. the exchangeable fraction ranged from 1 to 40% (with the largest fraction of exchangeable caesium found in southernmost Norway). Transfer coefficients estimated on the basis of exchangeable fractions showed no significant differences between the areas of highest (A) and lowest (C) Tags. However, exchangeable fractions taken into consideration, the uptake of 137Cs in plants in the acid rain-influenced area is still about twice that in the sea salt influenced area B. A significantly lower concentration of soluble base cations and a higher share of acid components in soils in area A is a likely explanation for this observation. - Highlights: ► Precipitation quality affects soil chemistry and plant uptake of Cs. ► Soil-to-plant transfer of Cs was highest in a coastal area receiving acid rain. ► Differences in Cs speciation partly explained regional transfer variability.

  15. BVOC responses to realistic nitrogen fertilization and ozone exposure in silver birch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, G; Brunetti, C; Fares, S; Hayes, F; Hoshika, Y; Mills, G; Tattini, M; Paoletti, E

    2016-06-01

    Emission of BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) from plant leaves in response to ozone exposure (O3) and nitrogen (N) fertilization is poorly understood. For the first time, BVOC emissions were explored in a forest tree species (silver birch, Betula pendula) exposed for two years to realistic levels of O3 (35, 48 and 69 ppb as daylight average) and N (10, 30 and 70 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), applied weekly to the soil as ammonium nitrate). The main BVOCs emitted were: α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, ocimene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) and hexanal. Ozone exposure increased BVOC emission and reduced total leaf area. The effect on emission was stronger when a short-term O3 metric (concentrations at the time of sampling) rather than a long-term one (AOT40) was used. The effect of O3 on total leaf area was not able to compensate for the stimulation of emission, so that responses to O3 at leaf and whole-plant level were similar. Nitrogen fertilization increased total leaf area, decreased α-pinene and β-pinene emission, and increased ocimene, hexanal and DMNT emission. The increase of leaf area changed the significance of the emission response to N fertilization for most compounds. Nitrogen fertilization mitigated the effects of O3 exposure on total leaf area, while the combined effects of O3 exposure and N fertilization on BVOC emission were additive and not synergistic. In conclusion, O3 exposure and N fertilization have the potential to affect global BVOC via direct effects on plant emission rates and changes in leaf area.

  16. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Michael J; Hebertson, Elizabeth G; A. Steven Munson

    2014-01-01

    Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the bio...

  17. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NOx reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO2/MJ fuel input and the NOx reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Elevated air humidity affects hydraulic traits and tree size but not biomass allocation in young silver birches (Betula pendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne eSellin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As changes in air temperature, precipitation, and air humidity are expected in the coming decades, studies on the impact of these environmental shifts on plant growth and functioning are of major importance. Greatly understudied aspects of climate change include consequences of increasing air humidity on forest ecosystems, predicted for high latitudes. The main objective of this study was to find a link between hydraulic acclimation and shifts in trees’ resource allocation in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in response to elevated air relative humidity (RH. A second question was whether the changes in hydraulic architecture depend on tree size. Two years of application of increased RH decreased the biomass accumulation in birch saplings, but the biomass partitioning among aboveground parts (leaves, branches, and stems remained unaffected. Increased stem Huber values (xylem cross-sectional area to leaf area ratio observed in trees under elevated RH did not entail changes in the ratio of non-photosynthetic to photosynthetic tissues. The reduction of stem-wood density is attributable to diminished mechanical load imposed on the stem, since humidified trees had relatively shorter crowns. Growing under higher RH caused hydraulic conductance of the root system (KR to increase, while KR (expressed per unit leaf area decreased and leaf hydraulic conductance increased with tree size. Saplings of silver birch acclimate to increasing air humidity by adjusting plant morphology (live crown length, slenderness, specific leaf area, and fine-root traits and wood density rather than biomass distribution among aboveground organs. The treatment had a significant effect on several hydraulic properties of the trees, while the shifts were largely associated with changes in tree size but not in biomass allocation.

