WorldWideScience

Sample records for bircam buttes infrared

  1. Design, Manufacturing, and Commissioning of BIRCAM (Bootes InfraRed CAMera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Riva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the various aspect of design, manufacturing and commissioning of the infrared camera BIRCAM, installed at BOOTES-IR, the 60 cm robotic infrared telescope at Sierra Nevada Observatory (OSN, Granada, Spain. We describe how we achieved a quality astronomical image, moving from the scientific requirements.

  2. Interview with Gavin Butt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson

    2008-01-01

    We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....

  3. Butt Rot of Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. I. McCracken

    1977-01-01

    Butt rot is the most serious cause of cull throughout the South, and affects all hardwood species. Defined as any decay at the base of a living tree, butt rot accounts for the loss of millions of board feet of southern hardwood timber annually. In one study of loess and alluvial hardwood sites in the Midsouth, butt rot was found in 40 percent of the trees being...

  4. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  5. Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-05-01

    Cigarette filters are made of non-biodegradable cellulose acetate. As much as 766,571 metric tons of butts wind up as litter worldwide per year. Numerous proposals have been made to prevent or mitigate cigarette butt pollution, but none has been effective; cigarette butts are consistently found to be the single most collected item in beach clean-ups and litter surveys. We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) and http://tobaccodocuments.org using a snowball strategy beginning with keywords (eg, 'filter', 'biodegradable', 'butts'). Data from approximately 680 documents, dated 1959-2006, were analysed using an interpretive approach. The tobacco industry has feared being held responsible for cigarette litter for more than 20 years. Their efforts to avoid this responsibility included developing biodegradable filters, creating anti-litter campaigns, and distributing portable and permanent ashtrays. They concluded that biodegradable filters would probably encourage littering and would not be marketable, and that smokers were defensive about discarding their tobacco butts and not amenable to anti-litter efforts. Tobacco control and environmental advocates should develop partnerships to compel the industry to take financial and practical responsibility for cigarette butt waste.

  6. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  7. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste...

  8. Butt-log grade distributions for five Appalachian hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Myers; Gary W. Miller; Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Joseph E. Barnard; Joseph E. Barnard

    1986-01-01

    Tree quality is an important factor in determining the market value of hardwood timber stands, but many forest inventories do not include estimates of tree quality. Butt-log grade distributions were developed for northern red oak, black oak, white oak, chestnut oak, and yellow-poplar using USDA Forest Service log grades on more than 4,700 trees in West Virginia. Butt-...

  9. 77 FR 12106 - Kapka Butte Sno-Park Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Kapka Butte Sno-Park Construction project. FHWA is providing... project which is being studied in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under the National Environmental... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Kapka Butte Sno-Park Construction...

  10. Defect rates in butt welded steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guille-Stevens, D.; Silcock, P.

    1980-01-01

    As the primary circuit of CANDU reactors consists largely of pipe, the reliability of pipe welds is of interest to reactor designers. A project involving 64 000 manual and semi-automatic pipe welds was inspected to the requirements of ANSI B31.3. Records of 6 000 carbon steel and 1 900 alloy steel butt welds ranging from 50 to 400 mm were inspected by radiography and ultrasonics, and analysed. No correlation between defects and number of weld passes was observed. However, small pipes exhibited a higher defect rate, per weld length and per weld volume, than did large pipes. Porosity was the major cause of defects (60 per cent) followed by root defects (27 per cent); only one crack was recorded. The results show that small (50 mm) pipe welds have the highest defect rate; however, the low overall rate shows that high standards can be maintained over many thousand welds [af

  11. Cigarette butts may have low toxicity to soil-dwelling invertebrates: Evidence from a land snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Hussan; Rogers, Kyler; Rehman, Bilal; Moynihan, John; Bergey, Elizabeth A

    2018-07-01

    Cigarette butts are a common form of litter that is often deposited on soil, where toxins from butts may affect soil-dwelling organisms. We examined possible toxicity of cigarette butts to the woodland snail Anguispira alternata using a toxicity study with cigarette butt effluent and a lab-based habitat choice experiment in which snails could feed or rest on areas with different butt densities. No mortality occurred during the 32-day toxicity study, which used six effluent concentrations ranging from 0 to 4butts/l (0 to 0.92butts/kg of soil). Neither food consumption nor snail growth differed among the effluent concentrations. When provided a choice among four habitats with 0 to 4 cigarette butts, snails selected to preferentially rest in the 0-butt habitat and avoided the 4-butt habitat. This distribution pattern was strong during the first wk. but became weaker over time and largely disappeared by the end of the 3-wk experiment. Snails did not discriminate among butt densities when feeding. This is the first toxicity test using cigarette butts on soil-dwelling invertebrates. Declining aversion to cigarette butts over a 3-wk period may indicate declining toxicity of terrestrially deposited butts as they age, but further testing is needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Even cigarette butts can impact environment and health: preliminary considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, every year about 72 billion of cigarette butts are thrown away in the environment. Cigarette butts represent 50% of the wastes of urban areas (parks, roads) in the world, and 40% of Mediterranean Sea wastes. In particular, total polluting load is constituted of 1,872 Bq millions of Polonium-210, assuming 75 mBq per cigarette butt, and 1,800 tons of volatile organic compounds. As a matter of fact, according to several surveys, cigarette butts are considered by smokers and non-smokers as a common and acceptable waste in the environment. In 2008, European Union issued a Directive on wastes considering the «extended producer responsibility» (i.e., every industry is liable for costs of collection, transport and disposal of its own products). In October 2012, the Italian Parliament proposed a bill that classifies cigarette butts as special wastes in the frame of this responsibility. It could be interesting in the future to follow the legislative process of that bill in the Italian Parliament in order to show how strong it will be supported.

  13. Geology of Gable Mountain-Gable Butte Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.

    1978-09-01

    Gable Mountain and Gable Butte are two ridges which form the only extensive outcrops of the Columbia River Basalt Group in the central portion of the Pasco Basin. The Saddle Mountains Basalt and two interbedded sedimentary units of the Ellensburg Formation crop out on the ridges. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Asotin Member (oldest), Esquatzel Member, Selah Interbed, Pomona Member, Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed, and Elephant Mountain Member (youngest). A fluvial plain composed of sediments from the Ringold and Hanford (informal) formations surrounds these ridges. The structure of Gable Mountain and Gable Butte is dominated by an east-west-trending major fold and northwest-southeast-trending parasitic folds. Two faults associated with the uplift of these structures were mapped on Gable Mountain. The geomorphic expression of the Gable Mountain-Gable Butte area resulted from the comlex folding and subsequent scouring by post-basalt fluvial systems

  14. 78 FR 21582 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Butte County Air Quality Management...

  15. Equipment for Preparing Pipeline Position Butts for Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanov L.M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of developments of the Ye.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute and its specialized departments on the designing national equipment models for preparation during the assembly the edges and butt ends of pipeline position butts with the diameter from 14 up to 159 mm, repair and modernization of power engineering objects, including the power units of nuclear and heat electric stations, in chemical and machine building, at enterprises of oil-gas complex and other branches of industry are presented.

  16. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... 564 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  17. 33 CFR 208.22 - Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.22 Twin Buttes Dam..., shall operate the Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows: (a...

  18. Relative toxicity of cigarette butts leachate and usefulness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative acute toxicity of cigarette butts leachate, antioxidant biomarkers; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), gluthathione (GSH)activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO), an index of malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to two selected commonly consumed brand of ...

  19. GAP WIDTH STUDY IN LASER BUTT-WELDING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    In this paper the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding is intensively studied. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.5-2.0 m/min, the laser...

  20. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  1. Critical Gap distance in Laser Butt-welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    When butt-welding metal sheets with high power lasers the gap distance between the sheets determine the final quality of the seam. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the critical gap distance that results in sound beads is identified. By grinding the edges of the sheets, a number of...

  2. Impact of cigarette butt leachate on tidepool snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David J; Gribben, Paul; Parkinson, Kerryn

    2015-06-15

    In urban areas, cigarette butts are the most common discarded refuse articles. In marine intertidal zones, they often fall into tidepools. We tested how common intertidal molluscs were affected by butt leachate in a laboratory experiment, where snails were exposed to various leachate concentrations. Mortality was very high, with all species showing 100% mortality at the full leachate concentration (5 butts per litre and 2h soak time) after 8days. However, Austrocochlea porcata showed higher mortality than the other 2 species at lower concentrations (10%, 25%) which may affect the relative abundance of the 3 snails under different concentrations of leachate pollution. Also, sublethal effects of leachate on snail activity were observed, with greater activity of Nerita atramentosa than the other 2 species at higher concentrations, suggesting it is more resilient than the other 2 species. While human health concerns predominate with respect to smoking, we show strong lethal and sublethal (via behavioural modifications) impacts of discarded butts on intertidal organisms, with even closely-related taxa responding differently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of weld overlay dimensions for butt-welded pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintapalli, A.; Ku, F.H.; Miessi, G.A., E-mail: achintapalli@structint.com, E-mail: fku@structint.com, E-mail: amiessi@structint.com [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., San Jose, California (United States); Yee, R.K., E-mail: Raymond.Yee@sjsu.edu [San Jose State Univ., San Jose, California (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Weld overlay technique can be used on a welded pipe with a flaw in the butt weld to prevent it from cracking further. Due to the application of weld overlay on top of the weld, compressive stresses are developed in the pipe wall and the weld. These stresses counteract the effect of the residual stresses from the butt weld and tensile stresses produced in the pipe during normal operation. Existing guidelines in the nuclear industry specify minimum dimensions (length and thickness) of the weld overlay. However, there is no guideline regarding the optimum repair dimensions that should be used to obtain minimum residual stresses induced by the weld overlay technique. The optimum dimensions in this study refer to the minimum material that can be used for the weld overlay. This results in reduced cost, time and exposure to radiation. Hence a size sensitivity study is performed by varying three parameters, the width and thickness of the weld overlay, and the size of the pipe being repaired. The repaired pipe is assumed to be subjected to typical pressurizer water reactor (PWR) operating conditions. The weld overlay process is simulated using an axisymmetric finite element model. The axial and hoop stresses in the region of the butt weld after the weld overlay are compared. The results from this study will be analyzed to establish optimum dimensions of the weld overlay for various pipe sizes to mitigate axial and circumferential crack initiation at the butt weld. (author)

  4. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-05-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment.

  5. Fatigue Failure of a Flash Butt Welded Rail

    OpenAIRE

    Godefroid, L.B.; Faria, G.L.; Cândido, L.C.; Viana, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    Medium carbon steel rails are commonly jointed by means of a flash butt welding procedure. To ensure an adequate service life for the structural component commonly subjected to fatigue loading, a rigorous quality control should be performed, both in welding parameters and in the surface quality of the welded joint. This work investigated the cause of a recurrent failure in a railway, with cracking always initiated in the rail in the region of the welded joint. All standard procedures of failu...

  6. Monitoring of the process of Flash-Butt Welding

    OpenAIRE

    Chvertko,Yevgenia; Shevchenko,Mykola; Pirumov,Andriy

    2013-01-01

    Statistical methods of analysis are currently widely used to develop control and monitoring systems for different welding processes. These methods allow to obtain information about the process including effect of all factors on its results, which is often difficult to evaluate due to the complexity of the process. The authors made efforts to apply these methods to develop the system for monitoring the parameters of flash-butt welding in real-time mode. The paper gives brief information about ...

  7. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  8. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO's environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO's areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation's largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST's Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management

  9. Comparison of residual stress distributions of similar and dissimilar thick butt-weld plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Morii, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Residual stress distributions of 35 mm thick dissimilar metal butt-weld between A533B ferritic steel and Type 304 austenitic stainless steel (304SS) with Ni alloy welds and similar metal butt-weld of 304SS were measured using neutron diffraction. Effects of differences in thermal expansion coefficients (CTEs) and material strengths on the weld residual stress distributions were discussed by comparison of the residual stress distributions between the similar and dissimilar metal butt-welds. Residual stresses in the similar metal butt-weld exhibited typical distributions found in a thick butt-weld and they were distributed symmetrically on either side of the weld line. Meanwhile, asymmetric residual stress distributions were observed near the root of the dissimilar metal butt-weld, which was caused by differences in CTEs and yield strengths among both parent materials and weld metals. Transverse residual stress distribution of the dissimilar metal butt-weld was similar trend to that of the similar metal butt-weld, since effect of difference in CTEs were negligible, while magnitude of the transverse residual stress near the root depended on the yield strengths of each metal. In contrast, the normal and longitudinal residual stresses in the dissimilar metal butt-weld distributed asymmetrically on either side of weld line due to influence of differences in CTEs. (author)

  10. Welding residual stress distributions for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Ju Hee; Bae, Hong Yeol; OH, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyungsoo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Tae Kwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    In pressurized water nuclear reactors, dissimilar metal welds are susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking. To access this problem, accurate estimation of welding residual stresses is important. This paper provides general welding residual stress profiles in dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds using finite element analysis. By introducing a simplified shape for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds, changes in the welding residual stress distribution can be seen using a geometry variable. Based on the results, a welding residual stress profile for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds is proposed that modifies the existing welding residual stress profile for austenitic pipe butt welds.

  11. Preliminary geologic map of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Perry, F.V.

    1991-07-01

    The Sleeping Butte volcanic centers comprise two, spatially separate, small-volume ( 3 ) basaltic centers. The centers were formed by mildly explosive Strombolian eruptions. The Little Black Peak cone consists of a main scoria cone, two small satellitic scoria mounds, and associated lobate lava flows that vented from sites at the base of the scoria cone. The Hidden Cone center consists of a main scoria cone that developed on the north-facing slope of Sleeping Butte. The center formed during two episodes. The first included the formation of the main scoria cone, and venting of aa lava flows from radial dikes at the northeast base of the cone. The second included eruption of scoria-fall deposits from the summit crater. The ages of the Little Black Peak and the Hidden Cone are estimated to be between 200 to 400 ka based on the whole-rock K-Ar age determinations with large analytical undertainty. This age assignment is consistent with qualitative observations of the degree of soil development and geomorphic degradation of volcanic landforms. The younger episode of the Hidden Cone is inferred to be significantly younger and probably of Late Pleistocene or Holocene age. This is based on the absence of cone slope rilling, the absence of cone-slope apron deposits, and erosional unconformity between the two episodes, the poor horizon- development of soils, and the presence of fall deposits on modern alluvial surfaces. Paleomagnetic data show that the centers record similar but not identical directions of remanent magnetization. Paleomagnetic data have not been obtained for the youngest deposits of the Hidden Cone center. Further geochronology, soils, geomorphic, and petrology studies are planned of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers 20 refs., 3 figs

  12. Observations of elk movement patterns on Fossil Butte National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Soileau, Suzanna Carrithers.; Allen, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The elk herd that frequents Fossil Butte National Monument, a subset of the West Green River elk population, provides visitors with seasonal opportunities to view an iconic species of the western United States. Throughout the year, these elk range across a variety of private, State, and Federal lands within close proximity to the Monument. These lands are managed differently for various uses which can create challenging wildlife-management issues and influence the herd’s seasonal movements and distribution. Research lead by the USGS investigates some of the factors associated with these seasonal changes.

  13. A Neural Network Approach for GMA Butt Joint Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...... penetration, when the gap width is varying during the welding process. The process modeling to facilitate the mapping from joint geometry and reference weld quality to significant welding parameters has been based on a multi-layer feed-forward network. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear least...

  14. Littered cigarette butts as a source of nicotine in urban waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder Green, Amy L.; Putschew, Anke; Nehls, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of nicotine from littered cigarette butts on the quality of urban water resources has yet to be investigated. This two-part study addresses the spatial variation, seasonal dynamics and average residence time of littered cigarette butts in public space, as well as the release of nicotine from cigarette butts to run-off in urban areas during its residence time. Thereby, we tested two typical situations: release to standing water in a puddle and release during alternating rainfall and drying. The study took place in Berlin, Germany, a city which completely relies on its own water resources to meet its drinking water demand. Nine typical sites located in a central district, each divided into 20 plots were studied during five sampling periods between May 2012 and February 2013. The nicotine release from standardized cigarette butts prepared with a smoking machine was examined in batch and rainfall experiments. Littered cigarette butts are unevenly distributed among both sites and plots. The average butt concentration was 2.7 m-2 (SD = 0.6 m-2, N = 862); the maximum plot concentration was 48.8 butts m-2. This heterogeneity is caused by preferential littering (gastronomy, entrances, bus stops), redistribution processes such as litter removal (gastronomy, shop owners), and the increased accumulation in plots protected from mechanized street sweeping (tree pits, bicycle stands). No significant seasonal variation of cigarette butt accumulation was observed. On average, cigarette butt accumulation is characterized by a 6 days cadence due to the rhythm and effectiveness of street sweeping (mean weekly butt accumulation rate = 0.18 m-2 d-1; SD = 0.15 m-1). Once the butt is exposed to standing water, elution of nicotine occurs rapidly. Standardized butts released 7.3 mg g-1 nicotine in a batch experiment (equivalent to 2.5 mg L-1), 50% of which occurred within the first 27 min. In the rainfall experiment, the cumulative nicotine release from fifteen consecutive

  15. Butt lengths differ by area deprivation level: a field study to explore intensive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Bushell, Lisa; Al Matar, Waseem; Ball, Bridget; Chiu, Jessie; Culliford, Nicola; Gately, Callum; Gibson, Kirsty; Hudson, Jennifer; Hunt, Paul; Rangamuwa, Kanishka; Tapp, Dylan; Wickramaratne, Hasith; Young, Vanessa

    2008-05-01

    We collected cigarette butts in a range of residential areas, to assess differences in the length of unburnt tobacco in the butts, and in proportions of roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes. Two high, two medium, and two low deprivation areas, as classified by deciles of the New Zealand Deprivation Index, were selected for the Wellington region. Collected butts were systematically classified and measured. A mixed model of analysis, treating location clusters nested within deprivation level areas as a random effect, was used to assess differences in mean length of unburnt tobacco in the butts. A total of 6,262 cigarette butts and separate filters were collected, of which 3,509 (56.0%) were measurable manufactured cigarette butts, 1,069 were unmeasurable manufactured butts, 1,450 were RYO butts, and 236 were RYO filters. The RYO butts were not measured because of the extent of their degradation. The unburnt tobacco lengths in manufactured cigarette butts were significantly shorter in the most deprived areas, relative to the least deprived areas (p = .035). Deformed manufactured cigarette butts (i.e., that potentially were stubbed out) showed the same pattern (p = .011 between the most and least deprived areas). We found no significant difference between deprivation areas in the proportion of RYO material found. The shorter mean unburnt tobacco length in the most deprived areas is consistent with more intensive smoking among smokers in those areas. This finding is consistent with other evidence of increased price sensitivity among poorer smokers, and with basic economic theory. Further evidence on observed smoking behavior in the field is necessary to better interpret these preliminary findings.

  16. 77 FR 39735 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings From Italy, Malaysia... Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines Determination On the basis of the..., Malaysia, and the Philippines: Inv. Nos. 731-TA-865-867 (Second Review). Issued: June 28, 2012. By order of...

  17. 77 FR 129 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...-FF01M01000] Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte... Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) from West Butte Wind Power, LLC, for a programmatic permit for the take of golden eagles. If issued, the permit would be the first programmatic permit issued under our...

  18. 75 FR 76025 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  19. Radio and television use in Butte County, California: application to fire prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Folkman

    1975-01-01

    A sample of Butte County residents were interviewed about their radio and television use habits. Their responses were analyzed in terms of demographic, social, and economic characteristics. The findings can be used in developing more effective fire prevention programs. Most people in Butte County listen to the radio or watch television but they differ widely in the way...

  20. 77 FR 14002 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... antidumping duty orders on butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, or the Philippines. Additionally, we... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the... Duty Orders on Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines'' from...

  1. 77 FR 42697 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Continuation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines.\\2\\ \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Butt... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the... continuation of the antidumping duty orders on butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the...

  2. 76 FR 67473 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and The Philippines; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and The Philippines; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and... antidumping duty orders on imports of stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the...

  3. 76 FR 21331 - Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the People...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...-807, A-570-814] Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and... butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China (PRC... duty orders on carbon steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Brazil, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and the PRC...

  4. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana, technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. WETO's environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of useable resources from waste. Environmental technology development and commercialization activities will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management. Since the site has no record of radioactive material use and no history of environmental contamination/remediation activities, DOE-EM can concentrate on performing developmental and demonstration activities without the demands of regulatory requirements and schedules. Thus, WETO will serve as a national resource for the development of new and innovative environmental technologies

  5. BUSTED BUTTE TEST FACILITY GROUND SUPPORT CONFIRMATION ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonabian, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to confirm the validity of the ground support design for Busted Butte Test Facility (BBTF). The highwall stability and adequacy of highwall and tunnel ground support is addressed in this analysis. The design of the BBTF including the ground support system was performed in a separate document (Reference 5.3). Both in situ and seismic loads are considered in the evaluation of the highwall and the tunnel ground support system. In this analysis only the ground support designed in Reference 5.3 is addressed. The additional ground support installed (still work in progress) by the constructor is not addressed in this analysis. This additional ground support was evaluated by the A/E during a site visit and its findings and recommendations are addressed in this analysis

  6. A Neural Network Approach for GMA Butt Joint Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    penetration, when the gap width is varying during the welding process. The process modeling to facilitate the mapping from joint geometry and reference weld quality to significant welding parameters has been based on a multi-layer feed-forward network. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear least......This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...... squares has been used with the back-propagation algorithm for training the network, while a Bayesian regularization technique has been successfully applied for minimizing the risk of inexpedient over-training. Finally, a predictive closed-loop control strategy based on a so-called single-neuron self...

  7. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) Butte, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document has been prepared to highlight the research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation activities funded through the Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. This information has been assembled from recently produced Office of Technology Development (OTD) documents which highlight technology development activities within each of the OTD program elements. Projects include: Heavy metals contaminated soil project; In Situ remediation integrated program; Minimum additive waste stabilization program; Resource recovery project; Buried waste integrated demonstration; Mixed waste integrated program; Pollution prevention program; and Mine waste technology program

  8. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana, technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of useable resources from waste. Environmental technology development and commercialization activities will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management. Since the site has no record of radioactive material use and no history of environmental contamination/remediation activities, DOE-EM can concentrate on performing developmental and demonstration activities without the demands of regulatory requirements and schedules. Thus, WETO will serve as a national resource for the development of new and innovative environmental technologies.

  9. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Residual Stress in Wide Butt Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of residual stress in steel members can significantly compromise the stiffness and fatigue life of steel structural components. This influence becomes more serious for the wide butt welds in the construction of large-sized steel members due to the different residual stress distribution from the normal size butt welds. This paper experimentally studied the residual stress in the wide butt welds through an 8-experiment test program. High residual stress was produced during the wide butt welding and this stress was observed to be even higher than the yield strength of the steel. Moreover, this residual stress in the steel plate was firstly compressive and then transferred into tensile stress with the increase in the distance away from the butt weld line. The magnitude of the residual stress increased with the increase in the width of the welding seams. This paper also developed a finite element model by SYSWELD to simulate the residual stress produced by the wide butt welding. The accuracy of the FE simulation was checked by the reported test results. In order to reduce the residual stress, the ultrasonic peening method was adopted. The analysis results indicated that ultrasonic peening method effectively reduced the residual stress caused by the wide butt welding during the construction.

  10. Cigarette butt littering in city streets: a new methodology for studying and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimal; Thomson, George W; Wilson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were to (a) develop a relatively simple single-observer method for data collection on cigarette butt discarding; and (b) quantify cigarette butt discarding behaviour in city streets. A method was developed, piloted and refined (with interobserver assessment). Cigarette butt discarding was systematically observed by a single data collector while walking a continuous circuit of busy downtown streets in a capital city (Wellington, New Zealand). The final method appeared feasible in this setting and seemed efficient (at 5.5 discarding events observed per hour). A clear majority (76.7%; 95% CI 70.8 to 82.0%) of the 219 smokers observed littered their cigarette butts. Butt littering was more common for those who did not extinguish their cigarette (94.4% vs 4.5%, p=0.003). Butt littering was more common in the evening versus lunchtime periods of observation (85.8% vs 68.1%, p=0.002, logistic regression analysis). Overall, most smokers (73.5%) did not extinguish their butts and some placed lit butts in bins (constituting a risk of bin fires). The context for this littering was a high density of rubbish bins on this circuit with a mean of 3.5 bins being in view and with a bin every 24 m on average. Butt littering behaviour appears to be the norm among smokers in this urban setting, even though rubbish bins were ubiquitous. One solution is stronger enforcement of littering laws. Nevertheless, in a society with a national smokefree goal (by year 2025 for New Zealand), it would probably be more logical and cost effective to move to smokefree policies for major city streets, which are used in a number of jurisdictions internationally.

  11. Numerical estimation of temperature field in a laser welded butt joint made of dissimilar materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saternus Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns numerical analysis of thermal phenomena occurring in the butt welding of two different materials by a laser beam welding. The temperature distribution for the welded butt-joint is obtained on the basis of numerical simulations performed in the ABAQUS program. Numerical analysis takes into account the thermophysical properties of welded plate made of two different materials. Temperature distribution in analysed joints is obtained on the basis of numerical simulation in Abaqus/Standard solver, which allowed the determination of the geometry of laser welded butt-joint.

  12. 78 FR 21540 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Butte County Air Quality Management District and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... Quality Management District (BCAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  13. Comparison of the use of notched wedge joints vs. traditional butt joints in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-07

    Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) longitudinal joints have been an item of increasing scrutiny in : Connecticut. The traditional butt joint has typically been the method used in Connecticut. These joints : have been reportedly opening up, creating...

  14. Toxicity of cigarette butts, and their chemical components, to marine and freshwater fish

    OpenAIRE

    Slaughter, Elli; Gersberg, Richard M; Watanabe, Kayo; Rudolph, John; Stransky, Chris; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette butts are the most common form of litter, as an estimated 4.5 trillion cigarette butts are thrown away every year worldwide. Many chemical products are used during the course of growing tobacco and manufacturing cigarettes, the residues of which may be found in cigarettes prepared for consumption. Additionally, over 4000 chemicals may also be introduced to the environment via cigarette particulate matter (tar) and mainstream smoke. Methods Using US Environmental Protectio...

  15. Computational Modeling of Microstructural-Evolution in AISI 1005 Steel During Gas Metal Arc Butt Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    REPORT Computational Modeling of Microstructural-Evolution in AISI 1005 Steel During Gas Metal Arc Butt Welding 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...NAMES AND ADDRESSES U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS AISI 1005, finite-element...Computational Modeling of Microstructural-Evolution in AISI 1005 Steel During Gas Metal Arc Butt Welding Report Title ABSTRACT A fully coupled (two-way

  16. Residual-stress distributions near stainless steel butt weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elligson, W.A.; Shack, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    Concern for the integrity of stainless steel butt-weldments in boiling-water-reactor (BWR) piping systems has stimulated study of the conditions that cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of the weldments. It is generally agreed that a high stress exceeding the initial yield strength is one of the essential elements for crack initiation. Since design procedures usually ensure that load stresses are below initial yield, the source of the high stresses necessary to produce SCC is thought to be the residual stresses due to welding. To examine the level of residual stresses in the weldments of interest, bulk residual stresses were measured on 100 mm (4-in.) and 254 mm (10-in.) diameter Schedule 80 piping weldments using strain relief techniques. Both laboratory welded specimens and field welded specimens from reactors in service were studied. Axial bulk residual stress distributions were obtained at 45 0 intervals around the circumference. At each azimuthal position, the residual stresses were measured at seven axial positions: on the weld centerline and 13, 20, and 25 mm on either side of the weld centerline on both the inside and outside surfaces

  17. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The Search for Hot Jupiters using Red Buttes Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorber, Rebecca L.; Kar, Aman; Hancock, Daniel A.; Leuquire, Jacob D.; Suhaimi, Afiq; Kasper, David; Jang-Condell, Hannah

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this research is to use the University of Wyoming’s Red Buttes Observatory (RBO) to perform manual, remote, or automated observations of transiting exoplanet candidates. The data contributes to discovery of star systems that include never before identified exoplanets. RBO houses a 0.6-meter telescope and is located approximately 10 miles south of the University of Wyoming’s campus. Our targets are catalogued by the KELT (Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope) Survey, a photometric search for transiting exoplanets around bright main sequence stars. The KELT Follow-up Network (KELT-FUN), a collaboration of small-aperture telescope users located all over the world, confirms new exoplanet candidates. As part of KELT-FUN, students use the RBO to monitor candidates identified by the KELT team. RBO typically detects transits around stars that are 8-12 in V magnitude, with transit durations of ~1-4 hours and full depth relative changes in brightness above 2 mmags. Using AstroImageJ, we process the data and we look for any indication of a transit occurrence in the processed lightcurve which might confirm the presence of the potential exoplanet. Our team has contributed over 50 light curves to KELT-FUN to date. We are able to compare our data with simultaneous observations by other members of KELT-FUN to maximize the utility of our observations. This project gives undergraduates an authentic scientific research experience, learning how to operate an observatory, process data, and participate in a scientific collaboration.

  19. Developmental toxicity of cigarette butts - An underdeveloped issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wenjau; Lee, Chih Chun

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette butts (CBs) littering is not just an unsightly nuisance but also a public health problem, because chemicals contained in cigarettes can leach into aquatic environments and pose a risk to the health of humans and wildlife. However, this risk is largely unrecognized or ignored by the public, and toxicological evidence of CBs is scarce. Therefore, we used medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes) to explore developmental toxicity of CBs. The embryos were exposed to various concentrations of leachates from smoked and unsmoked cigarette tobacco (ST and UST) and filters (SF and USF), and observed from 1 to 3 days post-fertilization. The images were recorded and several developmental endpoints analyzed. The values from these endpoints were then used to calculate the Integrated Biomarker Response and evaluate overall effects of the leachates. Some of the embryos were allowed to hatch, and the hatchlings were tested for anxiety-like behavior. Our results showed that low concentrations of the leachates from ST, UST, and SF raised the heart rate, accelerated development, and changed behavior, while high concentrations lowered the heart rate, suppressed development, and increased mortality. The lowest observed effect concentration for the leachates was ≤0.2piece (pc)/L. The USF leachate had no effect at the concentration of 20pc/L. Developmental toxicity of the leachates was ranked as: ST>UST>SF>USF. This study has demonstrated for the first time that CB leachates affect fish development, and provided toxicological evidence to better assess ecological impacts of CBs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dormaier and Chester Butte 2007 Follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analyses were conducted on the Dormaier and Chester Butte wildlife mitigation sites in April 2007 to determine the number of additional habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to enhance, and maintain the project sites as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Dormaier follow-up HEP survey generated 482.92 habitat units (HU) or 1.51 HUs per acre for an increase of 34.92 HUs over baseline credits. Likewise, 2,949.06 HUs (1.45 HUs/acre) were generated from the Chester Butte follow-up HEP analysis for an increase of 1,511.29 habitat units above baseline survey results. Combined, BPA will be credited with an additional 1,546.21 follow-up habitat units from the Dormaier and Chester Butte parcels.

  1. Evaluation of residual stress distribution in austenitic stainless steel pipe butt-welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Noda, Michiyasu; Takahashi, Shigeru; Oumaya, Toru; Serizawa, Hisashi; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports measured and estimated results of residual stress distributions of butt-welded austenitic stainless steel pipe in order to improve estimation accuracy of welding residual stress. Neutron diffraction and strain gauge method were employed for the measurement of the welding residual stress and its detailed distributions on inner and outer surface of the pipe as well as the distributions within the pipe wall were obtained. Finite element method was employed for the estimation. Transient and residual stresses in 3D butt-welded joint model were computed by employing Iterative Substructure Method and also commercial FEM code ABAQUS for a reference. The measured and estimated distributions presented typical characteristic of straight butt-welded pipe which had decreasing trend along the axial direction and bending type distributions through wall of the pipe. Both results were compared and the accuracy of measurement and estimation was discussed. (author)

  2. Pueblo Folklore, Landscape Phenomenology and the Visual Poetics of Fajada Butte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, C.

    2009-08-01

    In the interest of reexamining the site of Fajada Butte in Chaco Canyon, this paper seeks to recontextualize discussions of its controversial spiral petroglyphs and astronomical phenomena (Sun Daggers) with reference to landscape phenomenology, visual and literary poetics, and the astronomical orientation of contemporary Pueblo ceremonial practices. The dearth of recent scholarship on Fajada Butte may have arisen from the many controversial arguments about its function from a variety of disciplinary locations including archaeology, anthropology, geology, and archeoastronomy. Via an emphasis on the physical landscape, storytelling, contemporary ceremonial practices and ancestral ties to Chaco Canyon, the Zuni and Hopi pueblos provide a context for re-examining the astronomical phenomena of Fajada Butte as a natural shrine of the of Chacoan culture and repository of an array of symbolic content.

  3. Geology of Pine and Crater Buttes: two basaltic constructs on the far eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazierski, P.F.; King, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The emplacement history and petrochemical evolution of the volcanics associated with Pine Butte, Crater Butte, and other nearby vents are developed and described. Four major vents were identified in the study area and their associated eruptive products were mapped. All of the vents show a marked physical elongation or linear orientation coincident with the observed rift set. Planetary exploration has revealed the importance of volcanic processes in the genesis and modification of extraterrestrial surfaces. Interpretation of surface features has identified plains-type basaltic volcanism in various mare regions of the Moon and the volcanic provinces of Mars. Identification of these areas with features that appear analogous to those observed in the Pine Butte area suggests similar styles of eruption and mode of emplacement. Such terrestrial analogies serve as a method to interpret the evolution of volcanic planetary surfaces on the inner planets

  4. 75 FR 60804 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the West Butte Wind Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Wind Power Right-of-Way, Crook and Deschutes Counties, OR AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the West Butte Wind Power Right-of-Way and by this Notice... Register notice. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Storo, BLM West Butte Wind Power Right of Way...

  5. 77 FR 10773 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year... Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)(3)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines would be...

  6. 76 FR 9320 - Foreign-Trade Zone 274-Butte-Silver Bow, MT; Application for Manufacturing Authority REC Silicon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...-Silver Bow, MT; Application for Manufacturing Authority REC Silicon (Polysilicon and Silane Gas) Butte... County of Butte-Silver Bow, grantee of FTZ 274, requesting manufacturing authority on behalf of REC... and silane gas for the photovoltaic industry using domestic and imported silicon metal (duty rate 5.3...

  7. Research on effect of HAZ to butt weld of small diameter titanium alloy pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yiyang; Zhu Yonghui; Pan Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Four groups of welding experiments between new and weld with heat-affected zone (HAZ) have been done by using titanium alloy pipes (φ8 mm). This paper analyzed the width of the HAZ in small kind titanium alloy pipe butt weld, analyzed the difference of performance on dimensions, microstructure, hardness and tensile strength. The result shows that the performance of weld with HAZ is equivalence as the new weld, and it satisfied all the technical index. The conclusion of this paper is valuable for other small diameter titanium alloy pipe butt weld. (authors)

  8. Multiple crack propagation by DBEM in a riveted butt-joint: a simplified bidimensional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Citarella

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Multi-Site Damage (MSD crack growth simulation is presented, carried out by means of Dual Boundary Element Method (DBEM, in a two-dimensional analysis of a cracked butt-joint made of aluminium 2024 T3. An equivalent crack length is proposed for an approximated 2D analysis of a 3D problem where the crack front assumes a part elliptical shape due to secondary bending effects. The assumptions made to perform such simplified bidimensional analyses are validated by comparing numerical results with experimental data, the latter obtained from a fatigue tested riveted butt-joint.

  9. Requirements to gap widths and clamping for CO2 laser butt welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Juhl, Thomas Winther

    1999-01-01

    In the experimental study of fixturing and gap width requirements a clamping device for laser butt welding of steel sheets has been developed and tested. It has fulfilled the work and made the gap width experiments possible.It has shown that the maximum allowable gap width to some extent is inver......In the experimental study of fixturing and gap width requirements a clamping device for laser butt welding of steel sheets has been developed and tested. It has fulfilled the work and made the gap width experiments possible.It has shown that the maximum allowable gap width to some extent...

  10. 76 FR 43341 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the West Butte Wind Power Right-of-Way...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... LVRWH09H0600; HAG 10-0338] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the West Butte Wind Power Right... INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Storo, BLM West Butte Wind Power Right-of-Way Project Lead: telephone (541) 416... INFORMATION: The applicant, West Butte Wind Power, LLC, filed right-of-way (ROW) application OR-065784 to...

  11. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Roland J. Quitugua; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; J. D. Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are genera that commonly cause tree butt-rot on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. These fungal genera can be quite prevalent, especially in older mangrove stands. Although the majority of infections caused by these fungi lead to severe rotting of the heartwood, they typically do not directly kill the living tissues of the sapwood,...

  12. TIG-dressing of high strength butt welded connection - Part 2: physical testing and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, S.H.J. van; Kolstein, M.H.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Weld improvement techniques are aimed at reducing the notch effects of welds and generally focus on two aspects: a change of geometry of the weld toe and a change of the weld residual stresses. In this paper, fatigue tests are discussed, performed on butt welded specimens in steel grades ranging

  13. Quantifying Littered Cigarette Butts to Measure Effectiveness of Smoking Bans to Building Perimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Christopher M.; Strack, Robert W.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Rosario, Carrie; Haugh, Christie; Rice, Rebecca; Wyrick, David L.; Wagner, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors estimated the number of violations of a university policy that prohibited smoking within 25 ft of all campus buildings. Participants: The project was conducted by 13 student researchers from the university and a member of the local public health department. Methods: Students quantified cigarette butts that were littered in a…

  14. 77 FR 4825 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...-FF01M01000] Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; West Butte... an application for the programmatic take of golden eagles. The DEA evaluates alternatives for the... eagles. If issued, the permit would be the first programmatic permit issued under our new permitting...

  15. A study of fatigue life distribution of butt-welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tatsuo; Fujitani, Keizo; Kikuchi, Toshiro; Tanaka, Takao.

    1981-01-01

    Various kinds of welded joints are being used in many structures such as ships, bridges and constructions. It is important in reliability analysis of such structures to clarify the statistical fatigue property of the welded joints. In this study, fatigue tests were carried out on the butt-welded joints of SM50A steel and a theoretical interpretation on the fatigue life distribution was attempted, assuming that a butt-welded joint is composed of a number of sliced specimens with different fatigue strengths. Main results obtained are summarized as follows; (1) The median crack initiation life of the butt-welded joint specimens coincided with that of the sliced specimens, when the crack initiation was defined by a 0.2 mm crack in the sliced specimens or the equivalent state of stress intensity factor in the joint specimens. (2) The distribution of crack initiation lives of the butt-welded joints can be theoretically derived by combining the concept of extreme distribution and the distribution model on the number of fatigue cracks. The theoretical distribution of crack initiation lives of the joints is in good agreement with the general trend of the experimental results. (3) If the distribution of crack initiation lives and the crack growth law are given experimentally, one can obtain analytically the distribution of final fatigue lives. The fatigue life distribution of the sliced specimens can be explained by the theory established in this study. (author)

  16. Geology of the Pumpkin Buttes Area of the Powder River Basin, Campbell and Johnson Counties, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, William Neil; White, Amos McNairy

    1956-01-01

    About 200 uranium occurrences have been examined in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Wyoming. Uranium minerals are visible at most of these places and occur in red and buff sandstone lenses in the Wasatch formation of Eocene age. The uranium minerals are disseminated in buff sandstone near red sandstone, and also occur in red sandstone in manganese oxide concretions and uraninite concretions.

  17. Oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS in a Kenyan provincial hospital | Butt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS in a Kenyan provincial hospital. F. M. A. Butt, M. L. Chindia, V. P. Vaghela, K. Mandalia. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal 2001 78 (8): 398-401). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. Cigarettes butts and the case for an environmental policy on hazardous cigarette waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Lum, Kristen; Smith, Elizabeth; Wang, Vivian; Barnes, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell 'safe' cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers) to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  19. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Barnes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell ‘safe’ cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  20. 77 FR 61020 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Sigurd to Red Butte No. 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ..., Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico). An NOA of the... project Web site at: http://www.blm.gov/ut/st/en/fo/cedar_city/planning/sigurd_to_red_butte.html or...

  1. What Crested Butte Mountain Resort Feels the Ski Industry Is, In General, Looking for in College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Rick

    This paper describes general employment requirements for employment candidates in the skiing industry, as seen by Crested Butte Mountain Resort personnel. General educational requirements are primarily business skills, including: communications, computers, math, finance, accounting, economics, personnel administration, and psychology. Other…

  2. Gap Width Study and Fixture Design in Laser Butt-Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    .5-2.0 m/min, the laser power : 2 and 2.6 kW and the focal point position : 0 and -1.2 mm. Quality of all the butt welds are destructively tested according to ISO 13919-1.Influences of the variable process parameters to the maximum allowable gap width are observed as (1) the maximum gap width is inversely......This paper discusses some practical consideration for design of a mechanical fixture, which enables to accurately measure the width of a gap between two stainless steel workpieces and to steadfastly clamp the workpieces for butt-welding with a high power CO2 laser.With such a fixture, a series...

  3. Loss of butt-end leg bands on male wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Schiavone, Michael V.; Swanson, David A.; Reynolds, Michael; Boyd, Robert C.; Eriksen, Robert; Swift, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated loss of butt-end leg bands on male wild turkeys (Meleagris gallapavo) captured in New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (USA) during December–March, 2006–2008. We used aluminum rivet leg bands as permanent marks to estimate loss of regular aluminum, enameled aluminum, anodized aluminum, and stainless steel butt-end leg bands placed below the spur. We used band loss information from 887 turkeys recovered between 31 days and 570 days after release (x¯  =  202 days). Band loss was greater for turkeys banded as adults (>1 yr old) than juveniles and was greater for aluminum than stainless steel bands. We estimated band retention was 79–96%, depending on age at banding and type of band, for turkeys recovered 3 months after release. Band retention was leg bands on male wild turkeys is inappropriate for use in mark–recapture studies.

  4. Structural architecture and glacitectonic evolution of the Mud Buttes cupola hill complex, southern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Emrys; Evans, David J. A.; Atkinson, Nigel; Kendall, Allison

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed multidisciplinary study of the deformed bedrock and overlying Quaternary sediments exposed at the Mud Buttes in southern Alberta, Canada. This large, arcuate cupola hill is composed of intensely folded and thrust sandstones, siltstones and mudstones of the Cretaceous Belly River Group. Glacitectonism responsible for the development of this internally complex landform occurred at the margin of the newly defined Prospect Valley lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Analysis of the deformation structures reveals that construction of this landform occurred in response to at least two phases of south-directed ice sheet advance separated by a period of retreat. The first phase led to the formation of a forward propagating imbricate thrust stack leading to polyphase deformation of the Belly River Group. D1 thrusting led to the detachment of thrust-bound slices of bedrock which were accreted to the base of the developing imbricate stack. This process resulted in the structurally higher and older thrust-slices being progressively ;back-rotated; (tilted), accompanied by D2 thrusting and folding. Further thrusting during D3 was restricted to the core of the Mud Buttes as the deforming sequence accommodated further compression imposed by the advancing ice. Minor oscillations of the ice margin led to localised brittle-ductile shearing (D4) of the bedrock immediately adjacent to the ice contact part of the thrust stack. The second phase of ice advance led to the accretion of a relatively simple thrust and folded sequence seen the northern side of Mud Buttes. The resulting composite thrust moraine was subsequently overridden by ice advancing from the NNW to form a dome-like cupola-hill. This readvance of the Prospect Valley lobe led to the formation of a thin carapace of Quaternary sediments mantling the Mud Buttes which include glacitectonite, till and an organic-rich clay-silt (?palaeosol).

  5. 78 FR 9945 - Crow Butte Resources, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-8943-MLA-2; ASLBP No. 13-926-01-MLA-BD01] Crow Butte Resources, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the Commission, see 37 FR 28,710 (Dec. 29, 1972), and the Commission=s regulations, see 10 CFR 2.105, 2.300, 2.303, 2.309, 2.313, 2.318, 2.321, notice is...

  6. Micromorphology of carbonate-silica deposits from Trench 14 and Busted Butte, Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, P.M.; Cerling, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The origin of banded carbonate-silica deposits in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, NV is controversial and has been attributed to both downward percolating waters, subject to soil-forming processes, and to upward movement and discharge of hot or cold ground waters. Using petrographic and SEM techniques, deposits from Trench 14 were compared to pedogenic carbonates from Busted Butte and carbonate deposits from known modern and paleosprings to determine how they formed. Busted Butte and Trench 14 samples are nearly identical, and contain many common pedogenic micromorphological features such as alveolar texture, calcified needle fibers, tubes, and rhomb chains, peloids and pellets, and silica cementation. Alveolar texture, calcified tubes, and root tubules suggest biogenic mechanisms are important in carbonate formation. The spring carbonates contain greater amounts of sparry calcite in rims and pore fillings, shells, and few biogenic structures while lacking pedogenic features listed previously. This suggests that Trench 14 deposits were not formed by ground water, but by pedogenic processes in both vertically and horizontally oriented deposits. The presence of chemically distinct volcanic ash throughout Trench 14 and Busted Butte carbonate deposits, along with other detrital materials and pedogenic features in a finely banded manner, suggests the deposits were formed over long periods of time by surficial processes. These processes allowed incorporation of surface materials and developed of extensive root systems resulting in deposition of carbonate-silica deposits in the structures observed. No evidence of hydrothermal alteration of either wall rock or included detritus is observed

  7. A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackketter, Donald [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Executive Summary An innovative 50-ton ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system was installed to provide space heating and cooling for a 56,000 square foot (5,200 square meter) building in Butte Montana, in conjunction with its heating and chiller systems. Butte is a location with winter conditions much colder than the national average. The GSHP uses flooded mine waters at 78F (25C) as the heat source and heat sink. The heat transfer performance and efficiency of the system were analyzed using data from January through July 2014. This analysis indicated that for typical winter conditions in Butte, Montana, the GSHP could deliver about 88% of the building’s annual heating needs. Compared with a baseline natural-gas/electric system, the system demonstrated at least 69% site energy savings, 38% source energy savings, 39% carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and a savings of $17,000 per year (40%) in utility costs. Assuming a $10,000 per ton cost for installing a production system, the payback period at natural gas costs of $9.63/MMBtu and electricity costs of $0.08/kWh would be in the range of 40 to 50 years. At higher utility prices, or lower installation costs, the payback period would obviously be reduced.

  8. Verification of residual stresses in flash-butt-weld rails using neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, David; Kirstein, Oliver; Mutton, Peter John; Chiu, Wing Kong

    2006-11-01

    Residual stresses developed during flash-butt welding may play a crucial role in prolonging the fatigue life of the welded tracks under service loading conditions. The finished welds typically exhibit high levels of tensile residual stresses in the web region of the weld. Moreover, the surface condition of the web may contain shear drag or other defects resulting from the shearing process which may lead to the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in a horizontal split web failure mode under high axle loads. However, a comprehensive understanding into the residual stress behaviour throughout the complex weld geometry remains unclear and is considered necessary to establish the correct localised post-weld heat treatment modifications intended to lower tensile residual stresses. This investigation used the neutron diffraction technique to analyse residual stresses in an AS60 flash-butt-welded rail cooled under normal operating conditions. The findings will ultimately contribute to developing modifications to the flash-butt-welding procedure to lower tensile residual stresses which may then improve rail performance under high axle load.

  9. Joining of the AMC Composites Reinforced with Ti3Al Intermetallic Particles by Resistance Butt Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamiak M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new reinforcing materials continues to be investigated to improve the final behaviour of AMCs as well as to avoid some drawbacks of using ceramics as reinforcement. The present work investigates the structure, properties and ability of joining aluminium EN-AW 6061 matrix composite materials reinforced with Ti3Al particles by resistance butt welding as well as composite materials produced by mechanical milling, powder metallurgy and hot extrusion techniques. Mechanically milled and extruded composites show finer and better distribution of reinforcement particles, which leads to better mechanical properties of the obtained products. Finer microstructure improves mechanical properties of obtained composites. The hardness increases twice in the case of mechanically milled composites also, a higher reinforcement content results in higher particle dispersion hardening, for 15 wt.% of intermetallics reinforcement concentration composites reach about 400 MPa UTS. Investigation results of joints show that best hardness and tensile properties of joints can be achieved by altering soft conditions of butt welding process e.g. current flow time 1.2 s and current 1400 A. To improve mechanical properties of butt welding joints age hardening techniques can also be used.

  10. Summary of investigations of uranium deposits in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Johnson and Campbell Counties, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Max L.; McKay, Edward J.; Soister, Paul E.; Wallace, Stewart R.

    1954-01-01

    Uranium minerals were discovered in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Campbell and Johnson Counties, Wyo., by the U. S. Geological Survey in October 1951. From June to November 1952, an area of about 750 square miles was examined for uranium deposits, and 211 localities having abnormally high radioactivity were found; uranium minerals are visible at 121 of these localities. All known uranium mineralization in the area is restricted to sandstones of the Wasatch formation, except sparsely disseminated uranium in the sandstone of the White River formation, which caps the Pumpkin Buttes, mid several localities on the Great Pine Ridge southwest of the Pumpkin Buttes where iron-saturated sandstone and clinker in the Fort Union formation have above-normal radioactivity. The uranium occurrences in the Wasatch formation are in a red sandstone zone 450 to 900 feet above the base of the formation and are of two types: small concretionary masses of uranium, iron, manganese and vanadium minerals in sandstone, and irregular zones in which uranium minerals are disseminated in sandstone. The second type is usually larger but of lower grade than the first. Most of the localities at which uranium occurs are in a north-trending belt about 60 miles long and 18 miles in maximum width.

  11. A Vision-Aided 3D Path Teaching Method before Narrow Butt Joint Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinle; Chang, Baohua; Du, Dong; Peng, Guodong; Chang, Shuhe; Hong, Yuxiang; Wang, Li; Shan, Jiguo

    2017-05-11

    For better welding quality, accurate path teaching for actuators must be achieved before welding. Due to machining errors, assembly errors, deformations, etc., the actual groove position may be different from the predetermined path. Therefore, it is significant to recognize the actual groove position using machine vision methods and perform an accurate path teaching process. However, during the teaching process of a narrow butt joint, the existing machine vision methods may fail because of poor adaptability, low resolution, and lack of 3D information. This paper proposes a 3D path teaching method for narrow butt joint welding. This method obtains two kinds of visual information nearly at the same time, namely 2D pixel coordinates of the groove in uniform lighting condition and 3D point cloud data of the workpiece surface in cross-line laser lighting condition. The 3D position and pose between the welding torch and groove can be calculated after information fusion. The image resolution can reach 12.5 μm. Experiments are carried out at an actuator speed of 2300 mm/min and groove width of less than 0.1 mm. The results show that this method is suitable for groove recognition before narrow butt joint welding and can be applied in path teaching fields of 3D complex components.

  12. Residual stress analysis of an Overlay weld and a repair weld on the dissimilar Butt weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Soo, E-mail: kskim5@kaeri.re.k [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Dukjin-dong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Dukjin-dong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Chul; Park, Kwang Soo [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., 555 Gwigok Dong, Changwon 641-792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Both the experiment and FE analysis were performed to estimate the residual stresses at the parts of the dissimilar metal welds. The specimen of the dissimilar Butt welds was manufactured, and the residual stresses of this specimen were measured by the X-ray method and a Hole Drilling Technique. The values measured by two experimental methods showed a big deviation at the SUS 316L plate. Consequently, the experimental methods to estimate the residual stresses are not a superior method. The Butt FEM Model on this specimen was developed and analyzed by the ABAQUS Code. The results of the FE analysis were compared with those of the experimental methods. As a whole, the values of the Butt FEM Model showed a trend which was in agreement with the experimental values and the values of FE analysis were found reasonable. The Repair FEM Model and the Overlay FEM Model were developed and analyzed by the ABAQUS Code. The values of these results were also found reasonable data even if the experimental methods be not performed. Therefore, the residual stresses for the dissimilar metal welds can be estimated by an analysis with an appropriate FEM Model without the experimental methods.

  13. Vision and spectroscopic sensing for joint tracing in narrow gap laser butt welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Morgan; Sikström, Fredrik; Christiansson, Anna-Karin; Ancona, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The automated laser beam butt welding process is sensitive to positioning the laser beam with respect to the joint because a small offset may result in detrimental lack of sidewall fusion. This problem is even more pronounced in case of narrow gap butt welding, where most of the commercial automatic joint tracing systems fail to detect the exact position and size of the gap. In this work, a dual vision and spectroscopic sensing approach is proposed to trace narrow gap butt joints during laser welding. The system consists of a camera with suitable illumination and matched optical filters and a fast miniature spectrometer. An image processing algorithm of the camera recordings has been developed in order to estimate the laser spot position relative to the joint position. The spectral emissions from the laser induced plasma plume have been acquired by the spectrometer, and based on the measurements of the intensities of selected lines of the spectrum, the electron temperature signal has been calculated and correlated to variations of process conditions. The individual performances of these two systems have been experimentally investigated and evaluated offline by data from several welding experiments, where artificial abrupt as well as gradual deviations of the laser beam out of the joint were produced. Results indicate that a combination of the information provided by the vision and spectroscopic systems is beneficial for development of a hybrid sensing system for joint tracing.

  14. Residual stress analysis of an Overlay weld and a repair weld on the dissimilar Butt weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, Bong Sang; Jung, In Chul; Park, Kwang Soo

    2009-01-01

    Both the experiment and FE analysis were performed to estimate the residual stresses at the parts of the dissimilar metal welds. The specimen of the dissimilar Butt welds was manufactured, and the residual stresses of this specimen were measured by the X-ray method and a Hole Drilling Technique. The values measured by two experimental methods showed a big deviation at the SUS 316L plate. Consequently, the experimental methods to estimate the residual stresses are not a superior method. The Butt FEM Model on this specimen was developed and analyzed by the ABAQUS Code. The results of the FE analysis were compared with those of the experimental methods. As a whole, the values of the Butt FEM Model showed a trend which was in agreement with the experimental values and the values of FE analysis were found reasonable. The Repair FEM Model and the Overlay FEM Model were developed and analyzed by the ABAQUS Code. The values of these results were also found reasonable data even if the experimental methods be not performed. Therefore, the residual stresses for the dissimilar metal welds can be estimated by an analysis with an appropriate FEM Model without the experimental methods.

  15. Initial Testing for the Recommendation of Improved Gas Metal Arc Welding Procedures for HY-80 Steel Plate Butt Joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    FOR THE RECOMMENDATION OF IMPROVED GAS METAL ARC WELDING PROCEDURES FOR HY-80 STEEL PLATE BUTT JOINTS AT NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD by Veronika J...FOR THE RECOMMENDATION OF IMPROVED GAS METAL ARC WELDING PROCEDURES FOR HY-80 STEEL PLATE BUTT JOINTS AT NORFOLK NAVAL SHIPYARD 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...at naval shipyards. This thesis explores arc weld theory to develop ideal submarine hull butt joint designs and recommends preliminary testing to

  16. Gas metal arc welding of butt joint with varying gap width based on neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...... penetration, when the gap width is varying during the welding process. The process modeling to facilitate the mapping from joint geometry and reference weld quality to significant welding parameters, has been based on a multi-layer feed-forward network. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear least...

  17. Residual stress distribution in steel butt welds measured using neutron and synchrotron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska, A M; Price, J W H; Finlayson, T R; Lienert, U; Walls, P; Ibrahim, R

    2009-03-25

    70 keV synchrotron radiation and thermal neutrons have been employed to investigate the residual stress characteristics in a fully restrained, steel, butt weld. The focus is on the values of the subsurface and through-thickness strain/stress variation in the middle of the weld. The advantages and limitations of the techniques have been addressed, in relation to the gauge volume, the stress-free reference sample and positioning. The measurement of residual stress around the weld achieved in this work significantly improves the resolution at which residual stress in welded components has been determined.

  18. Incidence de l'enfouissement dans les buttes sur le comportement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les tubercules de deux variétés de macabo (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), le rouge et le blanc, étaient, à travers un dispositif expérimental factoriel, blessés et meurtris en simulation de dégâts mécaniques après récolte et enfouis dans des buttes vant stockage, en vue d'améliorer leur qualité pendant l'entreposage. Après 3 ...

  19. Perbandingan Deformasi dan Tegangan Sisa pada Socket-Weld dan Butt-Weld Menggunakan Metode Elemen Hingga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Prasetyo Nugroho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui deformasi dan tegangan sisa pada sambungan pipa-flange dengan variasi sambungan socket-weld, butt-weld dan urutan pengelasan untuk material stainless steel. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pendekatan numerik. Validasi hasil dilakukan dengan dengan hasil percobaan yang dilakukan oleh Xiangyang Lu untuk validasi struktur dan percobaan S. Murugan untuk validasi termal. Hasil variasi sambungan dan urutan pengelasan yang telah dilakukan diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa pada sambungan socket-weld (urutan pengelasan loncat memiliki nilai tegangan sisa lebih besar dibandingkan sambungan butt-weld (urutan pengelasan loncat, sedangkan deformasi yang terjadi sambungan pada socket-weld (urutan pengelasan loncat memiliki nilai yang lebih kecil dibandingkan sambungan butt-weld (urutan pengelasan loncat.

  20. The geology of Pine and Crater Buttes: Two basaltic constructs on the far eastern Snake River Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazierski, Paul F.; King, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The emplacement history and petrochemical evolution of the volcanics associated with Pine Butte, Crater Butte, and other nearby vents are developed and described. Four major vents were identified in the study area and their associated eruptive products were mapped. All of the vents show a marked physical elongation or linear orientation coincident with the observed rift set. Planetary exploration has revealed the importance of volcanic processes in the genesis and modification of extraterrestrial surfaces. Interpretation of surface features has identified plains-type basaltic volcanism in various mare regions of the Moon and the volcanic provinces of Mars. Identification of these areas with features that appear analogous to those observed in the Pine Butte area suggests similar styles of eruption and mode of emplacement. Such terrestrial analogies serve as a method to interpret the evolution of volcanic planetary surfaces on the inner planets.

  1. Numerical analysis of the heat transfer and fluid flow in the butt-fusion welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Hyun; Choi, Sunwoong; Nam, Jaewook; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Oh, Ju Seok

    2017-02-01

    Butt-fusion welding is an effective process for welding polymeric pipes. The process can be simplified into two stages. In heat soak stage, the pipe is heated using a hot plate contacted with one end of the pipe. In jointing stage, a pair of heated pipes is compressed against one another so that the melt regions become welded. In previous works, the jointing stage that is highly related to the welding quality was neglected. However, in this study, a finite element simulation is conducted including the jointing stage. The heat and momentum transfer are considered altogether. A new numerical scheme to describe the melt flow and pipe deformation for the butt-fusion welding process is introduced. High density polyethylene (HDPE) is used for the material. Flow via thermal expansion of the heat soak stage, and squeezing and fountain flow of the jointing stage are well reproduced. It is also observed that curling beads are formed and encounter the pipe body. The unique contribution of this study is its capability of directly observing the flow behaviors that occur during the jointing stage and relating them to welding quality.

  2. Lap and butt joints of dissimilar stainless steels welded by CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurelio, Giuseppe; Dionoro, G.; Memola Capece Minutolo, F.; Panagopoulos, Christos N.

    1993-05-01

    This work concerns the lap welding of dissimilar (AISI 304 - 430, AISI 430 - 304, AISI 316 - 430, and AISI 430 - 316) stainless steels and the butt welding of dissimilar (AISI 304 - 316 and AISI 304 - 430) ones using a fast axial flow 2 kW cw CO2 laser (B.O.C. Laser Ltd.). Two covering gases, He and N2, are used fed coaxially to the laser beam through a 12 mm outlet diameter nozzle at a flow rate varying from 1.67 to 1.87 X 10-3)m3/s. The influence of the process parameters, such as power level, covering gas, and speed on the quality of the welded joints is examined. In the second part of the work laser lap and butt welds of dissimilar stainless steels are characterized by macro and micro graphic investigations to enable structural evaluations. Fillet weld morphology and quality of the same specimens is examined for the two different covering gases, He and N2. Moreover, the different structural aspects of the melted zones obtained with laser welds of the same pair of stainless steels, but with the beam impinging first on the austenitic stainless steel (e.g., AISI 304 - 430) and then the ferritic one (e.g., AISI 430 - 304), or vice versa, are also studied and evaluated.

  3. A Precise Visual Method for Narrow Butt Detection in Specular Reflection Workpiece Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinle Zeng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During the complex path workpiece welding, it is important to keep the welding torch aligned with the groove center using a visual seam detection method, so that the deviation between the torch and the groove can be corrected automatically. However, when detecting the narrow butt of a specular reflection workpiece, the existing methods may fail because of the extremely small groove width and the poor imaging quality. This paper proposes a novel detection method to solve these issues. We design a uniform surface light source to get high signal-to-noise ratio images against the specular reflection effect, and a double-line laser light source is used to obtain the workpiece surface equation relative to the torch. Two light sources are switched on alternately and the camera is synchronized to capture images when each light is on; then the position and pose between the torch and the groove can be obtained nearly at the same time. Experimental results show that our method can detect the groove effectively and efficiently during the welding process. The image resolution is 12.5 μm and the processing time is less than 10 ms per frame. This indicates our method can be applied to real-time narrow butt detection during high-speed welding process.

  4. The microstructure of aluminum A5083 butt joint by friction stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasri, M. A. H. M.; Afendi, M. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Pauh, 02600, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ismail, A. [UniKL MIMET, JalanPantaiRemis, 32200, Lumut, Perak (Malaysia); Ishak, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 02600, Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This study presents the microstructure of the aluminum A5083 butt joint surface after it has been joined by friction stir welding (FSW) process. The FSW process is a unique welding method because it will not change the chemical properties of the welded metals. In this study, MILKO 37 milling machine was modified to run FSW process on 4 mm plate of aluminum A5083 butt joint. For the experiment, variables of travel speed and tool rotational speed based on capability of machine were used to run FSW process. The concentrated heat from the tool to the aluminum plate changes the plate form from solid to plastic state. Two aluminum plates is merged to become one plate during plastic state and return to solid when concentrated heat is gradually further away. After that, the surface and cross section of the welded aluminum were investigated with a microscope by 400 x multiplication zoom. The welding defect in the FSW aluminum was identified. Then, the result was compared to the American Welding Society (AWS) FSW standard to decide whether the plate can be accepted or rejected.

  5. Analytical model of stress field in submerged arc welding butt joint with thorough penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winczek Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical model of temporary and residual stresses for butt welding with thorough penetration was described assuming planar section hypothesis and using integral equations of stress equilibrium of the bar and simple Hooke’s law. In solution the effect of phase transformations (structure changes and structural strains has been taken into account. Phase transformations during heating are limited by temperature values at the beginning and at the end of austenitic transformation, depending on chemical composition of steel while the progress of phase transformations during cooling is determined on the basis of TTT-welding diagram. Temperature values at the beginning and at the end of transformation are conditioned by the speed of heating. Kinetics of diffusional transformation is described basing on Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation, while martensitic transformation, basing on Koistinen-Marburger equation. Stresses in elasto-plastic state are determined by iteration, using elastic solutions method with changeable longitudinal modulus of elasticity, conditioned by stress-strain curve. Computations of stress field have been conducted for one-side butt welded of two steel flats made from S235 steel. It has enabled a clear interpretation of influence of temperature field and phase transformation on stresses caused by welding using Submerged Arc Welding (SAW method.

  6. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena

    2012-01-01

    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  7. Age of the middle Palaeolithic site of La Butte d'Arvigny (Moissy-Cramayel, Seine-et-Marne); Datation du site paleolithique moyen de la Butte d'Arvigny (Moissy-Cramayel, Seine-et-Marne)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, Lab. de Travaux Pratiques de Genie Chimique, 75 - Paris (France); Laurent, M.; Bahain, J.J.; Voinchet, P.; Ricard, J.L. [Lab. de Prehistoire du Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, UMR 6569 du CNRS, 75 - Paris (France); Rousseau, L. [Amiens Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et de Geochimie, 80 (France)

    2000-04-01

    The middle Palaeolithic site of La Butte d'Arvigny, close to Melun, was dated using electron spin resonance (ESR) method on burn flint. Five analysed burnt flints give a mean age of 90 000 years, which ascribes Arvigny to the Mousterian laminar complex of northern France. (authors)

  8. DNA-based characterization of wood-, butt- and root-rot fungi from the western Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Although the islands of the western Pacific comprise a hotspot of species, including fungi, a large number of these species have not been catalogued or documented in the scientific literature on an island to island basis. Butt- and root-rot fungi were collected from infected wood and fruiting bodies of diverse tropical trees from forest, agricultural, and...

  9. Age of the middle Palaeolithic site of La Butte d'Arvigny (Moissy-Cramayel, Seine-et-Marne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, M.; Laurent, M.; Bahain, J.J.; Voinchet, P.; Ricard, J.L.; Rousseau, L.

    2000-01-01

    The middle Palaeolithic site of La Butte d'Arvigny, close to Melun, was dated using electron spin resonance (ESR) method on burn flint. Five analysed burnt flints give a mean age of 90 000 years, which ascribes Arvigny to the Mousterian laminar complex of northern France. (authors)

  10. TIG-dressing of high strength steel butt welded connections - Part 1: weld toe geometry and local hardness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, S.H.J. van; Kolstein, M.H.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of extensive measurements on weld toe geometry of as-welded and TIG-dressed butt welded connections in high strength steels S460, S690 and very high strength steels S890 and S1100. Descriptions of the measurement techniques and data analysis are presented. Four weld

  11. TIG-dressing of High Strength Steel Butt Welded Connections. Part 1 : Weld Toe Geometry and Local Hardness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, S.H.J.; Kolstein, M.H.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of extensive measurements on weld toe geometry of as-welded and TIG-dressed butt welded connections in high strength steels S460, S690 and very high strength steels S890 and S1100. Descriptions of the measurement techniques and data analysis are presented. Four weld

  12. 77 FR 48965 - Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... that the scope language of the Order contains an end-use element that results in the exclusion of pipe... read the scope language at issue as not constituting an end-use restriction, such that King's imported... International Trade Administration Certain Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From the People's Republic of...

  13. 77 FR 18266 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-865-867 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised Schedule for the Subject Reviews AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. DATES: Effective Date: March...

  14. Butt-joint integration of active optical components based on InP/AlInGaAsP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina; Kuznetsova, Nadezda; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate all-active planar high quality butt-joint (BJ) integration of a QW Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) and MQW Electro-Absorption Modulator (EAM) based on an InP/AlInGaAsP platform. The degradation of the optical properties in the vicinity of ~1 μm to the BJ interface was determi...

  15. 76 FR 5205 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...)] Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY: United... Thailand. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of expedited reviews pursuant to..., Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  16. 75 FR 60814 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...)] Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY: United... Thailand. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews pursuant to section... Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. Pursuant to section 751...

  17. 76 FR 19788 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ...)] Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand Determinations On... fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or... Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-308-310 and...

  18. Hampton Butte, a 30-Ma rhyodacite basement high bounding the subsiding Miocene to Pliocene High Lava Plains of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iademarco, M. J.; Grunder, A.

    2012-12-01

    Hampton Butte, a 30-Ma rhyodacite basement high bounding the subsiding Miocene to Pliocene High Lava Plains Michael J. Iademarco and Anita L. Grunder The Hampton Butte area of south central Oregon lies at the boundary between major volcanic and tectonic provinces. Hampton Butte is a large rhyodacite dome complex dated at 30.39 ± 0.13 Ma and is slightly older than the 28.63 ± 0.17 Ma dacite of Cougar Butte to the immediate southeast. They extend the known distribution of vent rocks of John Day age (~35-20 Ma) and are among the oldest rocks exposed in southeastern Oregon. Excepting a remnant of a Cretaceous pluton that intrudes metasedimentary rocks of uncertain age in southeasternmost Oregon, there are no pre-Oligocene basement rocks in the northwest corner of the Basin and Range. Hampton Butte is at least 70 km east of the inferred Oligocene arc indicating that, if it was part of early Cascade volcanism, the arc was much broader than today. Hampton Butte lies at the northern margin of the High Lava Plains, which extend from behind the Cascades arc ~300 km eastward and separate the northwest corner of the Basin a Range form relatively little extended Blue Mountains region to the north. Rocks of the High Lava Plains (HLP) range from ~10 to 0 Ma and are high alumina olivine tholeiites intercalated with tuffaceous sediments and thin widespread ash-flow tuffs; the HLP is punctuated by rhyolite dome complexes that are successively younger to the west. A stack of compound flows of HLP basalt are banked on the south flank of Hampton Butte and dip about 5 degrees south, toward the HLP. These basalts have an age of 7.75 ± 0.06 Ma and correlate with a tongue of basalt with an age of 7.81 ± 0.06, which is preserved in a paleovalley cut into Hampton Butte. These basalts are part of an HLP-wide episode of ~7.5-8 Ma basalt activity. The Hampton Tuff is also banked on the south flank of Hampton Butte, like the basalts dips 5-7 degrees south. The Hampton Tuff yields an age of 3

  19. Incidence of root and butt rot in consecutive rotations, with emphasis on Heterobasidion annosum in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre

    1999-06-01

    The incidence of root and butt rot in consecutive rotations was evaluated in five separate studies. The susceptibility to infections by Heterobasidion annosum was examined in a 28-year-old tree species experiment in northern Jutland, Denmark, established after a heavily infected mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) stand. Pseudotsuga menziesii and Abies nobilis showed greatest mortality due to H. annosum within five years of planting. The highest incidences of butt rot at first thinning, mainly caused by H. annosum of the P-group, were recorded in A. nobilis, Larix leptolepis and Picea sitchensis, with 44 %, 43 % and 36 % of the thinned trees infected respectively. Abies alba and A. nordmanniana were almost free from infections. The incidence of H. annosum was examined in three young hybrid larch (Larix x eurolepis) plantations in southern Sweden established after heavily infected Picea abies stands. The incidence of H. annosum was 7 %, 33 %, and 70 % respectively, in the 2-, 3-, and 5-year-old plantations. Transfer of H. annosum from infected old P. abies stumps to hybrid larch occurs early after planting. The incidence of butt rot in two consecutive rotations in 28 permanent sample plots of P. abies at four different sites in Denmark and at six plots in southwestern Sweden was evaluated. No correlation between the incidence of butt rot at final felling of the previous rotation of P. abies and the incidence of butt rot at first thinning of the subsequent rotation of P. abies was found. In two studies the effects of clear felling operations on stump root damage to P. abies were examined. Numerous cases of damage on stumps and roots were found. However, few cases of damage get infected by spores of H. annosum, and treatment of clear felled P. abies stumps may be a way of reducing the possible infection source transferring the infection of H. annosum to the subsequent rotation 173 refs, 1 fig

  20. Incidence of butt rot in a tree species experiment in northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronnberg, J; Vollbrecht, G.; Thomsen, Iben Margrete

    1999-01-01

    procera Rehd.), Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were planted after shelterwood felling of a mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill. ex Mirb.) stand...... that had been infected by H. annosum. Douglas fir and noble fir showed the greatest mortality due to H. annosum during the first 5 years after planting. At first thinning the highest incidences of butt rot were recorded in noble fir, Japanese larch and Sitka spruce, with 44%, 43% and 36% of the thinned...... trees infected, respectively. Silver fir and Caucasian fir were almost free from infections. Maximum extension of H. annosum rot columns were in Japanese larch (18 dm). Heterobasidion annosum was found to be the most important decay causing fungus. Mating tests assigned all isolated strains of H...

  1. A Study on the Saving Method of Plate Jigs in Hull Block Butt Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Eun

    2017-11-01

    A large amount of plate jigs is used for alignment of welding line and control of welding deformations in hull block assembly stage. Besides material cost, the huge working man-hours required for working process of plate jigs is one of the obstacles in productivity growth of shipyard. In this study, analysis method was proposed to simulate the welding deformations of block butt joint with plate jigs setting. Using the proposed analysis method, an example simulation was performed for actual panel block joint to investigate the saving method of plate jigs. Results show that it is possible to achieve two objectives of quality accuracy of the hull block and saving the plate jig usage at the same time by deploying the plate jigs at the right places. And the proposed analysis method can be used in establishing guidelines for the proper use of plate jigs in block assembly stage.

  2. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at glass buttes, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Perkin, Doug [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Boshmann, Darrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The engineering and studies phase of the Glass Buttes project was aimed at reducing risk during the early stages of geothermal project development. The project’s inclusion of high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys allowed Ormat to evaluate the value of these surveys both independently and in combination to quantify the most valuable course of action for exploration in an area where structure, permeability, and temperature are the most pressing questions. The sizes of the thermal anomalies at Glass Buttes are unusually large. Over the course of Phase I Ormat acquired high resolution LIDAR data to accurately map fault manifestations at the surface and collected detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys to map subsurface structural features. In addition, Ormat collected airborne hyperspectral data to assist with mapping the rock petrology and mineral alteration assemblages along Glass Buttes faults and magnetotelluric (MT) survey to try to better constrain the structures at depth. Direct and indirect identification of alteration assemblages reveal not only the geochemical character and temperature of the causative hydrothermal fluids but can also constrain areas of upflow along specific fault segments. All five datasets were merged along with subsurface lithologies and temperatures to predict the most likely locations for high permeability and hot fluids. The Glass Buttes temperature anomalies include 2 areas, totaling 60 km2 (23 mi2) of measured temperature gradients over 165° C/km (10° F/100ft). The Midnight Point temperature anomaly includes the Strat-1 well with 90°C (194 °F) at 603 m (1981 ft) with a 164 °C/km (10°F/100ft) temperature gradient at bottom hole and the GB-18 well with 71°C (160 °F) at 396 m (1300 ft) with a 182°C/km (11°F/100ft) gradient. The primary area of alteration and elevated temperature occurs near major fault intersections associated with Brothers Fault Zone and Basin and Range systems. Evidence for faulting is

  3. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary (Revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document has been prepared by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities funded through the Western environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described in this document have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information presented in this document has been assembled from recently produced OST documents that highlight technology development activities within each of the OST program elements and Focus Areas. This document presents one in a series for each of DOE's Operations Office and Energy Technology Centers

  4. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document has been prepared by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT&E) activities funded through the Western environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described in this document have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information presented in this document has been assembled from recently produced OST documents that highlight technology development activities within each of the OST program elements and Focus Areas. This document presents one in a series for each of DOE`s Operations Office and Energy Technology Centers.

  5. Application of ultrasonic NDT technique for butt fusion joints of plastic pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyung; Lim, Hyung Taik; Choi, Jeong Guen; Lee, Jae Myung [ANSCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The long term-durability and the soundness of the plastic pipe have been sufficiently verified through use of the plastic pipe during the past several decades. Recently, as the pipe material have been constantly developed, the application of the plastic pipe is expanded to various industrial fields, such as an increase of a use pressure, the bigger diameter of the pipe, etc. In a nuclear power plant where a carbon steel pipe and a stainless steel pipe are mainly used as a safety class III buried pipe, safety in an operation is seriously threatened by abrasion, heat deterioration or the like, frequently generated in a metal pipe. Therefore, in order to provide an alternate to this problem there is a rising interest on using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes which are known to provide much enhanced corrosion, abrasion and impact resistant properties. With polyethylene piping, one of the issue that is being looked into is the integrity of butt-fusion joint. At the present time the Referencing Code and Standard for the NDT technology of for butt fusion joint of the plastic pipe have not yet established. An optimum inspection parameters were determined according to the thickness of the HDPE pipe. It was also confirmed that most of the detection results of two techniques have matched with each other. In the PAUT, it is easy to distinguish signals with from the flaws made by the thin plate and the void. Also the resolving power of PAUT on the detection in the depth direction has been demonstrated to be satisfactory.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of resistance upset butt welded 304 austenitic stainless steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifitabar, M.; Halvaee, A.; Khorshahian, S.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Three different microstructural zones formed at different distances from the joint interface in resistance upset butt welding of 304 austenitic stainless steel. Highlights: → Evaluation of microstructure in resistance upset welding of 304 stainless steel. → Evaluation of welding parameters effects on mechanical properties of the joint. → Introducing the optimum welding condition for joining stainless steel bars. -- Abstract: Resistance upset welding (UW) is a widely used process for joining metal parts. In this process, current, time and upset pressure are three parameters that affect the quality of welded products. In the present research, resistance upset butt welding of 304 austenitic stainless steel and effect of welding power and upset pressure on microstructure, tensile strength and fatigue life of the joint were investigated. Microstructure of welds were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to distinguish the phase(s) that formed at the joint interface and in heat affected zone (HAZ). Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) linked to the SEM was used to determine chemical composition of phases formed at the joint interface. Fatigue tests were performed using a pull-push fatigue test machine and the fatigue properties were analyzed drawing stress-number of cycles to failure (S-N) curves. Also tensile strength tests were performed. Finally tensile and fatigue fracture surfaces were studied by SEM. Results showed that there were three different microstructural zones at different distances from the joint interface and delta ferrite phase has formed in these regions. There was no precipitation of chromium carbide at the joint interface and in the HAZ. Tensile and fatigue strengths of the joint decreased with welding power. Increasing of upset pressure has also considerable influence on tensile strength of the joint. Fractography of fractured samples showed that formation of hot spots at

  7. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Oliver, Jane; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%-90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  8. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops.Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes in two New Zealand cities.Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%, both young people and adults (44%, just young people (6% and alone (5%. An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%–90%. Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk.Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  9. Infrared Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Diatek Corporation, San Diego, CA and the Jet Propulsion Lab developed the Diatek Model 7000 aural thermometer which weighs only eight ounces, and measures temperature in less than two seconds using infrared astronomy technology to measure the amount of infrared energy emitted by the eardrum (the same way temperature of stars and planets is measured). This method avoids contact with mucous membranes, virtually eliminating the possibility of cross infection, and permits temperature measurement of newborn, critically ill, or incapacitated patients. Diatek Corporation was purchased by Welch Allyn Inc. The Diatek Model 7000 is now marketed as SureTemp.

  10. Parisian urban green spaces as palimpsest : memory, codificationa and aesthetics in Monceau, Bagatelle and the Buttes-Chaumont

    OpenAIRE

    Canada-Smith, Donna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the existing corpus on Parisian garden history through its transcultural and intertextual reading of Monceau, Bagatelle and the Buttes- Chaumont. In terms of its methodological framework this thesis draws on the work of Pierre Nora on lieux de memoire, Paul Ricoeur on memory and history and Gerard Genette on intertextuality and the concept of the palimpsest. The lexicon established by these three scholars has been used to interpret the symbolic and socio-cultural me...

  11. A 24 h investigation of the hydrogeochemistry of baseflow and stormwater in an urban area impacted by mining: Butte, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Shope, Christopher L.; Duaime, Terence E.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in water quality during a storm event were continuously monitored over a 24 h period at a single location along an urban stormwater drain in Butte, Montana. The Butte Metro Storm Drain (MSD) collects groundwater baseflow and stormwater draining Butte Hill, a densely populated site that has been severely impacted by 130 years of mining, milling, and smelting of copper-rich, polymetallic mineral deposits. On the afternoon of 26 June 2002, a heavy thunderstorm caused streamflow in the MSD to increase 100-fold, from 0·2 ft3 s−1 to more than 20 ft3 s−1. Hourly discharge and water quality data were collected before, during, and following the storm. The most significant finding was that the calculated loads (grams per hour) of both dissolved and particulate copper passing down the MSD increased more than 100-fold in the first hour following the storm, and remained elevated over baseline conditions for the remainder of the study period. Other metals, such as zinc, cadmium, and manganese, showed a decrease in load from pre-storm to post-storm conditions. In addition to the large flush of copper, loads of soluble phosphorus increased during the storm, whereas dissolved oxygen dropped to low levels (mining activities.

  12. A Semi-analytical model for creep life prediction of butt-welded joints in cylindrical vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrabi, K.