  19. Research on the Preparation of PF Adhesives by Birch Liquefaction%桦木液化制备PF的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杉; 张真真

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the mass ratio of phenol to birch powder, quantity of NaOH, molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol on the properties of PF resins. As indicated by the results,the impact of those factors on the performance of PF reduced as molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol > mass ratio of phenol to birch powder > quantity of NaOH. Optimum condition for PF resin was determined through orthogonal experiment. The optimum preparation conditions were as follows: molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol was 2.4,and mass ratio of phenol to birch powder was 4,quantity of NaOH was 12 g. By optimizing the synthesis process, PF resins were finally got, and then a pressure plate test was conducted on the PF resins,which indicated that the bonding strengths of these panels have reached GB/T9846-2004 Ⅰ.%探讨了苯酚与桦木粉质量比(液比)、NaOH用量、苯酚与甲醛摩尔比等对酚醛树脂性能的影响,结果表明,影响酚醛树脂性能的主次依次为甲醛与苯酚摩尔比>苯酚与木粉质量比(液比)>NaOH用量,木材液化物制备酚醛树脂的最佳工艺条件:苯酚与木粉质量比为4,甲醛与苯酚摩尔比为2.4,NaOH用量为12 g.并对制得的酚醛树脂进行压板测试,结果表明,胶合板的胶合强度达到了国家标GB/T9846-2004 Ⅰ类胶合板要求.

  20. Perinatal maternal administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 prevents allergic inflammation in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Schabussova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis implies that microbial agents including probiotic bacteria may modulate foetal/neonatal immune programming and hence offer effective strategies for primary allergy prevention; however their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 to mothers during gestation/lactation can protect against airway inflammation in offspring in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, and examined the immune mechanisms involved. METHODS: BALB/c mice were treated daily with L. paracasei in drinking water or drinking water alone in the last week of gestation and during lactation. Their offspring were sensitized with recombinant Bet v 1, followed by aerosol challenge with birch pollen extract. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to L. paracasei prevented the development of airway inflammation in offspring, as demonstrated by attenuation of eosinophil influx in the lungs; reduction of IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage, and in lung and mediastinal lymph node cell cultures; and reduced peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate and mucus hypersecretion. While allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibody levels remained unchanged by the treatment, IL-4 and IL-5 production in spleen cell cultures were significantly reduced upon allergen stimulation in offspring of L. paracasei treated mice. Offspring of L. paracasei supplemented mothers had significantly reduced Bet v 1-specific as well as Concanavalin A-induced responses in spleen and mesenteric lymph node cell cultures, suggesting the modulation of both antigen-specific and mitogen-induced immune responses in offspring. These effects were associated with increased Foxp3 mRNA expression in the lungs and increased TGF-beta in serum. CONCLUSION: Our data show that in a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, perinatal administration of L. paracasei NCC 2461 to pregnant/lactating mothers protects against the development of airway

  1. STRUCTURES OF TWO NEW BENZOFURAN DERIVATIVES FROM THE BARK OF MULBERRY TREE (MORUS MACROURA MIQ.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG-GUO SUN; RUO-YUN CHEN; DE-QUAN YU

    2001-01-01

    Two new benzofuran derivatives, macrourins A (1) and B (2), together with two known stilbene derivatives, were isolated from the barks of Morus macroura Miq. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic evidence.

  2. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chiarini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect.

  3. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  4. Current status of small hive beetle infestation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of the small hive beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida) is rapidly expanding. From sub-Saharan Africa where it is considered indigenous, SHB has successfully invaded other continents, is prevalent in Australia and North America, and has recently been introduced into Europe (summarized by FE...

  5. Use of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) to deflesh human jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, D; Colard, T; Becart, A; Hedouin, V

    2014-01-01

    We describe new experimental data for the defleshing of human bones using larder beetles (Dermestes haemorrhoidalis) (Küster, 1852). Although the ability of larder beetles to feed on vertebrate remains has been, and still is, used by taxidermists to deflesh skulls and bones, this method has never been documented from a quantitative perspective and has over time become ignored in most forensic anthropology or odontology laboratories. To promote the rational and efficient use of this method, we performed experiments to estimate the quantity of food consumed by larvae. From the 2nd instar to nymphosis, each larva consumed a mean of 0.13±0.03 g of dry beef muscle. We then used 100±50 D. haemorrhoidalis adults and 100±50 larvae to deflesh human maxillae and mandibles sampled within a forensic context (victim identification). Each sample was weighed and photographed before, during and after the experiment. According to our experiments, 20-25 days were sufficient to completely deflesh all of the samples. We concluded that a small number of larder beetles can be used to efficiently deflesh human jaws. According to this result, the use of larder beetles appears to be an inexpensive, simple and efficient way to clean mandibles and maxillae. Furthermore, this method is DNA-safe (compared to usual maceration techniques) and thus allows the samples to be used for subsequent DNA and drug analyses.