    2001-01-01

    There have been many investigations on the life assessment of high temperature weldments used in cylindrical pressure vessels, pipes and tubes over the last two decades or so. But to the author's knowledge, currently, there exists no practical, economical and relatively accurate model for creep life assessment of butt-welded joints in cylindrical pressure vessels. This paper describes a semi-analytical and economical model for creep life assessment of butt-welded joints. The first stage of the development of the model is described where the model takes into account the material discontinuities at the welded joint only. The development of the model to include other factors such as geometrical stress concentrations, residual stresses, etc will be reported separately. It has been shown that the proposed model can estimate the redistributions of stresses in the weld and Haz with an error of less than 4%. It has also been shown that the proposed model can conservatively predict the creep life of a butt-welded joint with an error of less than 16%

  13. A Study on the compensation margin on butt welding joint of Large Steel plates during Shipbuilding construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J; Jeong, K; Chung, H; Jeong, H; Ji, M; Yun, C; Lee, J

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the characteristics of butt welding joint shrinkage for shipbuilding and marine structures main plate. The shrinkage strain of butt welding joint which is caused by the process of heat input and cooling, results in the difference between dimensions of the actual parent metal and the dimensions of design. This, in turn, leads to poor quality in the production of ship blocks and reworking through period of correction brings about impediment on improvement of productivity. Through experiments on butt welding joint's shrinkage strain on large structures main plate, the deformation of welding residual stress in the form of I, Y, V was obtained. In addition, the results of experiments indicate that there is limited range of shrinkage in the range of 1 ∼ 2 mm in 11t ∼ 21.5t thickness and the effect of heat transfer of weld appears to be limited within 1000 mm based on one side of seam line so there was limited impact of weight of parent metal on the shrinkage. Finally, it has been learned that Shrinkage margin needs to be applied differently based on groove phenomenon in the design phase in order to minimize shrinkage. (paper)

  14. Uptake of nicotine from discarded cigarette butts - A so far unconsidered path of contamination of plant-derived commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmar, Dirk; Radwan, Alzahraa; Abdalla, Neama; Taha, Hussein; Wittke, Carina; El-Henawy, Ahmed; Alshaal, Tarek; Amer, Megahed; Kleinwächter, Maik; Nowak, Melanie; El-Ramady, Hassan

    2018-02-14

    This study aimed to elucidate the origin of the widespread nicotine contamination of plant-derived commodities, by conducting field experiments with various herbs and spice plants. By scattering tobacco and cigarette butts on the field and subsequent nicotine analyses of the acceptor plants, we verified that the alkaloid is leached out into the soil and is taken up by the crop plants. This path of contamination pertains even when there is only one cigarette butt per square meter. Even such minor pollution results - at least in the case of basil and peppermint - in considerable high nicotine contaminations, which exceed the maximum residue level by more than 20-fold. The data reported here clearly outline the large practical relevance of this soil-borne contamination path and imply that unthoughtful disposal of cigarette butts in the field by farm workers may be the reason for the widespread occurrence of nicotine contamination in plant-derived commodities. Therefore, such misbehavior needs to be prevented using education and sensitization, and by including this issue into the guidelines of good agricultural practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) on Single V-Butt Weld Integrity Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Kamal Shah Shamsudin; Norhazleena Azaman

    2015-01-01

    Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) utilizes arrays of piezoelectric elements that are embedded in an epoxy base. The benefit of having such kind of array is that beam forming such as steering and focusing the beam front possible. This enables scanning patterns such as linear scan, sectorial scan and depth focusing scan to be performed. Ultrasonic phased array systems can potentially be employed in almost any test where conventional ultrasonic flaw detectors have traditionally been used. Weld inspection and crack detection are the most important applications, and these tests are done across a wide range of industries including aerospace, power generation, petrochemical, metal billet and tubular goods suppliers, pipeline construction and maintenance, structural metals, and general manufacturing. Phased arrays can also be effectively used to profile remaining wall thickness in corrosion survey applications. The benefits of PAUT are simplifying inspection of components of complex geometry, inspection of components with limited access, testing of welds with multiple angles from a single probe and increasing the probability of detection while improving signal-to-noise ratio. This paper compares the result of inspection on several specimens using PAUT as to digital radiography. The specimens are welded plates with single V-butt weld made of carbon steel. Digital radiography is done using blue imaging plate with x-ray source. PAUT is done using Olympus MX2 with 5 MHz probe consisting of 64 elements. The location, size and length of defect is compared. (author)

  16. Incidence of butt rot in a tree species experiment in northern Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg, Jonas; Vollbrecht, Gudmund [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden). Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre; Thomsen, I.M. [Danish Forest and Landscape Research Inst., Hoersholm (Denmark)

    1999-08-01

    The susceptibility to infections by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. was examined in a 28-year-old tree species experiment in northern Jutland, Denmark. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl) Lindl.), noble fir (Abies procera Rehd.), Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were planted after shelterwood felling of a mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill. ex Mirb.) stand that had been infected by H. annosum. Douglas fir and noble fir showed the greatest mortality due to H. annosum during the first 5 years after planting. At first thinning the highest incidences of butt rot were recorded in noble fir, Japanese larch and Sitka spruce, with 44%, 43% and 36% of the thinned trees infected, respectively. Silver fir and Caucasian fir were almost free from infections. Maximum extension of H. annosum rot columns were in Japanese larch (18 dm). Heterobasidion annosum was found to be the most important decay causing fungus. Mating tests assigned all isolated strains of H. annosum to the P-intersterility group 35 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Assessment of role of metamorphic remobilization in genesis of uranium ores from Ralston Buttes area, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Ralston Buttes mining district, the principal source of commercial uranium in the Front Range since the late 1940s, is located northeast of Golden and southeast of the Front Range mineral belt. Uranium ore occurs in veins emplaced in fault breccia in Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The progenitors of the metamorphic rocks are a possible source for the uranium. Hornblende gneisses of the Idaho Springs Formation is the major rock type in the area, thus its origin is a major consideration in assessing the quantity of uranium that might have been contributed by metamorphic processes. To evaluate this, 41 rock samples (19 hornblende gneisses, 7 biotite gneisses, 5 chlorite gneisses, and 10 metapelites) were analyzed for major elements, and 3 rock samples (16 hornblende gneisses, 8 biotite gneisses, 4 chlorite gneisses, and 5 mica schists) were analyzed for trace metals (Rb, Sc, Zr, V, Ni, Co, Cr, Ba, U, and Th). Four samples of hornblende gneiss and 1 sample of mica schists were also analyzed for rare earth elements. Major elements are rare earth data indicate that the hornblende gneiss was derived from sediments and tholeiitic basalts. Trace element data suggest a volcanic provenance for these sediments. Rare earth patterns and uranium and thorium abundances of metapelites are similar to average North American shales. Low uranium and thorium values and low thorium-uranium ratios in hornblende gneisses and mica schists preclude large-scale uranium remobilization during metamorphism of these source rocks

  18. Transmission of Lamb waves and resonance at an adhesive butt joint of plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Naoki; Biwa, Shiro

    2016-12-01

    The transmission behavior of Lamb waves and the possible occurrence of resonance at an adhesive butt joint of plates are studied experimentally. To this purpose, two 2.5-mm thick aluminum alloy plates are bonded at their edges using cyanoacrylate-based adhesive. Bonded plate specimens with different joint conditions are prepared by changing the bonding procedure. The measurements are performed for the transmission characteristics of the lowest-order symmetric (S0) and antisymmetric (A0) Lamb modes for the frequency range of 0.4-0.6MHz below the cut-off frequency of the higher-order modes. The experimental results show that the transmission coefficients of the S0 and A0 modes exhibit different frequency-dependent characteristics depending on the joint condition. Furthermore, for the incidence of the S0 mode at the center frequency of 1MHz, the transmitted S0 mode in weakly bonded specimens shows a long oscillation tail due to the resonance effect. The experimental results are discussed in the light of the theoretical results based on the spring-type interface model. The interfacial stiffnesses identified from the transmission coefficients are shown to be correlated with the bonding condition of the joint and give reasonable estimates of the resonance frequencies of weakly bonded specimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Infrared retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Sanjay [Albuquerque, NM; Hayat, Majeed M [Albuquerque, NM; Tyo, J Scott [Tucson, AZ; Jang, Woo-Yong [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-12-06

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  20. High power laser welding of thick steel plates in a horizontal butt joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, M. Mazar; Yazdian, N.; Ma, J.; Kovacevic, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this investigation, two laser-based welding techniques, autogenous laser welding (ALW) and laser welding assisted with a cold wire (LWACW), were applied to join thick plates of a structural steel (A36) in a horizontal narrow gap butt joint configuration. The main practical parameters including welding method and laser power were varied to get the sound weld with a requirement to achieve a full penetration with the reinforcement at the back side of weld in just one pass. The weld-bead shape, cross-section and mechanical properties were evaluated by profilometer, micro-hardness test and optical microscope. In order to investigate the stability of laser-induced plasma plume, the emitted optical spectra was detected and analyzed by the spectroscopy analysis. It was found that at the laser power of 7 kW a fully penetrated weld with a convex back side of weld could be obtained by the LWACW. The microstructural examinations showed that for the ALW the acicular ferrite and for the LWACW the pearlite were formed in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The prediction of microstructure based on continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and cooling curves obtained by thermocouple measurement were in good agreement with each other. According to the plasma ionization values obtained from the spectroscopy analysis the plume for both processes was recognized as dominated weakly ionized plasma including the main vaporized elemental composition. At the optimum welding condition (LWACW at the laser power of 7 kW) the fluctuation of the electron temperature was reduced. The spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that at the higher laser power more of the elemental compositions such as Mn and Fe were evaporated.

  1. In-process monitoring and adaptive control for gap in micro butt welding with pulsed YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Kito, Masayuki; Katayama, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    A gap is one of the most important issues to be solved in laser welding of a micro butt joint, because the gap results in welding defects such as underfilling or a non-bonded joint. In-process monitoring and adaptive control has been expected as one of the useful procedures for the stable production of sound laser welds without defects. The objective of this research is to evaluate the availability of in-process monitoring and adaptive control in micro butt welding of pure titanium rods with a pulsed neodymium : yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd : YAG) laser beam of a 150 μm spot diameter. It was revealed that a 45 μm narrow gap was detected by the remarkable jump in a reflected light intensity due to the formation of the molten pool which could bridge the gap. Heat radiation signal levels increased in proportion to the sizes of molten pools or penetration depths for the respective laser powers. As for adaptive control, the laser peak power was controlled on the basis of the reflected light or the heat radiation signals to stably produce a sound deeply penetrated weld reduced underfilling. In the case of a 100 μm gap, the underfilling was greatly reduced by half smaller than those made with a conventional rectangular pulse shape in seam welding as well as spot welding with a pulsed Nd : YAG laser beam. Consequently, the adaptive control of the laser peak power on the basis of in-process monitoring could reduce the harmful effects due to a gap in micro butt laser welding with a pulsed laser beam

  2. A novel weld seam detection method for space weld seam of narrow butt joint in laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wen Jun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Structured light measurement is widely used for weld seam detection owing to its high measurement precision and robust. However, there is nearly no geometrical deformation of the stripe projected onto weld face, whose seam width is less than 0.1 mm and without misalignment. So, it's very difficult to ensure an exact retrieval of the seam feature. This issue is raised as laser welding for butt joint of thin metal plate is widely applied. Moreover, measurement for the seam width, seam center and the normal vector of the weld face at the same time during welding process is of great importance to the welding quality but rarely reported. Consequently, a seam measurement method based on vision sensor for space weld seam of narrow butt joint is proposed in this article. Three laser stripes with different wave length are project on the weldment, in which two red laser stripes are designed and used to measure the three dimensional profile of the weld face by the principle of optical triangulation, and the third green laser stripe is used as light source to measure the edge and the centerline of the seam by the principle of passive vision sensor. The corresponding image process algorithm is proposed to extract the centerline of the red laser stripes as well as the seam feature. All these three laser stripes are captured and processed in a single image so that the three dimensional position of the space weld seam can be obtained simultaneously. Finally, the result of experiment reveals that the proposed method can meet the precision demand of space narrow butt joint.

  3. Tool material effect on the friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 Alloy Matrix MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Bozkurt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to study on the effect of material properties tool on friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 alloy matrix MMC. Uncoated tool, coated tool with a CrN, and coated tool with AlTiN were used to weld aluminum MMC plates. Macrostructure and microstructure observations, ultimate tensile strength, wear resistance, and chemical analysis were carried out to determine the appropriate tool for joining these composite plates. Results showed that the good welded joints could be obtained when a tool is coated with AlTiN.

  4. Measurement of through-thickness residual stress in T-butt weldments of offshore steel by high resolution neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.J.; Hutchings, M.T.; Rainey, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The use of high resolution neutron diffraction to measure, nondestructively, the residual strain and hence the residual stress variation through the heat affected zone and into the plate beneath the toe of a T-butt is described. The effects on the strain variation of post weld heat treatment, and of fatigue loading until a crack is formed in the plate, have been investigated. The results indicate the power of the neutron diffraction technique to obtain unique information on the strain distribution with a weldment. (author)

  5. A Methodology for the Assessment of Unconventional (Continuous) Resources with an Application to the Greater Natural Buttes Gas Field, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Cook, Troy A.; Coleman, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The Greater Natural Buttes tight natural gas field is an unconventional (continuous) accumulation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, that began production in the early 1950s from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group. Three years later, production was extended to the Eocene Wasatch Formation. With the exclusion of 1100 non-productive ('dry') wells, we estimate that the final recovery from the 2500 producing wells existing in 2007 will be about 1.7 trillion standard cubic feet (TSCF) (48.2 billion cubic meters (BCM)). The use of estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) per well is common in assessments of unconventional resources, and it is one of the main sources of information to forecast undiscovered resources. Each calculated recovery value has an associated drainage area that generally varies from well to well and that can be mathematically subdivided into elemental subareas of constant size and shape called cells. Recovery per 5-acre cells at Greater Natural Buttes shows spatial correlation; hence, statistical approaches that ignore this correlation when inferring EUR values for untested cells do not take full advantage of all the information contained in the data. More critically, resulting models do not match the style of spatial EUR fluctuations observed in nature. This study takes a new approach by applying spatial statistics to model geographical variation of cell EUR taking into account spatial correlation and the influence of fractures. We applied sequential indicator simulation to model non-productive cells, while spatial mapping of cell EUR was obtained by applying sequential Gaussian simulation to provide multiple versions of reality (realizations) having equal chances of being the correct model. For each realization, summation of EUR in cells not drained by the existing wells allowed preparation of a stochastic prediction of undiscovered resources, which range between 2.6 and 3.4 TSCF (73.6 and 96.3 BCM) with a mean of 2.9 TSCF (82.1 BCM) for Greater Natural Buttes

  6. Geologic map of the Strawberry Butte 7.5’ quadrangle, Meagher County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2017-06-19

    The 7.5′ Strawberry Butte quadrangle in Meagher County, Montana near the southwest margin of the Little Belt Mountains, encompasses two sharply different geologic terranes.  The northern three-quarters of the quadrangle are underlain mainly by Paleoproterozoic granite gneiss, across which Middle Cambrian sedimentary rocks rest unconformably.  An ancestral valley of probable late Eocene age, eroded northwest across the granite gneiss terrane, is filled with Oligocene basalt and overlying Miocene and Oligocene sandstone, siltstone, tuffaceous siltstone, and conglomerate.  The southern quarter of the quadrangle is underlain principally by deformed Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of the Newland Formation, which are intruded by Eocene biotite hornblende dacite dikes.  In this southern terrane, Tertiary strata are exposed only in a limited area near the southeast margin of the quadrangle.  The distinct terranes are juxtaposed along the Volcano Valley fault zone—a zone of recurrent crustal movement beginning possibly in Mesoproterozoic time and certainly established from Neoproterozoic–Early Cambrian to late Tertiary time.  Movement along the fault zone has included normal faulting, the southern terrane faulted down relative to the northern terrane, some reverse faulting as the southern terrane later moved up against the northern terrane, and lateral movement during which the southern terrane likely moved west relative to the northern terrane.  Near the eastern margin of the quadrangle, the Newland Formation is locally the host of stratabound sulfide mineralization adjacent to the fault zone; west along the fault zone across the remainder of the quadrangle are significant areas and bands of hematite and iron-silicate mineral concentrations related to apparent alteration of iron sulfides.  The map defines the distribution of a variety of surficial deposits, including the distribution of hematite-rich colluvium and iron-silicate boulders.  The southeast

  7. Busted Butte report on laboratory radionuclide migration experiments in non-welded tuff under unsaturated conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandergraaf, T.T.; Drew, D.J.; Ticknor, K.V

    2002-11-01

    Three blocks of non-welded tuff, one nominally one cubic foot (trial block) and the other two, nominally one cubic metre (1 m{sup 3}), were excavated from the Busted Butte Test Facility on the Nevada Test Site and transported to the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Whiteshell Laboratories in Pinawa, Manitoba. The trial block and one of the 1-m{sup 3} blocks were used for unsaturated flow experiments. The remaining 1-m{sup 3} block is being used for saturated flow experiments and will be reported on separately. After a vertical flow of synthetic transport solution was set up under unsaturated conditions, a suite of conservative and chemically reactive radionuclide tracers was injected at volumetric flow rates of 20 mL/hr in the trial block, and 10 mL/hr in the 1-m{sup 3} block. The duration of the migration experiment in the trial block was 87 days, while the migration experiment in the 1-m{sup 3} block was continuing after 600 days. Results obtained from the migration experiment in the trial block showed that transport of {sup 95m+99}Tc, injected as the pertechnetate (an)ion, was slightly faster than that of the transport solution, using tritiated water ({sup 3}H{sub 2}O) as a flow indicator. Retardation of {sup 237}Np was consistent with that predicted from results obtained in supporting static batch sorption studies. Post-migration analysis of the flow field in the trial block showed that the front of the {sup 22}Na had migrated about half the distance through the block, and that {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs had been retained near the inlet. This observation agrees qualitatively with that predicted from the results from static batch sorption studies. In the larger scale experiment, the transport behavior of Tc is very similar to that of the transport solution at this point in time. None of the other radionuclide tracers have been detected in water collected from this block. This observation is consistent with the observations for the smaller block. (author)

  8. Butt rot occurrence in plus trees of Silver fir Abies alba Mill. and Norway spruce Picea abies (L. from the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomicz-Zegar Elżbieta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its hidden character, butt rot occurrence is not commonly included in the assessment of plus trees’ health status. Thus, the trees’ varied susceptibility to wood decay is not a target of breeding efforts. The aim of the study was to determine the extent of butt rot in fir and spruce plus trees from Carpathian seed stands. We employed the novel and non-invasive diagnostic method of sonic tomography to determine presence and severity of decay at the base of 110 plus trees of silver fir and 42 of Norway spruce.

  9. Special metallurgy - the electrical butt-welding by flashing of sintered magnesium-magnesium oxide composites (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charleux, J.

    1963-01-01

    Electrical resistance welding has become quite important since World War II because of the need of a high yield in aeronautical production. Progress has been due in particular to the improvements made in electronically controlled apparatus making possible the automatic control of welding. For the butt-welding of sections requiring either a high production rate or a high quality weld, the flash butt-welding system has been very much developed these last few years. The use of this welding method is of great importance in the field of the bonding of oxidisable metals such as magnesium or aluminium and its alloys, because the welded joint is free from oxides. This study consists of general considerations on the flash-welding process with regard to temperature distribution in the parts during welding, and to electrical phenomena connected with flashing. Besides this general or theoretical section, we have applied the welding process to the bonding of sintered magnesium, a magnesium-magnesium oxide composite, whose use as a structural element in nuclear reactors is considered. (author) [fr

  10. PENGARUH BESAR ARUS LISTRIK DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ELEKTRODA SMAW TERHADAP KEKUATAN SAMBUNGAN LAS BUTT JOINT PADA PLAT MILD STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjito Jokosisworo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mechanic disposition, is one of the factor influence ship strength. This influence can be test by mechanical test in welding butt joint. The result test database analysis can be conclude that very helpful to increase safety and quality butt joint. With steel specification C= 0,15%, Si= 0,24%, Mn= 0,88%,P= 0,018%, S= 0,034%. This material give a 90, 110, 125 ampere with SMAW AC electrode diameter 3,2 mm x 350 mm with V root and 600 angle In the fabrication of mild steel products, components or equipment, manufacturers employ welding as the principal joining method. Mild steel are weldable materials, and a welded joint can provide optimum corrosion resistance, strength, and fabrication economy. However, designers should recognize that any metal, including stainless steels, may undergo certain changes during welding. It is necessary, therefore, to exercise a reasonable degree of care during welding to minimize or prevent any deleterious effects that may occur, and to preserve the same degree of corrosion resistance and strength in weld zone that is an intheren part of the base metal

  11. Residual stress distribution in austenitic stainless steel pipe butt-welded joint measured by neutron diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Noda, Michiyasu; Oumaya, Toru; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Residual stress is inevitable consequence of welding or manufacturing process, which might greatly affect propagation of high-cycle fatigue or SCC crack. In order to evaluate damages due to the crack, it is required to estimate residual stress and to reflect them to the evaluation process as well. The magnitude and distribution of residual stress greatly depend on the individual process of welding or manufacturing, while the accuracy of prediction or measurement is still insufficient. This paper reports the result of residual stress measurement of butt-welded pipe made of austenitic stainless steel. It also intended to improve prediction and measurement techniques concerning to residual stress. The measurement was conducted by neutron diffraction technique employing the diffractometer for residual stress analysis developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The measured results showed typical characteristics of butt-welded pipe both in decline of stress along axial direction and in radial distribution of bending due to axial stress. The measured result agreed qualitatively with the result predicted by the finite element analysis. A quantitative comparison between measured result and analysis showed a shift of the measured stress toward higher tensile. The measured result was also compared with the results by X-ray diffraction and strain-gauge methods to grasp the distinctive results of the methods. (author)

  12. The Effect of Welding-Pass Grouping on the Prediction Accuracy of Residual Stress in Multipass Butt Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongung Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual stress analysis of a thick welded structure requires a lot of time and computer memory, which are different from those in thin welded structure analysis. This study investigated the effect of residual stress due to welding-pass grouping as a way to reduce the analysis time in multipass thick butt welding joint. For this purpose, the parametric analysis which changes the number of grouping passes was conducted in the multipass butt weld of a structure with a thickness of 25 mm and 70 mm. In addition, the residual stress by thermal elastoplastic FE analysis is compared with the results by the neutron diffraction method for verifying the reliability of the FE analysis. The welding sequence is considered in order to predict the residual stress more accurately when using welding-pass grouping method. The results of the welding-pass grouping model and half model occurred between the results of the left/right of the full model. If the total number of welding-pass grouping is less than half of that of welding pass, a large difference with real residual stress is found. Therefore, the total number of the welding-pass grouping should not be reduced to more than half.

  13. Metal loading in Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park, Montana and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis of previous research; and quantification of metal loading, August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acid drainage from historic mining activities has affected the water quality and aquatic biota of Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park. Numerous investigations focusing on metals contamination have been conducted in the Soda Butte Creek basin, but interpretations of how metals contamination is currently impacting Soda Butte Creek differ greatly. A retrospective analysis of previous research on metal loading in Soda Butte Creek was completed to provide summaries of studies pertinent to metal loading in Soda Butte Creek and to identify data gaps warranting further investigation. Identification and quantification of the sources of metal loading to Soda Butte Creek was recognized as a significant data gap. The McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site has long been identified as a source of metals but its contribution relative to the total metal load entering Yellowstone National Park was unknown. A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was designed to determine metal loads upstream of Yellowstone National Park.A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was conducted on an 8,511-meter reach of Soda Butte Creek from upstream of the McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site downstream to the Yellowstone National Park boundary in August 1999. Synoptic-sampling sites were selected to divide the creek into discrete segments. A lithium bromide tracer was injected continuously into Soda Butte Creek for 24.5 hours. Downstream dilution of the tracer and current-meter measurements were used to calculate the stream discharge. Stream discharge values, combined with constituent concentrations obtained by synoptic sampling, were used to quantify constituent loading in each segment of Soda Butte Creek.Loads were calculated for dissolved calcium, silica, and sulfate, as well as for dissolved and total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese. Loads were not calculated for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc because these elements were infrequently

  14. Conifer root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiegbu, Fred O; Adomas, Aleksandra; Stenlid, Jan

    2005-07-01

    SUMMARY The root and butt rot caused by Heterobasidon annosum is one of the most destructive diseases of conifers in the northern temperate regions of the world, particularly in Europe. Economic losses attributable to Heterobasidion infection in Europe are estimated at 800 million euros annually. The fungus has been classified into three separate European intersterile species P (H. annosum), S (H. parviporum) and F (H. abietinum) based on their main host preferences: pine, spruce and fir, respectively. In North America, two intersterile groups are present, P and S/F, but these have not been given scientific names. The ecology of the disease spread has been intensively studied but the genetics, biochemistry and molecular aspects of pathogen virulence have been relatively little examined. Recent advances in transcript profiling, molecular characterization of pathogenicity factors and establishment of DNA-transformation systems have paved the way for future advances in our understanding of this pathosystem. Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref., H. parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen and H. abietinum Niemelä & Korhonen; kingdom Fungi; class Basidiomycotina; order Aphyllophorales; family Bondarzewiaceae; genus Heterobasidion. presence of the fungus fruit bodies, basidiocarps whitish in the margins, upper surface is tan to dark brown, usually irregular shaped, 3.5 (-7) cm thick and up to 40 cm in diameter; pores 5-19, 7-22 and 13-26 mm(2) for the P, F and S groups, respectively. Small brownish non-sporulating postules develop on the outside of infected roots. Asexual spores (conidiospores) are 3.8-6.6 x 2.8-5.0 microm in size. Mating tests are necessary for identification of intersterility groups. The fungus attacks many coniferous tree species. In Europe, particularly trees of the genera Pinus and Juniperus (P), Picea (S), Abies (F) and in North America Pinus (P) and Picea, Tsuga and Abies (S/F). To a lesser extent it causes root rot on some decidous trees (Betula and Quercus

  15. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    The composite Sunrise Butte pluton, in the central part of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon, preserves a record of subduction-related magmatism, arc-arc collision, crustal thickening, and deep-crustal anatexis. The earliest phase of the pluton (Desolation Creek unit) was generated in a subduction zone environment, as the oceanic lithosphere between the Wallowa and Olds Ferry island arcs was consumed. Zircons from this unit yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 160.2 ± 2.1 Ma. A magmatic lull ensued during arc-arc collision, after which partial melting at the base of the thickened Wallowa arc crust produced siliceous magma that was emplaced into metasedimentary rocks and serpentinite of the overthrust forearc complex. This magma crystallized to form the bulk of the Sunrise Butte composite pluton (the Sunrise Butte unit; 145.8 ± 2.2 Ma). The heat necessary for crustal anatexis was supplied by coeval mantle-derived magma (the Onion Gulch unit; 147.9 ± 1.8 Ma).The lull in magmatic activity between 160 and 148 Ma encompasses the timing of arc-arc collision (159–154 Ma), and it is similar to those lulls observed in adjacent areas of the Blue Mountains Province related to the same shortening event. Previous researchers have proposed a tectonic link between the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath Mountains and northern Sierra Nevada Provinces farther to the south; however, timing of Late Jurassic deformation in the Blue Mountains Province predates the timing of the so-called Nevadan orogeny in the Klamath Mountains. In both the Blue Mountains Province and Klamath Mountains, the onset of deep-crustal partial melting initiated at ca. 148 Ma, suggesting a possible geodynamic link. One possibility is that the Late Jurassic shortening event recorded in the Blue Mountains Province may be a northerly extension of the Nevadan orogeny. Differences in the timing of these events in the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath–Sierra Nevada Provinces suggest that

  16. Wintercuring of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid in response to Xylella fastidiosa infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonal replicates of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid P 63-61 were inoculated with Xylella fastidiosa strain M23 and evaluated for Almond Leaf Scorch Disease and subsequent wintercuring of infections during three growing seasons. Initial inoculations established gr...

  17. Downstream effects of the Pelton-Round Butte hydroelectric project on bedload, transport, channel morphology, and channel-bed texture, lower Deschutes River, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Fassnacht; Ellen M. McClure; Gordon E. Grant; Peter C. Klingeman

    2003-01-01

    Field, laboratory, and historical data provide the basis for interpreting the effects of the Pelton-Round Butte dam complex on the surface water hydrology and geomorphology of the lower Deschutes River, Oregon, USA. The river's response to upstream impoundment and flow regulation is evaluated in terms of changes in predicted bedload transport rates, channel...

  18. Study on influence of three kinds of stress on crack propagation in butt welds of spiral coil waterwall for ultra supercritical boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenrong; Si, Jun

    2017-09-01

    The spiral coil waterwall is the main pressure parts and the core functional components of Ultra Supercritical Boiler. In the process of operation, the spiral coil waterwall is under the combined action of welding residual stress, installation defects stress and working fluid stress, Cracks and crack propagation are easy to occur in butt welds with defects. In view of the early cracks in the butt welds of more T23 water cooled walls, in this paper, the influence of various stresses on the crack propagation in the butt welds of spiral coil waterwall was studied by numerical simulation. Firstly, the welding process of T23 water cooled wall tube was simulated, and the welding residual stress field was obtained. Then,on the basis, put the working medium load on the spiral coil waterwall, the supercoated stress distribution of the welding residual stress and the stress of the working medium is obtained. Considering the bending moment formed by stagger joint which is the most common installation defects, the stress field distribution of butt welds in T23 water-cooled wall tubes was obtained by applying bending moment on the basis of the stress field of the welding residual stress and the working medium stress. The results show that, the welding residual stress is small, the effect of T23 heat treatment after welding to improve the weld quality is not obvious; The working medium load plays a great role in the hoop stress of the water cooled wall tube, and promotes the cracks in the butt welds; The axial stress on the water cooled wall tube produced by the installation defect stress is obvious, the stagger joint, and other installation defects are the main reason of crack propagation of spiral coil waterwall. It is recommended that the control the bending moment resulting from the stagger joint not exceed 756.5 NM.

  19. Single Pass Laser Welding with Multiple Spots to Join Four Sheets in a Butt-joint Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Langbak, Andreas; Johansen, Sebastian Blegebrønd; Krempin, Simon Borup; Hornum, Mattias Døssing

    Laser keyhole welding is widely used in industry due to its large welding depth and low heat input. For some industrial cases it is necessary to widen the beam to cover the joint configuration, which instead results in a lower intensity and surface conduction welds. The introduction of the high-power single mode fiber laser makes it possible to deal with this problem, because the beam can be shaped into a pre-defined pattern of multiple spots shaped to the actual joint configuration. The intensity of each spot is sufficient to make a keyhole. A case with four sheets in a butt-joint configuration is used to demonstrate the principle of how to design a spot pattern which ensures weld quality in case of a single pass laser weld.

  20. Integrated FEM-DBEM simulation of crack propagation in AA2024-T3 FSW butt joints considering manufacturing effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, P.; Citarella, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a numerical and experimental investigation on the influence of residual stresses on fatigue crack growth in AA2024-T3 friction stir welded butt joints. An integrated FEM-DBEM procedure for the simulation of crack propagation is proposed and discussed. A numerical FEM model...... of the contour method. The computed stress field is transferred to a DBEM environment and superimposed to the stress field produced by a remote fatigue traction load applied on a friction stir welded cracked specimen. Numerical results are compared with experimental data showing good agreement and highlighting...... of the welding process of precipitation hardenable AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy is employed to infer the process induced residual stress field. The reliability of the FEM simulations with respect to the induced residual stresses is assessed comparing numerical outcomes with experimental data obtained by means...

  1. Numerical Simulation of Heat and Flow Behaviors in Butt-fusion Welding Process of HDPE Pipes with Curved Fusion Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Kyung Hyun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sunwoong; Oh, Ju Seok [Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Butt-fusion welding process is used to join the polymeric pipes. Recently, some researchers suggest the curved surface to enhance a welding quality. We investigated how curved welding surface affects heat and flow behaviors of polymer melt during the process in 2D axisymmetric domain with finite element method, and discussed the effect to the welding quality. In this study, we considered HDPE pipes. In heat soak stage, curved phase interface between the melt and solid is shown along the shape of welding surface. In jointing stage, squeezing flow is generated between curved welding surface and phase interface. The low shear rate in fusion domain reduces the alignment of polymer to the perpendicular direction of pipes, and then this phenomenon is expected to help to enhance the welding quality.

  2. The speciation of iodine in the salt impacted Black Butte soil series along the Virgin river, Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Spencer M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 80154 (United States)], E-mail: spencer.steinberg@unlv.edu; Buck, Brenda; Morton, Janice [Department of Geoscience, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 80154 (United States); Dorman, James [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 80154 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Salt-impacted soils occur in floodplains, wetlands and backswamps in arid climates. These soils become sinks or temporary storage sites for soluble salts and contaminants including agricultural chemicals, industrial pollutants and radionuclides such as {sup 129}I. The vertical distribution of I in the Black Butte soil series along the Virgin river was assessed and the distribution of I between I{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -} and organically bound I was determined. The speciation of I was compared to the organic C content, specific components of the organic C, and clay content. This study indicates that organic I was the most abundant form of I in these soil samples and that the content of organic I generally correlated to total organic matter and lignin (as measured by chemolysis) of the samples.

  3. The speciation of iodine in the salt impacted Black Butte soil series along the Virgin river, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, Spencer M.; Buck, Brenda; Morton, Janice; Dorman, James

    2008-01-01

    Salt-impacted soils occur in floodplains, wetlands and backswamps in arid climates. These soils become sinks or temporary storage sites for soluble salts and contaminants including agricultural chemicals, industrial pollutants and radionuclides such as 129 I. The vertical distribution of I in the Black Butte soil series along the Virgin river was assessed and the distribution of I between I - , IO 3 - and organically bound I was determined. The speciation of I was compared to the organic C content, specific components of the organic C, and clay content. This study indicates that organic I was the most abundant form of I in these soil samples and that the content of organic I generally correlated to total organic matter and lignin (as measured by chemolysis) of the samples

  4. Effect of main layer thickness on the response of multi layer bonded steel butt joint under Charpy impact test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical analysis of the main layer thickness on the impact response of the steel butt joint bonded by multi-layer under the Charpy impact test is investigated using the elasto-plastic finite element method (FEM. The results obtained from numerical simulation show that both the elastic strain and plastic strain occurred at the point near the upper or lower surface decreased significantly when the main layer thickness increased from 0.1 mm to 0.4 mm. The value of the normal stress Sx and the von Mises equivalent stress Seqv is increased first when the main layer thickness increased and then it decreased significantly when the main layer thickness is greater than 0.2 mm. There is a strong value fluctuation for stress Seqv at the point 0.5 mm away from the upper surface when the main layer thickness is greater than 0.2 mm.

  5. Cleat development in coals of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation, Pilot Butte area, Wind River Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Clark, A.C.; Szmajter, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The cleat system developed in low-rank (mean viltrinite reflectance of 0.43 to 0.5 percent) coal beds in the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation was studied in outcrop and in coreholes drilled for coalbed methane evaluation near Pilot Butte in the central part of the Wind River Reservation. Cleats are the principal permeability pathway for fluids in coal beds. As a result, coalbed gas cannot be economically produced without significant cleat development. Two drillholes about 800 ft (244 m) apart encountered Mesaverde coal beds at depths ranging from 307 to 818 ft (93.6 to 249.3 m). One of the coal beds penetrated while drilling, the lowest coal in the Mesaverde coaly interval, is well exposed about a mile south of the two drillholes and the cleat development in this coal bed on outcrop was compared with that of the same coal in the drillholes.The 3 in (7.62 cm) diameter core is less than ideal for this study because cleat spacing in low-rank coals such as these typically averages greater than 7.62 cm. Nonetheless, face cleats at spacing of from 0.25 to 2.5 cm was observed in many of the coal beds. Cleats were less well-developed in other coal beds and no cleats were observed in a few beds. As expected, butt cleats were somewhat less well-developed than the face cleats. Attempts to relate cleat spacing to gas content, bed thickness, and ash content were not successful. A 3.0 m by 1.8 m area of the upper surface of the coal bed exposed a mile south of the drillsites was cleaned off and studied in detail. Cleat development in this limited study area varied from well-developed face and butt cleats in some places to few or no cleats in others. Face cleats trended roughly perpendicular to the fold axis of the nearby Pilot Butte anticline. Cleats did not penetrate a 2.5 cm thick carbonaceous shale bed about 20 cm above the base of the coal bed indicating that thin carbonaceous shale beds will act a permeability barriers. Two types of face cleats were observed on outcrop

  6. The coal deposits of the Alkali Butte, the Big Sand Draw, and the Beaver Creek fields, Fremont County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Raymond M.; White, Vincent L.

    1952-01-01

    Large coal reserves are present in three areas located between 12 and 20 miles southeast of Riverton, Fremont County, central Wyoming. Coal in two of these areas, the Alkali Butte coal field and the Big Sand Draw coal field, is exposed on the surface and has been developed to some extent by underground mining. The Beaver Creek coal field is known only from drill cuttings and cores from wells drilled for oil and gas in the Beaver Creek oil and gas field.These three coal areas can be reached most readily from Riverton, Wyo. State Route 320 crosses Wind River about 1 mile south of Riverton. A few hundred yards south of the river a graveled road branches off the highway and extends south across the Popo Agie River toward Sand Draw oil and gas field. About 8 miles south of the highway along the Sand Draw road, a dirt road bears east and along this road it is about 12 miles to the Bell coal mine in the Alkali Butte coal field. Three miles southeast of the Alkali Butte turn-off, 3 miles of oiled road extends southwest into the Beaver Creek oil and gas field. About 6 miles southeast of the Beaver Creek turn-off, in the valley of Little Sand Draw Creek, a dirt road extends east 1. mile and then southeast 1 mile to the Downey mine in the Big Sand Draw coal field. Location of these coal fields is shown on figure 1 with their relationship to the Wind River basin and other coal fields, place localities, and wells mentioned in this report. The coal in the Alkali Butte coal field is exposed partly on the Wind River Indian Reservation in Tps. 1 and 2 S., R. 6 E., and partly on public land. Coal in the Beaver Creek and Big Sand Draw coal fields is mainly on public land. The region has a semiarid climate with rainfall averaging less than 10 in. per year. When rain does fall the sandy-bottomed stream channels fill rapidly and are frequently impassable for a few hours. Beaver Creek, Big Sand Draw, Little Sand Draw, and Kirby Draw and their smaller tributaries drain the area and flow

  7. Hydraulic characterization of the shallow subsurface in the Butte--Silver Bow area in southwestern Montana, using pneumatic slug tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malama, B.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of pneumatic slug tests conducted in an unconfined aquifer at various sites in the Butte--Silver Bow area in southwestern Montana. The results vary from monotonic decay to oscillatory, and seem to indicate that the water table does have a significant effect on slug test response. A model is presented where the linearized kinematic condition is use as the boundary condition at water table. The model accounts well-bore inertial effects but neglects the effect of well-bore skin. A qualitative comparison of predicted model behavior and observed field test responses suggests that slug test data may be useful in estimating, not only hydraulic conductivity, but also unconfined aquifer specific storage. This is a new development since all model published hitherto in the hydrogeology literature for analyzing unconfined aquifer slug test data neglect water table dynamic entirely.

  8. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  9. Infrared Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The end goal of this project is to develop proof-of-concept infrared detectors which can be integrated in future infrared instruments engaged in remote...

  10. Extragalactic infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-05-01

    The paper concerns the field of Extragalactic Infrared Astronomy, discussed at the Fourth RAL Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Fifteen papers were presented on infrared emission from extragalactic objects. Both ground-(and aircraft-) based and IRAS infrared data were reviewed. The topics covered star formation in galaxies, active galactic nuclei and cosmology. (U.K.)

  11. Infrared thermography; Thermographie infrarouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysochoos, A.; Wattrisse, B. [Montpellier-2 Univ., Lab. de Mecanique et Genie Civil, UMR 5508 CNRS (France); Feldheim, V.; Lybaert, P. [Faculte Polytechnique de Mons, Service de Thermique et Combustion, Mons (Belgium); Batsale, J.Ch.; Mourand, D. [Trefle, UMR 8508, Cellule Thermicar, UMR 8508, 33 - Talence (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about infrared thermography gathers 3 articles dealing with: the use of thermo-mechanical measurement fields for the characterization of materials behaviour; the application of infrared thermography to the study of convective transfers; and some data processing methods for the characterization of fields of thermophysical properties of materials or for the infrared thermography analysis of thermal processes. (J.S.)

  12. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better

  13. Technical Letter Report - Preliminary Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hall, Thomas E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-05-29

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a multi-year program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide engineering studies and assessments of issues related to the use of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for the reliable inspection of nuclear power plant components. As part of this program, there is a subtask 2D that was set up to address an assessment of issues related to the NDE of high density polyethylene (HDPE) butt fusion joints. This work is being driven by the nuclear industry wanting to employ HDPE materials in nuclear power plant systems. This being a new material for use in nuclear applications, there are a number of issues related to its use and potential problems that may evolve. The industry is pursuing ASME Code Case N-755 entitled “Use of Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe for Section III, Division 1, Construction and Section XI Repair/Replacement Activities” that contains the requirements for nuclear power plant applications of HDPE. This Code Case requires that inspections be performed after the fusion joint is made by visually examining the bead that is formed and conducting a pressure test of the joint. These tests are only effective in general if gross through-wall flaws exist in the fusion joint. The NRC wants to know whether a volumetric inspection can be conducted on the fusion joint that will reliably detect lack-of-fusion conditions that may be produced during joint fusing. The NRC has requested that the work that PNNL is conducting be provided to assist them in resolving this inspection issue of whether effective volumetric NDE can be conducted to detect lack of fusion (LOF) in the butt HDPE joints. PNNL had 24 HDPE pipe specimens manufactured of 3408 material to contain LOF conditions that could be used to assess the effectiveness of NDE in detecting the LOF. Basic ultrasonic material properties were measured and used to guide the use of phased arrays and time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) work that

  14. Monitoring of the process of Flash-Butt Welding Monitoramento do processo de soldagem de topo por faiscamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgenia Chvertko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistical methods of analysis are currently widely used to develop control and monitoring systems for different welding processes. These methods allow to obtain information about the process including effect of all factors on its results, which is often difficult to evaluate due to the complexity of the process. The authors made efforts to apply these methods to develop the system for monitoring the parameters of flash-butt welding in real-time mode. The paper gives brief information about the features of flash-butt welding of reinforcement bars and some basic limitation of this process application. The main reasons of formation of defects in welded joints are given as well as analysis of possibility of application of monitoring systems for their determination. The on-line monitoring system based on neural networks was developed for evaluation of process deviations. This system is believed to be adequate for determination of process violations resulting in disturbances of welding parameter and can be used for prediction of possible defects in the welded joints.Análises estatísticas são normalmente utilizadas para desenvolver sistemas de controle e monitoramento de diferentes processos de soldagem. Estes métodos permitem obter informação sobre o processo, incluindo o efeito de todos os fatores sobre o resultado, os quais são difíceis de avaliar devido a complexidade do processo. Os autores do presente trabalho tentaram aplicar estes métodos para desenvolver um sistema de monitoração dos parâmetros da soldagem de topo por faiscamento em tempo real. O artigo dá uma ideia resumida sobre as características do processo de soldagem por faiscamento de vergalhões, assim como some limitações básicas da aplicação do processo. As razões principais para formação de defeitos na junta soldada são apresentadas, assim como a análise da possibilidade da aplicação de um sistema de monitoração para suas determinações. Um sistema em

  15. Thermo-mechanical FE-analysis of butt-welding of a Cu-Fe canister for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefson, B.L.; Karlsson, L.; Lindgren, L.E.; Jonsson, M.

    1992-10-01

    In the Swedish nuclear waste program it has been proposed that spent nuclear fuel shall be placed in composite copper-steel canisters. These canisters will be placed in holes in tunnels located some 500 m underground in a rock storage. The canisters consists of two cylinders of 4850 mm length, one inner cylinder made of steel and one outer cylinder made of copper. The outer diameter of the canister is 880 mm and the wall thickness for each cylinder is 50 mm. At the storage, the steel cylinder, which contains the spent nuclear fuel, is placed inside the copper cylinder. Thereafter, a copper end is butt welded to the copper cylinder using electron beam welding. To obtain penetration through the thickness with this weld method a backing ring is placed at the inside of the copper cylinder. In the present paper, the temperature, strain and stress fields present during welding and after cooling after welding are calculated numerically using the FE-code NIKE-2D. The aim is to use the results of the present calculations to estimate the risk for creep fracture during the subsequent design life. A large strain formulation is employed for the calculation of transient and residual stresses in the canister based on the calculated history of the temperature field present in the canister during the welding process. The contact algorithm available in NIKE-2D is used to detect possible contact between the steel and copper cylinders during the welding. To simplify the numerical calculations and reduce the computational time, rotational symmetry is assumed. For large gap distances between the steel and copper cylinders the residual stress field is calculated to have a shape similar to that observed in butt welded pipes with maximum axial stress values at the yield stress level. For small gap distances the backing ring will come in contact with the steel cylinder which leads to large residual stresses in the backing ring. The maximum accumulated plastic strain in the weld metal and

  16. The study on defects in aluminum 2219-T6 thick butt friction stir welds with the application of multiple non-destructive testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Shen, Yifu; Hu, Weiye

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Friction stir weld-defect forming mechanisms of thick butt-joints. → Relationship between weld-defects and friction stir welding process parameters. → Multiple non-destructive testing methods applied to friction stir welds. → Empirical criterion basing on mass-conservation for inner material-loss defects. → Nonlinear correlation between weld strengths and root-flaw lengths. -- Abstract: The present study focused on the relationship between primary friction stir welding process parameters and varied types of weld-defect discovered in aluminum 2219-T6 friction stir butt-welds of thick plates, meanwhile, the weld-defect forming mechanisms were investigated. Besides a series of optical metallographic examinations for friction stir butt welds, multiple non-destructive testing methods including X-ray detection, ultrasonic C-scan testing, ultrasonic phased array inspection and fluorescent penetrating fluid inspection were successfully used aiming to examine the shapes and existence locations of different weld-defects. In addition, precipitated Al 2 Cu phase coarsening particles were found around a 'kissing-bond' defect within the weld stirred nugget zone by means of scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. On the basis of volume conservation law in material plastic deformation, a simple empirical criterion for estimating the existence of inner material-loss defects was proposed. Defect-free butt joints were obtained after process optimization of friction stir welding for aluminum 2219-T6 plates in 17-20 mm thickness. Process experiments proved that besides of tool rotation speed and travel speed, more other appropriate process parameter variables played important roles at the formation of high-quality friction stir welds, such as tool-shoulder target depth, spindle tilt angle, and fixture clamping conditions on the work-pieces. Furthermore, the nonlinear correlation between weld tensile strengths and weld crack

  17. Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion with Validation from Mechanical Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Moran, Traci L.; Watts, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provides information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-in. IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer-diameter weld beads were removed for the microwave inspection. In two of the four pipes, both the outer and inner weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. The pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the side-bend test by cutting portions of the fusion joint into slices that were planed and bent. The last step in this limited study will be to correlate the fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluation results to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. The results of the correlation will be used in identifying any future work that is needed.

  18. Comparison of Corner-Butt 45 (Cb-45 and Corner-Lap (Cl joints in friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan Widia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The 10 mm thick Aluminum 6061 plates have been corner joined using varied design and those were 45° Corner Butt and Corner Lap Joints (CB-45 & CL. Friction tool was hardened EMS 45. True experimental method was used with independent parameters is feed rate which varied at 10 mm/min, 15 mm/min and 30 mm/min respectively. Other parameter such as rotating speed was kept constant. Experiment results show that, CB-45 yields better properties than CL. The tensile strength of CB-45 reaches 163.7 MPa for 10 mm/min feed rate. Whilst CL produces joint with tensile strength equal 120 MPa for equal parameters. Microstructure observation showed that CB-45 produces fine and homogenous appearance of MgO compared to CL. This phenomenon is caused by the pin of CB-45 joint which fully penetrates the nugget zone which is not found in CL design. This microstructure in turn promotes higher tensile strength of CB-45.

  19. Effect of Friction Stir Welding Parameters on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of the Al-Cu Butt Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Celik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a solid-state welding process used for welding similar and dissimilar materials. FSW is especially suitable to join sheet Al alloys, and this technique allows different material couples to be welded continuously. In this study, 1050 Al alloys and commercially pure Cu were produced at three different tool rotation speeds (630, 1330, 2440 rpm and three different tool traverse speeds (20, 30, 50 mm/min with four different tool position (0, 1, 1.5, 2 mm by friction stir welding. The influence of the welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints was investigated. Tensile and bending tests and microhardness measurements were used to determine the mechanical properties. The microstructures of the weld zone were investigated by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM and were analyzed in an energy dispersed spectrometer (EDS. Intermetallic phases were detected based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis results that evaluated the formation of phases in the weld zone. When the welding performance of the friction stir welded butt joints was evaluated, the maximum value obtained was 89.55% with a 1330 rpm tool rotational speed, 20 mm/min traverse speed and a 1 mm tool position configuration. The higher tensile strength is attributed to the dispersion strengthening of the fine Cu particles distributed over the Al material in the stir zone region.

  20. Evaluation of residual stress distribution of butt-weld pipe and redistribution behavior with crack extension using neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Shinobu; Hayashi, Makoto; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio; Ando, Kotoji

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress is known to be redistributed as a result of crack extension. The neutron diffraction method was used to evaluate this residual stress redistribution, using a specimen consisting of a butt-weld-jointed pipe made of type-304 austenitic stainless steel (inner diameter φ=97.1 mm, thickness t=8.9mm). Half-elliptical cracks were introduced by an electrical discharge machining at the inner surface of a heat-affected zone. The ratios of a/t, for crack depth a and specimen thickness t, were 0.25 and 0.5, with aspect ratios a/c, for crack half-length c, of 0.1 and 0.5 Comparing the residual stress distribution before and after the crack introduction showed that although the residual stress distribution along the line of the ligament at the deepest point of the crack changed slightly in front of the crack tip, it did not change throughout the ligament. This result shows that residual stress redistributes through-out in the whole crack tip region, including the width of the crack. (author)

  1. [Comment on “Science and Sociology Butt Heads in Tomography Experiment in Sacred Mountains”] Learning Lessons From Science Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Lincoln S.

    I am writing to comment on the article by Baldridge et al., “Science and Sociology Butt Heads in Tomography Experiment in Sacred Mountains” (Eos, September 30,1997). I strongly support their conclusion that scientists must learn to communicate with the public if we are to continue to receive taxpayer support for our projects.I am lead principal investigator of the interdisciplinary project ACCRETE (funded by the Continental Dynamics program of NSF), which also involved what could easily have been perceived to be an environmentally and culturally invasive seismic experiment. We proposed to take the 240-foot seismic ship R/V Maurice Ewing through the inland waterways of southeast Alaska and British Columbia, firing airguns every 20 seconds for 10 days, all within “earshot” of marine mammals and fish. Consider the permitting challenge involved with two countries engaged in a fish war and three ethnically distinct First Nations who are in the midst of land claims negotiations. In addition, we had to deal with commercial fishing interests (imagine sailing a ship with 4 km of towed instruments through a couple hundred fishing boats with their nets out), marine mammal protection groups, a wilderness area, and a nuclear submarine base. We had many of the experiences Baldridge et al. report, but nevertheless were able to do our experiment as planned, without any modification imposed by local groups.

  2. A Study on the Optimal Welding Condition for Root-Pass in Horizontal Butt-Joint TIG Welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Hun; Kim, Jae-Woong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, to investigate the shape of the back bead as a weld quality parameter and to select the optimal condition of the root-pass TIG welding of a horizontal butt-joint, an experimental design and the response surface method (RSM) have been employed. Three parameters are used as input variables, which include the base current, peak current, and welding speed. The back bead width is selected as an output variable representing the weld quality, the target value of the width is 5.4 mm. Conducting the experiments according to the Box-Behnken experimental design, a 2nd regression model for the back bead width was made, and the validation of the model was confirmed by using the F-test. The desirability function was designed through the nominal-the-best formula for the appropriate back bead width. Finally, the following optimal condition for welding was selected using the RSM: base current of 0.9204, peak current of 0.8676, and welding speed of 0.3776 in coded values. For verification, a test welding process under the optimal condition was executed and the result showed the back bead width of 5.38 mm that matched the target value well.

  3. A Study on the Optimal Welding Condition for Root-Pass in Horizontal Butt-Joint TIG Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Hun; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, to investigate the shape of the back bead as a weld quality parameter and to select the optimal condition of the root-pass TIG welding of a horizontal butt-joint, an experimental design and the response surface method (RSM) have been employed. Three parameters are used as input variables, which include the base current, peak current, and welding speed. The back bead width is selected as an output variable representing the weld quality, the target value of the width is 5.4 mm. Conducting the experiments according to the Box-Behnken experimental design, a 2nd regression model for the back bead width was made, and the validation of the model was confirmed by using the F-test. The desirability function was designed through the nominal-the-best formula for the appropriate back bead width. Finally, the following optimal condition for welding was selected using the RSM: base current of 0.9204, peak current of 0.8676, and welding speed of 0.3776 in coded values. For verification, a test welding process under the optimal condition was executed and the result showed the back bead width of 5.38 mm that matched the target value well.

  4. Non Destructive Test Dye Penetrant and Ultrasonic on Welding SMAW Butt Joint with Acceptance Criteria ASME Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endramawan, T.; Sifa, A.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the type of discontinuity of SMAW welding result and to determine acceptance criteria based on American Society of Mechanical Engineer (ASME) standard. Material used is mild steel 98,71% Fe and 0,212% C with hardness 230 VHN with specimen diameter 20 cm and thickness 1.2 cm which is welded use SMAW butt joint with electrode for rooting LB 52U diameter 2.6 mm, current 70 Ampere and voltage 380 volt, filler used LB 5218 electrode diameter 3.2 mm with current 80 Ampere and 380 volt. The method used to analyze the welded with non destructive test dye penetrant (PT) method to see indication on the surface of the object and Ultrasonic (UT) to see indication on the sub and inner the surface of the object, the result is discontinuity recorded and analyzed and then the discontinuity is determine acceptance criteria based on the American Society of Mechanical Engineer (ASME) standards. The result show the discontinuity of porosity on the surface of the welded and inclusion on sub material used ultrasonic test, all indication on dye penetrant or ultrasonic test if there were rejected of result of welded that there must be gouging on part which rejected and then re-welding.

  5. Mid-Infrared Lasers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mid infrared solid state lasers for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems required for understanding atmospheric chemistry are not available. This program...

  6. Multispectral infrared imaging interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Device permitting simultaneous viewing of infrared images at different wavelengths consists of imaging lens, Michelson interferometer, array of infrared detectors, data processing equipment for Fourier transformation of detector signal, and image display unit. Invention is useful in earth resources applications, nondestructive testing, and medical diagnoses.

  7. Dissimilar friction stir welding of Ti–6Al–4V alloy and aluminum alloy employing a modified butt joint configuration: Influences of process variables on the weld interfaces and tensile properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Zhenhua; Shen, Yifu; Hu, Weiye; Luo, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) technique is considered to offer advantages over fusion welding in terms of dissimilar jointing. However, some challenges still exist in the butt FSW of dissimilar Ti and Al metals. The present research employed a modified butt joint configuration into the FSW of Ti–6Al–4V alloy to Al–6Mg alloy with a special pin plunge setup, aiming to obtain a high-quality Ti-to-Al joint, avoid butt flaw or Al melting, and reduce the tool shoulder attrition. Under different FSW process conditions, the examinations and analyses of macro/micro-structures, mechanical tensile properties and fractographies of the dissimilar joints were conducted. The joint mechanical tensile strength can reach more than 92% of the parent Al alloy strength, with a tensile fracture path within the Al alloy butt side. The characteristics and formation mechanisms of the diffusion typed and reaction typed Ti–Al butt-welded interface structures were detailed. The bulky intermetallic compounds (IMC) interlayer at the butt-welded interface had a negative effect on the joint tensile strength, comparing with the Ti–Al diffusion bonding interlayer of ∼2 μm in thickness, which was produced via lower tool rotating speed and lower pin-offset value towards Ti alloy butt side. - Highlights: • Modified joint configuration is employed into Ti-to-Al FSW for a low tool attrition. • Defect-free joint is achieved with 92% tensile strength of parent Al alloy. • Influences of processing variables on weld interface microstructure are addressed. • Formation mechanisms of different typed Ti-to-Al weld interfaces are elucidated

  8. Magma chamber cooling by episodic volatile expulsion as constrained by mineral vein distributions in the Butte, Montana Cu-Mo porphyry deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K.; Karlstrom, L.; Reed, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The role of hydrothermal systems in the thermal evolution of magma chambers is poorly constrained yet likely significant. We analyze trends in mineral composition, vein thickness and overall volumetric fluid flux of the Butte, Montana porphyry Cu-Mo deposit to constrain the role of episodic volatile discharge in the crystallization of the source magma chamber ( 300 km3of silicic magma). An aqueous fluid sourced from injection of porphyritic dikes formed the Butte porphyry Cu network of veins. At least three separate pulses of fluid through the system are defined by alteration envelopes of [1] gray sericite (GS); [2] early-dark micaceous (EDM), pale-green sericite (PGS), and dark-green sericite (DGS); and [3] quartz-molybdenite (Qmb) and barren-quartz. Previous research using geothermometers and geobarometers has found that vein mineral composition, inferred temperatures and inferred pressures vary systematically with depth. Later fluid pulses are characterized by lower temperatures, consistent with progressive cooling of the source. We have digitized previously unused structural data from Butte area drill cores, and applied thermomechanical modeling of fluid release from the source magma chamber through time. Vein number density and vein thickness increase with depth as a clear function of mineralogy and thus primary temperature and pressure. We identify structural trends in the three fluid pulses which seem to imply time evolution of average vein characteristics. Pulses of Qmb-barren quartz and EDM-PGS-DGS (1st and 2nd in time) exhibit increasing vein number density (157 & 95 veins/50m, respectively) and thickness (300mm & 120mm, respectively) as a function of depth. EDM-PGS-DGS has a shallower peak in vein density (800m) than Qmb-barren quartz (>1600m). These data provide the basis for idealized mechanical models of hydrofractures, to predict driving pressures and to compare with existing source temperatures and total fluid volumes in order to estimate the total

  9. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  10. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  11. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  12. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  13. Effects of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Toughness of Flash Butt Welded High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajan, Nikhil; Arora, Kanwer Singh; Asati, Brajesh; Sharma, Vikram; Shome, Mahadev

    2018-04-01

    Effect of post-weld heat treatment on the weld microstructure, texture, and its correlation to the toughness of flash butt welded joints were investigated. Upon flash butt welding, the α and γ-fiber in the parent material converted to Goss (110)[001], rotated Goss (110)[1 \\bar{1} 0], and rotated cube (001)[1 \\bar{1} 0], (001)[ \\overline{11} 0] textures along the fracture plane. Formation of these detrimental texture components was a result of shear deformation and recrystallization of austenite at temperatures above T nr resulting in a drop of toughness at the weld zone. Inter-critical and sub-critical annealing cycles proved to be less effective in reducing the Goss (110)[001], rotated Goss (110)[1 \\bar{1} 0], and rotated cube (001)[1 \\bar{1} 0], (001)[ \\overline{11} 0] texture components, and therefore, toughness values remained unaffected. Post-weld heat treatment in the austenite phase field at 1000 °C for 5 seconds resulted in the formation of new grains with different orientations leading to a reduction in the texture intensities of both Goss and rotated Goss components and therefore improved weld zone toughness. Prolonged annealing time was found to be ineffective in improving the toughness due to grain growth.

  14. HYDRAULICS, BUTTE COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  15. Infrared source test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  16. Variable waveband infrared imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Scott R.

    2013-06-11

    A waveband imager includes an imaging pixel that utilizes photon tunneling with a thermally actuated bimorph structure to convert infrared radiation to visible radiation. Infrared radiation passes through a transparent substrate and is absorbed by a bimorph structure formed with a pixel plate. The absorption generates heat which deflects the bimorph structure and pixel plate towards the substrate and into an evanescent electric field generated by light propagating through the substrate. Penetration of the bimorph structure and pixel plate into the evanescent electric field allows a portion of the visible wavelengths propagating through the substrate to tunnel through the substrate, bimorph structure, and/or pixel plate as visible radiation that is proportional to the intensity of the incident infrared radiation. This converted visible radiation may be superimposed over visible wavelengths passed through the imaging pixel.

  17. Powerful infrared emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan L. M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Powerful infrared LEDs with emission wavelength 805 ± 10, 870 ± 20 and 940 ± 10 nm developed at SPC OED "OPTEL" are presented in the article. The radiant intensity of beam diode is under 4 W/sr in the continuous mode and under 100 W/sr in the pulse mode. The radiation power of wide-angle LEDs reaches 1 W in continuous mode. The external quantum efficiency of emission IR diodes runs up to 30%. There also has been created infrared diode modules with a block of flat Fresnel lenses with radiant intensity under 70 W/sr.

  18. Busted Butte : final report on laboratory radionuclide migration experiments in non-welded tuff under unsaturated and saturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergraaf, T.T.; Drew, D.J.; Ticknor, K.V.; Hamon, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Three blocks of non-welded tuff, one nominally one cubic foot (trial block) in volume and the other two, nominally one cubic meter (1 m 3 ) in volume, were excavated from the Busted Butte Test Facility on the Nevada Test Site in 1999 and transported to the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Whiteshell Laboratories in Pinawa, Manitoba. The trial block and one of the 1-m 3 blocks were used for radionuclide migration experiments under unsaturated conditions; the remaining 1-m3 block was used for similar migration experiments under saturated conditions. After a vertical flow of synthetic transport solution was set up under unsaturated conditions, a suite of conservative and chemically reactive radionuclide tracers was injected at volumetric flow rates of 20 mL/hr in the trial block, and 10 mL/hr in two locations on the upper surface of the 1-m 3 block. These flow rates correspond to infiltration rates of about 120 cm/year and about 17 cm/year, respectively. The duration of the migration experiment in the trial block was 87 days, while the migration experiment in the 1-m3 block was performed for a period of 588 days. Results obtained from the migration experiment in the trial block showed that transport of 95m+99 Tc, injected as the pertechnetate (an)ion, was slightly faster than that of the transport solution, using tritiated water ( 3 H 2 0) as a flow indicator. Retardation of 237 Np was consistent with that predicted from results obtained in supporting static batch sorption studies. Post-migration analysis of the flow field in the trial block showed that the front of the 22 Na plume had migrated about half the distance through the block, and that 60 Co and 137 Cs had been retained near the inlet. This observation agrees qualitatively with that predicted from the results obtained in static batch sorption studies. In the larger-scale experiment, the transport behavior of Tc was also very similar to that of the transport solution. None of the other radionuclide tracers

  19. A Matrix Isolation Infrared

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The elusive ≡C-H· · ·O complex in the hydrogen bonded systems of Phenylacetylene: A Matrix Isolation Infrared and Ab Initio Study ... A comparison of the spectral shifts observed in the features of PhAc-MeOH and PhAc-DEE would therefore independently confirm the existence or not of n-σ* complex in both these systems.

  20. The infrared retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    As infrared imaging systems have evolved from the first generation of linear devices to the second generation of small format staring arrays to the present 'third-gen' systems, there is an increased emphasis on large area focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multicolour operation and higher operating temperature. In this paper, we discuss how one needs to develop an increased functionality at the pixel level for these next generation FPAs. This functionality could manifest itself as spectral, polarization, phase or dynamic range signatures that could extract more information from a given scene. This leads to the concept of an infrared retina, which is an array that works similarly to the human eye that has a 'single' FPA but multiple cones, which are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that enable the perception of colour. These cones are then coupled with powerful signal processing techniques that allow us to process colour information from a scene, even with a limited basis of colour cones. Unlike present day multi or hyperspectral systems, which are bulky and expensive, the idea would be to build a poor man's 'infrared colour' camera. We use examples such as plasmonic tailoring of the resonance or bias dependent dynamic tuning based on quantum confined Stark effect or incorporation of avalanche gain to achieve embodiments of the infrared retina.

  1. Compression of Infrared images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the compression of infrared images with three codecs: JPEG2000, JPEG-XT and HEVC. Results are evaluated in terms of SNR, Mean Relative Squared Error (MRSE) and the HDR-VDP2 quality metric. JPEG2000 and HEVC perform fairy similar and better than JPEG-XT. JPEG2000 performs...

  2. The spectrum of low molecular weight alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes expressed in the US bread wheat cultivar Butte 86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vensel William H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat grains accumulate a variety of low molecular weight proteins that are inhibitors of alpha-amylases and proteases and play an important protective role in the grain. These proteins have more balanced amino acid compositions than the major wheat gluten proteins and contribute important reserves for both seedling growth and human nutrition. The alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors also are of interest because they cause IgE-mediated occupational and food allergies and thereby impact human health. Results The complement of genes encoding alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors expressed in the US bread wheat Butte 86 was characterized by analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Coding sequences for 19 distinct proteins were identified. These included two monomeric (WMAI, four dimeric (WDAI, and six tetrameric (WTAI inhibitors of exogenous alpha-amylases, two inhibitors of endogenous alpha-amylases (WASI, four putative trypsin inhibitors (CMx and WTI, and one putative chymotrypsin inhibitor (WCI. A number of the encoded proteins were identical or very similar to proteins in the NCBI database. Sequences not reported previously included variants of WTAI-CM3, three CMx inhibitors and WTI. Within the WDAI group, two different genes encoded the same mature protein. Based on numbers of ESTs, transcripts for WTAI-CM3 Bu-1, WMAI Bu-1 and WTAI-CM16 Bu-1 were most abundant in Butte 86 developing grain. Coding sequences for 16 of the inhibitors were unequivocally associated with specific proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS in a previous proteomic analysis of milled white flour from Butte 86. Proteins corresponding to WDAI Bu-1/Bu-2, WMAI Bu-1 and the WTAI subunits CM2 Bu-1, CM3 Bu-1 and CM16 Bu-1 were accumulated to the highest levels in flour. Conclusions Information on the spectrum of alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes and proteins expressed in a single wheat cultivar is central to understanding the importance of

  3. Infrared thermography of loose hangingwalls

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kononov, VA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This project is the continuation of GAP706 “Pre-feasibility investigation of infrared thermography for the identification of loose hangingwall and impending falls of ground”. The main concept behind the infrared thermography method...

  4. Bringing the infrared to light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    Infrared imaging is usually done by use of infrared cameras. We present an effective alternative approach where infrared light is converted to near visible light in a non-linear process, and then detected by low cost, high performance camera. The approach is generic and can be applied towards many...

  5. Experimental characterization of fatigue strength in butt welded joint considering the geometry and the effect of cooling rate of the weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzola, Nelson; Hernández, Edgar

    2017-05-01

    In this work the experimental characterization of fatigue strength in butt welded joints considering the geometry and the post-weld cooling cycle was performed. ASTM A-36 structural steel was used as the base metal for the shielded metal arc welding process, with welding electrode E6013. Two experimental factors were established: weld bead geometry and the post-weld cooling rate. Two levels for each factor, the welding reinforcement (1 and 3 mm), and the rate of cooling, slow (quiet air) and fast (immersion in water) are evaluated respectively. For the uniaxial fatigue tests, 8 samples were selected for each treatment for a total of 32 specimens. The mechanical and fractomechanical properties of fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal in relation to the analysis of failure mechanisms were analysed. The fatigue crack growth rates were estimated based on the counting of microstrations. Furthermore, experimental tests, such as uniaxial tension, microindentation hardness, Charpy impact and metallographic analysis, were made to know the influence of the experimental factors in the fatigue strength. On this research, about the 78.13% of the samples obtained a resistance higher than the recommended one by class FAT 100. The results showed that the geometry of the joint is the factor of greatest influence on fatigue strength for butt welded joints; the greater the weld reinforcement the lower the fatigue strength of the joint. Although it is also important to consider other geometric factors of less impact as it is the weld toe radius and the welding chord width.

  6. Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test: Fiscal Year 1998 Status Report Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program Deliverable SPU85M4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussod, G.Y.; Turin, H.J.; Lowry, W.E.

    1999-11-01

    This report describes the status of the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT) and documents the progress of construction activities and site and laboratory characterization activities undertaken in fiscal year 1998. Also presented are predictive flow-and-transport simulations for Test Phases 1 and 2 of testing and the preliminary results and status of these test phases. Future anticipated results obtained from unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport testing in the Calico Hills Formation at Busted Butte are also discussed in view of their importance to performance assessment (PA) needs to build confidence in and reduce the uncertainty of site-scale flow-and-transport models and their abstractions for performance for license application. The principal objectives of the test are to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain, as identified by the PA working group in February 1997. These include but are not restricted to: (1) The effect of heterogeneities on flow and transport in unsaturated and partially saturated conditions in the Calico Hills Formation. In particular, the test aims to address issues relevant to fracture-matrix interactions and permeability contrast boundaries; (2) The migration behavior of colloids in fractured and unfractured Calico Hills rocks; (3) The validation through field testing of laboratory sorption experiments in unsaturated Calico Hills rocks; (4) The evaluation of the 3-D site-scale flow-and-transport process model (i.e., equivalent-continuum/dual-permeability/discrete-fracture-fault representations of flow and transport) used in the PA abstractions for license application; and (5) The effect of scaling from lab scale to field scale and site scale.

  7. The mineralogy of Ba- and Zr-rich alkaline pegmatites from Gordon Butte, Crazy Mountains (Montana, USA): comparisons between potassic and sodic agpaitic pegmatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhmouradian, Anton; Mitchell, Roger

    2002-01-01

    At Gordon Butte (Crazy Mountains, Montana), agpaitic nepheline-syenite pegmatites intrude potassic alkaline rocks (principally, malignites and nepheline microsyenites). All pegmatite veins are composed predominantly of potassium feldspar, nepheline, prismatic aegirine, barytolamprophyllite, wadeite, eudialyte, loparite-(Ce) and altered rinkite ("vudyavrite") embedded in spherulitic and fibrous aegirine. Well-differentiated veins contain "pockets" filled with calcite, fluorapatite, mangan-neptunite, Mn-Ti-enriched prismatic aegirine, calcium catapleiite, and an unidentified Ca-Ti silicate. The potassium feldspar corresponds to Ba-rich sanidine with relatively low Na contents. The nepheline contains low levels of SiO2 and elevated Fe contents. The compositions of nepheline cluster in the lower portion of the Morozewicz-Buerger convergence field, indicating low-temperature crystallization and/or chemical re-equilibration of this mineral. The association of sanidine with nearly stoichiometric nepheline is unusual for agpaitic rocks and probably reflects inhibition of Al/Si ordering in the feldspar by Ba. At least four types of clinopyroxene can be distinguished on the basis of their morphology and composition. All these types correspond to Al- and Ca-poor aegirine (typically calcio-ancylite, and bastnäsite-parisite series) are chief products of the deuteric stage. The alteration of the primary mineral assemblages by deuteric fluids also produced muscovite-zeolite pseudomorphs after nepheline, replacement of wadeite and eudialyte by catapleiite-group minerals, re-deposition of Ba in the form of hyalophane, baotite, and benitoite, and cation leaching from rinkite, eudialyte, and loparite. The mineralogy of the pegmatites from Gordon Butte, other potassic complexes, and sodic agpaitic occurrences is compared in detail.

  8. Memory and the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Cesar; Letschka, Raoul

    2017-10-01

    Memory effects in scattering processes are described in terms of the asymptotic retarded fields. These fields are completely determined by the scattering data and the zero mode part is set by the soft photon theorem. The dressed asymptotic states defining an infrared finite S-matrix for charged particles can be defined as quantum coherent states using the corpuscular resolution of the asymptotic retarded fields. Imposing that the net radiated energy in the scattering is zero leads to the new set of conservation laws for the scattering S-matrix which are equivalent to the decoupling of the soft modes. The actual observability of the memory requires a non-vanishing radiated energy and could be described using the infrared part of the differential cross section that only depends on the scattering data and the radiated energy. This is the IR safe cross section with any number of emitted photons carrying total energy equal to the energy involved in the actual memory detection.

  9. Infrared spectroscopy in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The use of infrared spectroscopy in astronomy has increased dramatically in the past ten years. The broad design considerations are discussed in terms of wavelength coverage and resolution. Three rough resolution ranges, lambda/Delta lambda of approximately 100, 1000 and 10,000, are identified in which various types of astronomical problems can be studied. Numerous existing systems are briefly discussed and references are given to more complete descriptions.

  10. Infrared Gas Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid development of monitoring and detecting technology of indoor air quality have been observed. We have seen the two major streams of detection technology introduced so far: Acoustic wave sensor and Infrared gas sensor. The use of a gas monitoring system in the case of that dangerous levels of gases are detected, can help to prevent an explosion or can help to prevent worker injury or exposure to toxic gases.

  11. Infrared upconversion hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2015-01-01

    conversion process. From this, a sequence of monochromatic images in the 3.2-3.4 mu m range is generated. The imaged object consists of a standard United States Air Force resolution target combined with a polystyrene film, resulting in the presence of both spatial and spectral information in the infrared......In this Letter, hyperspectral imaging in the mid-IR spectral region is demonstrated based on nonlinear frequency upconversion and subsequent imaging using a standard Si-based CCD camera. A series of upconverted images are acquired with different phase match conditions for the nonlinear frequency...... image. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  12. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalski A.; Chrzanowski K.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems,...

  13. Thermography by Infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harara, W.; Allouch, Y.; Altahan, A.

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the principle’s explanation of metallic components and structures testing by thermography method using infrared waves. The study confirmed that, thermal waves testing technique as one of the most important method among the modern non-destructive testing methods. It is characterized by its economy, easy to apply and timely testing of components and metallic structures. This method is applicable to a wide variety of components such as testing pieces of planes, power plants, electric transmission lines and aerospace components, in order to verify their structures and fabrication quality and their comformance to the international standards.Testing the components by thermography using infrared radiation is easy and rapid if compared to other NDT methods. The study included an introduction to the thermography testing method, its equipements, components and the applied technique. Finally, two practical applications are given in order to show the importance of this method in industry concerned with determining the liquid level in a tank and testing the stability of the control box of electrical supply.(author)

  14. Heterostructure infrared photovoltaic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Antoni

    2000-08-01

    HgCdTe remains the most important material for infrared (IR) photodetectors despite numerous attempts to replace it with alternative materials such as closely related mercury alloys (HgZnTe, HgMnTe), Schottky barriers on silicon, SiGe heterojunctions, GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells, InAs/GaInSb strained layer superlattices, high temperature superconductors and especially two types of thermal detectors: pyroelectric detectors and silicon bolometers. It is interesting, however, that none of these competitors can compete in terms of fundamental properties. In addition, HgCdTe exhibits nearly constant lattice parameter which is of extreme importance for new devices based on complex heterostructures. The development of sophisticated controllable vapour phase epitaxial growth methods, such as MBE and MOCVD, has allowed fabrication of almost ideally designed heterojunction photodiodes. In this paper, examples of novel devices based on heterostructures operating in the long wavelength, middle wavelength and short wavelength spectral ranges are presented. Recently, more interest has been focused on p-n junction heterostructures. As infrared technology continues to advance, there is a growing demand for multispectral detectors for advanced IR systems with better target discrimination and identification. HgCdTe heterojunction detectors offer wavelength flexibility from medium wavelength to very long wavelength and multicolour capability in these regions. Recent progress in two-colour HgCdTe detectors is also reviewed.

  15. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  16. Dual Channel Remote Infrared Thermographer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rentz, Julia

    2001-01-01

    .... We have successfully demonstrated a color temperature measurement using two infrared interference filters with neighboring spectral passbands alternating in front of an uncooled amorphous silicon...

  17. Characterization of Sheet Fracture Patterns in Polygonal-Jointed Lavas at Kokostick Butte, OR, and Mazama Ridge, WA: Investigation and Interpretation of Their Formation and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, R. W.; Lescinsky, D. T.

    2006-12-01

    Polygonal joints in lava flows ("columns") are commonly equant leading to a model of formation associated with cooling in an isotropic stress field. This model, however, does not explain rectangular columns, sheet-like fractures, fractures with crosscutting relationships, and fractures with orientations other than perpendicular to the cooling surface. These fracture patterns are often observed at glaciated volcanoes. The presence of preferential fracture orientations suggests an applied stress component likely due to environmental conditions such as the presence of glaciers or flow dynamics such as down-slope settling or flow margin inflation. During this study we investigated the formation and significance of these non-equant fracture patterns to propose a model for their formation. These `abnormal' fracture patterns have not been discussed in the literature and may be important to better understanding the cooling conditions of such lava flows. To test these possibilities we studied Kokostick Butte dacite flow, OR (near South Sister), and Mazama Ridge andesite flow at Mount Rainier, WA. Both of these flows have well developed sheet-like fractures and display evidence of ice-contact during eruption and emplacement. Sheet fractures are long and continuous fractures that have perpendicular connecting fractures forming rectangular columns. The sheet-like fractures are largely parallel to each other on the exposure surface and the connecting fractures vary locally from primary fractures (associated with cooling toward flow interior) to secondary fractures (associated with cooling by water infiltration). Detailed measurements of fracture orientations and spacing were collected at Kokostick Butte and Mazama Ridge to examine the relationship between the sheet fractures and flow geometry. Preliminary results support this relationship and suggest these patterns likely form due to shear associated with small amounts of flow advance by the rapidly cooling lava. Laboratory

  18. Infrared laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Cyrus D.; Carbone, Robert J.; Cooper, Ralph S.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture.

  19. Terahertz and Mid Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Shulika, Oleksiy; Detection of Explosives and CBRN (Using Terahertz)

    2014-01-01

    The reader will find here a timely update on new THz sources and detection schemes as well as concrete applications to the detection of Explosives and CBRN. Included is a method to identify hidden RDX-based explosives (pure and plastic ones) in the frequency domain study by Fourier Transformation, which has been complemented by the demonstration of improvement of the quality of the images captured commercially available THz passive cameras. The presented examples show large potential for the detection of small hidden objects at long distances (6-10 m).  Complementing the results in the short-wavelength range, laser spectroscopy with a mid-infrared, room temperature, continuous wave, DFB laser diode and high performance DFB QCL have been demonstrated to offer excellent enabling sensor technologies for environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, industrial and security applications.  From the new source point of view a number of systems have been presented - From superconductors to semiconductors, e.g. Det...

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue ischaemia can be a significant contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. Conventional oxygenation monitoring modalities measure systemic oxygenation, but regional tissue oxygenation is not monitored. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive monitor for measuring regional oxygen saturation which provides real-time information. There has been increased interest in the clinical application of NIRS following numerous studies that show improved outcome in various clinical situations especially cardiac surgery. Its use has shown improved neurological outcome and decreased postoperative stay in cardiac surgery. Its usefulness has been investigated in various high risk surgeries such as carotid endarterectomy, thoracic surgeries, paediatric population and has shown promising results. There is however, limited data supporting its role in neurosurgical population. We strongly feel, it might play a key role in future. It has significant advantages over other neuromonitoring modalities, but more technological advances are needed before it can be used more widely into clinical practice.

  1. CINE: Comet INfrared Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2017-08-01

    CINE calculates infrared pumping efficiencies that can be applied to the most common molecules found in cometary comae such as water, hydrogen cyanide or methanol. One of the main mechanisms for molecular excitation in comets is the fluorescence by the solar radiation followed by radiative decay to the ground vibrational state. This command-line tool calculates the effective pumping rates for rotational levels in the ground vibrational state scaled by the heliocentric distance of the comet. Fluorescence coefficients are useful for modeling rotational emission lines observed in cometary spectra at sub-millimeter wavelengths. Combined with computational methods to solve the radiative transfer equations based, e.g., on the Monte Carlo algorithm, this model can retrieve production rates and rotational temperatures from the observed emission spectrum.

  2. Infrared laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Carbone, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture

  3. Laboratory infrared spectroscopy of PAHs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, J.; Joblin, C.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that polyaromatic molecules are the carriers of the infrared interstellar emission bands has spurred the laboratory spectroscopy of this class of molecules. Here we will give an overview of the infrared spectroscopic methods that have been applied over the past two decades to

  4. The infrared-ultraviolet connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Physics below 300 GeV is termed infrared, and physics above 1 TeV is called ultraviolet. Some aspects of the relation between these two regions are discussed. It is argued that the symmetries of the infrared must be symmetries in the ultraviolet. Furthermore, naturalness within the context of the

  5. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Andersen, H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is emerging as an attractive alternative to near-infrared or visible spectroscopy. MIR spectroscopy offers a unique possibility to probe the fundamental absorption bands of a large number of gases as well as the vibrational spectra of complex molecules. In this paper...

  6. Infrared Devices And Techniques (Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalski A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to produce an applications-oriented review covering infrared techniques and devices. At the beginning infrared systems fundamentals are presented with emphasis on thermal emission, scene radiation and contrast, cooling techniques, and optics. Special attention is focused on night vision and thermal imaging concepts. Next section concentrates shortly on selected infrared systems and is arranged in order to increase complexity; from image intensifier systems, thermal imaging systems, to space-based systems. In this section are also described active and passive smart weapon seekers. Finally, other important infrared techniques and devices are shortly described, among them being: non-contact thermometers, radiometers, LIDAR, and infrared gas sensors.

  7. Retail yields and palatability evaluations of individual muscles from wet-aged and dry-aged beef ribeyes and top sirloin butts that were merchandised innovatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Harris, K B; Griffin, D B; Miller, R K; Kerth, C R; Savell, J W

    2014-05-01

    Paired ribeyes (n=24) and top sirloin butts (n=24) were dry-aged or wet-aged for 35 days before being merchandised as individual muscles: M. spinalis thoracis, M. longissimus thoracis, M. gluteobiceps, and M. gluteus medius. Wet-aged subprimals had greater saleable yields than dry-aged. Dry-aged M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps received lower consumer overall like and flavor ratings than did wet-aged; interior muscles - M. longissimus thoracis and M. gluteus medius - did not differ. Trained panelists found higher musty and putrid flavors for dry-aged muscles closer to exterior surface. These flavors may have contributed to lower consumer overall like and flavor ratings for dry-aged M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps. Using innovative styles to cut beef allows for greater merchandising options. However, development of undesirable flavor characteristics may be more pronounced when exterior muscles - M. spinalis thoracis and M. gluteobiceps - are exposed during dry-aging to extreme conditions and are consumed individually. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of the Vickers Microhardness and Ultimate Tensile Strength of AA5754 H111 Friction Stir Welding Butt Joints Using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Luigi Alberto Ciro; Serio, Livia Maria; Facchini, Francesco; Mummolo, Giovanni; Ludovico, Antonio Domenico

    2016-01-01

    A simulation model was developed for the monitoring, controlling and optimization of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process. This approach, using the FSW technique, allows identifying the correlation between the process parameters (input variable) and the mechanical properties (output responses) of the welded AA5754 H111 aluminum plates. The optimization of technological parameters is a basic requirement for increasing the seam quality, since it promotes a stable and defect-free process. Both the tool rotation and the travel speed, the position of the samples extracted from the weld bead and the thermal data, detected with thermographic techniques for on-line control of the joints, were varied to build the experimental plans. The quality of joints was evaluated through destructive and non-destructive tests (visual tests, macro graphic analysis, tensile tests, indentation Vickers hardness tests and t thermographic controls). The simulation model was based on the adoption of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) characterized by back-propagation learning algorithm with different types of architecture, which were able to predict with good reliability the FSW process parameters for the welding of the AA5754 H111 aluminum plates in Butt-Joint configuration. PMID:28774035

  9. Flexible thin-layer dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment of pork butt and beef loin: effects on pathogen inactivation and meat-quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Park, Sanghoo; Kim, Kijung; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-04-01

    The effects of a flexible thin-layer dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma system using a sealed package on microbial inactivation and quality attributes of fresh pork and beef were tested. Following a 10-min treatment, the microbial-load reductions of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Typhimurium were 2.04, 2.54, and 2.68 Log CFU/g in pork-butt samples and 1.90, 2.57, and 2.58 Log CFU/g in beef-loin samples, respectively. Colorimetric analysis showed that DBD-plasma treatment did not significantly affect L* values (lightness) of pork and beef samples, but lowered a* values (redness) significantly after 5- and 7.5-min exposures. The plasma treatment significantly influenced lipid oxidation only after a 10-min exposure. The texture of both types of meat was unaffected by plasma treatment. All sensory parameters of treated and non-treated samples were comparable except for taste, which was negatively influenced by the plasma treatment (P quality might be prevented by the use of hurdle technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of the Vickers Microhardness and Ultimate Tensile Strength of AA5754 H111 Friction Stir Welding Butt Joints Using Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Luigi Alberto Ciro; Serio, Livia Maria; Facchini, Francesco; Mummolo, Giovanni; Ludovico, Antonio Domenico

    2016-11-10

    A simulation model was developed for the monitoring, controlling and optimization of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process. This approach, using the FSW technique, allows identifying the correlation between the process parameters (input variable) and the mechanical properties (output responses) of the welded AA5754 H111 aluminum plates. The optimization of technological parameters is a basic requirement for increasing the seam quality, since it promotes a stable and defect-free process. Both the tool rotation and the travel speed, the position of the samples extracted from the weld bead and the thermal data, detected with thermographic techniques for on-line control of the joints, were varied to build the experimental plans. The quality of joints was evaluated through destructive and non-destructive tests (visual tests, macro graphic analysis, tensile tests, indentation Vickers hardness tests and t thermographic controls). The simulation model was based on the adoption of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) characterized by back-propagation learning algorithm with different types of architecture, which were able to predict with good reliability the FSW process parameters for the welding of the AA5754 H111 aluminum plates in Butt-Joint configuration.

  11. Prediction of the Vickers Microhardness and Ultimate Tensile Strength of AA5754 H111 Friction Stir Welding Butt Joints Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Alberto Ciro De Filippis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model was developed for the monitoring, controlling and optimization of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW process. This approach, using the FSW technique, allows identifying the correlation between the process parameters (input variable and the mechanical properties (output responses of the welded AA5754 H111 aluminum plates. The optimization of technological parameters is a basic requirement for increasing the seam quality, since it promotes a stable and defect-free process. Both the tool rotation and the travel speed, the position of the samples extracted from the weld bead and the thermal data, detected with thermographic techniques for on-line control of the joints, were varied to build the experimental plans. The quality of joints was evaluated through destructive and non-destructive tests (visual tests, macro graphic analysis, tensile tests, indentation Vickers hardness tests and t thermographic controls. The simulation model was based on the adoption of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs characterized by back-propagation learning algorithm with different types of architecture, which were able to predict with good reliability the FSW process parameters for the welding of the AA5754 H111 aluminum plates in Butt-Joint configuration.

  12. High-temperature creep rupture of low alloy ferritic steel butt-welded pipes subjected to combined internal pressure and end loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili-Tahami, F; Hayhurst, D R; Wong, M T

    2005-11-15

    Constitutive equations are reviewed and presented for low alloy ferritic steels which undergo creep deformation and damage at high temperatures; and, a thermodynamic framework is provided for the deformation rate potentials used in the equations. Finite element continuum damage mechanics studies have been carried out using these constitutive equations on butt-welded low alloy ferritic steel pipes subjected to combined internal pressure and axial loads at 590 and 620 degrees C. Two dominant modes of failure have been identified: firstly, fusion boundary failure at high stresses; and, secondly, Type IV failure at low stresses. The stress level at which the switch in failure mechanism takes place has been found to be associated with the relative creep resistance and lifetimes, over a wide range of uniaxial stresses, for parent, heat affected zone, Type IV and weld materials. The equi-biaxial stress loading condition (mean diameter stress equal to the axial stress) has been confirmed to be the worst loading condition. For this condition, simple design formulae are proposed for both 590 and 620 degrees C.

  13. Nondestructive Testing of Residual Stress on the Welded Part of Butt-welded A36 Plates Using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongsuk Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most manufacturing processes, including welding, create residual stresses. Residual stresses can reduce material strength and cause fractures. For estimating the reliability and aging of a welded structure, residual stresses should be evaluated as precisely as possible. Optical techniques such as holographic interferometry, electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI, Moire interferometry, and shearography are noncontact means of measuring residual stresses. Among optical techniques, ESPI is typically used as a nondestructive measurement technique of in-plane displacement, such as stress and strain, and out-of-plane displacement, such as vibration and bending. In this study, ESPI was used to measure the residual stress on the welded part of butt-welded American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM A36 specimens with CO2 welding. Four types of specimens, base metal specimen (BSP, tensile specimen including welded part (TSP, compression specimen including welded part (CSP, and annealed tensile specimen including welded part (ATSP, were tested. BSP was used to obtain the elastic modulus of a base metal. TSP and CSP were used to compare residual stresses under tensile and compressive loading conditions. ATSP was used to confirm the effect of heat treatment. Residual stresses on the welded parts of specimens were obtained from the phase map images obtained by ESPI. The results confirmed that residual stresses of welded parts can be measured by ESPI.