  6. Checklist of the Iranian Ground Beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-09-30

    An up-to-date checklist of the ground beetles of Iran is presented. Altogether 955 species and subspecies in 155 genera belonging to 26 subfamilies of Carabidae are reported; 25 taxa are recorded for Iran for the fist time. New localities are listed and some previous distributional records are discussed.

  7. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus: A threat to avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt (LW) is a disease caused by Raffaelea sp., a fungal symbiont associated with the recently-introduced redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus. Impact of RAB as a vector of the disease to avocado is a threat to avocado production in the U.S. Since 2006, we have a) tested suscepti...

  8. Surveying an endangered saproxylic beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Mediterranean woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiari, Stefano; Zauli, Agnese; Mazziotta, Adriano;

    2013-01-01

    of this species. Since in the southern part of its distribution range, a single population of O. eremita is widespread in the landscape, and includes beetles from more than one hollow tree, conservation efforts should focus not only on preserving few and isolated monumental hollow trees, but should be extended...

  9. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are naturally more eye-catching…

  10. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  11. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the

  12. Velocity-density systematics of liquid indium and the validity of the Birch's law for a liquid metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, J.; Komabayashi, T.; Hirose, K.; Baron, A. Q.; Tsutsui, S.; Ohishi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's core is composed mostly of iron with some amounts of light element(s). In order to put constraints on the composition of the core, high-pressure (P) and -temperature (T) elastic properties and density of both solid and liquid iron and iron compounds are of quite importance. The Birch's law which suggests that the compressional velocity would change linearly with density, has been applied to the discussion of the core composition, since it does not require temperature of the core which is one of the most difficult parameters to constrain. Assuming the Birch's law, 300-K compression experiments of solid iron or iron compounds in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) can directly address the velocity-density relations of the inner core. On the other hand, the velocity-density relation for liquid iron has not been studied in the DAC since it requires high-temperatures. Here we investigated both velocity and density of a liquid metal, in order to study the validity of the Birch's law for the liquid metal. Since the melting temperature of iron is very high, we chose indium whose melting temperature is 430 K at 1 bar. For sound velocity measurements of liquid indium, we conducted inelastic X-ray scattering measurements in an externally heated DAC. The inelastic X-ray scattering measurements were conducted at the BL35XU, SPring-8 (Japan). We collected the data of solid and liquid phases at 10 different pressure and temperature conditions. The maximum P-T condition was 9 GPa and 750 K. The melting was confirmed by the two dimensional X-ray diffraction images. For density measurements, in-situ X-ray absorption experiments in the externally heated DAC were conducted at the BL10XU, SPring-8. Dual holes are drilled in the rhenium gasket and each hole was filled with either indium or NaCl. X-ray transmission intensities were measured by a photodiode across the sample and the standard material (NaCl). Assuming the Lambert-Beer law, we estimated the density of liquid indium up to

  13. Responses in the start of Betula (birch) pollen seasons to recent changes in spring temperatures across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberlin, J.; Detandt, M.; Gehrig, R.; Jaeger, S.; Nolard, N.; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A.

    2002-07-01

    A shift in the timing of birch pollen seasons is important because it is well known to be a significant aeroallergen, especially in NW Europe where it is a notable cause of hay fever and pollen-related asthma. The research reported in this paper aims to investigate temporal patterns in the start dates of Betula (birch) pollen seasons at selected sites across Europe. In particular it investigates relationships between the changes in start dates and changes in spring temperatures over approximately the last 20 years. Daily birch pollen counts were used from Kevo, Turku, London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna, for the core period from 1982 to 1999 and, in some cases, from 1970 to 2000. The sites represent a range of biogeographical situations from just within the Arctic Circle through to North West Maritime and Continental Europe. Pollen samples were taken with Hirst-type volumetric spore traps. Weather data were obtained from the sites nearest to the pollen traps. The timing of birch pollen seasons is known to depend mostly on a non-linear balance between the winter chilling required to break dormancy, and spring temperatures. Pollen start dates and monthly mean temperatures for January through to May were compiled to 5-year running means to examine trends. The start dates for the next 10 years were calculated from regression equations for each site, on the speculative basis that the current trends would continue. The analyses show regional contrasts. Kevo shows a marked trend towards cooler springs and later starts. If this continues the mean start date will become about 6 days later over the next 10 years. Turku exhibits cyclic patterns in start dates. A current trend towards earlier starts is expected to continue until 2007, followed by another fluctuation. London, Brussels, Zurich and Vienna show very similar patterns in the trends towards earlier start dates. If the trend continues the mean start dates at these sites will advance by about 6 days over the next 10

  14. [Co-adaptation between mites (Arachnida: Klinckowstroemiidae) and Passalidae beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.