  14. Semiconductor optoelectronic infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingworth, A.R.

    2001-08-01

    We use spectroscopy to study infrared optoelectronic inter and intraband semiconductor carrier dynamics. The overall aim of this thesis was to study both III-V and Pb chalcogenide material systems in order to show their future potential use in infrared emitters. The effects of bandstructure engineering have been studied in the output characteristics of mid-IR III-V laser diodes to show which processes (defects, radiative, Auger and phonon) dominate and whether non-radiative processes can be suppressed. A new three-beam pump probe experiment was used to investigate interband recombination directly in passive materials. Experiments on PbSe and theory for non-parabolic near-mirror bands and non-degenerate statistics were in good agreement. Comparisons with HgCdTe showed a reduction in the Auger coefficient of 1-2 orders of magnitude in the PbSe. Using Landau confinement to model spatial confinement in quantum dots (QDs) 'phonon bottlenecking' was studied. The results obtained from pump probe and cyclotron resonance saturation measurements showed a clear suppression in the cooling of carriers when Landau level separation was not resonant with LO phonon energy. When a bulk laser diode was placed in a magnetic field to produce a quasi quantum wire device the resulting enhanced differential gain and reduced Auger recombination lowered I th by 30%. This result showed many peaks in the light output which occurred when the LO phonon energy was a multiple of the Landau level separation. This showed for the first time evidence of the phonon bottleneck in a working laser device. A new technique called time resolved optically detected cyclotron resonance, was used as a precursor to finding the carrier dynamics within a spatially confined quantum dot. By moving to the case of a spatial QD using an optically detected intraband resonance it was possible to measure the energy separation interband levels and conduction and valence sublevels within the dot simultaneously. Furthermore

  15. INFRARED GLOBAL GEOSTATIONARY COMPOSITE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Infrared Global Geostationary Composite dataset contains global composite images from the infrared channels of multiple weather satellites in geosynchronous...

  16. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  17. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A.; Passmore, Brandon Scott

    2017-07-11

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  18. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...... at the plane of the external image) which is denominated D2 and wherein D1 is larger than a second diameter D2 and wherein the telescope further comprises a third optical component (103) and a fourth optical component (104); arranged for re-imaging the first image into a second image of the back-focal plane...

  19. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...... component (100) has an entrance pupil with a first diameter D1, and an optical component system which is arranged for forming an external image (136) of the back-focal plane (132) of the objective optical component (100), which has a diameter (given by the diameter of a circle enclosing all optical paths...

  20. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...... component (101) has an entrance pupil with a first diameter D1, and an optical component system which is arranged for forming an first image (136) of the back-focal plane (132) of the objective optical component (100), which has a diameter (given by the diameter of a circle enclosing all optical paths...

  1. Infrared techniques for comet observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, Martha S.; Tokunaga, Alan T.

    1991-01-01

    The infrared spectral region (1-1000 microns) is important for studies of both molecules and solid grains in comets. Infrared astronomy is in the midst of a technological revolution, with the development of sensitive 2D arrays leading to IR cameras and spectrometers with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution. The Halley campaign gave us tantalizing first glimpses of the comet science possible with this new technology, evidenced, for example, by the many new spectral features detected in the infrared. The techniques of photometry, imaging, and spectroscopy are reviewed in this chapter and their status at the time of the Halley observations is described.

  2. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  3. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  4. The Far Infrared Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, John; Carli, Bruno; Rizzi, Rolando; Serio, Carmine; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Palchetti, Luca; Maestri, T.; Brindley, H.; Masiello, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the far infrared (FIR) properties of the Earth's atmosphere, and the role of these properties in climate. These properties have been relatively poorly understood, and it is one of the purposes of this review to demonstrate that, in recent years, we have made great strides in improving this understanding. Seen from space, the Earth is a cool object, with an effective emitting temperature of about 255 K. This contrasts with a global mean surface temperature of 288 K, and is due primarily to strong absorption of outgoing longwave energy by water vapour, carbon dioxide and clouds (especially ice). A large fraction of this absorption occurs in the FIR, and so the Earth is effectively a FIR planet. The FIR is important in a number of key climate processes, for example the water vapour and cloud feedbacks (especially ice clouds). The FIR is also a spectral region which can be used to remotely sense and retrieve atmospheric composition in the presence of ice clouds. Recent developments in instrumentation have allowed progress in each of these areas, which are described, and proposals for a spaceborne FIR instrument are being formulated. It is timely to review the FIR properties of the clear and cloudy atmosphere, the role of FIR processes in climate, and its use in observing our planet from space.

  5. Retinex enhancement of infrared images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; He, Renjie; Xu, Guizhi; Hou, Changzhi; Sun, Yunyan; Guo, Lei; Rao, Liyun; Yan, Weili

    2008-01-01

    With the ability of imaging the temperature distribution of body, infrared imaging is promising in diagnostication and prognostication of diseases. However the poor quality of the raw original infrared images prevented applications and one of the essential problems is the low contrast appearance of the imagined object. In this paper, the image enhancement technique based on the Retinex theory is studied, which is a process that automatically retrieve the visual realism to images. The algorithms, including Frackle-McCann algorithm, McCann99 algorithm, single-scale Retinex algorithm, multi-scale Retinex algorithm and multi-scale Retinex algorithm with color restoration, are experienced to the enhancement of infrared images. The entropy measurements along with the visual inspection were compared and results shown the algorithms based on Retinex theory have the ability in enhancing the infrared image. Out of the algorithms compared, MSRCR demonstrated the best performance.

  6. Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.; Vergo, N.; Salisbury, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic research efforts are discussed. The development of a new instrumentation to permit advanced measurements in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, the development of a special library of well-characterized mineral and rock specimens for interpretation of remote sensing data, and cooperative measurements of the spectral signatures of analogues of materials that may be present on the surfaces of asteroids, planets or their Moons are discussed

  7. Analisa Pengaruh Variasi Sudut Bevel Akibat Kombinasi Pengelasan Fcaw dan SMAW terhadap Kekuatan Impact Butt Joint pada Spesimen Pipa Api 5l Grade X42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizkiyah Ramadani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kekuatan sambungan las pada suatu konstruksi perlu diperhatikan dengan baik dan pengujian pun perlu dilakukan untuk mengetahui ketahanan bahan terhadap suatu beban. Dalam penelitian tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh sudut bevel dan kondisi optimal akibat  kombinasi pengelasan FCAW dan SMAW terhadap kekuatan impact butt joint pada material pipa API 5L grade X42. Variasi sudut bevel yang digunakan adalah 60o, 40o, dan 0o. Pengujian impact merupakan suatu upaya untuk mensimulasikan kondisi operasi material yang sering ditemui dalam perlengkapan transportasi atau konstruksi dimana beban tidak selamanya terjadi secara perlahan-lahan melainkan datang secara tiba-tiba, khususnya dalam konstruksi bangunan lepas pantai dimana beban secara tiba – tiba sangat memungkinkan untuk terjadi. Dari hasil penelitian yang dilakukan didapatkan bahwa  nilai kekuatan impact pada sudut bevel 60o di bagian weld adalah sebesar 2.01 J/mm2 dan bagian HAZ sebesar 2.08  J/mm2. Sudut bevel 40o memiliki nilai pada bagian weld sebesar 2.10 J/mm2 dan bagian HAZ sebesar 2.13  J/mm2. Namun memiliki pengaruh yang jauh berbeda dengan sudut bevel 0o yaitu memiliki nilai impact sebesar 1.72 J/mm2 untuk bagian weld dan 1.13 J/mm2 untuk bagian HAZ . Kondisi optimal pengaruh sudut bevel terhadap kekutan impact adalah sudut 40o . Hal ini dikarenakan persentase ferrite metalografi struktur mikronya lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan sudut bevel 60o dan 0o dan juga memiliki nilai kekerasan yang rendah sehingga bersifat ulet menyebabkan nilai impact-nya lebih unggul. Selain itu efisensi dalam segi penghematan waktu kerja, perkerja maupun biaya produksi lebih baik.

  8. Effect of laser beam position on mechanical properties of F82H/SUS316L butt-joint welded by fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serizawa, Hisashi, E-mail: serizawa@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mori, Daiki; Ogiwara, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The micro hardness of weld metal in F82H/SUS316L joint partially decreases after PWHT by shifting beam position to SUS316L. • Charpy impact energy of F82H/SUS316L joint obviously increases after PWHT due to the release of residual stress. • The tensile strength of weld metal in F82H/SUS316L joint is higher than that of SUS316L. • The fiber laser welding seems to be one of the most candidate methods to join between F82H and SUS316L pipes practically. - Abstract: A dissimilar butt-joint between reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel F82H and SUS316L austenitic stainless steel was made by 4 kW fiber laser and the influence of laser beam position on its mechanical properties before and after post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) was examined at room temperature. From the nano-indentation measurements and the microstructural observations, it is found that the micro hardness of weld metal partially decreases after PWHT by shifting beam position to SUS316L because its phase seems to move from only the martensitic phase to the mixture of austenitic and martensitic phases. In addition, Charpy impact test suggests that the impact energy slightly increases by shifting beam position before PWHT and obviously increases after PWHT due to the release of residual stress. Moreover, the tensile test indicates that the tensile strength of weld metal is higher than that of SUS316L and the fracture occurs at the base metal of SUS316L regardless of laser beam position.

  9. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Butte NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.; George, W.E.; Montoya, J.V.; Martell, C.J.; Hensley, W.K.; Hanks, D.

    1980-05-01

    This report contains data collected during a geochemical survey for uranium in the Butte National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle of west-central Montana. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included. This report contains uranium analyses for water samples and multielement analyses for sediment samples. A supplemental report containing the results of multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, and zinc. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). All sediments were analyzed for uranium by DNC. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediment samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given

  10. Modelling and Pareto optimization of mechanical properties of friction stir welded AA7075/AA5083 butt joints using neural network and particle swarm algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaeefard, Mohammad Hasan; Behnagh, Reza Abdi; Akbari, Mostafa; Givi, Mohammad Kazem Besharati; Farhani, Foad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Defect-free friction stir welds have been produced for AA5083-O/AA7075-O. ► Back-propagation was sufficient for predicting hardness and tensile strength. ► A hybrid multi-objective algorithm is proposed to deal with this MOP. ► Multi-objective particle swarm optimization was used to find the Pareto solutions. ► TOPSIS is used to rank the given alternatives of the Pareto solutions. -- Abstract: Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has been successfully used to weld similar and dissimilar cast and wrought aluminium alloys, especially for aircraft aluminium alloys, that generally present with low weldability by the traditional fusion welding process. This paper focuses on the microstructural and mechanical properties of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of AA7075-O to AA5083-O aluminium alloys. Weld microstructures, hardness and tensile properties were evaluated in as-welded condition. Tensile tests indicated that mechanical properties of the joint were better than in the base metals. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed to simulate the correlation between the Friction Stir Welding parameters and mechanical properties. Performance of the ANN model was excellent and the model was employed to predict the ultimate tensile strength and hardness of butt joint of AA7075–AA5083 as functions of weld and rotational speeds. The multi-objective particle swarm optimization was used to obtain the Pareto-optimal set. Finally, the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was applied to determine the best compromised solution.

  11. Analysis of the geochemical gradient created by surface-groundwater interactions within riverbanks of the East River in Crested Butte, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunzer, J.; Williams, K. H.; Malenda, H. F.; Nararne-Sitchler, A.

    2016-12-01

    An improved understanding of the geochemical gradient created by the mixing of surface and groundwater of a river system will have considerable impact on our understanding of microorganisms, organic cycling and biogeochemical processes within these zones. In this study, the geochemical gradient in the hyporheic zone is described using a variety of geochemical properties. A system of shallow groundwater wells were installed in a series of transects along a stream bank. Each transect consists of several wells that progress away from the river bank in a perpendicular fashion. From these wells, temperature, conductivity and pH of water samples were obtained via hand pumping or bailing. These data show a clear geochemical gradient that displays a distinct zone in the subsurface where the geochemical conditions change from surface water dominated to groundwater dominated. For this study, the East River near Crested Butte, Colorado has been selected as the river of interest due the river being a relatively undisturbed floodplain. Additionally, the specific section chosen on the East River displays relatively high sinuosity meaning that these meandering sections will produce hyporheic zones that are more laterally expansive than what would be expected on a river of lower sinuosity. This increase in lateral extension of the hyporheic zone will make depicting the subtle changes in the geochemical gradient much easier than that of a river system in which the hyporheic zone is not as laterally extensive. Data has been and will be continued to be collected at different river discharges to evaluate the geochemical gradient at differing rates. Overall, this characterization of the geochemical gradient along stream banks will produce results that will aid in the further use of geochemical methods to classify and understand hyporheic exchange zones and the potential expansion of these techniques to river systems of differing geologic and geographic conditions.

  12. Tree health monitoring: perspectives from the visible and near infrared remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonthier P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, we present a critical review of those optical remote sensing techniques operating with the visible (VIS and near infrared (NIR bands for the assessment of health in forest trees. Physical, biological and physio-pathological issues of VIS-NIR reflectance of leaves are described pointing out that a decrease of NIR reflectance is highly influenced by stress conditions on tree caused by abiotic and biotic factors. In many cases the NIR spectral band is more sensitive than the VIS one, allowing to detect plant stress long before the appearance of visible symptoms. A description of the main remote sensing methods is provided, including radiometric measurements and multispectral imaging approaches. False colour infrared (FCIR images collection and their photointerpretation and processing are shown as they represent the most relevant means to acquire information of canopy from its reflectance properties. The amount and the quality of the obtainable data depend on: (i field conditions; (ii the type of the adopted instrument (camera, radiometer; (iii the recording system position (ground platforms, aircraft, satellite; (iv the format of the data (analogical, digitalised or digital; and (v the photointerpretation technique. Results from literature are discussed stressing the limits of remote sensing methods. Remote sensing in VIS and NIR spectral bands is generally a powerful classification tool to detect and score tree stress. Nevertheless, it is not a diagnostic tool in that it does not provide information on the cause of stress. Moreover, the method should be adequately tested at single tree level for many important pathogens, in particular root rot, butt rot and stem rot fungi. In perspective, new high spatial resolution satellite images and their GIS software elaboration might be suitable to improve remote sensing analysis.

  13. A Micromachined Infrared Senor for an Infrared Focal Plane Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong M. Cho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A micromachined infrared sensor for an infrared focal plane array has been designed and fabricated. Amorphous silicon was used as a sensing material, and silicon nitride was used as a membrane material. To get a good absorption in infrared range, the sensor structure was designed as a l/4 cavity structure. A Ni-Cr film was selected as an electrode material and mixed etching scheme was applied in the patterning process of the Ni-Cr electrode. All the processes were made in 0.5 μm iMEMS fabricated in the Electronics and Telecommunication Research Institute (ETRI. The processed MEMS sensor had a small membrane deflection less than 0.15 μm. This small deflection can be attributed to the rigorous balancing of the stresses of individual layers. The efficiency of infrared absorption was more than 75% in the wavelength range of 8 ~ 14 μm. The processed infrared sensor showed high responsivity of ~230 kV/W at 1.0V bias and 2 Hz operation condition. The time constant of the sensor was 8.6 msec, which means that the sensor is suitable to be operated in 30 Hz frame rate.

  14. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  15. New maxillofacial infrared detection technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshetnikov, A. P.; Kopylov, M. V.; Nasyrov, M. R., E-mail: marat.1994@me.com; Fisher, E. L.; Chernova, L. V. [Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Izhevsk, Russia (426034, Izhevsk, Kommunarov street, 281) (Russian Federation); Soicher, E. M. [Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry named after A.I. Evdokimov of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, (127473, Moscow, Delegatskaya str., 20/1) (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    At the dental clinic the infrared range radiation spectrum of tissues was used to study the dynamics of local temperature and structure of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and other tissues of the maxillofacial area in adult healthy volunteers and patients. In particular, we studied the dynamics of local temperature of mucous membranes of the mouth, teeth, and places in the mouth and dental structures in the norm and in various pathological conditions of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and cheeks before, during and after chewing food, drinking water, medication, and inhalation of air. High safety and informational content of infrared thermography are prospective for the development of diagnostics in medicine. We have 3 new methods for infrared detection protected by patents in Russia.

  16. New maxillofacial infrared detection technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, A. P.; Kopylov, M. V.; Nasyrov, M. R.; Soicher, E. M.; Fisher, E. L.; Chernova, L. V.

    2015-11-01

    At the dental clinic the infrared range radiation spectrum of tissues was used to study the dynamics of local temperature and structure of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and other tissues of the maxillofacial area in adult healthy volunteers and patients. In particular, we studied the dynamics of local temperature of mucous membranes of the mouth, teeth, and places in the mouth and dental structures in the norm and in various pathological conditions of the lips, gums, teeth, tongue, palate, and cheeks before, during and after chewing food, drinking water, medication, and inhalation of air. High safety and informational content of infrared thermography are prospective for the development of diagnostics in medicine. We have 3 new methods for infrared detection protected by patents in Russia.

  17. Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The practical realisation of optoelectronic devices operating in the 2–10 µm (mid-infrared) wavelength range offers potential applications in a variety of areas from environmental gas monitoring around oil rigs and landfill sites to the detection of pharmaceuticals, particularly narcotics. In addition, an atmospheric transmission window exists between 3 µm and 5 µm that enables free-space optical communications, thermal imaging applications and the development of infrared measures for "homeland security". Consequently, the mid-infrared is very attractive for the development of sensitive optical sensor instrumentation. Unfortunately, the nature of the likely applications dictates stringent requirements in terms of laser operation, miniaturisation and cost that are difficult to meet. Many of the necessary improvements are linked to a better ability to fabricate and to understand the optoelectronic properties of suitable high-quality epitaxial materials and device structures. Substantial progress in these m...

  18. KIC 8462852: THE INFRARED FLUX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Massimo; Hulsebus, Alan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Willis, Sarah [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We analyzed the warm Spitzer/IRAC data of KIC 8462852. We found no evidence of infrared excess at 3.6 μm and a small excess of 0.43 ± 0.18 mJy at 4.5 μm below the 3σ threshold necessary to claim a detection. The lack of strong infrared excess 2 years after the events responsible for the unusual light curve observed by Kepler further disfavors the scenarios involving a catastrophic collision in a KIC 8462852 asteroid belt, a giant impact disrupting a planet in the system or a population of dust-enshrouded planetesimals. The scenario invoking the fragmentation of a family of comets on a highly elliptical orbit is instead consistent with the lack of strong infrared excess found by our analysis.

  19. Infrared Transceiver for Home Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In home automation there is often a need for control of devices that have a built-in receiver for infrared communication with a remote controller. When trying to integrate such devices in a single control system, it is possible to substitute the remote controller with another infrared transmitter which automatically controls the device. This paper suggests a solution with an infrared transceiver which isconnected to a computer via the USB interface. The receiving part records commands from the remote controller, while the transmitting part takes the role of the remote controller, and provides direct device control from the computer, or indirect control through the computer network. This system provides efficient and simple control of the home devices in the absence of the user.

  20. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...... component (100) has an entrance pupil with a first diameter D1, and an optical component system which is arranged for forming an external image (136) of the back-focal plane (132) of the objective optical component (100), which has a diameter (given by the diameter of a circle enclosing all optical paths...... at the plane of the 10 external image) which is denominated D2 and wherein D1 is larger than a second diameter D2....

  1. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.S.

    1988-04-01

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration

  2. Veterinary applications of infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekant, Steven I; Lyons, Mark A; Pacheco, Juan M; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in body surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to a myriad of diseases of various etiologies across a wide range of host species in veterinary medicine. It is used to monitor the physiologic status of individual animals, such as measuring feed efficiency or diagnosing pregnancy. Infrared thermography has applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and has been used to detect soring in horses and monitor stress responses. This review addresses the variety of uses for IRT in veterinary medicine, including disease detection, physiologic monitoring, welfare assessment, and potential future applications.

  3. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees over a range of angular sca...

  4. Quantum Infrared Photodetectors for Long Wavelength Infrared Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, S.; Gunapala, S. D.; Liu, J. K.; Luong, M.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hong, W.; McKelvey, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Long wavelength Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) cameras developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory demonstrate the potential of GaAs/A1xGa1-xAs QWIP technology for highly sensitive, low power, low cost, and highly uniform large format FPA imaging systems.

  5. The effect of initial stress induced during the steel manufacturing process on the welding residual stress in multi-pass butt welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-ung Park

    2018-03-01

    MPa, while in case of thickness at 70 mm, it was 200 MPa. The increase in compressive residual stress is almost the same as the initial stress. However, if initial stress was tensile, there was no significant change in the maximum compression residual stress. Keywords: Initial stress, Thermal elastic plastic FE analysis, Welding residual stress, Manufacturing steel process, Multi-pass butt welding

  6. Fracture patterns at lava-ice contacts on Kokostick Butte, OR, and Mazama Ridge, Mount Rainier, WA: Implications for flow emplacement and cooling histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Robert W. D.; Lescinsky, David T.

    2009-09-01

    Cooling lava commonly develop polygonal joints that form equant hexagonal columns. Such fractures are formed by thermal contraction resulting in an isotropic tensional stress regime. However, certain linear cooling fracture patterns observed at some lava-ice contacts do not appear to fit the model for formation of cooling fractures and columns because of their preferred orientations. These fracture types include sheet-like (ladder-like rectangular fracture pattern), intermediate (pseudo-aligned individual column-bounding fractures), and pseudopillow (straight to arcuate fractures with perpendicular secondary fractures caused by water infiltration) fractures that form the edges of multiple columns along a single linear fracture. Despite the relatively common occurrence of these types of fractures at lava-ice contacts, their significance and mode of formation have not been fully explored. This study investigates the stress regimes responsible for producing these unique fractures and their significance for interpreting cooling histories at lava-ice contacts. Data was collected at Kokostick Butte dacite flow at South Sister, OR, and Mazama Ridge andesite flow at Mount Rainier, WA. Both of these lava flows have been interpreted as being emplaced into contact with ice and linear fracture types have been observed on their ice-contacted margins. Two different mechanisms are proposed for the formation of linear fracture networks. One possible mechanism for the formation of linear fracture patterns is marginal bulging. Melting of confining ice walls will create voids into which flowing lava can deform resulting in margin-parallel tension causing margin-perpendicular fractures. If viewed from the ice-wall, these fractures would be steeply dipping, linear fractures. Another possible mechanism for the formation of linear fracture types is gravitational settling. Pure shear during compression and settling can result in a tensional environment with similar consequences as

  7. Advances in near-infrared measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Patonay, Gabor

    1991-01-01

    Advances in Near-Infrared Measurements, Volume 1 provides an overview of near-infrared spectroscopy. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of near-infrared measurement. Chapter 1 discusses remote monitoring techniques in near-infrared spectroscopy with an emphasis on fiber optics. Chapter 2 covers the applications of fibers using Raman techniques, and Chapter 3 tackles the difficulties associated with near-infrared data analysis. The subsequent chapters present examples of the capabilities of near-infrared spectroscopy from various research groups. The text wi

  8. Design and Analysis of a Multicolor Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alves, Fabio D. P

    2005-01-01

    .... These characteristics have been found in quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP). Driven by these applications, a QWIP photodetector capable of detecting simultaneously infrared emissions within near infrared (NIR...

  9. The infrared astronomical mission AKARI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murakami, Hiroshi; Baba, Hajime; Barthel, Peter; Clements, David L.; Cohen, Martin; Doi, Yasuo; Enya, Keigo; Figueredo, Elysandra; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Garcia-Lario, Pedro; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hibi, Yasunori; Hirao, Takanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Hong, Seung Soo; Imai, Koji; Ishigaki, Miho; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ita, Yoshifusa; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Jeong, Kyung Sook; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kataza, Hirokazu; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Kawai, Toshihide; Kawamura, Akiko; Kessler, Martin F.; Kester, Do; Kii, Tsuneo; Kim, Dong Chan; Kim, Wjung; Kobayashi, Hisato; Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Suk Minn; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lorente, Rosario; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; Mueller, Thomas G.; Murakami, Noriko; Nagata, Hirohisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Naoi, Takahiro; Narita, Masanao; Noda, Manabu; Oh, Sang Hoon; Ohnishi, Akira; Ohyama, Youichi; Okada, Yoko; Okuda, Haruyuki; Oliver, Sebastian; Onaka, Takashi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Oyabu, Shinki; Pak, Sojong; Park, Yong-Sun; Pearson, Chris P.; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Saito, Toshinobu; Sakon, Itsuki; Salama, Alberto; Sato, Shinji; Savage, Richard S.; Serjeant, Stephen; Shibai, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Mai; Sohn, Jungjoo; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Takita, Satoshi; Thomson, Matthew; Uemizu, Kazunori; Ueno, Munetaka; Usui, Fumihiko; Verdugo, Eva; Wada, Takehiko; Wang, Lingyu; Watabe, Toyoki; Watarai, Hidenori; White, Glenn J.; Yamamura, Issei; Yamauchi, Chisato; Yasuda, Akiko

    2007-01-01

    AKARI, the first Japanese satellite dedicated to infrared astronomy, was launched on 2006 February 21, and started observations in May of the same year. AKARI has a 68.5 cm cooled telescope, together with two focal-plane instruments, which survey the sky in six wavelength bands from mid- to

  10. Flexible optical-infrared metafilter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Jean-Baptiste; Brissonneau, Vincent; Le Rouzo, Judikaël.; Ferchichi, Abdelkerim; Gourgon, Cécile; Dubarry, Christophe; Berginc, Gérard; Escoubas, Ludovic

    2014-02-01

    By combining the antireflective properties from gradual changes in the effective refractive index and cavity coupling from cone gratings, and the efficient optical behavior of a tungsten film, we have conceived a flexible filter showing very broad antireflective (AR) properties from the visible to short wavelength infrared region (SWIR: 0.7-1.5 μm) and simultaneously a mirror-like behavior in the mid-infrared wavelength region (MWIR: 3-5 μm) and long-infrared wavelength region (LWIR: 8 to 15 μm). Nanoimprint technology has permitted us to replicate inverted cone patterns on a large scale on a flexible polymer, afterwards coated with a thin tungsten film. This optical metafilter is of great interest in the stealth domain where optical signature reduction from the optical to SWIR region is an important matter. As it also acts as selective thermal emitter offering a good solar-absorption/ infrared-emissivity ratio, interests are found as well for solar heating applications.

  11. GRB Optical and Infrared Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeswijk, P. M.

    2001-05-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) optical and infra-red afterglow observations are reviewed. I will also discuss the indications that long-duration GRBs seem to favour the `collapsar' model. Among these are the debated connection between GRBs and supernovae, and the location of GRB afterglows with respect to their host galaxies. PMV is supported by the NWO Spinoza grant.

  12. Landsat and Thermal Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, Terry; Barsi, Julia; Jhabvala, Murzy; Reuter, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce the new thermal sensor to be launched in 2013. The chapter describes the thematic mapper (TM) and enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch calibration of the new thermal infrared sensor (TIRS).

  13. Visualizing Chemistry with Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Almost all chemical processes release or absorb heat. The heat flow in a chemical system reflects the process it is undergoing. By showing the temperature distribution dynamically, infrared (IR) imaging provides a salient visualization of the process. This paper presents a set of simple experiments based on IR imaging to demonstrate its enormous…

  14. Non-collinear upconversion of infrared light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Hu, Qi; Høgstedt, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Two dimensional mid-infrared upconversion imaging provides unique spectral and spatial information showing good potential for mid- infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging. However, to extract spectral or spatial information from the upconverted images an elaborate model is needed, which...

  15. The cosmic infrared background experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

    2006-03-01

    The extragalactic background, based on absolute measurements reported by DIRBE and IRTS at 1.2 and 2.2 μm, exceeds the brightness derived from galaxy counts by up to a factor 5. Furthermore, both DIRBE and the IRTS report fluctuations in the near-infrared sky brightness that appear to have an extra-galactic origin, but are larger than expected from local ( z = 1-3) galaxies. These observations have led to speculation that a new class of high-mass stars or mini-quasars may dominate primordial star formation at high-redshift ( z ˜ 10-20), which, in order to explain the excess in the near-infrared background, must be highly luminous but produce a limited amount of metals and X-ray photons. Regardless of the nature of the sources, if a significant component of the near-infrared background comes from first-light galaxies, theoretical models generically predict a prominent near-infrared spectral feature from the redshifted Lyman cutoff, and a distinctive fluctuation power spectrum. We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7″ to 2°, where a first-light galaxy signature is expected to peak, over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100× fainter than IRTS/DIRBE, with sufficient resolution to remove local-galaxy correlations. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near-infrared

  16. Infrared landmine detection and thermal model analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Kokonozi, A.; Carter, L.J.; Lensen, H.A.; Franken, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    Infrared imagers are capable of the detection of surface laid mines. Several sensor fused land mine detection systems make use of metal detectors, ground penetrating radar and infrared imagers. Infrared detection systems are sensitive to apparent temperature contrasts and their detection

  17. FAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Wanggi [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm{sup –2} in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.

  18. Infrared monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.; Lopez, N.; Hu, G.; Choi, E.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for monitoring the gyrotron output window surface temperature with an infrared camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. The IR camera views the window through a perforated waveguide wall, and serves both as a guide for the safe operation at high average power of the tube, as well as an aid in the analysis of new window designs. Window temperatures were studied as a function of a number of parameters, including gun anode voltage, beam current, magnetic field, coolant flow, and load matching. The IR technique is applicable to many types of high average power microwave and millimeter wave tubes. Successful operation of the Varian 60 GHz gyrotron to 214 kW CW was guided by the infrared camera. Analyses on 28, 56 and 60 GHz gyrotrons have led to a number of design changes. A comparison with computer calculations is also presented

  19. Interstellar extinction in the infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    Extinction by insterstellar dust at infrared wavelengths is reviewed. For 0.7 λ proportional to λ -1.75 , although the observational uncertainties remain appreciable. In the 8-30 μ m region interstellar extinction is dominated by the 9.7 μ m and 18 μ m silicate features; the absolute strength (relative to the continuum extinction at shorter wavelengths), the detailed wavelength-dependence of these features, and the possible variation of the profile shape from diffuse clouds to dense clouds, all remain somewhat controversial. In the farinfrared λ > ∼ 30 μ m grain emissivity estimates by different authors vary considerably; future observations of thermal emission from diffuse clouds in the 300 μ m region offer the prospect of substantially reducing uncertainties in far-infrared emissivities

  20. Dual-band infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H.; Schlemmer, H.

    2005-10-01

    Every year, numerous accidents happen on European roads due to bad visibility (fog, night, heavy rain). Similarly, the dramatic aviation accidents of year 2001 in Milan and Zurich have reminded us that aviation safety is equally affected by reduced visibility. A dual-band thermal imager was developed in order to raise human situation awareness under conditions of reduced visibility especially in the automotive and aeronautical context but also for all transportation or surveillance tasks. The chosen wavelength bands are the Short Wave Infrared SWIR and the Long Wave Infrared LWIR band which are less obscured by reduced visibility conditions than the visible band. Furthermore, our field tests clearly show that the two different spectral bands very often contain complementary information. Pyramidal fusion is used to integrate complementary and redundant features of the multi-spectral images into a fused image which can be displayed on a monitor to provide more and better information for the driver or pilot.

  1. The Hydrogeologic Character of the Lower Tuff Confining Unit and the Oak Springs Butte Confining Unit in the Tuff Pile Area of Central Yucca Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drellack, Jr., Sigmund L.; Prothro, Lance B.; Gonzales, Jose L.; Mercadante, Jennifer M.

    2010-07-30

    , 2006). • No welded-tuff (or lava-flow aquifers), referred to as low-porosity, high-permeability zones in Boryta et al. (in review), are present within the LTCU in the Tuff Pile area. • Fractures within the LTCU are poorly developed, a characteristic of zeolitic tuffs; and fracture distributions are independent of stratigraphic and lithologic units (Prothro, 2008). • Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport will not be affected by laterally extensive zones of significantly higher permeability within the LTCU in the Tuff Pile area. Although not the primary focus of this report, the hydrogeologic character of the Oak Spring Butte confining unit (OSBCU), located directly below the LTCU, is also discussed. The OSBCU is lithologically more diverse, and does include nonwelded to partially welded ash-flow tuffs. However, these older ash-flow tuffs are poorly welded and altered (zeolitic to quartzofeldspathic), and consequently, would tend to have properties similar to a tuff confining unit rather than a welded-tuff aquifer.

  2. HIGH-EFFICIENCY INFRARED RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Esman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  3. Infrared slavery and quark confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Alabiso, C

    1976-01-01

    The question is considered of whether the so-called infrared slavery mechanism as, e.g., being manifest in non-Abelian gauge theories, necessarily confines quarks. Making a specific ansatz for the long- range forces, the Schwinger-Dyson equation is solved for the quark Green function. Besides having a confining solution, it appears that quarks may by-pass the long-range forces and be produced. (20 refs).

  4. Infrared signatures for remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, R.S.; Sharpe, S.W.; Kelly, J.F.

    1994-04-01

    PNL`s capabilities for infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy include tunable-diode-laser (TDL) systems covering 300--3,000 cm{sup {minus}1} at <10-MHz bandwidth; a Bruker Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for the near- to far-infrared at 50-MHz resolution; and a stable line-tunable, 12-w cw CO{sub 2} laser. PNL also has a beam expansion source with a 12-cm slit, which provides a 3-m effective path for gases at {approximately}10 K, giving a Doppler width of typically 10 MHz; and long-path static gas cells (to 100 m). In applying this equipment to signatures work, the authors emphasize the importance of high spectral resolution for detecting and identifying atmospheric interferences; for identifying the optimum analytical frequencies; for deriving, by spectroscopic analysis, the molecular parameters needed for modeling; and for obtaining data on species and/or bands that are not in existing databases. As an example of such spectroscopy, the authors have assigned and analyzed the C-Cl stretching region of CCl{sub 4} at 770--800 cm{sup {minus}1}. This is an important potential signature species whose IR absorption has remained puzzling because of the natural isotopic mix, extensive hot-band structure, and a Fermi resonance involving a nearby combination band. Instrument development projects include the IR sniffer, a small high-sensitivity, high-discrimination (Doppler-limited) device for fence-line or downwind monitoring that is effective even in regions of atmospheric absorption; preliminary work has achieved sensitivities at the low-ppb level. Other work covers trace species detection with TDLs, and FM-modulated CO{sub 2} laser LIDAR. The authors are planning a field experiment to interrogate the Hanford tank farm for signature species from Rattlesnake Mountain, a standoff of ca. 15 km, to be accompanied by simultaneous ground-truthing at the tanks.

  5. Infrared-Bright Interacting Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Ruiz, Sofia; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Armus, Lee; Smith, John-David; Bradford, Charles Matt; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2018-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared spectral mapping of eight LIRG-class interacting galaxies: NGC 6670, NGC 7592, IIZw 96, IIIZw 35, Arp 302, Arp 236, Arp 238, Arp 299. The properties of galaxy mergers, which are bright and can be studied at high resolutions at low-z, provide local analogs for sources that may be important contributors to the Far Infrared Background (FIRB.) In order to study star formation and the physical conditions in the gas and dust in our sample galaxies, we used the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) to map the galaxies over the 5-35 μm window to trace the PAH, molecular hydrogen, and atomic fine structure line emission on scales of 1.4 – 5.3 kpc. Here we present the reduction for low and high-resolution data, and preliminary results in the analysis of fine structure line ratios and dust features in the two nuclei and interacting regions from one of our sample galaxies, NGC 6670.

  6. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    of external cancers, mid-infrared detection of cancer-margins during external surgery for precise removal of diseased tissue, in one go during the surgery, and mid-infrared endoscopy for early diagnosis of internal cancers and their precision removal. The mid-infrared spectral region has previously lacked......, agriculture and in manufacturing and chemical processing. This work is in part supported by the European Commission: Framework Seven (FP7) Large-Scale Integrated Project MINERVA: MId-to-NEaR-infrared spectroscopy for improVed medical diAgnostics (317803; www.minerva-project.eu).......We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the mid-infrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy ('opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ...

  7. Infrared imaging of extrasolar planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, David J.; Tubbs, Eldred F.; Gaiser, Steven L.; Korechoff, Robert P.

    1991-01-01

    An optical system for direct detection, in the infrared, of planets orbiting other stars is described. The proposed system consists of a large aperture (about 16 m) space-based telescope to which is attached a specialized imaging instrument containing a set of optical signal processing elements to suppress diffracted light from the central star. Starlight suppression is accomplished using coronagraphic apodization combined with rotational shearing interferometry. The possibility of designing the large telescope aperture to be of a deployable, multiarm configuration is examined, and it is shown that there is some sacrifice in performance relative to a filled, circular aperture.

  8. Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-16-15 MEASURING COLLIMATOR INFRARED ( IR ) SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION Christopher L. Dobbins Weapons...AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Collimator Infrared ( IR ) Spectral Transmission 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher L...release; distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Several Infrared ( IR ) imaging systems have been measured

  9. Infrared multiphoton absorption and decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.; McAlpine, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The discovery of infrared laser induced multiphoton absorption (IRMPA) and decomposition (IRMPD) by Isenor and Richardson in 1971 generated a great deal of interest in these phenomena. This interest was increased with the discovery by Ambartzumian, Letokhov, Ryadbov and Chekalin that isotopically selective IRMPD was possible. One of the first speculations about these phenomena was that it might be possible to excite a particular mode of a molecule with the intense infrared laser beam and cause decomposition or chemical reaction by channels which do not predominate thermally, thus providing new synthetic routes for complex chemicals. The potential applications to isotope separation and novel chemistry stimulated efforts to understand the underlying physics and chemistry of these processes. At ICOMP I, in 1977 and at ICOMP II in 1980, several authors reviewed the current understandings of IRMPA and IRMPD as well as the particular aspect of isotope separation. There continues to be a great deal of effort into understanding IRMPA and IRMPD and we will briefly review some aspects of these efforts with particular emphasis on progress since ICOMP II. 31 references

  10. Next decade in infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2017-10-01

    Fundamental and technological issues associated with the development and exploitation of the most advanced infrared technologies is discussed. In these classes of detectors both photon and thermal detectors are considered. Special attention is directed to HgCdTe ternary alloys, type II superlattices (T2SLs), barrier detectors, quantum wells, extrinsic detectors, and uncooled thermal bolometers. The sophisticated physics associated with the antimonide-based bandgap engineering will give a new impact and interest in development of infrared detector structures. Important advantage of T2SLs is the high quality, high uniformity and stable nature of the material. In general, III-V semiconductors are more robust than their II-VI counterparts due to stronger, less ionic chemical bonding. As a result, III-V-based FPAs excel in operability, spatial uniformity, temporal stability, scalability, producibility, and affordability - the so-called "ibility" advantages. In well established uncooled imaging, microbolometer arrays are clearly the most used technology. The microbolometer detectors are now produced in larger volumes than all other IR array technologies together. Present state-of-the-art microbolometers are based on polycrystalline or amorphous materials, typically vanadium oxide (VOx) or amorphous silicon (a-Si), with only modest temperature sensitivity and noise properties. Basic efforts today are mainly focused on pixel reduction and performance enhancement.

  11. The Infrared Astronomical Mission AKARI*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroshi; Baba, Hajime; Barthel, Peter; Clements, David L.; Cohen, Martin; Doi, Yasuo; Enya, Keigo; Figueredo, Elysandra; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Garcia-Lario, Pedro; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hibi, Yasunori; Hirao, Takanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Hong, Seung Soo; Imai, Koji; Ishigaki, Miho; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ita, Yoshifusa; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Jeong, Kyung Sook; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kataza, Hirokazu; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Kawai, Toshihide; Kawamura, Akiko; Kessler, Martin F.; Kester, Do; Kii, Tsuneo; Kim, Dong Chan; Kim, Woojung; Kobayashi, Hisato; Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Suk Minn; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lorente, Rosario; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; MÜller, Thomas G.; Murakami, Noriko; Nagata, Hirohisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Naoi, Takahiro; Narita, Masanao; Noda, Manabu; Oh, Sang Hoon; Ohnishi, Akira; Ohyama, Youichi; Okada, Yoko; Okuda, Haruyuki; Oliver, Sebastian; Onaka, Takashi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Oyabu, Shinki; Pak, Soojong; Park, Yong-Sun; Pearson, Chris P.; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Saito, Toshinobu; Sakon, Itsuki; Salama, Alberto; Sato, Shinji; Savage, Richard S.; Serjeant, Stephen; Shibai, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Mai; Sohn, Jungjoo; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Hidenori; TanabÉ, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Takita, Satoshi; Thomson, Matthew; Uemizu, Kazunori; Ueno, Munetaka; Usui, Fumihiko; Verdugo, Eva; Wada, Takehiko; Wang, Lingyu; Watabe, Toyoki; Watarai, Hidenori; White, Glenn J.; Yamamura, Issei; Yamauchi, Chisato; Yasuda, Akiko

    2007-10-01

    AKARI, the first Japanese satellite dedicated to infrared astronomy, was launched on 2006 February 21, and started observations in May of the same year. AKARI has a 68.5 cm cooled telescope, together with two focal-plane instruments, which survey the sky in six wavelength bands from the mid- to far-infrared. The instruments also have the capability for imaging and spectroscopy in the wavelength range 2 - 180 micron in the pointed observation mode, occasionally inserted into the continuous survey operation. The in-orbit cryogen lifetime is expected to be one and a half years. The All-Sky Survey will cover more than 90 percent of the whole sky with higher spatial resolution and wider wavelength coverage than that of the previous IRAS all-sky survey. Point source catalogues of the All-Sky Survey will be released to the astronomical community. The pointed observations will be used for deep surveys of selected sky areas and systematic observations of important astronomical targets. These will become an additional future heritage of this mission.

  12. Mid-Infrared Graphene Photoresponse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Allen; Herring, Patrick; Shin, Yong Cheol; Kim, Ki Kang; Kong, Jing; Marcus, Charlie; Gabor, Nathaniel; Palacios, Tomas; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2013-03-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional (2D) material that has attracted great interest for electronic devices since its discovery in 2004. Due to its zero band gap band structure, it has a broad-band optical absorption ranging from the far-infrared all the way to the visible making it potentially useful for infrared photodetectors. Electrostatically gated p-n junctions have demonstrated photocurrents in the near-IR (λ = 850nm), primarily due to hot carrier mechanisms. In order to study these mechanisms at longer wavelengths (λ = 10 μm), high quality chemically vapor grown (CVD) graphene is necessary to fabricate electrostatically controlled p-n junctions due to the longer optical length scales. Moreover, at these low energies (~ 125 meV), optical phonon scattering is suppressed and is predicted to lead to increased carrier lifetimes and enhanced photo-response. Using electrostatic gating, we are able to study the absorption mechanisms in graphene by selecting between conventional photovoltaic effects and photo-thermoelectric effects. Experiments suggest that the photocurrent signal is enhanced by electrostatic gating near the Dirac peak and reduced disorder in the graphene sample. Institute for Solder Nanotechnologies, GATE MURI, MSD Focus Center

  13. Measurements of Near Sea Surface Infrared Propagation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frost, Shaun

    1999-01-01

    .... Measurements have been made of the atmospheric infrared transmission near the sea surface. Spectral transmission profiles were measured for a number of ranges using a fourier transform spectrometer...

  14. An infrared view of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, D.B.; Timusk, T.; McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the infrared properties of the high T c superconductors are reviewed, with particular emphasis on attempts to determine the energy gap by far infrared spectroscopy and on the properties of the strong absorption that occurs in the mid infrared. The authors argue that this mid-infrared absorption is a direct particle-hole excitation rather than a Holstein emission process. In addition, they conclude that although the energy gap is not easily observed, several recent experiments place it in the weak to moderate strong coupling range

  15. INFRARED GLOBAL GEOSTATIONARY COMPOSITE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The National Center for Environmental Prediction/Aviation Weather Center Infrared Global Geostationary Composite data set contains global composite images from the...

  16. Spectrally-Tunable Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a SPECTRALLY-TUNABLE INFRARED CAMERA based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. This will build on...

  17. Handheld Longwave Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact handheld longwave infrared camera based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. Based on...

  18. Visible-Near Infrared (VNIR) and Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) Spectral Variability of Urban Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Spectrometry) The theory behind hyperspectral remote sensing is that the reflected solar radiation from Earth surfaces can be measured in hundreds of...INFRARED (VNIR) AND SHORTWAVE INFRARED (SWIR) SPECTRAL VARIABILITY OF URBAN MATERIALS by Kenneth G Fairbarn Jr March 2013 Thesis Advisor...2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VISIBLE–NEAR INFRARED (VNIR) AND SHORTWAVE INFRARED (SWIR) SPECTRAL

  19. [Infrared videonystagmography in vestibular diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, A; Piazza, F; Quaranta, N

    2000-01-01

    Vestibular examination relied upon electronystagmography (ENG) for more than 50 years. This method is based on recording of nystagmus (Ny) without any possibility to see the ocular movements directly. More recently, infrared videonystagmography (VNG) entered the diagnostic protocol of vestibular disorders. VNG permits to record and visualize Ny, both in the darkness and with open eyes. Aim of the present study was to verify the possible advantages of VNG versus ENG for functional evaluation of the vestibular system in patients suffering from otoneurological disorders. To that purpose, VNG and ENG tracings were recorded in 12 patients. The preliminary results show that there are not significant differences in quantitative evaluation of Ny between the two methods. Anyhow, VNG has some technical and clinical advantages that make it the method of choice.

  20. Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.M.

    1990-11-01

    This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm -1 region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H 3 O + (H 2 O) 3 -10 , ammoniated ammonium ions, NH 4 + (NH 3 ) 1 -10 and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH 4 + (NH 3 ) n (H 2 O) m (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  3. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, J.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-03-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1-xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. At present, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  4. Kinetics of infrared stimulated luminescence from feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Sohbati, Reza; Guralnik, Benny

    2015-01-01

    thermal and optical, of the infrared stimulated luminescence signal from feldspar. Based on the application of this model, it is concluded that different infra-red stimulated luminescence emissions (UV, blue, yellow and far-red) follow the same kinetics, and, therefore, involve participation of the same...... in feldspar. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Part III. Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of the FT-IR spectrometer in analyses that were previously avoided. Examines some of the applications of this spectroscopy with aqueous solutions, circular internal reflection, samples with low transmission, diffuse reflectance, infrared emission, and the infrared microscope. (TW)

  6. INFRARED AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF ION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infrared and Raman spectroscopy techniques have been used to study the ionic interactions of strontium(II) and barium(II) with thiocyanate ion in liquid ammonia. A number of bands were observed in both n (CN) and n (CS) regions of infrared and Raman spectra and these were assigned to 1:1 contact ion pair, ...

  7. Infrared scintillation in gases, liquids and crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belogurov, S.; Bressi, G; Carugno, G.; Conti, E; Iannuzzi, D; Meneguzzo, AT

    2000-01-01

    We report about experimental evidences of infrared scintillation in gaseous, liquid and crystal samples. We firstly studied noble gases at room temperature and near atmospheric pressure in the wavelength range between 0.7 and 1.81 mum. Ar gas emits infrared photons when irradiated by a proton beam.

  8. Infrared ship signature analysis and optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the awareness of the infrared signature of naval ships. New ship designs show that infrared signature reduction measures are being incorporated, such as exhaust gas cooling systems, relocation of the exhausts and surface cooling systems. Hull and

  9. Infrared Radiative Properties of Food Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precisely, infrared radiation is electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength is longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of terahertz radiation and microwaves. The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum spans roughly three orders of magnitude (750 nm to 100 µm) and has been...

  10. Gas-Phase Infrared; JCAMP Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 35 NIST/EPA Gas-Phase Infrared; JCAMP Format (PC database for purchase)   This data collection contains 5,228 infrared spectra in the JCAMP-DX (Joint Committee for Atomic and Molecular Physical Data "Data Exchange") format.

  11. Infrared clutter measurements of marine backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, Piet B.

    1991-01-01

    Observations in the infrared wavelength band between 8 and 12 μm of sea backgrounds have been recorded with a CCIR compatible imager for a large number of sea states (0 - 6). Recordings took place in coastal areas as well as on open seas. The behavior of clutter in the infrared data was analyzed in

  12. Experimental evidence of infrared scintillation in crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Belogurov, S; Carugno, Giovanni; Conti, E; Iannuzzi, D; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa

    2000-01-01

    We present experimental results on infrared emission induced by protons in some solid-state samples. Infrared scintillation occurs in many crystals, with different yield values and time-response behaviours. A rough measurement of the emission wavelength of CsI(Tl) is also reported.

  13. Application of infrared to biomedical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the latest updates in the application of infrared to biomedical sciences, a non-invasive, contactless, safe and easy approach imaging of skin and tissue temperatures. Its diagnostic procedure allows practitioners to identify the locations of abnormal chemical and blood vessel activity such as angiogenesis in body tissue. Its non-invasive approach works by applying the technology of the infrared camera and state-of-the-art software, where high-resolution digital infrared imaging technology benefits highly from enhanced image production, standardized image interpretation protocols, computerized comparison and storage, and sophisticated image enhancement and analysis. The book contains contributions from global prominent scientists in the area of infrared applications in biomedical studies. The target audience includes academics, practitioners, clinicians and students working in the area of infrared imaging in biomedicine.

  14. FY 2006 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2006-12-28

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics and optical fiber processing methods for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions.

  15. Infrared Optical Response of Metallic Graphene Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigang Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate theoretically the infrared optical response characteristics of metallic armchair/zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons (A/ZGNRs to an external longitudinally polarized electromagnetic field at low temperatures. Within the framework of linear response theory at the perturbation regime, we examine the optical infrared absorption threshold energy, absorption power, dielectric function, and electron energy loss spectra near the neutrality points of the systems. It is demonstrated that, by some numerical examples, the photon-assisted direct interband absorptions for AGNR exist with different selection rules from those for ZGNR and single-walled carbon nanotube at infrared regime. This infrared optical property dependence of GNRs on field frequency may be used to design graphene-based nanoscale optoelectronic devices for the detection of infrared electromagnetic irradiations.

  16. The IRTS (Infrared Telescope in Space) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroshi; Freund, Minoru M.; Ganga, Ken; Guo, Hongfeng; Hirao, Takanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Lange, Andrew E.; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Murakami, Masahide; Nakagawa, Takao; Narita, Masanao; Noda, Manabu; Okuda, Haruyuki; Okumura, Ken'ichi; Onaka, Takashi; Roellig, Thomas L.; Sato, Shinji; Shibai, Hiroshi; Smith, Beverly J.; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Watabe, Toyoki; Yamamura, Issei; Yuen, Lunming

    1996-10-01

    The Japanese satellite-borne infrared telescope, the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS), has completed a successful survey of a portion of the infrared sky. The IRTS consists of a 15 cm telescope cooled with superfluid liquid helium, and is installed on board the Space Flyer Unit (SFU) spacecraft. The SFU was launched on 1995 March 18 UT. The sky survey by the IRTS started on March 29 UT, and was completed on April 25 UT after exhausting its liquid helium. The cryogenic system operated as designed, and maintained the telescope and the focal-plane instruments at a stable temperature of 1.9 K for 38 days. The four focal-plane instruments, which together covered almost the entire infrared wavelength range, observed a sky area of about 2700 deg(2) and returned a wealth of new data on a variety of objects, including the zodiacal light, interstellar gas and dust, near-infrared cosmic background light and point sources.

  17. FY 2005 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Bradley M.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions. During FY 2005, PNNL’s Infrared Photonics research team made measurable progress exploiting the extraordinary optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to develop miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. We investigated sulfur purification methods that will eventually lead to routine production of optical quality chalcogenide glass. We also discovered a glass degradation phenomenon and our investigation uncovered the underlying surface chemistry mechanism and developed mitigation actions. Key research was performed to understand and control the photomodification properties. This research was then used to demonstrate several essential infrared photonic devices, including LWIR single-mode waveguide devices and

  18. Very-Long-Wavelength Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tidrow, Meimei

    1999-01-01

    Infrared detector is a very important part of infrared sensor technology. In ballistic missile defense, infrared sensors play an important role in missile seeking, tracking, guiding, discriminating, and intercepting...

  19. A Novel Infrared Gas Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingding; Zhong, Hongjie

    2000-03-01

    In the paper a novel non-dispersive infrared(IR) gas monitor is described.It is based on the principle that certain gases absorb IR radiation at specific(and often unique) wavelengths.Conventional devices typically include several primary components:a broadband source, usually an incandescent filament,a rotating chopper shutter,a narrow-band filter,a sample tube and a detector. We have developed a number of IR light emitting diodes(LED) having narrow optical bandwidths and which can be intensity modulated by electrical means,for example InAsSbP(4.2 micron)LED.The IR LED can thus replace the thermal source,narrow-band filter and chopper assembly of the conventional IR gas monitor,yielding a solid state,low- powered,compact and almost maintenance-free instrument with high sensitivity and stability and which free of the effects of mechanical vibration too. The detector used in the IR gas monitor is the solid-state detector,such as PbS,PbSe, InSb,HgCdTe,TGS,LT and PZT detector etc. The different configuration of the IR gas monitor is designed.For example,two-path version for measuring methane concentration by monitoring the 3.31 micron absorption band,it can eliminate the interference effects,such as to compensate for LED intensity changes caused by power and temperature variations,and for signal fluctuations due to changes in detector bias. we also have designed portable single-beam version without the sample tube.Its most primary advantage is very cheap(about cost USD 30 ).It measures carbon dioxide concentration by monitoring the 4.25 micron absorption band.Thought its precisions is low,it is used to control carbon dioxide concentration in the air in the green houses and plastic houses(there are about twenty millon one in the China).Because more carbon dioxide will increase the quanity of vegetable and flower production to a greatextent. It also is used in medical,sanitary and antiepidemic applications,such as hospital, store,hotel,cabin and ballroom etc. Key words:infrared

  20. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larkin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    "Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Spectral Interpretation explains the background, core principles and tests the readers understanding of the important techniques of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy...

  1. Nanoantenna-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopic Chemical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühner, Lucca; Hentschel, Mario; Zschieschang, Ute; Klauk, Hagen; Vogt, Jochen; Huck, Christian; Giessen, Harald; Neubrech, Frank

    2017-05-26

    Spectroscopic infrared chemical imaging is ideally suited for label-free and spatially resolved characterization of molecular species, but often suffers from low infrared absorption cross sections. Here, we overcome this limitation by utilizing confined electromagnetic near-fields of resonantly excited plasmonic nanoantennas, which enhance the molecular absorption by orders of magnitude. In the experiments, we evaporate microstructured chemical patterns of C 60 and pentacene with nanometer thickness on top of homogeneous arrays of tailored nanoantennas. Broadband mid-infrared spectra containing plasmonic and vibrational information were acquired with diffraction-limited resolution using a two-dimensional focal plane array detector. Evaluating the enhanced infrared absorption at the respective frequencies, spatially resolved chemical images were obtained. In these chemical images, the microstructured chemical patterns are only visible if nanoantennas are used. This confirms the superior performance of our approach over conventional spectroscopic infrared imaging. In addition to the improved sensitivity, our technique provides chemical selectivity, which would not be available with plasmonic imaging that is based on refractive index sensing. To extend the accessible spectral bandwidth of nanoantenna-enhanced spectroscopic imaging, we employed nanostructures with dual-band resonances, providing broadband plasmonic enhancement and sensitivity. Our results demonstrate the potential of nanoantenna-enhanced spectroscopic infrared chemical imaging for spatially resolved characterization of organic layers with thicknesses of several nanometers. This is of potential interest for medical applications which are currently hampered by state-of-art infrared techniques, e.g., for distinguishing cancerous from healthy tissues.

  2. Target detection and tracking in infrared video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhihui; Zhu, Jihong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for target detection and tracking in infrared video. The target is defined by its location and extent in a single frame. In the initialization process, we use an adaptive threshold to segment the target and then extract the fern feature and normalize it as a template. The detector uses the random forest and fern to detect the target in the infrared video. The random forest and fern is a random combination of 2bit Binary Pattern, which is robust to infrared targets with blurred and unknown contours. The tracker uses the gray-value weighted mean-Shift algorithm to track the infrared target which is always brighter than the background. And the tracker can track the deformed target efficiently and quickly. When the target disappears, the detector will redetect the target in the coming infrared image. Finally, we verify the algorithm on the real-time infrared target detection and tracking platform. The result shows that our algorithm performs better than TLD in terms of recall and runtime in infrared video.

  3. Simulación numérica del coeficiente de concentración de tensiones en grietas de uniones soldadas a tope//Numerical simulation of the stresses concentration coefficient in cracks butt welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Almaguer-Zaldivar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La fatiga es uno de los más complejos fenómenos en el estudio de falla en piezas sometidas a la acción de cargas dinámicas. El objetivo de este trabajo es exponer una metodología basada en el método de los elementos finitos para la evaluación del coeficiente de concentración de tensiones en grietas longitudinales y transversales de uniones soldadas a tope. El material utilizado es el acero AISI 1015 y el electrodo E6013 de fabricación cubana. Se caracterizan los defectos mencionados y posteriormente se varían sus dimensiones para obtener relaciones entre ellas y el coeficiente de concentración de tensiones. Las simulaciones se realizaron con el software CosmosWork 2008. Con esta metodología se obtuvieron nomogramas y ecuaciones que describen el comportamiento del coeficiente de concentración de tensiones en diferentes nodos de la grieta. Los valores del coeficiente de concentración de tensiones obtenidos muestran una correspondencia con la variación de la severidad del defecto.Palabras claves: coeficiente de concentración de tensiones, simulación, uniones soldadas a tope, grietas, fatiga.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractFatigue is one of the more complex phenomenons in the failure of parts under dynamic loads. In this work is pursued as main objective to expose a methodology based on the finite elements method for the evaluation of the stress concentration coefficient in longitudinal and traverse cracks of butt welded joints. The material bases selected to carry out the study it is the steel AISI 1015 and the electrode E6013 Cuban manufacturing. It is carried out a characterization of the mentioned defects and later the dimensions of each defect are varied to obtain relationships between them and the stress concentration coefficient. The simulations were carried out with the software CosmosWork 2008. With the proposed methodology were obtained graphs and equations that

  4. Infrared and visual image fusion through infrared feature extraction and visual information preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Lijia; Bai, Xiangzhi; Zhang, Li

    2017-06-01

    The ideal fusion of the infrared image and visual image should integrate the important bright features of the infrared image, and preserve much original visual information of the visual image. To achieve this purpose, we propose a simple, fast yet effective infrared and visual image fusion algorithm through infrared feature extraction and visual information preservation. Firstly, we take advantage of quadtree decomposition and B e ´ zier interpolation to reconstruct the infrared background. Secondly, the infrared bright features are extracted by subtracting the reconstructed background from the infrared image and then refined by reducing the redundant background information. To inhibit the over-exposure problem, the refined infrared features are adaptively suppressed and then added on the visual image to achieve the final fusion image. In this way, the fusion image could not only reveal the invisible but important infrared objects by integrating the infrared bright features, but also show good visual quality by preserving much original visual information. Experiments performed on the commonly used image sets validate that the proposed algorithm outperforms several representative image fusion algorithms in most of the cases.

  5. Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Victor R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) deployed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is a Solmirus Corp. All Sky Infrared Visible Analyzer. The IRSI is an automatic, continuously operating, digital imaging and software system designed to capture hemispheric sky images and provide time series retrievals of fractional sky cover during both the day and night. The instrument provides diurnal, radiometrically calibrated sky imagery in the mid-infrared atmospheric window and imagery in the visible wavelengths for cloud retrievals during daylight hours. The software automatically identifies cloudy and clear regions at user-defined intervals and calculates fractional sky cover, providing a real-time display of sky conditions.

  6. Infrared propagator corrections for constant deceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, T M; Miao, S P; Prokopec, T [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Postbus 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Woodard, R P [Department of Physics, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)], E-mail: T.M.Janssen@uu.nl, E-mail: S.Miao@uu.nl, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: woodard@phys.ufl.edu

    2008-12-21

    We derive the propagator for a massless, minimally coupled scalar on a D-dimensional, spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic background with arbitrary constant deceleration parameter. Our construction uses the operator formalism by integrating the Fourier mode sum. We give special attention to infrared corrections from the nonzero lower limit associated with working on finite spatial sections. These corrections eliminate infrared divergences that would otherwise be incorrectly treated by dimensional regularization, resulting in off-coincidence divergences for those special values of the deceleration parameter at which the infrared divergence is logarithmic. As an application we compute the expectation value of the scalar stress-energy tensor.

  7. The Physics of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, K K

    1999-01-01

    In the past, infrared imaging has been used exclusively for military applications. In fact, it can also be useful in a wide range of scientific and commercial applications. However, its wide spread use was impeded by the scarcity of the imaging systems and its high cost. Recently, there is an emerging infrared technology based on quantum well intersubband transition in III-V compound semiconductors. With the new technology, these impedances can be eliminated and a new era of infrared imaging is in sight. This book is designed to give a systematic description on the underlying physics of the ne

  8. Infrared thermography on TFR 600 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, Roland.

    1980-06-01

    Infrared thermography with a single InSb detector and with a scanning camera has been performed on the TFR fusion device. High power neutral beam injection diagnostic by means of an infrared periscope is showed to be possible. Surface temperature measurements on the limiter during the discharge have been made in order to evaluate the power deposited by the plasma on this part of the inner wall. Various attempts of infrared detection on the high power neutral injector prototype vessel are described, particularly the measurement of the power deposited on one of the extraction grids of the ion source [fr

  9. Infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, G.L.; Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

    1997-09-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy with a high brightness synchrotron source can achieve a spatial resolution approaching the diffraction limit. However, in order to realize this intrinsic source brightness at the specimen location, some care must be taken in designing the optical system. Also, when operating in diffraction limited conditions, the effective spatial resolution is no longer controlled by the apertures typically used for a conventional (geometrically defined) measurement. Instead, the spatial resolution depends on the wavelength of light and the effective apertures of the microscope`s Schwarzchild objectives. The authors have modeled the optical system from the synchrotron source up to the sample location and determined the diffraction-limited spatial distribution of light. Effects due to the dependence of the synchrotron source`s numerical aperture on wavelength, as well as the difference between transmission and reflection measurement modes, are also addressed. Lastly, they examine the benefits (when using a high brightness source) of an extrinsic germanium photoconductive detector with cone optics as a replacement for the standard MCT detector.

  10. Infrared thermography quantitative image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroliakou, A.; Kalatzis, I.; Kalyvas, N.; Grivas, TB

    2017-11-01

    Infrared thermography is an imaging technique that has the ability to provide a map of temperature distribution of an object’s surface. It is considered for a wide range of applications in medicine as well as in non-destructive testing procedures. One of its promising medical applications is in orthopaedics and diseases of the musculoskeletal system where temperature distribution of the body’s surface can contribute to the diagnosis and follow up of certain disorders. Although the thermographic image can give a fairly good visual estimation of distribution homogeneity and temperature pattern differences between two symmetric body parts, it is important to extract a quantitative measurement characterising temperature. Certain approaches use temperature of enantiomorphic anatomical points, or parameters extracted from a Region of Interest (ROI). A number of indices have been developed by researchers to that end. In this study a quantitative approach in thermographic image processing is attempted based on extracting different indices for symmetric ROIs on thermograms of the lower back area of scoliotic patients. The indices are based on first order statistical parameters describing temperature distribution. Analysis and comparison of these indices result in evaluating the temperature distribution pattern of the back trunk expected in healthy, regarding spinal problems, subjects.

  11. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2012-08-01

    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  12. Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.

  13. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  14. Infrared rays stimulate silkworm productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolov, A.

    1977-01-01

    The tests involving the hybrids 48-I x 157-K and J-124 x C-122 were conducted at the experimental base of the Sericulture Experiment Station in Vratza. Silkworm seed was irradiated once daily from the first day of incubation to whitening of the seed at 60 and 80 min exposure. The combined quartz lamp, type ''MLKK-5'' (500 W, 220 V) was used. Seed was irradiated at a distance of 100 cm from the burner after its preliminary heating in the course of at least 10 min. Silkworm infrared irradiation exerts a stimulatory effect on embryonal and larval development, silkworm viability, and row cocoon yield. Sixty minutes irradiation exposure proved to be more effective for the native hybrid 48-I x 157-K, silkworm viability increasing by 3.75% and row cocoon yield per g silkworm seed - by 0.37 kg. On the contrary, 80 min irradiation exposure proved more effective in the case of the Japanese hybrid J-124 x C-122. (B.Ch.)

  15. Introductory survey for wireless infrared communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munsif Ali Jatoi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless infrared communications can be defined as the propagation of light waves in free space using infrared radiation whose range is 400–700 nm. This range corresponds to frequencies of hundreds of terahertz, which is high for higher data rate applications. Wireless infrared is applied for higher data rates applications such as wireless computing, wireless video and wireless multimedia communication applications. Introduced by Gfeller, this field has grown with different link configurations, improved transmitter efficiency, increased receiver responsivity and various multiple access techniques for improved quality. Errors are caused because of background light, which causes degradation overall system performance. Error correction techniques are used to remove the errors caused during transmission. This study provides a brief account on field theory used for error correction in wireless infrared systems. The results are produced in terms of bit error rate and signal-to-noise ratio for various bit lengths to show the ability of encoding and decoding algorithms.

  16. Far infrared peculiar behavior of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulin; Liu Jiying

    1988-09-01

    Many quasars possibly have nebulous envelopes with far infrared radiation. These nebulosities may be similar to fuzz in the optical region in morphology. These quasars have many properties in common. (author). Refs, 3 figs

  17. Measurement of Low-Altitude Infrared Transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeisse, C

    1999-01-01

    Infrared propagation at low altitudes is determined by extinction caused by molecules, aerosol particles, and ray bending by refraction, three effects that control the mean value of the signal (the transmission...

  18. Infrared Spectroscopy of Hyper Velocity Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erdman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    .... We have developed the experimental techniques and the instruments necessary to expand those earlier experiments into the infrared portion of the spectrum where ground-state, molecular, ro-vibrational...

  19. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  20. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Eric; Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  1. Mid Infrared Laser Sources for Remote Sensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mid infrared solid-state lasers are made possible by using innovative low phonon energy materials. Until recently, such lasers were not feasible because they...

  2. Infrared synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.D.; Williams, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Simple and useful approximations, valid at infrared wavelengths, to the equations for synchrotron radiation are presented and used to quantify the brightness and power advantage of current synchrotron radiation light sources over conventional infrared broadband laboratory sources. The Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) and the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (vacuum ultraviolet) [NSLS(VUV)] storage rings are used as examples in the calculation of the properties of infrared synchrotron radiation. The pulsed nature of the emission is also discussed, and potential areas of application for the brightness, power, and time structure advantages are presented. The use of infrared free electron lasers and undulators on the next generation of storage ring light sources is briefly considered

  3. Infrared Observations of Cometary Dust and Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey

    2004-01-01

    This bibliography lists citations for publications published under the grant. Subjects of the publications include cometary dust, instellar and interplanetary dust, comet nuclei and comae, Comet Hale-Bopp, infrared observations of comets, mass loss, and comet break-up.

  4. Mesoporous Silicon Far Infrared Filters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make optical filters based on mesoporous silicon multilayers, for use at cold temperatures in the far infrared...

  5. Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...

  6. Mesoporous Silicon Far Infrared Filters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a novel method to make optical filters based on mesoporous silicon multilayers, for use at cold temperatures in the far infrared...

  7. NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IRSA is chartered to curate the calibrated science products from NASAs infrared and sub-millimeter missions, including five major large-area/all-sky surveys. IRSA...

  8. Far-infrared spectroscopy of HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.J.; Kessler, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Interest has developed rapidly in the astrophysics associated with far-infrared line emission from ionised regions, following the development of spectroscopic instruments and observing facilities appropriate to those wavelengths. Far-infrared observations and their interpretation are now at the stage where the need for specific developments in theoretical and laboratory work have been identified. The need is also apparent for the development of models dealing with more realistic astrophysical situations. (Auth.)

  9. A new technique for infrared scintillation measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Chiossi, F.; Brylew, K.; Borghesani, A. F.; Braggio, C.; Carugno, G.; Drozdowski, W.; Guarise, M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new technique to measure the infrared scintillation light yield of rare earth (RE) doped crystals by comparing it to near UV-visible scintillation of a calibrated Pr:(Lu$_{0.75}$Y$_{0.25}$)$_{3}$Al$_5$O$_{12}$ sample. As an example, we apply this technique to provide the light yield in visible and infrared range up to \\SI{1700}{nm} of this crystal.

  10. A new technique for infrared scintillation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiossi, F., E-mail: federico.chiossi@studenti.unipd.it [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Brylew, K. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Borghesani, A.F. [CNISM Unit and Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Braggio, C.; Carugno, G. [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Drozdowski, W. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Guarise, M. [Dip. di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2017-05-21

    We propose a new technique to measure the infrared scintillation light yield of rare earth doped crystals by comparing it to near UV–visible scintillation of a calibrated Pr:(Lu{sub 0.75}Y{sub 0.25}){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} sample. As an example, we apply this technique to provide the light yield in visible and infrared range up to 1700 nm of this crystal.

  11. Face recognition in the thermal infrared domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, M.; Grudzień, A.; Palka, N.; Szustakowski, M.

    2017-10-01

    Biometrics refers to unique human characteristics. Each unique characteristic may be used to label and describe individuals and for automatic recognition of a person based on physiological or behavioural properties. One of the most natural and the most popular biometric trait is a face. The most common research methods on face recognition are based on visible light. State-of-the-art face recognition systems operating in the visible light spectrum achieve very high level of recognition accuracy under controlled environmental conditions. Thermal infrared imagery seems to be a promising alternative or complement to visible range imaging due to its relatively high resistance to illumination changes. A thermal infrared image of the human face presents its unique heat-signature and can be used for recognition. The characteristics of thermal images maintain advantages over visible light images, and can be used to improve algorithms of human face recognition in several aspects. Mid-wavelength or far-wavelength infrared also referred to as thermal infrared seems to be promising alternatives. We present the study on 1:1 recognition in thermal infrared domain. The two approaches we are considering are stand-off face verification of non-moving person as well as stop-less face verification on-the-move. The paper presents methodology of our studies and challenges for face recognition systems in the thermal infrared domain.

  12. Near infrared spectroscopy and exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Caroline

    2002-07-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method for the continuous monitoring of changes in tissue oxygenation and blood volume during aerobic exercise. During incremental exercise in adult subjects there was a positive correlation between lactate threshold (measured by blood sampling) and changes in the rate of muscle deoxygenation (measured by NIRS). However, the 7% failure rate for the NIRS test mitigated against the general use of this method. NIRS did not provide a valid method for LT determination in an adolescent population. NIRS was then used to examine whether haemodynamic changes could be a contributing factor to the mechanism underlying the cross-transfer effect. During a one-legged incremental aerobic exercise test the muscle was more deoxygenated in the exercising leg than in the non-exercising leg, consistent with oxygen consumption outstripping blood flow to the exercising limb. However, muscle blood volume increased equally in both legs. This suggests that blood flow may be raised to similar levels in both the legs; although local factors may signal an increase in blood volume, this effect is expressed in both legs. Muscle blood flow and changes in muscle blood volume were then measured directly by NIRS during an incremental one-arm aerobic exercise test. There was no significant difference in either blood volume or blood flow in the two arms at the end of the test. In the non-exercising arm changes in blood flow and blood volume were measured throughout the protocol. At higher exercise intensities, blood volume continued to rise as muscle blood flow plateaued, indicating that blood volume changes become independent of changes in blood flow. Finally, the effect of different training regimes on changes in muscle blood volume was examined. Subjects were assigned to a training group; two-arm training, one-arm training or a control group. Training did not affect blood volume changes during two-arm exercise. However, during one

  13. Near infrared spectroscopy and exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method for the continuous monitoring of changes in tissue oxygenation and blood volume during aerobic exercise. During incremental exercise in adult subjects there was a positive correlation between lactate threshold (measured by blood sampling) and changes in the rate of muscle deoxygenation (measured by NIRS). However, the 7% failure rate for the NIRS test mitigated against the general use of this method. NIRS did not provide a valid method for LT determination in an adolescent population. NIRS was then used to examine whether haemodynamic changes could be a contributing factor to the mechanism underlying the cross-transfer effect. During a one-legged incremental aerobic exercise test the muscle was more deoxygenated in the exercising leg than in the non-exercising leg, consistent with oxygen consumption outstripping blood flow to the exercising limb. However, muscle blood volume increased equally in both legs. This suggests that blood flow may be raised to similar levels in both the legs; although local factors may signal an increase in blood volume, this effect is expressed in both legs. Muscle blood flow and changes in muscle blood volume were then measured directly by NIRS during an incremental one-arm aerobic exercise test. There was no significant difference in either blood volume or blood flow in the two arms at the end of the test. In the non-exercising arm changes in blood flow and blood volume were measured throughout the protocol. At higher exercise intensities, blood volume continued to rise as muscle blood flow plateaued, indicating that blood volume changes become independent of changes in blood flow. Finally, the effect of different training regimes on changes in muscle blood volume was examined. Subjects were assigned to a training group; two-arm training, one-arm training or a control group. Training did not affect blood volume changes during two-arm exercise. However, during one

  14. Near infrared lasers in flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, William G

    2015-07-01

    Technology development in flow cytometry has closely tracked laser technology, the light source that flow cytometers almost exclusively use to excite fluorescent probes. The original flow cytometers from the 1970s and 1980s used large water-cooled lasers to produce only one or two laser lines at a time. Modern cytometers can take advantage of the revolution in solid state laser technology to use almost any laser wavelength ranging from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. Commercial cytometers can now be equipped with many small solid state lasers, providing almost any wavelength needed for cellular analysis. Flow cytometers are now equipped to analyze 20 or more fluorescent probes simultaneously, requiring multiple laser wavelengths. Instrument developers are now trying to increase this number by designing fluorescent probes that can be excited by laser wavelength at the "edges" of the visible light range, in the near ultraviolet and near-infrared region. A variety of fluorescent probes have been developed that excite with violet and long wavelength ultraviolet light; however, the near-infrared range (660-800 nm) has yet seen only exploitation in flow cytometry. Fortunately, near-infrared laser diodes and other solid state laser technologies appropriate for flow cytometry have been in existence for some time, and can be readily incorporated into flow cytometers to accelerate fluorescent probe development. The near infrared region represents one of the last "frontiers" to maximize the number of fluorescent probes that can be analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, near infrared fluorescent probes used in biomedical tracking and imaging could also be employed for flow cytometry with the correct laser wavelengths. This review describes the available technology, including lasers, fluorescent probes and detector technology optimal for near infrared signal detection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. New format presentation for infrared spectral emittance data. Infrared spectrometry studies, phase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R. J. P.; Green, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Methods for infrared radiance measurements from geological materials were studied for airborne use over terrains with minimal vegetation. The tasks of the investigation were: (1) calculation of emittance ratios, (2) comparison of IR spectral emittance data with K-band scatterometer data over Pisgah Crater, and (3) standard infrared spectral file. Published papers reporting the research are included.

  16. [Advances in infrared spectrum zoom imaging system research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Xing, Ting-wen; Jiang, Ya-dong

    2014-12-01

    Compared with the infrared spectrum fixed focal length system and infrared spectrum dual-zoom system, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system which has continuous variational field of view can track targets sequentially, so it is a research direction in infrared spectrum imaging technology. Some new technologies are presented overseas in order to improve the detection performance, reduce cost and have good athermalized performance in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system. Infrared material, infrared detector and variable aperture, those new technologies are su mmarized and the idiographic application of those new technologies in infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system are presented in the paper, for example athermalization of an infrared spectrum zoom lens system with new infrared material for target detection, dual band infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared, infrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with high ratio, nfrared spectrum continuous zoom imaging system with dual F/number. It is useful for the development of chinese infrared continuous zoom imaging system.

  17. Adaptive algorithm of infrared target enhancement for target recognition of infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Liu, Wei-guo; Gao, Jiao-bo; Qin, Wen-gang

    2009-05-01

    The algorithm of infrared image enhancement directly impacts on the veracity of target recognition. However, traditional histogram equalization and gray-scale transformation algorithms can't realize the enhancement of the target in the infrared image effectively. Consequently, an adaptive algorithm for infrared target enhancement has been presented. The experimental result shows that this algorithm could automatically choose the threshold of histogram segmentation according to the gray characteristic of the target. It can also increase the contrast and decrease the noise while suppressing the background. In addition, this algorithm could be used for target enhancement of other infrared images, and had small computation, especially suitable for real-time processing of infrared images.

  18. The CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS), Pathfinder for the Earth Observing Nanosatellite-Infrared (EON-IR)

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Rider, David; Teixeira, Joao; Aumann, Hartmut; Rud, Mayer; Pereira, John; Furlong, David; Mamula, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder (CIRAS) will measure upwelling infrared radiation of the Earth in the Midwave Infrared (MWIR) region of the spectrum from space on a CubeSat. CIRAS will demonstrate two new infrared sounding technologies. The first is a 2D array of High Operating Temperature Barrier Infrared Detector (HOT-BIRD) material, selected for its high uniformity, low cost, low noise and higher operating temperatures than traditional materials. The detectors are hybridized to a ...

  19. Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxies: The QSO-2's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, D. C.

    1998-12-01

    QSO-like nuclei have been detected in the most luminous infrared galaxies known, and in many other ultraluminous infrared galaxies with ``warm'' far-IR colors. These misdirected QSOs are revealed by the morphology and spectrum of light polarized by scattering. In particular, P09104+4109 and F15307+3252 exhibit spectacular bipolar morphology in WFPC2 and NICMOS images, and broad, polarized emission-lines in their polarized spectra. This strongly suggests that the QSO nuclei are surrounded by dusty tori which obscure our direct view, but allow nuclear emission to escape through the open poles to be subsequently scattered (thus polarized) into our line of sight. Even though the radio-infrared correlation indicates ongoing star formation, if viewed from the vantage point of the scattering material, these objects would be indistinguishable from typical luminous QSOs. Hence, they should be classified as ``QSO-2's.'' These results imply that: QSO activity is intimately related to the ultraluminous infrared galaxy phenomenon. A significant fraction of the total luminosity can be generated by the non-stellar central engines. QSOs may contribute significantly to the cosmic infrared background.

  20. Infrared laser-induced chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Mikio

    1978-01-01

    The experimental means which clearly distinguishes between infrared ray-induced reactions and thermal reactions has been furnished for the first time when an intense monochromatic light source has been obtained by the development of infrared laser. Consequently, infrared laser-induced chemical reactions have started to develop as one field of chemical reaction researches. Researches of laser-induced chemical reactions have become new means for the researches of chemical reactions since they were highlighted as a new promising technique for isotope separation. Specifically, since the success has been reported in 235 U separation using laser in 1974, comparison of this method with conventional separation techniques from the economic point of view has been conducted, and it was estimated by some people that the laser isotope separation is cheaper. This report briefly describes on the excitation of oscillation and reaction rate, and introduces the chemical reactions induced by CW laser and TEA CO 2 laser. Dependence of reaction yield on laser power, measurement of the absorbed quantity of infrared ray and excitation mechanism are explained. Next, isomerizing reactions are reported, and finally, isotope separation is explained. It was found that infrared laser-induced chemical reactions have the selectivity for isotopes. Since it is evident that there are many examples different from thermal and photo-chemical reactions, future collection of the data is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Infrared Irradiation: Toward Green Chemistry, a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, René; Miranda, René; Martínez, Joel

    2016-03-26

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of where infrared irradiation has been employed, mainly as regards activating green mode for natural products extractions, as well as to favor a reaction, highlighting its actual importance. It is also underlined that infrared irradiation heating has been around for a long time; however, only in the last eighteen years have many of its advantages been applied to satisfy a wide range of chemical processes, natural products extractions, and for the promotion of many kinds of reactions. In addition, it is brought to light that near infrared irradiation is more efficient than middle and far infrared irradiations, being easily controllable and with the quality of a fast responding heat source. Thus, the main objective of this review is to offer infrared irradiation as an alternative clean energy source to activate reactions, in addition to favor the selective extraction of natural products, all of which is within the Green Chemistry protocol. Some recent results from our laboratory are also included.

  2. Infrared Irradiation: Toward Green Chemistry, a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Escobedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a comprehensive overview of where infrared irradiation has been employed, mainly as regards activating green mode for natural products extractions, as well as to favor a reaction, highlighting its actual importance. It is also underlined that infrared irradiation heating has been around for a long time; however, only in the last eighteen years have many of its advantages been applied to satisfy a wide range of chemical processes, natural products extractions, and for the promotion of many kinds of reactions. In addition, it is brought to light that near infrared irradiation is more efficient than middle and far infrared irradiations, being easily controllable and with the quality of a fast responding heat source. Thus, the main objective of this review is to offer infrared irradiation as an alternative clean energy source to activate reactions, in addition to favor the selective extraction of natural products, all of which is within the Green Chemistry protocol. Some recent results from our laboratory are also included.

  3. Infrared: A Key Technology for Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Corsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared science and technology has been, since the first applications, mainly dedicated to security and surveillance especially in military field, besides specialized techniques in thermal imaging for medical diagnostic and building structures and recently in energy savings and aerospace context. Till recently the security applications were mainly based on thermal imaging as surveillance and warning military systems. In all these applications the advent of room temperature, more reliable due to the coolers avoidance, low cost, and, overall, completely integrable with Silicon technology FPAs, especially designed and tailored for specific applications, smart sensors, has really been impacted with revolutionary and new ideas and system concepts in all the infrared fields, especially for security applications. Lastly, the advent of reliable Infrared Solid State Laser Sources, operating up to the Long Infrared Wavelength Band and the new emerging techniques in Far Infrared Submillimeter Terahertz Bands, has opened wide and new areas for developing new, advanced security systems. A review of all the items with evidence of the weak and the strong points of each item, especially considering possible future developments, will be reported and discussed.

  4. Infrared exploration of the architectural heritage: from passive infrared thermography to hybrid infrared thermography (HIRT approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfarra, S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, infrared thermographic approaches have been considered either passive or active. In the latter case, the heat flux is historically attributed to a non-natural heat source. The use of the sun has recently been incorporated into the active approach thanks to multi-temporal inspections. In this paper, an innovative hybrid thermographic (HIRT approach is illustrated. It combines both the time component and the solar source to obtain quantitative information such as the defect depth. Thermograms were obtained by inspecting the facade of the Santa Maria Collemaggio church (L’Aquila, Italy, whereas quantitative results related to the sub-superficial discontinuities were obtained thanks to the use of advanced techniques. Experimental results linked to passive approach (i.e., the mosaicking procedure of the thermograms performed by selecting a set of historic churches are also included in order to explain, when and where, the hybrid procedure should be used.Hasta la fecha, los enfoques sobre la termografía infrarroja han sido considerados, o pasivos, o activos. En este último caso, el flujo de calor se obtiene a través de una fuente de calor no natural. El uso de energía solar ha sido recientemente incorporado al enfoque activo gracias a los estudios multitemporales. En este trabajo, se ilustra un enfoque innovador de la termografía híbrida (HIRT. Se combina tanto el componente de tiempo y la fuente de energía solar para recuperar la información cuantitativa así como la profundidad del defecto. Las imágenes térmicas se obtuvieron mediante el análisis de la fachada de la Iglesia de Santa María Collemaggio (L’Aquila, Italia, mientras que los resultados cuantitativos inherentes a las discontinuidades sub-superficiales se obtuvieron gracias al uso de otras técnicas avanzadas. Los resultados experimentales vinculados al enfoque pasivo (es decir, el proceso de mosaico de las imágenes térmicas derivan de un conjunto de Iglesias

  5. Infrared point sensors for homeland defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ross C.; Carter, Michael T.; Homrighausen, Craig L.

    2004-03-01

    We report recent progress toward the development of infrared point sensors for the detection of chemical warfare agents and explosive related chemicals, which pose a significant threat to both health and environment. Technical objectives have focused on the development of polymer sorbents to enhance the infrared response of these hazardous organic compounds. For example, infrared point sensors which part-per-billion detection limits have been developed that rapidlypartition chemical warfare agents and explosive related chemicals into polymer thin films with desirable chemical and physical properties. These chemical sensors demonstrate novel routes to reversible sensing of hazardous organic compounds. The development of small, low-power, sensitive, and selective instruments employing these chemical sensors would enhance the capabilities of federal, state, and local emergency response to incidents involving chemical terrorism. Specific applications include chemical defense systems for military personnel and homeland defense, environmental monitors for remediation and demilitarization, and point source detectors for emergency and maintenance response teams.