  15. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya; Parveen Kumar; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; B R Balakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia...

  16. QUANTIFICATION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM LEAVES AND STEM BARK OF COCHLOSPERMUM RELIGIOSUM (L) ALSTON

    OpenAIRE

    Sasikala A; Linga Rao M; Savithramma N

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical constituents are responsible for medicinal activity of plant species. Hence the present study quantification of primary and secondary metabolites from leaves and stem bark of Cochlospermum religiosum was carried out. The results showed that the leaf was rich in chlorophylls followed by lipids, proteins and carbohydrates whereas in stem bark highest amount found in chlorophylls followed by carbohydrates, proteins and lipids of primary metabolites. Cochlospermum religiosum leaf wa...

  17. Bactericidal Effect of Aqueous Extracts of the Bark of the Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) on Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rabah Chadli; Aman Bouzid; Khadidja Bouzid; Hamida Nader

    2015-01-01

    This research concerns the study of antibacterial properties of different aqueous extracts of the bark of the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Three bacterial strains were used in this test: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella. Very interesting bactericidal properties of aqueous extracts of the bark of the pomegranate were found on bacteria. The inhibition zones have a very large diameter up to 20 mm and the MIC and MBC are low, of the order of 0.78 mg/ml. This work ...

  18. Potential Activity And Toxicity Of Methanol Extract Stem Bark Banyuru (Pterospermum Celebicum Miq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marzuki, Agus

    2015-01-01

    Banyuru (Pterospermum celebicum, Miq.) is one of the specific plant, a stem bark that has the potential to be developed as a source of antibacterial drugs. Research of antibacterial activity and toxicity of methanol extract Banyuru aims to determine the antibacterial activity and the level of toxicity to Artemia Salina. The method used to test the antibacterial activity is the agar diffusion method and the method used to test the toxicity Brine Shrimp Lethaly Test (BSLT). Banyuru stem bark (...

  19. Antibacterial and radical scavenging activity of leaf and bark of Persea macrantha (Nees) Kosterm. (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Prashith Kekuda T.R; Vivek M. N; Yashoda Kambar; Manasa M; Raghavendra H. L

    2014-01-01

    Persea macrantha (Nees) Kosterm. belonging to the family Lauraceae is found in various states of Karnataka. The plant has got various traditional uses and is reported to exhibit several bioactivities. In the present study, we report antibacterial and radical scavenging potential of leaf and bark of P. macrantha. The powdered leaf and bark were extracted using methanol and the extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis. Antibacterial activity was determined by Agar well diffusion assay....

  20. Heartwood, sapwood and bark content of teak trees grown in Karna-taka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vindhya Prasad Tewari; K.M. Mariswamy

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated heartwood, sapwood and bark content in teak trees. A total of 27 sample plots were laid out in teak plantations raised by State Forest Department in Karnataka covering different age groups (11−36 years), density (516−2061 trees/ha) and sites. From these planta-tions, a total of 130 trees were felled for estimating the yield and bark content in relation to diameter at breast height (DBH), age and density. Bark content ranged from 22.2%−54.3%. Heartwood and sapwood con-tent were analyzed by sampling five trees each from two different planta-tions, one 30 years old at 553 trees⋅ha-1 and the other 32 years old at 911 trees⋅ha-1. The highest heartwood proportion of stem wood volume (over-bark) was 56.3%and the lowest was 37.1%. The sapwood propor-tion ranged from 12.9%−23.0%, while the bark content ranged from 27.8%−43.5%. The heartwood proportion increased with DBH, while the proportion of bark decreased. The sapwood proportion did not vary with DBH. The bark content decreased with increasing age, but increased with stand density. There was no significant difference in heartwood content with respect to age or stand density because the ages of the two stands were similar. A larger dataset from young to mature stands is needed to describe the relationships between age and stand density and heartwood, sapwood and bark content of trees.