  6. Infrared thermal imaging in connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnowski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Infrared thermal imaging (IRT) is a non-invasive, non-contact technique which allows one to measure and visualize infrared radiation. In medicine, thermal imaging has been used for more than 50 years in various clinical settings, including Raynaud's phenomenon and systemic sclerosis. Imaging and quantification of surface body temperature provides an indirect measure of the microcirculation's overall performance. As such, IRT is capable of confirming the diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon, and, with additional cold or heat challenge, of differentiating between the primary and secondary condition. In systemic sclerosis IRT has a potential role in assessing disease activity and monitoring treatment response. Despite certain limitations, thermal imaging can find a place in clinical practice, and with the introduction of small, low-cost infrared cameras, possibly become a part of routine rheumatological evaluation.

  7. Mastitis detection in sheep by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rafhael Felipe Saraiva; do Prado Paim, Tiago; de Abreu Cardoso, Cyntia; Stéfano Lima Dallago, Bruno; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2013-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of an infrared thermograph for mastitis diagnosis in sheep. Thirty-seven Santa Inês ewes were evaluated weekly through infrared images obtained with thermograph FLIR System Series-i®. Milk was collected for somatic cell count and milk compound level determination. The clinical mastitis group had the highest fat and protein level, as well as the lowest lactose level. The udder temperatures were higher for subclinical mastitis group. The udder temperature data was able to correctly classify the animals into the mastitis groups and the canonical analysis showed that these temperatures clearly differentiated the subclinical mastitis groups from the others. Therefore, this study showed that udder infrared temperatures can be used as diagnostic method to mastitis in sheep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Infrared Spectroscopy And The Art Of Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Stephen

    1989-12-01

    There are many museums and art galleries in the world devoted to the preservation of paintings, sculptures and articles of cultural importance. In some cases the preservation of the museum itself as an architectural inheritance is equally important. Infrared Spectrometry is a powerful tool in the fight to prevent the decay of many works of art. Infrared Spectroscopy can be used to identify many important constituents of the original paints and then used to test the new products used for restoration. Another example is measuring the depth of penetration of preservatives in various materials. For example, building materials can be sectioned to give 30 micron slices that can be subsequently examined by transmission infrared microscopy. This yields information on the types of material present but also on the penetration depth of various preservatives.

  9. Infrared sensing techniques for adaptive robotic welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.T.; Groom, K.; Madsen, N.H.; Chin, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using infrared sensors to monitor the welding process. Data was gathered using an infrared camera which was trained on the molten metal pool during the welding operation. Several types of process perturbations which result in weld defects were then intentionally induced and the resulting thermal images monitored. Gas tungsten arc using AC and DC currents and gas metal arc welding processes were investigated using steel, aluminum and stainless steel plate materials. The thermal images obtained in the three materials and different welding processes revealed nearly identical patterns for the same induced process perturbation. Based upon these results, infrared thermography is a method which may be very applicable to automation of the welding process

  10. Infrared problems in field perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Francois.

    1982-12-01

    The work presented mainly covers questions related to the presence of ''infrared'' divergences in perturbation expansions of the Green functions of certain massless field theories. It is important to determine the mathematical status of perturbation expansions in field theory in order to define the region in which they are valid. Renormalization and the symmetry of a theory are important factors in infrared problems. The main object of this thesis resides in the mathematical techniques employed: integral representations of the Feynman amplitudes; methods for desingularization, regularization and dimensional renormalization. Nonlinear two dimensional space-time sigma models describing Goldstone's low energy boson dynamics associated with a breaking of continuous symmetry are studied. Random surface models are then investigated followed by infrared divergences in super-renormalizable theories. Finally, nonperturbation effects in massless theories are studied by expanding the two-dimensional nonlinear sigma model in 1/N [fr

  11. Infrared sensing techniques for adaptive robotic welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.T.; Groom, K.; Madsen, N.H.; Chin, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using infrared sensors to monitor the welding process. Data were gathered using an infrared camera which was trained on the molten metal pool during the welding operation. Several types of process perturbations which result in weld defects were then intentionally induced and the resulting thermal images monitored. Gas tungsten arc using ac and dc currents and gas metal arc welding processes were investigated using steel, aluminum and stainless steel plate materials. The thermal images obtained in the three materials and different welding processes revealed nearly identical patterns for the same induced process perturbation. Based upon these results, infrared thermography is a method which may be very applicable to automation of the welding process

  12. Integrated photonics for infrared spectroscopic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongtao; Kita, Derek; Han, Zhaohong; Su, Peter; Agarwal, Anu; Yadav, Anupama; Richardson, Kathleen; Gu, Tian; Hu, Juejun

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is widely recognized as a gold standard technique for chemical analysis. Traditional IR spectroscopy relies on fragile bench-top instruments located in dedicated laboratory settings, and is thus not suitable for emerging field-deployed applications such as in-line industrial process control, environmental monitoring, and point-ofcare diagnosis. Recent strides in photonic integration technologies provide a promising route towards enabling miniaturized, rugged platforms for IR spectroscopic analysis. Chalcogenide glasses, the amorphous compounds containing S, Se or Te, have stand out as a promising material for infrared photonic integration given their broadband infrared transparency and compatibility with silicon photonic integration. In this paper, we discuss our recent work exploring integrated chalcogenide glass based photonic devices for IR spectroscopic chemical analysis, including on-chip cavityenhanced chemical sensing and monolithic integration of mid-IR waveguides with photodetectors.

  13. Teaching physics and understanding infrared thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2017-08-01

    Infrared thermal imaging is a very rapidly evolving field. The latest trends are small smartphone IR camera accessories, making infrared imaging a widespread and well-known consumer product. Applications range from medical diagnosis methods via building inspections and industrial predictive maintenance etc. also to visualization in the natural sciences. Infrared cameras do allow qualitative imaging and visualization but also quantitative measurements of the surface temperatures of objects. On the one hand, they are a particularly suitable tool to teach optics and radiation physics and many selected topics in different fields of physics, on the other hand there is an increasing need of engineers and physicists who understand these complex state of the art photonics systems. Therefore students must also learn and understand the physics underlying these systems.

  14. Pixel-level plasmonic microcavity infrared photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, You Liang; Li, Zhi Feng; Li, Qian; Chen, Xiao Shuang; Chen, Ping Ping; Wang, Han; Li, Meng Yao; Li, Ning; Lu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Recently, plasmonics has been central to the manipulation of photons on the subwavelength scale, and superior infrared imagers have opened novel applications in many fields. Here, we demonstrate the first pixel-level plasmonic microcavity infrared photodetector with a single quantum well integrated between metal patches and a reflection layer. Greater than one order of magnitude enhancement of the peak responsivity has been observed. The significant improvement originates from the highly confined optical mode in the cavity, leading to a strong coupling between photons and the quantum well, resulting in the enhanced photo-electric conversion process. Such strong coupling from the localized surface plasmon mode inside the cavity is independent of incident angles, offering a unique solution to high-performance focal plane array devices. This demonstration paves the way for important infrared optoelectronic devices for sensing and imaging.

  15. Advanced infrared optically black baffle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seals, R.D.; Egert, C.M.; Allred, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared optically black baffle surfaces are an essential component of many advanced optical systems. All internal surfaces in advanced infrared optical sensors that require stray light management to achieve resolution are of primary concern in baffle design. Current industrial materials need improvements to meet advanced optical sensor systems requirements for optical, survivability, and endurability. Baffles are required to survive and operate in potentially severe environments. Robust diffuse-absorptive black surfaces, which are thermally and mechanically stable to threats of x-ray, launch, and in-flight maneuver conditions, with specific densities to allow an acceptable weight load, handleable during assembly, cleanable, and adaptive to affordable manufacturing, are required as optical baffle materials. In this paper an overview of recently developed advanced infrared optical baffle materials, requirements, manufacturing strategies, and the Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) Advanced Baffle Program are discussed

  16. Infrared Imaging Sharpens View in Critical Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Innovative Engineering and Consulting (IEC) Infrared Systems, a leading developer of thermal imaging systems and night vision equipment, received a Glenn Alliance for Technology Exchange (GATE) award, half of which was in the form of additional NASA assistance for new product development. IEC Infrared Systems worked with electrical and optical engineers from Glenn's Diagnostics and Data Systems Branch to develop a commercial infrared imaging system that could differentiate the intensity of heat sources better than other commercial systems. The research resulted in two major thermal imaging solutions: NightStalkIR and IntrudIR Alert. These systems are being used in the United States and abroad to help locate personnel stranded in emergency situations, defend soldiers on the battlefield abroad, and protect high-value facilities and operations. The company is also applying its advanced thermal imaging techniques to medical and pharmaceutical product development with a Cleveland-based pharmaceutical company.

  17. Infrared sensor for water pollution and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, E.; Gutierrez-Arrovo, A.; Bailleul, M.; Rinnert, E.; Nemec, P.; Charrier, J.; Bodiou, L.; Colas, F.; Compère, C.; Boussard, C.; Bureau, B.; Michel, K.; Nazabal, V.

    2017-05-01

    Development of Mid-infrared sensors for the detection of biochemical molecules is a challenge of great importance. Mid-infrared range (4000 - 400 cm-1) contains the absorption bands related to the vibrations of organic molecules (nitrates, hydrocarbons, pesticides, etc.). Chalcogenide glasses are an important class of amorphous materials appropriate for sensing applications. Indeed, they are mainly studied and used for their wide transparency in the infrared range (up to 15 μm for selenide glasses) and high refractive index (between 2 and 3). The aim of this study is to synthesize and characterize chalcogenide thin films for developing mid-IR optical waveguides. Therefore, two (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x chalcogenide glasses, where x=10 and 50 were chosen for their good mid-IR transparency, high stability against crystallization and their refractive index contrast suitable for mid-IR waveguiding. Chalcogenide glasses were prepared using the conventional melting and quenching method and then used for RF magnetron sputtering deposition. Sputtered thin films were characterized in order to determine dispersion of refractive index in UV-Vis-NIR-MIR. Obtained results were used for the simulation of the optical design in mid-infrared (λ = 7.7 μm). Selenide ridge waveguide were prepared by RIE-ICP dry etching process. Single-mode propagation at 7.7 μm was observed. Optical losses of 0.7 +/- 0.3 and 2.5 +/- 0.1 dB.cm-1 were measured in near-infrared (λ = 1.55 μm) and midinfrared (λ = 7.7 μm), respectively. Achieved results are promising for the fabrication of an integrated optical sensor operating in the mid-infrared.

  18. Low-thermal expansion infrared glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Philip

    2009-05-01

    L2 Tech, Inc. is in development of an innovative infrared-transparent glass ceramic material with low-thermal expansion (nano-crystals in a residual glass phase. The major crystalline phase is zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8) which has Negative Thermal Expansion (NTE). The glass phase is the infrared-transparent germanate glass which has positive thermal expansion (PTE). Then glass ceramic material has a balanced thermal expansion of near zero. The crystal structure is cubic and the thermal expansion of the glass ceramic is isotropic or equal in all directions.

  19. High efficiency quasi-monochromatic infrared emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucoli, Giovanni; Besbes, Mondher; Benisty, Henri, E-mail: henri.benisty@institutoptique.fr; Greffet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad [Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-02-24

    Incandescent radiation sources are widely used as mid-infrared emitters owing to the lack of alternative for compact and low cost sources. A drawback of miniature hot systems such as membranes is their low efficiency, e.g., for battery powered systems. For targeted narrow-band applications such as gas spectroscopy, the efficiency is even lower. In this paper, we introduce design rules valid for very generic membranes demonstrating that their energy efficiency for use as incandescent infrared sources can be increased by two orders of magnitude.

  20. Infrared spectral reflectances of asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Veeder, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    This review compares the types of compositional information produced by three complementary techniques used in infrared observations of asteroid surfaces: broadband JHKL photometry, narrow band photometry, and multiplex spectroscopy. The high information content of these infrared observations permits definitive interpretations of asteroid surface compositions in terms of the major meteoritic minerals (olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar, hydrous silicates, and metallic Ni-Fe). These studies emphasize the individuality of asteroid surface compositions, the inadequacy of simple comparisons with spectra of meteorites, and the need to coordinate spectral measurements of all types to optimize diagnostic capabilities.

  1. Infrared drying of herbs (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PÄÄKKÖNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments on peppermint (Mentha piperita L., anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum L., parsley (Petroselinum crispum L. and garden angelica (Angelica archangelica L. were conducted using near infrared drying, operating at a product temperature of 35-50°C. The oil content, composition and residual water content of the dried herbs were determined. The microbiological quality of the fresh and the dried material was determined for total bacterial count and coliforms, moulds and yeasts. The results indicate that infrared radiation is has potential for drying herbs since it is gentle and shortens the processing time.

  2. Results with the UKIRT infrared camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mclean, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent advances in focal plane array technology have made an immense impact on infrared astronomy. Results from the commissioning of the first infrared camera on UKIRT (the world's largest IR telescope) are presented. The camera, called IRCAM 1, employs the 62 x 58 InSb DRO array from SBRC in an otherwise general purpose system which is briefly described. Several imaging modes are possible including staring, chopping and a high-speed snapshot mode. Results to be presented include the first true high resolution images at IR wavelengths of the entire Orion nebula

  3. The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, H.; Bock, J.; Freund, M. M.; Guo, H.; Hirao, T.; Lange, A. E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; McMahon, T. J.; Murakami, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Noda, M.; Noguchi, K.; Okuda, H.; Okumura, K.; Onaka, T.; Roellig, T. L.; Sato, S.; Shibai, H.; Tanabe, T.; Watabe, T.; Yagi, T.; Yajima, N.; Yui, M.

    1994-06-01

    The Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) is a cryogenically cooled small infrared telescope that will fly aboard the small space platform Space Flyer Unit. It will survey approximately 10% of the sky with a relatively wide beam during its 20 day emission. Four focal-plane instruments will make simultaneous observations of the sky at wavelengths ranging from 1 to 1000 microns. The IRTS will provide significant information on cosmology, interstellar matter, late-type stars, and interplanetary dust. This paper describes the instrumentation and mission.

  4. Infrared control coating of thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne; Hollingsworth, Russell

    2017-02-28

    Systems and methods for creating an infrared-control coated thin film device with certain visible light transmittance and infrared reflectance properties are disclosed. The device may be made using various techniques including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, sputter deposition, and sol-gel processes. In particular, a pulsed energy microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process may be used. Production of the device may occur at speeds greater than 50 Angstroms/second and temperatures lower than 200.degree. C.

  5. Integrated visible and near-infrared, shortwave infrared, and longwave infrared full-range hyperspectral data analysis for geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) and spatially coincident hyperspectral thermal emission spectrometer (HyTES) data were used to map geology and alteration for a site in northern Death Valley, California and Nevada. AVIRIS with 224 bands from 0.4 to 2.5 μm were converted to reflectance. HyTES data with 256 bands covering 8 to 12 μm were converted to emissivity. Two approaches were investigated for integration of the datasets for full spectrum analysis. A combined (integrated) bands method utilized 332 spectral bands spanning both datasets. Spectral endmembers were extracted, and the predominant material at each pixel was mapped for the full spectral range using partial unmixing. This approach separated a variety of materials, but it was difficult to directly relate mapping results to surface properties. The second method used visible to near-infrared, shortwave infrared, and longwave infrared data independently to determine and map key endmembers in each spectral range. AVIRIS directly mapped a variety of specific minerals, while HyTES separated and mapped several igneous rock phases. Individual mapping results were then combined using geologically directed logical operators. The full-range results illustrate that integrated analysis provides advantages over use of just one spectral range, leading to improved understanding of the distribution of geologic units and alteration.

  6. Challenges to Global Implementation of Infrared Thermography Technology: Current Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterenshis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Medical infrared thermography (IT) produces an image of the infrared waves emitted by the human body as part of the thermoregulation process that can vary in intensity based on the health of the person. This review analyzes recent developments in the use of infrared thermography as a screening and diagnostic tool in clinical and nonclinical settings, and identifies possible future routes for improvement of the method. Currently, infrared thermography is not considered to be a fully reliable diagnostic method. If standard infrared protocol is established and a normative database is available, infrared thermography may become a reliable method for detecting inflammatory processes.

  7. Dense gas in luminous infrared galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, W. A.; Henkel, C.; Loenen, A. F.; Baudry, A.; Wiklind, T.

    Aims. Molecules that trace the high-density regions of the interstellar medium have been observed in (ultra-) luminous (far-) infrared galaxies, in order to initiate multiple-molecule multiple-transition studies to evaluate the physical and chemical environment of the nuclear medium and its response

  8. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Prostate Pathology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    imaging data for biochemical markers of tumor and develop numerical algorithms for grading cancer Goal: Develop algorithm for malignancy recognition...genetic algorithm based method to distinguish benign from malignant epithelium using infrared spectroscopic imaging data was shown to be effective...of existing practice. Larger validation studies are needed. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Spectroscopy, prostate, histopathology, cancer , optimization

  10. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bally, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Contreras, Carlos [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boyer, Martha [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cantiello, Matteo [Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-04-20

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr{sup −1} to >7 mag yr{sup −1}. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  11. Infrared Absorption in Acetanilide by Solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careri, G.; Buontempo, U.; Carta, F.

    1983-01-01

    The infrared spectrum of acetanilide shows a new band that is red shifted from the main amide-I maximum by about 15 cm-1, the intensity of which increases at low temperature. It is suggested that this band may arise from the creation of amide-I solitons that are similar (but not identical) to those...

  12. Infrared Attenuation Of Thallium Bromoiodide Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John; Magilavy, Beryl

    1988-01-01

    Report presents measurements of attenuation of infrared signals in unclad 381-micrometer-diameter optical fibers of thallium bromoiodide. Measurements of attentuation in TI(Br,I) fibers in wavelength ranges of 1.2 to 3.4 micrometer and 3 to 11 micrometer compare with those of two other groups of researchers.

  13. Oxidation of carbynes: signatures in infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cinquanta, Eugenio; Manini, Nicola; Ravagnan, Luca; Caramella, Lucia; Onida, Giovanni; Milani, Paolo; Rudolf, Petra

    2014-01-01

    We report and solidly interpret the infrared spectrum of both pristine and oxidized carbynes embedded in a pure-carbon matrix. The spectra probe separately the effects of oxidation on sp- and on sp 2-hybridized carbon, and provide information on the stability of the different structures in an

  14. Interstellar ice : The Infrared Space Observatory legacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibb, EL; Whittet, DCB; Boogert, ACA; Tielens, AGGM

    We present 2.5-30 mum spectra from the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory for a total of 23 sources. The sources include embedded young stellar objects spanning a wide range of mass and luminosity, together with field stars sampling quiescent dark clouds and the diffuse

  15. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the

  16. [Infrared spectral analysis for calcined borax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui; Ren, Li-Li; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Bo-Tao

    2011-08-01

    To valuate the quality of calcined borax which is sold in the market, 18 samples of calcined borax were studied using the Fourier transform infrared, and samples with different water content were selected and analyzed. Then, the results of analysis were used to evaluate the quality of calcined borax. Results show that the infrared spectra of calcined borax include OH vibration, BO3(-3) vibration and BO4(5-) vibration absorption bands. The position and width of OH vibration absorption band depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, the wider the absorption band. The number of BO3(3-) vibration and BO4(5-) vibration bands also depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, and the stronger the hydrogen bond and the lower the symmetry of B atoms, the more the number of infrared absorption peaks. It was concluded that because the quality of calcined borax has direct correlation with water content, the infrared spectroscopy is an express and objective approach to quality analysis and evaluation of calcined borax.

  17. Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy of Biopolymeric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis Marcott; Michael Lo; Kevin Kjoller; Craig Prater; Roshan Shetty; Joseph Jakes; Isao Noda

    2012-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy have been combined in a single instrument capable of producing 100 nm spatial resolution IR spectra and images. This new capability enables the spectroscopic characterization of biomaterial domains at levels not previously possible. A tunable IR laser source generating pulses on the order of 10 ns was used...

  18. Absorber Coatings for Mid-Infrared Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dahlia Anne; Wollack, Edward; Rostem, Karwan

    2017-01-01

    Control over optical response is an important aspect of instrument design for astrophysical imaging. Here we consider a mid-infrared absorber coating proposed for use on HIRMES (High Resolution Mid-Infrared Spectrometer), a cryogenic spectrometer which will fly on the SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) aircraft. The aim of this effort is to develop an absorptive coating for the 20-200 microns spectral range based on a graphene loaded epoxy binder (Epotek 377H) and glass microsphere scatterers (3M K1). The coatings electromagnetic response was modeled using a Matlab script and the glass microspheres were characterized by the measured size distribution, the dielectric constant, and the filling fraction. Images of the microspheres taken by a microscope were used to determine the size distribution with an ImageJ particle analysis program. Representative test samples for optical evaluation were fabricated for characterization via infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. The optical tests will determine the material’s absorptance and reflectance. These test results will be compared to the modeled response.

  19. Infrared behaviors of SU(2 gauge theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuominen Kimmo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will discuss some recent results in the determination of the location of the conformal window in SU(2 gauge theory with Nf fermions in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. In particular, we will demonstrate that the long distance behavior of the continuum theory with Nf = 6 is governed by an infrared stable fixed point.

  20. Near infrared face recognition: A literature survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farokhi, Sajad; Flusser, Jan; Sheikh, U. U.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-17 ISSN 1574-0137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Literature survey * Biometrics * Face recognition * Near infrared * Illumination invariant Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0461834.pdf

  1. Infrared Sensing of Buoyant Surface Plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with laboratory experiments on buoyant surface plumes where heat is the source of buoyancy. Temperature distributions were measured at the water surface using infra-red sensing, and inside the waterbody a computer based measurement system was applied. The plume is described...

  2. Anomalous infrared absorption in granular superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.L.; Garland, J.C.; Tanner, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Granular superconductors are shown to have a far-infrared absorption that is larger when the samples are superconducting than when they are normal. By constrast, theoretical models for these materials predict that when the samples become superconducting, the absorption should decrease

  3. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congxin Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1 There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2 There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3 Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4 Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  4. An infrared study of the Magellanic clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, Petrus Bernardus Wilhelmus

    1988-01-01

    The thesis describes infrared radiation and dust properties of the Magellanic Clouds, together with comparisons with emission at other wavelength regimes. Observations of the SMC and LMC were made with the IRAS satellite. Maps are presented at wavelengths of 12, 25, 60 and 100 μm. From these maps a

  5. Thermal resolution specification in infrared scene projectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVeigne, Joe; Franks, Greg; Danielson, Tom

    2015-05-01

    Infrared scene projectors (IRSPs) are a key part of performing dynamic testing of infrared (IR) imaging systems. Two important properties of an IRSP system are apparent temperature and thermal resolution. Infrared scene projector technology continues to progress, with several systems capable of producing high apparent temperatures currently available or under development. These systems use different emitter pixel technologies, including resistive arrays, digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs), liquid crystals and LEDs to produce dynamic infrared scenes. A common theme amongst these systems is the specification of the bit depth of the read-in integrated circuit (RIIC) or projector engine , as opposed to specifying the desired thermal resolution as a function of radiance (or apparent temperature). For IRSPs, producing an accurate simulation of a realistic scene or scenario may require simulating radiance values that range over multiple orders of magnitude. Under these conditions, the necessary resolution or "step size" at low temperature values may be much smaller than what is acceptable at very high temperature values. A single bit depth value specified at the RIIC, especially when combined with variable transfer functions between commanded input and radiance output, may not offer the best representation of a customer's desired radiance resolution. In this paper, we discuss some of the various factors that affect thermal resolution of a scene projector system, and propose some specification guidelines regarding thermal resolution to help better define the real needs of an IR scene projector system.

  6. Visual Infrared Color Gradients in Elliptical Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Jameson, R. F.; de Zeeuw, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements for visual and visual-infrared colors provide the means to determine both the average temperature of the giant branch and the turnoff-temperature of the main sequence. This allows to model fractional contributions of different populations, including age- and

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of interstellar apolar ice analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrenfreund, P; Boogert, ACA; Gerakines, PA; Tielens, AGGM; van Dishoeck, EF

    1997-01-01

    Apolar ices have been observed in several regions in dense clouds and are likely dominated by molecules such as CO, CO(2) and the infrared inactive molecules O(2) and N(2). Interstellar solid CO has been well characterized by ground-based high resolution measurements. Recent ISO results showed the

  8. Infrared shield facilitates optical pyrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbrenner, F. F.; Illg, W.

    1965-01-01

    Water-cooled shield facilitates optical pyrometer high temperature measurements of small sheet metal specimens subjected to tensile stress in fatigue tests. The shield excludes direct or reflected radiation from one face of the specimen and permits viewing of the infrared radiation only.

  9. MID-INFRARED QUANTUM CASCADE LASERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based on intersubband transitions operating at room temperature in the mid-infrared or 'molecular fingerprint' spectral region (3.4–17 im) have been found useful for several applications including environmental sensing, pollution monitoring, and medical appli-.

  10. Narrowband infrared emitters for combat ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Puscasu, Irina; Daly, James; Fallon, Keith; Loges, Peter; Greenwald, Anton; Johnson, Edward

    2007-04-01

    There is a strong desire to create narrowband infrared light sources as personnel beacons for application in infrared Identify Friend or Foe (IFF) systems. This demand has augmented dramatically in recent years with the reports of friendly fire casualties in Afghanistan and Iraq. ICx Photonics' photonic crystal enhanced TM (PCE TM) infrared emitter technology affords the possibility of creating narrowband IR light sources tuned to specific IR wavebands (near 1-2 microns, mid 3-5 microns, and long 8-12 microns) making it the ideal solution for infrared IFF. This technology is based on a metal coated 2D photonic crystal of air holes in a silicon substrate. Upon thermal excitation the photonic crystal modifies the emitted yielding narrowband IR light with center wavelength commensurate with the periodicity of the lattice. We have integrated this technology with microhotplate MEMS devices to yield 15mW IR light sources in the 3-5 micron waveband with wall plug efficiencies in excess of 10%, 2 orders of magnitude more efficient that conventional IR LEDs. We have further extended this technology into the LWIR with a light source that produces 9 mW of 8-12 micron light at an efficiency of 8%. Viewing distances >500 meters were observed with fielded camera technologies, ideal for ground to ground troop identification. When grouped into an emitter panel, the viewing distances were extended to 5 miles, ideal for ground to air identification.

  11. Infrared emission from electronically excited biacetyl molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, E.; Kommandeur, J.

    1971-01-01

    The infrared emission of electronically excited biacetyl molecules in the gas phase at low pressure was observed. Some experimental details are given, and it is shown that the emission derives from biacetyl molecules in their triplet state. The emission is dependent on the wavelength of excitation.

  12. Visual Alinement Technique for Infrared LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.; Oppenheim, U. P.

    1984-01-01

    Visible He/Ne laser beam substituted for invisible CO2 beam during alinement. System accomplished visually by using low-power He/Ne laser previously adjusted to visible beam parallel to invisible infrared CO2 laser beam. Method used to aline adjacent telescopes in other optical systems.

  13. Software toolkit for evaluating infrared imaging seeker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degache, M.A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Modern infrared imaging seekers can nowadays deal with higher resolution and less noisy sensor images. The testing of new image processing or tracking algorithms requires a fitted set of relevant sensor images. When no actual recordings are available, when experimental benches are not adapted or at

  14. Infrared Imaging for Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Charles; Hazzard, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Based on detecting long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation emitted by the subject, IR imaging shows temperature distribution instantaneously and heat flow dynamically. As a picture is worth a thousand words, an IR camera has great potential in teaching heat transfer, which is otherwise invisible. The idea of using IR imaging in teaching was first…

  15. Thermal (Infrared) Imaging Sensors (Review Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir Khare; S. S. Negi

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in improved type of infrared detector technologies focal plane arrays,signal processing techniques, and innovative optical designs have enabled thermal imagingtechnology to undergo revolutionary advancement, leading to realisation of high performanceand compact thermal cameras for surveillance, target acquisition, tracking, and guidance.Instruments Research and Development Establishment (IRDE), Dehradun, has designed anddeveloped a variety of thermal imaging sights for dif...

  16. Multiple photon infrared processes in polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.G.; Butcher, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews current understanding of the process of multiple photon excitation and dissociation of polyatomic molecules, whereby in the presence of an intense infrared laser field a molecule may absorb upwards of 30 photons. The application of this process to new photochemistry and in particular laser isotope separation is also discussed. (author)

  17. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  18. Multi-wavelength study of infrared galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcillac, Delphine

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with a panchromatic study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) detected at 15 microns by ISOCAM (camera aboard ISO) and at 24 microns by MIPS (camera aboard the recently launched Spitzer satellite). These galaxies are today considered to be the Rosetta Stone of galaxy evolution since they are found to be far more numerous at high redshift and it is thought that a large part of stars seen in the local universe are born in such phases. The first part of this thesis presents a new study dedicated to dust emission of distant LIRGs in the mid-infrared range. Their dust emission has been compared to those of a local sample of LIRGs in addition to the prediction of several spectral energy distributions (SEDs) built on data available in the local universe. It has been shown that distant and local LIRGs present similar mid infrared spectral energy distribution: similar PAH bumps are detected in both local and distant LIRGs, however distant LIRGs show evidence of a stronger silicate absorption at 10 microns associated silicate grains. It also shows that distant LIRG mid infrared emission can be used together with local SEDs in order to estimate the total infrared luminosity. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to the burst of star formation and to the recent star formation history of these galaxies, which is responsible for the dust emission. This study was done thanks to a combination of high resolution spectra (R=2000 in the rest frame) obtained at VLT/FORS2 and the stellar population synthesis models called GALAXEV (Bruzual and Charlot, 2003). It has been shown that the burst of star formation has a duration of about 0.1 Gyear. About 10 % of the stellar content is formed during this burst of star formation. (author) [fr

  19. Hyperspectral Longwave Infrared Focal Plane Array and Camera Based on Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a hyperspectral focal plane array and camera imaging in a large number of sharp hyperspectral bands in the thermal infrared. The camera is...

  20. Hyperspectral Longwave Infrared Focal Plane Array and Camera Based on Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a hyperspectral camera imaging in a large number of sharp hyperspectral bands in the thermal infrared. The camera is particularly suitable for...

  1. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettker, William A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  2. Transmissive infrared frequency selective surfaces and infrared antennas: final report for LDRD 105749

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Hadley, G. Ronald; Samora, Sally; Loui, Hung; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Davids, Paul; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William Arthur; Peters, David William

    2009-01-01

    Plasmonic structures open up new opportunities in photonic devices, sometimes offering an alternate method to perform a function and sometimes offering capabilities not possible with standard optics. In this LDRD we successfully demonstrated metal coatings on optical surfaces that do not adversely affect the transmission of those surfaces at the design frequency. This technology could be applied as an RF noise blocking layer across an optical aperture or as a method to apply an electric field to an active electro-optic device without affecting optical performance. We also demonstrated thin optical absorbers using similar patterned surfaces. These infrared optical antennas show promise as a method to improve performance in mercury cadmium telluride detectors. Furthermore, these structures could be coupled with other components to lead to direct rectification of infrared radiation. This possibility leads to a new method for infrared detection and energy harvesting of infrared radiation.

  3. Infrared 3-4 um Spectroscopic Investigation of a Large Sample of Nearby Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Dodley, C. C; Maloney, Philip R

    2005-01-01

    .... The 3.3 m PAH emission, the signatures of starbursts, is detected in all but two non-Seyfert ULIRGs, but the estimated starburst magnitudes can account for only a small fraction of the infrared luminosities...

  4. IHW COMET HALLEY INFRARED SPECTRA, V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents the infrared spectroscopy of Comet 1P/Halley archived with the Infrared Studies Network (IRSN) of the International Halley Watch (IHW). 59...

  5. TCSP GOES VISIBLE AND INFRARED IMAGES V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TCSP GOES Visible and Infrared Images dataset was collected in support of the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) mission, visible and infrared imagery...

  6. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of ARP 220

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A; Fischer, Jacqueline; Cernicharo, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H2O, CH, NH, and NH3, as well as in the...

  7. Neuronal Mechanisms and Bloodflow Control of Infrared Reception in Snakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goris, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The infrared pit organs of pit vipers and pythons were studied with emphasis on bloodflow in the capillary bed and its possible role as a cooling mechanism for the pit receptors stimulated by infrared (= heat...

  8. IHW COMET HALLEY INFRARED POLARIMETRY, V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains all the infrared polarimetry data archived as part of the International Halley Watch (IHW) Infrared Studies Network (IRSN). Data span the...

  9. Remote infrared audible signage (RIAS) pilot program report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Remote Infrared Audible Sign Model Accessibility Program (RIAS MAP) is a program funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) to evaluate the effectiveness of remote infrared audible sign systems in enabling persons with visual and cognitiv...

  10. MSX INFRARED MINOR PLANET SURVEY V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Midcourse Space Experiment Infrared Minor Planet Survey (MIMPS) includes infrared data for 168 main-belt asteroids serendipitously observed by the Midcourse...

  11. Hybrid infrared scene projector (HIRSP): a high dynamic range infrared scene projector, part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Bowden, Mark; Cosby, David; Ballard, Gary

    2008-04-01

    This paper is a continuation of the merging of two dynamic infrared scene projector technologies to provide a unique and innovative solution for the simulation of high dynamic temperature ranges for testing infrared imaging sensors. This paper will present some of the challenges and performance issues encountered in implementing this unique projector system into a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation facility. The projection system combines the technologies of a Honeywell BRITE II extended voltage range emissive resistor array device and an optically scanned laser diode array projector (LDAP). The high apparent temperature simulations are produced from the luminescent infrared radiation emitted by the high power laser diodes. The hybrid infrared projector system is being integrated into an existing HWIL simulation facility and is used to provide real-world high radiance imagery to an imaging infrared unit under test. The performance and operation of the projector is presented demonstrating the merit and success of the hybrid approach. The high dynamic range capability simulates a 250 Kelvin apparent background temperature to 850 Kelvin maximum apparent temperature signatures. This is a large increase in radiance projection over current infrared scene projection capabilities.

  12. The Visualization of Infrared Radiation Using Thermal Sensitive Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnícek, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a set of demonstration school experiments where infrared radiation is detected using thermal sensitive foils. The possibility of using standard glass lenses for infrared imaging is discussed in detail. It is shown that with optic components made from glass, infrared radiation up to 2.5 µm of wavelength can be detected. The…

  13. 40 CFR 1065.250 - Nondispersive infra-red analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nondispersive infra-red analyzer. 1065... POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Co and Co2 Measurements § 1065.250 Nondispersive infra-red analyzer. (a) Application. Use a nondispersive infra-red (NDIR) analyzer to measure CO...

  14. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digital water current meter with infrared display velocity readings obtained per second. To confirm the accuracy of the infrared current meter, it was tested alongside with a conventional water current meter. The measurements performed with the infrared current meter compared well with the measurement performed with ...

  15. Infrared Fourier spectres of pectin obtained from pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmanova, S.R.; Dzhonmurodov, A.S.; Nazirova, Kh.I.; Mukhidinov, Z.K.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to infrared Fourier spectres of pectin obtained from pumpkin. The analysis of pectin obtained from pumpkin was conducted by means of infrared spectrophotometer with Fourier transformation. The infrared spectroscopic study of pectin polysaccharide fraction of pectin matter, as well as pectin helium and micro helium obtained by means of fast extraction was conducted.

  16. Search for infrared counterparts of gamma-ray bursters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.; Cline, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The result of two searches for infrared counterparts of Gamma-ray Bursters (GRB's) is reported. The first search was made using data from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and covered 23 positions. The second search was made with the Kitt Peak 1.5 m telescope and covered 3 positions. In neither of these two searches was any infrared candidate detected

  17. Infrared imaging of the crime scene: possibilities and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Gerda J.; Hoveling, Richelle J. M.; Roos, Martin; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-01-01

    All objects radiate infrared energy invisible to the human eye, which can be imaged by infrared cameras, visualizing differences in temperature and/or emissivity of objects. Infrared imaging is an emerging technique for forensic investigators. The rapid, nondestructive, and noncontact features of

  18. Toolset for evaluating infrared countermeasures and signature reduction for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The protection of ships against infrared guided missiles is a concern for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents a set of simulation tools which can be used for assessing

  19. Infrared spectroscopy of ionized corannulene in the gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvaro Galué, H.; Rice, C.A.; Steill, J.D.; Oomens, J.

    2011-01-01

    The gas-phase infrared spectra of radical cationic and protonated corannulene were recorded by infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy using the IR free electron laser for infrared experiments. Electrospray ionization was used to generate protonated corannulene and an IRMPD

  20. Next-generation mid-infrared sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, D.; Bank, S.; Lee, M. L.; Wasserman, D.

    2017-12-01

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR) is a wavelength range with a variety of technologically vital applications in molecular sensing, security and defense, energy conservation, and potentially in free-space communication. The recent development and rapid commercialization of new coherent mid-infrared sources have spurred significant interest in the development of mid-infrared optical systems for the above applications. However, optical systems designers still do not have the extensive optical infrastructure available to them that exists at shorter wavelengths (for instance, in the visible and near-IR/telecom wavelengths). Even in the field of optoelectronic sources, which has largely driven the growing interest in the mid-infrared, the inherent limitations of state-of-the-art sources and the gaps in spectral coverage offer opportunities for the development of new classes of lasers, light emitting diodes and emitters for a range of potential applications. In this topical review, we will first present an overview of the current state-of-the-art mid-IR sources, in particular thermal emitters, which have long been utilized, and the relatively new quantum- and interband-cascade lasers, as well as the applications served by these sources. Subsequently, we will discuss potential mid-infrared applications and wavelength ranges which are poorly served by the current stable of mid-IR sources, with an emphasis on understanding the fundamental limitations of the current source technology. The bulk of the manuscript will then explore both past and recent developments in mid-infrared source technology, including narrow bandgap quantum well lasers, type-I and type-II quantum dot materials, type-II superlattices, highly mismatched alloys, lead-salts and transition-metal-doped II-VI materials. We will discuss both the advantages and limitations of each of the above material systems, as well as the potential new applications which they might serve. All in all, this topical review does not aim

  1. Serendipity Observations of Far Infrared Cirrus Emission in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey: Analysis of Far-Infrared Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Caroline; Helou, George; Boulanger, François; Lagache, Guilaine; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Draine, Bruce; Martin, Peter

    2009-04-01

    We present an analysis of far-infrared (FIR) dust emission from diffuse cirrus clouds. This study is based on serendipitous observations at 160 μm at high-galactic latitude with the Multiband Imaging Photometer onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope by the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. These observations are complemented with IRIS data at 100 and 60 μm and constitute one of the most sensitive and unbiased samples of FIR observations at a small scale of diffuse interstellar clouds. Outside regions dominated by the cosmic infrared background fluctuations, we observe a substantial scatter in the 160/100 colors from cirrus emission. We compared the 160/100 color variations to 60/100 colors in the same fields and find a trend of decreasing 60/100 with increasing 160/100. This trend cannot be accounted for by current dust models by changing solely the interstellar radiation field. It requires a significant change of dust properties such as grain size distribution or emissivity or a mixing of clouds in different physical conditions along the line of sight. These variations are important as a potential confusing foreground for extragalactic studies. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  2. SERENDIPITY OBSERVATIONS OF FAR INFRARED CIRRUS EMISSION IN THE SPITZER INFRARED NEARBY GALAXIES SURVEY: ANALYSIS OF FAR-INFRARED CORRELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bot, Caroline; Helou, George; Boulanger, Francois; Lagache, Guilaine; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Draine, Bruce; Martin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of far-infrared (FIR) dust emission from diffuse cirrus clouds. This study is based on serendipitous observations at 160 μm at high-galactic latitude with the Multiband Imaging Photometer onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope by the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. These observations are complemented with IRIS data at 100 and 60 μm and constitute one of the most sensitive and unbiased samples of FIR observations at a small scale of diffuse interstellar clouds. Outside regions dominated by the cosmic infrared background fluctuations, we observe a substantial scatter in the 160/100 colors from cirrus emission. We compared the 160/100 color variations to 60/100 colors in the same fields and find a trend of decreasing 60/100 with increasing 160/100. This trend cannot be accounted for by current dust models by changing solely the interstellar radiation field. It requires a significant change of dust properties such as grain size distribution or emissivity or a mixing of clouds in different physical conditions along the line of sight. These variations are important as a potential confusing foreground for extragalactic studies.

  3. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg 2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near-infrared

  4. Comparison of vehicle-mounted forward-looking polarimetric infrared and downward-looking infrared sensors for landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, F.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Jong, W. de; Schutte, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a comparison of two vehicle-mounted infrared systems for landmine detection. The first system is a down-ward looking standard infrared camera using processing methods developed within the EU project LOTUS. The second system is using a forward-looking polarimetric infrared camera.

  5. Precise Near-Infrared Radial Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavchan, Peter; Gao, Peter; Gagne, Jonathan; Furlan, Elise; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bottom, Michael; Tanner, Angelle; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; White, Russel; Davison, Cassy; Mills, Sean; Beichman, Chas; Johnson, John Asher; Ciardi, David; Wallace, Kent; Mennesson, Bertrand; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen; Crawford, Sam; Crawford, Tim; Sung, Keeyoon; Drouin, Brian; Lin, Sean; Leifer, Stephanie; Catanzarite, Joe; Henry, Todd; von Braun, Kaspar; Walp, Bernie; Geneser, Claire; Ogden, Nick; Stufflebeam, Andrew; Pohl, Garrett; Regan, Joe

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of two 2.3 μm near-infrared (NIR) radial velocity (RV) surveys to detect exoplanets around 36 nearby and young M dwarfs. We use the CSHELL spectrograph (R ~ 46,000) at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF), combined with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration. We have developed a sophisticated RV forward modeling code that accounts for fringing and other instrumental artifacts present in the spectra. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm, we are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~20-30 m s-1 on our survey targets.

  6. Infrared thermography in the architectural field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Carosena

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography is becoming ever more popular in civil engineering/architecture mainly due to its noncontact character which includes two great advantages. On one side, it prevents the object, under inspection, from any alteration and this is worthwhile especially in the presence of precious works of art. On the other side, the personnel operate in a remote manner far away from any hazard and this complies well with safety at work regulations. What is more, it offers the possibility to quickly inspect large surfaces such as the entire facade of a building. This paper would be an overview of the use of infrared thermography in the architectural and civil engineering field. First, some basic testing procedures are described, and then some key examples are presented owing to both laboratory tests and applications in situ spanning from civil habitations to works of art and archaeological sites.

  7. Infrared Measurements of Possible IR Filter Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller,D.; Ediss, G.; Mihaly, L.; Carr, G.

    2006-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTS) was used to obtain the transmission spectra of candidate materials for use as infrared (IR) filters in cryogenic receivers. The data cover the range from 50 cm-1 ({approx}1.5 THz), well below the peak of the 300 K black body spectrum, to 5000 cm-1 ({approx}150 THz), Z-cut quartz, Gore-Tex, Zitex G and Zitex A, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Teflon (PTFE), Fluorogold and Black Polyethylene were measured. The relative effectiveness of each material as a filter is determined by integrating the transmission spectrum multiplied by the Planck distribution to obtain a normalized attenuation for the mid-IR band. Measurements at both room temperature and 8 K are compared.

  8. Stop outbreak of SARS with infrared cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yigang M.

    2004-04-01

    SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, commonly known as Atypical Pneumonia in mainland China) caused 8422 people affected and resulting in 918 deaths worldwide in half year. This disease can be transmitted by respiratory droplets or by contact with a patient's respiratory secretions. This means it can be spread out very rapidly through the public transportations by the travelers with the syndrome. The challenge was to stop the SARS carriers traveling around by trains, airplanes, coaches and etc. It is impractical with traditional oral thermometers or spot infrared thermometers to screen the tens of travelers with elevated body temperature from thousands of normal travelers in hours. The thermal imager with temperature measurement function is a logical choice for this special application although there are some limitations and drawbacks. This paper discusses the real SARS applications of industrial infrared cameras in China from April to July 2003.

  9. Infrared dust emission from globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, L.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.; Giannone, P.; Blanco, A.; Bussoletti, E.

    1982-01-01

    The implications of the presence of a central cloud in the cores of globular clusters were investigated recently. A possible mechanism of confinement of dust in the central region of our cluster models was also explored. The grain temperature and infrared emission have now been computed for rather realistic grain compositions. The grain components were assumed to be graphite and/or silicates. The central clouds turned out to be roughly isothermal. The wavelengths of maximum emission came out to be larger than 20 μm in all studied cases. An application of the theoretical results to five globular clusters showed that the predictable infrared emission for 47 Tuc, M4 and M22 should be detectable by means of present instrumentation aboard flying platforms. (author)

  10. Theoretical design of near - infrared organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brymora, Katarzyna; Ducasse, Laurent; Dautel, Olivier; Lartigau-Dagron, Christine; Castet, FréDéRic

    The world follows the path of digital development faster than ever before. In consequence, the Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) market is growing as well and it requires some innovations. The goal of our work is to achieve an organic Infra-Red (IR) photodetectors hitting the performance requirements for HMI applications. The quantum chemical calculations are used to guide the synthesis and technology development. In this work, in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), we consider a large variety of materials exploring small donor-acceptor-donor molecules and copolymers alternating donor and acceptor monomers. We provide a structure-property relationship in view of designing new Near-Infrared (NIR) absorbing organic molecules and polymers.

  11. Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund

    During my PhD studies I have worked with intense lasers and optical fibres. In our conceptual universe the colour of light (wavelength) does not depend on the material in which it propagates. At high intensities however, nonlinear effects change the behaviour of light and rise of new wavelength...... with laser-like intensity is obtained, which otherwise is impossible without the use of more complicated equipment. Until recently, supercontinuum covering the mid-infrared was not possible due to absorption in the silica glass optical fibres are made of. In our project infrared transparent materials...... such as ZBLAN and chalcogenide have been investigated. Using ZBLAN it has been possible to generated a supercontinuum stretching beyond 4200 nm. Supercontinuum generation requires knowledge about the physical properties of the optical fibre in which the pulse-broadening takes place. Consequently thorough...

  12. CVD molybdenum films of high infrared reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carver, G. E.

    1979-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films of high infrared reflectance have been deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of molybdenum carbonyl (Mo(CO)/sub 6/), and by hydrogen reduction of molybdenum pentachloride (MoCl/sub 5/). Reflectance values within 0.7% of the reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum have been attained by annealing films of lower reflectance in both reducing and non-reducing atmospheres. All depositions and anneals proceed at atmospheric pressure, facilitating a continuous, flow-through fabrication. These reflectors combine the high temperature stability of molybdenum thin films with the infrared reflectance of a material such as aluminum. Deposition from Mo(CO)/sub 6/ under oxidizing conditions, and subsequent anneal in a reducing atmosphere, results in films that combine high solar absorptance with low thermal emittance. If anti-reflected, black molybdenum films can serve as highly selective single layer photothermal converters. Structural, compositional, and crystallographic properties have been measured after both deposition and anneal.

  13. Infrared photometry of cool white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Allen, D.A.; Bessell, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of a search for the effects of pressure induced H 2 dipole opacity on the infrared JHK magnitudes of cool white dwarfs. LHS 1126 is found to be a very cool (Tsub(e) approximately 4250 K) DC white dwarf with a H rich atmospheric composition dominated by H 2 dipole opacity in the infrared. JHK photometry also favours a H rich atmospheric composition for the DK white dwarfs LP 658-2 and W 489. The surprisingly high proportion of hydrogen rich white dwarfs in the sample appears to suggest that the mechanism which inhibits the accretion of hydrogen in the hotter helium stars becomes less effective at low (Tsub(e) approximately 3 + ion in cool hydrogen rich white dwarf atmospheres is pointed out and it is suggested that the opacity due to this ion may be responsible for the blanketing observed in the U and B magnitudes of some cool white dwarfs. (author)

  14. Infrared Thermography of Thermomechanical Couplings in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, M. P.; Parganin, D.; Loizeau, J.

    The present paper aims to illustrate three advantages of infrared thermography as a non destructive, real-time and non-contact technique to mechanically characterise solid materials. It permits observation of the macrostructural aspects of. thermoplasticity describing damage and failure processes in diverse and various engineering materials and their components subjected to monotonous, cyclic or vibratory loading. It usefully suggests the definition of a threshold of acceptable damage TAD for materials related to sport equipment such as leather shoe, leather-like composites or sail synthetics. Particularly in case of metallic products or automotive components subjected to fatigue loading, this newly proposed method could evaluate in a non-destructive manner the fatigue limit FL in a very short time compared to traditional fatigue testing techniques that are much more time-consuming and excessively expensive. In addition owing to the thermomechanical coupling, infrared thermography readily describes the damage location, the dissipative regime and the evolution of structural failure.

  15. A genetically targetable near-infrared photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianjun; Wang, Yi; Missinato, Maria A; Onuoha, Ezenwa; Perkins, Lydia A; Watkins, Simon C; St Croix, Claudette M; Tsang, Michael; Bruchez, Marcel P

    2016-03-01

    Upon illumination, photosensitizer molecules produce reactive oxygen species that can be used for functional manipulation of living cells, including protein inactivation, targeted-damage introduction and cellular ablation. Photosensitizers used to date have been either exogenous, resulting in delivery and removal challenges, or genetically encoded proteins that form or bind a native photosensitizing molecule, resulting in a constitutively active photosensitizer inside the cell. We describe a genetically encoded fluorogen-activating protein (FAP) that binds a heavy atom-substituted fluorogenic dye, forming an 'on-demand' activated photosensitizer that produces singlet oxygen and fluorescence when activated with near-infrared light. This targeted and activated photosensitizer (TAPs) approach enables protein inactivation, targeted cell killing and rapid targeted lineage ablation in living larval and adult zebrafish. The near-infrared excitation and emission of this FAP-TAPs provides a new spectral range for photosensitizer proteins that could be useful for imaging, manipulation and cellular ablation deep within living organisms.

  16. Application of infrared thermography in sports science

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the application of infrared thermography in sports, examining the main benefits of this non-invasive, non-radiating and low-cost technique. Aspects covered include the detection of injuries in sports medicine, the assessment of sports performance due to the existing link between physical fitness and thermoregulation and the analysis of heat transfer for sports garments and sports equipment. Although infrared thermography is broadly considered to be a fast and easy-to-use tool, the ability to deliver accurate and repeatable measurements is an important consideration. Furthermore, it is important to be familiar with the latest sports studies published on this technique to understand its potential and limitations. Accordingly, this book establishes a vital link between laboratory tests and the sports field. .

  17. Infrared Thermography in the Architectural Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography is becoming ever more popular in civil engineering/architecture mainly due to its noncontact character which includes two great advantages. On one side, it prevents the object, under inspection, from any alteration and this is worthwhile especially in the presence of precious works of art. On the other side, the personnel operate in a remote manner far away from any hazard and this complies well with safety at work regulations. What is more, it offers the possibility to quickly inspect large surfaces such as the entire facade of a building. This paper would be an overview of the use of infrared thermography in the architectural and civil engineering field. First, some basic testing procedures are described, and then some key examples are presented owing to both laboratory tests and applications in situ spanning from civil habitations to works of art and archaeological sites. PMID:24319358

  18. Infrared radiometric technique in temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, S.; Madding, R.

    1988-01-01

    One class of commercially available imaging infrared radiometers using cooled detectors is sensitive to radiation over the 3 to 12 micron wavelength band. Spectral filters can tailor instrument sensitivity to specific regions where the target exhibits optimum radiance. The broadband spectral response coupled with real time two-dimensional imaging and emittance/background temperature corrections make the instruments useful for remote measurement of surface temperatures from -20 C to +1500 C. Commonly used radiometric techniques and assumptions are discussed, and performance specifications for a typical modern commercial instrument are presented. The potential usefulness of an imaging infrared radiometer in space laboratories is highlighted through examples of research, nondestructive evaluation, safety, and routine maintenance applications. Future improvements in instrument design and application of the radiometric technique are discussed.

  19. Infrared processing of magnesium wrought alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton Jr, Joe A [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL; Muth, T [Manufacturing Sciences, Inc.; Bowles, Amanda L [ORNL; Agnew, Sean R [University of Virginia

    2005-01-01

    High density infrared (HDI) processing of magnesium alloy sheet allows rapid heat up and cool down and may facilitate a continuous cast/roll process, thereby reducing costs. In a previous study, a plasma arc lamp resulted in an anneal in seconds that compared well to a normal 1 h 500 C anneal. The current study on AZ31 used a bank of quartz infrared lamps both in a lab setting and in a demonstration test at a commercial facility (Manufacturing Sciences, Inc.). Typical reheats and anneals between rolling passes required 2 to 5 minutes for rolling 6 mm sheet down to 1 mm. Tensile tests showed comparable results to normal processing. The near surface microstructure was similar to the center of the sheets. No gross progressive or cumulative effect on mechanical properties was observed from pass to pass. Good surface quality with minimal edge cracking was produced.

  20. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Systems for Tissue Oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Dahl

    We present exible silicon device platforms, which combine polyimide with polydimethylsiloxane in order to add flexibility and biocompatibility to the silicon devices. The device platforms are intended as tissue oximeters, using near infrared spectroscopy, but could potentially also be used...... for other medical applications. The tissue oximeters are realised by incorporation of pn-diodes into the silicon in order to form arrays of infrared detectors. These arrays can then be used for spatially resolved spectroscopy measurements, with the targeted end user being prematurely born infant children....... Monte Carlo simulations have been performed on a model of a neonatal head and they show only weak changing signals as function of changes in cerebral oxygenation. A mechanical and electrical analysis of the device platforms, both by analytical expressions and numerical simulation, indicated...

  1. Design of a compact athermalized infrared seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-jia; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    In order to meet the application requirement of a certain long wavelength infrared (LWIR) seeker, a small volume, light weight and passively athermalized infrared (IR) objective is designed in this paper. The two-lens telephoto structure is adopted by merely using aluminum alloy as the housing material. By balancing the thermo-optical coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient of materials, an athermalized IR seeker with effective focal length of 90 mm and F number of 1.2 is achieved. The whole optical length is 75 mm, and the weight is only 234 g. The objective can remain fine imaging quality under temperature range from -40 °C to 60 °C, which is beneficial to the lightweight design of IR seekers.

  2. Gas Cell Development for Infrared Spectra Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, Luisa; Esparza, Pedro; Martín, Eduardo L.

    NAHUAL is a high-resolution near-infrared echelle spectrograph of high stability on preliminary phase development for GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias). Its natural location is a Nasmyth focus. One of the principal scientific aims is to carry out high precision radial velocity measurements (from 1 to 10 m/s) in the near infrared. To achieve high stability on radial velocity measurements, NAHUAL needs a calibration unit that uses a mixture of gases whose absorption spectra must be as homogeneous as possible between 0.95 and 2.4 μm. We report on the measurements done to date with potentially active gas mixtures as acetylene, methane, nitrous oxide or hydrocarbons.

  3. Introduction to experimental infrared spectroscopy fundamentals and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Tasumi, Mitsuo; Ochiai, Shukichi

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is generally understood to mean the science of spectra relating to infrared radiation, namely electromagnetic waves, in the wavelength region occurring intermediately between visible light and microwaves. Measurements of infrared spectra have been providing useful information, for a variety of scientific research and industrial studies, for over half a century; this is set to continue in the foreseeable future. Introduction to Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy is intended to be a handy guide for those who have no, or limited, experience in infrared spectroscopi

  4. Infrared (IR) remote sensing of gases

    OpenAIRE

    López Martínez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The IR Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory – LIR-UC3M of Universidad Carlos III, has developed Multi and Hyper spectral Infrared (IR) analysis techniques for gas remote sensing. Design of specific sensors for the determination of gases and their concentration are proposed. Almost all gases (CO2, CO, NO2, O3, HC o NH, …) related to industrial, environmental or military safety can be detected. Companies or centres with interest in the use of specific application sensors are required.

  5. Aircraft Infrared Principles, Signatures, Threats, and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    by Under authority of R. SMILEY , Head P. A. SOHL Avionics Department RDML, U.S. Navy 26 September 2012 Commander Released for publication by S...Aircraft Infrared Principles, Signatures, Threats, and Countermeasures (U) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Engine “hot parts,” which usually consist of the aft turbine face , engine center body, and interior nozzle sidewalls. 2. Engine exhaust plumes

  6. Tunable infrared reflectance by phonon modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Beechem, III, Thomas E.

    2018-03-06

    The present invention pertains to the use of mobile coherent interfaces in a ferroelectric material to interact with optical phonons and, ultimately, to affect the material's optical properties. In altering the optical phonon properties, the optical properties of the ferroelectric material in the spectral range near-to the phonon mode frequency can dramatically change. This can result in a facile means to change to the optical response of the ferroelectric material in the infrared.

  7. Tunable infrared reflectance by phonon modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Beechem, III, Thomas E.

    2018-03-06

    The present invention pertains to the use of mobile coherent interfaces in a ferroelectric material to interact with optical phonons and, ultimately, to affect the material's optical properties. In altering the optical phonon properties, the optical properties of the ferroelectric material in the spectral range near-to the phonon mode frequency can dramatically change. This can result in a facile means to change to the optical response of the ferroelectric material in the infrared.

  8. Infrared image synthesis for railway scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaoyi; Wang, Xun; Ling, Yun

    2009-10-01

    Imaging guiding and machine vision in the infrared (IR) of military targets on land backgrounds are an extensively studied subject. The railway scene as an important traffic infrastructure usually plays a decisive role in land wars. Real IR images are expensive to obtain, and many researchers cannot afford them. The solution to this problem is generating realistic images at various conditions in computer. In this paper, a physics based model of infrared image synthesis for railway scene is proposed. A method for generating a thermal image of railway scene obtained by a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor is described here. It consists of an integrated process based on thermal model of railway, atmospheric transmission and IR sensor effect. At first, a simple numeric model is proposed to calculate the temperature distribution of railway scene based on theoretical analysis of heat transfer. The typical structure of a railway can be divided into two main components. To simplify the thermal model, two parts of railway are processed independent. The distribution of track section temperature is considered in detail and not considered conduction along the track line. The ballast base is discretized into one-dimension multiple layers. Then we focus on the emissivtiy of steel track, which is a dominant factor in railway IR simulation. The value of emissivtiy is mainly determined by surface status of track. So the infrared radiation from track surface is calculated by Stephan-Boltzmann Law. Some results of synthesis image of railway scene in atmospheric window are shown finally. The generating images of railway are in good accordance with real images.

  9. Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection by Upconversion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Johnson, William; Chen, Songsheng; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated upconversion assisted detection of a 2.05-micron signal by sum frequency generation to generate a 700-nm light using a bulk periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. The achieved 94% intrinsic upconversion efficiency and 22.58% overall detection efficiency at a pW level of 2.05 micron pave the path to detect extremely weak infrared (IR) signals for remote sensing applications.

  10. Intrinsic Spectra of Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, George; Hines, Dean

    2004-09-01

    We will use the low and high spectral resolution capabilities of the IRS aboard SIRTF to obtain high signal-to-noise mid-infrared spectra of a small sample of the most luminous Active Galactic Nuclei, which are characterized by their "warm" far-infrared spectral energy distributions as obtained by IRAS (the so called Hyperluminous Infrared Galaxies or HIGs). The sample consists of both Type 2 and Type 1 AGNs. The Type 1 objects present a relatively unobscured view of the central engine, and also have a polarized (scattered) component that is completely unobscured. The Type 2 objects have Type 1 polarized spectra, but this scattered light is highly extinguished indicating some obscuration even along the line of sight to the scattering region. The sample will allow us to compare the properties of the Type 1s and Type 2s, thus providing a check on the orientation and providing strong constraints on the geometry and internal structure of all four objects.

  11. Gerard Kuiper and the Infrared Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Derek

    2013-10-01

    The life and contributions of Gerard Kuiper have been documented by Dale Cruikshank in his National Academy of Sciences biography. I will argue that particularly important in this eventful life was Kuiper's war time experiences. Kuiper's wartime role evolved as the war unfolded, but towards the end he was charged by the US military with reporting German progress with war-related technologies and the activities of scientists under Nazi control. He interviewed a great many scientists, including his own PhD mentor (Ejnar Hertzsprung), and when Kuiper was the only person available, he interviewed concentration-camp victims. He carried briefing sheets that identified the technologies being sought by the allies and the major fraction of these involved infrared equipment. He sent back to the USA boxes of documents, and large amounts of equipment, and he stressed to the military his interest in these for his own research. It seems very likely that in this way an effective PbS infrared detector, so critical to Kuiper's career and the future of planetary science, came to the USA and to Robert Cashman's laboratory at Northwestern University. As the war was winding down, Cashman and Kuiper worked together to develop a practical infrared spectrometer for astronomical use. Within months, Kuiper discovered the C02 atmospheres on Mars and Venus.

  12. Effects of plume afterburning on infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xijuan; Xu, Ying; Ma, Jing; Duan, Ran; Wu, Jie

    2017-10-01

    Contains H2, CO and unburned components of high-temperature plume of rocket engine, then injected into the atmosphere, continue to carry out the oxidation reaction in the plume near field region with the volume in the plume of oxygen in the air, two times burning. The afterburning is an important cause of infrared radiation intensification of propellant plume, which increases the temperature of the flame and changes the components of the gas, thus enhancing the infrared radiation intensity of the flame. [1]. Two the combustion numerical using chemical reaction mechanism involving HO2 intermediate reaction, the study confirmed that HO2 is a key intermediate, plays a decisive role to trigger early response, on afterburning temperature and flow concentration distribution effect. A finite rate chemical reaction model is used to describe the two burning phenomenon in high temperature plume[2]. In this paper, a numerical simulation of the flame flow field and radiative transfer is carried out for the afterburning phenomenon. The effects of afterburning on the composition, temperature and infrared radiation of the plume are obtained by comparison.

  13. Application of infrared imaging in ferrocyanide tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, K.L.; Mailhot, R.B. Jr.; McLaren, J.M.; Morris, K.L.

    1994-09-28

    This report analyzes the feasibility of using infrared imaging techniques and scanning equipment to detect potential hot spots within ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. A hot spot is defined as a volumetric region within a waste tank with an excessively warm temperature that is generated by radioactive isotopes. The thermal image of a hot spot was modeled by computer. this model determined the image an IR system must detect. Laboratory and field tests of the imaging system are described, and conclusions based on laboratory and field data are presented. The report shows that infrared imaging is capable of detecting hot spots in ferrocyanide waste tanks with depths of up to 3.94 m (155 in.). The infrared imaging system is a useful technology for initial evaluation and assessment of hot spots in the majority of ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The system will not allow an exact hot spot and temperature determination, but it will provide the necessary information to determine the worst-case hot spot detected in temperature patterns. Ferrocyanide tanks are one type of storage tank on the Watch List. These tanks are identified as priority 1 Hanford Site Tank farm Safety Issues.

  14. Infrared emission of a freestanding plasmonic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshat, Hosein; Liu, Longju; McClelland, John; Biswas, Rana; Lu, Meng

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports a free-standing plasmonic membrane as a thermal emitter in the near- and mid-infrared regions. The plasmonic membrane consists of an ultrathin gold film perforated with a two-dimensional array of holes. The device was fabricated using an imprint and transfer process and fixed on a low-emissivity metal grid. The thermal radiation characteristics of the plasmonic membrane can be engineered by controlling the array period and the thickness of the gold membrane. Plasmonic membranes with two different periods were designed using electromagnetic simulation and then characterized for their transmission and infrared radiation properties. The free-standing membranes exhibit extraordinary optical transmissions with the resonant transmission coefficient as high as 76.8%. After integration with a customized heater, the membranes demonstrate narrowband thermal emission in the wavelength range of 2.5 μm to 5.5 μm. The emission signatures, including peak emission wavelength and bandwidth, are associated with the membrane geometry. The ultrathin membrane infrared emitter can be adopted in applications, such as chemical analysis and thermal imaging.

  15. Infrared synchrotron radiation instrumentation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmugl, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Infrared synchrotron radiation (IRSR) is a blossoming field which has three working beamlines, U41R at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, and two at the Institute of Molecular Sciences in Okasaki, Japan, with extensive research projects. There are also several new beamlines in the planning and development stages, both in the United States and abroad. IRSR offers a unique way to access the far infrared (30 μm to ˜ 1mm), which is a notoriously difficult region to work in. In particular, experiments that demand high brightness are well suited to IRSR just as they are in the X-ray region. The central issue in all of the experiments to date has been good signal to noise, which has been the focus of the instrumentation improvements at the U41R beamline. A commercial Fourier transform instrument was the chosen spectrometer. Then modifications were made in order to expand the usable region of the existing experiments, in both the far and near infrared. As an example of the performance of this beamline, I will focus on the reflection absorption spectroscopy results for adsorbates on clean surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum.

  16. Thermoelectric infrared imager and automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Satou, Fuminori; Saito, Masanori; Kishi, Youichi; Nakajima, Yasushi; Uchiyama, Makato

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes a newly developed thermoelectric infrared imager having a 48 X 32 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) and an experimental vehicle featuring a blind spot pedestrian warning system, which employs four infrared imagers. The imager measures 100 mm in width, 60 mm in height and 80 mm in depth, weighs 400 g, and has an overall field of view (FOV) of 40 deg X 20 deg. The power consumption of the imager is 3 W. The pedestrian detection program is stored in a CPU chip on a printed circuit board (PCB). The FPA provides high responsivity of 2,100 V/W, a time constant of 25 msec, and a low cost potential. Each element has external dimensions of 190 μm x 190 μm, and consists of six pairs of thermocouples and an Au-black absorber that is precisely patterned by low-pressure evaporation and lift-off technologies. The experimental vehicle is called the Nissan ASV-2 (Advanced Safety Vehicle-2), which incorporates a wide range of integrated technologies aimed at reducing traffic accidents. The blind spot pedestrian warning system alerts the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person's body. This system also prevents the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian.

  17. Enhanced throughput for infrared automated DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middendorf, Lyle R.; Gartside, Bill O.; Humphrey, Pat G.; Roemer, Stephen C.; Sorensen, David R.; Steffens, David L.; Sutter, Scott L.

    1995-04-01

    Several enhancements have been developed and applied to infrared automated DNA sequencing resulting in significantly higher throughput. A 41 cm sequencing gel (31 cm well- to-read distance) combines high resolution of DNA sequencing fragments with optimized run times yielding two runs per day of 500 bases per sample. A 66 cm sequencing gel (56 cm well-to-read distance) produces sequence read lengths of up to 1000 bases for ds and ss templates using either T7 polymerase or cycle-sequencing protocols. Using a multichannel syringe to load 64 lanes allows 16 samples (compatible with 96-well format) to be visualized for each run. The 41 cm gel configuration allows 16,000 bases per day (16 samples X 500 bases/sample X 2 ten hour runs/day) to be sequenced with the advantages of infrared technology. Enhancements to internal labeling techniques using an infrared-labeled dATP molecule (Boehringer Mannheim GmbH, Penzberg, Germany; Sequenase (U.S. Biochemical) have also been made. The inclusion of glycerol in the sequencing reactions yields greatly improved results for some primer and template combinations. The inclusion of (alpha) -Thio-dNTP's in the labeling reaction increases signal intensity two- to three-fold.

  18. Infrared spectroscopy of fluid lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Marshall C; Cambrea, Lee R; Hovis, Jennifer S

    2005-09-15

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique for examining lipid bilayers; however, it says little about the fluidity of the bilayer-a key physical aspect. It is shown here that it is possible to both acquire spectroscopic data of supported lipid bilayer samples and make measurements of the membrane fluidity. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) is used to obtain the spectroscopic information and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is used to determine the fluidity of the samples. In the infrared spectra of lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, the following major peaks were observed; nu(as)(CH3) 2954 cm(-1), nu(s)(CH3) 2870 cm(-1), nu(as)(CH2) 2924 cm(-1), nu(s)(CH2) 2852 cm(-1), nu(C=O) 1734 cm(-1), delta(CH2) 1463-1473 cm(-1), nu(as)(PO2-) 1226 cm(-1), nu(s)(PO2-) 1084 cm(-1), and nu(as)(N+(CH3)3) 973 cm(-1). The diffusion coefficient of the same lipid bilayer was measured to be 3.5 +/- 0.5 micom(2)/s with visual recovery also noted through use of epifluorescence microscopy. FRAP and visual data confirm the formation of a uniform, mobile supported lipid bilayer. The combination of ATR-FT-IR and FRAP provides complementary data giving a more complete picture of fully hydrated model membrane systems.

  19. [Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer.

  20. Wheat germ stabilization by infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gili, Renato D; Palavecino, Pablo M; Cecilia Penci, M; Martinez, Marcela L; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2017-01-01

    Wheat germ has an important enzymatic activity, being lipases the enzymes which cause the highest impact in the reduction of shelf life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of infrared radiation on wheat germ stabilization in an attempt to extend the shelf life. The effects of treatment time, gap (sample distance to IR emitters) and infrared radiation intensity on wheat germ were analyzed through response surface methodology. Final moisture content, final temperature, color of germ and germ oil quality parameters: free fatty acid content changes and total tocopherol content were the responses evaluated using a Box-Behnken design. A combination of an infrared radiation intensity of 4800 W/m 2 , a 3 min treatment and 0.2 m emitter-sample distance were the best processing condition to stabilize the wheat germ without significantly reduction of the tocopherol content. A confirmatory experiment was conducted with these optimal conditions, and the heat-treated and raw germ samples were stored for 90 days at room temperature in three layer packages to protect them against light and oxygen. The oil quality parameters indicated that the raw germ had a shelf-life of about 15 days, with the heat-treated wheat germ maintaining its quality for at least 90 days under these stored conditions.

  1. Galaxy Zoo: Infrared and Optical Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla Shanahan, Jesse; Lintott, Chris; Zoo, Galaxy

    2018-01-01

    We present the detailed, visual morphologies of approximately 60,000 galaxies observed by the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey and then classified by participants in the Galaxy Zoo project. Our sample is composed entirely of nearby objects with redshifts of z ≤ 0.3, which enables us to robustly analyze their morphological characteristics including smoothness, bulge properties, spiral structure, and evidence of bars or rings. The determination of these features is made via a consensus-based analysis of the Galaxy Zoo project data in which inconsistent and outlying classifications are statistically down-weighted. We then compare these classifications of infrared morphology to the objects’ optical classifications in the Galaxy Zoo 2 release (Willett et al. 2013). It is already known that morphology is an effective tool for uncovering a galaxy’s dynamical past, and previous studies have shown significant correlations with physical characteristics such as stellar mass distribution and star formation history. We show that majority of the sample has agreement or expected differences between the optical and infrared classifications, but also present a preliminary analysis of a subsample of objects with striking discrepancies.

  2. Some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Huang, Jianxiong

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, precision guided weapons play more and more important role in modern war. The development and applications of infrared imaging guidance technology have been paid more and more attention. And with the increasing of the complexity of mission and environment, precision guided weapons make stricter demand for infrared imaging seeker. The demands for infrared imaging seeker include: high detection sensitivity, large dynamic range, having better target recognition capability, having better anti-jamming capability and better environment adaptability. To meet the strict demand of weapon system, several important issues should be considered in high-performance infrared imaging seeker design. The mission, targets, environment of infrared imaging guided missile must be regarded. The tradeoff among performance goal, design parameters, infrared technology constraints and missile constraints should be considered. The optimized application of IRFPA and ATR in complicated environment should be concerned. In this paper, some design considerations for high-performance infrared imaging seeker were discussed.

  3. Elephant Butte Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This vector dataset depicts the 1% annual flood boundary (otherwise known as special flood hazard area or 100 year flood boundary) for its specified area. The data...

  4. AS BEATAS SÃO... (Butts ARE ...)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Luizan; Instituto de Ciências da Arte da Universidade Federal do Pará – FAV/ICA/UFPA-Belém/Pará/Brasil.

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho de pensamento recorta territórios díspares ao mesmo tempo interconectados: arte, fumo, amizade, plantas e as ativações do pensamento; flerta com a política e os mundos possíveis. Histórias, arte, ciência, vida e acontecimentos celebram nessa escritura a possibilidade do descarrilamento do trem do pensamento, pensando.

  5. Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopic study of typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongfei; Frost, Ray L; Yang, Jing; Liu, Qinfu; He, Junkai

    2010-12-01

    The structure and thermal stability between typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy, infrared emission spectroscopy (IES) and Raman spectroscopy. Infrared emission spectroscopy over the temperature range of 300-700°C has been used to characterise the thermal decomposition of both kaolinite and halloysite. Halloysite is characterised by two bands in the water bending region at 1629 and 1648 cm(-1), attributed to structural water and coordinated water in the interlayer. Well defined hydroxyl stretching bands at around 3695, 3679, 3652 and 3625 cm(-1) are observed for both kaolinite and halloysite. The 550°C infrared emission spectrum of halloysite is similar to that of kaolinite in 650-1350 cm(-1) spectral region. The infrared emission spectra of halloysite were found to be considerably different to that of kaolinite at lower temperatures. These differences are attributed to the fundamental difference in the structure of the two minerals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Infrared laser spectroscopic trace gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Chemical sensing and analyses of gas samples by laser spectroscopic methods are attractive owing to several advantages such as high sensitivity and specificity, large dynamic range, multi-component capability, and lack of pretreatment or preconcentration procedures. The preferred wavelength range comprises the fundamental molecular absorption range in the mid-infared between 3 and 15 μm, whereas the near-infrared range covers the (10-100 times weaker) higher harmonics and combination bands. The availability of near-infrared and, particularly, of broadly tunable mid-infrared sources like external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs), interband cascade lasers (ICLs), difference frequency generation (DFG), optical parametric oscillators (OPOs), recent developments of diode-pumped lead salt semiconductor lasers, of supercontinuum sources or of frequency combs have eased the implementation of laser-based sensing devices. Sensitive techniques for molecular absorption measurements include multipass absorption, various configurations of cavity-enhanced techniques such as cavity ringdown (CRD), or of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) including quartz-enhanced (QEPAS) or cantilever-enhanced (CEPAS) techniques. The application requirements finally determine the optimum selection of laser source and detection scheme. In this tutorial talk I shall discuss the basic principles, present various experimental setups and illustrate the performance of selected systems for chemical sensing of selected key atmospheric species. Applications include an early example of continuous vehicle emission measurements with a mobile CO2-laser PAS system [1]. The fast analysis of C1-C4 alkanes at sub-ppm concentrations in gas mixtures is of great interest for the petrochemical industry and was recently achieved with a new type of mid-infrared diode-pumped piezoelectrically tuned lead salt vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) [2]. Another example concerns measurements on short

  7. Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mesery, Hany S; Mwithiga, Gikuru

    2015-05-01

    A conveyor-belt dryer was developed using a combined infrared and hot air heating system that can be used in the drying of fruits and vegetables. The drying system having two chambers was fitted with infrared radiation heaters and through-flow hot air was provided from a convective heating system. The system was designed to operate under either infrared radiation and cold air (IR-CA) settings of 2000 W/m(2) with forced ambient air at 30 °C and air flow of 0.6 m/s or combined infrared and hot air convection (IR-HA) dryer setting with infrared intensity set at 2000 W/m(2) and hot at 60 °C being blown through the dryer at a velocity of 0.6 m/s or hot air convection (HA) at an air temperature of 60 °C and air flow velocity 0.6 m/s but without infrared heating. Apple slices dried under the different dryer settings were evaluated for quality and energy requirements. It was found that drying of apple (Golden Delicious) slices took place in the falling rate drying period and no constant rate period of drying was observed under any of the test conditions. The IR-HA setting was 57.5 and 39.1 % faster than IR-CA and HA setting, respectively. Specific energy consumption was lower and thermal efficiency was higher for the IR-HA setting when compared to both IR-CA and HA settings. The rehydration ratio, shrinkage and colour properties of apples dried under IR-HA conditions were better than for either IR-CA or HA.

  8. Invited Article: An integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, P.; Herzinger, C. M.; Schubert, M.; Woollam, J. A.; Hofmann, T.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the development of the first integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, covering an ultra wide spectral range from 3 cm-1 to 7000 cm-1 (0.1-210 THz or 0.4-870 meV). The instrument comprises four sub-systems, where the magneto-cryostat-transfer sub-system enables the usage of the magneto-cryostat sub-system with the mid-infrared ellipsometer sub-system, and the far-infrared/terahertz ellipsometer sub-system. Both ellipsometer sub-systems can be used as variable angle-of-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometers in reflection or transmission mode, and are equipped with multiple light sources and detectors. The ellipsometer sub-systems are operated in polarizer-sample-rotating-analyzer configuration granting access to the upper left 3 × 3 block of the normalized 4 × 4 Mueller matrix. The closed cycle magneto-cryostat sub-system provides sample temperatures between room temperature and 1.4 K and magnetic fields up to 8 T, enabling the detection of transverse and longitudinal magnetic field-induced birefringence. We discuss theoretical background and practical realization of the integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, as well as acquisition of optical Hall effect data and the corresponding model analysis procedures. Exemplarily, epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC, a tellurium doped bulk GaAs sample and an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure are investigated. The selected experimental datasets display the full spectral, magnetic field and temperature range of the instrument and demonstrate data analysis strategies. Effects from free charge carriers in two dimensional confinement and in a volume material, as well as quantum mechanical effects (inter-Landau-level transitions) are observed and discussed exemplarily.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopy as a Chemical Fingerprinting Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool in the chemical fingerprinting of materials. Any sample material that will interact with infrared light produces a spectrum and, although normally associated with organic materials, inorganic compounds may also be infrared active. The technique is rapid, reproducible and usually non-invasive to the sample. That it is non-invasive allows for additional characterization of the original material using other analytical techniques including thermal analysis and RAMAN spectroscopic techniques. With the appropriate accessories, the technique can be used to examine samples in liquid, solid or gas phase. Both aqueous and non-aqueous free-flowing solutions can be analyzed, as can viscous liquids such as heavy oils and greases. Solid samples of varying sizes and shapes may also be examined and with the addition of microscopic IR (microspectroscopy) capabilities, minute materials such as single fibers and threads may be analyzed. With the addition of appropriate software, microspectroscopy can be used for automated discrete point or compositional surface area mapping, with the latter providing a means to record changes in the chemical composition of a material surface over a defined area. Due to the ability to characterize gaseous samples, IR spectroscopy can also be coupled with thermal processes such as thermogravimetric (TG) analyses to provide both thermal and chemical data in a single run. In this configuration, solids (or liquids) heated in a TG analyzer undergo decomposition, with the evolving gases directed into the IR spectrometer. Thus, information is provided on the thermal properties of a material and the order in which its chemical constituents are broken down during incremental heating. Specific examples of these varied applications will be cited, with data interpretation and method limitations further discussed.

  10. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J.

    2004-05-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA, will carry a 3-meter-class telescope onboard a Boeing 747SP aircraft to altitudes of 41,000 to 45,000 ft, above most of the atmosphere's IR-absorbing water vapor. The telescope was developed and built in Germany and has been delivered to the U.S. in September 2002. The integration into the B747SP has been com- pleted and functional tests are under way in Waco, Texas. In early 2005 flight-testing of the observatory will initially be dedi-cated to the re-certification of the modified aircraft, then performance tests of the telescope and the electronics and data systems will commence. Later in 2005 after transferring to its home base, NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California, SOFIA will start astrophysical observations. A suite of specialized infrared cameras and spectrometers covering wave-lengths between 1 and 600 ?m is being developed by U.S. and German science institutions. In addition to the infrared instruments, a high-speed visible range CCD camera will use the airborne observatory to chase the shadows of celestial bodies during occultations. Once SOFIA will be in routine operations with a planned observing schedule of up to 960 hours at altitude per year, it might also be available as a platform to serendipitous observations not using the main telescope, such as recordings of meteor streams or the search for extra-solar planets transiting their central stars. These are areas of research in which amateur astronomers with relatively small telescopes and state-of-the-art imaging equipment can contribute.

  11. Thermal infrared remote sensing sensors, methods, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources and well-being. In this book renowned international experts have contributed chapters on currently available thermal sensors as well as innovative plans for future missions. Further chapters discuss the underlying physics and image processing techni

  12. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Kunal; Liyanage, Mangala R; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provides data that are widely used for secondary structure characterization of peptides. A wide array of available sampling methods permits structural analysis of peptides in diverse environments such as aqueous solution (including optically turbid media), powders, detergent micelles, and lipid bilayers. In some cases, side chain vibrations can also be resolved and used for tertiary structure and chemical analysis. Data from several low-resolution spectroscopic techniques, including FTIR, can be combined to generate an empirical phase diagram, an overall picture of peptide structure as a function of environmental conditions that can aid in the global interpretation of large amounts of spectroscopic data.

  13. Infrared properties of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, Z.; Rotter, L.D.; Collins, R.T.; Holtzberg, F.; Feild, C.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past several years a coherent phenomenology of the high T c cuprate superconductors has begun to emerge. Infrared measurements have contributed several important ingredients to this picture including: (1) the inference of a scattering rate that is linear in frequency for ω>T, and of order ω, (2) a characteristic energy scale in the superconducting state of 500 cm -1 (60 meV), which can be interpreted as a superconducting pair excitation threshold or energy gap, and (3) evidence for very unusual temperature dependence in the vicinity of T c . An attempt to describe these aspects of the data is presented here

  14. Near-infrared receiver for advanced ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Richard A.; Farrell, Richard; Zhang, Yuhua; Roorda, Austin

    2010-02-01

    We will present research on the development of an optical receiver module with a wide frequency bandwidth and excellent response to near-infrared radiation. This module is being produced to promote new imaging modalities, allowing retinal specialist to utilize established diagnostic instruments, such as scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (SLO) in a unique or more effective manner. In particular, it can be applied towards more accurate visual threshold studies in both the healthy and diseased eye. With this goal in mind, measurements of the targeted receiver's performance with and without additional amplification are presented, as is a survey of available APD detectors.

  15. Infrared hyperspectral imaging miniaturized for UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl

    2017-02-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. Also, an example of how this technology can easily be used to quantify a hydrocarbon gas leak's volume and mass flowrates. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4

  16. Infrared nebula in the Chamaeleon T association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.D.; Henize, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    Data are tabulated for seven nebulae in the Chamaeleon T association. Three, which are large and clearly related to illuminating stars, appear to be typical reflection nebulae. Three are small wisps attached to stars and are probably cometary-type reflection nebulae. The remaining nebula is a triangular wisp having an unusually red spectral energy distribution and showing no illuminating star on visual wavelength photographs. The western tip of this nebula coincides closely with the position of a recently reported infrared source. The nebula is probably one lobe of a bipolar nebula

  17. Infrared measurements of launch vehicle exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Caroline; Ohmer, Phillip; Wendelstein, Norbert; Stein, Karin

    2017-10-01

    In the fields of early warning, one is depending on reliable analytical models for the prediction of the infrared threat signature: By having this as a basis, the warning sensors can be specified as suitable as possible to give timely threat approach alerts. In this paper, we will present preliminary results of measurement trials that have been carried out in 2015, where the exhaust plume of launch vehicles has been measured under various atmospheric conditions. The gathered data will be used to validate analytical models for the prediction of the plume signature.

  18. Fast infrared thermography on the COMPASS tokamak.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráček, Petr; Gauthier, C.; Ficker, Ondřej; Hron, Martin; Imríšek, Martin; Pánek, Radomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, November (2017), s. 764-767 ISSN 0920-3796. [SOFT 2016: Symposium on Fusion Technology /29./. Prague, 05.09.2016-09.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Infrared thermography * Heat flux decay length * Runaway electrons * Sawtooth Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379617305392

  19. Infrared thermography program at Darlington NGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speer, B.

    1997-01-01

    Infrared thermography is a proven predictive maintenance tool for improving equipment reliability and reducing maintenance costs. It has been identified as one of the maintenance technologies that could contribute to the reduction of OHN forced incapability factor. At Darlington NGD a program has been established by combining OHN and Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) operating experience. This presentation outlines the development and implementation of this program. The main points are: roles and responsibilities, equipment selection, software requirements, manpower level, inspection equipment, training and a cost/benefit review. (author)

  20. Site-Specific Infrared Probes of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianqiang; Pazos, Ileana M.; Zhang, Wenkai; Culik, Robert M.; Gai, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has played an instrumental role in the study of a wide variety of biological questions. However, in many cases, it is impossible or difficult to rely on the intrinsic vibrational modes of biological molecules of interest, such as proteins, to reveal structural and environmental information in a site-specific manner. To overcome this limitation, investigators have dedicated many recent efforts to the development and application of various extrinsic vibrational probes that can be incorporated into biological molecules and used to site-specifically interrogate their structural or environmental properties. In this review, we highlight recent advancements in this rapidly growing research area.